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Sample records for anti-hiv anti-hsv anti-tumor

  1. Synthesis and biological application of a new heterodinucleotide with both anti-HSV and anti-HIV activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, P; Abu Sheikha, G; Cappellacci, L; Grifantini, M; Balestra, E; Perno, C F; Brandi, G; Rossi, L; Magnani, M

    1999-01-01

    A new antiviral drug with both anti-HSV and anti-HIV activity was synthesized by coupling Acyclovir and the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (R)PMPA. The heterodinucleotide ACVpPMPA encapsulated into autologous erythrocytes was added to human macrophages providing an effective in vitro protection from HSV-1 and HIV-1 replication.

  2. Expression of a Recombinant Anti-HIV and Anti-Tumor Protein, MAP30, in Nicotiana tobacum Hairy Roots: A pH-Stable and Thermophilic Antimicrobial Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Ali; Niazi, Ali; Afsharifar, Alireza; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which microorganisms can readily evade, it is nearly impossible for a microbial strain that is sensitive to antimicrobial proteins to convert to a resistant strain. Therefore, antimicrobial proteins and peptides that are promising alternative candidates for the control of bacterial infections are under investigation. The MAP30 protein of Momordica charantia is a valuable type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) with anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities. Whereas the antimicrobial activity of some type I RIPs has been confirmed, less attention has been paid to the antimicrobial activity of MAP30 produced in a stable, easily handled, and extremely cost-effective protein-expression system. rMAP30-KDEL was expressed in Nicotiana tobacum hairy roots, and its effect on different microorganisms was investigated. Analysis of the extracted total proteins of transgenic hairy roots showed that rMAP30-KDEL was expressed effectively and that this protein exhibited significant antibacterial activity in a dose-dependent manner. rMAP30-KDEL also possessed thermal and pH stability. Bioinformatic analysis of MAP30 and other RIPs regarding their conserved motifs, amino-acid contents, charge, aliphatic index, GRAVY value, and secondary structures demonstrated that these factors accounted for their thermophilicity. Therefore, RIPs such as MAP30 and its derived peptides might have promising applications as food preservatives, and their analysis might provide useful insights into designing clinically applicable antibiotic agents. PMID:27459300

  3. Expression of a Recombinant Anti-HIV and Anti-Tumor Protein, MAP30, in Nicotiana tobacum Hairy Roots: A pH-Stable and Thermophilic Antimicrobial Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghadam

    Full Text Available In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which microorganisms can readily evade, it is nearly impossible for a microbial strain that is sensitive to antimicrobial proteins to convert to a resistant strain. Therefore, antimicrobial proteins and peptides that are promising alternative candidates for the control of bacterial infections are under investigation. The MAP30 protein of Momordica charantia is a valuable type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP with anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities. Whereas the antimicrobial activity of some type I RIPs has been confirmed, less attention has been paid to the antimicrobial activity of MAP30 produced in a stable, easily handled, and extremely cost-effective protein-expression system. rMAP30-KDEL was expressed in Nicotiana tobacum hairy roots, and its effect on different microorganisms was investigated. Analysis of the extracted total proteins of transgenic hairy roots showed that rMAP30-KDEL was expressed effectively and that this protein exhibited significant antibacterial activity in a dose-dependent manner. rMAP30-KDEL also possessed thermal and pH stability. Bioinformatic analysis of MAP30 and other RIPs regarding their conserved motifs, amino-acid contents, charge, aliphatic index, GRAVY value, and secondary structures demonstrated that these factors accounted for their thermophilicity. Therefore, RIPs such as MAP30 and its derived peptides might have promising applications as food preservatives, and their analysis might provide useful insights into designing clinically applicable antibiotic agents.

  4. A Multi-targeted Drug Candidate with Dual Anti-HIV and Anti-HSV Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balzarini, J.; Andrei, G.; Balestra, E.; Huskens, D.; Vanpouille, C.; Introini, A.; Zicari, S.; Liekens, S.; Snoeck, R.; Holý, Antonín; Perno, C. F.; Margolis, L.; Schols, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2013), e1003456 E-ISSN 1553-7374 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : herpes simplex virus * phosphonylmethoxyalkyl derivatives * nucleoside phosphonates * antiviral activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 8.057, year: 2013 http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1003456

  5. Docking of anti-HIV-1 oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone derivatives as potential HSV-1 DNA polymerase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Julliane Diniz; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; Leal, Kátia Zaccur; Santos, Fernanda da Costa; Batalha, Pedro Netto; Brozeguini, Leonardo; Seidl, Peter R.; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Cunha, Anna Cláudia; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Giongo, Viveca A.; Cirne-Santos, Cláudio; Paixão, Izabel C. P.

    2014-09-01

    Although there are many antiviral drugs available for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, still the synthesis of new anti-HSV candidates is an important strategy to be pursued, due to the emergency of resistant HSV strains mainly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. Some 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinolines, such as PNU-183792 (1), show a broad spectrum antiviral activity against human herpes viruses, inhibiting the viral DNA polymerase (POL) without affecting the human POLs. Thus, on an ongoing antiviral research project, our group has synthesized ribonucleosides containing the 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline (quinolone) heterocyclic moiety, such as the 6-Cl derivative (2), which is a dual antiviral agent (HSV-1 and HIV-1). Molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes of 1 and 2 with the HSV-1 POL suggest that structural modifications of 2 should increase its experimental anti-HSV-1 activity, since its ribosyl and carboxyl groups are highly hydrophilic to interact with a hydrophobic pocket of this enzyme. Therefore, in this work, comparative molecular docking simulations of 1 and three new synthesized oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone HIV-1 inhibitors (3-5), which do not contain those hydrophilic groups, were carried out, in order to access these modifications in the proposition of new potential anti-HSV-1 agents, but maintaining the anti-HIV-1 activity. Among the docked compounds, the oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 3 is the best candidate for an anti-HSV-1 agent, and, in addition, it showed anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 3.4 ± 0.3 μM). Compounds 2 and 3 were used as templates in the design of four new oxoquinoline-acylhydrazones (6-9) as potential anti-HSV-1 agents to increase the antiviral activity of 2. Among the docked compounds, oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 7 was selected as the best candidate for further development of dual anti-HIV/HSV activity.

  6. [IgG anti HSV I antibodies in saliva in a drug dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía, M; Ceballos, A; Ruiz, M; Pérez-Alférez, N

    1989-11-01

    It is known the presence of receptors for the morphine products on the Lymphocytes B. These receptors could have a modulator action on the production of antibodies in drug addicts. We have determined the existence of IgG anti-HSV I in saliva and serum in a heroin population. Our results show that here is not significant differences between the heroin population and the control group, when the antibodies are detected in serum. But significant differences do exist between the number of people with antibodies anti-HSV I in saliva.

  7. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. Materials and Method In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. Conclusion The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity. PMID:26966709

  8. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity.

  9. Anti HSV-1 Activity of Halistanol Sulfate and Halistanol Sulfate C Isolated from Brazilian Marine Sponge Petromica citrina (Demospongiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Guimarães, Tatiana; Quiroz, Carlos Guillermo; Rigotto, Caroline; de Oliveira, Simone Quintana; Rojo de Almeida, Maria Tereza; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Moritz, Maria Izabel Goulart; Carraro, João Luís; Palermo, Jorge Alejandro; Cabrera, Gabriela; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The n-butanol fraction (BF) obtained from the crude extract of the marine sponge Petromica citrina, the halistanol-enriched fraction (TSH fraction), and the isolated compounds halistanol sulfate (1) and halistanol sulfate C (2), were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain) by the viral plaque number reduction assay. The TSH fraction was the most effective against HSV-1 replication (SI = 15.33), whereas compounds 1 (SI = 2.46) and 2 (SI = 1.95) were less active. The most active fraction and these compounds were also assayed to determine the viral multiplication step(s) upon which they act as well as their potential synergistic effects. The anti-HSV-1 activity detected was mediated by the inhibition of virus attachment and by the penetration into Vero cells, the virucidal effect on virus particles, and by the impairment in levels of ICP27 and gD proteins of HSV-1. In summary, these results suggest that the anti-HSV-1 activity of TSH fraction detected is possibly related to the synergic effects of compounds 1 and 2. PMID:24172213

  10. Lectins with Anti-HIV Activity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Akkouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus. The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Flavonoids and a New Kaempferol Triglycoside from the Medicinal Plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ürményi, Fernanda Gouvêa Gomes; Saraiva, Georgia do Nascimento; Casanova, Livia Marques; Matos, Amanda Dos Santos; de Magalhães Camargo, Luiza Maria; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-12-01

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant native to Madagascar. The aim of this study was to investigate the flavonoid content of an aqueous leaf extract from K. daigremontiana (Kd), and assess its antiherpetic potential. The major flavonoid, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1), was isolated from the AcOEt fraction (Kd-AC). The BuOH-soluble fraction afforded quercetin 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) and the new kaempferol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), named daigremontrioside. The crude extract, Kd-AC fraction, flavonoids 1 and 2 were evaluated using acyclovir-sensitive strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Kd-AC was highly active against HSV-1 (EC 50  = 0.97 μg/ml, SI > 206.1) and HSV-2 (EC 50  = 0.72 μg/ml, SI > 277.7). Flavonoids 1 and 2 showed anti-HSV-1 (EC 50  = 7.4 μg/ml; SI > 27 and EC 50  = 5.8 μg/ml; SI > 8.6, respectively) and anti-HSV-2 (EC 50  = 9.0 μg/ml; SI > 22.2 and EC 50  = 36.2 μg/ml; SI > 5.5, respectively) activities, suggesting the contribution of additional substances to the antiviral activity. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Anti-HSV-1 activity in vitro of extracellular polysaccharides purification of Paecilomyces lilacinus on isolated from Hainan mangrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the antiviral activity on HSV-1 of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS purification of Paecilomyces lilacinus (P. lilacinus isolated from mangrove in Hainan province. Methods: The toxicity of the EPS purification on Vero cells and its anti-HSV-1 activity were assessed by cytopathic effect(CPE and MTT assay. The Vero cells survival rates, HSV-1 inhibition rates by the purification and virus titer were calculated. Results: The purification showed little cytotoxic effect on Vero with a CC50 value of 735.49 µg/mL. It could inhibit HSV-1 absorption on Vero cells, and there was a significant difference (P<0.01 compared with control group (virus group, and the highest inhibition ratio was 35.0% at dose of 400 µg/mL; The biosynthesis of HSV-1 could be inhibited by the extract with dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 value to the viruses was 387.26 µg/mL, and the highest inhibition ratio was 61.3% at dose of 400 µg/mL; but the purification couldn’t inactivate HSV-1 directly. Conclusion: The EPS purification had certain antiviral effect, it could inhibit HSV-1 absorption and biosynthesis with a dose effect relationship.

  13. [Advances in study on anti-tumor mechanism of andrographolide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cui-Ling; Wang, Li-Jing; Zhou, Xin-Lei

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, more and more attention was payed to the study of andrographolide. Andrographolide has the extensive pharmacological actions, such as anti-tumor, dephlogisticate and antibiosis and anti-virus. It was dected that andrographolide had the action of anti-tumor in gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer. The anti-tumor mechanism of andrographolide was versatile, for instance, andrographolide can induce the apoptosis of cancer cell, inhibit the cell cycle, and increase the antitumor activity of lymphocyte. The following review was about the recent progress of study on the anti-tumor mechanism of andrographolide.

  14. Quarter Century of Anti-HIV CAR T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thor A

    2018-04-01

    A therapy that might cure HIV is a very important goal for the 30-40 million people living with HIV. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have recently had remarkable success against certain leukemias, and there are reasons to believe they could be successful for HIV. This manuscript summarizes the published research on HIV CAR T cells and reviews the current anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor strategies. Research on anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor T cells has been going on for at least the last 25 years. First- and second-generation anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptors have been developed. First-generation anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptors were studied in clinical trials more than 15 years ago, but did not have meaningful clinical efficacy. There are some reasons to be optimistic about second-generation anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor T cells, but they have not yet been tested in vivo.

  15. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-tumor effect of PDC on cervical cancer was investigated in vivo in mice injected with Hela cells. The parameters measured were tumor volume and weight. In vitro anti-tumor effects of PDC were assessed by measuring expressions of caspase-3, caspase-9 and P53 proteins in Hela cells via ELISA assay. Thymus ...

  16. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of polysaccharides from Curculigo orchioides (PDC) on cervical cancer and the possible mechanisms involved. Methods: A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize extraction conditions for PDC. The anti-tumor effect of PDC on cervical cancer was investigated in ...

  17. Prospects for Foamy Viral Vector Anti-HIV Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Nalla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell gene therapy approaches for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection have been explored in clinical trials and several anti-HIV genes delivered by retroviral vectors were shown to block HIV replication. However, gammaretroviral and lentiviral based retroviral vectors have limitations for delivery of anti-HIV genes into hematopoietic stem cells (HSC. Foamy virus vectors have several advantages including efficient delivery of transgenes into HSC in large animal models, and a potentially safer integration profile. This review focuses on novel anti-HIV transgenes and the potential of foamy virus vectors for HSC gene therapy of HIV.

  18. Effects of Androgen Ablation on Anti-Tumor Immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kast, Martin

    2004-01-01

    .... This AA induced autoimmune-like response exerts limited anti-tumor activity in a murine prostate cancer model, but could be synergistic with CTLA-4 blockade that promotes the development of autoreactive T cell...

  19. Efficacy of the anti-VZV (anti-HSV3 vaccine in HSV1 and HSV2 recurrent herpes simplex disease: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Goaster J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline Le Goaster,1 Sylvie Gonzalo,2 Patrice Bourée,1 Frederic Tangy,3 Anne-Lise Haenni41Department of Tropical Diseases, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire (CHU, University of Paris XI, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, 2Biomnis Laboratory, Ivry-sur-Seine, 3Retro-Virology, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, Pasteur Institute, Paris; 4Jacques Monod Institute, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, University of Paris VII, Paris, FranceBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using the anti-varicella zoster virus (anti-VZV, also known as anti-HSV3 vaccine against orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 and genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2. This was suggested by study of the phylogenetic tree of members of the herpes virus family, which showed a close relationship between VZV (HSV3 and the HSV1 and HSV2 herpes viruses.Methods: The present prospective study was conducted from January 2005 through January 2011. Twenty-four patients afflicted with HSV1 and HSV2 herpes recurrences over a period of years, numbering 6–8 and more recurrences per year, agreed to receive the anti-VZV vaccine. They were compared with 26 nonvaccinated patients presenting with herpes simplex diseases 2–5 times a year. All 50 patients were documented with anti-HSV1, anti-HSV2, and anti-VZV antibody serological testing.Results: From 2005 through 2011, for the 24 anti-VZV vaccinated patients, the average number of herpes relapses decreased to 0, correlated with an increased anti-VZV antibody level and clinical recovery of all patients, whereas no improvement was observed for the 26 nonvaccinated herpes patients.Conclusion: Data for the anti-VZV serological antibody levels tested before and after anti-VZV vaccination showed a significant (P < 0.001 increase among vaccinated patients. This suggests defective anti-VZV immune power in these patients. After 6 years of positive results for anti-VZV vaccine, this is a logical and

  20. [Opportunities and defiance of therapeutic anti-tumoral vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulie, P

    2007-01-01

    Therapeutic anti-cancer vaccines containing tumor-specific antigens recognized by T lymphocytes are thought to stimulate high numbers of anti-vaccine cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) which then can lyse the tumor cells. To understand why these vaccines are followed by tumor regressions in only 10% of the patients, we analysed the tumor-specific immune responses of these patients. Contrary to our expectations, the anti-vaccine CTL responses were of very low level. However, regressing tumors were massively infiltrated by anti-tumor T cells of other specificities, including new anti-tumor CTL clonotypes that emerged following vaccination. We now believe that the role of the anti-vaccine CTL is to activate or restimulate large numbers of other anti-tumor CTL. Their ability to initiate this response is probably more important than their number. These results have important consequences for the improvement of the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer vaccines.

  1. Anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides extracted from Senecio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the root of Senecio scandens. Buch,-Ham. (PRS) and evaluate its anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) applied with a Box-Behnken design (BBD, three levels and three factors) was employed to ...

  2. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides isolated from Taraxacum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides isolated from. Taraxacum mongolicum Hand-Mazz on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hu Niu1,2, JunWei Fan3, ... leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide [1]. Currently, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in China,.

  3. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides isolated from Taraxacum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio and extraction time on the yield of PTM were investigated using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The in vitro anti-tumor effect of PTM on MCF-7 cells was investigated by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while the mechanism of PTM-induced ...

  4. Anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides extracted from Senecio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the root of Senecio scandens Buch,-Ham. (PRS) and evaluate its anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) applied with a Box-Behnken design (BBD, three levels and three factors) was employed to ...

  5. Homeostatic T Cell Expansion to Induce Anti-Tumor Autoimmunity in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baccala, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    ... that (a) homeostatic T-cell proliferation consistently elicits anti-tumor responses; (b) irradiation is more effective than Tcell depletion by antibodies in inducing anti-tumor responses mediated by homeostatic T-cell proliferation...

  6. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the ...

  7. A 3D-QSAR Study on Betulinic Acid Derivatives as Anti-Tumor Agents and the Synthesis of Novel Derivatives for Modeling Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weimin; Zhang, Sheng; Zhu, Meixuan; Wang, Shaoming; Xu, Tao; Qu, Haijing; Yu, Tao; Yan, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a lupane-type triterpene firstly extracted from the bark of white birch. It has displayed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-HIV and selective cytotoxicity. To understand the structure- anti-tumor activity relationship of betulinic acid and betulin derivatives and to synthesize novel anti-tumor derivatives of betulinic acid and betulin. The 3D-QSAR methods including CoMFA and CoMSIA methods were performed to study the structureanti- tumor activity relationship of betulinic acid (BA) and betulin (BE) derivatives. According to the models, near the C-3 site, non-bulky, negatively charged electron-donating, hydrophobic, non-hydrogen-bond-donating and hydrogen-bond-accepting groups are favored to the activity. Around the C-28 site, the bulky, positively charged electron-withdrawing and hydrophobic groups are favored, whereas hydrophilic groups may be introduced at the terminal of the side chain. Based on the models, BA and BE were esterified with substituted amino acid derivatives achieving novel derivatives for the modeling validation. The experimental results verified the modeling rules, and showed when different rules may apply to the new structures, the steric effects might be more important. The synthesized derivatives were showed promising cytotoxicity against tested cancer cell lines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus

    OpenAIRE

    Moncla, B.J.; Pryke, K.; Rohan, L. C.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30 min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To...

  9. OFFICIAL MEDICATIONS FOR ANTI-TUMOR GENE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Nemtsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of modern literature data of official medications for anti-tumor gene therapy as well as of medications that finished clinical trials.The article discusses the concept of gene therapy, the statistical analysis results of initiated clinical trials of gene products, the most actively developing directions of anticancer gene therapy, and the characteristics of anti-tumor gene medications.Various delivery systems for gene material are being examined, including viruses that are defective in  replication (Gendicine™ and Advexin and oncolytic (tumor specific conditionally replicating viruses (Oncorine™, ONYX-015, Imlygic®.By now three preparations for intra-tumor injection have been introduced into oncology clinical practice: two of them – Gendicine™ and Oncorine™ have been registered in China, and one of them – Imlygic® has been registered in the USA. Gendicine™ and Oncorine™ are based on the wild type p53 gene and are designed for treatment of patients with head and neck malignancies. Replicating adenovirus is the delivery system in Gendicine™, whereas oncolytic adenovirus is the vector for gene material in Oncorine™. Imlygic® is based on the  recombinant replicating HSV1 virus with an introduced GM–CSF gene and is designed for treatment of  melanoma patients. These medications are well tolerated and do not cause any serious adverse events. Gendicine™ and Oncorine™ are not effective in monotherapy but demonstrate pronounced synergism with chemoand radiation therapy. Imlygic® has just started the post marketing trials.

  10. Screening inhibitory potential of anti-HIV RT RNA aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Margaret J; Burke, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers targeted to HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) have been demonstrated to inhibit RT in biochemical assays and as in cell culture. However, methods employed to date to evaluate viral suppression utilize time-consuming serial passage of infectious HIV in aptamer-expressing stable cell lines. We have established a rapid, transfection-based assay system to effectively examine the inhibitory potential of anti-HIV RT aptamers expressed between two catalytically inactive hammerhead ribozymes. Our system can be altered and optimized for a variety of cloning schemes, and addition of sequences of interest to the cassette is simple and straightforward. When paired with methods to analyze aptamer RNA accumulation and localization in cells and as packaging into pseudotyped virions, the method has a very high level of success in predicting good inhibitors.

  11. Efavirenz Mannich bases: synthesis, anti-HIV and antitubercular activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Dharmarajan; Banerjee, Debjani; Yogeeswari, Perumal

    2009-02-01

    A series of efavirenz Mannich bases has been synthesized by reacting efavirenz, formaldehyde, and various aryl substituted piperazines using microwave irradiation (yield 35-88%). The synthesized compounds were evaluated for in-vitro anti-HIV and antimycobacterial activities. The in-vitro antiretroviral activities indicated that compound 7-(4-((6-chloro-4-(2-cyclopropylethynyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-benzo[d] [1,3]oxazin-1 (4H)-yl)methyl)-3-methylpiperazin-l -yl)-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-l,4-dihydro-8-methoxy-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (4i) was equipotent to efavirenz with EC(50) of 2.4 nM. Compound 4i also inhibited M. tuberculosis with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.2 microg/mL.

  12. International award received recognizing anti-HIV spermicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-19

    Until recently, the only topical microbicide being considered for protection against sexually transmitted HIV infection contains nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a detergent ingredient widely used for more than 30 years in the form of gels, foams, aerosols, creams, sponges, suppositories, films, and foaming tablets. While N-9 has both spermicidal and antibacterial/antiviral properties against pathogens responsible for STDs, including HIV, recent clinical studies have found it to be ineffective in protecting against HIV and other STDs. Moreover, N-9 disrupts cell membranes, damages cervicovaginal epithelia, and causes an acute tissue inflammatory response, thus enhancing the likelihood of HIV infection. There is therefore an urgent need for new, effective, safe, and easy-to-use microbicides with anti-HIV activity lacking detergent-type membrane toxicity. Dr. Osmond D'Cruz et al. of the Hughes Institute in St. Paul, Minnesota, have developed an anti-HIV spermicide with the potential of becoming the active ingredient in many beneficial products. Its lead compound is 400 times more potent than N-9 against HIV and at least 10 times more potent than N-9 as a spermicide. These dual-function compounds are non-inflammatory by their nature. Hughes et al.'s discovery is expected to enter human clinical trials within 12 months. A clinical paper describing their achievement won the prestigious Prize Paper Award for the Plenary Session of the Conjoint 16th World Congress on Fertility and Sterility at the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, held in San Francisco, California, during October 4-9, 1998.

  13. Therapeutic genes for anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolenta, Chiara; Porcellini, Simona; Alberici, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The multiple therapeutic approaches developed so far to cope HIV-1 infection, such as anti-retroviral drugs, germicides and several attempts of therapeutic vaccination have provided significant amelioration in terms of life-quality and survival rate of AIDS patients. Nevertheless, no approach has demonstrated efficacy in eradicating this lethal, if untreated, infection. The curative power of gene therapy has been proven for the treatment of monogenic immunodeficiensies, where permanent gene modification of host cells is sufficient to correct the defect for life-time. No doubt, a similar concept is not applicable for gene therapy of infectious immunodeficiensies as AIDS, where there is not a single gene to be corrected; rather engineered cells must gain immunotherapeutic or antiviral features to grant either short- or long-term efficacy mostly by acquisition of antiviral genes or payloads. Anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy is one of the most promising strategy, although challenging, to eradicate HIV-1 infection. In fact, genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells with one or multiple therapeutic genes is expected to originate blood cell progenies resistant to viral infection and thereby able to prevail on infected unprotected cells. Ultimately, protected cells will re-establish a functional immune system able to control HIV-1 replication. More than hundred gene therapy clinical trials against AIDS employing different viral vectors and transgenes have been approved or are currently ongoing worldwide. This review will overview anti-HIV-1 infection gene therapy field evaluating strength and weakness of the transgenes and payloads used in the past and of those potentially exploitable in the future.

  14. Experimental study of anti-tumor activity of direct current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1989-01-01

    The anti-tumor activity of direct current combined with radiation was studied. The experiments were performed with fibrosarcomas (FSA, NFSA) syngenetic to C3H mice. Direct current (0.6mA, 120min) alone was effective to reduce the tumor sizes, but could not cure the tumors. When the direct current therapy (DC therapy) was combined with radiation the DC therapy following radiation was more effective than that before radiation. Using TCD 50 assay, the DC therapy enhanced the effect of a single dose of radiation with the dose-modifying factor of 1.2. However, tumor control rates by the combination therapy were more improved at the smaller doses of radiation than at the larger ones. When the single DC therapy (0.6mA, 120min) was applied immediately after the first radiation of fractionated one the combination therapy still showed the enhanced effect. However, both DC therapy and the radiation therapy were divided in three fractions, and the DC therapy (0.6mA, 40min) was applied after each radiation. Tumor growth retardation by the combination therapy was no different from that by radiation alone. This result suggests that there might be a minimum required dose of coulombs to show the effect of the combination therapy. (author)

  15. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Polysaccharide from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyun Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (Vaccinium spp. are rich in bioactive compounds. However, the biological activity of polysaccharides from blueberry has not been reported so far. This study evaluated the anti-tumor and immunological activities of a polysaccharide (BBP3-1 from blueberry in S180-bearing mice. The experimental results indicated that BBP3-1 (100 mg·kg−1·d−1 inhibited the tumor growth rate by 73.4%. Moreover, this group, compared with the model control, had shown an effect of increasing both the spleen and thymus indices (p < 0.05, increasing phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05, boosting the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes (p < 0.01, promoting the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 (p < 0.05 and improving NK cell activity (p < 0.01. From this study, we could easily conclude that BBP3-1 has the ability to inhibit tumor progression and could act as a good immunomodulator.

  16. Anti-HIV activity of extracts and compounds from marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Karadeniz, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, elucidation of novel bioactive substances from different marine organisms is gaining importance rapidly not only from the research and publications but also from controlled clinical studies of natural product-derived substances. They offer important leads for the development of antiviral drugs against viral infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Regarding this issue, numerous anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents from marine resources have been reported for their potential medicine/medical application as novel functional ingredients in anti-HIV therapy. In detail, marine macroalgae have attracted much of attention as a reliable source for potential anti-HIV compounds. Up to date, several types of compounds such as tannins, polysaccharides, lectins, and derivatives have been isolated, identified, and reported to possess significant anti-HIV-1 activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of Anti-HIV Activity of HEPT Analogues Using MLR, ANN, and SVM Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Basheerulla; Zafar, Tabassum; Agrawal, Vijay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the estimation of the anti-HIV activity (log1/C) of a large set of 107 HEPT analogues using molecular descriptors which are responsible for the anti-HIV activity. The study has been undertaken by three techniques MLR, ANN, and SVM. The MLR model fits the train set with R (2)=0.856 while in ANN and SVM with higher values of R (2) = 0.850, 0.874, respectively. SVM model shows improvement to estimate the anti-HIV activity of trained data, while in test set ANN have higher R (2) value than those of MLR and SVM techniques. R m (2) = metrics and ridge regression analysis indicated that the proposed four-variable model MATS5e, RDF080u, T(O⋯O), and MATS5m as correlating descriptors is the best for estimating the anti-HIV activity (log 1/C) present set of compounds.

  18. Mono-PEGylation of Alpha-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica charantia L.: Production, Identification and Anti-Tumor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun; Sun, Fenghui; Li, Jianlong; Wu, Minlu; Fan, Xiang; Meng, Yanfa; Meng, Yao

    2016-10-31

    PEGylation is a well-established and effective strategy to decrease immunogenicity, which can increase the stability and in vivo half-life time. However, the generation of multi-site modified products is inevitable due to the lysine chemistry, which will bring difficulties in subsequent research, such as purification and quantification. Site-specific modification by mPEG-succinimidyl carbonate (mPEG-SC) is a widely used method for N -terminal conjugation. In this study, we used it for site-directed modification on two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30), from Momordica charantia L. According to the optimization of previous modification conditions, we compared Macro-Cap SP with SP-Sepharose FF chromatography for separating the final mPEGylated RIPs. Two kinds of methods both can obtain homogenous mPEGylated RIPs which were identified by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis. We also used iodine staining method to detect the amount of unmodified PEG. Furthermore, the inhibition activity of both mPEGylated and non-PEGylated RIPs against human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells was detected. All of the results suggested that the mPEGylated α-MMC/MAP30 might be potentially developed as new anti-tumor drugs.

  19. Anti-infective activity of apolipoprotein domain derived peptides in vitro: identification of novel antimicrobial peptides related to apolipoprotein B with anti-HIV activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKnight Áine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have shown that peptides derived from the apolipoprotein E receptor binding region and the amphipathic α-helical domains of apolipoprotein AI have broad anti-infective activity and antiviral activity respectively. Lipoproteins and viruses share a similar cell biological niche, being of overlapping size and displaying similar interactions with mammalian cells and receptors, which may have led to other antiviral sequences arising within apolipoproteins, in addition to those previously reported. We therefore designed a series of peptides based around either apolipoprotein receptor binding regions, or amphipathic α-helical domains, and tested these for antiviral and antibacterial activity. Results Of the nineteen new peptides tested, seven showed some anti-infective activity, with two of these being derived from two apolipoproteins not previously used to derive anti-infective sequences. Apolipoprotein J (151-170 - based on a predicted amphipathic alpha-helical domain from apolipoprotein J - had measurable anti-HSV1 activity, as did apolipoprotein B (3359-3367 dp (apoBdp, the latter being derived from the LDL receptor binding domain B of apolipoprotein B. The more active peptide - apoBdp - showed similarity to the previously reported apoE derived anti-infective peptide, and further modification of the apoBdp sequence to align the charge distribution more closely to that of apoEdp or to introduce aromatic residues resulted in increased breadth and potency of activity. The most active peptide of this type showed similar potent anti-HIV activity, comparable to that we previously reported for the apoE derived peptide apoEdpL-W. Conclusions These data suggest that further antimicrobial peptides may be obtained using human apolipoprotein sequences, selecting regions with either amphipathic α-helical structure, or those linked to receptor-binding regions. The finding that an amphipathic α-helical region of

  20. Anti-HIV-1 activity of eight monofloral Iranian honey types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    Monofloral Iranian honeys from eight floral sources were analyzed to determine their anti-HIV-1 activities as well as their effects on lymphocyte proliferation. The Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) used in this study were prepared from five healthy volunteers who were seronegative for HIV, HCV, HBV and TB. The anti-HIV-1 activity of eight different honeys was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and high pure viral nucleic acid kit. The results demonstrated that monofloral honeys from Petro selinum sativum, Nigella sativa, Citrus sinensis, Zataria multiflora, Citrus aurantium and Zizyphus mauritiana flowers had potent anti-HIV-1 activity with half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 37.5, 88, 70, 88, 105 and 5 µg/ml respectively. However, monofloral Iranian honeys from Astragalus gummifer and Chamaemelum nobile flowers had weak anti-HIV-1 activity. The frequency and intensity of CD4 expression on PBMCs increased in the presence of all honey types. CD19 marker were also increased after the treatment with monofloral honeys from Z. multiflora and N. sativa. The anti-HIV-1 agent in monofloral honeys from P. sativum, N. sativa, Z. multiflora and Z. mauritiana flowers was detected by spectroscopic analysis as methylglyoxal. Time of drug addition studies demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is higher on the late stage of HIV-1 infection. The result demonstrated that methylglyoxal isolated from monofloral honey types is a good candidate for preclinical evaluation of anti-HIV-1 therapies.

  1. Anti-HIV-1 activity of eight monofloral Iranian honey types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Behbahani

    Full Text Available Monofloral Iranian honeys from eight floral sources were analyzed to determine their anti-HIV-1 activities as well as their effects on lymphocyte proliferation. The Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs used in this study were prepared from five healthy volunteers who were seronegative for HIV, HCV, HBV and TB. The anti-HIV-1 activity of eight different honeys was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay and high pure viral nucleic acid kit. The results demonstrated that monofloral honeys from Petro selinum sativum, Nigella sativa, Citrus sinensis, Zataria multiflora, Citrus aurantium and Zizyphus mauritiana flowers had potent anti-HIV-1 activity with half maximal effective concentration (EC50 values of 37.5, 88, 70, 88, 105 and 5 µg/ml respectively. However, monofloral Iranian honeys from Astragalus gummifer and Chamaemelum nobile flowers had weak anti-HIV-1 activity. The frequency and intensity of CD4 expression on PBMCs increased in the presence of all honey types. CD19 marker were also increased after the treatment with monofloral honeys from Z. multiflora and N. sativa. The anti-HIV-1 agent in monofloral honeys from P. sativum, N. sativa, Z. multiflora and Z. mauritiana flowers was detected by spectroscopic analysis as methylglyoxal. Time of drug addition studies demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is higher on the late stage of HIV-1 infection. The result demonstrated that methylglyoxal isolated from monofloral honey types is a good candidate for preclinical evaluation of anti-HIV-1 therapies.

  2. New findings on the d(TGGGAG) sequence: Surprising anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; Zarrelli, Armando; Liekens, Sandra; Noppen, Sam; Pannecouque, Christophe; Di Fabio, Giovanni

    2018-02-10

    The biological relevance of tetramolecular G-quadruplexes especially as anti-HIV agents has been extensively reported in the literature over the last years. In the light of our recent results regarding the slow G-quadruplex folding kinetics of ODNs based on d(TGGGAG) sequence, here we report a systematic anti-HIV screening to investigate the impact of the G-quadruplex folding on their anti-HIV activity. In particular, varying the single stranded concentrations of ODNs, it has been tested a pool of ODN sample solutions with different G-quadruplex concentrations. The anti-HIV assays have been designed favouring the limited kinetics involved in the tetramolecular G4-association based on the d(TGGGAG) sequence. Aiming to determine the stoichiometry of G-quadruplex structures in the same experimental conditions of the anti-HIV assays, a native gel electrophoresis was performed. The gel confirmed the G-quadruplex formation for almost all sample solutions while showing the formation of high order G4 structures for the more concentrated ODNs solutions. The most significant result is the discovery of a potent anti-HIV activity of the G-quadruplex formed by the natural d(TGGGAG) sequence (IC 50  = 14 nM) that, until now, has been reported to be completely inactive against HIV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, B J; Pryke, K; Rohan, L C; Yang, H

    2012-02-01

    The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive briefly, about 2s, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. G-Quadruplex Forming Oligonucleotides as Anti-HIV Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Domenica; Riccardi, Claudia; Montesarchio, Daniela

    2015-09-22

    Though a variety of different non-canonical nucleic acids conformations have been recognized, G-quadruplex structures are probably the structural motifs most commonly found within known oligonucleotide-based aptamers. This could be ascribed to several factors, as their large conformational diversity, marked responsiveness of their folding/unfolding processes to external stimuli, high structural compactness and chemo-enzymatic and thermodynamic stability. A number of G-quadruplex-forming oligonucleotides having relevant in vitro anti-HIV activity have been discovered in the last two decades through either SELEX or rational design approaches. Improved aptamers have been obtained by chemical modifications of natural oligonucleotides, as terminal conjugations with large hydrophobic groups, replacement of phosphodiester linkages with phosphorothioate bonds or other surrogates, insertion of base-modified monomers, etc. In turn, detailed structural studies have elucidated the peculiar architectures adopted by many G-quadruplex-based aptamers and provided insight into their mechanism of action. An overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge of the relevance of putative G-quadruplex forming sequences within the viral genome and of the most studied G-quadruplex-forming aptamers, selectively targeting HIV proteins, is here presented.

  5. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  6. Irradiated tumor cells of lipopolysaccharide stimulation elicit an enhanced anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuli; Shen, Guobo; Nie, Wen; Li, Zhimian; Sang, Yaxiong; Zhang, Binglan; Wei, Yuquan

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer surface membrane of Gram-negative bacteria which has been proved an effective immune enhancer. Here, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of irradiated tumor cells that stimulated by LPS in mouse xenografts models. Tumor cells were irradiated after stimulation with 1 μg/mL LPS for 48 h. The C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously with irradiated tumor cells. The anti-tumor effect of lymphocytes of immunized mice was investigated. The cytotoxicity of spleen lymphocytes from immunized mice was determined by a standard (51)Cr-release assay. The roles of immune cell subsets in anti-tumor activity were assessed by injected intraperitoneally with monoclonal antibodies. We observed that the vaccine of irradiated tumor cell with LPS-stimulated elicited a stronger protective anti-tumor immunity than other controls. Adoptive transfer of lymphocytes of immunized mice showed that the cellular immune response was involved in the anti-tumor effect. And this effect was achieved by activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response and reduction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, Gr1(+) CD11b (+) ), which were confirmed by depletion of immune cell subsets and flow cytometry analysis. In summary, our study showed that stimulation of LPS was able to enhance anti-tumor immunity of vaccination with tumor cells after irradiation treatment, which might be a new strategy for cancer therapy.

  7. Anti-tumor immune response after photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Wu, Mei X.; Kung, Andrew L.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due a number of factors including: the acute inflammatory response caused by PDT, release of antigens from PDT-damaged tumor cells, priming of the adaptive immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and induction of heat-shock proteins. The induction of specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy as it would allow the treatment of tumors that may have already metastasized. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. We have carried out in vivo PDT with a BPD-mediated vascular regimen using a pair of BALB/c mouse colon carcinomas: CT26 wild type expressing the naturally occurring retroviral antigen gp70 and CT26.CL25 additionally expressing beta-galactosidase (b-gal) as a model tumor rejection antigen. PDT of CT26.CL25 cured 100% of tumors but none of the CT26WT tumors (all recurred). Cured CT26.CL25 mice were resistant to rechallenge. Moreover mice with two bilateral CT26.CL25 tumors that had only one treated with PDT demonstrated spontaneous regression of 70% of untreated contralateral tumors. T-lymphocytes were isolated from lymph nodes of PDT cured mice that recognized a particular peptide specific to b-gal antigen. T-lymphocytes from LN were able to kill CT26.CL25 target cells in vitro but not CT26WT cells as shown by a chromium release assay. CT26.CL25 tumors treated with PDT and removed five days later had higher levels of Th1 cytokines than CT26 WT tumors showing a higher level of immune response. When mice bearing CT26WT tumors were treated with a regimen of low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) 2 days before, PDT led to 100% of cures (versus 0% without CY) and resistance to rechallenge. Low dose CY is thought to deplete regulatory T-cells (Treg, CD4+CD25+foxp

  8. NKT cells as an ideal anti-tumor immunotherapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Kanako; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kunii, Naoki; Nakayama, Toshinori; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Taniguchi, Masaru

    2013-12-02

    Human natural killer T (NKT) cells are characterized by their expression of an invariant T cell antigen receptor α chain variable region encoded by a Vα24Jα18 rearrangement. These NKT cells recognize α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) in conjunction with the MHC class I-like CD1d molecule and bridge the innate and acquired immune systems to mediate efficient and augmented immune responses. A prime example of one such function is adjuvant activity: NKT cells augment anti-tumor responses because they can rapidly produce large amounts of IFN-γ, which acts on NK cells to eliminate MHC negative tumors and also on CD8 cytotoxic T cells to kill MHC positive tumors. Thus, upon administration of α-GalCer-pulsed DCs, both MHC negative and positive tumor cells can be effectively eliminated, resulting in complete tumor eradication without tumor recurrence. Clinical trials have been completed in a cohort of 17 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancers and 10 cases of head and neck tumors. Sixty percent of advanced lung cancer patients with high IFN-γ production had significantly prolonged median survival times of 29.3 months with only the primary treatment. In the case of head and neck tumors, 10 patients who completed the trial all had stable disease or partial responses 5 weeks after the combination therapy of α-GalCer-DCs and activated NKT cells. We now focus on two potential powerful treatment options for the future. One is to establish artificial adjuvant vector cells containing tumor mRNA and α-GalCer/CD1d. This stimulates host NKT cells followed by DC maturation and NK cell activation but also induces tumor-specific long-term memory CD8 killer T cell responses, suppressing tumor metastasis even 1 year after the initial single injection. The other approach is to establish induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that can generate unlimited numbers of NKT cells with adjuvant activity. Such iPS-derived NKT cells produce IFN-γ in vitro and in vivo upon

  9. 2'-Deoxythymidine Adducts from the Anti-HIV Drug Nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matilde Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nevirapine (NVP is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI used against HIV-1. Currently, NVP is the most widely used anti-HIV drug in developing countries, both in combination therapy and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Despite its efficacy against HIV, NVP produces a variety of toxic responses, including hepatotoxicity and skin rash. It is also associated with increased incidences of hepatoneoplasias in rodents. In addition, epidemiological data suggest that NNRTI use is a risk factor for non-AIDS-defining cancers in HIV-positive patients. Current evidence supports the involvement of metabolic activation to reactive electrophiles in NVP toxicity. NVP metabolism includes oxidation to 12-hydroxy-NVP; subsequent Phase II sulfonation produces an electrophilic metabolite, 12-sulfoxy-NVP, capable of reacting with DNA to yield covalent adducts. Since 2’-deoxythymidine (dT adducts from several alkylating agents are regarded as having significant mutagenic/carcinogenic potential, we investigated the formation of NVP-dT adducts under biomimetic conditions. Toward this goal, we initially prepared and characterized synthetic NVP-dT adduct standards using a palladium-mediated Buchwald-Hartwig coupling strategy. The synthetic standards enabled the identification, by LC-ESI-MS, of 12-(2'-deoxythymidin-N3-yl-nevirapine (N3-NVP-dT in the enzymatic hydrolysate of salmon testis DNA reacted with 12-mesyloxy-NVP, a synthetic surrogate for 12-sulfoxy-NVP. N3-NVP-dT, a potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA lesion, was also the only dT-specific adduct detected upon reaction of dT with 12-mesyloxy-NVP. Our data suggest that N3-NVP-dT may be formed in vivo and play a role in the hepatotoxicity and/or putative hepatocarcinogenicity of NVP.

  10. Novel anti-HIV peptides containing multiple copies of artificially designed heptad repeat motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Weiguo; Qi Zhi; Pan Chungen; Xue Na; Debnath, Asim K.; Qie Jiankun; Jiang Shibo; Liu Keliang

    2008-01-01

    The peptidic anti-HIV drug T20 (Fuzeon) and its analog C34 share a common heptad repeat (HR) sequence, but they have different functional domains, i.e., pocket- and lipid-binding domains (PBD and LBD, respectively). We hypothesize that novel anti-HIV peptides may be designed by using artificial sequences containing multiple copies of HR motifs plus zero, one or two functional domains. Surprisingly, we found that the peptides containing only the non-natural HR sequences could significantly inhibit HIV-1 infection, while addition of PBD and/or LBD to the peptides resulted in significant improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. These results suggest that these artificial HR sequences, which may serve as structural domains, could be used as templates for the design of novel antiviral peptides against HIV and other viruses with class I fusion proteins

  11. Stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles for multiple anti-HIV microbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Namita; Oh, Byeongtaek; Lee, Chi H.

    2016-05-01

    This study is aimed to develop and evaluate an advanced intravaginal formulation for the delivery of multiple anti-HIV microbicides. Novel stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) which protected the encapsulated drugs from being degraded in acidic pH conditions were made of Eudragit S-100® (ES100®), a pH-sensitive polymer. ES100® NPs were prepared using the quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique and loaded with two microbicides namely Tenofovir (TNF) and Etravirine (ETV). The effects of various fabrication parameters on the formulation properties were evaluated for the optimization of ES100® NPs. The morphology of the ES100® NPs was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of NPs containing microbicides individually or in a combination was assessed using cell viability and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements. The cellular uptake rates of the model microbicides by human vaginal epithelial cells, VK2 E6/E7 cells, were evaluated using confocal microscopy and florescence-assisted cell sorting technique. ES100® NPs had a spherical shape, smooth surface, and uniform texture with a little aggregation. The average particle size for NPs loaded with TNF ranged from 125 to 230 nm, whereas those for ETV-loaded NPs ranged from 160 to 280 nm. ES100® NPs had zeta potential in the range of -5 to -10 mV. In-vitro release studies displayed the potential benefits of ES100® NPs in retaining and protecting the loaded microbicides at vaginal pH (acidic), but immediately releasing them as the pH changes to neutral or 7.4 (physiological pH). Cell viability studies demonstrated that ES100® NPs did not exert any cytotoxicity individually or in a combination of both microbicides. TEER measurements confirmed that ES100® NPs loaded with TNF and ETV did not cause any changes in the barrier integrity of VK2 E6/E7 cell monolayer. The cellular uptake study revealed that ES100® NPs were taken by vaginal epithelial cells through the endocytosis

  12. Stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles for multiple anti-HIV microbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, Namita; Oh, Byeongtaek; Lee, Chi H., E-mail: leech@umkc.edu [University of Missouri at Kansas City, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)

    2016-05-15

    This study is aimed to develop and evaluate an advanced intravaginal formulation for the delivery of multiple anti-HIV microbicides. Novel stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) which protected the encapsulated drugs from being degraded in acidic pH conditions were made of Eudragit S-100{sup ®} (ES100{sup ®}), a pH-sensitive polymer. ES100{sup ®} NPs were prepared using the quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique and loaded with two microbicides namely Tenofovir (TNF) and Etravirine (ETV). The effects of various fabrication parameters on the formulation properties were evaluated for the optimization of ES100{sup ®} NPs. The morphology of the ES100{sup ®} NPs was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of NPs containing microbicides individually or in a combination was assessed using cell viability and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements. The cellular uptake rates of the model microbicides by human vaginal epithelial cells, VK2 E6/E7 cells, were evaluated using confocal microscopy and florescence-assisted cell sorting technique. ES100{sup ®} NPs had a spherical shape, smooth surface, and uniform texture with a little aggregation. The average particle size for NPs loaded with TNF ranged from 125 to 230 nm, whereas those for ETV-loaded NPs ranged from 160 to 280 nm. ES100{sup ®} NPs had zeta potential in the range of −5 to −10 mV. In-vitro release studies displayed the potential benefits of ES100{sup ®} NPs in retaining and protecting the loaded microbicides at vaginal pH (acidic), but immediately releasing them as the pH changes to neutral or 7.4 (physiological pH). Cell viability studies demonstrated that ES100{sup ®} NPs did not exert any cytotoxicity individually or in a combination of both microbicides. TEER measurements confirmed that ES100{sup ®} NPs loaded with TNF and ETV did not cause any changes in the barrier integrity of VK2 E6/E7 cell monolayer. The cellular uptake study revealed that ES100{sup

  13. Stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles for multiple anti-HIV microbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Namita; Oh, Byeongtaek; Lee, Chi H.

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to develop and evaluate an advanced intravaginal formulation for the delivery of multiple anti-HIV microbicides. Novel stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) which protected the encapsulated drugs from being degraded in acidic pH conditions were made of Eudragit S-100 ® (ES100 ® ), a pH-sensitive polymer. ES100 ® NPs were prepared using the quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique and loaded with two microbicides namely Tenofovir (TNF) and Etravirine (ETV). The effects of various fabrication parameters on the formulation properties were evaluated for the optimization of ES100 ® NPs. The morphology of the ES100 ® NPs was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of NPs containing microbicides individually or in a combination was assessed using cell viability and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements. The cellular uptake rates of the model microbicides by human vaginal epithelial cells, VK2 E6/E7 cells, were evaluated using confocal microscopy and florescence-assisted cell sorting technique. ES100 ® NPs had a spherical shape, smooth surface, and uniform texture with a little aggregation. The average particle size for NPs loaded with TNF ranged from 125 to 230 nm, whereas those for ETV-loaded NPs ranged from 160 to 280 nm. ES100 ® NPs had zeta potential in the range of −5 to −10 mV. In-vitro release studies displayed the potential benefits of ES100 ® NPs in retaining and protecting the loaded microbicides at vaginal pH (acidic), but immediately releasing them as the pH changes to neutral or 7.4 (physiological pH). Cell viability studies demonstrated that ES100 ® NPs did not exert any cytotoxicity individually or in a combination of both microbicides. TEER measurements confirmed that ES100 ® NPs loaded with TNF and ETV did not cause any changes in the barrier integrity of VK2 E6/E7 cell monolayer. The cellular uptake study revealed that ES100 ® NPs were taken by vaginal epithelial cells

  14. The Pig as a Large Animal Model for Studying Anti-Tumor Immune Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr

    The immune system plays a crucial role in cancer development and progression. Cancer immunoediting encompasses three phases: elimination, equilibrium, and escape; together, describing the complex interplay between tumor and immune cells. Specifically, the immune system both protects against cancer...... of autologous tumor cells, underlining the capacity of the Oncopig immune system to mount a cytotoxic anti-tumor response. Using the results from RNA-seq analysis, we propose a potential mechanism for in vivo inhibition of anti-tumor cytotoxicity based on elevated expression of the immunosuppressive genes IDO1...... support that the Oncopig provides a crucial platform for studying anti-tumor immune responses in a large in vivo system, although the model currently only allows preclinical testing of therapeutics against the early stages of cancer....

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-tumoral Effects of the Flavonoid Apigenin in Malignant Mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Masuelli; Monica Benvenuto; Rosanna Mattera; Enrica Di Stefano; Erika Zago; Gloria Taffera; Ilaria Tresoldi; Maria Gabriella Giganti; Giovanni Vanni Frajese; Ginevra Berardi; Andrea Modesti; Andrea Modesti; Roberto Bei; Roberto Bei

    2017-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a tumor arising from mesothelium. MM patients’ survival is poor. The polyphenol 4′,5,7,-trihydroxyflavone Apigenin (API) is a “multifunctional drug”. Several studies have demonstrated API anti-tumoral effects. However, little is known on the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral effects of API in MM. Thus, we analyzed the in vitro effects of API on cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, pro-survival signaling pathways, apoptosis, and autophagy of human and mouse...

  16. Anti-HIV-1 protease activities of crude extracts of some Garcinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... indicated significant HIV-1 protease inhibition (Chen et al., 1996). Garcinia livingstoneii has been reported to produce gutifferone A, being an anti-HIV ..... Abe F, Estrada MJ, Soler C, Chilpa RR. (2004). HIV-1 inhibitory compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense leaves. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27: 1471-1475.

  17. A Survey of Plants with Anti-HIV Active Compounds and their Modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several limitations of current antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes will continue to push patients towards the use of plants to manage HIV/AIDS. However, evidence about the use of anti-HIV plants is anecdotal. Objectives: Search the literature for research articles that document plants with anti-HIV ...

  18. Effect of expressing an anti-HIV lectin, Griffithsin, in different plant cellular compartments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stark, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in vitro in very low quantities. The molecular target of GRFT is the high mannose residues on the viral gp120 coat protein. Low cost production of GRFT and other anti-HIV drugs at minimal costs is crucial seeing...

  19. Pharmacokinetics and anti-HIV-1 efficacy of negatively charged human serum albumins in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M E; Swart, P J; Schutten, Martin; Smit, C; Proost, J H; Osterhaus, A D; Meijer, D K

    Negatively charged albumins (NCAs, with the prototypes succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) and aconitylated human serum albumin (Aco-HSA)), modified proteins with a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) activity in vitro, were studied for their pharmacokinetic behaviour

  20. Synthesis and anti-HIV Activity of New 3'-O-Phosphonomethyl Nucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Herdewijn, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 1 (2010), s. 663-687 ISSN 0385-5414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : anti-HIV * 4-(S)-ethynyl nucleotides * PMDTT Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2010

  1. Photo-translocation of anti-HIV-1 drugs into TZM-bl cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, T

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Targeted drug delivery into HIV-1 infected cells offers a reduction in toxicity and side effect. Using a femtosecond (fs) laser of different beam shapes anti-HIV-1 drugs are efficiently delivered into TZM-bl cells....

  2. New anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, and antifungal compounds from Terminalia bellerica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsaraj, R.; Pushpangadan, P.; Wagner Smitt, U.

    1997-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided fractionation of an extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit rind led to the isolation of two new lignans named termilignan (1) and thannilignan (2), together with 7-hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy)flavan (3) and anolignan B (4). All four compounds possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-1...

  3. Mechanism of anti-HIV activity of succinylated human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, ME; Berg, HVD; Swart, PJ; Laman, Jon; Meijer, DKF; Kopelman, MHGM; Huisman, H

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we described the interaction of succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA), a negatively charged anti-HIV-1 active protein, with HIV-1 gp120 and in detail with the third variable domain of gp120 (V3 loop). To this end, different assay formats were tested in which gp120- and

  4. Structural and functional analysis of negatively charged milk proteins with anti-HIV activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Derksen, G. C.; Back, N. K.; Klaver, B.; de Kruif, C. G.; Visser, S.

    1997-01-01

    Several polyanionic reagents such as dextran sulfates, heparin sulfates, and negatively charged proteins have been reported to exhibit anti-HIV activity in vitro. Particularly potent inhibition has been reported for the milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (betaLG) on modification by 3-hydroxyphthalic

  5. An improved microtiter assay for evaluating anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies from sera or plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yunyun

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay is widely used in AIDS vaccine research and other experimental and clinical studies. The vital dye staining method applied in the detection of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody has been used in many laboratories. However, the unknown factor(s in sera or plasma affected cell growth and caused protection when the tested sera or plasma was continuously maintained in cell culture. In addition, the poor solubility of neutral red in medium (such as RPMI-1640 also limited the use of this assay. Methods In this study, human T cell line C8166 was used as host cells, and 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT instead of neutral red was used as vital dye. In order to avoid the effect of the unknown factor(s, the tested sera or plasma was removed by a washout procedure after initial 3–6 h culture in the assay. Result This new assay eliminated the effect of the tested sera or plasma on cell growth, improved the reliability of detection of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody, and showed excellent agreement with the p24 antigen method. Conclusion The results suggest that the improved assay is relatively simple, highly duplicable, cost-effective, and well reliable for evaluating anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies from sera or plasma.

  6. Isolation of anti-HIV-1 lignans from Larrea tridentata by counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnabre, J N; Ito, Y; Ma, Y; Huang, R C

    1996-01-08

    Several lignans, mostly new, were isolated from Larrea tridentata by assay-guided counter-current chromatography (CCC). Using the secreted alkaline phosphatase bioassay of HIV Tat transactivation and the two-phase hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water solvent system, two major components (Gr and Lo) were identified as anti-HIV active principles. The chemical structures of the constituents of Gr (G1-G4) and Lo (L1-L4) were determined by GC-MS and NMR. After optimization of isolation conditions, a large-scale isolation with the chloroform-methanol-water system yielded five constituents (FB1-FB5). The most predominant anti-HIV compound FB2 (denoted Malachi 4:5-6 or mal.4), which occurs in 0.23% yield, was separated from its FB1 isomer (0.13% yield). Compound FB4 and two tricyclic lignans (FB3 and FB5) were also isolated in a substantial amount for further testing of their anti-HIV activities. These compounds may represent a new class of anti-HIV agents with important clinical relevance.

  7. Estimation of Anti-HIV Activity of HEPT Analogues Using MLR, ANN, and SVM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheerulla Shaik

    2013-01-01

    value than those of MLR and SVM techniques. Rm2= metrics and ridge regression analysis indicated that the proposed four-variable model MATS5e, RDF080u, T(O⋯O, and MATS5m as correlating descriptors is the best for estimating the anti-HIV activity (log 1/C present set of compounds.

  8. Anti-HIV Effect of Liposomes Bearing CXCR4 Receptor Antagonist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate lymphatic system targeting and inhibitory ability of N15P nano-liposomal preparation (naLipo-N15P) of CXCR4 receptor antagonist in HIV infection. Methods: Chemotactic and chemotaxic inhibition activity assays were used to analyze the biological activity of naLipo-N15P. The anti-HIV potential of ...

  9. [Screening of the anti-tumor active fraction from Ipomoea batatas Lam. (cv.simon) leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Shuhe; Lin, Cong; Xu, Pingsheng

    2015-05-01

    Three fractions (SM, SM-A, SM-B) were prepared from different polarity parts of Ipomoea batatas Lam. (cv.simon) leaves and the anti-tumor potency as well as the dose-response relations were evaluated. The anti-tumor activities of fraction SM, SM-A or SM-B were screened by MTS in human hepatic cancer Hep3B cells, lung cancer A549 cells or gastric carcinoma MGC803 cells, respectively. The three fractions all showed anti-tumor activities in three cancer cells with different sensitivity. Among them, SM-B was the most potent fraction with IC50 values at 15.17 mg/L, 72.64 mg/L or 165.47 mg/L in MGC803 cells, A549 cells or Hep3B cells, respectively (P<0.05). Th e extraction of Brazil sweet potato leaves displayed anti-tumor activity and SM-B was the most potent fraction.

  10. Anti-tumor activity of triterpenoid-rich extract from bamboo shavings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... especially on anti-tumor. The reports on the biological activities of triterpenoids ... Helium was used as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 1. mL/min. 1 µL EBS sample dissolved in dichloromethane was ... The Silica Gel Column Chromatography and Countercurrent Chro- matography preparation techniques were ...

  11. Anti-tumor potential of total alkaloid extract of Prosopis juliflora DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... The in vitro anti-tumor potential of the extract was evaluated using MTT (3-(4,5- dimethythiazol-2yl)2 ... were compared with mitogen stimulated T-lymphocyte cultures derived from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The MTT test ... showed significant activity against lung carcinoma in vivo. (Wassel et al.

  12. In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total flavonoids from Elsholtzia densa Benth. Ren Qiu-Rong, Li Jiao, Wang Ya-Nan, Gou Xun, Xin Wen-Yuan, Ma Dan-Wei, Xiong Xiu-Hong, Zhou Yu-Jun ...

  13. In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total flavonoids from Elsholtzia densa Benth of Sichuan Province, China. Methods: The total flavonoids of Elsholtzia densa Bent were extracted utilizing the ultrasonic extraction method, and purified by D101 macroporous adsorption resin ...

  14. Anti-thrombotic and anti-tumor effect of water extract of caulis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-thrombosis and anti-tumor effect of the water extract of the caulis of Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehd. et Wils. (WCSW) in rat and mouse models. Methods: WCSW extract was prepared and the main constituents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The acute ...

  15. Anti-tumor activity of triterpenoid-rich extract from bamboo shavings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo shavings are a kind of Chinese traditional medicine, which have been certificated as a material of functional food by the Ministry of Health in China. The anti-tumor activities of a triterpenoid-rich extract of bamboo shavings (EBS) and its main component, friedelin were evaluated in the present study. It was proved ...

  16. Anti-tumor potential of total alkaloid extract of Prosopis juliflora DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total alkaloid extract from Prosopis juliflora DC. leaves was obtained using acid/base modified extraction method. The in vitro anti-tumor potential of the extract was evaluated using MTT (3-(4,5- dimethythiazol-2yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) based cytotoxicity monitoring after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure of the ...

  17. Study on in vitro anti-tumor activity of Bidens bipinnata L. extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the in vitro anti-tumor activity of Bidens Bipinnata L. extract. MTT assay was used to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of the extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines and human cervical carcinoma (Hela) cell lines, and the IC50 values were calculated. The Bidens ...

  18. Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxin extracted from the Masked Puffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxins extracted from the skin of the Masked Puffer fish (Arothron diadematus) from the Red Sea was evaluated using the Ehrlich ascite carcinoma tumor model in mice. Activity was assessed using a variety of cellular and liver biochemical parameters. Experimental mice were divided into 4 equal ...

  19. Study on anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from radix paeoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the paper was to study the anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from Radix paeoniae rubra in S180 tumor-bearing mice, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action. Mice were made into S180 solid tumor model, grouped and administered with the extracts; tumor inhibition rate was measured by ...

  20. Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of Pectolinarigenin from Cirsium japonicum Fisch ex DC in Breast Cancer. Mingqian Lu, Xinhua Xu, Hongda Lu, Zhongxin Lu, Bingqing Xu, Chao Tan, Kezhi Shi, Rong Guo, Qingzhi Kong ...

  1. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications.......Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications....

  2. Induction of anti-tumor immunity by trifunctional antibodies in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindhofer Horst

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC from epithelial tumors is a fatal diagnosis without efficient treatment. Trifunctional antibodies (trAb are novel therapeutic approaches leading to a concerted anti-tumor activity resulting in tumor cell destruction. In addition, preclinical data in mouse tumor models demonstrated the induction of long lasting tumor immunity after treatment with trAb. We describe the induction of anti-tumor specific T-lymphocytes after intraperitoneal administration of trAb in patients with PC. 9 patients with progressive PC from gastric (n = 6 and ovarian cancer (n = 2, and cancer of unknown primary (n = 1 received 3 escalating doses of trAb after surgery and/or ineffective chemotherapy. The trAb EpCAM × CD3 (10, 20, 40 μg or HER2/neu × CD3 (10, 40, 80 μg were applicated by intraperitoneal infusion. Four weeks after the last trAb application, all patients were restimulated by subdermal injection of trAb + autologous PBMC + irradiated autologous tumor cells. Immunological reactivity was tested by analyzing PBMC for specific tumor reactive CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes using an IFN-γ secretion assay. In 5 of 9 patients, tumor reactive CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes increased significantly, indicating specific anti-tumor immunity. A clinical response (stable disease, partial regression has been observed in 5 of 9 patients, with a mean time to progression of 3.6 months. Follow-up showed a mean survival of 11.8 months (median 8.0 months after trAb therapy. TrAb are able to induce anti-tumor immunity after intraperitoneal application and restimulation. The induction of long-lasting anti-tumor immunity may provide an additional benefit of the intraperitoneal therapy with trAb and should be further elevated in larger clinical trials.

  3. The anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on mouse glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hidemitsu; Hori, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Mogami, Heitaro; Hayakawa, Toru.

    1979-01-01

    Anti-tumor activities of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) and x-irradiation on methylcholanthrene induced glioma in C 57 BL mice were studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments using cultured glioma cells (MGB cells), the synchronization of cell cycle was done by excess addition of thymidine, and the anti-tumor cell effect were investigated by mean of determinations of DNA synthesis, mitotic index and the number of the living cells following the treatments. As the results, it appeared obvious that ACNU was most effective on MGB cells in S phase and x-irradiation in M phase. As to the combined therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation, the anti-tumor effect was most remarkable when the cells were treated by x-irradiation in the G 2 , M phase, which were hervested by addition of ACNU 44 hours before irradiation. However simultaneous treatment of ACNU and x-irradiation on the cells in G 1 phase was not so remarkable. In vivo experiments the anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on subcutaneously or intracranially transplanted glioma in mice was investigated. Either ACNU 10 mg/kg or local x-irradiation 1240 rads showed inhibitory effect on the tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of the tumor bearing mice. The combination therapy was more effective than ACNU or x-irradiation alone, particularly combination therapy of ACNU and repeated small doses irradiation of x-ray was remarkably effective. Evidence obtained indicated that the combination therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation have synergistic anti-tumor effect on experimental mouse glioma. (author)

  4. Tumor-altered dendritic cell function: implications for anti-tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Michael Hargadon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programming of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor

  5. Tumor-altered dendritic cell function: implications for anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Kristian M

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programing of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor immunity.

  6. Cryo-ablation improves anti-tumor immunity through recovering tumor educated dendritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Zheng; Wang, Qi-Fu; Han, Shuai; Wang, Hui-Qing; Ye, Yong-Yi; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Shi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In addition to minimally invasive destruction of tumors, cryo-ablation of tumors to some extent modulated anti-tumor immunity. Cryo-ablated tumors in glioma mice models induced anti-tumor cellular immunologic response which increases the percentage of CD3(+) and CD4(+)T cells in blood as well as natural killer cells. As a crucial role in triggering anti-tumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) were educated by tumors to adopt a tolerance phenotype which helps the tumor escape from immune monitoring. This study aims to study whether cryo-ablation could influence the tolerogenic DCs, and influence anti-tumor immunity in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). Using the GL261 subcutaneous glioma mouse model, we created a tumor bearing group, cryo-ablation group, and surgery group. We analyzed alteration in phenotype and function of tolerogenic DCs, and evaluated the factors of anti-tumor immunity inhibition. DCs in TDLNs in GL261 subcutaneous glioma mouse model expressed tolerogenic phenotype. In contrast to surgery, cryo-ablation improved the quantity and quality of these tolerogenic DCs. Moreover, the DCs decreased the expression of intracellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) and extra-cellular IL-10. In vitro, DCs from the cryo-ablation group recovered their specific function and induced potent anti-tumor immunity through triggering T cells. In vivo, cryo-ablation showed weak anti-tumor immunity, only inhibiting the growth of rechallenged tumors. But many IL-10-low DCs, rather than IL-10-high DCs, infiltrated the tumors. More importantly, Tregs inhibited the performance of these DCs; and depletion of Tregs greatly improved anti-tumor immunity in vivo. Cryo-ablation could recover function of tumor induced tolerogenic DCs in vitro; and depletion of Tregs could improve this anti-tumor effect in vivo. The Tregs/CD4(+)T and Tregs/CD25(+)T cells in TDLNs inhibit DCs' activity and function.

  7. Cytotoxic and anti-HIV-1 caged xanthones from the resin and fruits of Garcinia hanburyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutrakul, Vichai; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Pohmakotr, Manat; Jaipetch, Thaworn; Sophasan, Samaisukh; Yoosook, Chalobon; Kasisit, Jittra; Napaswat, Chanita; Santisuk, Thawatchai; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2007-01-01

    Three new caged xanthones, 7-methoxydesoxymorellin (1), 2-isoprenylforbesione (2) and 8,8a-epoxymorellic acid (3), together with nine known caged xanthones were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of resin and fruits of Garcinia hanburyi. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Most of the isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxicities against a panel of mammalian cancer cell lines. Compound 3, together with the known compounds desoxymorellin, morellic acid, gambogic acid, hanburin, forbesione and dihydroisomorellin, exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity in the reverse transcriptase (RT) assay while the known compounds desoxygambogenin and dihydroisomorellin were found moderately active in the syncytium assay. This work represents the first report on the anti-HIV-1 activities of caged xanthones.

  8. Anti-tumor Activity of Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huju Chi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a class of pattern recognition receptors that play a bridging role in innate immunity and adaptive immunity. The activated TLRs not only induce inflammatory responses, but also elicit the development of antigen specific immunity. TLR7, a member of TLR family, is an intracellular receptor expressed on the membrane of endosomes. TLR7 can be triggered not only by ssRNA during viral infections, but also by immune modifiers that share a similar structure to nucleosides. Its powerful immune stimulatory action can be potentially used in the anti-tumor therapy. This article reviewed the anti-tumor activity and mechanism of TLR7 agonists that are frequently applied in preclinical and clinical investigations, and mainly focused on small synthetic molecules, including imiquimod, resiquimod, gardiquimod, and 852A, etc.

  9. 7,8-secolignans from Schisandra neglecta and their anti-HIV-1 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuemei; Mu, Huaixue; Hu, Qiufen, E-mail: huqiufena@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources, State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan University of Nationalities (China); Wang, Ruirui; Yang, Liumeng; Zheng, Yongtang [Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Sun, Handong; Xiao, Weilie, E-mail: xwl@mail.kib.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China)

    2012-10-15

    Four new 7,8-secolignans (neglectahenols A-D), together with two known 7,8-secolignans, were isolated from leaves and stems of Schisandra neglecta. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive one and two dimension NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) techniques. 7,8-Secolignans and neglectahenols A-D were also tested for their anti-HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) activities, and all of them showed modest activities. (author)

  10. Anti-HIV-1 activity of a new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Chen

    Full Text Available For over 30 years, HIV/AIDS has wreaked havoc in the world. In the absence of an effective vaccine for HIV, development of new anti-HIV agents is urgently needed. We previously identified the antiviral activities of the scorpion-venom-peptide-derived mucroporin-M1 for three RNA viruses (measles viruses, SARS-CoV, and H5N1. In this investigation, a panel of scorpion venom peptides and their derivatives were designed and chosen for assessment of their anti-HIV activities. A new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7 was identified as the most potent anti-HIV-1 peptide by screening assays with an EC(50 value of 2.76 µg/ml (1.65 µM and showed low cytotoxicity to host cells with a selective index (SI of 13.93. Kn2-7 could inhibit all members of a standard reference panel of HIV-1 subtype B pseudotyped virus (PV with CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 PV strain. Furthermore, it also inhibited a CXCR4-tropic replication-competent strain of HIV-1 subtype B virus. Binding assay of Kn2-7 to HIV-1 PV by Octet Red system suggested the anti-HIV-1 activity was correlated with a direct interaction between Kn2-7 and HIV-1 envelope. These results demonstrated that peptide Kn2-7 could inhibit HIV-1 by direct interaction with viral particle and may become a promising candidate compound for further development of microbicide against HIV-1.

  11. Activation of Anti-tumor Immune Response by Ablation of HCC with Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Ruiqing; Miao, Xudong; Chen, Xinhua

    2018-03-28

    Locoregional therapy is playing an increasingly important role in the non-surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The novel technique of non-thermal electric ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field has been recognized as a potential locoregional methodology for indicated HCC. This manuscript explores the most recent studies to indicate its unique anti-tumor immune response. The possible immune mechanism, termed as nano-pulse stimulation, was also analyzed.

  12. Homeostatic T Cell Expansion to Induce Anti-Tumor Antoimmunity in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    response by manipulating the composition of the infused T cells; and (c) to potentiate the anti-tumor effect by using T cell survival and proliferation... antineoplastic drugs with tumor vaccines. Cancer Immunol Immunother 52:680 79. Theofilopoulos AN, Dummer W, Kono DH (2001) T cell homeostasis and systemic...recovered were approved by the Institutional Animal Care Committee. 7 days after transfer had undergone one to four cell divisions, with Donor cells no

  13. Protein/peptide-based entry/fusion inhibitors as anti-HIV therapies: challenges and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumakia, Miral; Yang, Sidi; Gu, Jijin; Ho, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The failures of several first-generation and second-generation small molecule drug-based anti-HIV therapies in various stages of clinical trials are an indication that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the future designs of anti-HIV therapeutics. Over the past several decades, various anti-HIV drugs have been developed, among them, protein/peptide-based therapies. From the first peptide discovered (SJ2176) to the first peptide approved by the Food and Drug Administration (DP178/T20/enfuvirtide/Fuzeon®), anti-HIV proteins/peptides as fusion/entry inhibitors have been shown to provide potent effects and benefits. This review summarizes the past and current endeavors in this area, discusses the potential mechanisms of action for various anti-HIV proteins/peptides, compares the advantages and disadvantages between the different proteins/peptides, and finally, examines the future direction of the field, specifically, strategies that will enhance the therapeutic efficacy of fusion/entry inhibitor-based anti-HIV proteins/peptides. Although there are numerous reviews highlighting the general field of entry/fusion inhibitors, there is a lack of literature focused on protein/peptide-based entry/fusion inhibitors for HIV therapy, and as a result, this review is intended to fill this void by summarizing the past, current, and future development of these macromolecules. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. BPIC: A novel anti-tumor lead capable of inhibiting inflammation and scavenging free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Wang, Yuji; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Jianhui; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation has a critical role in the tumor progression, free radical damage can worse the status of patients in cancer condition. The anti-cancer agents capable of inhibiting inflammation and scavenging free radicals attract a lot of our interest. Aimed at the discovery of such anti-tumor agent, a novel intercalator, benzyl 1-[4-hydroxy-3-(methoxycarbonyl)-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylate (BPIC) was presented. The docking investigation of BPIC and doxorubicin towards the DNA (PDB ID: 1NAB) gave equal score and similar feature. The anti-proliferation assay of 8 cancer cells identified S180 cells had equal sensitivity to BPIC and doxorubicin. The anti-tumor assay defined the efficacy of BPIC been 2 folds higher than that of doxorubicin. At 1μmol/kg of dose BPIC effectively inhibited xylene-induced ear edema and decreased the plasma TNF-α and IL-8 of the mice. BPIC scavenged ∙OH, ∙O2(-) and NO free radicals in a concentration dependent manner and NO free radicals had the highest sensitivity. BPIC could be a novel anti-tumor lead capable of simultaneously inhibiting inflammation and scavenging free radicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-tumor effects of gene therapy with GALV membrane fusion glycoprotein in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Yang, Jian-ru; Fu, Xin-ping; Jiang, Yue-quan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the efficacy of gene therapy of lung adenocarcinoma using specifically controlled type I herpes simplex virus recombinant vector expressing Gibbon ape leukemia virus membrane fusion glycoprotein gene (GALV.fus). Recombinant HSV-I plasmid carrying target transgene was constructed, and recombinant viral vector was generated in Vero cells using Lipofectamine transfection. Viral vector was introduced into lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells or human fetal fibroblast HFL-I GNHu 5 cells, or inoculated into human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice. The anti-tumor and cytotoxic effects of GALV-FMG, the transgene, were examined in these cell and animal models. Expression of GALV-FMG in xenographs achieved 100 % tumorigenicity. Recombinant HSV-I viral vector also exhibited significant tumor cell killing effect in vitro. Relative survival rates of tumor cells treated with GALV-FMG or control vectors were, respectively, 20 and 70 %. GALV.fus has a potent anti-tumor effect against lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. This anti-tumor potential provides foundation for further studies with this vector.

  16. Autologous iPSC-Based Vaccines Elicit Anti-tumor Responses In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooreman, Nigel G; Kim, Youngkyun; de Almeida, Patricia E; Termglinchan, Vittavat; Diecke, Sebastian; Shao, Ning-Yi; Wei, Tzu-Tang; Yi, Hyoju; Dey, Devaveena; Nelakanti, Raman; Brouwer, Thomas P; Paik, David T; Sagiv-Barfi, Idit; Han, Arnold; Quax, Paul H A; Hamming, Jaap F; Levy, Ronald; Davis, Mark M; Wu, Joseph C

    2018-02-08

    Cancer cells and embryonic tissues share a number of cellular and molecular properties, suggesting that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be harnessed to elicit anti-tumor responses in cancer vaccines. RNA sequencing revealed that human and murine iPSCs express tumor-associated antigens, and we show here a proof of principle for using irradiated iPSCs in autologous anti-tumor vaccines. In a prophylactic setting, iPSC vaccines prevent tumor growth in syngeneic murine breast cancer, mesothelioma, and melanoma models. As an adjuvant, the iPSC vaccine inhibited melanoma recurrence at the resection site and reduced metastatic tumor load, which was associated with fewer Th17 cells and increased CD11b + GR1 hi myeloid cells. Adoptive transfer of T cells isolated from vaccine-treated tumor-bearing mice inhibited tumor growth in unvaccinated recipients, indicating that the iPSC vaccine promotes an antigen-specific anti-tumor T cell response. Our data suggest an easy, generalizable strategy for multiple types of cancer that could prove highly valuable in clinical immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Animals living in polluted environments are a potential source of anti-tumor molecule(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyamogan, Shareni; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2017-11-01

    Despite advances in therapeutic interventions and supportive care, the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer have remained significant. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful anti-tumor agents. The search for new anti-tumor compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in polluted environments are a potent source of anti-tumor agents. Under polluted milieus, species such as crocodiles, feed on rotten meat, are exposed to heavy metals, endure high levels of radiation, and are among the very few species to survive the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event with a prolonged lifespan. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that animals such as crocodiles have developed mechanisms to defend themselves against cancer. The discovery of antitumor activity in animals such as crocodiles, whales, sharks, etc. will stimulate research in finding therapeutic molecules from unusual sources, and has potential for the development of novel antitumor compound(s) that may also overcome current drug resistance. Nevertheless, intensive research in the next few years will be required to realize these expectations.

  18. QSAR Study on the anti-tumor activity of levofloxacin-thiadiazole HDACi conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ziqiang; Feng, Hui; Chen, Yan; Yue, Wei; Feng, Changjun

    2017-12-01

    A molecular electronegativity distance vector(M t) based on 13atomic types is used to describe the structures of 19 conjugates(LHCc) of levofloxacin-thiadiazole HDAC inhibitor(HDACi) and related to the anti-tumor activity (M F and P C) of LHCc against MCF-7 and PC-3. The quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) was established by using leaps-and-bounds regression analysis for the anti-tumor activities (M F and P C) of 19 above compounds to MCF-7and PC-3 along with the M t. The correlation coefficients (R 2) and the leave-one-out (LOO) cross validation R cv 2 for the M F and P C models were 0.792 and 0.679; 0.773 and 0.565, respectively. The QSAR models have favorable correlation, as well as robustness and good prediction capability by R 2, F, R cv 2, A IC F IT V IF tests. The results indicate that the molecular structural units: -CHg-(g=1, 2), -NH2, -NH-,-OH, O=, -O-, -S- and -X are main factors which can affect the anti-tumor activity M F and PC bioactivities of these compounds directly.

  19. Nanovectorized radiotherapy: a new strategy to induce anti-tumor immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Hindré, François

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental findings show that activation of the host immune system is required for the success of chemo- and radiotherapy. However, clinically apparent tumors have already developed multiple mechanisms to escape anti-tumor immunity. The fact that tumors are able to induce a state of tolerance and immunosuppression is a major obstacle in immunotherapy. Hence, there is an overwhelming need to develop new strategies that overcome this state of immune tolerance and induce an anti-tumor immune response both at primary and metastatic sites. Nanovectorized radiotherapy that combines ionizing radiation and nanodevices, is one strategy that could boost the quality and magnitude of an immune response in a predictable and designable fashion. The potential benefits of this emerging treatment may be based on the unique combination of immunostimulatory properties of nanoparticles with the ability of ionizing radiation to induce immunogenic tumor cell death. In this review, we will discuss available data and propose that the nanovectorized radiotherapy could be a powerful new strategy to induce anti-tumor immunity required for positive patient outcome.

  20. Nanovectorized radiotherapy, a new strategy to induce anti-tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eVanpouille-Box

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental findings show that activation of the host immune system is required for the success of chemo- and radio-therapy. However, clinically-apparent tumors have already developed multiple mechanisms to escape anti-tumor immunity. The fact that tumors are able to induce a state of tolerance and immunosuppression is a major obstacle in immunotherapy. Hence, there is an overwhelming need to develop new strategies that overcome this state of immune tolerance and induce an anti-tumor immune response both at primary and metastatic sites. Nanovectorized radiotherapy that combines ionizing radiation and nano-devices, is one strategy that could boost the quality and magnitude of an immune response in a predictable and designable fashion. The potential benefits of this emerging treatment may be based on the unique combination of immuno-stimulatory properties of nanoparticles with the ability of ionizing radiation to induce immunogenic tumor cell death. In this review, we will discuss available data and propose that the nanovectorized radiotherapy could be a powerful new strategy to induce anti-tumor immunity required for positive patient outcome.

  1. Improving anti-tumor activity of sorafenib tosylate by lipid- and polymer-coated nanomatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Zhong, Ting; Duan, Xiao-Chuan; Zhang, Shuang; Yao, Xin; Yin, Yi-Fan; Huang, Dan; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xuan

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, we select the Sylysia 350 (Sylysia) as mesoporous material, distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000 (DSPE-PEG) as absorption enhancer and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as crystallization inhibitor to prepare sorafenib tosylate (SFN) nanomitrix (MSNM@SFN) for improving the anti-tumor activity of SFN. The MSNM@SFN was prepared by solvent evaporation method. The solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability of SFN in MSNM@SFN were also investigated. The anti-tumor activity of MSNM@SFN was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that the solubility and dissolution of SFN in MSNM@SFN were significantly increased. The oral bioavailability of SFN in MSNM@SFN was greatly improved 7.7-fold compared with that in SFN suspension. The enhanced anti-tumor activity of MSNM@SFN was confirmed in vitro and in vivo experiments. This nanomatrix developed in this study could be a promising drug delivery platform for improving the therapeutic efficacy of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  2. Regulatory T cells as suppressors of anti-tumor immunity: Role of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Veronica; Di Rella, Francesca; Di Giacomo, Antonio; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Novel concepts in immunometabolism support the hypothesis that glucose consumption is also used to modulate anti-tumor immune responses, favoring growth and expansion of specific cellular subsets defined in the past as suppressor T cells and currently reborn as regulatory T (Treg) cells. During the 1920s, Otto Warburg and colleagues observed that tumors consumed high amounts of glucose compared to normal tissues, even in the presence of oxygen and completely functioning mitochondria. However, the role of the Warburg Effect is still not completely understood, particularly in the context of an ongoing anti-tumor immune response. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-derived metabolic restrictions can drive T cell hyporesponsiveness and immune tolerance. For example, several glycolytic enzymes, deregulated in cancer, contribute to tumor progression independently from their canonical metabolic activity. Indeed, they can control apoptosis, gene expression and activation of specific intracellular pathways, thus suggesting a direct link between metabolic switches and pro-tumorigenic transcriptional programs. Focus of this review is to define the specific metabolic pathways controlling Treg cell immunobiology in the context of anti-tumor immunity and tumor progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Foamy virus vectors expressing anti-HIV transgenes efficiently block HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason A; Vojtech, Lucia; Bahner, Ingrid; Kohn, Donald B; Laer, Dorothee Von; Russell, David W; Richard, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy has the potential to control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients who do not respond to traditional antiviral therapy. In this study, we tested foamy virus (FV) vectors expressing three anti-HIV transgenes, both individually and in a combination vector. The transgenes tested in this study are RevM10, a dominant negative version of the viral rev protein, Sh1, a short hairpin RNA directed against a conserved overlapping sequence of tat and rev, and membrane-associated C46 (maC46), a membrane-attached peptide that blocks HIV cell entry. FV vectors efficiently transduce hematopoietic stem cells and, unlike lentivirus (LV) vectors, do not share viral proteins with HIV. The titers of the FV vectors described in this study were not affected by anti-HIV transgenes. On a direct comparison of FV vectors expressing the individual transgenes, entry inhibition using the maC46 transgene was found to be the most effective at blocking HIV replication. A clinically relevant FV vector expressing three anti-HIV transgenes effectively blocked HIV infection in primary macrophages derived from transduced, peripheral blood CD34-selected cells and in a cell line used for propagating HIV, CEMx174. These results suggest that there are potential benefits of using FV vectors in HIV gene therapy.

  4. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of the aqueous extract of Asterina pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Fatih; Karagozlu, Mustafa Zafer; Kong, Chang-Suk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-03-01

    An aqueous extract of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, was investigated for its anti-HIV-1 efficiency in vitro on human T-cell lines. A. pectinifera significantly maintained the viability of HIV-infected cells as much as 86% of the untreated infected control cells at the non-toxic concentrations (0.05~4 mg/mL) in CEM-SS cells. Anti-HIV-1 activity of A. pectinifera extract was further supported by quantification of syncytia formation, reverse transcriptase activity and Western blot analysis in C8166, CEM-SS and H9 cells, respectively. Current results demonstrated a notable inhibition of HIV-1 induced syncytia formation and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity assay with EC50 of 0.71 mg/mL and 0.65 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, A. pectinifera extract treatment decreased the production of p24 protein and gene expression of HIV-1 viral infection factor in a dose-dependent manner according to immunoblot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. In the light of current study, it can be concluded that A. pectinifera contains highly potential anti-HIV-1 components and a further investigation for active compound isolation is urged.

  5. Antioxidants Impair Anti-Tumoral Effects of Vorinostat, but Not Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Vorinostat and Caspase-8 Downregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat...

  6. A New in Vitro Anti-Tumor Polypeptide Isolated from Arca inflata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new in vitro anti-tumor polypeptide, coded as J2-C3, was isolated from Arca inflata Reeve and purified by diethyl-aminoethanol (DEAE-sepharose Fast Flow anion exchange and phenyl sepharose CL-4B hydrophobic chromatography. J2-C3 was identified to be a homogeneous compound by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE. The purity of J2-C3 was over 99% in reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular weight was determined as 20,538.0 Da by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS. J2-C3 was rich in Glx (Gln + Glu, Lys, and Asx (Asp + Asn according to amino acid analysis. Four partial amino acid sequences of this peptide were determined as L/ISMEDVEESR, KNGMHSI/LDVNHDGR, AMKI/LI/LNPKKGI/LVPR and AMGAHKPPKGNEL/IGHR via MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and de novo sequencing. Secondary structural analysis by CD spectroscopy revealed that J2-C3 had the α-helix (45.2%, β-sheet (2.9%, β-turn (26.0% and random coil (25.9%. The anti-tumor effect of J2-C3 against human tumor cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the IC50 values of J2-C3 were 65.57, 93.33 and 122.95 µg/mL against A549, HT-29 and HepG2 cell lines, respectively. Therefore, J2-C3 might be developed as a potential anti-tumor agent.

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-tumoral Effects of the Flavonoid Apigenin in Malignant Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Masuelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM is a tumor arising from mesothelium. MM patients’ survival is poor. The polyphenol 4′,5,7,-trihydroxyflavone Apigenin (API is a “multifunctional drug”. Several studies have demonstrated API anti-tumoral effects. However, little is known on the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral effects of API in MM. Thus, we analyzed the in vitro effects of API on cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, pro-survival signaling pathways, apoptosis, and autophagy of human and mouse MM cells. We evaluated the in vivo anti-tumor activities of API in mice transplanted with MM #40a cells forming ascites. API inhibited in vitro MM cells survival, increased reactive oxygen species intracellular production and induced DNA damage. API activated apoptosis but not autophagy. API-induced apoptosis was sustained by the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, increase of p53 expression, activation of both caspase 9 and caspase 8, cleavage of PARP-1, and increase of the percentage of cells in subG1 phase. API treatment affected the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPKs in a cell-type specific manner, inhibited AKT phosphorylation, decreased c-Jun expression and phosphorylation, and inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation. Intraperitoneal administration of API increased the median survival of C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally transplanted with #40a cells and reduced the risk of tumor growth. Our findings may have important implications for the design of MM treatment using API.

  8. Models for anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates using refined topochemical descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rakesh K.; Singh, G.; Madan, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    An in silico approach comprising of decision tree (DT), random forest (RF) and moving average analysis (MAA) was successfully employed for development of models for prediction of anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates. A dataset consisting of 65 analogues of both nitrogen-containing and non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates was selected for the present study. Four refinements of eccentric distance sum topochemical index termed as augmented eccentric distance sum topochemical indices 1-4 ( {ξ_{{1c}}^{{ADS}},ξ_{{2c}}^{{ADS}},ξ_{{3c}}^{{ADS}},ξ_{{4c}}^{{ADS}}} ) have been proposed so as to significantly augment discriminating power. Proposed topological indices (TIs) along with the exiting TIs (>1,400) were subsequently utilized for development of models for prediction of anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates. A total of 43 descriptors of diverse nature, from a large pool of molecular descriptors, calculated through E-Dragon software (version 1.0) and an in-house computer program were selected for development of suitable models by employing DT, RF and MAA. DT identified two TIs as most important and classified the analogues of the dataset with an accuracy of 97% in training set and 90.7% in tenfold cross-validated set. Random forest correctly classified the analogues with an accuracy of 89.2%. Four independent models developed through MAA predicted the activity of analogues of the dataset with an accuracy of 87.6% to 89%. The statistical significance of proposed models was assessed through intercorrelation analysis, specificity, sensitivity and Matthew's correlation coefficient. The proposed models offer a vast potential for providing lead structures for development of potent anti-tumor agents for treatment of cancer that has spread to the bone.

  9. How Does Ionizing Irradiation Contribute to the Induction of Anti-Tumor Immunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubner, Yvonne; Wunderlich, Roland; Rühle, Paul-Friedrich; Kulzer, Lorenz; Werthmöller, Nina; Frey, Benjamin; Weiss, Eva-Maria; Keilholz, Ludwig; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) with ionizing irradiation is commonly used to locally attack tumors. It induces a stop of cancer cell proliferation and finally leads to tumor cell death. During the last years it has become more and more evident that besides a timely and locally restricted radiation-induced immune suppression, a specific immune activation against the tumor and its metastases is achievable by rendering the tumor cells visible for immune attack. The immune system is involved in tumor control and we here outline how RT induces anti-inflammation when applied in low doses and contributes in higher doses to the induction of anti-tumor immunity. We especially focus on how local irradiation induces abscopal effects. The latter are partly mediated by a systemic activation of the immune system against the individual tumor cells. Dendritic cells are the key players in the initiation and regulation of adaptive anti-tumor immune responses. They have to take up tumor antigens and consecutively present tumor peptides in the presence of appropriate co-stimulation. We review how combinations of RT with further immune stimulators such as AnnexinA5 and hyperthermia foster the dendritic cell-mediated induction of anti-tumor immune responses and present reasonable combination schemes of standard tumor therapies with immune therapies. It can be concluded that RT leads to targeted killing of the tumor cells and additionally induces non-targeted systemic immune effects. Multimodal tumor treatments should therefore tend to induce immunogenic tumor cell death forms within a tumor microenvironment that stimulates immune cells.

  10. Update on anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Siddharth; Pardi, Darrell S

    2014-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) agents, including infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol, are effective medications for the management of moderate to severe Crohn disease (CD). They are effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission, inducing mucosal healing, improving quality of life, and reducing the risk of hospitalization and surgery in adult and pediatric patients with CD. Future research into comparative effectiveness of different agents, as well as better understanding of predictors of response, is warranted to allow optimization of therapeutic response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Diane E. [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Program of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Hoover, Benjamin [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Cloud, Loretta Grey [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Liu, Shihui [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Molinolo, Alfredo A. [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Leppla, Stephen H. [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bugge, Thomas H., E-mail: thomas.bugge@nih.go [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti-tumor

  12. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of radioiodinated bakuchiol as an anti tumor agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bapat, Ketaki [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chintalwar, G.J. [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pandey, Usha [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Thakur, V.S. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sarma, H.D. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Samuel, Grace [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pillai, M.R.A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Venkatesh, Meera [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: meerav@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2005-03-01

    Bakuchiol, extracted from the plant Psoralea corylifolia, has been proven to have anti-tumor, cytotoxic, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity. In order to study if radiolabeled bakuchiol exhibits enhanced cytotoxicity, bakuchiol was radiolabeled with {sup 125}I. In-vitro uptake studies of {sup 125}I-bakuchiol were carried out using LS-A (lymphosarcoma) and barcl-95 (radiation-induced thymic lymphoma) ascitic and solid tumor cells of murine origin. In both LS-A and barcl-95, {sup 125}I-bakuchiol showed significant uptake. Viability studies showed that the radioiodinated compound showed greater cytotoxic effect than bakuchiol.

  13. Innate immunity in the vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV activity and antiviral content of human vaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2014-07-01

    Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions change across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from pre-menopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6-8), mid-cycle (d13-15), and secretory (d21-23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α, and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and interindividual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Immunity in the Vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV Activity and Antiviral Content of Human Vaginal Secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V.; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions changes across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Method of Study Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from premenopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6–8), mid-cycle (d13–15) and secretory (d21–23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women, and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. Conclusion The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and inter-individual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. PMID:24806967

  15. Synthesis and bioevaluation of substituted chalcones, coumaranones and other flavonoids as anti-HIV agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Amy L; Hossain, Sandra; Cole, Alex M; Phanstiel, Otto

    2016-06-15

    A series of chalcone, flavone, coumaranone and other flavonoid compounds were screened for their anti HIV-1 activity in two cell culture models using TZM-bl and PM1 cells. Within the systems evaluated, the most promising compounds contained either an α- or β-hydroxy-carbonyl motif within their structure (e.g., 8 and 9). Efficacious substituents were identified and used to design new HIV inhibitors with increased potency and lower cytotoxicity. Of the scaffolds evaluated, specific chalcones were found to provide the best balance between anti-HIV potency and low host cell toxicity. Chalcone 8l was shown to inhibit different clinical isolates of HIV in a dose-dependent manner (e.g., IC50 typically⩽5μM). Inhibition of HIV infection experiments using TZM-bl cells demonstrated that chalcone 8l and flavonol 9c had IC50 values of 4.7μM and 10.4μM, respectively. These insights were used to design new chalcones 8o and 8p. Rewardingly, chalcones 8o and 8p (at 10μM) each gave >92% inhibition of viral propagation without impacting PM1 host cell viability. Inhibition of viral propagation significantly increased (60-90%) when PM1 cells were pre-incubated with chalcone 8o, but not with the related flavonol 9c. These results suggested that chalcone 8o may be of value as both a HIV prophylactic and therapy. In summary, O-benzyl-substituted chalcones were identified as promising anti-HIV agents for future investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar; Bendtsen, Flemming; Gluud, Lise L

    2013-12-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications. We assessed the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha on postoperative complications in patients with Crohn's disease undergoing abdominal surgery. Studies were identified through electronic and manual searches. Observational studies on patients with Crohn's disease undergoing laparoscopic or open abdominal surgery were included. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents were administered within 3 months before surgery. The primary outcome was anastomotic complications including overt dehiscence, intra-abdominal abscess, and enteric fistulas. Fourteen studies on 679 patients in the intervention (anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha) group and 2363 controls were included. Random-effects meta-analysis found no difference in anastomotic complications between the 2 groups (7.6% versus 8.2%; risk ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.56-1.48). There was clear heterogeneity between studies. In subgroup analyses, the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha increased anastomotic complications in trials with a lower risk of bias, but not in the studies with a higher bias risk (risk ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.03-2.60 and risk ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05-0.60). In the overall analysis and in studies with a lower bias risk, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents increased the risk of nonanastomotic surgical complications, major medical complications, and minor medical complications. Limitations of observations studies. In studies with a low risk of bias, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents increased the risk of anastomotic complications. Inadequate bias control may lead to an underestimated risk of anastomotic complications.

  17. Twenty-six years of HIV science: an overview of anti-HIV drugs metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Horta Andrade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From the identification of HIV as the agent causing AIDS, to the development of effective antiretroviral drugs, the scientific achievements in HIV research over the past twenty-six years have been formidable. Currently, there are twenty-five anti-HIV compounds which have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, protease inhibitors (PIs, cell entry inhibitors or fusion inhibitors (FIs, co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs, and integrase inhibitors (INIs. Metabolism by the host organism is one of the most important determinants of the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Formation of active or toxic metabolites will also have an impact on the pharmacological and toxicological outcomes. Therefore, it is widely recognized that metabolism studies of a new chemical entity need to be addressed early in the drug discovery process. This paper describes an overview of the metabolism of currently available anti-HIV drugs.Da identificação do HIV como o agente causador da AIDS, ao desenvolvimento de fármacos antirretrovirais eficazes, os avanços científicos na pesquisa sobre o HIV nos últimos vinte e seis anos foram marcantes. Atualmente, existem vinte e cinco fármacos anti-HIV formalmente aprovados pelo FDA para utilização clínica no tratamento da AIDS. Estes compostos são divididos em seis classes: inibidores nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INTR, inibidores nucleotídeos de transcriptase reversa (INtTR, inibidores não-nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INNTR, inibidores de protease (IP, inibidores da entrada celular ou inibidores de fusão (IF, inibidores de co-receptores (ICR e inibidores de integrase (INI. O metabolismo consiste em um dos maiores determinantes do perfil farmacocinético de um fármaco. A forma

  18. Potential anti-tumor effects of Mugil cephalus processed roe extracts on colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Scano, Paola; Atzeri, Angela; Deiana, Monica; Falchi, Angela Maria

    2013-10-01

    The salted-semidried mullet ovary product, bottarga, is a Mediterranean food rich in n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA. We studied and compared the effects on cell viability, sensitivity to the anti-tumor drug 5-fluorouracil, and lipid composition, in colon cancer Caco-2 cells after 24 h incubation with oils and hydrophilic extracts obtained from two bottarga samples stored at different conditions. The cellular absorption of bottarga lipids was assessed in cancer cells by the evaluation of lipid accumulation in cytoplasmic lipid droplets by fluorescence microscopy. Bottarga oil showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer Caco-2 cells and the ability to potentiate, at non-toxic concentration, the growth inhibitory effect of 5-fluorouracil. Moreover, bottarga oil induced in cancer Caco-2 cells marked changes in fatty acid composition, with a significant accumulation of the n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA, and cytoplasmic lipid droplet formation. Also bottarga hydrophilic extract, characterized by means of ¹H NMR spectroscopy, exhibited a reduction in cancer cell viability, without affecting cell lipid profile. Cell cholesterol levels were unmodified by all treatments. The results showed interesting anti-tumor properties of bottarga lipids, and qualify this fish product as a food with nutraceutical properties and potential benefits in colon cancer prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental study on anti-tumor effect of pcEgr-IFNγ gene-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Congmei; Li Xiuyi; Liu Shuzheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-tumor effect of IFN γ gene-radiotherapy to murine melanoma and its immunologic mechanism. Methods: pcEgr-IFNγ plasmids were injected locally into tumor, and 36 hours later, the tumors were given 20 Gy X-ray irradiation. Tumor growth at different time, IFN γ expression 3 days later and immunologic indexes 15 days later were detected. Results: At 3-15 days after pcEgr-IFNγ gene-radiotherapy, the tumor growth rate was lower than that of irradiation alone group. It was also lower than that of gene therapy alone group and control plasmid combined with X-ray irradiation group significantly. Day 3 tumor IFN γ expression was higher than that of plasmid treatment alone group. NK activity, IL-2 and IFN γ secretion activities were higher than those of gene therapy alone and irradiation alone groups significantly. Conclusion: The antitumor effect of IFN γ gene-radiotherapy is better than that of either of them applied solely. Its mechanism might be concerned with the higher expression of IFN γ induced by irradiation in tumors and activation of anti-tumor immunologic functions

  20. Anti-tumor effect of cactus polysaccharides on lung squamous carcinoma cells (SK-MES-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wu, D; Wei, B; Wang, S; Sun, Hx; Li, Xl; Zhang, F; Zhang, Cl; Xin, Y

    2014-01-01

    Cactus polysaccharides are the active components of Opuntia dillenii which have been used extensively in folk medicine. In this study, we investigate the anti-tumor effect of cactus polysaccharides on lung squamous carcinoma cells SK-MES-1. The inhibitory effect of Cactus polysaccharides on lung squamous carcinoma cells were detected by MTT assay. Cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry and cell apoptosis was determined by AnnexinV assay. Western-blotting was applied to detect P53 and PTEN protein expression in the cells treated with cactus polysaccharides. Results showed that different concentrations of wild cactus polysaccharides prevent SK-MES-1 cells growth and induces S phase arrest. The data also revealed that cactus polysaccharides cause apoptosis in SK-MES-1 cells determined by Annexin-V assay. Furthermore, cactus polysaccharides induced growth arrest and apoptosis may be due to the increase of P53 and phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) protein. Cactus polysaccharides have anti-tumor activity on lung squamous carcinoma cells.

  1. MicroRNA-22 impairs anti-tumor ability of dendritic cells by targeting p38.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Liang

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a critical role in triggering anti-tumor immune responses. Their intracellular p38 signaling is of great importance in controlling DC activity. In this study, we identified microRNA-22 (miR-22 as a microRNA inhibiting p38 protein expression by directly binding to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR of its mRNA. The p38 down-regulation further interfered with the synthesis of DC-derived IL-6 and the differentiation of DC-driven Th17 cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-22 in DCs impaired their tumor-suppressing ability while miR-22 inhibitor could reverse this phenomenon and improve the curative effect of DC-based immunotherapy. Thus, our results highlight a suppressive role for miR-22 in the process of DC-invoked anti-tumor immunity and that blocking this microRNA provides a new strategy for generating potent DC vaccines for patients with cancer.

  2. Fluorescent nanodiamonds engage innate immune effector cells: A potential vehicle for targeted anti-tumor immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kelly, Lorena P; Campbell, Amanda R; Rampersaud, Isaac V; Bumb, Ambika; Wang, Min S; Butchar, Jonathan P; Tridandapani, Susheela; Yu, Lianbo; Rampersaud, Arfaan A; Carson, William E

    2017-04-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are nontoxic, infinitely photostable, and emit fluorescence in the near infrared region. Natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes are part of the innate immune system and are crucial to the control of carcinogenesis. FND-mediated stimulation of these cells may serve as a strategy to enhance anti-tumor activity. FNDs were fabricated with a diameter of 70±28 nm. Innate immune cell FND uptake, viability, surface marker expression, and cytokine production were evaluated in vitro. Evaluation of fluorescence emission from the FNDs was conducted in an animal model. In vitro results demonstrated that treatment of immune cells with FNDs resulted in significant dose-dependent FND uptake, no compromise in cell viability, and immune cell activation. FNDs were visualized in an animal model. Hence, FNDs may serve as novel agents with "track and trace" capabilities to stimulate innate immune cell anti-tumor responses, especially as FNDs are amenable to surface-conjugation with immunomodulatory molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Isolation and identification of proteins with anti-tumor and fibrinolysogen kinase activities from Eisenia foetida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Ji, Jian-Guo; Tong, Yuan-Peng; Chen, Qian; Pu, Hai; Ru, Bing-Gen

    2002-09-01

    Proteins from Eisenia foetida possess many biological activities. A group of proteins precipitated by ethanol were isolated and purified by Sephadex G-75 and HiPrep 16/60 DEAE columns, then identified by one- or two- dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. 2D gel experiments displayed that the pI of proteins from Eisenia foetida were mainly from 3.0 to 4.0. Anti-tumor and kinase activities were determined by in vitro experiments. The enthanol fraction D2(8) showed both of the activities. These ethanol-precipitated proteins were identified further by native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, the protein spots were cut off from gels and digested by trypsin, the peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) were determined by mass spectrometry. PMF, molecular weight, amino acid composition and N-terminus of 6 proteins were characterized, and band 9 was identified as D2(8). The results suggested that there exist proteins in Eisenia foetida possessed both anti-tumor and fibrinolysogen kinase activities. These methods can be used for identification of the natural bioactive proteins.

  4. L-Arginine Modulates T Cell Metabolism and Enhances Survival and Anti-tumor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Roger; Rieckmann, Jan C; Wolf, Tobias; Basso, Camilla; Feng, Yuehan; Fuhrer, Tobias; Kogadeeva, Maria; Picotti, Paola; Meissner, Felix; Mann, Matthias; Zamboni, Nicola; Sallusto, Federica; Lanzavecchia, Antonio

    2016-10-20

    Metabolic activity is intimately linked to T cell fate and function. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we generated dynamic metabolome and proteome profiles of human primary naive T cells following activation. We discovered critical changes in the arginine metabolism that led to a drop in intracellular L-arginine concentration. Elevating L-arginine levels induced global metabolic changes including a shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in activated T cells and promoted the generation of central memory-like cells endowed with higher survival capacity and, in a mouse model, anti-tumor activity. Proteome-wide probing of structural alterations, validated by the analysis of knockout T cell clones, identified three transcriptional regulators (BAZ1B, PSIP1, and TSN) that sensed L-arginine levels and promoted T cell survival. Thus, intracellular L-arginine concentrations directly impact the metabolic fitness and survival capacity of T cells that are crucial for anti-tumor responses. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The preparation of three selenium-containing Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides: Characterization and anti-tumor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Sun, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, three fractions of selenized Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (SeCPS) named SeCPS- I, SeCPS- II and SeCPS- III were isolated and purified by ultra-filtration. Their selenium content were measured as 541.3, 863.7 and 623.3μg/g respectively by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. The monosaccharide comformation analysis showed that they were mainly consisted of D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in mole ratios of 1:7.63:0.83, 1:1.34:0.31 and 1:3.77:0.41 respectively. Their structure characteristics were compared by IFR and NMR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method were used to investigate their morphological characteristics and conformational transition. SeCPS-II showed the strongest anti-tumor effects judging from the result of in vitro anti-tumor assays against two tumor cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells and lung adenocarcinom A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microencapsulation of anti-tumor, antibiotic and thrombolytic drugs in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Mosier, Benjamin; Cassanto, John

    1994-01-01

    Encapsulation of cytotoxic or labile drugs enables targeted delivery and sustained release kinetics that are not available with intravenous injection. A new liquid-liquid diffusion process has been developed for forming unique microcapsules that contain both aqueous and hydrocarbon soluble drugs. Microgravity experiments, on sounding rockets (1989-92) and Shuttle missions STS-52 (1992) and STS-56 (1993) using an automated Materials Dispersion Apparatus, produced multi-lamellar microcapsules containing both Cis-platinum (anti-tumor drug) and iodinated poppy seed oil (a radiocontrast medium), surrounded by a polyglyceride skin. Microcapsules formed with amoxicillin (antibiotic) or urokinase (a clot dissolving enzyme), co-encapsulated with IPO, are still intact after two years. Microcapsules were formed with the drug so concentrated that crystals formed inside. Multi-layered microspheres, with both hydrophobic drug compartments, can enable diffusion of complementary drugs from the same microcapsule, e.g. antibiotics and immuno-stimulants to treat resistant infections or multiple fibrinolytic drugs to dissolve emboli. Co-encapsulation of enough radio-contrast medium enables oncologists to monitor the delivery of anti-tumor microcapsules to target tumors using computerized tomography and radiography that would track the distribution of microcapsules after release from the intra-arterial catheter. These microcapsules could have important applications in chemotheraphy of certain liver, kidney, brain and other tumors.

  7. Two new compounds and anti-HIV active constituents from Illicium verum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Yong; Ma, Yun-Bao; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Gu, Qiong; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2007-04-01

    Two new compounds named illiverin A (1) and tashironin A (8) were isolated from the roots of Illicium verum, together with seven known compounds: 4-allyl-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,6-methylenedioxybenzene-3-ol (2), illicinole (3), 3-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxyallyl-benzene (4), (-)-illicinone-A (5), 4-allyl-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,2-methylenedioxycyclohexa-2,6-dien-5-one (6), 3,4-seco-(24 Z)- cycloart-4(28),24-diene-3,26-dioic acid, 26-methyl ester (7) and tashironin (9). Based on 1D- and 2D-NMR data (COSY, HMQC, HMBC), the structures of the new compounds were deduced to be (E)-1-[(3-methylbut-2-enyl)oxy]-2-methoxy-4-(prop-1-enyl)benzene (1) and 11-O-debenzoyl-11alpha-O-2-methylcyclopent-1-enecarboxyltashironin (8). Compounds 1-9 were screened for anti-HIV activity in vitro whereby compounds 5 and 7 possessed moderate anti-HIV activity with EC50 values of 16.0 and 5.1 microM with SI values of 18.2 and 15.6, respectively.

  8. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Ana I. S.; Nicolai, Marisa; Humanes, Madalena; Goncalves, Joao

    2011-01-01

    The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa), whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor). PMID:21339952

  9. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. S. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition. Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5% and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition. Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%, showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition. Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98% and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition. Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161 yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa, whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor.

  10. Characterization of Nanodiamond-based anti-HIV drug Delivery to the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Upal; Drozd, Vadym; Durygin, Andriy; Rodriguez, Jesse; Barber, Paul; Atluri, Venkata; Liu, Xiaohua; Voss, Thomas G; Saxena, Surendra; Nair, Madhavan

    2018-01-25

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Present combination antiretroviral therapy has substantially improved HIV-1 related pathology. However, delivery of therapeutic agents to the HIV reservoir organ like Central nervous system (CNS) remains a major challenge primarily due to the ineffective transmigration of drugs through Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). The recent advent of nanomedicine-based drug delivery has stimulated the development of innovative systems for drug delivery. In this regard, particular focus has been given to nanodiamond due to its natural biocompatibility and non-toxic nature-making it a more efficient drug carrier than other carbon-based materials. Considering its potential and importance, we have characterized unmodified and surface-modified (-COOH and -NH 2 ) nanodiamond for its capacity to load the anti-HIV-1 drug efavirenz and cytotoxicity, in vitro. Overall, our study has established that unmodified nanodiamond conjugated drug formulation has significantly higher drug loading capacity than surface-modified nanodiamond with minimum toxicity. Further, this nanodrug formulation was characterized by its drug dissolution profile, transmigration through the BBB, and its therapeutic efficacy. The present biological characterizations provide a foundation for further study of in-vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nanodiamond-based anti-HIV drugs.

  11. Culture of Dendritic Cells in vitro and Its Anti-tumor Immonotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen ZHOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Immunocompromised patients with malignant tumor always lack of strong anti-tumor immune response, because the antigenicity of tumor cells is weak, and antigen-presenting cell function is low, so that can not be effectively presenting tumor antigens to the lymphocytes. Therefore, how to effectively induce anti-tumor immune response is the key issue. Through the study on establishing a method to culture dendritic cells (DC in vitro and to observe the anti-lung cancer immunological effect induced by DC, we provided definite experiment basis for the clinic application of vaccine based on DC. Methods Through the experiment we get the soluble antigen polypeptide from lung cancer cells GLC-82 by 3 mol/L potassium chloride. DCs are cultured and obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cell by GM-CSF, IL-4 and TNF-a. DCs are identified by flow cytometer (FCM and immunostaining. DCs modified by lung cancer tumor soluble antigen (TSA and staphylococcal enterotox in A (SEA, DCs modified by TSA or DCs modified by SEA or DCs modified by nothing were cultivated together with T lymphocyte, and the obtained cells are named TSA-SEA-DCL or TSA-DCL or SEA-DCL or DCL as effector cells. The anti-tumor activity of every effector cells against target cells was assayed with MTT method. Shape of DCs and effector cells, and the process of killing target cells were observed in microscope. Results Induced DCs expressed more CD1a, CD80 and HLA-DR, which had typical cell traits such as tree branch. The killing ratio of the TSA-SEA-DCL in vitro to GLC-82 is larger than TSA-DCL, SEA-DCL and DCL, also larger than to K562. When the effector cells cultivate with target cells, we can observe the CTL approach and gather to the cancer cell, induce it necrosis and apoptosis. Conclusion Ripe DCs that have typical characteristic and phenotype could be induced successfully. High potency and relatively specific antilung caner effect can be prepared in virtue of

  12. Investigation of HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity in a murine tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyerly H Kim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is an emerging non-invasive treatment modality for localized treatment of cancers. While current clinical strategies employ HIFU exclusively for thermal ablation of the target sites, biological responses associated with both thermal and mechanical damage from focused ultrasound have not been thoroughly investigated. In particular, endogenous danger signals from HIFU-damaged tumor cells may trigger the activation of dendritic cells. This response may play a critical role in a HIFU-elicited anti-tumor immune response which can be harnessed for more effective treatment. Methods Mice bearing MC-38 colon adenocarcinoma tumors were treated with thermal and mechanical HIFU exposure settings in order to independently observe HIFU-induced effects on the host's immunological response. In vivo dendritic cell activity was assessed along with the host's response to challenge tumor growth. Results Thermal and mechanical HIFU were found to increase CD11c+ cells 3.1-fold and 4-fold, respectively, as compared to 1.5-fold observed for DC injection alone. In addition, thermal and mechanical HIFU increased CFSE+ DC accumulation in draining lymph nodes 5-fold and 10-fold, respectively. Moreover, focused ultrasound treatments not only caused a reduction in the growth of primary tumors, with tumor volume decreasing by 85% for thermal HIFU and 43% for mechanical HIFU, but they also provided protection against subcutaneous tumor re-challenge. Further immunological assays confirmed an enhanced CTL activity and increased tumor-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells in the mice treated by focused ultrasound, with cytotoxicity induced by mechanical HIFU reaching as high as 27% at a 10:1 effector:target ratio. Conclusion These studies present initial encouraging results confirming that focused ultrasound treatment can elicit a systemic anti-tumor immune response, and they suggest that this immunity is closely related to

  13. Alopecia secondary to anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lara Beatriz Prata; Rego, Juliana Carlos Gonçalves; Estrada, Bruna Duque; Bastos, Paula Raso; Piñeiro Maceira, Juan Manuel; Sodré, Celso Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Biologic drugs represent a substantial progress in the treatment of chronic inflammatory immunologic diseases. However, its crescent use has revealed seldom reported or unknown adverse reactions, mainly associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF). Psoriasiform cutaneous reactions and few cases of alopecia can occur in some patients while taking these drugs. Two cases of alopecia were reported after anti-TNF therapy. Both also developed psoriasiform lesions on the body. This is the second report about a new entity described as 'anti-TNF therapy-related alopecia', which combines clinical and histopathological features of both alopecia areata and psoriatic alopecia. The recognition of these effects by specialists is essential for the proper management and guidance of these patients. PMID:25830994

  14. Vaccination with Necroptotic Cancer Cells Induces Efficient Anti-tumor Immunity

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    Tania Løve Aaes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful immunogenic apoptosis in experimental cancer therapy depends on the induction of strong host anti-tumor responses. Given that tumors are often resistant to apoptosis, it is important to identify alternative molecular mechanisms that elicit immunogenic cell death. We have developed a genetic model in which direct dimerization of FADD combined with inducible expression of RIPK3 promotes necroptosis. We report that necroptotic cancer cells release damage-associated molecular patterns and promote maturation of dendritic cells, the cross-priming of cytotoxic T cells, and the production of IFN-γ in response to tumor antigen stimulation. Using both FADD-dependent and FADD-independent RIPK3 induction systems, we demonstrate the efficient vaccination potential of immunogenic necroptotic cells. Our study broadens the current concept of immunogenic cell death and opens doors for the development of new strategies in cancer therapy.

  15. Interleukin-17 acts as double-edged sword in anti-tumor immunity and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Chen, Hankui; Wu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Ling; Huang, Qi; Jin, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a proinflammatory cytokine, mainly produced by Th17 cells, participates in both innate and adaptive immune responses and is involved in various diseases, including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that IL-17 not only has an oncogenic role in tumorigenesis by regulating tumor angiogenesis and enhancing tumor immune evasion but also exerts anti-tumor functions by enhancing natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) activation and through the recruitment of neutrophils, NK cells and CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to tumor tissue. In this review, we provide an overview on the basic biology of IL-17 and recent findings regarding its enigmatic double-edged features in tumorigenesis, with special attention to the roles of IL-17 produced by tumor cells interacting with other factors in the tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Aging and Anti-Tumor Effects of Lithocholic Bile Acid

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    Anthony Arlia-Ciommo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids are cholesterol-derived bioactive lipids that play essential roles in the maintenance of a heathy lifespan. These amphipathic molecules with detergent-like properties display numerous beneficial effects on various longevity- and healthspan-promoting processes in evolutionarily distant organisms. Recent studies revealed that lithocholic bile acid not only causes a considerable lifespan extension in yeast, but also exhibits a substantial cytotoxic effect in cultured cancer cells derived from different tissues and organisms. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the robust anti-aging and anti-tumor effects of lithocholic acid have emerged. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these mechanisms, outlines the most important unanswered questions and suggests directions for future research.

  17. Nanotechnology based therapeutic modality to boost anti-tumor immunity and collapse tumor defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomeng; Wu, Tingting; Bao, Yuling; Zhang, Zhiping

    2017-06-28

    Cancer is still the leading cause of death. While traditional treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy play dominating roles, recent breakthroughs in cancer immunotherapy indicate that the influence of immune system on cancer development is virtually beyond our expectation. Manipulating the immune system to fight against cancer has been thriving in recent years. Further understanding of tumor anatomy provides opportunities to put a brake on immunosuppression by overcoming tumor intrinsic resistance or modulating tumor microenvironment. Nanotechnology which provides versatile engineered approaches to enhance therapeutic effects may potentially contribute to the development of future cancer treatment modality. In this review, we will focus on the application of nanotechnology both in boosting anti-tumor immunity and collapsing tumor defense. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Isolation and Identification of an Anti-tumor Component from Leaves of Impatiens balsamina

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    Cheng-Gang Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that ethanol or chloroform extracts of the leaves ofImpatiens balsamina (LIB have anti-tumor activity against the human hepatocellularcarcinoma cell line HepG2. The ethanol extracts were separated into five fractionsaccording to polarity. An MTT assay indicated that two of the fractions had anti-tumoractivity and that the petroleum ether fraction (PEF was the most active. But the availablequantities of both the PEF and chloroform fractions (CHF were limited, precluding furtherstudy. The chloroform extract (CHE shared almost all the same spots with the PEF andCHF and was plentiful enough to carry out further separations. Thus, the CHE was furtherseparated into six sub-fractions (CHE1~6 by column chromatography. A MTT assayshowed that only the CHE2 fraction had a strong tumor inhibition ratio (IC50 = 6.47±0.05mg/L, which was superior to that of curcumin (IC50 = 13.95±0.11 mg/L. However, TLCrevealed that CHE2 was not pure and still contained two more components. After furtherseparation and purification, followed by TLC and MTT assay confirmation, the final activecomponent was isolated and identified as 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone by m.p., UV, MSand 13C- and 1H-NMR data. This is the first report demonstrating that2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone has intensive in vitro anti-tumor activity against HepG2cells.

  19. The Effect of MicroRNA-124 Overexpression on Anti-Tumor Drug Sensitivity.

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    Shiau-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play critical roles in regulating various physiological processes, including growth and development. Previous studies have shown that microRNA-124 (miR-124 participates not only in regulation of early neurogenesis but also in suppression of tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that overexpression of miR-124 was associated with reduced DNA repair capacity in cultured cancer cells and increased sensitivity of cells to DNA-damaging anti-tumor drugs, specifically those that cause the formation of DNA strand-breaks (SBs. We then examined which DNA repair-related genes, particularly the genes of SB repair, were regulated by miR-124. Two SB repair-related genes, encoding ATM interactor (ATMIN and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1, were strongly affected by miR-124 overexpression, by binding of miR-124 to the 3¢-untranslated region of their mRNAs. As a result, the capacity of cells to repair DNA SBs, such as those resulting from homologous recombination, was significantly reduced upon miR-124 overexpression. A particularly important therapeutic implication of this finding is that overexpression of miR-124 enhanced cell sensitivity to multiple DNA-damaging agents via ATMIN- and PARP1-mediated mechanisms. The translational relevance of this role of miR-124 in anti-tumor drug sensitivity is suggested by the finding that increased miR-124 expression correlates with better breast cancer prognosis, specifically in patients receiving chemotherapy. These findings suggest that miR-124 could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy with DNA-damaging agents.

  20. Plasticity of gamma delta T cells: impact on the anti-tumor response

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    Virginie eLafont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tumor immune microenvironment contributes to tumor initiation, progression and response to therapy. Among the immune cell subsets that play a role in the tumor microenvironment, innate-like T cells that express T cell receptors composed of gamma and delta chains (gamma delta T cells are of particular interest. gamma delta T cells can contribute to the immune response against many tumor types (lymphoma, myeloma, melanoma, breast, colon, lung, ovary and prostate cancer directly through their cytotoxic activity and indirectly by stimulating or regulating the biological functions of other cell types required for the initiation and establishment of the anti-tumor immune response, such as dendritic cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, the notion that tumor-infiltrating gamma delta T cells are a good prognostic marker in cancer was recently challenged by studies showing that the presence of these cells in the tumor microenvironment was associated with poor prognosis in both breast and colon cancer. These findings suggest that gamma delta T cells may also display pro-tumor activities. Indeed, breast tumor-infiltrating gamma deltaT cells could exert an immunosuppressive activity by negatively regulating DC maturation. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrated that signals from the microenvironment, particularly cytokines, can confer some plasticity to gamma delta T cells and promote their differentiation into gamma delta T cells with regulatory functions. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the functional plasticity of gamma delta T cells and its effect on their anti-tumor activities. It also discusses the putative mechanisms underlying gamma delta T cell expansion, differentiation and recruitment in the tumor microenvironment.

  1. Decreased Anti-Tumor Cytotoxic Immunity among Microsatellite-Stable Colon Cancers from African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basa, Ranor C B; Davies, Vince; Li, Xiaoxiao; Murali, Bhavya; Shah, Jinel; Yang, Bing; Li, Shi; Khan, Mohammad W; Tian, Mengxi; Tejada, Ruth; Hassan, Avan; Washington, Allen; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Carethers, John M; McGuire, Kathleen L

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer related deaths in the U.S., with African-Americans having higher incidence and mortality rates than Caucasian-Americans. Recent studies have demonstrated that anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes provide protection to patients with colon cancer while patients deficient in these responses have significantly worse prognosis. To determine if differences in cytotoxic immunity might play a role in racial disparities in colorectal cancer 258 microsatellite-stable colon tumors were examined for infiltrating immune biomarkers via immunohistochemistry. Descriptive summary statistics were calculated using two-sample Wilcoxon rank sum tests, while linear regression models with log-transformed data were used to assess differences in race and Pearson and Spearman correlations were used to correlate different biomarkers. The association between different biomarkers was also assessed using linear regression after adjusting for covariates. No significant differences were observed in CD8+ (p = 0.83), CD57+ (p = 0.55), and IL-17-expressing (p = 0.63) cell numbers within the tumor samples tested. When infiltration of granzyme B+ cells was analyzed, however, a significant difference was observed, with African Americans having lower infiltration of cells expressing this cytotoxic marker than Caucasians (p<0.01). Analysis of infiltrating granzyme B+ cells at the invasive borders of the tumor revealed an even greater difference by race (p<0.001). Taken together, the data presented suggest differences in anti-tumor immune cytotoxicity may be a contributing factor in the racial disparities observed in colorectal cancer.

  2. Mathematical modeling of interleukin-27 induction of anti-tumor T cells response.

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    Kang-Ling Liao

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which promotes Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities, such as Interferon-[Formula: see text] secretion. For this reason Interleukin-12 could be a powerful therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. However, Interleukin-12 is also excessively toxic. Interleukin-27 is an immunoregulatory cytokine from the Interleukin-12 family, but it is not as toxic as Interleukin-12. In recent years, Interleukin-27 has been considered as a potential anti-tumor agent. Recent experiments in vitro and in vivo have shown that cancer cells transfected with IL-27 activate CD8+ T cells to promote the secretion of anti-tumor cytokines Interleukin-10, although, at the same time, IL-27 inhibits the secretion of Interferon-[Formula: see text] by CD8+ T cells. In the present paper we develop a mathematical model based on these experimental results. The model involves a dynamic network which includes tumor cells, CD8+ T cells and cytokines Interleukin-27, Interleukin-10 and Interferon-[Formula: see text]. Simulations of the model show how Interleukin-27 promotes CD8+ T cells to secrete Interleukin-10 to inhibit tumor growth. On the other hand Interleukin-27 inhibits the secretion of Interferon-[Formula: see text] by CD8+ T cells which somewhat diminishes the inhibition of tumor growth. Our numerical results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. We use the model to design protocols of IL-27 injections for the treatment of cancer and find that, for some special types of cancer, with a fixed total amount of drug, within a certain range, continuous injection has better efficacy than intermittent injections in reducing the tumor load while the treatment is ongoing, although the decrease in tumor load is only temporary.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Anti-Tumor Effects of 11-Dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-I; Chen, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Jiing-Chuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Huang, Han Hsiang; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2011-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide, an active ingredient isolated from soft coral Sinularia leptoclados, on CAL-27 cells were investigated in this study. In the MTT assay for cell proliferation, increasing concentrations of 11-dehydrosinulariolide decreased CAL-27 cell viability. When a concentration of 1.5 μg/mL of 11-dehydrosinulariolide was applied, the CAL-27 cells viability was reduced to a level of 70% of the control sample. The wound healing function decreased as the concentration of 11-dehydrosinulariolide increased. The results in this study indicated that treatment with 11-dehydrosinulariolide for 6 h significantly induced both early and late apoptosis of CAL-27 cells, observed by flow cytometric measurement and microscopic fluorescent observation. A comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells at the molecular level by comparison between the protein profiling (revealed on a 2-DE map) of CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide and that of CAL-27 cells without the treatment. A total of 28 differential proteins (12 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated) in CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide have been identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Some of the differential proteins are associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, protein folding, and energy metabolism. The results of this study provided clues for the investigation of biochemical mechanisms of the anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells and could be valuable information for drug development and progression monitoring of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). PMID:21822415

  4. Viral subversion of APOBEC3s: Lessons for anti-tumor immunity and tumor immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzooee, Faezeh; Asgharpour, Mahdi; Quinlan, Emma; Grant, Michael D; Larijani, Mani

    2017-12-06

    APOBEC3s (A3) are endogenous DNA-editing enzymes that are expressed in immune cells including T lymphocytes. A3s target and mutate the genomes of retroviruses that infect immune tissues such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, A3s were classically defined as host anti-viral innate immune factors. In contrast, we and others showed that A3s can also benefit the virus by mediating escape from adaptive immune recognition and drugs. Crucially, whether A3-mediated mutations help or hinder HIV, is not up to chance. Rather, the virus has evolved multiple mechanisms to actively and maximally subvert A3 activity. More recently, extensive A3 mutational footprints in tumor genomes have been observed in many different cancers. This suggests a role for A3s in cancer initiation and progression. On the other hand, multiple anti-tumor activities of A3s have also come to light, including impact on immune checkpoint molecules and possible generation of tumor neo-antigens. Here, we review the studies that reshaped the view of A3s from anti-viral innate immune agents to host factors exploited by HIV to escape from immune recognition. Viruses and tumors share many attributes, including rapid evolution and adeptness at exploiting mutations. Given this parallel, we then discuss the pro- and anti-tumor roles of A3s, and suggest that lessons learned from studying A3s in the context of anti-viral immunity can be applied to tumor immunotherapy.

  5. Anti-HIV Antibody Responses and the HIV Reservoir Size during Antiretroviral Therapy.

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    Sulggi A Lee

    Full Text Available A major challenge to HIV eradication strategies is the lack of an accurate measurement of the total burden of replication-competent HIV (the "reservoir". We assessed the association of anti-HIV antibody responses and the estimated size of the reservoir during antiretroviral therapy (ART.We evaluated anti-HIV antibody profiles using luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS assay in relation to several blood-based HIV reservoir measures: total and 2-LTR DNA (rtPCR or droplet digital PCR; integrated DNA (Alu PCR; unspliced RNA (rtPCR, multiply-spliced RNA (TILDA, residual plasma HIV RNA (single copy PCR, and replication-competent virus (outgrowth assay. We also assessed total HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (rtPCR. Spearman correlations and linear regressions were performed using log-transformed blood- or tissue-based reservoir measurements as predictors and log-transformed antibody levels as outcome variables.Among 51 chronically HIV-infected ART-suppressed participants (median age = 57, nadir CD4+ count = 196 cells/mm3, ART duration = 9 years, the most statistically significant associations were between antibody responses to integrase and HIV RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (1.17 fold-increase per two-fold RNA increase, P = 0.004 and between antibody responses to matrix and integrated HIV DNA in resting CD4+ T cells (0.35 fold-decrease per two-fold DNA increase, P = 0.003. However, these associations were not statistically significant after a stringent Bonferroni-adjustment of P<0.00045. Multivariate models including age and duration of ART did not markedly alter results.Our findings suggest that anti-HIV antibody responses may reflect the size of the HIV reservoir during chronic treated HIV disease, possibly via antigen recognition in reservoir sites. Larger, prospective studies are needed to validate the utility of antibody levels as a measure of the total body burden of HIV during treatment.

  6. Anti-HIV-1 activity of combinations and covalent conjugates of negatively charged human serum albumins (NCAs) and AZT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.E; Swart, P.J; Witvrouw, M; Esté, J.A; Reymen, D; De Clercq, E; Meijer, D.K F

    1999-01-01

    Negatively charged albumins (NCAs, with the prototypes Suc-HSA and Aco-HSA), modified proteins with a potent anti-HIV-1 activity in the nanomolar concentration range, were studied for several aspects of their antiviral mechanism. In addition we investigated the antiviral activity of combinations and

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetic, immunologic and hematologic studies on the anti-HIV-1/2 compounds aconitylated and succinylated HSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, P. J.; Beljaars, E.; Smit, C.; Pasma, A.; Schuitemaker, H.; Meijer, D. K.

    1996-01-01

    Charge modification by succinylation or cis-aconitylation of the terminal epsilon NH2 functions of the amino acid lysine in human serum albumin, resulted in polyanionic compounds with an anti-HIV-1 activity in the low nanomolar concentration range. After iv injections in rats of the negatively

  8. The metabolic fate of the Anti-HIV active drug carrier succinylated human serum albumin after intravenous administration in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, P J; Kuipers, M E; Smit, C; Beljaars, L; Ter Wiel, J; Meijer, D K

    The pharmacokinetics and metabolic fate of the intrinsically active (anti-HIV) drug carrier succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) was studied in rats. Suc-HSA was prepared by derivatizing HSA with 1,4-[C-14]-succinic anhydride, a modification by which all available epsilonNH2-groups in HSA were

  9. Characterization of the anti-HIV effects of native lactoferrin and other milk proteins and protein-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben; van Wamel, Jeroen L. B.; Beljaars, Leonie; Meijer, Dirk K. F.; Visser, Servaas; Floris, René

    2002-01-01

    In a search for natural proteins with anti-HIV activity, we screened a large set of purified proteins from bovine milk and peptide fragments thereof. Because several charged proteins and peptides are known to inhibit the process of virus entry, we selected proteins with an unusual charge composition

  10. Characterization of the anti-HIV effects of native lactoferrin and other milk proteins and protein-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B; van Wamel, JLB; Beljaars, L; Meijer, DKF; Visser, Servaas; Floris, R

    In a search for natural proteins with anti-HIV activity, we screened a large set of purified proteins from bovine milk and peptide fragments thereof. Because several charged proteins and peptides are known to inhibit the process of virus entry, we selected proteins with an unusual charge composition

  11. Synthesis of new 2,3-diaryl-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones as anti-HIV agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Angela; Balzarini, Jan; Carbone, Anna; Chimirri, Alba; De Clercq, Erik; Monforte, Anna Maria; Monforte, Pietro; Pannecouque, Christophe; Zappalà, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Several 2,3-diaryl-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were synthesized and evaluated as anti-HIV agents. The results of the in vitro tests showed that some of them were highly effective inhibitors of HIV-1 replication at 30-50 nM concentrations with minimal cytotoxicity, thereby acting as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs).

  12. A Novel Method for Determining the Inhibitory Potential of Anti-HIV Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Rabi, S. Alireza; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a cure, most HIV-1-infected individuals will require life-long treatment. It is therefore essential to optimize highly active antiretroviral therapy. Recent research has shown that the slope parameter or Hill coefficient, which describes the steepness of a dose-response curve, is a critical missing dimension in the evaluation of antiviral drug activity. Based on this finding, the instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP) has been derived as a new measure of antiviral drug activity. IIP incorporates the slope parameter and thus is a more accurate pharmacodynamic measure of antiviral activity than current measures such as IC50 and inhibitory quotient. However, it remains important to determine how to use IIP to predict the in vivo efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs. This article discusses recent advances in in vitro measures of antiviral activity and the therapeutic implications of the dose-response curve slope and IIP. PMID:19837466

  13. [Asymmetry in international relations, industrial property rights and anti-HIV medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Couto, Maria Helena; Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetry in the international relations as refers to the recognition of industrial property rights in the pharmaceutical industry. It focuses on the impact of such relations upon the access to ARV medication, an issue of worldwide interest due to its connection with the development of the nations. Clashing interests and the position taken by some countries in their patent laws point to a scenario less favorable for the access of peripheral countries to anti-HIV/AIDS medication. On the other hand, it seems that the success of the Brazilian STD/AIDS program in negotiating ARV prices will open new possibilities. The solution may be the internal strengthening of the National States and the active role played by the Agencies of the United Nations System in defense of the collective human interests.

  14. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

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    Silvana Pasetto

    Full Text Available HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic, H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic, and the dual tropic (X4R5 HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research.

  15. Flazinamide, a novel β-carboline compound with anti-HIV actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunhua; Tang Jianguo; Wang Ruirui; Yang Liumeng; Dong Zejun; Du Li; Shen Xu; Liu Jikai; Zheng Yongtang

    2007-01-01

    A β-carboline compound, flazin isolated from Suillus granulatus has been shown weak anti-HIV-1 activity. Based on the structure of flazin, flazinamide [1-(5'- hydromethyl-2'-furyl)-β-carboline-3-carboxamide] was synthesized and its anti-HIV activities were evaluated in the present study. The cytotoxicity of flazinamide was about 4.1-fold lower than that of flazin. Flazinamide potently reduced syncytium formation induced by HIV-1IIIB with EC50 value of 0.38 μM, the EC50 of flazinamide was about 6.2-fold lower than that of flazin. Flazinamide also inhibited HIV-2ROD and HIV-2CBL-20 infection with EC50 values of 0.57 and 0.89 μM, respectively. Flazinamide reduced p24 antigen expression in HIV-1IIIB acute infected C8166 and in clinical isolated strain HIV-1KM018 infected PBMC, with EC50 values of 1.45 and 0.77 μM, respectively. Flazinamide did not suppress HIV-1 replication in chronically infected H9 cells. Flazinamide blocked the fusion between normal cells and HIV-1 or HIV-2 chronically infected cells. It weakly inhibited activities of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease or integrase at higher concentrations. In conclusion, the conversion of the carboxyl group in 3 position of flazin markedly enhanced the anti-viral activity (TI value increased from 12.1 to 312.2) and flazinamide might interfere in the early stage of HIV life cycle

  16. Role of seminal plasma in the anti-HIV-1 activity of candidate microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yun-Yao

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of microbicides for prevention of HIV-1 infection in macaque models for vaginal infection has indicated that the concentrations of active compounds needed for protection by far exceed levels sufficient for complete inhibition of infection in vitro. These experiments were done in the absence of seminal plasma (SP, a vehicle for sexual transmission of the virus. To gain insight into the possible effect of SP on the performance of selected microbicides, their anti-HIV-1 activity in the presence, and absence of SP, was determined. Methods The inhibitory activity of compounds against the X4 virus, HIV-1 IIIB, and the R5 virus, HIV-1 BaL was determined using TZM-bl indicator cells and quantitated by measuring β-galactosidase induced by infection. The virucidal properties of cellulose acetate 1,2-benzene-dicarboxylate (CAP, the only microbicide provided in water insoluble, micronized form, in the presence of SP was measured. Results The HIV-1 inhibitory activity of the polymeric microbicides, poly(naphthalene sulfonate, cellulose sulfate, carrageenan, CAP (in soluble form and polystyrene sulfonate, respectively, was considerably (range ≈ 4 to ≈ 73-fold diminished in the presence of SP (33.3%. Formulations of micronized CAP, providing an acidic buffering system even in the presence of an SP volume excess, effectively inactivated HIV-1 infectivity. Conclusion The data presented here suggest that the in vivo efficacy of polymeric microbicides, acting as HIV-1 entry inhibitors, might become at least partly compromised by the inevitable presence of SP. These possible disadvantages could be overcome by combining the respective polymers with acidic pH buffering systems (built-in for formulations of micronized CAP or with other anti-HIV-1 compounds, the activity of which is not affected by SP, e.g. reverse transcriptase and zinc finger inhibitors.

  17. Antioxidants Impair Anti-Tumoral Effects of Vorinostat, but Not Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Vorinostat and Caspase-8 Downregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition. PMID:24651472

  18. Saponin-based adjuvants create a highly effective anti-tumor vaccine when combined with in situ tumor destruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Nierkens, S.; Wagenaars, J.A.L.; Ruers, T.J.M.; Schrier, C.C.; Rijke, E.O.; Adema, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Today's most commonly used microbial vaccines are essentially composed of antigenic elements and a non-microbial adjuvant, and induce solid amounts of antibodies. Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce anti-tumor CTL-responses, which require cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigens by dendritic

  19. Pre-clinical toxicity and immunogenicity evaluation of a MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Boqi; Wang, Juan; Guo, Yingying; Chen, Tanxiu; Ni, Weihua; Yuan, Hongyan; Zhang, Nannan; Xie, Fei; Tai, Guixiang

    2016-04-01

    Mucin 1 (MUC1), as an oncogene, plays a key role in the progression and tumorigenesis of many human adenocarcinomas and is an attractive target in tumor immunotherapy. Our previous study showed that the MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine induced a MUC1-specific Th1-dominant immune response, simulated MUC1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing activity, and could significantly inhibit MUC1-expression B16 cells' growth in mice. To help move the vaccine into a Phase I clinical trial, in the current study, a pre-clinical toxicity and immunogenicity evaluation of the vaccine was conducted. The evaluation was comprised of a single-dose acute toxicity study in mice, repeat-dose chronic toxicity and immunogenicity studies in rats, and pilot toxicity and immunogenicity studies in cynomolgus monkeys. The results showed that treatment with the MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine did not cause any organ toxicity, except for arthritis or local nodules induced by BCG in several rats. Furthermore, the vaccine significantly increased the levels of IFN-γ in rats, indicating that Th1 cells were activated. In addition, the results showed that the MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine induced a MUC1-specific IgG antibody response both in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. Collectively, these data are beneficial to move the MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine into a Phase I clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a novel component leading to anti-tumor activity besides the major ingredient cordycepin in Cordyceps militaris extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takeharu; Sumardika, I Wayan; Saito, Shingo; Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Kondo, Eisaku; Shibukawa, Masami; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2017-09-01

    In accordance with our previous study that was carried out to identify novel anti-tumor ingredients, chromatographic separation in combination with an anti-tumor activity assay was used for analysis of Cordyceps militaris extract in this study. Various modes of chromatography including reversed-phase, cation-exchange and anion-exchange were used to separate components of Cordyceps militaris, which showed various chemical properties. Anti-tumor activity of each fraction was assessed by a Hoechst staining-based apoptosis assay using malignant melanoma MeWo cells. By these repeated approaches through chromatographic segregation and cell biological assay, we finally succeeded in identifying the target substance from a certain fraction that included neutral hydrophilic components using a pre-column and post-column chlorine adduct ionization LC-APCI-MS method. The target substance was a mono-carbohydrate, xylitol, that induced apoptotic cell death in MeWo cells but not in normal human OUMS-24 fibroblasts. This is the first study showing that Cordyceps militaris extract contains a large amount of xylitol. Thus, our results will contribute greatly to uncovering the mysterious multifunctional herbal drug Cordyceps militaris as an anti-tumor agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-theta in Natural Killer (NK cell function and anti-tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eAnel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinase C-theta (PKCtheta, which is essential for T cell function and survival, is also required for efficient anti-tumor immune surveillance. Natural killer (NK cells, which express PKCtheta, play a prominent role in this process, mainly by elimination of tumor cells with reduced or absent major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I expression. This justifies the increased interest of the use of activated NK cells in anti-tumor immunotherapy in the clinic. The in vivo development of MHC-I-deficient tumors is much favored in PKCtheta-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Recent data offer some clues on the mechanism that could explain the important role of PKCtheta in NK cell-mediated anti-tumor immune surveillance: some studies show that PKCtheta is implicated in signal transduction and anti-tumoral activity of NK cells elicited by interleukin (IL-12 or IL-15, while others show that it is implicated in NK cell functional activation mediated by certain killer activating receptors (KAR. Alternatively, the possibility that PKCtheta is involved in NK cell degranulation is discussed, since recent data indicate that it is implicated in microtubule-organizing center (MTOC polarization to the immune synapse in CD4+ T cells. The implication of PKC isoforms in degranulation has been more extensively studied in CTL, and these studies will be also summarized.

  2. Tumor-associated antigens identified by mRNA expression profiling induce protective anti-tumor immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, S; Lauemøller, S L; Ruhwald, M

    2001-01-01

    Defined tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are attractive targets for anti-tumor immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel genome-wide approach to identify multiple TAA from any given tumor. A panel of transplantable thymomas was established from an inbred p53-/- mouse strain. The resulting tumors were...

  3. Antioxidants impair anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat, but not anti-neoplastic effects of Vorinostat and caspase-8 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition.

  4. Efficacy and safety of retreatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody (infliximab) to maintain remission in Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgeerts, P.; D'Haens, G.; Targan, S.; Vasiliauskas, E.; Hanauer, S. B.; Present, D. H.; Mayer, L.; van Hogezand, R. A.; Braakman, T.; DeWoody, K. L.; Schaible, T. F.; van Deventer, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Infliximab, an anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody, rapidly reduces signs and symptoms of active Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated infusions of infliximab would effectively and safely maintain the remitting benefit. The efficacy, safety,

  5. Delivery route, MyD88 signaling and cross-priming events determine the anti-tumor efficacy of an adenovirus based melanoma vaccine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hangalapura, B.N.; Oosterhoff, D.; Gupta, T.; Groot, J. de; Wijnands, P.G.J.T.B.; Beusechem, V.W. van; Haan, J.; Tuting, T.; Eertwegh, A.J. van den; Curiel, D.T.; Scheper, R.J.; Gruijl, T.D. de

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)-based vaccines are considered for cancer immunotherapy, yet, detailed knowledge on their mechanism of action and optimal delivery route for anti-tumor efficacy is lacking. Here, we compared the anti-tumor efficacy of an Ad-based melanoma vaccine after intradermal, intravenous,

  6. Sex differences in response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in early and established rheumatoid arthritis -- results from the DANBIO registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2012-01-01

    To investigate sex differences in response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) therapy over time in early versus established rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate sex differences in response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) therapy over time in early versus established rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  7. A novel engineered VEGF blocker with an excellent pharmacokinetic profile and robust anti-tumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lily; Yu, Haijia; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhi; Li, Song; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Sumei; Jia, Huifeng; Xiong, Yao; Zhang, Ruliang; Huang, Yi; Chu, Charles C; Tian, Wenzhi

    2015-01-01

    Relatively poor penetration and retention in tumor tissue has been documented for large molecule drugs including therapeutic antibodies and recombinant immunoglobulin constant region (Fc)-fusion proteins due to their large size, positive charge, and strong target binding affinity. Therefore, when designing a large molecular drug candidate, smaller size, neutral charge, and optimal affinity should be considered. We engineered a recombinant protein by molecular engineering the second domain of VEGFR1 and a few flanking residues fused with the Fc fragment of human IgG1, which we named HB-002.1. This recombinant protein was extensively characterized both in vitro and in vivo for its target-binding and target-blocking activities, pharmacokinetic profile, angiogenesis inhibition activity, and anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy. HB-002.1 has a molecular weight of ~80 kDa, isoelectric point of ~6.7, and an optimal target binding affinity of <1 nM. The pharmacokinetic profile was excellent with a half-life of 5 days, maximal concentration of 20.27 μg/ml, and area under the curve of 81.46 μg · days/ml. When tested in a transgenic zebrafish embryonic angiogenesis model, dramatic inhibition in angiogenesis was exhibited by a markedly reduced number of subintestinal vessels. When tested for anti-tumor efficacy, HB-002.1 was confirmed in two xenograft tumor models (A549 and Colo-205) to have a robust tumor killing activity, showing a percentage of inhibition over 90% at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Most promisingly, HB-002.1 showed a superior therapeutic efficacy compared to bevacizumab in the A549 xenograft model (tumor inhibition: 84.7% for HB-002.1 versus 67.6% for bevacizumab, P < 0.0001). HB-002.1 is a strong angiogenesis inhibitor that has the potential to be a novel promising drug for angiogenesis-related diseases such as tumor neoplasms and age-related macular degeneration

  8. An evaluation of anti-tumor effect and toxicity of PEGylated ursolic acid liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Tingting; Liu, Yanping; Xing, Shanshan; Li, Lei; Gao, Dawei, E-mail: dwgao@ysu.edu.cn [Yanshan University, Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province, Department of Bioengineer (China)

    2016-02-15

    Therapy of solid tumors mediated by nano-drug delivery has attracted considerable interest. In our previous study, ursolic acid (UA) was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposomes. The study aimed to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect and cytotoxicity of the PEGylated UA liposomes by U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice. The liposomes were spherical particles with mean particle diameters of 127.2 nm. The tumor inhibition rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 53.60 % on U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice, which was greater than those of the UA solution (18.25 %) and traditional UA liposome groups (40.75 %). The tumor cells apoptosis rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 25.81 %, which was significantly higher than that of the traditional UA liposomes (13.37 %). Moreover, the kidney and liver did not emerge the pathological changes in UA therapeutic mice by histopathological analysis, while there were significant differences on tumor tissues among three UA formulation groups. The PEGylated UA liposomes exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity, and the main reason was that the coating PEG layer improved UA liposome properties, such as enhancing the stability of liposomes, promoting the effect of slow release, and prolonging the time of blood circulation. This may shed light on the development of PEGylated nano-vehicles.

  9. Gold namoprtices enhance anti-tumor effect of radiotherapy to hypoxic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jae Won; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub; Chung, Ui Seok; Koh, Won Gun

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors

  10. Golimumab and certolizumab: The two new anti-tumor necrosis factor kids on the block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Mohit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF agents have revolutionized treatment of psoriasis and many other inflammatory diseases of autoimmune origin. They have considerable advantages over the existing immunomodulators. Anti-TNF agents are designed to target a very specific component of the immune-mediated inflammatory cascades. Thus, they have lower risks of systemic side-effects. In a brief period of 10 years, a growing number of biological therapies are entering the clinical arena while many more biologicals remain on the horizon. With time, the long-term side-effects and efficacies of these individual agents will become clearer and help to determine which ones are the most suitable for long-term care. Golimumab (a human monoclonal anti-TNF-α antibody and Certolizumab (a PEGylated Fab fragment of humanized monoclonal TNF-α antibody are the two latest additions to the anti-TNF regimen. Here, we are providing a brief description about these two drugs and their uses.

  11. Safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy during pregnancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, Ioannis; Zavos, Christos; Christopoulos, Panagiotis; Mastorakos, George; Gazouli, Maria

    2015-12-21

    Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease has significantly improved since the introduction of biological agents, such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and golimumab. The Food and Drug Administration has classified these factors in category B, which means that they do not demonstrate a fetal risk. However, during pregnancy fetuses are exposed to high anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels that are measurable in their plasma after birth. Since antibodies can transfer through the placenta at the end of the second and during the third trimesters, it is important to know the safety profile of these drugs, particularly for the fetus, and whether maintaining relapse of the disease compensates for the potential risks of fetal exposure. The limited data available for the anti-TNF drugs to date have not demonstrated any significant adverse outcomes in the pregnant women who continued their therapy from conception to the first trimester of gestation. However, data suggest that anti-TNFs should be discontinued during the third trimester, as they may affect the immunological system of the newborn baby. Each decision should be individualized, based on the distinct characteristics of the patient and her disease. Considering all the above, there is a need for more clinical studies regarding the effect of anti-TNF therapeutic agents on pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Canine parvovirus NS1 protein exhibits anti-tumor activity in a mouse mammary tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Yadav, Pavan Kumar; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Sahoo, A P; Harish, D R; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Tiwari, A K

    2016-02-02

    Many viral proteins have the ability to kill tumor cells specifically without harming the normal cells. These proteins, on ectopic expression, cause lysis or induction of apoptosis in the target tumor cells. Parvovirus NS1 is one of such proteins, which is known to kill high proliferating tumor cells. In the present study, we assessed the apoptosis inducing ability of canine parvovirus type 2 NS1 protein (CPV2.NS1) in vitro in 4T1 cells, and found it to cause significant cell death due to induction of apoptosis through intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. Further, we also evaluated the oncolytic activity of CPV2.NS1 protein in a mouse mammary tumor model. The results suggested that CPV2.NS1 was able to inhibit the growth of 4T1 induced mouse mammary tumor as indicated by significantly reduced tumor volume, mitotic, AgNOR and PCNA indices. Further, inhibition of tumor growth was found to be because of induction of apoptosis in the tumor cells, which was evident by a significant increase in the number of TUNEL positive cells. Further, CPV2.NS1 was also able to stimulate the immune cells against the tumor antigens as indicated by the increased CD4+ and CD8+ counts in the blood of CVP2.NS1 treated mice. Further optimization of the delivery of NS1 protein and use of an adjuvant may further enhance its anti-tumor activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activity of recombinant anginex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandwijk, Ricardo J.M.G.E.; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Linden, Edith van der; Mayo, Kevin H.; Thijssen, Victor L.J.L.; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2006-01-01

    Anginex, a synthetic 33-mer angiostatic peptide, specifically inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation and migration along with induction of apoptosis in endothelial cells. Here we report on the in vivo characterization of recombinant anginex and use of the artificial anginex gene for gene therapy approaches. Tumor growth of human MA148 ovarian carcinoma in athymic mice was inhibited by 80% when treated with recombinant anginex. Histological analysis of the tumors showed an approximate 2.5-fold reduction of microvessel density, suggesting that angiogenesis inhibition is the cause of the anti-tumor effect. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the gene expression patterns of 16 angiogenesis-related factors after treatment with both recombinant and synthetic anginex. To validate the applicability of the anginex gene for gene therapy, stable transfectants of murine B16F10 melanoma cells expressing recombinant anginex were made. Supernatants of these cells inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, after subcutaneous injection of these cells in C57BL/6 mice, an extensive delay in tumor growth was observed. These data show that the artificial anginex gene can be used to produce a recombinant protein with similar activity as its synthetic counterpart and that the gene can be applied in gene therapy approaches for cancer treatment

  14. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Hamdi K.; Castellon, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

  15. Varicella zoster meningitis complicating combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and corticosteroid therapy in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christopher; Walters, Brennan; Fedorak, Richard N

    2013-06-07

    Opportunistic viral infections are a well-recognized complication of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cases of severe or atypical varicella zoster virus infection, both primary and latent reactivation, have been described in association with immunosuppression of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. However, central nervous system varicella zoster virus infections have been rarely described, and there are no previous reports of varicella zoster virus meningitis associated with anti-TNF therapy among the CD population. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old male with severe ileocecal-CD who developed a reactivation of dermatomal herpes zoster after treatment with prednisone and adalimumab. The reactivation presented as debilitating varicella zoster virus meningitis, which was not completely resolved despite aggressive antiviral therapy with prolonged intravenous acyclovir and subsequent oral valacyclovir. This is the first reported case of opportunistic central nervous system varicella zoster infection complicating anti-TNF therapy in the CD population. This paper also reviews the literature on varicella zoster virus infections of immunosuppressed IBD patients and the importance of vaccination prior to initiation of anti-TNF therapy.

  16. Anti-tumor activities of direct current (DC) therapy combined with fractionated radiation or chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Toshitake; Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    Anti-tumor activities of direct current (DC) therapy combined with fractionated radiation or cyclophosphamide were studied in mice which were transplanted with murine fibrosarcoma (FSa) in the right thighs. Using TCD 50 assay, DC therapy, given in a single fraction, enhanced the effect of a single dose of radiation with the dose-modifying factor of 1.3. Tumor control rates were more improved by the combination therapy with the smaller doses of radiation than the larger ones. When DC therapy was applied one time immediately after the first radiation of fractionated ones, the combination therapy still showed the enhanced effect. However, both of DC therapy and radiation were divided in three fractions and DC therapy was applied everytime after radiation, tumor growth retardation were not different between the combination therapy and radiation alone. This result suggests that there is a minimum amount of Coulombs to improve the effect of radiation alone. On the other hand, DC therapy combined with cyclophosphamide given in one fraction showed the same enhancement effect as those divided in three fractions. These results suggest that DC therapy combined with radiation or cyclophosphamide is effective to improve tumor control, but the mechanisms to enhance the effect of radiation or cyclophosphamide are different. (author)

  17. An evaluation of the anti-tumor efficacy of oleanolic acid-loaded PEGylated liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shengnan; Gao, Dawei; Zhao, Tingting; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Xiaoning

    2013-06-01

    The effective delivery of oleanolic acid (OA) to the target site has several benefits in therapy for different pathologies. However, the delivery of OA is challenging due to its poor aqueous solubility. The study aims to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect of the PEGylated OA nanoliposome on the U14 cervical carcinoma cell line. In our previous study, OA was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposome with the modified ethanol injection method. Oral administration of PEGylated OA liposome was demonstrated to be more efficient in inhibiting xenograft tumors. The results of organ index indicated that PEG liposome exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity. It was also found that OA and OA liposomes induced tumor cell apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, effects of OA on the morphology of tumor and other tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The histopathology sections did not show pathological changes in kidney or liver in tested mice. In contrast, there was a significant difference in tumor tissues between treatment groups and the negative control group. These observations imply that PEGylated liposomes seem to have advantages for cancer therapy in terms of effective delivery of OA.

  18. Synergistic anti-tumor effects of bevacizumab and tumor targeted polymerized VEGF siRNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Goo; Jo, Sung Duk; Yhee, Ji Young; Lee, Beom Suk; Lee, So Jin; Park, Sung Gurl; Kang, Sun-Woong; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2017-07-15

    A variety of VEGF inhibitors have been reported to treat cancers by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal VEGF antibody, was the first FDA approved anti-angiogenic agent for cancer treatments. However, bevacizumab shows modest therapeutic efficiency and often cause resistant problem in significant populations of cancer patients. To solve these problem, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of siRNA drugs targeting VEGF and combination of the RNAi drug with bevacizumab for cancer treatments. For efficient VEGF siRNA delivery, chemically polymerized siRNAs were complexed with thiolated-glycol chitosan (psi(VEGF)/tGC). The poly-VEGF siRNA and thiolated-glycol chitosan formed stable nanoparticles via electrostatic interaction and chemical crosslinking, and showed high accumulation in tumor tissues resulting in efficient gene silencing. Both VEGF siRNA nanoparticles and bevacizumab had efficient therapeutic effects in tumor xenograft mouse models. Interestingly, most pronounced therapeutic efficacy was observed when the two distinct VEGF inhibitors were treated in combination revealing synergistic effects. The results showed that the psi(VEGF)/tGC nanoparticle mediated knockdown of VEGF exerts anti-tumor effects and the combination treatments with bevacizumab can extend the treatments options to conventional bevacizumab treatments for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Gold namoprtices enhance anti-tumor effect of radiotherapy to hypoxic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jae Won; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ui Seok; Koh, Won Gun [Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors.

  20. An evaluation of the anti-tumor efficacy of oleanolic acid-loaded PEGylated liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Shengnan; Gao, Dawei; Zhao, Tingting; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    The effective delivery of oleanolic acid (OA) to the target site has several benefits in therapy for different pathologies. However, the delivery of OA is challenging due to its poor aqueous solubility. The study aims to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect of the PEGylated OA nanoliposome on the U14 cervical carcinoma cell line. In our previous study, OA was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposome with the modified ethanol injection method. Oral administration of PEGylated OA liposome was demonstrated to be more efficient in inhibiting xenograft tumors. The results of organ index indicated that PEG liposome exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity. It was also found that OA and OA liposomes induced tumor cell apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, effects of OA on the morphology of tumor and other tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The histopathology sections did not show pathological changes in kidney or liver in tested mice. In contrast, there was a significant difference in tumor tissues between treatment groups and the negative control group. These observations imply that PEGylated liposomes seem to have advantages for cancer therapy in terms of effective delivery of OA. (paper)

  1. Synthesis of isoflavene-thiosemicarbazone hybrids and evaluation of their anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Eugene M H; Brandl, Miriam B; Black, David StC; Vittorio, Orazio; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-06-01

    Phenoxodiol is an isoflavene with potent anti-tumor activity. In this study, a series of novel mono- and di-substituted phenoxodiol-thiosemicarbazone hybrids were synthesized via the condensation reaction between phenoxodiol with thiosemicarbazides. The in vitro anti-proliferative activities of the hybrids were evaluated against the neuroblastoma SKN-BE(2)C, the triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and the glioblastoma U87 cancer cell lines. The mono-substituted hybrids exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity against all three cancer cell lines, while the di-substituted hybrids were less active. Selected mono-substituted hybrids were further investigated for their cytotoxicity against normal MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells, which identified two hybrids with superior selectivity for cancer cells over normal cells as compared to phenoxodiol. This suggests that mono-substituted phenoxodiol-thiosemicarbazone hybrids have promising potential for further development as anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES AS SHUTTLES OF TUMOR BIOMARKERS AND ANTI-TUMOR DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eZocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV include vesicles released by either normal or tumor cells. EV may exceed the nanometric scale (microvesicles, or to be within the nanoscale, also called exosomes. It appears mandatory that only exosomes have the size that may be considered suitable for a potential use in nanomedicine, in either diagnosis or therapy. This is of particular interest for research in cancer, also because the vast majority of existing data on EV are coming from pre-clinical and clinical oncology. We know that the microenvironmental features of cancer may favour cell-to-cell paracrine communication through EV, but EV have been purified, characterized and quantified from plasma of tumor patients as well, thus suggesting that EV may have a role in promoting and maintaining cancer dissemination and progression. This is also challenging a promising research on the use of nanovesicles as tumor biomarkers. Moreover, recent research suggests that EV may represent a natural delivery for molecules including drugs and exosomes may represent the ideal natural nanoshuttles for new and old anti-tumor drugs. However, much is yet to be understood about the role of EV in oncology and this article aims to discuss the future of EV in cancer

  3. FOXP3+ Treg as a therapeutic target for promoting anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Theresa L

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) characterized by expression of FOXP3 and strong immunosuppressive activity play a key role in regulating homeostasis in health and disease. Areas covered: Human Treg are highly diverse phenotypically and functionally. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), Treg are reprogrammed by the tumor, acquiring an activated phenotype and enhanced suppressor functions. No unique phenotypic markers for Treg accumulating in human tumors exist. Treg are heterogeneous and use numerous mechanisms to mediate suppression, which either silences anti-tumor immune surveillance or prevents tissue damage by activated T cells. Treg plasticity in the TME endows them with dual functionality. Treg frequency in tumors associates either with poor or improved survival. Treg responses to immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) differ from the restorative effects ICIs induce in other immune cells. Therapies used to silence Treg, including ICIs, are only partly successful. Treg persistence and resistance to depletion are critical for maintaining homeostasis. Expert opinion: Treg emerge as a heterogeneous subset of immunosuppressive T cells, which usually, but not always, favor tumor progression. Treg are also engaged in non-immune activities that benefit the host. Therapeutic silencing of Treg in cancer requires a deeper understanding of Treg activities in human health and disease.

  4. Photodynamic therapy stimulates anti-tumor immunity in a murine mastocytoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the IV administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that eventually cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, recognition of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins, while the three commonest cancer therapies (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) all tend to suppress the immune system. Like many other immunotherapies, the extent of the immune response after PDT tends to depend on the antigenicity of the particular tumor, or in other words, whether the tumor contains proteins with the correct characteristics to provide peptides that can bind to MHC class I molecules and provide a target for cytolytic T lymphocytes. We have described certain mouse tumors containing defined or naturally occurring tumor associated antigens that respond particularly well to PDT, and potent immune responses capable of destroying distant untreated tumors can be induced. In this report we address the induction of immunity after PDT of the DBA2 mastocytoma known as P815. This tumor was the first mouse tumor to be shown to possess a tumor-rejection antigen capable of being recognized by cytotoxic T-cells.

  5. Aaptamine Derivatives with Antifungal and Anti-HIV-1 Activities from the South China Sea Sponge Aaptos aaptos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Bing Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new alkaloids of aaptamine family, compounds (1–5 and three known derivatives (6–8, have been isolated from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, as well as by comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1–2 are characterized with triazapyrene lactam skeleton, whereas compounds 4–5 share an imidazole-fused aaptamine moiety. These compounds were evaluated in antifungal and anti-HIV-1 assays. Compounds 3, 7, and 8 showed antifungal activity against six fungi, with MIC values in the range of 4 to 64 μg/mL. Compounds 7–8 exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity, with inhibitory rates of 88.0% and 72.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μM.

  6. Anti-HIV-1 integrase compounds from Dioscorea bulbifera and molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaniad, Prapaporn; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Pianwanit, Somsak; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2016-01-01

    Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae) has been used in a traditional Thai longevity medicine preparation. Isolation of inhibitors from natural products is a potential source for continuous development of new HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors. The objective of this study is to isolate the compounds and evaluate their anti-HIV-1 IN activity, as well as to predict the potential interactions of the compounds with an IN. The ethyl acetate and water fractions (1-100 μg/mL) of Dioscorea bulbifera bulbils were isolated and tested for their anti-HIV-1 IN activity using the multiplate integration assay (MIA). The interactions of the active compounds with IN were investigated using a molecular docking method. The ethyl acetate and water fractions of Dioscorea bulbifera bulbils afforded seven compounds. Among these, allantoin (1), 2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxybibenzyl (2), and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-2-styrylchromone (5) were isolated for the first time from this plant. Myricetin (4) exhibited the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 3.15 μM, followed by 2,4,6,7-tetrahydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3, IC50 value= 14.20 μM), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, IC50 value = 19.39 μM) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (7, IC50 value = 21.80 μM). Potential interactions of the active compounds (3, 4, 6, and 7) with the IN active site were additionally investigated. Compound 4 showed the best binding affinity to IN and formed strong interactions with various amino acid residues. These compounds interacted with Asp64, Thr66, His67, Glu92, Asp116, Gln148, Glu152, Asn155, and Lys159, which are involved in both the 3'-processing and strand transfer reactions of IN. In particular, galloyl, catechol, and sugar moieties were successful inhibitors for HIV-1 IN.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative intravaginal targeting: Key to anti-HIV-1 microbicide delivery from test tube to in vivo success

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available MASHINGAIDZE,1 YAHYA E. CHOONARA,1 LISA C. DU TOIT,1 ECKHART BUCHMANN,2 VINESH MAHARAJ,3 VALENCE M. K. NDESENDO,4 PRADEEP KUMAR1 1Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, 2193..., Pretoria, South Africa 4School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John?s University of Tanzania, Dodoma, Tanzania ABSTRACT: The past decade has seen several effective anti-HIV-1 agent discoveries, yet microbicides continue to disappoint...

  8. Study on the Immunomodulation Effect of Isodon japonicus Extract via Splenocyte Function and NK Anti-Tumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-A Hwang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigated the potential immune-enhancing activity of Isodon japonicus on murine splenocyte and natural-killer (NK cells in vitro. The ethanol extract of I. japonicus significantly enhanced the proliferation of splenocyte and induced the significant enhancement of NK cells’ activity against tumor cells (YAC-1. In addition, I. japonicus increased the production of interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, suggesting that the increase in NK cell cytotoxicity could be due to the enhancement of the NK cell production of both cytokines. Taken together, I. japonicus extract inhibited the growth of human leukemia cells (K562 by 74%. Our observation indicated that the anti-tumor effects of I. japonicus may be attributed to its ability to serve as a stimulant of NK anti-tumor activity. In addition, our results support the development of functional food studies on I. japonicus.

  9. Fluorine Substituted 1,2,4-Triazinones as Potential Anti-HIV-1 and CDK2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. I. Makki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine substituted 1,2,4-triazinones have been synthesized via alkylation, amination, and/or oxidation of 6-(2-amino-5-fluorophenyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H-one 1 and 4-fluoro-N-(4-fluoro-2-(5-oxo-3-thioxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-6-ylphenylbenzamide 5 as possible anti-HIV-1 and CDK2 inhibitors. Alkylation on positions 2 and 4 in 1,2,4-triazinone gave compounds 6–8. Further modification was performed by selective alkylation and amination on position 3 to form compounds 9–15. However oxidation of 5 yielded compounds 16–18. Structures of the target compounds have been established by spectral analysis data. Five compounds (5, 11, 14, 16, and 17 have shown very good anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cells. Similarly, five compounds (1, 3, and 14–16 have exhibited very significant CDK2 inhibition activity. Compounds 14 and 16 were found to have dual anti-HIV and anticancer activities.

  10. Enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of G-quadruplexes comprising locked nucleic acids and intercalating nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Nielsen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Two G-quadruplex forming sequences, 50-TGGGAG and the 17-mer sequence T30177, which exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity on cell lines, were modified using either locked nucleic acids (LNA) or via insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (intercalating nucleic acid, INA) or (R)-1-O-[4-(1-pyrenylet......Two G-quadruplex forming sequences, 50-TGGGAG and the 17-mer sequence T30177, which exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity on cell lines, were modified using either locked nucleic acids (LNA) or via insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (intercalating nucleic acid, INA) or (R)-1-O-[4......-(1-pyrenylethynyl)phenylmethyl]glycerol (twisted intercalating nucleic acid, TINA). Incorporation of LNA or INA/TINA monomers provide as much as 8-fold improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. We demonstrate for the first time a detailed analysis of the effect the incorporation of INA/TINA monomers in quadruplex forming...... of the antiviral QFOs in the present study formed more thermally stable G-quadruplexes and also high-order G-quadruplex structures which might be responsible for the increased antiviral activity observed....

  11. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this in......To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera...... on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... to CD4 and that post binding events may be common to the infection of lymphocytes. Anti HIV-1 sera showed neutralizing activity against heterologous and even autologous escape virus. This finding, together with the observation that monocytes and M phi s are infected in vivo, suggests that protection...

  12. Nigella sativa modulates splenocyte proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine profile, macrophage function and NK anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Hmaidan, Reem; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-09-15

    Nigella sativa, also known as blackseed, has long been used in traditional medicine for treating various conditions related to the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems as well as different types of cancers. In this study, the potential immunomodulatory effects of Nigella sativa are investigated in light of splenocyte proliferation, macrophage function, and NK anti-tumor activity using BLAB/c and C57/BL6 primary cells. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Griess assay was performed to evaluate NO production by macrophages. ELISA was performed to measure the level of cytokines secreted by splenocytes and macrophages. NK cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 tumor cells was examined by JAM assay. We demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa significantly enhances splenocyte proliferation in a dose-responsive manner. In addition, the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa favors the secretion of Th2, versus Th1, cytokines by splenocytes. The secretion of IL-6, TNFalpha, and NO; key pro-inflammatory mediators, by primary macrophages is significantly suppressed by the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa, indicating that Nigella sativa exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Finally, experimental evidence indicates that the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa significantly enhances NK cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 tumor cells, suggesting that the documented anti-tumor effects of Nigella sativa may be, at least in part, attributed to its ability to serve as a stimulant of NK anti-tumor activity. Our data present Nigella sativa as a traditionally used herb with potent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. We anticipate that Nigella sativa ingredients may be employed as effective therapeutic agents in the regulation of diverse immune reactions implicated in various conditions and diseases such as cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human TMEM30a Promotes Uptake of Anti-tumor and Bioactive Choline Phospholipids into Mammalian Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rui; Brady, Erin; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Anti-tumor alkylphospholipids initiate apoptosis in transformed HL-60 and Jurkat cells while sparing their progenitors. Edelfosine like other short-chained phospholipids—inflammatory Platelet-activating Factor (PAF) and apoptotic oxidatively-truncated phospholipids—are proposed to have intracellular sites of action, yet a conduit for these choline phospholipids into mammalian cells is undefined. Edelfosine is also accumulated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in process requiring the membrane prote...

  14. Assessment of in vivo anti-tumor activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cell vaccines prepared by various antigen forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Si, Chunfeng; Li, Defang; Lu, Meiyu; Zhong, Weilan; Xie, Zeping; Guo, Lin; Zhang, Shumin; Xu, Maolei

    2018-03-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) vaccine has been proved as an effective whole-cell vaccine, but the modest therapeutic anti-tumor efficiency limits its clinical use. Various antigen forms, including paraformaldehyde-fixed HUVEC, glutaraldehyde-fixed HUVEC, HUVEC lysate and live HUVEC, have been intensively used in HUVEC vaccine preparation, however, the most effective antigen form has not yet been identified. In the present study, these four commonly used antigen forms were used to prepare vaccines named Para-Fixed-EC, Glu-Fixed-EC, Lysate-EC, and Live-EC respectively, and the anti-tumor efficacy of these four vaccines was investigated. Results showed that Live-EC exhibited the most favorable anti-tumor growth and metastasis effects among the four vaccines in both H22 hepatocellular carcinoma and Lewis lung cancer models. High titer anti-HUVEC antibodies were detected in Live-EC immunized mice sera, and the immune sera of Live-EC group could significantly inhibit HUVEC proliferation and tube formation. Moreover, T cells isolated from Live-EC immunized mice exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HUVEC cells, with an increasing IFN-γ and decreasing Treg production in Live-EC immunized mice. Finally, CD31 immunohistochemical analysis of the excised tumors verified a significant reduction in vessel density after Live-EC vaccination, which was in accordance with the anti-tumor efficiency. Taken together, all the results proved that live HUVEC was the most effective antigen form to induce robust HUVEC specific antibody and CTL responses, which could lead to the significant inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. We hope the present findings would provide a rationale for the further optimization of HUVEC vaccine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Bacteriophages support anti-tumor response initiated by DC-based vaccine against murine transplantable colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elzbieta; Rossowska, Joanna; Duś, Danuta; Weber-Dabrowska, Beata; Zabłocka, Agnieszka; Górski, Andrzej

    2008-02-15

    Bacteriophages in eukaryotic hosts may behave as particulate antigens able to activate the innate immune system and generate adaptive immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the initiation of the immune response, mainly by priming T cell-mediated immunity. For this reason, they are increasingly applied as an adjuvant for effective anti-tumor therapies in animal models as well as in a few clinical trials. The presented study focused on the application of mouse DCs which were activated with T4 bacteriophages (T4 phages, T4) and further loaded with tumor antigens (TAg) in inducing an anti-tumor response. The activation of bone marrow-derived DCs with T4 phages and TAg resulted in augmentation of their differentiation marker expression accompanied by an enhanced ability to prime T cells for IFN-gamma production. These activated DCs (BM-DC/T4+TAg) were used in experimental immunotherapy of C57BL/6 mice bearing advanced MC38 colon carcinoma tumors. As a result of their triple application, a significant tumor growth delay, up to 19 days, was observed compared with the controls - treated with BM-DCs activated only with T4 phages, TAg, or lipopolysaccharide solution ["solvent"], where the tumor growth delay did not exceed 7 days. The percentage of tumor growth inhibition estimated 10 days after the third cell injection ranged from 32% (for animals treated with BM-DC/TAg cells) to 76% (for animals treated with BM-DC/T4+TAg cells) over the tumor-bearing untreated control mice. The obtained data indicate that in vitro interactions between T4 phages and BM-DCs followed by TAg activation caused augmentation of the anti-tumor effect when DCs were used as a vaccine for tumor-bearing mice treatment. Therefore, pretreatment of DCs with the phages may be considered as a beneficial element of a novel strategy in anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  16. Lym-1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Exhibit Potent Anti-Tumor Effects against B-Cell Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Long Zheng; Peisheng Hu; Brandon Wolfe; Caryn Gonsalves; Luqing Ren; Leslie A. Khawli; Harvey R. Kaslow; Alan L. Epstein

    2017-01-01

    T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) recognizing CD19 epitopes have produced remarkable anti-tumor effects in patients with B-cell malignancies. However, cancer cells lacking recognized epitopes can emerge, leading to relapse and death. Thus, CAR T cells targeting different epitopes on different antigens could improve immunotherapy. The Lym-1 antibody targets a conformational epitope of Human Leukocyte Antigen-antigen D Related (HLA-DR) on the surface of human B-cell lymphomas...

  17. HDAC Inhibitor L-Carnitine and Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Synergistically Exert Anti-Tumor Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Ningning; Yang, Changshan; Liao, Siyan; Guo, Haiping; Zhao, Kai; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Shouting; Guan, Lixia; Liu, Chunjiao; Xu, Li; Zhang, Change; Song, Wenbin; Li, Bing; Tang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Combinations of proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors appear to be the most potent to produce synergistic cytotoxicity in preclinical trials. We have recently confirmed that L-carnitine (LC) is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. In the current study, the anti-tumor effect of LC plus proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (velcade, Vel) was investigated both in cultured hepatoma cancer cells and in Balb/c mice bearing HepG2 tumor. Cell death and cell viability were assayed by fl...

  18. Tumor-associated antigens identified by mRNA expression profiling induce protective anti-tumor immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Søren; Lauemøller, S L; Ruhwald, Morten

    2001-01-01

    Defined tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are attractive targets for anti-tumor immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel genome-wide approach to identify multiple TAA from any given tumor. A panel of transplantable thymomas was established from an inbred p53-/- mouse strain. The resulting tumors we...... imprints, which may be used to identify patient-specific arrays of TAA. This may enable a multi-epitope based immunotherapy with improved prospects of clinical tumor rejection....

  19. Dll4 blockade potentiates the anti-tumor effects of VEGF inhibition in renal cell carcinoma patient-derived xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiersten Marie Miles

    Full Text Available The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4 is highly expressed in vascular endothelium and has been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. Blockade of the Dll4-Notch pathway in preclinical cancer models has been associated with non-productive angiogenesis and reduced tumor growth. Given the cross-talk between the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Delta-Notch pathways in tumor angiogenesis, we examined the activity of a function-blocking Dll4 antibody, REGN1035, alone and in combination with anti-VEGF therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC.Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice bearing patient-derived clear cell RCC xenografts were treated with REGN1035 and in combination with the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib or the VEGF blocker ziv-aflibercept. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses were carried out, as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examinations pre and 24 hours and 2 weeks post treatment. Single agent treatment with REGN1035 resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition (36-62% that was equivalent to or exceeded the single agent anti-tumor activity of the VEGF pathway inhibitors sunitinib (38-54% and ziv-aflibercept (46%. Importantly, combination treatments with REGN1035 plus VEGF inhibitors resulted in enhanced anti-tumor effects (72-80% growth inhibition, including some tumor regression. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a marked decrease in tumor perfusion in all treatment groups. Interestingly, anti-tumor efficacy of the combination of REGN1035 and ziv-aflibercept was also observed in a sunitinib resistant ccRCC model.Overall, these findings demonstrate the potent anti-tumor activity of Dll4 blockade in RCC patient-derived tumors and a combination benefit for the simultaneous targeting of the Dll4 and VEGF signaling pathways, highlighting the therapeutic potential of this treatment modality in RCC.

  20. Glycosystems in nanotechnology: Gold glyconanoparticles as carrier for anti-HIV prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Chiodo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic approach for the treatment of HIV infection is based on the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs. Notwithstanding HAART has shown different drawbacks like toxic side effects and the emergence of viral multidrug resistance. Nanotechnology offers new tools to improve HIV drug treatment and prevention. In this scenario, gold nanoparticles are an interesting chemical tool to design and prepare smart and efficient drug-delivery systems. Here we describe the preparation and antiviral activity of carbohydrate-coated gold nanoparticles loaded with anti-HIV prodrug candidates. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors abacavir and lamivudine have been converted to the corresponding thiol-ending ester derivatives and then conjugated to ~3 nm glucose-coated gold nanoparticles by means of “thiol-for-thiol” ligand place exchange reactions. The drugs-containing glyconanoparticles were characterized and the pH-mediated release of the drug from the nanoparticle has been determined. The antiviral activity was tested by evaluating the replication of NL4-3 HIV in TZM-bl infected cells. The proof-of-principle presented in this work aims to introduce gold glyconanoparticles as a new multifunctional drug-delivery system in the therapy against HIV.

  1. Chloro-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazole Derivatives Displaying Anti-HIV Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Saturnino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the progress achieved by anti-retroviral drug research in the last decades, the discovery of novel compounds endowed with selective antiviral activity and reduced side effects is still a necessity. At present, the most urgent requirement includes the improvement of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus prevention and sexual transmission and the development of new drugs to treat the chronic lifelong infection. Methods: Six chloro-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles (2a,b–4a,b have been prepared following opportunely modified known chemical procedures and tested in luciferase and Escherichia coli β-galactosidase expressing CD4+, CXCR4+, CCR5+ TZM-bl cells. Results and Conclusion: a preliminary biological investigation on the synthesized small series of chloro-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles has been carried out. Among all tested compounds, a nitro-derivative (3b showed the most interesting profile representing a suitable lead for the development of novel anti-HIV drugs.

  2. The anti-HIV activity of ADS-J1 targets the HIV-1 gp120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armand-Ugon, Mercedes; Clotet-Codina, Imma; Tintori, Cristina; Manetti, Fabrizio; Clotet, Bonaventura; Botta, Maurizio; Este, Jose A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent data suggest that heparin sulfates may bind to a CD4 induced epitope in the HIV-1 gp120 that constitutes the coreceptor binding site. We have studied the mechanism of action of ADS-J1, a non-peptidic compound selected by docking analysis to interact with gp41 and to interfere with the formation of N-36/C-34 complexes in sandwich ELISA experiments. We show that ADS-J1 blocked the binding of wild-type HIV-1 NL4-3 strain to MT-4 cells but not virus-cell binding of a polyanion-resistant virus. However, ADS-J1 blocked the replication of polyanion-resistant, T-20- and C34-resistant HIV-1, suggesting a second mechanism of action. Development of resistance to ADS-J1 on the polyanion-resistant HIV-1 led to mutations in gp120 coreceptor binding site and not in gp41. Time of addition experiments confirmed that ADS-J1, but not polyanions such as dextran sulfate or AR177, worked at a step that mimics the activity of an HIV coreceptor antagonist but prior to gp41-dependent fusion. We conclude that ADS-J1 may bind to the HIV coreceptor binding site as its mechanism of anti-HIV activity

  3. Anti-HIV-1 cycloartanes from leaves and twigs of Gardenia thailandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pohmakotr, Manat; Yoosook, Chalobon; Kasisit, Jittra; Napaswat, Chanita; Santisuk, Thawatchai; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2004-04-01

    Thailandiol ( 1), gardenolic acid A ( 2), quadrangularic acid E ( 3) and 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cycloart-24(31)-en-28-oic acid ( 4) have been isolated from the leaves and twigs of Gardenia thailandica Tirveng (order: Rubiales; family: Rubiaceae). In addition, 5-hydroxy-7,2',3',4',5',6'-hexamethoxyflavone ( 5), 5,7-dihydroxy-2',3', 4',5',6'-pentamethoxyflavone ( 6), 5-hydroxy-7,2',3',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone ( 7) and 5,7-dihydroxy-2',3',4',5'-tetramethoxyflavone ( 8) were also isolated from the same source. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Crude extracts and compounds 1 - 4 displayed anti-HIV-1 activities as determined by using the (Delta)(Tat/Rev)MC99 virus and 1A2 cell line system. The EC (50) values determined by the syncytium assay ranged from < 7.8 to 110 microg/mL. They also exhibited moderate to high activities in reverse transcriptase (RT) assay; the IC (50) values of compounds 1 - 4, ranged from < 22.5 to 156.8 microg/mL.

  4. Synthesis, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-HIV activities of norfloxacin mannich bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeya, S N; Sriram, D; Nath, G; De Clercq, E

    2000-02-01

    Mannich bases of norfloxacin were synthesized by reacting them with formaldehyde and several isatin derivatives. Their chemical structures have been confirmed by means of their IR, 1H-NMR data and by elemental analysis. Investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of compounds was done by the agar dilution method against 28 pathogenic bacteria, eight pathogenic fungi and anti-HIV activity against replication of HIV-1 (III B) in MT-4 cells. The in vivo antibacterial efficacy of selected derivatives was determined using a mouse infection model. All the synthesized compounds are more active than norfloxacin against the 13 bacteria tested. The compounds are also more active than the standard drug clotrimazole against Histoplasma capsulatum. Two compounds S-8 and S-9 have shown inhibition against HIV-1 (III B) with EC(50) values of 11.3 and 13.9 microgram/mL, respectively. In the mouse protection test, two compounds S-4 (ED(50): 1.25 mg/kg) and S-9 (ED(50): 1.62 mg/kg) are more active than norfloxacin (ED(50): 6mg/kg). Among the compounds tested, 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxo-7[[N(4)-[5'-bromo-3'-(4'-amino-5'-trimethoxybenzylpyr imidin-2'-yl]-imino-1'-isatinyl]methyl]N(1)-piperazinyl]-3-q uinoline carboxylicacid (S-9) showed promising activity in all the three tests.

  5. CXCR4-derived synthetic peptides inducing anti-HIV-1 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Chie; Nomura, Wataru; Narumi, Tetsuo; Fujino, Masayuki; Nakahara, Toru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Murakami, Tsutomu; Tamamura, Hirokazu

    2013-11-15

    Despite almost 30 years since the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), development of effective AIDS vaccines has been hindered by the high mutability of HIV-1. The HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are genetically stable, but viral proteins may mutate rapidly during the course of infection. CXCR4 is a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, possessing an N-terminal region (NT) and three extracellular loops (ECL1-3). Previous studies have shown that the CXCR4-ED-derived peptides inhibit the entry of HIV-1 by interacting with gp120, an HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. In the present study, antigenicity of CXCR4-derived peptides has been investigated and the anti-HIV-1 effects of induced antisera have been assessed. It was found that CXCR4-ED-derived antigen molecules immunize mice, showing that the linear peptides have higher antigenicity than the cyclic peptides. The L1- and L2-induced antisera inhibited the HIV-1 entry significantly, while anti-N1 antibodies have no inhibitory activity. This study produced promising examples for the design of AIDS vaccines which target the human protein and can overcome mutability of HIV-1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-HIV therapy with AZT prodrugs: AZT phosphonate derivatives, current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandazhinskaya, Anastasiya; Matyugina, Elena; Shirokova, Elena

    2010-06-01

    AIDS, a disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus, was called 'plague of the twentieth century'. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), the first compound approved for the treatment of HIV, is still a mandatory component of treatment schemes. However, its toxicity stimulated a search for new agents. This review presents the history and current state of the design of AZT prodrugs based on its phosphonate derivatives. Although every effort was made to include as many AZT structures bearing phosphonate residues and demonstrate the variety they offer, we also concentrated on the studies performed in our laboratory. Special attention was also paid to AZT 5'-H-phosphonate (phosphazide, Nikavir) approved in the Russian Federation as a drug for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The prodrug strategy applied to AZT phosphonate derivatives enriched chemistry, biology and medicine not only with new knowledge, methods and structures, but also with a new anti-HIV drug Nikavir. Currently, study of another phosphonate, AZT 5'-aminocarbonylphosphonate, is underway. Slow release of AZT following oral administration and penetration into cells, decreased toxicity and the lack of cumulative properties make the compounds of this group promising as extended-release forms of AZT.

  7. Anti-HIV activities of the compounds isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum and Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Wei; Sun, Ming-Xue; Wang, Yun-Hua; Yang, Liu-Meng; Yang, Ying-Ruo; Huang, Ning; Xuan, Li-Jiang; Xu, Ya-Ming; Bai, Dong-Lu; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Xiao, Kai

    2010-06-01

    The 70 % EtOH extract of Polygonum cuspidatum showed inhibitory action against HIV-1-induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations in vitro with a 50 % effective concentration (EC(50)) of 13.94 +/- 3.41 microg/mL. Through bioactivity-guided fractionation, 20 phenolic compounds, including eight stilbenoids, were isolated from the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum, and their anti-HIV-1 activities were evaluated. Results showed that compounds 1, 13, 14, and 16 demonstrated fairly strong antiviral activity against HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects in C8166 lymphocytes at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with EC (50) values of 4.37 +/- 1.96 microg/mL, 19.97 +/- 5.09, 14.4 +/- 1.34 microg/mL, and 11.29 +/- 6.26 microg/mL and therapeutic index (TI) values of 8.12, > 10.02, > 13.89, and > 17.71, respectively. Other compounds showed either weak or no effects. Compound 6 also showed weak inhibition (153.42 +/- 19.25 microg/mL); however, it possesses very good water solubility and showed almost no cytotoxicity (> 2000 microg/mL), therefore achieving a fairly good TI (13.04). The activities of the two compounds (3 and 18) from Polygonum multiflorum were also assayed. The relationship between molecular structures and their bioactivities was also discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  8. Recombinant expression and purification of a MAP30-cell penetrating peptide fusion protein with higher anti-tumor bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiang; Yang, Xu-Zhong; Fu, Long-Yun; Lu, Yv-Ting; Lu, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Fu-Jun

    2015-07-01

    MAP30 (Momordica Antiviral Protein 30 Kd), a single-stranded type-I ribosome inactivating protein, possesses versatile biological activities including anti-tumor abilities. However, the low efficiency penetrating into tumor cells hampers the tumoricidal effect of MAP30. This paper describes MAP30 fused with a human-derived cell penetrating peptide HBD which overcome the low uptake efficiency by tumor cells and exhibits higher anti-tumor bioactivity. MAP30 gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of Momordica charantia and the recombinant plasmid pET28b-MAP30-HBD was established and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MAP30-HBD protein (rMAP30-HBD) was expressed in a soluble form after being induced by 0.5mM IPTG for 14h at 15°C. The recombinant protein was purified to greater than 95% purity with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The rMAP30-HBD protein not only has topological inactivation and protein translation inhibition activity but also showed significant improvements in cytotoxic activity compared to that of the rMAP30 protein without HBD in the tested tumor cell lines, and induced higher apoptosis rates in HeLa cells analyzed by Annexin V-FITC with FACS. This paper demonstrated a new method for improving MAP30 protein anti-tumor activity and might have potential applications in cancer therapy area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 4-Bromophenylhydrazinyl benzenesulfonylphenylureas as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors with in vivo target inhibition and anti-tumor efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yu; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Song, Jen-Shin; Hung, Ming-Shiu; Cheng, Ming-Fu; Liao, Fang-Yu; Li, An-Shiou; Cheng, Shu-Ying; Lin, Li-Mei; Chiu, Chun-Hsien; Wu, Mine-Hsine; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Hsiao, Wenchi; Sun, Manwu; Wang, Yi-Hsin; Huang, Chin-Hsiang; Tang, Ya-Chu; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Huang, Zih-Ting; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Shih, Chuan; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Wu, Su-Ying; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Ueng, Shau-Hua

    2018-02-12

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is a heme-containing enzyme implicated in the down regulation of the anti-tumor immune response, and considered a promising anti-cancer drug target. Several pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, Merck, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, are known to be in pursuit of IDO inhibitors, and Incyte recently reported good results in the phase II clinical trial of the IDO inhibitor Epacadostat. In previous work, we developed a series of IDO inhibitors based on a sulfonylhydrazide core structure, and explored how they could serve as potent IDO inhibitors with good drug profiles. Herein, we disclose the development of the 4-bromophenylhydrazinyl benzenesulfonylphenylurea 5k, a potent IDO inhibitor which demonstrated 25% tumor growth inhibition in a murine CT26 syngeneic model on day 18 with 100 mg/kg oral administration twice daily, and a 30% reduction in tumor weight. Pharmacodynamic testing of 5k found it to cause a 25% and 21% reduction in kyn/trp ratio at the plasma and tumor, respectively. In the CT26 tumor model, 5k was found to slightly increase the percentage of CD3 + T cells and lymphocyte responsiveness, indicating that 5k may have potential in modulating anti-tumor immunity. These data suggest 5k to be worthy of further investigation in the development of anti-tumor drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-tumor activity of mycophenolate mofetil against human and mouse tumors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressler, R J; Garvin, L J; Slate, D L

    1994-05-15

    Cultured tumor cell lines, tumor xenografts grown in athymic nude mice, and a murine experimental metastasis model were used to assess the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the potent IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor, mycophenolic acid (MPA), and its morpholinoethyl ester pro-drug, mycophenolate mofetil (MM). The growth of all the cell lines tested was inhibited by MPA in vitro, with EC50 values ranging from less than 0.1 microM to 3.9 microM. Mice were monitored for s.c. tumor outgrowth in the case of human tumor xenograft models or survival time for the murine experimental metastasis model. Treatment with MM p.o. was started 24 hr after tumor challenge or after tumors became palpable. Treatment of athymic nude mice bearing A3.01 (T-lymphoblast), Molt-4 (T-cell leukemia), CaPan-2 (pancreatic adenocarcinoma), CaLu-3 (non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma), LS174T and T84 (colon adenocarcinoma), and Daudi (B-cell lymphoma) human tumor xenografts with MM significantly inhibited s.c. tumor growth. Treatment of BALB/c mice with MM after i.v. injection of murine RAW117-H10 lymphoma cells in an experimental metastasis assay resulted in increased survival time for treated animals. No significant inhibitory effect on s.c. tumor outgrowth was seen with MM treatment of SK-Hep-1, a human hepatic endothelioma, or Hep-3B, a liver adenocarcinoma, at any of the doses tested.

  11. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Rainer J.; Champ, Colin E.; Otto, Christoph; Kämmerer, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently ketogenic diets (KDs) are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice. Methods We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume) of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD). For 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria either a mean survival time ratio (MR) or hazard ratio (HR) between the KD and SD groups could be obtained. The posterior estimates for the MR and HR averaged over four priors on the between-study heterogeneity τ2 were MR = 0.85 (95% highest posterior density interval (HPDI) = [0.73, 0.97]) and HR = 0.55 (95% HPDI = [0.26, 0.87]), indicating a significant overall benefit of the KD in terms of prolonged mean survival times and reduced hazard rate. All studies that used a brain tumor model also chose a late starting point for the KD (at least one day after tumor initiation) which accounted for 26% of the heterogeneity. In this subgroup the KD was less effective (MR = 0.89, 95% HPDI = [0.76, 1.04]). Conclusions There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice. Future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors. PMID:27159218

  12. Anti-tumor immunity generated by photodynamic therapy in a metastatic murine tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a modality for the treatment of cancer involving excitation of photosensitizers with harmless visible light producing reactive oxygen species. The major biological effects of PDT are apoptosis of tumor cells, destruction of the blood supply and activation of the immune system. The objective of this study is to compare in an animal model of metastatic cancer, PDT alone and PDT combined with low-dose cyclophosphamide (CY). Since the tumor we used is highly metastatic, it is necessary to generate anti-tumor immunity using PDT to both cure the primary tumor and prevent death from metastasis. This immunity may be potentiated by low dose CY. In our model we used J774 cells (a Balb/c reticulum cell sarcoma line with the characteristics of macrophages) and the following PDT regimen: benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD, 2mg/kg injected IV followed after 15 min by 150 J/cm2 of 690-nm light). CY (50 mg/kg i.p.) was injected 48 hours before light delivery. BPD-PDT led to complete regression of the primary tumor in more than half the mice but no permanent cures were obtained. BPD-PDT in combination with CY led to 60% permanent cures. CY alone gave no permanent cures but did provide a survival advantage. To probe permanent immunity cured animals were rechallenged with the same tumor cell line and the tumors were rejected in 71% of mice cured with BPD-PDT plus CY. We conclude that BPD-PDT in combination with CY gives best overall results and that this is attributable to immunological response activation in addition to PDT-mediated destruction of the tumor.

  13. Optimization of processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum and its anti-tumor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuting; Cai, Yongjiang; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Hongchun; Wang, Xiulin

    2015-03-01

    Rhizoma Pinelliae is the dried tuber of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that Rhizoma Pinelliae has antitussive, antiemetic, glandular secretion inhibiting and antitumor effects. To optimize the processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum, and to study its anti-tumor effect. Orthogonal design method was applied to analyze the effects of factors such as licorice concentration volume, soaking time and processing temperature on processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum; MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the inhibitory effect of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum on Bel-7402 cells. During the processing of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum, the size of influence of licorice concentration volume, soaking time and processing temperature on processing results of Rhizoma Pinelliae was: B>C>A in descending order, i.e. soaking time>processing temperature>licorice concentration volume, different concentrations of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum ethanol extracts could all exert inhibitory effect on the growth and proliferation of Bel-7402 cells, and with the increase of drug concentration and the extension of culture time, the cell proliferation inhibitory effect of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum ethanol extract became more and more evident. Apoptotic rate of 1.5 mg/ml Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum ethanol extract group reached 13.53%, the difference was extremely significant compared with the control group. In conclusion the factor most influential to the processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum was soaking time, followed by processing temperature, the factor least influential was licorice concentration volume. Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum has inhibitory effect on growth and proliferation of Bel-7402 cells.

  14. The Elastin Receptor Complex: a unique matricellular receptor with high anti-tumoral potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eScandolera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elastin, one of the longest-lived proteins, confers elasticity to tissues with high mechanical constraints. During aging or pathophysiological conditions such as cancer progression, this insoluble polymer of tropoelastin undergoes an important degradation leading to the release of bioactive elastin-derived peptides (EDP, named elastokines. EDP exhibit several biological functions able to drive tumor development by regulating cell proliferation, invasion, survival, angiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase expression in various tumor and stromal cells. Although several receptors have been suggested to bind elastokines (αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins, galectin-3, their main receptor remains the Elastin Receptor Complex (ERC. This heterotrimer comprises a peripheral subunit, named Elastin Binding Protein (EBP, associated to the Protective Protein/Cathepsin A (PPCA. The latter is bound to a membrane-associated protein called Neuraminidase-1 (Neu-1. The pro-tumoral effects of elastokines have been linked to their binding onto EBP. Additionally, Neu-1 sialidase activity is essential for their signal transduction. Consistently, EDP-EBP interaction and Neu-1 activity emerge as original anti-tumoral targets. Interestingly, besides its direct involvement in cancer progression, the ERC also regulates diabetes outcome and thrombosis, an important risk factor for cancer development and a vascular process highly increased in patients suffering from cancer. In this review, we will describe ERC and elastokines involvement in cancer development suggesting that this unique receptor would be a promising therapeutic target. We will also discuss the pharmacological concepts aiming at blocking its pro-tumoral activities. Finally, its emerging role in cancer-associated complications and pathologies such as diabetes and thrombotic events will be also considered.

  15. Dysregulation of innate immunity in ulcerative colitis patients who fail anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Angela C; Mallon, Dominic; Radford-Smith, Graham; Boyer, Julien; Piche, Thierry; Prescott, Susan L; Lawrance, Ian C; Tulic, Meri K

    2016-11-07

    To study the innate immune function in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who fail to respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Effects of anti-TNF therapy, inflammation and medications on innate immune function were assessed by measuring peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine expression from 18 inflammatory bowel disease patients pre- and 3 mo post-anti-TNF therapy. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and cytokine production post TLR stimulation was assessed in UC "responders" ( n = 12) and "non-responders" ( n = 12) and compared to healthy controls ( n = 12). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in blood to assess disease severity/activity and inflammation. Pro-inflammatory (TNF, IL-1β, IL-6), immuno-regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, IFNγ) and Th2 (IL-9, IL-13, IL-17A) cytokine expression was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while TLR cellular composition and intracellular signalling was assessed with FACS. Prior to anti-TNF therapy, responders and non-responders had similar level of disease severity and activity. PBMC's ability to respond to TLR stimulation was not affected by TNF therapy, patient's severity of the disease and inflammation or their medication use. At baseline, non-responders had elevated innate but not adaptive immune responses compared to responders ( P innate cytokine responses to all TLRs compared to healthy controls ( P innate immune dysfunction was associated with reduced number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) ( P innate immunity in non-responders may explain reduced efficacy to anti-TNF therapy. These serological markers may prove useful in predicting the outcome of costly anti-TNF therapy.

  16. The anti-tumor efficacy of nanoparticulate form of ICD-85 versus free form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Mirakabadi, A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs have been intensively studied as a possible way to enhance anti-tumor efficacy while reducing side effects. ICD-85, derived from the venom of two separate species of venomous animals, has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer activity. In this report polymer based sodium alginate nanoparticles of ICD-85 was used to enhance its therapeutic effects and reduce its side effects. The inhibitory effect was evaluated by MTT assay. The necrotic effect was assessed using LDH assay. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by caspase-8 colorimetric assay kit. Cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cells demonstrated enhanced efficacy of ICD-85 loaded NPs compared to the free ICD-85. The IC50 values obtained in HeLa cells after 48 h, for free ICD-85 and ICD-85 loaded NPs were 26±2.9μg ml-1 and 18±2.5μg ml-1, respectively. While it was observed that free ICD-85 exhibits mild cytotoxicity towards normal MRC-5 cells (IC50>60μg ml-1, ICD-85 loaded NPs was found to have higher efficacy in anti-proliferative activity on HeLa cells in vitro without any significant cytotoxic effect on normal MRC-5 cells. The apoptosis-induction mechanism by both form of ICD-85 on HeLa cells was found to be through activation of caspase-8 with approximately 2 fold greater of ICD-85 loaded NPs as compared to free ICD-85. Our work reveals that although ICD-85 in free form is relatively selective to inhibit the growth of cancer cells via apoptosis as compared to normal cells, but nanoparticulate form increases its selectivity towards cancer cells.

  17. A sesquiterpenelactone from Inula britannica induces anti-tumor effects dependent on Bcl-2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Mohamed M; Bai, Nai-Sheng; Chi-Tang-Ho; Rosen, Robert T; White, Eileen; Perez, Denise; Dipaola, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    The over-expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in cancer is associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. The phosphorylation of Bcl-2 is one mechanism by which anti-microtubule agents, such as paclitaxel or docetaxel, may inactivate Bcl-2. Although initially active in clinical studies, current anti-microtubule agents are only temporarily effective and the discovery of new agents is warranted. We isolated and identified two known sesquiterpenelactones, O, O-diacetylbritannilactone (OODABL) and O-acetylbritaanilactone (OABL) from the flowers of the medicinal plant Inula britannica and studied their mechanism of anti-tumor effects. To determine the biological significance of Bcl-2 phosphorylation, we used a baby rat kidney (BRK-p53) cell line that was transformed with EIA and a temperature-sensitive mutant p53. The BRK-p53 cell line was transfected with either a vector with wild type Bcl-2 or a vector in which Bcl-2 had mutations in the paclitaxel phosphorylation sites (pcDNA3.1 V5/His Bcl-2 S70, 87A). OODABL and OABL induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 in breast, ovary and prostate cancer cell lines and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Using the BRK cells with mutant Bcl-2 (BRK-Bcl-2-mt) and control (BRK-Bcl-2-wt), we found that OODABL induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at sites similar to paclitaxel. Phosphorylation of Bcl-2 was important for OODABL-induced cytotoxicity, since the abrogation of phosphorylation in BRK-Bcl-2-mt cells decreased OODABL-induced cytotoxicity. We concluded that OODABL is cytotoxic in multiple tumor cell lines, and the cytotoxicity is dependent, at least in part, on the phosphorylation of Bcl-2.

  18. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Rainer J; Champ, Colin E; Otto, Christoph; Kämmerer, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Currently ketogenic diets (KDs) are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice. We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume) of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD). For 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria either a mean survival time ratio (MR) or hazard ratio (HR) between the KD and SD groups could be obtained. The posterior estimates for the MR and HR averaged over four priors on the between-study heterogeneity τ2 were MR = 0.85 (95% highest posterior density interval (HPDI) = [0.73, 0.97]) and HR = 0.55 (95% HPDI = [0.26, 0.87]), indicating a significant overall benefit of the KD in terms of prolonged mean survival times and reduced hazard rate. All studies that used a brain tumor model also chose a late starting point for the KD (at least one day after tumor initiation) which accounted for 26% of the heterogeneity. In this subgroup the KD was less effective (MR = 0.89, 95% HPDI = [0.76, 1.04]). There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice. Future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors.

  19. The anti-tumor effect and bioactive phytochemicals of Hedyotis diffusa willd on ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Qi, Bing; Jiang, Guoqiang; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Pei; Ma, Yuan; Li, Weiling

    2016-11-04

    Hedyotis diffusa willd (HDW) is a widely used medicinal herb in China. It processed various medicinal properties including antioxidative, anti-inflamatory and anti-cancer effects. This study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of HDW on ovarian cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms as well as identify the bioactive compounds. Effects of HDW on the viability of ovarian cancer A2780 cells were detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by cell morphologic observation through DAPI staining and flow cytometry analysis. The migration of ovarian cancer cells which exposed to HDW were detected by wound healing and transwell assays. The protein levels of caspase 3/9, Bcl-2 and MMP-2/9 in human ovarian cancer cells treated with HDW were assessed by western blotting analysis. The potential bioactive compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. HDW significantly inhibited the growth of A2780 ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis by HDW was associated with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase 3/9. Wound healing and transwell chamber assays indicated HDW suppressed the migration of ovarian cancer cells. HDW dramatically decreased MMP-2/9 expression. A HPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of HDW indicated the presence of 13 flavonoids compounds and one anthraquinone compound, which may contribute to the anticancer activity of the HDW. HDW effectively restricted the growth of ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, HDW suppressed the migration of ovarian cancer cells through down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. These results showed that HDW hold potential therapeutic effect for ovarian cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Saffron and natural carotenoids: Biochemical activities and anti-tumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhassani, Azam; Khavari, Afshin; Bathaie, S Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, is rich in carotenoids. Two main natural carotenoids of saffron, crocin and crocetin, are responsible for its color. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of some carotenoids have potent anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles in several tissues. The reports represent that the use of carotenoids without the potential for conversion to vitamin A may provide further protection and avoid toxicity. The mechanisms underlying cancer chemo-preventive activities of carotenoids include modulation of carcinogen metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell cycle progression, inhibition of cell proliferation, anti-oxidant activity, immune modulation, enhancement of cell differentiation, stimulation of cell-to-cell gap junction communication, apoptosis and retinoid-dependent signaling. Taken together, different hypotheses for the antitumor actions of saffron and its components have been proposed such as a) the inhibitory effect on cellular DNA and RNA synthesis, but not on protein synthesis; b) the inhibitory effect on free radical chain reactions; c) the metabolic conversion of naturally occurring carotenoids to retinoids; d) the interaction of carotenoids with topoisomerase II, an enzyme involved in cellular DNA-protein interaction. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory activity of saffron was studied on driving toward Th1 and Th2 limbs of the immune system. In this mini-review, we briefly describe biochemical and immunological activities and chemo-preventive properties of saffron and natural carotenoids as an anticancer drug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer J Klement

    Full Text Available Currently ketogenic diets (KDs are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice.We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD. For 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria either a mean survival time ratio (MR or hazard ratio (HR between the KD and SD groups could be obtained. The posterior estimates for the MR and HR averaged over four priors on the between-study heterogeneity τ2 were MR = 0.85 (95% highest posterior density interval (HPDI = [0.73, 0.97] and HR = 0.55 (95% HPDI = [0.26, 0.87], indicating a significant overall benefit of the KD in terms of prolonged mean survival times and reduced hazard rate. All studies that used a brain tumor model also chose a late starting point for the KD (at least one day after tumor initiation which accounted for 26% of the heterogeneity. In this subgroup the KD was less effective (MR = 0.89, 95% HPDI = [0.76, 1.04].There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice. Future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors.

  2. Contribution of NK cell education to both direct and anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent NK cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Anne B; Kent, Stephen J; Parsons, Matthew S

    2018-03-07

    Antibody Fc-dependent functions are linked to prevention and control of HIV-1 infection. Basic NK cell biology is likely key to understanding the contributions anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent NK cell activation and cytolysis make to HIV-1 susceptibility and disease progression. The importance of NK cell education through inhibitory receptors specific for self-HLA-I in determining the potency of anti-HIV-1 antibody mediated NK cell activation and cytolysis is controversial. To address this issue more definitively we utilized HLA-I genotyping, flow cytometry staining panels and cytolysis assays to assess the functionality of educated and non-educated peripheral blood NK cells. We now demonstrate that educated NK cells are superior in terms of their capacity to become activated and/or mediate cytolysis following anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent stimulation. The profiles of activation observed were similar to those observed upon direct stimulation of NK cells with HLA-I devoid target cells. Non-educated NK cells make significantly lower contributions to total NK cell activation than would be expected from their frequency within the total NK cell population (i.e., are hypofunctional) and educated NK cells make similar or higher contributions as their frequency in the total NK cell population. Finally, NK cells educated through at least one killer immunoglobulin-like receptor and NKG2A exhibited the most significant difference between actual and expected contribution to the total NK cell response, based on their frequency within the total NK cell population, suggesting summation of NK cell education through inhibitory receptors determines overall NK cell functionality. These observations have potential implications for understanding HIV-1 vaccine efficacy and disease progression. IMPORTANCE NK cells are major mediators of anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent functions, including cytokine production and cytolysis. The mechanisms controlling the capacity of individual NK cells to

  3. Anti-tumor effect of bisphosphonate (YM529 on non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Date Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background YM529 is a newly developed nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP classified as a third-generation BP that shows a 100-fold greater potency against bone resorption than pamidronate, a second-generation BP. This agent is, therefore expected to be extremely useful clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. Recently, YM529 as well as other third-generation BPs have also been shown to exert anti-tumor effects against various types of cancer cells both in vitro or/and in vivo. In this study, we investigate the anti-tumor effect of YM529 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 against 8 NSCLC cell lines (adenocarcinoma: H23, H1299, NCI-H1819, NCI-H2009, H44, A549, adenosquamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H125, squamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H157 were measured by MTS assay and calculated inhibition concentration 50 % (IC50 values. YM529 induced apoptosis of NCI-H1819 was examined by DNA fragmentation of 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis and flowcytometric analysis (sub-G1 method. We examined where YM529 given effect to apoptosis of NSCLC cells in signaling pathway of the mevalonate pathway by western blotting analysis. Results We found that there was direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 on 8 NSCLC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and their IC50 values were 2.1 to 7.9 μM and YM529 induced apoptosis and G1 arrest cell cycle with dose-dependent manner and YM529 caused down regulation of phospholyration of ERK1/2 in signaling pathways of NSCLC cell line (NCI-H1819. Conclusion Our study demonstrate that YM529 showed direct anti-tumor effect on NSCLC cell lines in vitro, which supports the possibility that third-generation BPs including YM529 can be one of therapeutic options for NSCLC.

  4. HIV testing among pregnant women in Brazil: rates and predictors Prueba anti-HIV en mujeres embarazadas en Brasil: tasas y predictivos Testagem anti-HIV em mulheres grávidas no Brasil: taxas e preditores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiléa G Veloso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess rates of offering and uptake of HIV testing and their predictors among women who attended prenatal care. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among postpartum women (N=2,234 who attended at least one prenatal care visit in 12 cities. Independent and probabilistic samples were selected in the cities studied. Sociodemographic data, information about prenatal care and access to HIV prevention interventions during the current pregnancy were collected. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to assess independent effects of the covariates on offering and uptake of HIV testing. Data collection took place between November 1999 and April 2000. RESULTS: Overall, 77.5% of the women reported undergoing HIV testing during the current pregnancy. Offering of HIV testing was positively associated with: previous knowledge about prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; higher number of prenatal care visits; higher level of education and being white. HIV testing acceptance rate was 92.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The study results indicate that dissemination of information about prevention of mother-to-child transmission among women may contribute to increasing HIV testing coverage during pregnancy. Non-white women with lower level of education should be prioritized. Strategies to increase attendance of vulnerable women to prenatal care and to raise awareness among health care workers are of utmost importance.OBJETIVO: Estimar las tasas de oferta y realización de la prueba anti-HIV y sus predictivos entre mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal, de base poblacional, con 2.234 puérperas en 12 ciudades de Brasil. Las muestras probabilísticas fueron seleccionadas independientemente por ciudad, entre puérperas que asistieron a por lo menos una visita prenatal. Se colectaron datos sociodemográficos, informaciones sobre cuidado prenatal y acceso a

  5. A randomized trial to assess anti-HIV activity in female genital tract secretions and soluble mucosal immunity following application of 1% tenofovir gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla J Keller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical and early phase clinical microbicide studies have not consistently predicted the outcome of efficacy trials. To address this gap, candidate biomarkers of microbicide pharmacodynamics and safety were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir gel, the first microbicide to demonstrate significant protection against HIV acquisition.30 women were randomized to apply a single daily dose of tenofovir or placebo gel for 14 consecutive days. Anti-HIV activity was measured in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL on Days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 by luciferase assay as a surrogate marker of pharmacodynamics. Endogenous activity against E. coli and HSV-2 and concentrations of immune mediators were quantified in CVL as candidate biomarkers of safety. Tenofovir levels were measured in CVL and blood.A significant increase in anti-HIV activity was detected in CVL from women who applied tenofovir gel compared to their endogenous anti-HIV activity in genital tract secretions on Day 0 and compared to activity in CVL from women in the placebo group. The activity correlated significantly with CVL concentration of tenofovir (r = 0.6, p<0.001 and fit a sigmoid E(max pharmacodynamic model. Anti-HIV activity in CVL from women who applied tenofovir persisted when virus was introduced in semen, whereas endogenous anti-HIV activity decreased. Tenofovir did not trigger an inflammatory response or induce sustained loss in endogenous antimicrobial activity or immune mediators.Tenofovir gel had no deleterious impact on soluble mucosal immunity. The increased anti-HIV activity in CVL, which persisted in the presence of semen and correlated with tenofovir concentration, is consistent with the efficacy observed in a recent clinical trial. These results promote quantified CVL anti-HIV activity as a surrogate of tissue pharmacodynamics and as a potential biomarker of adherence to product. This simple, feasible and inexpensive bioassay may promote the development

  6. Avaliação da testagem anti-HIV no pré-natal e na assistência ao parto no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marcondes Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a testagem anti-HIV durante a assistência pré-natal e ao parto no Sistema Único de Saúde. Métodos: estudo transversal conduzido em 2009 em 15 maternidades no Rio de Janeiro, sendo entrevistada amostra representativa de 835 parturientes e observados prontuários. Para avaliação da adequação da testagem anti-HIV foi elaborado um modelo lógico. Resultados: segundo informação das parturientes, 86,7% dispunham de sorologia não reagente do pré-natal e 55,7% foram submetidas ao teste rápido anti-HIV no hospital; em 49,9% dos casos o procedimento relativo ao teste rápido anti-HIV no hospital foi considerado adequado: mães com status ignorado de HIV do pré-natal submetidas ao teste rápido e mães com status conhecido não submetidas ao mesmo. Segundo dados do prontuário, 68,0% dispunham de sorologia não reagente e 79,6% foram submetidas ao teste rápido anti-HIV; em 50,9% dos casos o procedimento relativo ao teste rápido anti- HIV no hospital foi adequado. Conclusões: o protocolo de exames anti-HIV no pré-natal e na maternidade, vigentes em 2009, não foram cumpridos a contento, tanto por gerar procedimentos desnecessários quanto falhas na testagem da população alvo, ameaçando a instituição oportuna de medidas profiláticas de controle da transmissão vertical.

  7. Possible stimulation of anti-tumor immunity using repeated cold stress: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoja Sasa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phenomenon of hormesis, whereby small amounts of seemingly harmful or stressful agents can be beneficial for the health and lifespan of laboratory animals has been reported in literature. In particular, there is accumulating evidence that daily brief cold stress can increase both numbers and activity of peripheral cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, the major effectors of adaptive and innate tumor immunity, respectively. This type of regimen (for 8 days has been shown to improve survival of mice infected with intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which would also be consistent with enhanced cell-mediated immunity. Presentation of the hypothesis This paper hypothesizes that brief cold-water stress repeated daily over many months could enhance anti-tumor immunity and improve survival rate of a non-lymphoid cancer. The possible mechanism of the non-specific stimulation of cellular immunity by repeated cold stress appears to involve transient activation of the sympathetic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, as described in more detail in the text. Daily moderate cold hydrotherapy is known to reduce pain and does not appear to have noticeable adverse effects on normal test subjects, although some studies have shown that it can cause transient arrhythmias in patients with heart problems and can also inhibit humoral immunity. Sudden immersion in ice-cold water can cause transient pulmonary edema and increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier, thereby increasing mortality of neurovirulent infections. Testing the hypothesis The proposed procedure is an adapted cold swim (5–7 minutes at 20 degrees Celsius, includes gradual adaptation to be tested on a mouse tumor model. Mortality, tumor size, and measurements of cellular immunity (numbers and activity of peripheral CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer cells of the cold-exposed group would be compared to

  8. Photodynamic therapy stimulates anti-tumor immunity in a murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Wu, Mei X.; Kung, Andrew L.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2007-02-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death among modern peoples largely due to metastatic disease. The ideal cancer treatment should target both the primary tumor and the metastases with the minimal toxicity. This is best accomplished by educating the body's immune system to recognize the tumor as foreign so that after the primary tumor is destroyed, distant metastases will also be eradicated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the IV administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, priming of the immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and induction of heat-shock proteins. The induction of specific CD8+ T lymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy. We here report on PDT of mice bearing tumors that either do or do not express an established TAA. We utilized a BALB/c colon adenocarcinoma cell line termed CT26.CL25 retrovirally transduced to stably express β-galactosidase ( β-gal, a bacterial protein), and its non-β-gal expressing wild-type counterpart termed CT26 WT, as well as the control cell line consisting of CT26 transduced with the empty retroviral vector termed CT26-neo. All cells expressed class I MHC restriction element H-2Ld syngenic to BALB/c mice. Vascular PDT with a regimen of 1mg/kg BPD injected IV, and 120 J/cm2 of 690-nm laser light after 15 minutes successfully cured 100% of CT26.CL25 tumors but 0% of CT26-neo tumors and 0% of CT26 WT tumors. After 90 days tumor free interval the CT26.CL25 cured mice were rechallenged with CT26.CL25 tumor cells and 96% rejected the rechallenge while the CT26.CL25 cured mice did not reject a CT26 WT tumor cell challenge. Experiments with mice bearing two CT26.CL25 tumors (one

  9. Anti-HIV and immunomodulation activities of cacao mass lignin-carbohydrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kawano, Michiyo; Thet, May Maw; Hashimoto, Ken; Satoh, Kazue; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Haishima, Yuji; Maeda, Yuuichi; Sakurai, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a prominent antiviral and macrophage stimulatory activity of cacao lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) has been reported. However, the solubility and sterility of LCC have not been considered yet. In the present study, complete solubilisation and sterilisation was achieved by autoclaving under mild alkaline conditions and the previously reported biological activities were re-examined. LCCs were obtained by 1% NaOH extraction and acid precipitation, and a repeated extraction-precipitation cycle. Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine productions were assayed by the Griess method and ELISA, respectively. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical-scavenging activity was determined by ESR spectroscopy. Cacao mass LCC showed reproducibly higher anti-HIV activity than cacao husk LCC. Cacao mass LCC, up to 62.5 μg/ml, did not stimulate mouse macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 and J774.1) to produce NO, nor did it induce iNOS protein, in contrast to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cacao mass LCC and LPS synergistically stimulated iNOS protein expression, suggesting a different point of action. Cacao mass LCC induced tumour necrosis factor-α production markedly less than LPS, and did not induce interleukin-1β, interferon-α or interferon-γ. ESR spectroscopy showed that cacao mass LCC, but not LPS, scavenged NO produced from NOC-7. This study demonstrated several new biological activities of LCCs distinct from LPS and further confirmed the promising antiviral and immunomodulating activities of LCCs.

  10. Genistein modulates the anti-tumor activity of cisplatin in MCF-7 breast and HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Juan; Xie, Ming-Yong; Kluxen, Felix M; Diel, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    The function of genistein (GEN) on tumor prevention and tumor promotion is discussed controversially. A possible interference of GEN with chemotherapy has been only rarely addressed so far. In this study, effects of GEN on the anti-tumor activity of cisplatin (CIS) were investigated in the presence and absence of estradiol (10(-10) M) in MCF-7 breast and HT-29 colon cancer cells. Cells were treated with graded concentrations of GEN (10(-4)-10(-6) M), E2, CIS and combinations. Cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis were determined as well as the expression level of PCNA, Ki67 and BCL-2 family members. CIS and GEN 10(-4) M inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells in the presence and absence of E2. Co-treatment with CIS and 10(-4)M GEN resulted in additive effects. In concentrations of 10(-5) and 10(-6) M, GEN stimulated cell growth in MCF-7 cells. It promoted proliferation, inhibited apoptosis and counteracted the anti-tumor activity of CIS in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells. Particularly the ability of CIS to induce apoptosis was antagonized. In ER alpha-positive MCF-7 cells, but not in ER alpha-negative HT-29 cells, E2 was able to neutralize the anti-CIS effects of GEN. Our data provide evidence that GEN in the absence of E2, a situation which occurs in postmenopausal women, directly affects the anti-tumor activity of cytostatic drugs like CIS. The exact molecular mechanism has to be investigated in future studies.

  11. Fractional laser exposure induces neutrophil infiltration (N1 phenotype into the tumor and stimulates systemic anti-tumor immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Kawakubo

    Full Text Available Ablative fractional photothermolysis (aFP using a CO2 laser generates multiple small diameter tissue lesions within the irradiation field. aFP is commonly used for a wide variety of dermatological indications, including treatment of photodamaged skin and dyschromia, drug delivery and modification of scars due to acne, surgical procedures and burns. In this study we explore the utility of aFP for treating oncological indications, including induction of local tumor regression and inducing anti-tumor immunity, which is in marked contrast to current indications of aFP.We used a fractional CO2 laser to treat a tumor established by BALB/c colon carcinoma cell line (CT26.CL25, which expressed a tumor antigen, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal. aFP treated tumors grew significantly slower as compared to untreated controls. Complete remission after a single aFP treatment was observed in 47% of the mice. All survival mice from the tumor inoculation rejected re-inoculation of the CT26.CL25 colon carcinoma cells and moreover 80% of the survival mice rejected CT26 wild type colon carcinoma cells, which are parental cells of CT26.CL25 cells. Histologic section of the FP-treated tumors showed infiltrating neutrophil in the tumor early after aFP treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed aFP treatment abrogated the increase in regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg, which suppresses anti-tumor immunity and elicited the expansion of epitope-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, which were required to mediate the tumor-suppressing effect of aFP.We have demonstrated that aFP is able to induce a systemic anti-tumor adaptive immunity preventing tumor recurrence in a murine colon carcinoma in a mouse model. This study demonstrates a potential role of aFP treatments in oncology and further studies should be performed.

  12. Optimization of IL13Rα2-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Improved Anti-tumor Efficacy against Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christine E; Aguilar, Brenda; Starr, Renate; Yang, Xin; Chang, Wen-Chung; Weng, Lihong; Chang, Brenda; Sarkissian, Aniee; Brito, Alfonso; Sanchez, James F; Ostberg, Julie R; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Badie, Behnam; Barish, Michael E; Forman, Stephen J

    2018-01-03

    T cell immunotherapy is emerging as a powerful strategy to treat cancer and may improve outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We have developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy targeting IL-13 receptor α2 (IL13Rα2) for the treatment of GBM. Here, we describe the optimization of IL13Rα2-targeted CAR T cells, including the design of a 4-1BB (CD137) co-stimulatory CAR (IL13BBζ) and a manufacturing platform using enriched central memory T cells. Utilizing orthotopic human GBM models with patient-derived tumor sphere lines in NSG mice, we found that IL13BBζ-CAR T cells improved anti-tumor activity and T cell persistence as compared to first-generation IL13ζ-CAR CD8 + T cells that had shown evidence for bioactivity in patients. Investigating the impact of corticosteroids, given their frequent use in the clinical management of GBM, we demonstrate that low-dose dexamethasone does not diminish CAR T cell anti-tumor activity in vivo. Furthermore, we found that local intracranial delivery of CAR T cells elicits superior anti-tumor efficacy as compared to intravenous administration, with intraventricular infusions exhibiting possible benefit over intracranial tumor infusions in a multifocal disease model. Overall, these findings help define parameters for the clinical translation of CAR T cell therapy for the treatment of brain tumors. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immune-Modulation by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Implication on Anti-Tumor Immunity in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Amanda C.; Bernatchez, Chantale; Haymaker, Cara; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Hong, Waun Ki; Perez-Soler, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common toxicity caused by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, and has been associated with clinical efficacy. As EGFR inhibitors enhance the expression of antigen presenting molecules in affected skin keratinocytes, they may concurrently facilitate neo-antigen presentation in lung cancer tumor cells contributing to anti-tumor immunity. Here, we investigated the modulatory effect of the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib on antigen presenting molecules and PD-L1, prominent immune checkpoint protein, of skin keratinocytes and lung cancer cell lines to delineate the link between EGFR signaling pathway inhibition and potential anti-tumor immunity. Erlotinib up-regulated MHC-I and MHC-II proteins on IFNγ treated keratinocytes but abrogated IFNγ-induced expression of PD-L1, suggesting the potential role of infiltrating autoreactive T cells in the damage of keratinocytes in affected skin. Interestingly, the surface expression of MHC-I, MHC-II, and PD-L1 was up-regulated in response to IFNγ more often in lung cancer cell lines sensitive to erlotinib, but only expression of PD-L1 was inhibited by erlotinib. Further, erlotinib significantly increased T cell mediated cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Lastly, the analysis of gene expression dataset of 186 lung cancer cell lines from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia demonstrated that overexpression of PD-L1 was associated with sensitivity to erlotinib and higher expression of genes related to antigen presenting pathways and IFNγ signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the EGFR inhibitors can facilitate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses by breaking tolerance especially in EGFR driven lung cancer that are associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and genes related to antigen presentation and inflammation. PMID:27467256

  14. Immune-Modulation by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Implication on Anti-Tumor Immunity in Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin S Im

    Full Text Available Skin toxicity is the most common toxicity caused by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR inhibitors, and has been associated with clinical efficacy. As EGFR inhibitors enhance the expression of antigen presenting molecules in affected skin keratinocytes, they may concurrently facilitate neo-antigen presentation in lung cancer tumor cells contributing to anti-tumor immunity. Here, we investigated the modulatory effect of the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib on antigen presenting molecules and PD-L1, prominent immune checkpoint protein, of skin keratinocytes and lung cancer cell lines to delineate the link between EGFR signaling pathway inhibition and potential anti-tumor immunity. Erlotinib up-regulated MHC-I and MHC-II proteins on IFNγ treated keratinocytes but abrogated IFNγ-induced expression of PD-L1, suggesting the potential role of infiltrating autoreactive T cells in the damage of keratinocytes in affected skin. Interestingly, the surface expression of MHC-I, MHC-II, and PD-L1 was up-regulated in response to IFNγ more often in lung cancer cell lines sensitive to erlotinib, but only expression of PD-L1 was inhibited by erlotinib. Further, erlotinib significantly increased T cell mediated cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Lastly, the analysis of gene expression dataset of 186 lung cancer cell lines from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia demonstrated that overexpression of PD-L1 was associated with sensitivity to erlotinib and higher expression of genes related to antigen presenting pathways and IFNγ signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the EGFR inhibitors can facilitate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses by breaking tolerance especially in EGFR driven lung cancer that are associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and genes related to antigen presentation and inflammation.

  15. Phase I/II trial of the anti-HIV activity of mifepristone in HIV-infected subjects ACTG 5200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Para, Michael F; Schouten, Jeff; Rosenkranz, Susan L; Yu, Song; Weiner, David; Tebas, Pablo; White, C Jo; Reeds, Dominic; Lertora, Juan; Patterson, Kristine B; Daar, Eric S; Cavert, Winston; Brizz, Barbara

    2010-04-01

    Mifepristone is a glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor shown in vitro to have anti-HIV activity and anti-simian immunodeficiency virus activity in a macaque model. A phase I/II trial was performed to assess the drug's safety and anti-HIV activity. A 28-day double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of mifepristone at doses of 75 mg, 150 mg, and 225 mg given daily was conducted in HIV+ persons with CD4+ lymphocyte counts >or=350 cells per cubic millimeter who had no recent antiretroviral therapy. Fifty-six male and 1 female subjects with a median entry CD4+ lymphocyte count of 555 cells per cubic millimeter and plasma HIV-1 RNA of 15,623 copies per milliliter were accrued. Forty-five subjects (78.9%) were available for endpoint analysis. In each arm, changes from baseline to day 28 in plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ lymphocyte count were not significantly different from zero (no change). There was no relationship between mifepristone trough concentrations and plasma HIV-1 RNA. Day 28 morning plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in the 150 mg and 225 mg arms compared with placebo, confirming biologic activity, and returned to baseline by day 56. Serum lipids did not change during the trial. Fasting blood sugar was 2.5 mg/dL higher on day 28 in the mifepristone arms, but the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) did not change. Three subjects (7.3%) receiving mifepristone developed a grade 2 rash. Mifepristone at doses of 75-225 mg daily was safe and well-tolerated, but did not show significant anti-HIV activity.

  16. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 activity of a new iridoid glycoside isolated from Avicenna marina, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to check the efficacy of methanol seed extract of Avicenna marina and its column chromatographic fractions on Peripheral Blood Mono nuclear Cells (PBMCs) toxicity and HIV-1 replication. The anti-HIV-1 activities of crude methanol extract and its fractions were performed by use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and HIV-1 p24 antigen kit. A time of drug addiction approach was also done to identify target of anti-HIV compound. The activity of the extracts on CD4, CD3, CD19 and CD45 expression in lymphocytes population was performed by use of flow cytometry. The most active anti-HIV agent was detected by spectroscopic analysis as 2'-O-(4-methoxycinnamoyl) mussaenosidic acid. The apparent effective concentrations for 50% virus replication (EC50) of methanol extract and iridoid glycoside were 45 and 0.1 μg/ml respectively. The iridoid glycoside also did not have any observable effect on the proportion of CD4, CD3, CD19 and CD45 cells or on the intensity of their expressions on PBMCs. In addition, the expression level of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) on CD4(+) T cells were decreased in cells treated with this iridoid glycoside. The reduction of these two HIV coreceptors and the result of time of addition study demonstrated that this iridoid glycoside restricts HIV-1 replication on the early stage of HIV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-tumor activities of andrographolide, a diterpene from Andrographis paniculata, by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting VEGF level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; He, En-Qi; Wang, Lu; Liu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    Andrographolide (1), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herb (Andrographis paniculata), is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of 1 on various cancer cell lines in vitro. It induced apoptosis of prostate cancer (PC-3) cells (the most sensitive cell line among the cell lines screened) via the activation of caspase 3, up-regulation of bax, and down-regulation of bcl-2. Furthermore, its inhibitory activity on the level of vascular endothelial growth factor was also verified by ELISA.

  18. Natural Products as Anti-HIV Agents and Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND: A Brief Overview

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    Kesava Rao Venkata Kurapati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the threat of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS persists to rise, effective drug treatments are required to treat the infected people. Even though combination antiretroviral therapy (cART provides stable viral suppression, it is not devoid of undesirable side effects, especially in persons undergoing long-term treatment. The present therapy finds its limitations in the emergence of multidrug resistance and accordingly finding new drugs and novel targets is the need of the hour to treat the infected persons and further to attack HIV reservoirs in the body like brain, lymph nodes to achieve the ultimate goal of complete eradication of HIV and AIDS. Natural products such as plant-originated compounds and plant extracts have enormous potential to become drug leads with anti-HIV and neuroprotective activity. Accordingly, many research groups are exploring the biodiversity of the plant kingdom to find new and better anti-HIV drugs with novel mechanisms of action and for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The basic challenge that still persists is to develop viral replication-targeted therapy using novel anti-HIV compounds with new mode of action, accepted toxicity and less resistance profile. Against this backdrop, the World Health Organization (WHO suggested the need to evaluate ethno-medicines for the management of HIV/AIDS. Consequently, there is need to evaluate traditional medicine, particularly medicinal plants and other natural products that may yield effective and affordable therapeutic agents. Although there are a good number of reports on traditional uses of plants to treat various diseases, knowledge of herbal remedies used to manage HIV/AIDS and HAND are scanty, vague and not well documented. In this review, plant substances showing a promising action that is anti-HIV and HAND will be explored along with what they interact. Since some plant substances are also known to modulate

  19. Diarylpyrimidine-dihydrobenzyloxopyrimidine hybrids: new, wide-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents active at (sub)-nanomolar level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotili, Dante; Tarantino, Domenico; Artico, Marino; Nawrozkij, Maxim B; Gonzalez-Ortega, Emmanuel; Clotet, Bonaventura; Samuele, Alberta; Esté, José A; Maga, Giovanni; Mai, Antonello

    2011-04-28

    Here, we describe a novel small series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that combine peculiar structural features of diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) and dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidines (DABOs). These DAPY-DABO hybrids (1-4) showed a characteristic SAR profile and a nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity at both enzymatic and cellular level. In particular, the two compounds 4d and 2d, with a (sub)nanomolar activity against wild-type and clinically relevant HIV-1 mutant strains, were selected as lead compounds for next optimization studies.

  20. Structure-activity relationship study of phenylpyrazole derivatives as a novel class of anti-HIV agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Kato, Takayuki; Hirai, Atsushi; Kurihara, Hideki; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Maeta, Hideki; Togami, Hiroaki; Shimura, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Masao; Okazaki, Shiho; Takeuchi, Tomoki; Ohno, Hiroaki; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2013-08-15

    The structure-activity relationship of phenylpyrazole derivative 1 was investigated for the development of novel anti-HIV agents. Initial efforts revealed that the diazenyl group can be replaced by an aminomethylene group. In addition, we synthesized various derivatives by the reductive amination of benzaldehydes with 5-aminopyrazoles and carried out parallel structural optimization on the benzyl group and the pyrazole ring. This optimization led to a six-fold more potent derivative 32j than the lead compound 1, and this derivative has a 3',4'-dichloro-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera...... on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...

  2. In vitro anti-HIV and antioxidant activity of Hoodia gordonii (Apocynaceae), a commercial plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapewangolo, Petrina; Knott, Michael; Shithigona, Regina E K; Uusiku, Sylvia L; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha

    2016-10-24

    Hoodia gordonii products are widely commercialized for anti-obesity purposes; however, minimal research is available on the other health properties demonstrated by this popular herbal plant. H. gordonii crude extracts (ethanol and ethyl acetate) were assayed for in vitro anti-HIV-1 protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase activity. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assays were used for the antioxidant analysis. In addition, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses of the extracts were determined using standard methods. H. gordonii extract demonstrated good inhibition against HIV RT with IC 50 values of 73.55 ± 0.04 and 69.81 ± 9.45 μg/mL for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Both extracts also demonstrated inhibitory activity against HIV PR with IC 50 values of 97.29 ± 0.01 and 63.76 ± 9.01 μg/mL for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. In addition, H. gordonii also showed good antioxidant activity with IC 50 values of 124.6 ± 11.3 and 126.2 ± 3.15 μg/mL obtained for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. The reducing power of H. gordonii extracts increased as the concentration increased which confirmed the presence of antioxidants (reductants) in the extracts. Phytochemical screening of H. gordonii revealed the presence of phenolics, alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, cardiac glycosides and tannins in the ethanolic extract, while the ethyl acetate extract only showed the presence of phenolics, cardiac glycosides and steroids. The total phenolic content was 420 ± 0.17 and 319.9 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g for the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. The ethanol extract, which revealed the presence of tannins, had a tannin content of 330 ± 0.2 mg TAE/g extract. This data suggests that H. gordonii has good in vitro inhibition against selected HIV-1 enzymes as well as antioxidant properties, suggesting new potential uses for this commercial

  3. Analysis of the CD8+T cell anti-HIV activity in heterologous cell co-cultures reveals the benefit of multiple HLA class I matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, M Scott; Teque, Fernando; Sudhagoni, Ramu

    2018-02-01

    CD8 + T lymphocytes can reduce the production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by CD4 + T cells by cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic mechanisms. To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I compatibility in anti-HIV responses, we co-cultured primary CD8 + T cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals, with panels of autologous and heterologous acutely HIV-1-infected primary CD4 + T cells. Altogether, CD8 + T cell anti-HIV activity was evaluated in more than 200 co-cultures. Marked heterogeneity in HIV-1 replication levels was observed among the co-cultures sharing a common CD8 + T cell source. The co-cultures that exhibited greater than 50% reduction in HIV production were found to have significantly increased numbers of matching HLA class I alleles (Yates chi-square = 54.21; p CD8 + T cells from HIV controllers and asymptomatic viremic individuals, matching HLA-B and/or HLA-C alleles were more predictive of strong anti-HIV activity than matching HLA-A alleles. Overall, HLA class I genotype matches were more closely associated with CD8 + T cell anti-HIV activity than supertype pairings. Antibodies against HLA class I and CD3 reduced the CD8 + T cell anti-HIV activity. Stimulated CD8 + T cells exhibited increased anti-HIV activity and reduced dependency on HLA compatibility. These findings provide evidence that the maximal suppression of HIV replication by CD8 + T cells requires the recognition of multiple epitopes. These studies provide insight for HIV vaccine development, and the analytic approach can be useful for the functional characterization of HLA class I alleles and tentative HLA class I supertypes.

  4. Anti-tumor response induced by immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and laser irradiation using rat mammary tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T. Acquaviva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ideal treatment modality for metastatic cancer would be a local treatment that can destroy primary tumors while inducing an effective systemic anti-tumor response. To this end, we developed laser immunotherapy, combining photothermal laser application with an immunoadjuvant for the treatment of metastatic cancer. Additionally, to enhance the selective photothermal effect, we integrated light-absorbing nanomaterials into this innovative treatment. Specifically, we developed an immunologically modified carbon nanotube combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs with the immunoadjuvant glycated chitosan (GC. To determine the effectiveness of laser irradiation, a series of experiments were performed using two different irradiation durations — 5 and 10 min. Rats were inoculated with DMBA-4 cancer cells, a metastatic cancer cell line. The treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 10 min had a 50% long-term survival rate without residual primary or metastatic tumors. The treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 5 min had no long-term survivors; all rats died with multiple metastases at several distant sites. Therefore, Laser+SWNT–GC treatment with 10 min of laser irradiation proved to be effective at reducing tumor size and inducing long-term anti-tumor immunity.

  5. Scaling dynamic response and destructive metabolism in an immunosurveillant anti-tumor system modulated by different external periodic interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Shao

    Full Text Available On the basis of two universal power-law scaling laws, i.e. the scaling dynamic hysteresis in physics and the allometric scaling metabolism in biosystem, we studied the dynamic response and the evolution of an immunosurveillant anti-tumor system subjected to a periodic external intervention, which is equivalent to the scheme of a radiotherapy or chemotherapy, within the framework of the growth dynamics of tumor. Under the modulation of either an abrupt or a gradual change external intervention, the population density of tumors exhibits a dynamic hysteresis to the intervention. The area of dynamic hysteresis loop characterizes a sort of dissipative-therapeutic relationship of the dynamic responding of treated tumors with the dose consumption of accumulated external intervention per cycle of therapy. Scaling the area of dynamic hysteresis loops against the intensity of an external intervention, we deduced a characteristic quantity which was defined as the theoretical therapeutic effectiveness of treated tumor and related with the destructive metabolism of tumor under treatment. The calculated dose-effectiveness profiles, namely the dose cumulant per cycle of intervention versus the therapeutic effectiveness, could be well scaled into a universal quadratic formula regardless of either an abrupt or a gradual change intervention involved. We present a new concept, i.e., the therapy-effect matrix and the dose cumulant matrix, to expound the new finding observed in the growth and regression dynamics of a modulated anti-tumor system.

  6. IgE/FcεRI-Mediated Antigen Cross-Presentation by Dendritic Cells Enhances Anti-Tumor Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Platzer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies discovered an inverse association between immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated allergies and cancer, implying tumor-protective properties of IgE. However, the underlying immunologic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs is of key importance for anti-tumor immunity because it induces the generation of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs with specificity for tumor antigens. We demonstrate that DCs use IgE and FcεRI, the high-affinity IgE receptor, for cross-presentation and priming of CTLs in response to free soluble antigen at low doses. Importantly, IgE/FcεRI-mediated cross-presentation is a distinct receptor-mediated pathway because it does not require MyD88 signals or IL-12 induction in DCs. Using passive immunization with tumor antigen-specific IgE and DC-based vaccination experiments, we demonstrate that IgE-mediated cross-presentation significantly improves anti-tumor immunity and induces memory responses in vivo. Our findings suggest a cellular mechanism for the tumor-protective features of IgE and expand the known physiological functions of this immunoglobulin.

  7. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Wei-Hong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Yang, Li-Yun [Department of Blood Transfusion, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Cao, Zhong-Yi, E-mail: m18070383032@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Qian, Yong, E-mail: yfykqkqy@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. - Highlights: • Tivantinib suppresses OSCC cell growth independent of the inhibition of HGF/MET signaling pathway. • Tivantinib blocks cell cycle and induces caspases-mediated apoptosis. • Tivantinib elicits its anti-tumor activity with the inhibition of FAK signaling pathway.

  8. Beneficial Phytochemicals with Anti-Tumor Potential Revealed through Metabolic Profiling of New Red Pigmented Lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Qin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare polyphenols among red lettuce cultivars and identify suitable cultivars for the development and utilization of healthy vegetables. Polyphenols, mineral elements, and antioxidant activity were analyzed in the leaves of six red pigmented lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivars; thereafter, we assessed the anti-tumor effects of cultivar B-2, which displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Quadrupole–Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis revealed four classes of polyphenols in these cultivars. The composition and contents of these metabolites varied significantly among cultivars and primarily depended on leaf color. The B-2 cultivar had the highest antioxidant potential than others because it contained the highest levels of polyphenols, especially anthocyanin, flavone, and phenolic acid; furthermore, this cultivar displayed anti-tumor effects against the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, human hepatoma cell line Bel7402, human cancer colorectal adenoma cell line HCT-8, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Hence, the new red-leaf lettuce cultivar B-2 has a distinct metabolite profile, with high potential for development and utilization of natural phytochemical and mineral resources in lettuces and can be used as a nutrient-dense food product.

  9. A TLR9 agonist enhances the anti-tumor immunity of peptide and lipopeptide vaccines via different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying-Chyi; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2015-07-28

    The toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) have been recognized as promising adjuvants for vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. However, the role of TLR9 signaling in the regulation of antigen uptake and presentation is not well understood. Therefore, to investigate the effects of TLR9 signaling, this study used synthetic peptides (IDG) and lipopeptides (lipoIDG), which are internalized by dendritic cells (DCs) via endocytosis-dependent and endocytosis-independent pathways, respectively. Our data demonstrated that the internalization of lipoIDG and IDG by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was not enhanced in the presence of CpG ODNs; however, CpG ODNs prolonged the co-localization of IDG with CpG ODNs in early endosomes. Surprisingly, CpG ODNs enhanced CD8(+) T cell responses, and the anti-tumor effects of IDG immunization were stronger than those of lipoIDG immunization. LipoIDG admixed with CpG ODNs induced low levels of CD8(+) T cells and partially inhibit tumor growth. Our findings suggest that CpG ODNs increase the retention of antigens in early endosomes, which is important for eliciting anti-tumor immunity. These results will facilitate the application of CpG adjuvants in the design of different vaccines.

  10. Cigarette smoke alters the invariant natural killer T cell function and may inhibit anti-tumor responses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Andrew E

    2011-09-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a minor subset of human T cells which express the invariant T cell receptor Vα24 Jα18 and recognize glycolipids presented on CD1d. Invariant NKT cells are important immune regulators and can initiate anti-tumor responses through early potent cytokine production. Studies show that iNKT cells are defective in certain cancers. Cigarette smoke contains many carcinogens and is implicated directly and indirectly in many cancers. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke on the circulating iNKT cell number and function. We found that the iNKT cell frequency is significantly reduced in cigarette smoking subjects. Invariant NKT cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) showed significant defects in cytokine production and the ability to kill target cells. CSE inhibits the upregulation of CD107 but not CD69 or CD56 on iNKT cells. These findings suggest that CSE has a specific effect on iNKT cell anti-tumor responses, which may contribute to the role of smoking in the development of cancer.

  11. Ferulic acid prevents liver injury and increases the anti-tumor effect of diosbulbin B in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-ming; Sheng, Yu-chen; Ji, Li-li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2014-06-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the protection by ferulic acid against the hepatotoxicity induced by diosbulbin B and its possible mechanism, and further observe whether ferulic acid augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. The results show that ferulic acid decreases diosbulbin B-increased serum alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST) levels. Ferulic acid also decreases lipid peroxide (LPO) levels which are elevated in diosbulbin B-treated mice. Histological evaluation of the liver demonstrates hydropic degeneration in diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses this injury. Moreover, the activities of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) are decreased in the livers of diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses these decreases. Further results demonstrate that the mRNA expressions of CuZn-SOD and CAT in diosbulbin B-treated mouse liver are significantly decreased, while ferulic acid prevents this decrease. In addition, ferulic acid also augments diosbulbin B-induced tumor growth inhibition compared with diosbulbin B alone. Taken together, the present study shows that ferulic acid prevents diosbulbin B-induced liver injury via ameliorating diosbulbin B-induced liver oxidative stress injury and augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity.

  12. Ferulic acid prevents liver injury and increases the anti-tumor effect of diosbulbin B in vivo *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-ming; Sheng, Yu-chen; Ji, Li-li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2014-01-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the protection by ferulic acid against the hepatotoxicity induced by diosbulbin B and its possible mechanism, and further observe whether ferulic acid augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. The results show that ferulic acid decreases diosbulbin B-increased serum alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST) levels. Ferulic acid also decreases lipid peroxide (LPO) levels which are elevated in diosbulbin B-treated mice. Histological evaluation of the liver demonstrates hydropic degeneration in diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses this injury. Moreover, the activities of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) are decreased in the livers of diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses these decreases. Further results demonstrate that the mRNA expressions of CuZn-SOD and CAT in diosbulbin B-treated mouse liver are significantly decreased, while ferulic acid prevents this decrease. In addition, ferulic acid also augments diosbulbin B-induced tumor growth inhibition compared with diosbulbin B alone. Taken together, the present study shows that ferulic acid prevents diosbulbin B-induced liver injury via ameliorating diosbulbin B-induced liver oxidative stress injury and augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. PMID:24903991

  13. Characterization of a Newly Isolated Marine Fungus Aspergillus dimorphicus for Optimized Production of the Anti-Tumor Agent Wentilactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential anti-tumor agent wentilactones were produced by a newly isolated marine fungus Aspergillus dimorphicus. This fungus was derived from deep-sea sediment and identified by polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular, and extrolite profiles. However, wentilactone production was detected only under static cultures with very low yields. In order to improve wentilactone production, culture conditions were optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimal static fermentation conditions, the experimental values were closely consistent with the prediction model. The yields of wentilactone A and B were increased about 11-fold to 13.4 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. The result was further verified by fermentation scale-up for wentilactone production. Moreover, some small-molecule elicitors were found to have capacity of stimulating wentilactone production. To our knowledge, this is first report of optimized production of tetranorlabdane diterpenoids by a deep-sea derived marine fungus. The present study might be valuable for efficient production of wentilactones and fundamental investigation of the anti-tumor mechanism of norditerpenoids.

  14. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient’s own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers. PMID:27256519

  15. Nanoparticle Delivery of Artesunate Enhances the Anti-tumor Efficiency by Activating Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yu, Xiwei; Su, Chang; Shi, Yijie; Zhao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Artemisinin and its derivatives were considered to exert a broad spectrum of anti-cancer activities, and they induced significant anti-cancer effects in tumor cells. Artemisinin and its derivatives could be absorbed quickly, and they were widely distributed, selectively killing tumor cells. Since low concentrations of artesunate primarily depended on oncosis to induce cell death in tumor cells, its anti-tumor effects were undesirable and limited. To obtain better anti-tumor effects, in this study, we took advantage of a new nanotechnology to design novel artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles to achieve the mitochondrial accumulation of artesunate and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The results showed that when compared with free artesunate's reliance on oncotic death, artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity and their significant apoptotic effects were induced through the distribution of artesunate in the mitochondria. This finding indicated that artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles damaged the mitochondrial integrity and activated mitochondrial-mediated cell apoptosis by upregulating apoptosis-related proteins and facilitating the rapid release of cytochrome C.

  16. R-2HG Exhibits Anti-tumor Activity by Targeting FTO/m6A/MYC/CEBPA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Dong, Lei; Li, Chenying; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Wunderlich, Mark; Qing, Ying; Deng, Xiaolan; Wang, Yungui; Weng, Xiaocheng; Hu, Chao; Yu, Mengxia; Skibbe, Jennifer; Dai, Qing; Zou, Dongling; Wu, Tong; Yu, Kangkang; Weng, Hengyou; Huang, Huilin; Ferchen, Kyle; Qin, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Qi, Jun; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Plas, David R; Bradner, James E; Wei, Minjie; Marcucci, Guido; Jiang, Xi; Mulloy, James C; Jin, Jie; He, Chuan; Chen, Jianjun

    2018-01-11

    R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), produced at high levels by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) enzymes, was reported as an oncometabolite. We show here that R-2HG also exerts a broad anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting leukemia cell proliferation/viability and by promoting cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanistically, R-2HG inhibits fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) activity, thereby increasing global N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) RNA modification in R-2HG-sensitive leukemia cells, which in turn decreases the stability of MYC/CEBPA transcripts, leading to the suppression of relevant pathways. Ectopically expressed mutant IDH1 and S-2HG recapitulate the effects of R-2HG. High levels of FTO sensitize leukemic cells to R-2HG, whereas hyperactivation of MYC signaling confers resistance that can be reversed by the inhibition of MYC signaling. R-2HG also displays anti-tumor activity in glioma. Collectively, while R-2HG accumulated in IDH1/2 mutant cancers contributes to cancer initiation, our work demonstrates anti-tumor effects of 2HG in inhibiting proliferation/survival of FTO-high cancer cells via targeting FTO/m 6 A/MYC/CEBPA signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-Tumor Effect of Steamed Codonopsis lanceolata in H22 Tumor-Bearing Mice and Its Possible Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies confirmed that steaming and the fermentation process could significantly improve the cognitive-enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Codonopsis lanceolata, the anti-tumor efficacy of steamed C. lanceolata (SCL and what mechanisms are involved remain largely unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor effect in vivo of SCL in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results clearly indicated that SCL could not only inhibit the tumor growth, but also prolong the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice. Besides, the serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-2 (IL-2, were enhanced by SCL administration. The observations of Hoechst 33258 staining demonstrated that SCL was able to induce tumor cell apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SCL treatment significantly increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression of H22 tumor tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, LC/MS analysis of SCL indicated that it mainly contained lobetyolin and six saponins. Taken all together, the findings in the present study clearly demonstrated that SCL inhibited the H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly via improving the immune functions, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis.

  18. Pyrvinium targets the unfolded protein response to hypoglycemia and its anti-tumor activity is enhanced by combination therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Hua Yu

    Full Text Available We identified pyrvinium pamoate, an old anthelminthic medicine, which preferentially inhibits anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells over anchorage-dependent growth (approximately 10 fold. It was also reported by others to have anti-tumor activity in vivo and selective toxicity against cancer cells under glucose starvation in vitro, but with unknown mechanism. Here, we provide evidence that pyrvinium suppresses the transcriptional activation of GRP78 and GRP94 induced by glucose deprivation or 2-deoxyglucose (2DG, a glycolysis inhibitor, but not by tunicamycin or A23187. Other UPR pathways induced by glucose starvation, e.g. XBP-1, ATF4, were also found suppressed by pyrvinium. Constitutive expression of GRP78 via transgene partially protected cells from pyrvinium induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that suppression of the UPR is involved in pyrvinium mediated cytotoxicity under glucose starvation. Xenograft experiments showed rather marginal overall anti-tumor activity for pyrvinium as a monotherapy. However, the combination of pyrvinium and Doxorubicin demonstrated significantly enhanced efficacy in vivo, supporting a mechanistic treatment concept based on tumor hypoglycemia and UPR.

  19. Zoledronic acid produces combinatory anti-tumor effects with cisplatin on mesothelioma by increasing p53 expression levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Okamoto

    Full Text Available We examined anti-tumor effects of zoledronic acid (ZOL, one of the bisphosphonates agents clinically used for preventing loss of bone mass, on human mesothelioma cells bearing the wild-type p53 gene. ZOL-treated cells showed activation of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9, and increased sub-G1 phase fractions. A combinatory use of ZOL and cisplatin (CDDP, one of the first-line anti-cancer agents for mesothelioma, synergistically or additively produced the cytotoxicity on mesothelioma cells. Moreover, the combination achieved greater anti-tumor effects on mesothelioma developed in the pleural cavity than administration of either ZOL or CDDP alone. ZOL-treated cells as well as CDDP-treated cells induced p53 phosphorylation at Ser 15, a marker of p53 activation, and up-regulated p53 protein expression levels. Down-regulation of p53 levels with siRNA however did not influence the ZOL-mediated cytotoxicity but negated the combinatory effects by ZOL and CDDP. In addition, ZOL treatments augmented cytotoxicity of adenoviruses expressing the p53 gene on mesothelioma. These data demonstrated that ZOL-mediated augmentation of p53, which was not linked with ZOL-induced cytotoxicity, played a role in the combinatory effects with a p53 up-regulating agent, and suggests a possible clinical use of ZOL to mesothelioma with anti-cancer agents.

  20. Construction of a Novel Magnetic Targeting Anti-Tumor Drug Delivery System: Cytosine Arabinoside-Loaded Bacterial Magnetosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguo Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To ease the side effects triggered by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C for acute leukemia treatment, a novel magnetic targeting anti-tumor drug delivery system was constructed through bacterial magnetosomes (BMs from Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 combined with Ara-C by crosslinking of genipin (GP. The results showed that Ara-C could be bonded onto the membrane surface of BMs effectively through chemical crosslinking induced by dual hand reagents GP. The average diameters of BMs and Ara-C-coupled BMs (ABMs were 42.0 ± 8.6 and 72.7 ± 6.0 nm respectively, and the zeta potentials (−38.1 ± 9.1 revealed that these systems were stable, confirming the stability of the system. The optimal encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 89.05% ± 2.33% and 47.05% ± 0.64% respectively when crosslinking reaction lasted for 72 h. The system also presented long-term stability and release behaviors without initial burst release (Ara-C could be released 80% within three months. Our results indicate that BMs have great potential in biomedical and clinical fields as a novel anti-tumor drug carrier.

  1. Aryl nucleoside H-phosphonates. Part 15: Synthesis, properties and, anti-HIV activity of aryl nucleoside 5'-alpha-hydroxyphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Agnieszka; Szymczak, Marzena; Boryski, Jerzy; Stawiński, Jacek; Kraszewski, Adam; Collu, Gabriella; Sanna, Giseppina; Giliberti, Gabriele; Loddo, Roberta; La Colla, Paolo

    2006-03-15

    Aryl nucleoside 5'-H-phosphonates 4 bearing AZT or 2',3'-dideoxyuridine moieties were subjected to reaction with various aromatic aldehydes to produce nucleoside 5'-alpha-hydroxyphosphonate derivatives 2 as potential anti-HIV agents. Stability of the title compounds in cell culture media was investigated and three distinct decomposition pathways were identified. The anti-HIV activity of hydroxyphosphonates 2 correlates well with the type and extent of their chemical or enzymatic degradation in culture medium (RPMI 1640 containing 10% FBS), suggesting that aryl nucleoside 5'-hydroxyphosphonates 2 act as depot forms of the parent antiviral nucleosides.

  2. Computational analysis of anti-HIV-1 antibody neutralization panel data to identify potential functional epitope residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anthony P; Scharf, Louise; Horwitz, Joshua; Klein, Florian; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2013-06-25

    Advances in single-cell antibody cloning methods have led to the identification of a variety of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies. We developed a computational tool (Antibody Database) to help identify critical residues on the HIV-1 envelope protein whose natural variation affects antibody activity. Our simplifying assumption was that, for a given antibody, a significant portion of the dispersion of neutralization activity across a panel of HIV-1 strains is due to the amino acid identity or glycosylation state at a small number of specific sites, each acting independently. A model of an antibody's neutralization IC50 was developed in which each site contributes a term to the logarithm of the modeled IC50. The analysis program attempts to determine the set of rules that minimizes the sum of the residuals between observed and modeled IC50 values. The predictive quality of the identified rules may be assessed in part by whether there is support for rules within individual viral clades. As a test case, we analyzed antibody 8ANC195, an anti-glycoprotein gp120 antibody of unknown specificity. The model for this antibody indicated that several glycosylation sites were critical for neutralization. We evaluated this prediction by measuring neutralization potencies of 8ANC195 against HIV-1 in vitro and in an antibody therapy experiment in humanized mice. These experiments confirmed that 8ANC195 represents a distinct class of glycan-dependent anti-HIV-1 antibody and validated the utility of computational analysis of neutralization panel data.

  3. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Song, Jia-Hao; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-07-18

    Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs) showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection.

  4. A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Medina, Eva; Garcia-Lora, Angel; Paco, Laura; Algarra, Ignacio; Collado, Antonia; Garrido, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation. The LACE extract presented in vivo anti-tumoral activity in nude

  5. A new extract of the plant Calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Medina, Eva; Garcia-Lora, Angel; Paco, Laura; Algarra, Ignacio; Collado, Antonia; Garrido, Federico

    2006-05-05

    Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation. The LACE extract presented in vivo anti-tumoral activity in

  6. Safety and anti-HIV assessments of natural vaginal cleansing products in an established topical microbicides in vitro testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Maureen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, there is no effective vaccine or other approved product for the prevention of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. It has been reported that women in resource-poor communities use vaginally applied citrus juices as topical microbicides. These easily accessible food products have historically been applied to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cytotoxicity of these substances using an established topical microbicide testing algorithm. Freshly squeezed lemon and lime juice and household vinegar were tested in their original state or in pH neutralized form for efficacy and cytotoxicity in the CCR5-tropic cell-free entry and cell-associated transmission assays, CXCR4-tropic entry and fusion assays, and in a human PBMC-based anti-HIV-1 assay. These products were also tested for their effect on viability of cervico-vaginal cell lines, human cervical explant tissues, and beneficial Lactobacillus species. Results Natural lime and lemon juice and household vinegar demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity in transformed cell lines. Neutralization of the products reduced both anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity, resulting in a low therapeutic window for both acidic and neutralized formulations. For the natural juices and vinegar, the IC50 was ≤ 3.5 (0.8-3.5% and the TC50 ≤ 6.3 (1.0-6.3%. All three liquid products inhibited viability of beneficial Lactobacillus species associated with vaginal health. Comparison of three different toxicity endpoints in the cervical HeLa cell line revealed that all three products affected membrane integrity, cytosolic enzyme release, and dehydrogenase enzyme activity in living cells. The juices and vinegar also exerted strong cytotoxicity in cervico-vaginal cell lines, mainly due to their acidic pH. In human cervical explant tissues, treatment with 5% lemon or lime juice

  7. Derivation of infectious HIV-1 molecular clones with LTR mutations: sensitivity to the CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneau, Kyle R.; Ng, Sharon; Foster, Hillary; Choi, Kelly B.; Berkhout, Ben; Rabson, Arnold; Mackewicz, Carl E.; Levy, Jay A.

    2008-01-01

    CD8(+) cells from healthy, asymptomatic HIV-1-infected individuals can inhibit HIV-1 replication in naturally or acutely infected CD4(+) cells in the absence of cell killing. This CD8(+) cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response (CNAR) is mediated by a soluble CD8(+) cell antiviral factor (CAF). CNAR/CAF

  8. Anti-tumor activities of a novel chlorin derivative for photodynamic therapy in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel photosensitizer meso-tetra (3-pyrrolidinomethyl-4-methoxyphenyl chlorin (TPMC was reported. It displays a characteristic long wavelength absorption peak at 656 nm and it shows a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.48. After light irradiation with 650 nm laser, it can kill Eca-109 and SMMC-7721 cells in vitro (25 mW/cm2, 1.2 to 3.6 J/cm2 and destroy Eca-109 tumor in nude mice (50 mW/cm2, 90 J/cm2. It has the perspective to be developed as a new anti-tumor drug in photodynamic therapy (PDT photodiagnosis, and deserves further investigation.

  9. Anti-tumor Effects of Exo- and Endo-biopolymers Produced from Submerged Cultures of Three Different Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong-Tae; Yang, Byung-Keun; Li, Chun-Ru; Song, Chi-Hyun

    2008-06-01

    The anti-tumor effects of exo- (EX) and endo-biopolymers (EN) produced from submerged mycelial cultures of Ganoderma applanatum (GA), Collybia confluens (CC), and Pleurotus eryngii (PE) were studied using Sarcoma 180 bearing mice. Solid tumor growth was inhibited most effectively when 40 mg/kg body weight (BW) of GA-EX or PE-EN was administered to the intraperitoneal (i.p.) cavity of BALB/c mice. The spleen and liver indexes were increased in mice following i.p. administration of GA-EX and PE-EN fractions. GA-EX and PE-EN reduced the tumor formation by 30.7% and 29.4%, respectively. GA-EX and PE-EN increased the natural killer (NK) cell activity of splenocytes by 41.3% and 28.9%, respectively.

  10. MUC1-specific immune therapy generates a strong anti-tumor response in a MUC1-tolerant colon cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P; Pathangey, L B; Bradley, J B; Tinder, T L; Basu, G D; Akporiaye, E T; Gendler, S J

    2007-02-19

    A MUC1-based vaccine was used in a preclinical model of colon cancer. The trial was conducted in a MUC1-tolerant immune competent host injected with MC38 colon cancer cells expressing MUC1. The vaccine included: MHC class I-restricted MUC1 peptides, MHC class II-restricted pan-helper-peptide, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Immunization was successful in breaking MUC1 self-tolerance, and in eliciting a robust anti-tumor response. The vaccine stimulated IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells against MUC1 and other undefined MC38 tumor antigens. In the prophylactic setting, immunization caused complete rejection of tumor cells, while in the therapeutic regimen, tumor burden was significantly reduced.

  11. Anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans on CT26 tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Cao, Jianfeng; Chen, Guochuang; Xu, Yanghui; Lu, Jingbo; Fang, Fang; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Rhizopus nigricans. Our results showed EPS could significantly inhibit the tumor growth and increase the immune organs index of CT26 tumor-bearing mice. EPS treatment increased the productions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum. The increase of percentage of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells among total spleen T lymphocyte was also observed. Furthermore, EPS remarkably stimulate spleen lymphocytes proliferation in the absence or presence of mitogens. In addition, we found that EPS had synergistic effect with chemotherapy and improved immunosuppressive effect induced by 5-Fu. In summary, these findings indicated that the antitumor effects of EPS might be partly due to immune function activation and it might have potential to be used in the treatment for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of a new curcumin-related compound against melanoma and neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastorino Fabio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing the common neuroectodermal origin, melanoma and neuroblastoma are tumors widely diffused among adult and children, respectively. Clinical prognosis of aggressive neuroectodermal cancers remains dismal, therefore the search for novel therapies against such tumors is warranted. Curcumin is a phytochemical compound widely studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Recently, we have synthesized and tested in vitro various curcumin-related compounds in order to select new anti-tumor agents displaying stronger and selective growth inhibition activity on neuroectodermal tumors. Results In this work, we have demonstrated that the new α,β-unsaturated ketone D6 was more effective in inhibiting tumor cells growth when compared to curcumin. Normal fibroblasts proliferation was not affected by this treatment. Clonogenic assay showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in both melanoma and neuroblastoma colony formation only after D6 treatment. TUNEL assay, Annexin-V staining, caspases activation and PARP cleavage unveiled the ability of D6 to cause tumor cell death by triggering apoptosis, similarly to curcumin, but with a stronger and quicker extent. These apoptotic features appear to be associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. In vivo anti-tumor activity of curcumin and D6 was surveyed using sub-cutaneous melanoma and orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft models. D6 treated mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth compared to both control and curcumin treated ones (Melanoma: D6 vs control: P and D6 vs curcumin P Neuroblastoma: D6 vs both control and curcumin: P . Conclusions Our data indicate D6 as a good candidate to develop new therapies against neural crest-derived tumors.

  13. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH). This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH). FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α) by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer immunotherapy.

  14. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arancibia

    Full Text Available Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH. This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH. FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer

  15. Anti-tumor activity of exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenb on S180 tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianfeng; Hou, Dong; Lu, Jingbo; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Pengying; Zhou, Nan; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-04-15

    In this study, the effect of antitumor and immune activities of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) from Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenb were investigated using S180 bearing mice. The results revealed that EPS in the concentration range 50-1000 μg/mL can inhibited S180 cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. EPS at the highest dose of 1000 μg/mL showed significantly antitumor activity against S180 with inhibition rate of 47.53%. However, EPS significantly simulated spleen lymphocytes in the concentration of 500 μg/mL, and the increase proliferation ability showed a dose-dependent effect with EPS at the dose of 50-500 μg/mL. In comparison with the control groups, the weights of tumor were declined and the inhibition rates of tumor were remarkably decreased in the treated groups. Pretreatment with EPS at the dose of 75 mg/kg/day, the inhibition rate was decreased by 44.38% (Pcontrol group were very obvious. Meanwhile, the prophylactic administration of EPS could more efficiently inhibit the growth of S180 tumor than direct administration of EPS. EPS could prolong the survival period of S180 tumor bearing mice, and the doses 75 mg/kg/day of EPS and combined with cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg/day) were 43.36% and 36.28% respectively compared to control groups (P<0.05). The results suggested EPS confirmed in vivo anti-tumor effects observed in vitro, and the mechanism of anti-tumor effect of EPS may be at least in part mediated by increased immune activity in host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. COH-203, a novel microtubule inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-tumor activity via p53-dependent senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Huan; Zuo, Dai-Ying; Bai, Zhao-Shi; Xu, Jing-Wen; Li, Zeng-Qiang [Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang (China); Shen, Qi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Wei [Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design and Discovery, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Wei-Ge, E-mail: zhangweige2000@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design and Discovery, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang (China); Wu, Ying-Liang, E-mail: yingliang_1016@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang (China)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COH-203 exhibits anti-hepatoma effects in vitro and in vivo with low toxicity. • COH-203 inhibits tubulin polymerization. • COH-203 induces mitotic arrest followed by mitotic slippage in BEL-7402 cells. • COH-203 induces p53-dependent senescence in BEL-7402 cells. - Abstract: 5-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3H-1, 2-dithiol-3-one (COH-203) is a novel synthesized analogue of combretastatin A-4 that can be classified as a microtubule inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the anti-hepatoma effect of COH-203 in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. COH-203 was shown to be more effective in inhibiting the proliferation of liver cancer cells compared with normal liver cells. COH-203 also displayed potent anti-tumor activity in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model without significant toxicity. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that treatment with COH-203 induced mitotic arrest by inhibiting tubulin polymerization in BEL-7402 liver cancer cells. Long-term COH-203 treatment in BEL-7402 cells led to mitotic slippage followed by senescence via the p14{sup Arf}–p53–p21 and p16{sup INK4α}–Rb pathways. Furthermore, suppression of p53 via pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) and p53-siRNA attenuated COH-203-induced senescence in BEL-7402 cells, suggesting that COH-203 induced senescence p53-dependently. In conclusion, we report for the first time that COH-203, one compound in the combretastatin family, promotes anti-proliferative activity through the induction of p-53 dependent senescence. Our findings will provide a molecular rationale for the development of COH-203 as a promising anti-tumor agent.

  17. Detection of anti-HIV-1 IgG antibodies in whole saliva by GACELISA and Western blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matee, M I; Lyamuya, E F; Simon, E; Mbena, E C; Kagoma, C; Samaranayake, L P; Scheutz, F

    1996-05-01

    The present study, based on 158 HIV seropositives and 167 HIV seronegatives, demonstrates that saliva collected with the Omni-SAL device and tested with GACELISA (an IgG antibody capture ELISA) is an effective non-invasive alternative to serum for anti-HIV IgG antibody screening. The study also shows that a conventional serum Western blot kit can be used, with slight modifications, for confirmatory testing of saliva specimens. Collecting saliva with the Omni-SAL device had a very good acceptance rate among Tanzanian subjects, and although this diagnostic method is not yet known by the general public, 65% of the study participants preferred to give saliva instead of blood for HIV testing.

  18. An anti-HIV-1 gp120 antibody expressed as an endocytotic transmembrane protein mediates internalization of HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yee-Joo; Lim, S.-P.; Ting, Anthony E.; Goh, Phuay-Yee; Tan, Y.H.; Lim, Seng Gee; Hong Wanjin

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we used HIV-1 as a model to demonstrate a novel approach for receptor-independent cell entry of virus. The heavy chain of an anti-HIV-1 gp120 antibody was engineered with endocytotic and transmembrane motifs from either the cation-independent mannose 6-phospate receptor or the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence studies showed that the chimeric antibodies were expressed on the cell surface and can undergo rapid internalization. Furthermore, one of the chimeric antibodies was able to bind and internalize HIV-1. Using a luciferase reporter HIV-1, we further showed that internalized viruses could undergo replication. Therefore, we have demonstrated a proof-of-principle of a novel method that can be used to internalize virus into cells, without prior knowledge of the cellular receptor for the virus. We propose that this approach would be particularly useful for studying viruses whose cellular receptor(s) is not known

  19. Pure drug and polymer based nanotechnologies for the improved solubility, stability, bioavailability and targeting of anti-HIV drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Puneet; Garg, Sanjay

    2010-03-18

    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been devastating with nearly 7400 new infections every day. Although, the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made a tremendous contribution in reducing the morbidity and mortality in developed countries, the situation in developing countries is still grim with millions of people being infected by this disease. The new advancements in the field of nanotechnology based drug delivery systems hold promise to improve the situation. These nanoscale systems have been successfully employed in other diseases such as cancer, and therefore, we now have a better understanding of the practicalities and technicalities associated with their clinical development. Nanotechnology based approaches offer some unique opportunities specifically for the improvement of water solubility, stability, bioavailability and targeting of antiretroviral drugs. This review presents discussion on the contribution of pure drug and polymer based nanotechnologies for the delivery anti-HIV drugs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Drogas anti-VIH: passado, presente e perspectivas futuras Drugs anti-HIV: past, present and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Nora de Souza

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently available anti-HIV drugs can be classified into three categories: nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs and protease inhibitors (PIs. In addition to the reverse transcriptase (RT and protease reaction, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle can be considered as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (1 viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120; (2 viral entry, through blockage of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; (3 virus-cell fusion, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp 41; (4 viral assembly and disassembly through NCp7 zinc finger-targeted agents; (5 proviral DNA integration, through integrase inhibitors and (6 viral mRNA transcription, through inhibitors of the transcription (transactivation process. Also, various new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed, possessing different improved characteristics.

  1. Anti-HIV-1 activity and structure-activity-relationship study of a fucosylated glycosaminoglycan from an echinoderm by targeting the conserved CD4 induced epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wu; Wu, Mingyi; Huang, Ning; Gao, Na; Xiao, Chuang; Li, Zi; Zhang, Zhigang; Zheng, Yongtang; Peng, Wenlie; Zhao, Jinhua

    2013-10-01

    Fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) is a novel glycosaminoglycan with a chondroitin sulfate-like backbone and fucose sulfate branches. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of FG for combating HIV-1 infection. Anti-HIV activities of FGs were assessed by a cytopathic effect assay and an HIV-1 p24 detection assay. The biomolecule interactions were explored via biolayer interferometry technology. The SAR was established by comparing its anti-HIV-1 activities, conserved CD4 induced (CD4i) epitope-dependent interactions and anticoagulant activities. FG efficiently and selectively inhibited the X4- and R5X4-tropic HIV-1 infections in C8166 cells with little cytotoxicity against C8166 cells and PBMCs. Our data indicated that FG bound to gp120 with nanomolar affinity and may interact with CD4i of gp120. Additionally, the CD4i binding affinity of FG was higher than that of dextran sulfate. SAR studies suggested that the unique sulfated fucose branches account for the anti-HIV-1 activity. The molecular size and present carboxyl groups of FG may also play important roles in various activities. Notably, several FG derivatives showed higher anti-HIV-1 activities and much lower anticoagulant activities than those of heparin. FG exhibits strong activity against X4- and R5X4-tropic HIV-1 infections. The mechanism may be related to targeting CD4i of gp120, which results in inhibition of HIV-1 entry. The carboxyl group substituted derivatives of FG (8.5-12.8kDa), might display high anti-HIV-1 activity and low anticoagulant activity. Our data supports further the investigation of FG derivatives as novel HIV-1 entry inhibitors targeting CD4i. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immune biomarkers and anti-HIV activity in the reproductive tract of sexually active and sexually inactive adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Mimi; Jais, Mariel; Biswas, Roshni; Jarin, Jason; Daniels, Jason; Joy, Christopher; Juzumaite, Monika; Emmanuel, Vanessa; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2018-03-13

    Adolescent girls are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, accounting for 22% of all new HIV infections globally. Yet little is known regarding the immune microenvironment of the adolescent female reproductive tract, especially regarding differences among sexually active and inactive girls, a critical parameter to evaluate HIV susceptibility associated with young age and sexual debut. Cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) was collected from sexually active (10) and inactive (8) girls aged 11-19 years and analyzed by ELISA for inflammation-associated biomarkers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MIP-3α, IL-1α, IL-1β, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, as well as anti-HIV mediators, Elafin, SLPI, human beta-defensin 2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) 1 and 2. Cervical ectopy was analyzed using Volocity. Anti-HIV activity was determined by TZM-bl assay. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism and R. Sexually inactive girls had significantly higher levels of TNF-α (P = .029) in CVL compared to sexually active girls. In contrast, sexually active girls showed a trend toward higher levels of IL-1α (P = .051) compared to the sexually inactive girls. Heat-map correlations between cervical ectopy and immune biomarkers were also distinct between the 2 populations with significant positive associations between % ectopy and inflammation-associated biomarkers IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, MIP-3α, MMP-8, and MMP-9 observed in the sexually inactive but not sexually active group. Higher pro-inflammatory biomarker TNF-α, as well as a distinct inflammation-associated immune clustering in sexually inactive girls, can potentially increase risk for infections including HIV upon sexual debut. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to characterize the immune parameters associated with sexual activity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine enhances anti-HIV-1 immune responses in patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Frank Y; Tung, Jack K; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Pahwa, Savita; Fischl, Margaret A

    2016-04-27

    HIV-1 specific cellular immunity plays an important role in controlling viral replication. In this first-in-human therapeutic vaccination study, a replication-defective HIV-1 vaccine (HIVAX) was tested in HIV-1 infected participants undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to enhance anti-HIV immunity (Clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT01428596). A010 was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and the immunogenicity of a replication defective HIV-1 vaccine (HIVAX) given as a subcutaneous injection to HIV-1 infected participants who were receiving HAART with HIV-1 viral load 500 cells/mm(3). HIV-1 specific immune responses were monitored by INF-γ enzyme linked immunospot (Elispot) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay after vaccination. Following the randomized placebo-controlled vaccination phase, subjects who received HIVAX vaccine and who met eligibility underwent a 12-week analytical antiretroviral treatment interruption (ATI). Viral load was monitored throughout the study. HIVAX was well tolerated in trial participants. Transient grade 1 to 2 (mild to moderate) injection site reactions occurred in 8 of 10 vaccinated participants. HIVAX was immunogenic in all vaccinated participants. The functionality of T cells was significantly enhanced after vaccination. Median viral load (3.45 log10 copies/ml, range of 96-12,830 copies/ml) at the end of the 12-week treatment interruption in HIVAX vaccinated group was significantly lower than the pre-treatment levels. Three vaccinated participants extended ATI for up to 2 years with stable CD4 cells and low viral loads. HIVAX vaccine is generally safe, elicits strong anti-HIV-1 immune responses, and may play an important role in controlling viral load during treatment interruption in HIV-1 infected participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation and characterization of anti-HIV nanodrug targeted to microfold cell of gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Upal; Ding, Hong; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Raymond, Andrea D; Atluri, Venkata; Yndart, Adriana; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Batrakova, Elena; Agudelo, Marisela; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) still remains one of the leading life-threatening diseases in the world. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced disease morbidity and mortality. However, most of the drugs have variable penetrance into viral reservoir sites, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Being the largest lymphoid organ, GALT plays a key role in early HIV infection and host-pathogen interaction. Many different treatment options have been proposed to eradicate the virus from GALT. However, it becomes difficult to deliver traditional drugs to the GALT because of its complex physiology. In this regard, we developed a polymer-based Pluronic nanocarrier containing anti-HIV drug called efavirenz (EFV) targeting Microfold cells (M-cells) in the GALT. M-cells are specialized epithelial cells that are predominantly present in the GALT. In this work, we have exploited this paracellular transport property of M-cells for targeted delivery of Pluronic nanocarrier tagged EFV, bioconjugated with anti-M-cell-specific antibodies to the GALT (nanodrug). Preliminary characterization showed that the nanodrug (EFV-F12-COOH) is of 140 nm size with 0.3 polydispersion index, and the zeta potential of the particles was -19.38±2.2 mV. Further, drug dissolution study has shown a significantly improved sustained release over free drugs. Binding potential of nanodrug with M-cell was also confirmed with fluorescence microscopy and in vitro uptake and release studies. The anti-HIV activity of the nanodrug was also significantly higher compared to that of free drug. This novel formulation was able to show sustained release of EFV and inhibit the HIV-1 infection in the GALT compared to the free drug. The present study has potential for our in vivo targeted nanodrug delivery system by combining traditional enteric-coated capsule technique via oral administration.

  5. A model of transluminal flow of an anti-HIV microbicide vehicle: Combined elastic squeezing and gravitational sliding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeri, Andrew J; Park, Su Chan; Verguet, Stéphane; Weiss, Aaron; Katz, David F

    2008-08-01

    ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION OVER SOFT SUBSTRATES IS OF IMPORTANCE IN A NUMBER OF BIOMEDICAL PROBLEMS: From lubrication of the eye surface by the tear film, to lubrication of joints by synovial fluid, to lubrication between the pleural surfaces that protect the lungs and other organs. Such flows are also important for the drug delivery functions of vehicles for anti-HIV topical microbicides. These are intended to inhibit transmission into vulnerable mucosa, e.g., in the vagina. First generation prototype microbicides have gel vehicles, which spread after insertion and coat luminal surfaces. Effectiveness derives from potency of the active ingredients and completeness and durability of coating. Delivery vehicle rheology, luminal biomechanical properties, and the force due to gravity influence the coating mechanics. We develop a framework for understanding the relative importance of boundary squeezing and body forces on the extent and speed of the coating that results. A single dimensionless number, independent of viscosity, characterizes the relative influences of squeezing and gravitational acceleration on the shape of spreading in the Newtonian case. A second scale, involving viscosity, determines the spreading rate. In the case of a shear-thinning fluid, the Carreau number also plays a role. Numerical solutions were developed for a range of the dimensionless parameter and compared well with asymptotic theory in the limited case where such results can be obtained. Results were interpreted with respect to trade-offs between wall elasticity, longitudinal forces, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume. These provide initial insights of practical value for formulators of gel delivery vehicles for anti-HIV microbicidal formulations.

  6. Recognition of melanoma-derived antigens by CTL: possible mechanisms involved in down-regulating anti-tumor T-cell reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivoltini, L; Loftus, D J; Squarcina, P

    1998-01-01

    Several T cell-recognized epitopes presented by melanoma cells have been identified recently. Despite the large array of epitopes potentially available for clinical use, it is still unclear which of these antigens could be effective in mediating anti-tumor responses when used as a vaccine...

  7. Granulomatous salmonella osteomyelitis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in a non-sickle cell patient: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, Elaine S.; Gilet, Anthony G.; Vigorita, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella osteomyelitis is seen most commonly in patients with sickle cell disease and in those with compromised immune systems. We report on the clinical, histological and imaging findings of salmonella osteomyelitis with intraosseous abscess formation occurring in a non-sickle cell patient receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha therapy. (orig.)

  8. Granulomatous salmonella osteomyelitis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in a non-sickle cell patient: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Elaine S.; Gilet, Anthony G. [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Vigorita, Vincent J. [SUNY Health Sciences Center Brooklyn, Department of Pathology and Orthopedics, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Salmonella osteomyelitis is seen most commonly in patients with sickle cell disease and in those with compromised immune systems. We report on the clinical, histological and imaging findings of salmonella osteomyelitis with intraosseous abscess formation occurring in a non-sickle cell patient receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha therapy. (orig.)

  9. Improvement in patient-reported outcomes in a rituximab trial in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis refractory to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keystone, E.; Burmester, G. R.; Furie, R.; Loveless, J. E.; Emery, P.; Kremer, J.; Tak, P. P.; Broder, M. S.; Yu, E.; Cravets, M.; Magrini, F.; Jost, F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of treatment with rituximab plus methotrexate on patient-reported outcomes in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who experienced inadequate response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. METHODS: Patients with active RA were randomly assigned to

  10. [Studies on the biotransformation of escin Ia by human intestinal bacteria and the anti-tumor activities of desacylescin I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Jing-Rong; Guo, Wei

    2004-02-01

    To study Biotransformation of escin Ia by the crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis, determine the structures of biotransformation products and assay the inhibitory effect of desacylescin I on the tumor cell growth. The escin Ia was incubated with crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis in vitro, respectively. The biotransformation products were isolated and purified by the chromatographic methods and the structures were determined by the spectroscopic techniques. Escin Ia was converted into isoescin Ia, desacylescin I, 21beta-O-tigloylprotoaescigenin and protoaescigenin by crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis. Desacylescin I showed potentially inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth of mouse sarcoma-180, hepatic carcinoma H(22) and lung carcinoma in vivo. The results suggest that Escin Ia was a prodrug and its structure can be converted by human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis. Desacylescin I as a biotransformation product showed potentially inhibitory effects on mouse tumor, and a potential candidate for anti tumor agents.

  11. Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianhua; Han, Jie; Xiao, Hao; Qiao, Jinping; Han, Mei

    2016-12-14

    Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects.

  12. HDAC inhibitor L-carnitine and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib synergistically exert anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

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    Hongbiao Huang

    Full Text Available Combinations of proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDAC inhibitors appear to be the most potent to produce synergistic cytotoxicity in preclinical trials. We have recently confirmed that L-carnitine (LC is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. In the current study, the anti-tumor effect of LC plus proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (velcade, Vel was investigated both in cultured hepatoma cancer cells and in Balb/c mice bearing HepG2 tumor. Cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS, respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein levels were detected by gene microarray, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The effect of Vel on the acetylation of histone H3 associated with the p21(cip1 gene promoter was examined by using ChIP assay and proteasome peptidase activity was detected by cell-based chymotrypsin-like (CT-like activity assay. Here we report that (i the combination of LC and Vel synergistically induces cytotoxicity in vitro; (ii the combination also synergistically inhibits tumor growth in vivo; (iii two major pathways are involved in the synergistical effects of the combinational treatment: increased p21(cip1 expression and histone acetylation in vitro and in vivo and enhanced Vel-induced proteasome inhibition by LC. The synergistic effect of LC and Vel in cancer therapy should have great potential in the future clinical trials.

  13. [Structural analysis and anti-tumor activity in vivo of polysaccharide APS-2a from Angelica sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hou, Ying; Fan, Hui-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2008-02-01

    The polysaccharide APS-2a was isolated from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels through water extraction, deprotein, ethanol precipitation and DEAE-sephades A-25 column chromatography respectively,and was further purified by Sephacryl S-400 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The phenol-sulfuric acid assay and Bradford method were used to determine the contents of carbohydrate and protein, respectively. The molecular weight was carried out with high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) combined with a differential refractometer detector. The monosaccharide compositions were determined by gas chromatography after complete hydrolysis with acid. The models of mice transplanted sarcoma S-180 were used to study the anti-tumor effects in vivo. Thymus indexes, spleen indexes were determined. The HPSEC result showed the APS-2a was a single homogeneous component and its weight average molecular weight was 7.4 x 10(5) Da. The monosaccharide composition of APS-2a was glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, galcturonic acid. Furthermore, APS-2a (20.50 mg/kg) could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in mice transplanted S-180. The thymus indexes and spleen indexes in the groups treated with APS-2a were higher than control group.

  14. Lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, regulates retinal endothelial cell function: Implication for treating ocular neovascular disorder

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    Dong, Ling-Feng; Yao, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Shan, Kun; Yang, Hong [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jiangqin710@126.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-02

    Ocular angiogenesis is an important pathologic character of several ocular diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Inhibition of ocular angiogenesis has great therapeutic value for treating these dieses. Here we show that lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, has great anti-angiogenic potential in ocular diseases. Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in normal and pathological condition, and inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. Moreover, lenalidomide inhibits ocular angiogenesis in vivo through the reduction of angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression. Collectively, lenalidomide is a promising drug for treating ocular angiogenesis through its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory property. - Highlights: • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in vitro. • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell migration and tube formation. • Lenalidomide inhibits pathological ocular angiogenesis in vivo. • Lenalidomide inhibits angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression.

  15. Salinomycin possesses anti-tumor activity and inhibits breast cancer stem-like cells via an apoptosis-independent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hyunsook; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Nahyun; Cho, Youngkwan; Oh, Eunhye [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jae Hong, E-mail: cancer@korea.ac.kr [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important roles in the formation, growth and recurrence of tumors, particularly following therapeutic intervention. Salinomycin has received recent attention for its ability to target breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), but the mechanisms of action involved are not fully understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's selective targeting of BCSCs and its anti-tumor activity. Salinomycin suppressed cell viability, concomitant with the downregulation of cyclin D1 and increased p27{sup kip1} nuclear accumulation. Mammosphere formation assays revealed that salinomycin suppresses self-renewal of ALDH1-positive BCSCs and downregulates the transcription factors Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. TUNEL analysis of MDA-MB-231-derived xenografts revealed that salinomycin administration elicited a significant reduction in tumor growth with a marked downregulation of ALDH1 and CD44 levels, but seemingly without the induction of apoptosis. Our findings shed further light on the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's effects on BCSCs. - Highlights: • Salinomycin suppresses mammosphere formation. • Salinomycin reduces ALDH1 activity and downregulates Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. • Salinomycin targets BCSCs via an apoptosis-independent pathway.

  16. Identification of Anti-tumor Cells Carrying Natural Killer (NK Cell Antigens in Patients With Hematological Cancers

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    Ewelina Krzywinska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells, a cytotoxic lymphocyte lineage, are able to kill tumor cells in vitro and in mouse models. However, whether these cells display an anti-tumor activity in cancer patients has not been demonstrated. Here we have addressed this issue in patients with several hematological cancers. We found a population of highly activated CD56dimCD16+ NK cells that have recently degranulated, evidence of killing activity, and it is absent in healthy donors. A high percentage of these cells expressed natural killer cell p46-related protein (NKp46, natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D and killer inhibitory receptors (KIRs and a low percentage expressed NKG2A and CD94. They are also characterized by a high metabolic activity and active proliferation. Notably, we found that activated NK cells from hematological cancer patients have non-NK tumor cell antigens on their surface, evidence of trogocytosis during tumor cell killing. Finally, we found that these activated NK cells are distinguished by their CD45RA+RO+ phenotype, as opposed to non-activated cells in patients or in healthy donors displaying a CD45RA+RO− phenotype similar to naïve T cells. In summary, we show that CD45RA+RO+ cells, which resemble a unique NK population, have recognized tumor cells and degranulate in patients with hematological neoplasias.

  17. Anti-tumoral effect of the mitochondrial target domain of Noxa delivered by an engineered Salmonella typhimurium.

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    Jae-Ho Jeong

    Full Text Available Bacterial cancer therapy relies on the fact that several bacterial species are capable of targeting tumor tissue and that bacteria can be genetically engineered to selectively deliver therapeutic proteins of interest to the targeted tumors. However, the challenge of bacterial cancer therapy is the release of the therapeutic proteins from the bacteria and entry of the proteins into tumor cells. This study employed an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to selectively deliver the mitochondrial targeting domain of Noxa (MTD as a potential therapeutic cargo protein, and examined its anti-cancer effect. To release MTD from the bacteria, a novel bacterial lysis system of phage origin was deployed. To facilitate the entry of MTD into the tumor cells, the MTD was fused to DS4.3, a novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP derived from a voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv2.1. The gene encoding DS4.3-MTD and the phage lysis genes were placed under the control of PBAD , a promoter activated by L-arabinose. We demonstrated that DS4.3-MTD chimeric molecules expressed by the Salmonellae were anti-tumoral in cultured tumor cells and in mice with CT26 colon carcinoma.

  18. Anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFN γ gene therapy combined with 125I-UdR radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingguo; Ni Yanjun; Song Xiangfu; Li Yanyi; Yang Wei; Sun Ting; Ma Qingjie; Gao Fengtong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFNγ gene therapy combined with 125 I-UdR radionuclide therapy in mice bearing H22 hepatocarcinoma and its mechanism. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pcDNAEgr-IFNγ mixed with liposome was injected into tumor. 48 h later, 370 kBq 125 I-UdR was injected into tumor. The tumor growth rates at different times were observed. After 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy, the concentration of IFNγ in cytoplasm of H22 cells and cytotoxic activities of splenic CTL of the mice in different groups were examined. Results: The tumor growth rates of pcDNAEgr-IFNγ + 125 I-UdR group were obviously lower than those of control group, 125 I-UdR group and pcDNAEgr-1 + 125 I-UdR group 6-15 d after gene-radionuclide therapy. IFNγ protein was found in cytoplasm of H22 cells in pcDNAEgr-IFNγ + 125 I-UdR group after 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy. Cytotoxic activity of splenic CTL in pcDNAEgr-IFNγ + 125 I-UdR group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P 125 I-UdR radionuclide therapy are better than those of 125 I-UdR therapy. (authors)

  19. Varicella zoster meningitis complicating combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and corticosteroid therapy in Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christopher; Walters, Brennan; Fedorak, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic viral infections are a well-recognized complication of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cases of severe or atypical varicella zoster virus infection, both primary and latent reactivation, have been described in association with immunosuppression of Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. However, central nervous system varicella zoster virus infections have been rarely described, and there are no previous reports of varicella zoster virus meningitis associated with anti-TNF therapy among the CD population. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old male with severe ileocecal-CD who developed a reactivation of dermatomal herpes zoster after treatment with prednisone and adalimumab. The reactivation presented as debilitating varicella zoster virus meningitis, which was not completely resolved despite aggressive antiviral therapy with prolonged intravenous acyclovir and subsequent oral valacyclovir. This is the first reported case of opportunistic central nervous system varicella zoster infection complicating anti-TNF therapy in the CD population. This paper also reviews the literature on varicella zoster virus infections of immunosuppressed IBD patients and the importance of vaccination prior to initiation of anti-TNF therapy. PMID:23745038

  20. The evaluation of sleep quality and response to anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Gulsah; Bal, Ajda; Yuceege, Melike; Yalcin, Elif; Firat, Hikmet; Dulgeroglu, Deniz; Karataş, Fatih; Sahin, Suleyman; Cakci, Aytul; Ardic, Sadik

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep quality (SQ) is increasingly recognized as giving rise to decreased quality of life, and raising pain perception. Our aim is to evaluate the SQ in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) therapy. This was a prospective observational and open-label study of RA patients. A total of 35 patients with RA were enrolled in this study. Of the 35 patients, 22 had high disease activity (DA), and 13 were in remission. High DA group was initiated an anti TNF-α therapy. Clinical and objective parameters of SQ were assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and polysomnography (PSG). The total PSQI score and the frequency of poor SQ were high in 60 % of the RA patients. The median PSQI score was significantly higher in the high DA group than in the remission group (P = 0.026). Following an anti-TNF-α therapy initiation, significant improvements were observed in the high DA group by PSQI test (P = 0.012). However, no statistically significant difference was found by PSG (P > 0.05). Although an improvement in DA with anti-TNF-alpha therapy did not provide an amelioration in laboratory parameters, we found a significant improvement in SQ by subjective PSQI test. These findings may support that sleep disorders in RA are likely to be associated with a complex pathophysiology.

  1. Up-regulation of GITRL on dendritic cells by WGP improves anti-tumor immunity in murine Lewis lung carcinoma.

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    Jie Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: β-Glucans have been shown to function as a potent immunomodulator to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. However, their mechanisms of action are still elusive. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL, a member of the TNF superfamily, binds to its receptor, GITR, on both effector and regulatory T cells, generates a positive co-stimulatory signal implicated in a wide range of T cell functions, which is important for the development of immune responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we found that whole β-glucan particles (WGPs could activate dendritic cells (DCs via dectin-1 receptor, and increase the expression of GITRL on DCs in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the increased GITRL on DCs could impair the regulartory T cell (Treg-mediated suppression and enhance effector T cell proliferation in a GITR/GITRL dependent way. In tumor models, DCs with high levels of GITRL were of great potential to prime cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses and down-regulate the suppressive activity of Treg cells, thereby leading to the delayed tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that particulate β-glucans can be used as an immunomodulator to stimulate potent T cell-mediated adaptive immunity while down-regulate suppressive immune activity via GITR/GITRL interaction, leading to a more efficient defense mechanism against tumor development.

  2. Studies on Preparation of Photosensitizer Loaded Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles and Their Anti-Tumor Effects for Targeting Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhi-Long

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a fast developing alternative of traditional therapeutics, photodynamic therapy (PDT is an effective, noninvasive, nontoxic therapeutics for cancer, senile macular degeneration, and so on. But the efficacy of PDT was compromised by insufficient selectivity and low solubility. In this study, novel multifunctional silica-based magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs were strategically designed and prepared as targeting drug delivery system to achieve higher specificity and better solubility. 2,7,12,18-Tetramethyl-3,8-di-(1-propoxyethyl-13,17-bis-(3-hydroxypropyl porphyrin, shorted as PHPP, was used as photosensitizer, which was first synthesized by our lab with good PDT effects. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 and PHPP were incorporated into silica nanoparticles by microemulsion and sol–gel methods. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were approximately spherical with 20–30 nm diameter. Intense fluorescence of PHPP was monitored in the cytoplasm of SW480 cells. The nanoparticles possessed good biocompatibility and could generate singlet oxygen to cause remarkable photodynamic anti-tumor effects. These suggested that PHPP-SMNPs had great potential as effective drug delivery system in targeting photodynamic therapy, diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia therapy.

  3. Mechanical disruption of tumors by iron particles and magnetic field application results in increased anti-tumor immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam N Bouchlaka

    Full Text Available The primary tumor represents a potential source of antigens for priming immune responses for disseminated disease. Current means of debulking tumors involves the use of cytoreductive conditioning that impairs immune cells or removal by surgery. We hypothesized that activation of the immune system could occur through the localized release of tumor antigens and induction of tumor death due to physical disruption of tumor architecture and destruction of the primary tumor in situ. This was accomplished by intratumor injection of magneto-rheological fluid (MRF consisting of iron microparticles, in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer, followed by local application of a magnetic field resulting in immediate coalescence of the particles, tumor cell death, slower growth of primary tumors as well as decreased tumor progression in distant sites and metastatic spread. This treatment was associated with increased activation of DCs in the draining lymph nodes and recruitment of both DCs and CD8(+T cells to the tumor. The particles remained within the tumor and no toxicities were observed. The immune induction observed was significantly greater compared to cryoablation. Further anti-tumor effects were observed when MRF/magnet therapy was combined with systemic low dose immunotherapy. Thus, mechanical disruption of the primary tumor with MRF/magnetic field application represents a novel means to induce systemic immune activation in cancer.

  4. Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects.

  5. Lym-1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Exhibit Potent Anti-Tumor Effects against B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Long; Hu, Peisheng; Wolfe, Brandon; Gonsalves, Caryn; Ren, Luqing; Khawli, Leslie A; Kaslow, Harvey R; Epstein, Alan L

    2017-12-20

    T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) recognizing CD19 epitopes have produced remarkable anti-tumor effects in patients with B-cell malignancies. However, cancer cells lacking recognized epitopes can emerge, leading to relapse and death. Thus, CAR T cells targeting different epitopes on different antigens could improve immunotherapy. The Lym-1 antibody targets a conformational epitope of Human Leukocyte Antigen-antigen D Related (HLA-DR) on the surface of human B-cell lymphomas. Lym-1 CAR T cells were thus generated for evaluation of cytotoxic activity towards lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Human T cells from healthy donors were transduced to express a Lym-1 CAR, and assessed for epitope-driven function in culture and towards Raji xenografts in NOD-scidIL2Rgamma null (NSG) mice. Lym-1 CAR T cells exhibited epitope-driven activation and lytic function against human B-cell lymphoma cell lines in culture and mediated complete regression of Raji/Luciferase-Green fluorescent protein (Raji/Luc-GFP) in NSG mice with similar or better reactivity than CD19 CAR T cells. Lym-1 CAR transduction of T cells is a promising immunotherapy for patients with Lym-1 epitope positive B-cell malignancies.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Bis-Pyrazolyl-Thiazoles Incorporating the Thiophene Moiety as Potent Anti-Tumor Agents

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    Sobhi M. Gomha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 1,4-bis(1-(5-(aryldiazenylthiazol-2-yl-5-(thiophen-2-yl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-ylbenzenes 3a–i were synthesized via reaction of 5,5′-(1,4-phenylenebis(3-(thiophen-2-yl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide (1 with hydrazonoyl halides 2a–i. In addition, reaction of 1 with ethyl chloroacetate afforded bis-thiazolone derivative 8 as the end product. Reaction of compound 8 with methyl glyoxalate gave bis-thiazolone derivative 10. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-tumor activities against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cell lines, and the results revealed promising activities of compounds 3g, 5e, 3e, 10, 5f, 3i, and 3f with IC50 equal 1.37 ± 0.15, 1.41 ± 0.17, 1.62 ± 0.20, 1.86 ± 0.20, 1.93 ± 0.08, 2.03 ± 0.25, and 2.09 ± 0.19 μM, respectively.

  7. Dual antibody therapy to harness the innate anti-tumor immune response to enhance antibody targeting of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Cariad; Marabelle, Aurelien; Houot, Roch; Kohrt, Holbrook E

    2015-04-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving field that offers a novel paradigm for cancer treatment: therapies focus on enhancing the immune system's innate and adaptive anti-tumor response. Early immunotherapeutics have achieved impressive clinical outcomes and monoclonal antibodies are now integral to therapeutic strategies in a variety of cancers. However, only recently have antibodies targeting innate immune cells entered clinical development. Innate immune effector cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumor immunity. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) are important innate immune mechanisms for tumor eradication. These cytolytic processes are initiated by the detection of a tumor-targeting antibody and can be augmented by activating co-stimulatory pathways or blocking inhibitory signals on innate immune cells. The combination of FDA-approved monoclonal antibodies with innate effector-targeting antibodies has demonstrated potent preclinical therapeutic synergy and early-phase combinatorial clinical trials are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sufen; Ye, Gang; Fu, Guodong; Cheng, Jian-Xin; Yang, Burton B; Peng, Chun

    2011-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a herbal mushroom known to have many health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. However, the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the most fatal gynecological malignancy, has not yet been reported. In this study, we determined whether Ganoderma lucidum regulates EOC cell activity. Using several cell lines derived from EOC, we found that Ganoderma lucidum strongly decreased cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and spheroid formation. In particular, Ganoderma lucidum was effective in inhibiting cell growth in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and the treatment with Ganoderma lucidum significantly enhanced the effect of cisplatin on EOC cells. Furthermore, Ganoderma lucidum induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and also induced apoptosis by activating caspase 3. Finally, Ganoderma lucidum increased p53 but inhibited Akt expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of EOC cells to cisplatin.

  9. Synergistic effect of CTLA-4 blockade and cancer chemotherapy in the induction of anti-tumor immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Joost Lesterhuis

    Full Text Available Several chemotherapeutics exert immunomodulatory effects. One of these is the nucleoside analogue gemcitabine, which is widely used in patients with lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, mesothelioma and several other types of cancer, but with limited efficacy. We hypothesized that the immunopotentiating effects of this drug are partly restrained by the inhibitory T cell molecule CTLA-4 and thus could be augmented by combining it with a blocking antibody against CTLA-4, which on its own has recently shown beneficial clinical effects in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. Here we show, using two non-immunogenic murine tumor models, that treatment with gemcitabine chemotherapy in combination with CTLA-4 blockade results in the induction of a potent anti-tumor immune response. Depletion experiments demonstrated that both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells are required for optimal therapeutic effect. Mice treated with the combination exhibited tumor regression and long-term protective immunity. In addition, we show that the efficacy of the combination is moderated by the timing of administration of the two agents. Our results show that immune checkpoint blockade and cytotoxic chemotherapy can have a synergistic effect in the treatment of cancer. These results provide a basis to pursue combination therapies with anti-CTLA-4 and immunopotentiating chemotherapy and have important implications for future studies in cancer patients. Since both drugs are approved for use in patients our data can be immediately translated into clinical trials.

  10. Effects of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Dong, Fengying; Liu, Xiaocui; Lv, Qian; YingYang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Tiantian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-04-20

    This study was to investigate the effects of different extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) mycelia. Five extraction methods were used to extract crude polysaccharides (CPS), which include room-temperature water extraction (RWE), hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulase-assisted extraction (CAE). Then Sephadex G-100 was used for purification of CPS. As a result, the antitumor activities of CPS and PPS on S180 cells were evaluated. Five CPS and purified polysaccharides (PPS) were obtained. The yield of CPS by microwave-assisted extraction (CPSMAE) was the highest and its anti-tumor activity was the best and its macromolecular polysaccharide (3000-1000kDa) ratio was the largest. The PPS had the same monosaccharide composition, but their obvious difference was in the antitumor activity and the physicochemical characteristics, such as intrinsic viscosity, specific rotation, scanning electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lym-1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Exhibit Potent Anti-Tumor Effects against B-Cell Lymphoma

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    Long Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs recognizing CD19 epitopes have produced remarkable anti-tumor effects in patients with B-cell malignancies. However, cancer cells lacking recognized epitopes can emerge, leading to relapse and death. Thus, CAR T cells targeting different epitopes on different antigens could improve immunotherapy. The Lym-1 antibody targets a conformational epitope of Human Leukocyte Antigen-antigen D Related (HLA-DR on the surface of human B-cell lymphomas. Lym-1 CAR T cells were thus generated for evaluation of cytotoxic activity towards lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Human T cells from healthy donors were transduced to express a Lym-1 CAR, and assessed for epitope-driven function in culture and towards Raji xenografts in NOD-scidIL2Rgammanull (NSG mice. Lym-1 CAR T cells exhibited epitope-driven activation and lytic function against human B-cell lymphoma cell lines in culture and mediated complete regression of Raji/Luciferase-Green fluorescent protein (Raji/Luc-GFP in NSG mice with similar or better reactivity than CD19 CAR T cells. Lym-1 CAR transduction of T cells is a promising immunotherapy for patients with Lym-1 epitope positive B-cell malignancies.

  12. Lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, regulates retinal endothelial cell function: Implication for treating ocular neovascular disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Ling-Feng; Yao, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Shan, Kun; Yang, Hong; Yan, Biao; Jiang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Ocular angiogenesis is an important pathologic character of several ocular diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Inhibition of ocular angiogenesis has great therapeutic value for treating these dieses. Here we show that lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, has great anti-angiogenic potential in ocular diseases. Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in normal and pathological condition, and inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. Moreover, lenalidomide inhibits ocular angiogenesis in vivo through the reduction of angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression. Collectively, lenalidomide is a promising drug for treating ocular angiogenesis through its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory property. - Highlights: • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in vitro. • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell migration and tube formation. • Lenalidomide inhibits pathological ocular angiogenesis in vivo. • Lenalidomide inhibits angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression.

  13. Surgical Stress Abrogates Pre-Existing Protective T Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Immunity Leading to Postoperative Cancer Recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirami A Ananth

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor CD8+ T cells are a key determinant for overall survival in patients following surgical resection for solid malignancies. Using a mouse model of cancer vaccination (adenovirus expressing melanoma tumor-associated antigen (TAA-dopachrome tautomerase (AdDCT and resection resulting in major surgical stress (abdominal nephrectomy, we demonstrate that surgical stress results in a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cell that produce cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, Granzyme B in response to TAA. This effect is secondary to both reduced proliferation and impaired T cell function following antigen binding. In a prophylactic model, surgical stress completely abrogates tumor protection conferred by vaccination in the immediate postoperative period. In a clinically relevant surgical resection model, vaccinated mice undergoing a positive margin resection with surgical stress had decreased survival compared to mice with positive margin resection alone. Preoperative immunotherapy with IFNα significantly extends survival in surgically stressed mice. Importantly, myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC population numbers and functional impairment of TAA-specific CD8+ T cell were altered in surgically stressed mice. Our observations suggest that cancer progression may result from surgery-induced suppression of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Preoperative immunotherapies aimed at targeting the prometastatic effects of cancer surgery will reduce recurrence and improve survival in cancer surgery patients.

  14. EpCAM peptide-primed dendritic cell vaccination confers significant anti-tumor immunity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs may play a key role in tumor initiation, self-renewal, differentiation, and resistance to current treatments. Dendritic cells (DCs play a vital role in host immune reactions as well as antigen presentation. In this study, we explored the suitability of using CSC peptides as antigen sources for DC vaccination against human breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with the aim of achieving CSC targeting and enhancing anti-tumor immunity. CD44 is used as a CSC marker for breast cancer and EpCAM is used as a CSC marker for HCC. We selected CD44 and EpCAM peptides that bind to HLA-A2 molecules on the basis of their binding affinity, as determined by a peptide-T2 binding assay. Our data showed that CSCs express high levels of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs as well as major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. Pulsing DCs with CD44 and EpCAM peptides resulted in the efficient generation of mature DCs (mDCs, thus enhancing T cell stimulation and generating potent cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs. The activation of CSC peptide-specific immune responses by the DC vaccine in combination with standard chemotherapy may provide better clinical outcomes in advanced carcinomas.

  15. Type I interferons as stimulators of DC-mediated cross-priming: impact on anti-tumor response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eSchiavoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction of potent tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses is a fundamental objective in anticancer therapeutic strategies. This event requires that antigen-presenting cells (APC present tumor-associated antigens (Ag on their MHC class-I molecule, in a process termed cross-presentation. Dendritic cells (DC are particularly keen on this task and can induce the cross-priming of CD8+ T cells, when exposed to danger or inflammatory signals that stimulate their activation. Type I interferons (IFN-I, a family of long-known immunostimulatory cytokines, have been proven to produce optimal activation signal for DC-induced cross-priming. Recent in vitro and in vivo evidences have suggested that IFN-I -stimulated cross-priming by DC against tumor-associated Ag is a key mechanism for cancer immunosurveillance and may be usefully exploited to boost anti-tumor CD8+ T-cell responses. Here, we will review the cross-presentation properties of different DC subsets, with special focus on cell-associated and tumor Ag, and discuss how IFN-I can modify this function, with the aim of identifying more specific and effective strategies for improving anticancer responses.

  16. Glycosyl-Phosphatidylinositol-Anchored Anti-HIV Env Single-Chain Variable Fragments Interfere with HIV-1 Env Processing and Viral Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anisha; Gleeson, Emile; Wang, Weiming; Ye, Chaobaihui; Zhou, Paul; Kimata, Jason T

    2018-04-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) from anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Env monoclonal antibodies act as entry inhibitors when tethered to the surface of target cells by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Interestingly, even if a virus escapes inhibition at entry, its replication is ultimately controlled. We hypothesized that in addition to functioning as entry inhibitors, anti-HIV GPI-scFvs may also interact with Env in an infected cell, thereby interfering with the infectivity of newly produced virions. Here, we show that expression of the anti-HIV Env GPI-scFvs in virus-producing cells reduced the release of HIV from cells 5- to 22-fold, and infectivity of the virions that were released was inhibited by 74% to 99%. Additionally, anti-HIV Env GPI-scFv X5 inhibited virion production and infectivity after latency reactivation and blocked transmitter/founder virus production and infectivity in primary CD4 + T cells. In contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) production and infectivity were not affected by the anti-HIV Env GPI-scFvs. Loss of infectivity of HIV was associated with a reduction in the amount of virion-associated Env gp120. Interestingly, an analysis of Env expression in cell lysates demonstrated that the anti-Env GPI-scFvs interfered with processing of Env gp160 precursors in cells. These data indicate that GPI-scFvs can inhibit Env processing and function, thereby restricting production and infectivity of newly synthesized HIV. Anti-Env GPI-scFvs therefore appear to be unique anti-HIV molecules as they derive their potent inhibitory activity by interfering with both early (receptor binding/entry) and late (Env processing and incorporation into virions) stages of the HIV life cycle. IMPORTANCE The restoration of immune function and persistence of CD4 + T cells in HIV-1-infected individuals without antiretroviral therapy requires a way to increase resistance of CD4 + T cells to

  17. A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Antonia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE, a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae. Methods An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. Results The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. Conclusion These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation

  18. Challenges in integrating component level technology and system level information from Ayurveda: Insights from NMR phytometabolomics and anti-HIV potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundar, Rama; Ghatak, Somenath; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Luthra, Kalpana; Singh, Aruna; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2018-01-03

    Information from Ayurveda meeting the analytical challenges of modern technology is an area of immense relevance. Apart from the cerebral task of bringing together two different viewpoints, the question at the pragmatic level remains 'who benefits whom'. The aim is to highlight the challenges in integration of information (Ayurvedic) and technology using test examples of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomics and anti-HIV-1 potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The other value added objective is implications and relevance of such work for Ayurveda. Six medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica, Zingiber officinale and Symplocos racemosa) were studied using high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy based metabolomics and also evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity on three pseudoviruses (ZM53 M.PB12, ZM109F.PB4, RHPA 4259.7). Of the six plants, T.bellerica and Z.officinale showed minimum cell cytotoxicity and maximum anti-HIV-1 potential. T.bellerica was effective against all the three HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Untargeted NMR profiling and multivariate analyses demonstrated that the six plants, all of which had different Ayurvedic pharmacological properties, showed maximum differences in the aromatic region of the spectra. The work adds onto the list of potential plants for anti-HIV-1 drug molecules. At the same time, it has drawn attention to the different perspectives of Ayurveda and Western medicine underscoring the inherent limitations of conceptual bilinguism between the two systems, especially in the context of medicinal plants. The study has also highlighted the potential of NMR metabolomics in study of plant extracts as used in Ayurveda. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ANN multiscale model of anti-HIV drugs activity vs AIDS prevalence in the US at county level based on information indices of molecular graphs and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; Munteanu, Cristian R; Orbegozo-Medina, Ricardo Alfredo; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-03-24

    This work is aimed at describing the workflow for a methodology that combines chemoinformatics and pharmacoepidemiology methods and at reporting the first predictive model developed with this methodology. The new model is able to predict complex networks of AIDS prevalence in the US counties, taking into consideration the social determinants and activity/structure of anti-HIV drugs in preclinical assays. We trained different Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) using as input information indices of social networks and molecular graphs. We used a Shannon information index based on the Gini coefficient to quantify the effect of income inequality in the social network. We obtained the data on AIDS prevalence and the Gini coefficient from the AIDSVu database of Emory University. We also used the Balaban information indices to quantify changes in the chemical structure of anti-HIV drugs. We obtained the data on anti-HIV drug activity and structure (SMILE codes) from the ChEMBL database. Last, we used Box-Jenkins moving average operators to quantify information about the deviations of drugs with respect to data subsets of reference (targets, organisms, experimental parameters, protocols). The best model found was a Linear Neural Network (LNN) with values of Accuracy, Specificity, and Sensitivity above 0.76 and AUROC > 0.80 in training and external validation series. This model generates a complex network of AIDS prevalence in the US at county level with respect to the preclinical activity of anti-HIV drugs in preclinical assays. To train/validate the model and predict the complex network we needed to analyze 43,249 data points including values of AIDS prevalence in 2,310 counties in the US vs ChEMBL results for 21,582 unique drugs, 9 viral or human protein targets, 4,856 protocols, and 10 possible experimental measures.

  20. Attitudes toward Shock Advertising of Western-European and Serbian University Students With Regard To Public Health Context (Anti-Smoking and Anti-HIV/AIDS Campaigns)

    OpenAIRE

    Krstic, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to examine attitudes toward shock advertising of western-European and Serbian university students with regard to public health context (anti-smoking and anti-HIV/AIDS campaigns). Although the use of shock advertising is widely adopted in practice, there has not been extensive research with regard to this topic. Public health context is of special interest in this dissertation as there is an urge for social marketing on Serbian market. The results of ...

  1. [Retrospective evaluation of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis reagin antibody seropositivity in blood donors at the Trabzon Farabi Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Cubukçu, Kivanç; Yetişkul, Serpil; Yazici, Yelda; Kaklikkaya, Neşe

    2002-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood products is a widely used method for therapy in medicine, however it may result with the transmission of infectious agents from donor to recipient. In order to achieve safe blood transfusions and to minimize post-transfusion infections, several screening tests for infectious agents are routinely done all around the world as well as in our country. In this study, HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis reagin antibody tests results have been retrospectively evaluated for 33.766 blood donors during January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2000 in Blood Center of Farabi Hospital, Black Sea Technical University. Testing for HBsAg, anti-HIV and anti-HCV has been done by using commercially available micro and/or macro enzyme immunoassays, and syphilis reagin antibody test by latex agglutination (RPR) method. The indeterminate results were confirmed by retesting of sera with microparticle enzyme immunoassay and Western blot methods. As a result, in 1331 (3.94%) subjects HBsAg, in 250 (0.74%) subjects anti-HCV, and in 161 (0.47%) subjects RPR were found positive. Twenty samples which have had the results in gray-zone for anti-HIV, have been found negative with the confirmation tests.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of the anti-HIV activity of aza and deaza analogues of isoddA and their phosphates as prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, P; Cappellacci, L; Grifantini, M; Messini, L; abu Sheikha, G; Loi, A G; Tramontano, E; de Montis, A; Spiga, M G; La Colla, P

    1994-10-14

    Some aza and deaza analogues of the anti-HIV agent 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-oxoadenosine (isoddA) (8-aza-, 8-aza-1-deaza, 8-aza-3-deaza-, 1-deaza-, and 3-deaza-isoddA) were synthesized and found inactive against HIV in vitro. The hypothesis that the inactivity of these isonucleosides might be due to their poor affinity for cellular nucleoside kinases was checked by the synthesis of a series of 5'-[bis(2,2,2-trichloroethyl) phosphate] triesters and 5'-phenyl phosphoramidate derivatives which, acting as membrane soluble prodrugs, could release the free phosphate form inside the cell. The 5'-(phenylmethoxy)alaninyl phosphate derived from 8-aza-isoddA was found active against HIV-1 and HIV-2 with a potency similar to that of isoddA, while the anti-HIV potency of 5'-(phenylmethoxy)alaninyl phosphate of isoddA proved remarkably higher than that of isoddA, in particular against HIV-2, being similar to that of AZT. Further evidence that 8-aza-isoddA could behave as anti-HIV agent, provided that it is activated as phosphate, was obtained by the synthesis of its 5'-triphosphate derivative, which proved to be an active inhibitor of HIV-1 recombinant reverse transcriptase.

  3. Combinations against combinations: associations of anti-HIV 1 reverse transcriptase drugs challenged by constellations of drug resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Giovanni; Spadari, Silvio

    2002-02-01

    The reverse transcriptase inhibitors still represent the majority of the clinically used anti-HIV drugs and constitute the main backbone of currently employed combinatorial regimens. A major obstacle to successfull chemotherapic eradication of HIV is the emergence of viral strains resistant to the drugs in use. Counteracting the emergence of resistance necessitates alternating the panel of agents employed. In order to rationally design alternative drug combinations, physicians not only must know the genotype of the emerging viral strains, but should also be able to correlate it with its resistant phenotype. However, resistant viral strains usually carry multiple mutations, whose reciprocal influences on the overall level of resistance are largely unknown. Moreover, the choice of agents to be combined must take in account drug-drug interactions and adverse metabolic effects. This review will outline the main pharmacological and clinical features of the currently utilised anti-reverse transcriptase drugs, as well as the correspondent resistance profiles selected during therapy. A major focus will be on the reciprocal influence of drug associations on their own metabolism as well as on the interacting effects of the selected combinations of drug resistance mutations.

  4. A duodenally absorbable CXC chemokine receptor 4 antagonist, KRH-1636, exhibits a potent and selective anti-HIV-1 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Kozi; Yokoyama-Kumakura, Sei; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Tanaka, Reiko; Hirose, Kunitaka; Bannai, Kenji; Edamatsu, Takeo; Yanaka, Mikiro; Niitani, Yoshiaki; Miyano-Kurosaki, Naoko; Takaku, Hiroshi; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2003-01-01

    A low molecular weight nonpeptide compound, KRH-1636, efficiently blocked replication of various T cell line-tropic (X4) HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in MT-4 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells through the inhibition of viral entry and membrane fusion via the CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 coreceptor but not via CC chemokine receptor 5. It also inhibited binding of the CXC chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor 1α, to CXCR4 specifically and subsequent signal transduction. KRH-1636 prevented monoclonal antibodies from binding to CXCR4 without down-modulation of the coreceptor. The inhibitory effect against X4 viral replication by KRH-1636 was clearly reproduced in the human peripheral blood lymphocyte/severe combined immunodeficiency mouse system. Furthermore, this compound was absorbed into the blood after intraduodenal administration as judged by anti-HIV-1 activity and liquid chromatography MS in the plasma. Thus, KRH-1636 seems to be a promising agent for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:12642669

  5. DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibitory and anti-HIV-1 flavones from leaves and twigs of Gardenia carinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkum, Naowarat; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Pohmakotr, Manat; Reutrakul, Vichai; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Jariyawat, Surawat; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Yoosook, Chalobon; Kasisit, Jitra; Napaswad, Chanita

    2012-03-01

    Four new flavones, 5,2'-dihydroxy-7,3',4',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (1), 5,2',5'-trihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (2), 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxy-6,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (3) and 5,2',5'-trihydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (4), along with the known 5,3'-dihydroxy-6,7,4',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (5), 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyflavone (6), syringaldehyde, vanillic acid and scopoletin were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Gardenia carinata (Rubiaceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Flavone 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity against P-388 and MCF-7 cell lines, while 3, 5 and 6 were active only in P-388 cell line. All active compounds were found to inhibit DNA topoisomerase IIα activity, which may be responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. Flavones 1-3, 5 and 6 also exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity in the anti-syncytium assay using (∆Tat/rev)MC99 virus and 1A2 cell line system; 2 was most potent. Only flavones 1 and 6 showed considerably activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of the human nuclear xenobiotic receptor PXR by the reverse transcriptase-targeted anti-HIV drug PNU-142721

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yuan; Redinbo, Matthew R. (UNC)

    2012-10-09

    The human pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors. PXR responds to a structurally diverse variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, and coordinates the expression of genes central to the metabolism and excretion of potentially harmful chemicals, including human therapeutics. The reverse transcriptase inhibitor PNU-142721 has been designed to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although this compound has anti-HIV activity, it was established using cell-based assays that PNU-142721 is an efficacious PXR agonist. We present here the 2.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the human PXR ligand-binding domain in complex with PNU-142721. PXR employs one hydrogen bond and fourteen van der Waals contacts to interact with the ligand, but allows two loops adjacent to the ligand-binding pocket to remain disordered in the structure. These observations highlight the role structural flexibility plays in PXR's promiscuous responses to xenobiotics. The crystal structure also explains why PNU-173575, a thiomethyl metabolite of PNU-142721, exhibits enhanced PXR activation relative to the unmodified compound and why PNU-142721 can also activate rat PXR. Taken together, the results presented here elucidate the structural basis for PXR activation by PNU-142721 and related chemicals.

  7. Amperometric sensing of anti-HIV drug zidovudine on Ag nanofilm-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir; Afraz, Ahmadreza

    2014-06-01

    The zidovudine (ZDV) is the first drug approved for the treatment of HIV virus infection. The detection and determination of this drug are very importance in human serum because of its undesirable effects. A new ZDV sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanocomposite of silver nanofilm (Ag-NF) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques. Results showed that the electrodeposited silver has a nanofilm structure and further electrochemical studies showed that the prepared nanocomposite has high electrocatalytic activity and is appropriate for using in sensors. The amperometric technique under optimal conditions is used for the determination of ZDV ranging from 0.1 to 400 ppm (0.37 μM–1.5 mM) with a low detection limit of 0.04 ppm (0.15 μM) (S/N = 3) and good sensitivity. The prepared sensor possessed accurate and rapid response to ZDV and shows an average recovery of 98.6% in real samples. - Highlights: • New anti-HIV drug sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanomaterials composite. • The GCE modified by prepared hydrophilic MWCNT silver nanoparticles. • Silver nanofilm electrodeposited on MWCNT/GCE and characterized by SEM, EDX, CV and LSV • Response of electrode to ZDV was thoroughly investigated by electrochemical techniques.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative intravaginal targeting: key to anti-HIV-1 microbicide delivery from test tube to in vivo success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Viness; Mashingaidze, Felix; Choonara, Yahya E; Du Toit, Lisa C; Buchmann, Eckhart; Maharaj, Vinesh; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-06-01

    The past decade has seen several effective anti-HIV-1 agent discoveries, yet microbicides continue to disappoint clinically. Our review expounds the view that unsatisfactory microbicide failures may be a result of inefficient delivery systems employed. We hereby propose a thorough scientific qualitative and quantitative investigation of important aspects involved in HIV-1 transmission as a prerequisite for microbicide delivery. Intravaginal targeting of HIV-1 increases the chances of microbicide success, wherein vaginal microenvironmental factors including pH should be maintained at HIV-1 prohibitive acidic levels simultaneously to ward off other sexually transmitted diseases, which compromise vaginal epithelial barrier properties. Furthermore, choice of receptors to target both on HIV-1 and on target cells is vital in deterring transmission. Appropriate modeling of virus-target cell interactions as well as targeting early stages of the HIV-1 infection accompanied by computation and delivery of appropriate microbicide quantities could revolutionize microbicide research, ultimately delivering a female-controlled HIV-1 prevention modality appropriately. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A novel dual-luciferase assay for anti-HIV drug screening based on the CCR5/CXCR4 promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Long; Lu, Wuhao; Ma, Yunyun; Guo, Wentao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qianqian; Wu, Jianbo; Zhao, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2018-02-23

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a serious worldwide disease caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) are important coreceptors mediating HIV-1 cell entry. Many new anti-HIV drugs are currently in preclinical and clinical trials; however, drug development has proceeded slowly partly because of the lack of a high-throughput system to screen these drugs. Here, we describe the development of a novel dual-luciferase assay using a CCR5/CXCR4 promoter-driven firefly and Renilla luciferase vector (pGL4.10-RLUC-CCR5 /CXCR4). Drugs were screened for the ability to regulate CCR5 and CXCR4 promoter activities. The CCR5 and CXCR4 promoters were inserted separately into the recombinant vector and transfected into the acute T lymphocyte leukemia cell line H9. Treatment of stable transfected cells with four traditional Chinese medicine compounds resulted in the dose-dependent inhibition of the CXCR4 and CCR5 promoter activities. The dual-luciferase reporter assay provides a rapid and direct method to screen anti-AIDS/HIV drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrochemical studies of nevirapine, an anti-HIV drug, and its assay in tablets and biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JALDAPPAGARI SEETHARAMAPPA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of nevirapine, an anti-HIV drug, at a glassy carbon electrode has been studied by voltammetric techniques. Nevirapine showed one well defined irreversible oxidation peak with a potential of 0.749 V in phosphate buffer at pH 10. The effects of different electrolytes, pH and scan rate on the electrochemical behaviour of nevira¬pine were examined to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The oxidation peak current was found to vary linearly with the concentration of nevirapine in the range of 5.0 – 350 µM. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values were calculated and found to be 1.026 µM and 3.420 µM, respectively. The low relative standard deviation values of inter-day and intra-day assays highlighted the good reproducibility of the proposed m¬ethod for assay of nevirapine. Further, a sensitive and accurate differential pulse voltammetric method was developed for the determination of nevirapine concentrations in pharma¬ceutical formulations.

  11. Anti-tumor and anti-virus activity of polysaccharides extracted from Sipunculus nudus(SNP) on Hepg2.2.15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie; Jiang, Linlin; Wu, Jingna; Liu, Zhiyu; Wu, Yuping

    2016-06-01

    Many polysaccharides have biological activities and have been investigated for their antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity and anti-virus activity of SNP-the water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from Sipunculus nudus on Hepg2.2.15. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that SNP induced dose-dependent cell apoptosis on Hepg2.2.15. Real-time PCR and Western Blot analysis showed that SNP down-regulated the synthesis of HBsAg, HBV-DNA and enhanced the expression of pro-apoptosis proteins TNF-α, caspase-3, and Bax, while decreasing the expression of the anti-apoptosis proteins survivin, Bcl-2, and VEGF. These results suggested that SNP suppressed cell viability of Hepg2.2.15 and that could be a novel anti-tumor and anti-HBV agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Correlation between the expression of PTEN and anti-tumor activity of PARP inhibitor and radiation in cultured endometrial carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Aki; Oda, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    PTEN inactivation is the most frequent genetic aberration in endometrial cancer. One of the phosphatase-independent roles of PTEN is associated with homologous recombination (HR) in the nucleus. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays key roles in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks, and a PARP inhibitor induces synthetic lethality in cancer cells with HR deficiency. Radiation also causes double strand break, which is repaired through HR. We examined the anti-tumor activity of PARP inhibitor and radiation on endometrial cancer cell lines with different PTEN status. Here we introduce this work, which was recently published (Aki Miyasaka, Katsutoshi Oda, Yuji Ikeda et al. Anti-tumor activity of olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, in cultured endometrial carcinoma cell line BMC Cancer 2014, 14: 179). (author)

  13. Recognition of melanoma-derived antigens by CTL: possible mechanisms involved in down-regulating anti-tumor T-cell reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivoltini, L; Loftus, D J; Squarcina, P

    1998-01-01

    Several T cell-recognized epitopes presented by melanoma cells have been identified recently. Despite the large array of epitopes potentially available for clinical use, it is still unclear which of these antigens could be effective in mediating anti-tumor responses when used as a vaccine...... (detected as increased antigen-specific CTL activity in peripheral blood) was obtained by vaccinating HLA-A2.1+ melanoma patients with the immunodominant epitope (residues 27-35) of the differentiation antigen MART-1, but this immunization was not accompanied by a significant clinical response. To implement...... immunotherapeuties capable of significantly impacting disease outcome, it is necessary to identify the potential mechanisms responsible for the failure of some antigens to mediate significant anti-tumor responses in vivo. In the case of the MART-1(27-35) epitope, we hypothesize that one of these mechanisms may...

  14. Optimizing production of asperolide A, a potential anti-tumor tetranorditerpenoid originally produced by the algal-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus wentii EN-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Gangming; Wang, Bingui

    2017-05-01

    The marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus wentii EN-48 produces the potential anti-tumor agent asperolide A, a tetranorlabdane diterpenoid active against lung cancer. However, the fermentation yield of asperolide A was very low and only produced in static cultures. Static fermentation conditions of A. wentii EN-48 were optimized employing response surface methodology to enhance the production of asperolide A. The optimized conditions resulted in a 13.9-fold yield enhancement, which matched the predicted value, and the optimized conditions were successfully used in scale-up fermentation for the production of asperolide A. Exogenous addition of plant hormones (especially 10 μmol/L methyl jasmonate) stimulated asperolide A production. To our knowledge, this is first optimized production of an asperolide by a marine-derived fungus. The optimization is Effective and valuable to supply material for further anti-tumor mechanism studies and preclinical evaluation of asperolide A and other norditerpenoids.

  15. Interleukin-6 Induced "Acute" Phenotypic Microenvironment Promotes Th1 Anti-Tumor Immunity in Cryo-Thermal Therapy Revealed By Shotgun and Parallel Reaction Monitoring Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Kun; Yang, Li; Moritz, Robert L; Yan, Wei; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-thermal therapy has been emerged as a promising novel therapeutic strategy for advanced breast cancer, triggering higher incidence of tumor regression and enhanced remission of metastasis than routine treatments. To better understand its anti-tumor mechanism, we utilized a spontaneous metastatic mouse model and quantitative proteomics to compare N-glycoproteome changes in 94 serum samples with and without treatment. We quantified 231 highly confident N-glycosylated proteins using iTRAQ shotgun proteomics. Among them, 53 showed significantly discriminated regulatory patterns over the time course, in which the acute phase response emerged as the most enhanced pathway. The anti-tumor feature of the acute response was further investigated using parallel reaction monitoring target proteomics and flow cytometry on 23 of the 53 significant proteins. We found that cryo-thermal therapy reset the tumor chronic inflammation to an "acute" phenotype, with up-regulation of acute phase proteins including IL-6 as a key regulator. The IL-6 mediated "acute" phenotype transformed IL-4 and Treg-promoting ICOSL expression to Th1-promoting IFN-γ and IL-12 production, augmented complement system activation and CD86(+)MHCII(+) dendritic cells maturation and enhanced the proliferation of Th1 memory cells. In addition, we found an increased production of tumor progression and metastatic inhibitory proteins under such "acute" environment, favoring the anti-metastatic effect. Moreover, cryo-thermal on tumors induced the strongest "acute" response compared to cryo/hyperthermia alone or cryo-thermal on healthy tissues, accompanying by the most pronounced anti-tumor immunological effect. In summary, we demonstrated that cryo-thermal therapy induced, IL-6 mediated "acute" microenvironment shifted the tumor chronic microenvironment from Th2 immunosuppressive and pro-tumorigenic to Th1 immunostimulatory and tumoricidal state. Moreover, the magnitude of "acute" and "danger" signals play a key

  16. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells are essential for CD8+ T cell activation and anti-tumor responses after local immunotherapy

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    Sabine eKuhn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells with the ability to prime tumor-specific T cells. However, these T cells mostly fail to differentiate into armed effectors and are unable to control tumor growth. We have previously shown that treatment with immunostimulatory agents at the tumor site can activate anti-tumor immune responses, and is associated with the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the tumor and tumor-draining lymph node. Here we use dendritic cell or monocyte depletion and monocyte transfer to show that these monocyte-derived dendritic cells are critical to the activation of anti-tumor immune responses. Treatment with the immunostimulatory agents Monosodium Urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis induced the accumulation of monocytes in the draining lymph node, their upregulation of CD11c and MHCII, and expression of iNOS, TNFα and IL12p40. Blocking monocyte entry into the lymph node and tumor through neutralization of the chemokine CCL2 or inhibition of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 receptor signaling prevented the generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, the infiltration of tumor-specific T cells into the tumor, and anti-tumor responses. In a reciprocal fashion, monocytes transferred into mice depleted of CD11c+ cells were sufficient to rescue CD8+ T cell priming in lymph node and delay tumor growth. Thus monocytes exposed to the appropriate conditions become powerful activators of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-tumor immunity.

  17. Examination of Potential Anti-Tumor Activity of N-Thiolated b-Lactam Antibiotics in Nude Mice Bearing Human Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    N-methylthiolated beta-lactams the name "penicillin" in 1928 after his discovery that molds from the Penicillium genus secrete powerful antimicrobial ...carboxyl grouin close pr ximin to tlhectam l initro’gen, which is required for antimicrobial activity . These antibiotics act as bactericidal agents...AD AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-04-1-0688 TITLE: Examination of Potential Anti-Tumor Activity of N-Thiolated b-Lactam Antibiotics in Nude Mice Bearing Human

  18. WHI-05, a novel bromo-methoxy substituted phenyl phosphate derivative of zidovudine, is a dual-action spermicide with potent anti-HIV activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, O J; Zhu, Z; Yiv, S H; Chen, C L; Waurzyniak, B; Uckun, F M

    1999-05-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV to women is the fastest-growing mode of transmission. In a systematic effort to develop a microbicide capable of preventing HIV transmission as well as providing fertility control, novel phenyl phosphate derivatives of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine, ZDV) have been identified that exhibit potent anti-HIV and spermicidal activities. This study reports the synthesis, characterization, and preclinical formulation of compound WHI-05, 5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-methoxyphenyl) methoxyalaninyl phosphate. The anti-HIV activities of WHI-05 and ZDV were compared by measuring p24 antigen production and reverse transcriptase activity as markers of viral replication using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with both ZDV-sensitive and ZDV-resistant strains of HIV. The sperm immobilizing activity (SIA) of WHI-05 was compared with that of ZDV and nonoxynol-9 (N-9) by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). The effect of WHI-05 on sperm membrane integrity was examined by high resolution, low voltage scanning electron microscopy (HR-LVSEM). The in vitro cytotoxicity profile of WHI-05 versus N-9 were compared using normal human vaginal, ectocervical, and endocervical epithelial cells. The in vivo vaginal tolerance, absorption, and toxicity of a 2% WHI-05 gel-microemulsion was tested in the rabbit. Whereas ZDV displayed potent anti-HIV activity but lacked SIA, WHI-05 elicited both potent anti-HIV activity and SIA. WHI-05 inhibited the replication of ZDV-sensitive as well as ZDV-resistant strains of HIV in PBMC. CASA combined with HR-LVSEM demonstrated that WHI-05-induced SIA was not associated with membrane damage. Unlike, N-9, the spermicidal activity of WHI-05 was not associated with cytotoxicity to reproductive tract epithelial cells. Repetitive intravaginal application of a 2% WHI-05 gel-microemulsion did not damage the vaginal epithelium or cause local inflammation in the rabbit model. As a

  19. Vaccination with Irradiated Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Stimulates Potent, Specific, and Long-Lasting Anti-Tumor Immunity

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    Dranoff, Glenn; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Audrey; Golumbek, Paul; Levitsky, Hyam; Brose, Katja; Jackson, Valerie; Hamada, Hirofumi; Pardoll, Drew; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1993-04-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor immunity, requiring both CD4^+ and CD8^+ cells. Irradiated cells expressing interleukins 4 and 6 also stimulated detectable, but weaker, activity. In contrast to the B16 system, we found that in a number of other tumor models, the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone. Nevertheless, manipulation of the vaccine or challenge doses made it possible to demonstrate the activity of murine GM-CSF in those systems as well. Overall, our results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  20. Anti-tumor effect of cisplatin in human oral squamous cell carcinoma was enhanced by andrographolide via upregulation of phospho-p53 in vitro and in vivo.

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    Chen, Songjie; Hu, Hui; Miao, Shushu; Zheng, Jiayong; Xie, Zhijian; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common neoplasm in the world. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and treatment, the outcome is still poor now. Thus, the development of novel therapeuticapproaches is needed. The aim of this study is to assess the synergistic anti-tumor effect of andrographolide with cisplatin (DDP) in oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cells in vitro and in vivo. We performed Cell Counting Kit-8 proliferation assay, apoptosis assay, and western blotting on CAL-27 cells treated with andrographolide, DDP or the combination in vitro. In vivo, we also treated CAL-27 xenografts with andrographolide or the combination, and performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay and immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67. The results showed the combination of andrographolide and DDP synergistically inhibited CAL-27 cell proliferation in vitro and caused tumor regression in vivo in the CAL-27 xenografts. In addition, the synergistic anti-tumor effect of andrographolide with synergistic was due to an enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, the combination therapy upregulated the expression level of p-p53 in vitro and decreased Ki-67 expression in vivo. Our data indicate that the combination treatment of andrographolide and DDP results in synergistic anti-tumor growth activity against oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that combination of andrographolide with DDP was likely to represent a potential therapeutic strategy for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Furozan-Based Nitric Oxide-Releasing Derivatives of Oridonin as Potential Anti-Tumor Agents

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    Hao Cai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To search for novel nitric oxide (NO releasing anti-tumor agents, a series of novel furoxan/oridonin hybrids were designed and synthesized. Firstly, the nitrate/nitrite levels in the cell lysates were tested by a Griess assay and the results showed that these furoxan-based NO-releasing derivatives could produce high levels of NO in vitro. Then the anti-proliferative activity of these hybrids against four human cancer cell lines was also determined, among which, 9h exhibited the most potential anti-tumor activity with IC50 values of 1.82 µM against K562, 1.81 µM against MGC-803 and 0.86 µM against Bel-7402, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship was concluded based on the experimental data obtained. These results suggested that NO-donor/natural product hybrids may provide a promising approach for the discovery of novel anti-tumor agents.

  2. Localization of CD26/DPPIV in nucleus and its nuclear translocation enhanced by anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody with anti-tumor effect

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    Sakamoto Michiie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD26 is a type II, cell surface glycoprotein known as dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP IV. Previous studies have revealed CD26 expression in T cell leukemia/lymphoma and malignant mesothelioma, and an inhibitory effect of anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody (mAb against the growth of CD26+ cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The function of CD26 in tumor development is unknown and the machinery with which the CD26 mAb induces its anti-tumor effect remains uncharacterized. Results The localization of CD26 in the nucleus of T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells and mesothelioma cells was shown by biochemical and immuno-electron microscopic analysis. The DPPIV enzyme activity was revealed in the nuclear fraction of T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells. These expressions of intra-nuclear CD26 were augmented by treatment with the CD26 mAb, 1F7, with anti-tumor effect against the CD26+ T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells. In contrast, the CD26 mAb, 5F8, without anti-tumor effect, did not augment CD26 expressions in the nucleus. Biotin-labeled, cell surface CD26 translocated into the nucleus constantly, and this translocation was enhanced with 1F7 treatment but not with 5F8. Conclusion These results indicate that the intra-nuclear CD26 which moves from plasma membrane may play certain roles in cell growth of human cancer cells.

  3. CTLA4 Immunoglobulin but Not Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy Promotes Staphylococcal Septic Arthritis in Mice.

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    Ali, Abukar; Welin, Amanda; Schwarze, Jan-Christoph; Svensson, Mattias N D; Na, Manli; Jarneborn, Anders; Magnusson, Malin; Mohammad, Majd; Kwiecinski, Jakub; Josefsson, Elisabet; Bylund, Johan; Pullerits, Rille; Jin, Tao

    2015-10-15

    The development of biologics has greatly increased the quality of life and the life expectancy of many patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, a large number of these patients have an increased risk of developing serious infections. The aim of this study was to examine differential effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment and CTLA4 immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment on both immunological response and host defense in a murine model of septic arthritis. Abatacept (CTLA4-Ig), etanercept (anti-TNF), or phosphate-buffered saline were given to NMRI mice intravenously inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. The clinical course of septic arthritis and histopathological and radiological changes of joints were compared among the groups. Mice receiving CTLA4-Ig treatment had more-severe septic arthritis, compared with controls and mice receiving anti-TNF treatment. Anti-TNF treatment led to more-severe weight loss and kidney abscesses, as well as a higher bacterial burden in the kidneys. Mice receiving CTLA4-Ig therapy had lower serum levels of interleukin 4, whereas mice receiving anti-TNF therapy had higher levels of TNF-α. Both iNOS and arginase-1 expression were reduced in peritoneal macrophages from mice receiving CTLA4-Ig, compared with expression in the anti-TNF group. CTLA4-Ig therapy significantly increased the susceptibility to S. aureus septic arthritis in mice, whereas anti-TNF therapy deteriorated host bacterial clearance, resulting in more-severe weight loss and kidney abscesses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Transgenic expression of soluble human CD5 enhances experimentally-induced autoimmune and anti-tumoral immune responses.

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    Rafael Fenutría

    Full Text Available CD5 is a lymphoid-specific transmembrane glycoprotein constitutively expressed on thymocytes and mature T and B1a lymphocytes. Current data support the view that CD5 is a negative regulator of antigen-specific receptor-mediated signaling in these cells, and that this would likely be achieved through interaction with CD5 ligand/s (CD5L of still undefined nature expressed on immune or accessory cells. To determine the functional consequence of loss of CD5/CD5L interaction in vivo, a new transgenic mouse line was generated (shCD5EμTg, expressing a circulating soluble form of human CD5 (shCD5 as a decoy to impair membrane-bound CD5 function. These shCD5EμTg mice showed an enhanced response to autologous antigens, as deduced from the presentation of more severe forms of experimentally inducible autoimmune disease (collagen-induced arthritis, CIA; and experimental autoimmune encephalitis, EAE, as well as an increased anti-tumoral response in non-orthotopic cancer models (B16 melanoma. This enhancement of the immune response was in agreement with the finding of significantly reduced proportions of spleen and lymph node Treg cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+, and of peritoneal IL-10-producing and CD5+ B cells, as well as an increased proportion of spleen NKT cells in shCD5EμTg mice. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulations were observed in wild-type mice following repeated administration of exogenous recombinant shCD5 protein. These data reveal the relevant role played by CD5/CD5L interactions on the homeostasis of some functionally relevant lymphocyte subpopulations and the modulation of immune responses to autologous antigens.

  5. Intratumoral delivery of CpG-conjugated anti-MUC1 antibody enhances NK cell anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettini, Jorge; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Besmer, Dahlia M; Tinder, Teresa L; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Lustgarten, Joseph; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2012-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor-associated antigens are useful anticancer agents. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the major mechanisms responsible for initiating natural killer cell (NK)-mediated killing of tumors. However, the regulation of ADCC via NK cells is poorly understood. We have investigated the cytolytic activity of NK cells against pancreatic cancer cells that were coated with an antibody directed against the human tumor antigen, Mucin-1 designated HMFG-2, either alone or conjugated to CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN). Conjugated antibodies were tested for their ability to elicit ADCC in vitro and in vivo against pancreatic cancer cells. NK cells cultured in the presence of immobilized CpG ODN, HMFG-2 Ab, or CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 Ab were able to up-regulate perforin similarly. Interestingly, a significant higher ADCC was observed when CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2-coated tumor cells were co-cultured with NK cells compared to unconjugated HMFG-2 Ab or CpG ODN alone. Moreover, MyD88-deficient NK cells can perform ADCC in vitro. Furthermore, intratumoral injections of CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 induced a significant reduction in tumor burden in vivo in an established model of pancreatic tumor in nude mice compared to CpG ODN or the HMFG-2 alone. Depletion of macrophages or NK cells before treatment confirmed that both cells were required for the anti-tumor response in vivo. Results also suggest that CpG ODN and HMFG-2 Ab could be sensed by NK cells on the mAb-coated tumor cells triggering enhanced ADCC in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Efficacy of restarting anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents after surgery in patients with Crohn's disease

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    Sakiko Hiraoka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα antibodies for postoperative Crohn's disease (CD in patients who were treated with these agents prior to surgery is largely unknown. Methods: CD patients who underwent intestinal resection and received anti-TNFα agents after surgery were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of preoperative anti-TNFα treatment: anti-TNFα restart group or anti-TNFα naïve group. Endoscopic recurrence after surgery was examined according to the preoperative conditions, including administration of anti-TNFα agents before surgery. Results: Thirty-six patients received anti-TNFα antibody after surgery: 22 in the anti-TNFα restart group and 14 in the anti-TNFα naïve group. Endoscopic recurrence after surgery was more frequently observed in the anti-TNFα restart group than in the anti-TNFα naïve group (68% vs. 14%, P<0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant risk factors of endoscopic recurrence after surgery: anti-TNF restart group (odds ratio [OR], 28.10; 95% CI, 3.08–722.00, age at diagnosis <23 years (OR, 24.30; 95% CI, 1.67–1,312.00, serum albumin concentration at surgery <3.3 g/dL (OR, 34.10; 95% CI, 1.72–2,804.00, and presence of inflammation outside of the surgical site (OR, 21.40; 95% CI, 1.02–2,150.00. Treatment intensification for patients with endoscopic recurrence in the anti-TNFα restart group showed limited responses, with only 1 of 12 patients achieving endoscopic remission. Conclusions: The efficacy of restarting anti-TNFα antibody treatment after surgery was limited, and treatment intensification or a change to different classes of biologics should be considered for those patients.

  7. Mitochondria Are the Target Organelle of Differentiation-Inducing Factor-3, an Anti-Tumor Agent Isolated from Dictyostelium Discoideum

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    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Matsuo, Yusuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Homma, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor-3 (DIF-3), found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and its derivatives such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3) are potent anti-tumor agents. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the actions of DIF-3 remain to be elucidated. In this study, we synthesized a green fluorescent derivative of DIF-3, BODIPY-DIF-3, and a control fluorescent compound, Bu-BODIPY (butyl-BODIPY), and investigated how DIF-like molecules behave in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by using both fluorescence and electron microscopy. BODIPY-DIF-3 at 5–20 µ M suppressed cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas Bu-BODIPY had minimal effect on cell growth. When cells were incubated with BODIPY-DIF-3 at 20 µM, it penetrated cell membranes within 0.5 h and localized mainly in mitochondria, while Bu-BODIPY did not stain the cells. Exposure of cells for 1–3 days to DIF-3, Bu-DIF-3, BODIPY-DIF-3, or CCCP (a mitochondrial uncoupler) induced substantial mitochondrial swelling, suppressing cell growth. When added to isolated mitochondria, DIF-3, Bu-DIF-3, and BOIDPY-DIF-3, like CCCP, dose-dependently promoted the rate of oxygen consumption, but Bu-BODIPY did not. Our results suggest that these bioactive DIF-like molecules suppress cell growth, at least in part, by disturbing mitochondrial activity. This is the first report showing the cellular localization and behavior of DIF-like molecules in mammalian tumor cells. PMID:23977224

  8. Combination of PDT and a DNA demethylating agent produces anti-tumor immune response in a mouse tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, which involve DNA methylation and histone modifications, result in the heritable silencing of genes without a change in their coding sequence. However, these changes must be actively maintained after each cell division rendering them a promising target for pharmacologic inhibition. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors like 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) induce and/or up-regulate the expression of MAGE-type antigens in human and mice cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be an effective locally ablative anti-cancer treatment that has the additional advantage of stimulating tumor-directed immune response. We studied the effects of a new therapy that combined the demethylating agent 5-aza-dC with PDT in the breast cancer model 4T1 syngenic to immunocompetent BALB/c mice. PDT was used as a locally ablating tumor treatment that is capable of eliciting strong and tumor directed immune response while 5-aza-dC pretreatment was used promote de novo induction of the expression of P1A.protein. This is the mouse homolog of human MAGE family antigens and is reported to function as a tumor rejection antigen in certain mouse tumors. This strategy led to an increase in PDT-mediated immune response and better treatment outcome. These results strongly suggest that the MAGE family antigens are important target for PDT mediated immune response but that their expression can be silenced by epigenetic mechanisms. Therefore the possibility that PDT can be combined with epigenetic strategies to elicit anti-tumor immunity in MAGE-positive tumor models is highly clinically significant and should be studied in detail.

  9. Oleuropein potentiates anti-tumor activity of cisplatin against HepG2 through affecting proNGF/NGF balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Iman O; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2018-04-01

    Oleuropein is considered as a new chemotherapeutic agent in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while, its exact underlying molecular mechanism still not yet explored. In addition, cisplatin is a standard anticancer drug against solid tumors with toxic side effects. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess antitumor activity of oleuropein either alone or in combination with cisplatin against HepG2, human HCC cell lines, via targeting pro-NGF/NGF signaling pathway. HepG2 cells were treated with cisplatin (20, 50, 100 μM) and oleuropein (100, 200, 300 and 400 μM) as well as some of the cells were treated with 50 μM cisplatin and different concentrations of oleuropein. Gene expressions of nerve growth factor (NGF), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and caspase-3 were evaluated by real time-PCR. In addition, protein levels of NGF and pro-form of NGF (pro-NGF) were measured by ELISA while, nitric oxide (NO) content was determined colorimetrically. Cisplatin treatment showed a significant elevation of NO content and pro-NGF protein level with a marked reduction of NGF protein level in addition to the upregulation of caspase-3 along with downregulation of MMP-7 gene expressions in a dose-dependent manner. However, the combination of 50 μM cisplatin and 200 μM oleuropein showed the most potent effect on the molecular level when compared with oleuropein or cisplatin alone. Our results showed for the first time that the anti-tumor activity of oleuropein against HCC could be attributed to influencing the pro-NGF/NGF balance via affecting MMP-7 activity without affecting the gene expression of NGF. Concurrent treatment with both oleuropein and cisplatin could lead to more effective chemotherapeutic combination against HCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The anti-tumor drug bleomycin preferentially cleaves at the transcription start sites of actively transcribed genes in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Vincent; Chen, Jon K; Galea, Anne M

    2014-04-01

    The genome-wide pattern of DNA cleavage at transcription start sites (TSSs) for the anti-tumor drug bleomycin was examined in human HeLa cells using next-generation DNA sequencing. It was found that actively transcribed genes were preferentially cleaved compared with non-transcribed genes. The 143,600 identified human TSSs were split into non-transcribed genes (82,596) and transcribed genes (61,004) for HeLa cells. These transcribed genes were further split into quintiles of 12,201 genes comprising the top 20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 % of expressed genes. The bleomycin cleavage pattern at highly transcribed gene TSSs was greatly enhanced compared with purified DNA and non-transcribed gene TSSs. The top 20 and 20-40 % quintiles had a very similar enhanced cleavage pattern, the 40-60 % quintile was intermediate, while the 60-80 and 80-100 % quintiles were close to the non-transcribed and purified DNA profiles. The pattern of bleomycin enhanced cleavage had peaks that were approximately 200 bp apart, and this indicated that bleomycin was identifying the presence of phased nucleosomes at TSSs. Hence bleomycin can be utilized to detect chromatin structures that are present at actively transcribed genes. In this study, for the first time, the pattern of DNA damage by a clinically utilized cancer chemotherapeutic agent was performed on a human genome-wide scale at the nucleotide level.

  11. CS2164, a novel multi-target inhibitor against tumor angiogenesis, mitosis and chronic inflammation with anti-tumor potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Shan, Song; Li, Zhi-Bin; Xin, Li-Jun; Pan, De-Si; Yang, Qian-Jiao; Liu, Ying-Ping; Yue, Xu-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Rong; Gao, Ji-Zhou; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Ning, Zhi-Qiang; Lu, Xian-Ping

    2017-03-01

    Although inhibitors targeting tumor angiogenic pathway have provided improvement for clinical treatment in patients with various solid tumors, the still very limited anti-cancer efficacy and acquired drug resistance demand new agents that may offer better clinical benefits. In the effort to find a small molecule potentially targeting several key pathways for tumor development, we designed, discovered and evaluated a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, CS2164. CS2164 inhibited the angiogenesis-related kinases (VEGFR2, VEGFR1, VEGFR3, PDGFRα and c-Kit), mitosis-related kinase Aurora B and chronic inflammation-related kinase CSF-1R in a high potency manner with the IC 50 at a single-digit nanomolar range. Consequently, CS2164 displayed anti-angiogenic activities through suppression of VEGFR/PDGFR phosphorylation, inhibition of ligand-dependent cell proliferation and capillary tube formation, and prevention of vasculature formation in tumor tissues. CS2164 also showed induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and suppression of cell proliferation in tumor tissues through the inhibition of Aurora B-mediated H3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, CS2164 demonstrated the inhibitory effect on CSF-1R phosphorylation that led to the suppression of ligand-stimulated monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and reduced CSF-1R + cells in tumor tissues. The in vivo animal efficacy studies revealed that CS2164 induced remarkable regression or complete inhibition of tumor growth at well-tolerated oral doses in several human tumor xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that CS2164 is a highly selective multi-kinase inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activities against tumor angiogenesis, mitosis and chronic inflammation, which may provide the rationale for further clinical assessment of CS2164 as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Combination of Vorinostat and caspase-8 inhibition exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Sorolla, Annabel; Yeramian, Andree; Eritja, Nuria; Mirantes, Cristina; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as Vorinostat display anti-neoplastic activity against a variety of solid tumors. Here, we have investigated the anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat on endometrial cancer cells. We have found that Vorinostat caused cell growth arrest, loss of clonogenic growth and apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells. Vorinostat-induced the activation of caspase-8 and -9, the initiators caspases of the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively. Next, we investigated the role of the extrinsic pathway in apoptosis triggered by Vorinostat. We found that Vorinostat caused a dramatic decrease of FLIP mRNA and protein levels. However, overexpression of the long from of FLIP did not block Vorinostat-induced apoptosis. To further investigate the role of extrinsic apoptotic pathway in Vorinostat-induced apoptosis, we performed an shRNA-mediated knock-down of caspase-8. Surprisingly, downregulation of caspase-8 alone caused a marked decrease in clonogenic ability and reduced the growth of endometrial cancer xenografts in vivo, revealing that targeting caspase-8 may be an attractive target for anticancer therapy on endometrial tumors. Furthermore, combination of caspase-8 inhibition and Vorinostat treatment caused an enhancement of apoptotic cell death and a further decrease of clonogenic growth of endometrial cancer cells. More importantly, combination of Vorinostat and caspase-8 inhibition caused a nearly complete inhibition of tumor xenograft growth. Finally, we demonstrate that cell death triggered by Vorinostat alone or in combination with caspase-8 shRNAs was inhibited by the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Our results suggest that combinatory therapies using Vorinostat treatment and caspase-8 inhibition can be an effective treatment for endometrial carcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Circulating type-1 anti-tumor CD4+ T cells are preferentially pro-apoptotic in cancer patients

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    Amy K. Wesa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma patients frequently exhibit a deficiency in Type-1 (but not Type-2 or regulatory CD4+ T cell responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAA, which may limit protection against cancer progression or responsiveness to immunotherapy in these individuals. Since such deficiency was acutely evident in patients with active disease, where chronic stimulation of anti-tumor CD4+ T cells would be expected and activation-induced cell death may be prevalent, we employed MHC Class II-peptide tetramers to characterize the frequency and apoptotic status of TAA- vs. influenza (FluM1 virus-specific CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of HLA-DR*0401+ patients with melanoma or renal cell carcinoma (RCC. We observed that Flu-specific CD4+ T cells ranged from 0.17 to 3.89%, while up to approximately 1% of CD4+ T cells reacted against individual TAA epitopes derived from the EphA2 or MAGE-6 proteins. The frequencies of EphA2 and MAGE-6-specific CD4+ T cells in patients were significantly correlated with active disease and patient gender (i.e. females > males, while frequencies of Flu-specific CD4+ T cells were distributed within a normal range in all patients. Notably, patient CD4+ T cells reactive with MHC class II-TAA (but not MHC class II-Flu tetramers were significantly enriched for a pro-apoptotic (Annexin-V+ phenotype, particularly amongst the Th1 (T-bet+ subset. These results suggest that the preferential sensitivity of TAA (but not viral-specific CD4+ Th1 cells to apoptosis in melanoma patients with active disease will need to be overcome for optimal clinical benefit of immunotherapeutic approaches to be realized.

  14. Tumor necrosis factor induces tumor promoting and anti-tumoral effects on pancreatic cancer via TNFR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Chopra

    Full Text Available Multiple activities are ascribed to the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF in health and disease. In particular, TNF was shown to affect carcinogenesis in multiple ways. This cytokine acts via the activation of two cell surface receptors, TNFR1, which is associated with inflammation, and TNFR2, which was shown to cause anti-inflammatory signaling. We assessed the effects of TNF and its two receptors on the progression of pancreatic cancer by in vivo bioluminescence imaging in a syngeneic orthotopic tumor mouse model with Panc02 cells. Mice deficient for TNFR1 were unable to spontaneously reject Panc02 tumors and furthermore displayed enhanced tumor progression. In contrast, a fraction of wild type (37.5%, TNF deficient (12.5%, and TNFR2 deficient mice (22.2% were able to fully reject the tumor within two weeks. Pancreatic tumors in TNFR1 deficient mice displayed increased vascular density, enhanced infiltration of CD4(+ T cells and CD4(+ forkhead box P3 (FoxP3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg but reduced numbers of CD8(+ T cells. These alterations were further accompanied by transcriptional upregulation of IL4. Thus, TNF and TNFR1 are required in pancreatic ductal carcinoma to ensure optimal CD8(+ T cell-mediated immunosurveillance and tumor rejection. Exogenous systemic administration of human TNF, however, which only interacts with murine TNFR1, accelerated tumor progression. This suggests that TNFR1 has basically the capability in the Panc02 model to trigger pro-and anti-tumoral effects but the spatiotemporal availability of TNF seems to determine finally the overall outcome.

  15. Tumor mouse model confirms MAGE-A3 cancer immunotherapeutic as an efficient inducer of long-lasting anti-tumoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gérard

    Full Text Available MAGE-A3 is a potential target for immunotherapy due to its tumor-specific nature and expression in several tumor types. Clinical data on MAGE-A3 immunotherapy have raised many questions that can only be addressed by using animal models. In the present study, different aspects of the murine anti-tumor immune responses induced by a recombinant MAGE-A3 protein (recMAGE-A3 in combination with different immunostimulants (AS01, AS02, CpG7909 or AS15 were investigated.Based on cytokine profile analyses and protection against challenge with MAGE-A3-expressing tumor, the combination recMAGE-A3+AS15 was selected for further experimental work, in particular to study the mechanisms of anti-tumor responses. By using MHC class I-, MHC class II-, perforin-, B-cell- and IFN-γ- knock-out mice and CD4+ T cell-, CD8+ T cell- and NK cell- depleted mice, we demonstrated that CD4+ T cells and NK cells are the main anti-tumor effectors, and that IFN-γ is a major effector molecule. This mouse tumor model also established the need to repeat recMAGE-A3+AS15 injections to sustain efficient anti-tumor responses. Furthermore, our results indicated that the efficacy of tumor rejection by the elicited anti-MAGE-A3 responses depends on the proportion of tumor cells expressing MAGE-A3.The recMAGE-A3+AS15 cancer immunotherapy efficiently induced an antigen-specific, functional and long-lasting immune response able to recognize and eliminate MAGE-A3-expressing tumor cells up to several months after the last immunization in mice. The data highlighted the importance of the immunostimulant to induce a Th1-type immune response, as well as the key role played by IFN-γ, CD4+ T cells and NK cells in the anti-tumoral effect.

  16. DMPD: Distinct functions of IRF-3 and IRF-7 in IFN-alpha gene regulation and controlof anti-tumor activity in primary macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available trolof anti-tumor activity in primary macrophages. Solis M, Goubau D, Romieu-Mourez R, Genin P, Civas A, Hiscott... D, Romieu-Mourez R, Genin P, Civas A, Hiscott J. Publication Biochem Pharmacol.

  17. Stimulation of Liver X Receptor Has Potent Anti-HIV Effects in a Humanized Mouse Model of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Ali; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Sviridov, Dmitri; Karandish, Sara; Raj, Dominic S; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that liver X receptor (LXR) agonists inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication by upregulating cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1), suppressing HIV production, and reducing infectivity of produced virions. In this study, we extended these observations by analyzing the effect of the LXR agonist T0901317 [N-[4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl]-N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)benzenesulfonamide] on the ongoing HIV infection and investigating the possibility of using LXR agonist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV infection in a humanized mouse model. Pre-exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages to T0901317 reduced susceptibility of these cells to HIV infection in vitro. This protective effect lasted for up to 4 days after treatment termination and correlated with upregulated expression of ABCA1, reduced abundance of lipid rafts, and reduced fusion of the cells with HIV. Pre-exposure of peripheral blood leukocytes to T0901317 provided only a short-term protection against HIV infection. Treatment of HIV-exposed humanized mice with LXR agonist starting 2 weeks postinfection substantially reduced viral load. When eight humanized mice were pretreated with LXR agonist prior to HIV infection, five animals were protected from infection, two had viral load at the limit of detection, and one had viral load significantly reduced relative to mock-treated controls. T0901317 pretreatment also reduced HIV-induced dyslipidemia in infected mice. In conclusion, these results reveal a novel link between LXR stimulation and cell resistance to HIV infection and suggest that LXR agonists may be good candidates for development as anti-HIV agents, in particular for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Anti-HIV-1 B cell responses are dependent on B cell precursor frequency and antigen-binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosenovic, Pia; Kara, Ervin E; Pettersson, Anna-Klara; McGuire, Andrew T; Gray, Matthew; Hartweger, Harald; Thientosapol, Eddy S; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2018-04-16

    The discovery that humans can produce potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to several different epitopes on the HIV-1 spike has reinvigorated efforts to develop an antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine. Antibody cloning from single cells revealed that nearly all bNAbs show unusual features that could help explain why it has not been possible to elicit them by traditional vaccination and instead would require a sequence of different immunogens. This idea is supported by experiments with genetically modified immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in mice. Sequential immunization with a series of specifically designed immunogens was required to shepherd the development of bNAbs. However, knock-in mice contain superphysiologic numbers of bNAb precursor-expressing B cells, and therefore how these results can be translated to a more physiologic setting remains to be determined. Here we make use of adoptive transfer experiments using knock-in B cells that carry a synthetic intermediate in the pathway to anti-HIV-1 bNAb development to examine how the relationship between B cell receptor affinity and precursor frequency affects germinal center (GC) B cell recruitment and clonal expansion. Immunization with soluble HIV-1 antigens can recruit bNAb precursor B cells to the GC when there are as few as 10 such cells per mouse. However, at low precursor frequencies, the extent of clonal expansion is directly proportional to the affinity of the antigen for the B cell receptor, and recruitment to GCs is variable and dependent on recirculation.

  19. Rapid transient production in plants by replicating and non-replicating vectors yields high quality functional anti-HIV antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sainsbury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product.To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell-produced 2G12.Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors an attractive option for

  20. Trastuzumab anti-tumor efficacy in patient-derived esophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (PDECX mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianhua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trastuzumab is currently approved for the clinical treatment of breast and gastric cancer patients with HER-2 positive tumors, but not yet for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma patients, whose tumors typically show 5 ~ 35% HER-2 gene amplification and 0 ~ 56% HER-2 protein expression. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Trastuzumab in patient-derived esophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (PDECX mouse models. Methods PDECX models were established by implanting patient esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC tissues into immunodeficient (SCID/nude mice. HER-2 gene copy number (GCN and protein expression were determined in xenograft tissues and corresponding patient EC samples by FISH and IHC analysis. Trastuzumab anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated within these PDECX models (n = 8 animals/group. Furthermore, hotspot mutations of EGFR, K-ras, B-raf and PIK3CA genes were screened for in the PDECX models and their corresponding patient’s ESCC tissues. Similarity between the PDECX models and their corresponding patient’s ESCC tissue was confirmed by histology, morphology, HER-2 GCN and mutation. Results None of the PDECX models (or their corresponding patient’s ESCC tissues harbored HER-2 gene amplification. IHC staining showed HER-2 positivity (IHC 2+ in 2 PDECX models and negativity in 3 PDECX models. Significant tumor regression was observed in the Trastuzumab-treated EC044 HER-2 positive model (IHC 2+. A second HER-2 positive (IHC 2+ model, EC039, harbored a known PIK3CA mutation and showed strong activation of the AKT signaling pathway and was insensitive to Trastuzumab treatment, but could be resensitised using a combination of Trastuzumab and AKT inhibitor AZD5363. In summary, we established 5 PDECX mouse models and demonstrated tumor regression in response to Trastuzumab treatment in a HER-2 IHC 2+ model, but resistance in a HER-2 IHC 2+/PIK3CA mutated model. Conclusions

  1. In vivo tumor targeting and anti-tumor effects of 5-fluororacil loaded, folic acid targeted quantum dot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwatanglang, Ibrahim Birma; Mohammad, Faruq; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Hussein, Mohd Zubir; Abu, Nadiah; Mohammed, Nurul Elyani; Nordin, Noraini; Zamberi, Nur Rizi; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we modulated the anti-cancer efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) using a carrier system with enhanced targeting efficacy towards folate receptors (FRs) expressing malignant tissues. The 5-FU drug was loaded onto Mn-ZnS quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated with chitosan (CS) biopolymer and conjugated with folic acid (FA) based on a simple wet chemical method. The formation of 5-FU drug loaded composite was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, the in vivo biodistribution and tumor targeting specificity of the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS in the tumor-bearing mice was conducted based on the Zn(2+) tissue bioaccumulation using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. In addition to the characterization, the in vitro release profile of 5-FU from the conjugates investigated under diffusion controlled method demonstrated a controlled release behaviour as compared against the release behaviour of free 5-FU drug. The as-synthesized 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS nanoparticle (NP) systemically induced higher level of apoptosis in breast cancer cells in vitro as compared to cells treated with free 5-FU drug following both cell cycle and annexin assays, respectively. Also, the in vivo toxicity assessment of the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS NPs as compared to the control did not cause any significant increase in the activities of the liver and kidney function biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. However, based on the FA-FRs chemistry, the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS NPs specifically accumulated in the tumor of the tumor-bearing mice and thus contributed to the smaller tumor size and less event of metastasis was observed in the lungs when compared to the tumor-bearing mice groups treated with the free 5-FU drug. In summary, the results demonstrated that the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS QDs exhibits selective anti-tumor effect in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells in vitro and 4TI breast

  2. Anti-tumor activity of olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, in cultured endometrial carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Aki; Inaba, Kanako; Sone, Kenbun; Uehara, Yuriko; Kurikawa, Reiko; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Yoko; Arimoto, Takahide; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Oda, Katsutoshi; Yano, Tetsu; Kawana, Kei; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Kashiyama, Tomoko; Enomoto, Atsushi; Hosoya, Noriko; Koso, Takahiro; Fukuda, Tomohiko

    2014-01-01

    PTEN inactivation is the most frequent genetic aberration in endometrial cancer. One of the phosphatase-independent roles of PTEN is associated with homologous recombination (HR) in nucleus. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays key roles in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks, and a PARP inhibitor induces synthetic lethality in cancer cells with HR deficiency. We examined the anti-tumor activity of olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, and its correlation between the sensitivity and status of PTEN in endometrial cancer cell lines. The response to olaparib was evaluated using a clonogenic assay with SF50 values (concentration to inhibit cell survival to 50%) in 16 endometrial cancer cell lines. The effects of PTEN on the sensitivity to olaparib and ionizing radiation (IR) exposure were compared between parental HEC-6 (PTEN-null) and HEC-6 PTEN + (stably expressing wild-type PTEN) cells by clonogenic assay, foci formation of RAD51 and γH2AX, and induction of cleaved PARP. The effects of siRNA to PTEN were analyzed in cells with wild-type PTEN. The SF50 values were 100 nM or less in four (25%: sensitive) cell lines; whereas, SF50 values were 1,000 nM or more in four (25%: resistant) cell lines. PTEN mutations were not associated with sensitivity to olaparib (Mutant [n = 12]: 746 ± 838 nM; Wild-type [n = 4]: 215 ± 85 nM, p = 0.26 by Student’s t test). RAD51 expression was observed broadly and was not associated with PTEN status in the 16 cell lines. The number of colonies in the clonogenic assay, the foci formation of RAD51 and γH2AX, and the induction of apoptosis were not affected by PTEN introduction in the HEC-6 PTEN + cells. The expression level of nuclear PTEN was not elevated within 24 h following IR in the HEC-6-PTEN + cells. In addition, knocking down PTEN by siRNA did not alter the sensitivity to olaparib in 2 cell lines with wild-type PTEN. Our results suggest that olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, is effective on certain endometrial cancer cell lines

  3. Specific anti-tumor immune response with photodynamic therapy mediated by benzoporphyrin derivative and chlorin(e6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of anti-tumor immunity by photodynamic therapy (PDT). We used EMT-6 mammary sarcoma, a moderately immunogenic tumor, with 10(6) cells injected s.c. in thighs of immunocompetent Balb/c mice. Mice were treated 10 days later when tumors were 6-mm diameter. Two PDT regimens were equally effective in curing tumors: 1-mg/kg of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) followed after 15 min by 150 J/cm2 690 nm light or 10-mg/kg chlorin(e6) (ce6) followed after 6 hours by 150 J/cm2 665 nm light. BPD-PDT produced a black eschar 24-48 hours after treatment with no visible tumor, followed by healing of the lesion. By contrast ce6-PDT showed no black eschar, but a slow disappearance of tumor over 5-7 days. When cured mice were rechallenged with 10(6) EMT-6 cells in the opposite thigh, all ce6-PDT cured mice rejected the challenge, but BPD-PDT cured mice grew tumors in a proportion of cases. When mice were cured by amputation of the tumor bearing leg, all mice subsequently grew tumors upon rechallenge. Mice were given two EMT6 tumors (1 in each leg) and the mouse was injected with ce6 or BPD but only one tumor was treated with light. Both tumors (PDT-treated and contralateral) regressed at an equal rate until they became undetectable, but in some mice the untreated tumor recurred. Those mice cured of both tumors rejected a subsequent EMT6 rechallenge. Amputation of the tumor bearing leg did not lead to regression of the contralateral tumor. Mice that rejected an EMT6 rechallenge failed to reject a subsequent cross-challenge with J774 reticulum cell sarcoma (an alternative Balb/c murine tumor). These data show that PDT generates a tumor-specific memory immune response, and in addition an active tumoricidal immune response capable of destroying distant established tumors. We hypothesize that ce6-PDT is more effective than BPD-PDT due to more necrotic rather than apoptotic cell death and/or generation of heat

  4. Working life and physical activity in ankylosing spondylitis pre and post anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David S; McGuigan, Louis E; McGirr, Ellen E

    2014-02-01

    To assess effects of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) on working life and physical activity in Australia; to quantify changes in working life and physical activity that occur after anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) treatment; and to assess efficacy of anti-TNF-α therapy for AS in an Australian context. This is a multi-centre observational study of people with AS on anti-TNF-α therapy. All participants satisfied the New York Modified Criteria and had active and refractory disease at anti-TNF-α therapy commencement. Participation involved a standardized interview, a metrology assessment, assessment of disease remission and medical record review. Interviews and patients' records were used to compare working life (employment, sick leave and productivity) and physical activity (participation rate, hours/week, and physical intensity) between the pre-AS, post-AS and post-anti-TNF-α therapy periods. Fifty-two patients took part. Participants were on average 44.8 years old, predominately male (86.5%) and had been on anti-TNF-α therapy for 29 months; 39% were in partial remission and 75% had 50% reduction in the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Responders to anti-TNF-α therapy were 10.5 years younger than non-responders (P = 0.004). Post-anti-TNF-α therapy participants gained 6.6 h/week of work (P = 0.02), and productivity improved 31% (P treatment. Physical activity participation increased from 71% to 85% (P = 0.039) and activity intensity increased by 33% (P = 0.002) post-treatment. Participants gained 1.8 h/week of sport (P = 0.001) and 2.2 h/week of recreational physical activity (P Treatment with anti-TNF-α therapy results in significant improvement in these parameters. © 2012 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2012 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Curcumin inhibits glyoxalase 1: a possible link to its anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thore Santel

    . This may account for curcumin's potency as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent. The findings support the use of curcumin as a potential therapeutic agent.

  6. Synthesis of highly anti-HIV active sulfated poly- and oligo-saccharides and analysis of their action mechanisms by NMR [nuclear magnetic resonance] spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Toshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    We have been synthesizing sulfated polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with highly anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) activities. It has been known that sulfated polysaccharides such as dextran sulfate and pentosan polysulfate have biological activities such as anticoagulant activity and recently anti-HIV activity. Curdlan sulfate having 1,3-β-linked glucan backbone had high anti-HIV activity but low anticoagulant activity. Phase I/II test for the curdlan sulfate as an AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) drug was carried out in the United States. In this study, regioselectivity sulfatec curdlan sulfates were prepared in order to study effects of sulfate groups and conformation of curdlan sulfates. In addition, action mechanisms of curdlan sulfate as anti-AIDS drug and of heparin as an anticoagulant were examined by means of NMR spectroscopy. 1. Structure dependence of anti-HIV and anticoagulant activities of sulfated polysaccharides. Curdlan with M n 9000 was regioselectively sulfated on its hydroxyl groups at 6, 4, and 2 positions. Those were a curdlan sulfate 62S in which 100% of 6-OH, and about 50% of 2-OH was sulfated, a curdlan sulfate 42S in which 4- and 2-OH's were sulfated, and a curdlan sulfate in which 6, 4, and 2-OH's were partially sulfated. All curdlan sulfates had very high anti-HIV activities exhibited by the drug concentration of 50% inhibition of infection, i.e., EC 50 of 0.04 - 0.25 μg/mL. However, there was almost no difference in the activity among the samples. Therefore, it was revealed that the degree of sulfation and putative conformation of the curdlan sulfates but not the position of sulfate groups have large effects on the anti-HIV activity. On the other hand, the anticoagulant activity increased with increasing molecular weight of the curdlan sulfates. As a result, it is assumed that the size of reaction sites of the virus protein reacting with curdlan sulfate is different from that of the proteins related to anticoagulant

  7. Synthesis of a Cholesteryl-HEG Phosphoramidite Derivative and Its Application to Lipid-conjugates of the Anti-HIV 5'TGGGAG3' Hotoda’s Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Musumeci

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel phosphoramidite derivative of cholesterol, with an ether-linked hexaethylene glycol (HEG spacer arm, has been obtained through simple and reproducible solid phase modified oligonucleotide synthesis manipulations. This building block and the known phosphoramidite derivative of 3b-(2-hydroxyethoxycholesterol have been exploited in standard oligonucleotide synthesis protocols for the preparation of 5'- conjugates of the G-quadruplex-forming 5'TGGGAG3' oligomer, known as the Hotoda’s sequence, to produce new potential anti-HIV agents.

  8. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, E F; Ng, T B

    2011-07-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia, BG) is both a nutritious and healthy food with a distinctive bitter flavor, and it is also widely exploited in folklore medicine. This review focuses on the efficacies and molecular mechanisms of BG-induced anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor activities contributed by over twenty active components. The intent of this review is to provide comprehensive and valuable information for medicinal researchers, drug investigators, clinicians, and even patients with an interest in BG. In conclusion, BG is a cornucopia of health and it deserves in-depth investigations for clinical application in the future.

  9. Bystander activation and anti-tumor effects of CD8+ T cells following Interleukin-2 based immunotherapy is independent of CD4+ T cell help.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta M Monjazeb

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that immunotherapy combining agonistic anti-CD40 and IL-2 (IT results in synergistic anti-tumor effects. IT induces expansion of highly cytolytic, antigen-independent "bystander-activated" (CD8(+CD44high T cells displaying a CD25(-NKG2D(+ phenotype in a cytokine dependent manner, which were responsible for the anti-tumor effects. While much attention has focused on CD4(+ T cell help for antigen-specific CD8(+ T cell expansion, little is known regarding the role of CD4(+ T cells in antigen-nonspecific bystander-memory CD8(+ T cell expansion. Utilizing CD4 deficient mouse models, we observed a significant expansion of bystander-memory T cells following IT which was similar to the non-CD4 depleted mice. Expanded bystander-memory CD8(+ T cells upregulated PD-1 in the absence of CD4(+ T cells which has been published as a hallmark of exhaustion and dysfunction in helpless CD8(+ T cells. Interestingly, compared to CD8(+ T cells from CD4 replete hosts, these bystander expanded cells displayed comparable (or enhanced cytokine production, lytic ability, and in vivo anti-tumor effects suggesting no functional impairment or exhaustion and were enriched in an effector phenotype. There was no acceleration of the post-IT contraction phase of the bystander memory CD8(+ response in CD4-depleted mice. The response was independent of IL-21 signaling. These results suggest that, in contrast to antigen-specific CD8(+ T cell expansion, CD4(+ T cell help is not necessary for expansion and activation of antigen-nonspecific bystander-memory CD8(+ T cells following IT, but may play a role in regulating conversion of these cells from a central memory to effector phenotype. Additionally, the expression of PD-1 in this model appears to be a marker of effector function and not exhaustion.

  10. Enhanced anti-tumor efficacy by co-delivery of doxorubicin and paclitaxel with amphiphilic methoxy PEG-PLGA copolymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai; Zhao, Ying; Wu, Yan; Hu, Yu-lin; Nan, Kaihui; Nie, Guangjun; Chen, Hao

    2011-11-01

    The use of single chemotherapeutic drug has shown some limitations in anti-tumor treatment, such as development of drug resistance, high toxicity and limited regime of clinical uses. The combination of two or more therapeutic drugs is feasible means to overcome the limitations. Co-delivery strategy has been proposed to minimize the amount of each drug and to achieve the synergistic effect for cancer therapies. Attempts have been made to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs simultaneously using drug carriers, such as micelles, liposomes, and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs). Here we reported core-shell NPs that were doubly emulsified from an amphiphilic copolymer methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA). These NPs offered advantages over other nanocarriers, as they were easy to fabricate by improved double emulsion method, biocompatible, and showed high loading efficacy. More importantly, these NPs could co-deliver hydrophilic doxorubicin (DOX) and hydrophobic paclitaxel (TAX). The drug-loaded NPs possessed a better polydispersity, indicating that they are more readily subject to controlled size distribution. Studies on drug release and cellular uptake of the co-delivery system demonstrated that both drugs were effectively taken up by the cells and released simultaneously. Furthermore, the co-delivery nanocarrier suppressed tumor cells growth more efficiently than the delivery of either DOX or TAX at the same concentrations, indicating a synergistic effect. Moreover, the NPs loading drugs with a DOX/TAX concentration ratio of 2:1 showed the highest anti-tumor activity to three different types of tumor cells. This nanocarrier might have important potential in clinical implications for co-delivery of multiple anti-tumor drugs with different properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CCL3 and CCL20-recruited dendritic cells modified by melanoma antigen gene-1 induce anti-tumor immunity against gastric cancer ex vivo and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songbing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Yugang; Li, Dechun; Zhang, Yanyun

    2010-04-27

    To investigate whether dendritic cell (DC) precursors, recruited by injection of chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) and CCL20, induce anti-tumor immunity against gastric cancer induced by a DC vaccine expressing melanoma antigen gene-1 (MAGE-1) ex vivo and in vivo. B6 mice were injected with CCL3 and CCL20 via the tail vein. Freshly isolated F4/80-B220-CD11c+ cells cultured with cytokines were analyzed by phenotype analysis and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). For adenoviral (Ad)-mediated gene transduction, cultured F4/80-B220-CD11c+ cells were incubated with Ad-MAGE-1. Vaccination of stimulated DC induced T lymphocytes. The killing effect of these T cells against gastric carcinoma cells was assayed by MTT. INF-gamma production was determined with an INF-gamma ELISA kit. In the solid tumor and metastases model, DC-based vaccines were used for immunization after challenge with MFC cells. Tumor size, survival of mice, and number of pulmonary metastatic foci were used to assess the therapeutic effect of DC vaccines. F4/80-B220-CD11c+ cell numbers increased after CCL3 and CCL20 injection. Freshly isolated F4/80-B220-CD11c+ cells cultured with cytokines were phenotyically identical to typical DC and gained the capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cells. These DCs were transduced with Ad-MAGE-1, which were prepared for DC vaccines expressing tumor antigen. T lymphocytes stimulated by DCs transduced with Ad-MAGE-1 exhibited specific killing effects on gastric carcinoma cells and produced high levels of INF-gamma ex vivo. In vivo, tumor sizes of the experimental group were much smaller than both the positive control group and the negative control groups (P anti-tumor immunity specific to gastric cancer ex vivo and in vivo. This system may prove to be an efficient strategy for anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  12. Anti-tumor effects of (1→3)-β-d-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in S180 tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Li; Chen, Yafei; Li, Wenjian; Guo, Shuai; Wang, Xuzhao; An, Hailong; Zhan, Yong

    2017-02-01

    (1→3)-β-d-Glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a typical polysaccharide with various biological effects and is considered a candidate for the prevention and treatment of cancer in vitro. Research into the function of (1→3)-β-d-glucan in tumor-bearing animals in vivo, however, is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of (1→3)-β-d-glucan from S. cerevisiae on S180 tumor-bearing mice and on the immunity of the tumor-bearing host. The molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects were investigated. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan was shown to exert anti-tumor effects without toxicity in normal mouse cells. The volume and weight of S180 tumors decreased dramatically following treatment with (1→3)-β-d-glucan, and treatment with the polysaccharide was furthermore shown to increase the tumor inhibition rate in a dose-dependent manner. Spleen index, T lymphocyte subsets (CD 4 and CD 8 ), as well as interleukins (IL)-2, (IL-2, IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α were assayed to detect the immunoregulatory and anti-tumor effects after (1→3)-β-d-glucan intragastrical administration. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan was shown to significantly potentiate the mouse immune responses by, among other effects, decreasing the ratio of CD 4 to CD 8 . The expression levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were also significantly increased by (1→3)-β-d-glucan. These results suggest that (1→3)-β-d-glucan enhances the host's immune function during the tumor inhibition process. S180 tumor cells treated with (1→3)-β-d-glucan also exhibited significant apoptotic characteristics. (1→3)-β-d-glucan increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 at the translation level by up-regulating Bax expression and down-regulating Bcl-2 expression, resulting in the initiation of cell apoptosis in S180 tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-tumor effects exerted by (1→3)-β-d-glucan may be attributed to the polysaccharide's immunostimulating properties and apoptosis

  13. Predicting anti-tumor effect of deoxypodophyllotoxin in NCI-H460 tumor-bearing mice based on in vitro pharmacodynamics and physiologically based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zhao, Kaijing; Liu, Fei; Li, Ying; Zhong, Zeyu; Hong, Shijin; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Li

    2018-04-04

    Anti-tumor evaluation in tumor-bearing mouse is time- and energy-consuming. We aimed to investigate whether in vivo anti-tumor efficacy could be predicted based on in vitro pharmacodynamics using deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), a developing anti-tumor candidate, as a model compound. Proliferation kinetics of monolayer cultivated NCI-H460 cells under various DPT concentrations was quantitatively investigated accompanied by calibration curves. Koch's two-phase natural growth model combined with sigmoid Emax model, i.e. dM/dt=2λ 0 λ 1 M/(λ 1 +2λ 0 M)-EmaxC γ /(EC 50 γ +C γ )·M, was introduced to describe cell proliferation (M) against time under DPT treatment (C). Estimated in vitro pharmacodynamic parameters were: EC 50 , 8.97 nM; Emax, 0.820 day -1 and γ, 7.13. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model including tumor compartment was introduced, which could predict DPT disposition in plasma, tumor tissue and main normal tissues of NCI-H460 tumor-bearing mice following single dose. In vivo pharmacodynamic model and parameters were assumed the same as in vitro ones, and linked with simulated tumor pharmacokinetic profiles by PBPK model, to build a physiologically based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPK-PD) model. After estimating natural growth parameters (λ 0 and λ 1 ), we desirably predicted the tumor growth in NCI-H460 tumor-bearing mice during multi-dose DPT treatment, both in this study and literature, by the PBPK-PD model. The model was further successfully applied to predict tumor growth in SGC-7901 tumor-bearing mice. These data indicated that in vivo anti-tumor efficacy might be predicted based on in vitro cytotoxic assays via PBPK-PD model approach. The approach was demonstrated reasonable and applicable, which might facilitate and accelerate anti-cancer candidate screening and dose regimen design in drug discovery process. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. The anti-tumor effect of the quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod: blockade of recruitment of CD11b+ Ly6Chi cells to tumor tissue reduces tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deronic, Adnan; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of the small molecule quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod in pre-clinical cancer models. To better understand the anti-tumor effects of tasquinimod in transplantable tumor models, we have evaluated the impact of the compound both on recruitment of myeloid cells to tumor tissue and on tumor-induced myeloid cell expansion as these cells are known to promote tumor development. Mice bearing subcutaneous 4 T1 mammary carcinoma tumors were treated with tasquinimod in the drinking water. A BrdU-based flow cytometry assay was utilized to assess the impact of short-term tasquinimod treatment on myeloid cell recruitment to tumors. Additionally, long-term treatment was performed to study the anti-tumor effect of tasquinimod as well as its effects on splenic myeloid cells and their progenitors. Myeloid cell populations were also immune-depleted by in vivo antibody treatment. Short-term tasquinimod treatment did not influence the proliferation of splenic Ly6C hi and Ly6G hi cells, but instead reduced the influx of Ly6C hi cells to the tumor. Treatment with tasquinimod for various periods of time after tumor inoculation revealed that the anti-tumor effect of this compound mainly operated during the first few days of tumor growth. Similar to tasquinimod treatment, antibody-mediated depletion of Ly6C hi cells within that same time frame, caused reduced tumor growth, thereby confirming a significant role for these cells in tumor development. Additionally, long-term tasquinimod treatment reduced the splenomegaly and expansion of splenic myeloid cells during a later phase of tumor development. In this phase, tasquinimod normalized the tumor-induced alterations in myeloerythroid progenitor cells in the spleen but had only limited impact on the same populations in the bone marrow. Our results indicate that tasquinimod treatment reduces tumor growth by operating early after tumor

  15. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry of sulfonamides. Rational design as anti-tumoral, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Shoaib Ahmad; Rivera, Gildardo; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days, cancer is becoming one of the major problems of public health in the world. Pharmacology treatment is a way to increase quality and long life. Predominantly, in last decade sulfonamide derivatives have been described as potential carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. In the present work, we describe recent advances during the last decade in medicinal chemistry of sulfonamides derivatives with some examples of rational design as anti-tumoral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. We show strategy design, structure-activity relationship, biological activity and advances of new sulfonamide compounds that have more health significance than some clinically used sulfonamides.

  16. Systemic administration of an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody protects against endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Qingman; Wang, Shaocheng; Zheng, Yuezhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was to evaluate the effect of systemic injection of an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) monoclonal antibody (mAb) on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats (6?8 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: EIU, anti-TNF-? mAb + EIU, and control. EIU was induced by injecting Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the hind footpad of the rats (150 ?g/rat). The anti-TNF-? mAb (1 ?g/kg) was administrat...

  17. Herb-drug interaction between an anti-HIV Chinese herbal SH formula and atazanavir in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bao-Hui; Zhou, Xuelin; Wang, Yan; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Lin, Huang-Quan; Or, Penelope M Y; Wan, David Chi-Cheong; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Wang, Yi-Fen; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2015-03-13

    affect the metabolism of ATV in rats. Our study demonstrated for the first time that there is no metabolism-based herb-drug interaction between SH formula and ATV in rats, but this combination enhances the inhibition potentials against HIV protease activity. This observation may support the combinational use of anti-HIV treatment in human. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A quantitative comparison of anti-HIV gene therapy delivered to hematopoietic stem cells versus CD4+ T cells.

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    Borislav Savkovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy represents an alternative and promising anti-HIV modality to highly active antiretroviral therapy. It involves the introduction of a protective gene into a cell, thereby conferring protection against HIV. While clinical trials to date have delivered gene therapy to CD4+T cells or to CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC, the relative benefits of each of these two cellular targets have not been conclusively determined. In the present analysis, we investigated the relative merits of delivering a dual construct (CCR5 entry inhibitor + C46 fusion inhibitor to either CD4+T cells or to CD34+ HSC. Using mathematical modelling, we determined the impact of each scenario in terms of total CD4+T cell counts over a 10 year period, and also in terms of inhibition of CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic virus. Our modelling determined that therapy delivery to CD34+ HSC generally resulted in better outcomes than delivery to CD4+T cells. An early one-off therapy delivery to CD34+ HSC, assuming that 20% of CD34+ HSC in the bone marrow were gene-modified (G+, resulted in total CD4+T cell counts ≥ 180 cells/ µL in peripheral blood after 10 years. If the uninfected G+ CD4+T cells (in addition to exhibiting lower likelihood of becoming productively infected also exhibited reduced levels of bystander apoptosis (92.5% reduction over non gene-modified (G- CD4+T cells, then total CD4+T cell counts of ≥ 350 cells/ µL were observed after 10 years, even if initially only 10% of CD34+ HSC in the bone marrow received the protective gene. Taken together our results indicate that: 1. therapy delivery to CD34+ HSC will result in better outcomes than delivery to CD4+T cells, and 2. a greater impact of gene therapy will be observed if G+ CD4+T cells exhibit reduced levels of bystander apoptosis over G- CD4+T cells.

  19. The distribution of the anti-HIV drug, tenofovir (PMPA, into the brain, CSF and choroid plexuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbs Julie E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, a prodrug of the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, tenofovir (9-[9(R-2-(phosphonomethoxypropyl]adenine; PMPA, was recently approved for use in the combination therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection. This study was undertaken to understand PMPA distribution to the virus sanctuary sites located in the brain, CSF and choroid plexuses and to clarify its possible role in reducing the neurological problems associated with HIV infection. Methods The methods used included an established bilateral carotid artery perfusion of [3H]PMPA and a vascular marker, D-[14C]mannitol, in anaesthetised guinea-pigs followed by scintillation counting, HPLC and capillary depletion analyses. Movement of [3H]PMPA into the brain, cisternal CSF and lateral ventricle choroid plexus was also examined in the absence and presence of additional anti-HIV drugs and a transport inhibitor. Control and test groups were compared by ANOVA or Student's t-test, as appropriate. Results The distribution of [3H]PMPA in the cerebrum, cerebellum, pituitary gland and cerebral capillary endothelial cells was not significantly different to that measured for D-[14C]mannitol. However, [3H]PMPA accumulation was significantly higher than that of D-[14C]mannitol in the choroid plexus and CSF. Further experiments revealed no cross-competition for transport of [3H]PMPA by probenecid, a non-specific inhibitor of organic anion transport, or the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors into any of the CNS regions studied. The octanol-saline partition coefficient measurement for [3H]PMPA was 0.0134 ± 0.00003, which is higher that the 0.002 ± 0.0004 measured for D-[14C]mannitol in an earlier study. Conclusion There is negligible transport of [3H]PMPA across the blood-brain barrier, but it can cross the blood-CSF barrier. This is a reflection of the differing physiological and functional characteristics of the blood

  20. Anti-HIV double variable domain immunoglobulins binding both gp41 and gp120 for targeted delivery of immunoconjugates.

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    Ryan B Craig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-HIV immunoconjugates targeted to the HIV envelope protein may be used to eradicate the latent reservoir of HIV infection using activate-and-purge protocols. Previous studies have identified the two target epitopes most effective for the delivery of cytotoxic immunoconjugates the CD4-binding site of gp120, and the hairpin loop of gp41. Here we construct and test tetravalent double variable domain immunoglobulin molecules (DVD-Igs that bind to both epitopes. METHODS: Synthetic genes that encode DVD-Igs utilizing V-domains derived from human anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 Abs were designed and expressed in 293F cells. A series of constructs tested different inter-V-linker domains and orientations of the two V domains. Antibodies were tested for binding to recombinant Ag and native Env expressed on infected cells, for neutralization of infectious HIV, and for their ability to deliver cytotoxic immunoconjugates to infected cells. FINDINGS: The outer V-domain was the major determinant of binding and functional activity of the DVD-Ig. Function of the inner V-domain and bifunctional binding required at least 15 AA in the inter-V-domain linker. A molecular model showing the spatial orientation of the two epitopes is consistent with this observation. Linkers that incorporated helical domains (A[EAAAK](nA resulted in more effective DVD-Igs than those based solely on flexible domains ([GGGGS](n. In general, the DVD-Igs outperformed the less effective parental antibody and equaled the activity of the more effective. The ability of the DVD-Igs to deliver cytotoxic immunoconjugates in the absence of soluble CD4 was improved over that of either parent. CONCLUSIONS: DVD-Igs can be designed that bind to both gp120 and gp41 on the HIV envelope. DVD-Igs are effective in delivering cytotoxic immunoconjugates. The optimal design of these DVD-Igs, in which both domains are fully functional, has not yet been achieved.

  1. Rapid Transient Production in Plants by Replicating and Non-Replicating Vectors Yields High Quality Functional Anti-HIV Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Frank; Sack, Markus; Stadlmann, Johannes; Quendler, Heribert; Fischer, Rainer; Lomonossoff, George P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue) of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-produced 2G12. Conclusions Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors

  2. Efficacy and Tolerance of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor α Agents in Cutaneous Sarcoidosis: A French Study of 46 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Valentine; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Marquet, Alicia; Mahevas, Matthieu; Bessis, Didier; Bouillet, Laurence; Caux, Frédéric; Chapelon-Abric, Catherine; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Duval-Modeste, Anne-Bénédicte; Fain, Olivier; Joly, Pascal; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Monfort, Jean-Benoît; Noël, Nicolas; Passeron, Thierry; Ruivard, Marc; Sarrot-Reynauld, Françoise; Verrot, Denis; Bouvry, Diane; Fardet, Laurence; Chosidow, Olivier; Sève, Pascal; Valeyre, Dominique

    2017-07-01

    Evidence for the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents (anti-TNF) in treating cutaneous sarcoidosis is lacking. To determine the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF in treating cutaneous sarcoidosis in a large observational study. STAT (Sarcoidosis Treated with Anti-TNF) is a French retrospective and prospective multicenter observational database that receives data from teaching hospitals and referral centers, as well as several pneumology, dermatology, and internal medicine departments. Included patients had histologically proven sarcoidosis and received anti-TNF between January 2004 and January 2016. We extracted data for patients with skin involvement at anti-TNF initiation. Response to treatment was evaluated for skin and visceral involvement using the ePOST (extra-pulmonary Physician Organ Severity Tool) severity score (from 0 [not affected] to 6 [very severe involvement]). Epidemiological and cutaneous features at baseline, efficacy, steroid-sparing, safety, and relapses were recorded. The overall cutaneous response rate (OCRR) was defined as complete (final cutaneous ePOST score of 0 or 1) or partial response (ePOST drop ≥2 points from baseline but >1 at last follow-up). Among 140 patients in the STAT database, 46 had skin involvement. The most frequent lesions were lupus pernio (n = 21 [46%]) and nodules (n = 20 [43%]). The median cutaneous severity score was 5 and/or 6 at baseline. Twenty-one patients were treated for skin involvement and 25 patients for visceral involvement. Reasons for initiating anti-TNF were failure or adverse effects of previous therapy in 42 patients (93%). Most patients received infliximab (n = 40 [87%]), with systemic steroids in 28 cases (61%) and immunosuppressants in 32 cases (69.5%). The median (range) follow-up was 45 (3-103) months. Of the 46 patients with sarcoidosis and skin involvement who were treated with anti-TNF were included, median (range) age was 50 (14-78) years, and 33

  3. FT-IR spectra of the anti-HIV nucleoside analogue d4T (Stavudine). Solid state simulation by DFT methods and scaling by different procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcolea Palafox, M.; Kattan, D.; Afseth, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical and experimental vibrational study of the anti-HIV d4T (stavudine or Zerit) nucleoside analogue was carried out. The predicted spectra in the three most stable conformers in the biological active anti-form of the isolated state were compared. Comparison of the conformers with those of the natural nucleoside thymidine was carried out. The calculated spectra were scaled by using different scaling procedures and three DFT methods. The TLSE procedure leads to the lowest error and is thus recommended for scaling. With the population of these conformers the IR gas-phase spectra were predicted. The crystal unit cell of the different polymorphism forms of d4T were simulated through dimer forms by using DFT methods. The scaled spectra of these dimer forms were compared. The FT-IR spectrum was recorded in the solid state in the 400-4000 cm-1 range. The respective vibrational bands were analyzed and assigned to different normal modes of vibration by comparison with the scaled vibrational values of the different dimer forms. Through this comparison, the polymorphous form of the solid state sample was identified. The study indicates that d4T exist only in the ketonic form in the solid state. The results obtained were in agreement with those determined in related anti-HIV nucleoside analogues.

  4. The offer of the anti-HIV test to the users of the health basic net units: different aproaches of professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Corrêa Marques

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: identificar e descrever as condutas dos profissionais de saúde na oferta do teste anti-HIV; analisar as práticas dos profissionais a partir dos relatos das usuárias dos serviços da rede básica de saúde. Método: é um estudo descritivo, qualitativo, com 40 mulheres assistidas em 08 Centros Municipais de Saúde. Resultados: a produção discursiva das entrevistas foi submetida ao programa Alceste, constituindo duas categorias de análise. A primeira contempla as abordagens no atendimento individual na rede de CMS do Rio de Janeiro descrevendo os três modos de conduta dos profissionais de saúde durante a oferta de teste anti-HIV. A segunda categoria refere-se às abordagens no atendimento coletivo, onde se observa que as atividades de aconselhamento não ocorrem de maneira uniforme. Conclusão: que os resultados apontam para uma prática que se desvirtua do que vem sendo preconizado pelos Programas oficiais em relação ao Aconselhamento.

  5. D77, one benzoic acid derivative, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular LEDGF/p75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Li; Zhao Yaxue; Chen, Jing; Yang Liumeng; Zheng Yongtang; Tang Yun; Shen Xu; Jiang Hualiang

    2008-01-01

    Integration of viral-DNA into host chromosome mediated by the viral protein HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. In this process, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is discovered to function as a cellular co-factor for integration. Since LEDGF/p75 plays an important role in HIV integration, disruption of the LEDGF/p75 interaction with IN has provided a special interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that a benzoic acid derivative, 4-[(5-bromo-4-{[2,4-dioxo-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl) -1,3-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]benzoic acid (D77) could potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution thus exhibiting antiretroviral activity. Molecular docking with site-directed mutagenesis analysis and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays has clarified possible binding mode of D77 against HIV-1 integrase. As the firstly discovered small molecular compound targeting HIV-1 integrase interaction with LEDGF/p75, D77 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery

  6. One-by-one imprinting in two eccentric layers of hollow core-shells: Sequential electroanalysis of anti-HIV drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kislay; Jaiswal, Swadha; Singh, Richa; Fatma, Sana; Prasad, Bhim Bali

    2018-07-15

    Double layered one-by-one imprinted hollow core-shells@ pencil graphite electrode was fabricated for sequential sensing of anti-HIV drugs. For this, two eccentric layers were developed on the surface of vinylated silica nanospheres to obtain double layered one-by-one imprinted solid core-shells. This yielded hollow core-shells on treatment with hydrofluoric acid. The modified hollow core-shells (single layered dual imprinted) evolved competitive diffusion of probe/analyte molecules. However, the corresponding double layered one-by-one imprinted hollow core-shells (outer layer imprinted with Zidovudine, and inner layer with Lamivudine) were found relatively better owing to their bilateral diffusions into molecular cavities, without any competition. The entire work is based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at double layered one-by-one imprinted hollow core-shells. This resulted in indirect detection of electro inactive targets with limits of detection as low as 0.91 and 0.12 (aqueous sample), 0.94 and 0.13 (blood serum), and 0.99 and 0.20 ng mL -1 (pharmaceutics) for lamivudine and zidovudine, respectively in anti-HIV drug combination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of CH-35, a novel anti-tumor colchicine analogue, on breast cancer cells overexpressing the βIII isotype of tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Banerjee, Asok; Prasad, Veena; Tuszynski, Jack A; Weis, Alexander L; Bakos, Tamas; Yeh, I-Tien; Ludueña, Richard F; Lee, John C

    2016-02-01

    The subunit protein of microtubules is tubulin, which has been the target for some of the most successful and widely used anti-tumor drugs. Most of the drugs that target tubulin bind to the β subunit. There are many isotypes of β-tubulin and their distributions differ among different tissues. The βIII isotype is over-expressed in many tumors, particularly those that are aggressive, metastatic, and drug resistant. We have previously reported the design and synthesis of a series of compounds to fit the colchicine site on βIII but not on the other isotypes. In the current study, we tested the toxicity and the anti-tumor activity of one of these compounds, CH-35, on the human breast tumor MDA-MB-231 over-expressing βIII in a xenogeneic mouse model. We found that CH-35 was as toxic as Taxol® in vivo. Although the βIII-over-expressing cells developed into very fast-growing tumors, CH-35 was more effective against this tumor than was Taxol. Our results suggest that CH-35 is a promising candidate for future drug development.

  8. Synthesis of oil soluble radio-opaque agent entering a cell and causing anti-tumor effect with X-ray endovascular therapy for malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovetskaya, K. N.; Klyubin, V. V.; Tarazov, P. G.; Pavlovsky, A. V.; Statsenko, A. A.; Granov, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Analytic review of domestic and foreign literature dedicated to X-ray endovascular studies in the therapy for malignant tumors aiming to diagnose and treat tumors showed a great interest to the agent named Lipiodol Ultra Fluid, developed by Guerbet (France) that is oil soluble radio-opaque agent meant mainly for lymphography and sialography. The interest of researchers is caused by the ability of Lipiodol to penetrate into tumor cells and stay there for a long time expressing diagnostic efficacy and in a number of cases expressing anti-tumor effect. The authors note that the mechanism of anti-tumor effect of Lipiodol is still unclear. High viscosity of Lipiodol can be considered as its shortages that at giving intravascular therapy with Lipiodol it can result in embolism of organs of vital importance. The present study was aimed to develop effective oil soluble radio-opaque agent that would not cause vessels embolism but could infiltrate neoplastic tissue while administrating it into vessels of the tumors of parenchymastous organs.

  9. An IL12-IL2-antibody fusion protein targeting Hodgkin's lymphoma cells potentiates activation of NK and T cells for an anti-tumor attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Jahn

    Full Text Available Successful immunotherapy of Hodgkin's disease is so far hampered by the striking unresponsiveness of lymphoma infiltrating immune cells. To mobilize both adoptive and innate immune cells for an anti-tumor attack we fused the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL2 and IL12 to an anti-CD30 scFv antibody in a dual cytokine fusion protein to accumulate both cytokines at the malignant CD30(+ Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells in the lymphoma lesion. The tumor-targeted IL12-IL2 fusion protein was superior in activating resting T cells to amplify and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to targeted IL2 or IL12 alone. NK cells were also activated by the dual cytokine protein to secrete IFN-γ and to lyse target cells. The tumor-targeted IL12-IL2, when applied by i.v. injection to immune-competent mice with established antigen-positive tumors, accumulated at the tumor site and induced tumor regression. Data demonstrate that simultaneous targeting of two cytokines in a spatial and temporal simultaneous fashion to pre-defined tissues is feasible by a dual-cytokine antibody fusion protein. In the case of IL12 and IL2, this produced superior anti-tumor efficacy implying the strategy to muster a broader immune cell response in the combat against cancer.

  10. A HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope induces anti-tumor effects against human lung cancer in mouse xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Lin, Su-I; Chen, I-Hua; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Chen-Yuan; Chiang, I-Ping; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-05

    Cancer immunotherapy is attractive for antigen-specific T cell-mediated anti-tumor therapy, especially in induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this report, we evaluated human CTL epitope-induced anti-tumor effects in human lung cancer xenograft models. The tumor associated antigen L6 (TAL6) is highly expressed in human lung cancer cell lines and tumor specimens as compared to normal lung tissues. TAL6 derived peptides strongly inhibited tumor growth, cancer metastasis and prolonged survival time in HLA-A2 transgenic mice immunized with a formulation of T-helper (Th) peptide, synthetic CpG ODN, and adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 (ISA-51). Adoptive transfer of peptide-induced CTL cells from HLA-A2 transgenic mice into human tumor xenograft SCID mice significantly inhibited tumor growth. Furthermore, combination of CTL-peptide immunotherapy and gemcitabine additively improved the therapeutic effects. This pre-clinical evaluation model provides a useful platform to develop efficient immunotherapeutic drugs to treat lung cancer and demonstrates a promising strategy with benefit of antitumor immune responses worthy of further development in clinical trials.

  11. Potent anti-tumor activity of telomerase-dependent and HSV-TK armed oncolytic adenovirus for non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng-Kang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the leading cause of cancer related mortality, any improvements in therapeutic strategies are urgently required. In this study we generated a novel 'suicide gene' armed oncolytic adenoviral vector and investigated its antitumor effect both in vitro and in vivo. Methods Since the up-regulated expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT is a hallmark of alltypes of NSCLC, we chose hTERT promoter to transcriptionally control E1A gene expression to obtain adenoviral replication in NSCLC. In order to further enhance anti-tumor effect of this oncolytic adenoviral vector, we inserted a 'suicide gene' i.e. Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSV-TK into oncolytic adenoviral vector to engineer a novel armed oncolytic adenoviral vector 'Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK'. Results Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK efficiently killed different types of tumor cells including two types of NSCLC cells in vitro, causing no damage to normal primary fibroblasts. Furthermore, Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK infection combined with administration of prodrug gancyclovir (GCV resulted in more potent cytotoxicity on NSCLC cells, and synergistically suppressed human NSCLC tumor growth in nude mice. Conclusion The results from this study showed that Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK/GCV could be a potent but safe anti-tumor strategy for NSCLC biotherapy.

  12. Peripheral opioid antagonist enhances the effect of anti-tumor drug by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Suzuki

    Full Text Available The dormancy of tumor cells is a major problem in chemotherapy, since it limits the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor drugs that only target dividing cells. One potential way to overcome chemo-resistance is to "wake up" these dormant cells. Here we show that the opioid antagonist methylnaltrexone (MNTX enhances the effect of docetaxel (Doc by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway. We found that PENK, which encodes opioid growth factor (OGF and suppresses cell growth, is predominantly expressed in diffuse-type gastric cancers (GCs. The blockade of OGF signaling by MNTX releases cells from their arrest and boosts the effect of Doc. In comparison with the use of Doc alone, the combined use of Doc and MNTX significantly prolongs survival, alleviates abdominal pain, and diminishes Doc-resistant spheroids on the peritoneal membrane in model mice. These results suggest that blockade of the pathways that suppress cell growth may enhance the effects of anti-tumor drugs.

  13. The Effects of Different Purifying Methods on the Chemical Properties, in Vitro Anti-Tumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Abrus cantoniensis Polysaccharide Fractions

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    Shaowei Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abrus cantoniensis (Hance is a popular Chinese vegetable consumed as a beverage, soup or folk medicine. To fully exploit the potential of the polysaccharide in Abrus cantoniensis, nine polysaccharide fractions of Abrus cantoniensis were isolated and purified (AP-AOH30-1, AP-AOH30-2, AP-AOH80-1, AP-AOH80-2, AP-ACl-1, AP-ACl-2, AP-ACl-3, AP-H and AP-L. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and gas chromatography (GC were used to characterize these Abrus polysaccharides fractions (APF. In vitro anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities were also investigated and compared using the rank-sum ratio (RSR method. Results demonstrated significant differences in the structure and bioactivities among APF, which were associated to the process used for their purification. Among the APF, AP-ACl-3 yield was 613.5 mg/kg of product and consisted of rhamnose (9.8%, arabinose (8.9%, fructose (3.0%, galactose (9.9%, glucose (4.3%, galacturonic acid (3.0% and glucuronic acid (61.1% with a molecular weight of 4.4 × 104 Da. Furthermore, AP-ACl-3 exhibited considerable bioactivities significantly preventing the migration of MCF-7 cells and stimulating lymphocyte proliferation along with nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages. AP-ACl-3 could be explored as a novel potential anti-tumor and immunomodulatory agent.

  14. The Effects of Different Purifying Methods on the Chemical Properties, in Vitro Anti-Tumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Abrus cantoniensis Polysaccharide Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Fu, Xiong; Brennan, Margaret A.; Brennan, Charles S.; Chun, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abrus cantoniensis (Hance) is a popular Chinese vegetable consumed as a beverage, soup or folk medicine. To fully exploit the potential of the polysaccharide in Abrus cantoniensis, nine polysaccharide fractions of Abrus cantoniensis were isolated and purified (AP-AOH30-1, AP-AOH30-2, AP-AOH80-1, AP-AOH80-2, AP-ACl-1, AP-ACl-2, AP-ACl-3, AP-H and AP-L). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to characterize these Abrus polysaccharides fractions (APF). In vitro anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities were also investigated and compared using the rank-sum ratio (RSR) method. Results demonstrated significant differences in the structure and bioactivities among APF, which were associated to the process used for their purification. Among the APF, AP-ACl-3 yield was 613.5 mg/kg of product and consisted of rhamnose (9.8%), arabinose (8.9%), fructose (3.0%), galactose (9.9%), glucose (4.3%), galacturonic acid (3.0%) and glucuronic acid (61.1%) with a molecular weight of 4.4 × 104 Da. Furthermore, AP-ACl-3 exhibited considerable bioactivities significantly preventing the migration of MCF-7 cells and stimulating lymphocyte proliferation along with nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages. AP-ACl-3 could be explored as a novel potential anti-tumor and immunomodulatory agent. PMID:27058538

  15. A novel compound NSC745885 exerts an anti-tumor effect on tongue cancer SAS cells in vitro and in vivo.

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    Yuan-Wu Chen

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is a prevalent cancer, especially in developing countries. Anthracyclines and their anthraquinone derivatives, such as doxorubicin, exhibit a cell growth inhibitory effect and have been used as anti-cancer drugs for many years. However, the cardiotoxicity of anthracycline antibiotics is a major concern in their clinical application. NSC745885 is a novel compound synthesized from 1,2-diaminoanthraquinone, which subsequently reacts with thionyl chloride and triethylamine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oral cancer potential and the safety of NSC745885.We investigated the anti-cancer potential of NSC745885 in oral squamous carcinoma cell lines and in an in vivo oral cancer xenograft mouse model. The expression of apoptotic related genes were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and western bloting, and the in vivo assessment of apoptotic marker were measured by immunohistochemical staining. The anti-tumor efficiency and safety between doxorubicin and NSC745885 were also compared.Our results demonstrated that NSC745885 exhibits anti-oral cancer activity through the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and in tumor-bearing mice, and this treatment did not induce marked toxicity in experimental mice. This compound also exhibits a comparable anti-tumor efficiency and a higher safety in experimental mice when compared to doxorubicin.The data of this study provide evidence for NSC745885 as a potential novel therapeutic drug for the treatment of human OSCC.

  16. Evidence of Anti-tumoral Efficacy in an Immune Competent Setting with an iRGD-Modified Hyaluronidase-Armed Oncolytic Adenovirus

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    Ahmed Abdullah Al-Zaher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To enhance adenovirus-mediated oncolysis, different approaches that tackle the selectivity, tumor penetration, and spreading potential of oncolytic adenoviruses have been reported. We have previously demonstrated that insertion of the internalizing Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic (iRGD tumor-penetrating peptide at the C terminus of the fiber or transgenic expression of a secreted hyaluronidase can improve virus tumor targeting and spreading. Here we report a new oncolytic adenovirus ICOVIR17K-iRGD in which both modifications have been incorporated. In xenografted A549 tumors in nude mice, ICOVIR17K-iRGD shows higher efficacy than the non-iRGD counterpart. To gain insights into the role of the immune system in oncolysis, we have studied ICOVIR17K-iRGD in the tumor isograft mouse model CMT64.6, partially permissive to human adenovirus 5 replication, in immunodeficient or immunocompetent mice. Whereas no efficacy was observed in the immunodeficient setting due to insufficient viral replication, partial efficacy and a polymorphonuclear and CD8+ T cell infiltrate were observed in the immunocompetent mice. The results indicate that the elicitation of a virus-induced anti-tumoral immune response is responsible for the observed partial anti-tumoral effect. Keywords: oncolytic adenovirus, iRGD tumor-penetrating peptide, immune response

  17. Suspected de novo Hepatitis B in a Patient Receiving Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Therapy for the Treatment of Crohn's Disease

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    Tetsuya Ishida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 45-year-old female patient who developed acute hepatic disorder during anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. She was diagnosed as colonic CD and placed on infliximab (IFX. She was negative for hepatitis B surface antigen at the initiation of IFX therapy, but developed acute hepatitis after the 30th administration of IFX 4 years and 1 month after the first administration. She was suspected to have had occult hepatitis B virus infection before IFX therapy, and de novo hepatitis B was considered the most likely diagnosis. Hepatitis subsided after discontinuation of anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy and initiation of treatment with entecavir. She started to receive adalimumab to prevent relapse of CD. She has continued maintenance therapy with entecavir and adalimumab and has since been asymptomatic. As de novo hepatitis B may be fatal, virological testing for hepatitis B is essential for patients who are being considered for treatment that may weaken the immune system.

  18. CCL3 and CCL20-recruited dendritic cells modified by melanoma antigen gene-1 induce anti-tumor immunity against gastric cancer ex vivo and in vivo

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    Zhang Yanyun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether dendritic cell (DC precursors, recruited by injection of chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3 and CCL20, induce anti-tumor immunity against gastric cancer induced by a DC vaccine expressing melanoma antigen gene-1 (MAGE-1 ex vivo and in vivo. Methods B6 mice were injected with CCL3 and CCL20 via the tail vein. Freshly isolated F4/80-B220-CD11c+ cells cultured with cytokines were analyzed by phenotype analysis and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR. For adenoviral (Ad-mediated gene transduction, cultured F4/80-B220-CD11c+ cells were incubated with Ad-MAGE-1. Vaccination of stimulated DC induced T lymphocytes. The killing effect of these T cells against gastric carcinoma cells was assayed by MTT. INF-γ production was determined with an INF-γ ELISA kit. In the solid tumor and metastases model, DC-based vaccines were used for immunization after challenge with MFC cells. Tumor size, survival of mice, and number of pulmonary metastatic foci were used to assess the therapeutic effect of DC vaccines. Results F4/80-B220-CD11c+ cell numbers increased after CCL3 and CCL20 injection. Freshly isolated F4/80-B220-CD11c+ cells cultured with cytokines were phenotyically identical to typical DC and gained the capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cells. These DCs were transduced with Ad-MAGE-1, which were prepared for DC vaccines expressing tumor antigen. T lymphocytes stimulated by DCs transduced with Ad-MAGE-1 exhibited specific killing effects on gastric carcinoma cells and produced high levels of INF-γ ex vivo. In vivo, tumor sizes of the experimental group were much smaller than both the positive control group and the negative control groups (P P Conclusions CCL3 and CCL20-recruited DCs modified by adenovirus-trasnsduced, tumor-associated antigen, MAGE-1, can stimulate anti-tumor immunity specific to gastric cancer ex vivo and in vivo. This system may prove to be an efficient strategy for anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  19. Slaying the Trojan horse: natural killer cells exhibit robust anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent activation and cytolysis against allogeneic T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Shayarana L; Richard, Jonathan; Lee, Wen Shi; Finzi, Andrés; Kent, Stephen J; Parsons, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts to design prophylactic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines have focused on the induction of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) that block infection by free virions. Despite the focus on viral particles, virus-infected cells, which can be found within mucosal secretions, are more infectious than free virus both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, assessment of human transmission couples suggests infected seminal lymphocytes might be responsible for a proportion of HIV-1 transmissions. Although vaccines that induce neutralizing Abs are sought, only some broadly neutralizing Abs efficiently block cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. As HIV-1 vaccines need to elicit immune responses capable of controlling both free and cell-associated virus, we evaluated the potential of natural killer (NK) cells to respond in an Ab-dependent manner to allogeneic T cells bearing HIV-1 antigens. This study presents data measuring Ab-dependent anti-HIV-1 NK cell responses to primary and transformed allogeneic T-cell targets. We found that NK cells are robustly activated in an anti-HIV-1 Ab-dependent manner against allogeneic targets and that tested target cells are subject to Ab-dependent cytolysis. Furthermore, the educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cell subset from HLA-Bw4(+) individuals exhibits an activation advantage over the KIR3DL1(-) subset that contains both NK cells educated through other receptor/ligand combinations and uneducated NK cells. These results are intriguing and important for understanding the regulation of Ab-dependent NK cell responses and are potentially valuable for designing Ab-dependent therapies and/or vaccines. NK cell-mediated anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent functions have been associated with protection from infection and disease progression; however, their role in protecting from infection with allogeneic cells infected with HIV-1 is unknown. We found that HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies bound to allogeneic cells infected with HIV-1 or coated

  20. Diabetes mellitus, preexisting coronary heart disease, and the risk of subsequent coronary heart disease events in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; De Wit, Stephane; Weber, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    of DM and preexisting CHD on the development of a new CHD episode among 33,347 HIV-infected individuals in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D Study). METHODS AND RESULTS: Over 159,971 person-years, 698 CHD events occurred. After adjustment for gender, age, cohort, HIV...

  1. PHARMACOKINETIC ANALYSIS AND CELLULAR-DISTRIBUTION OF THE ANTI-HIV COMPOUND SUCCINYLATED HUMAN SERUM-ALBUMIN (SUC-HSA) IN-VIVO AND IN THE ISOLATED-PERFUSED RAT-LIVER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RW; OLINGA, P; HARMS, G; MEIJER, DKF

    1993-01-01

    After intravenous injection of a low dose (25 mug/kg) in rats, the anti HIV-1 compound succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) is taken up mainly in the liver and spleen and is proteolytically degraded. Ten minutes after injection of I-125-Suc-HSA, 72 and 14% of the dose were found in the liver

  2. 1.2.2.Synthesis, crystal structure and in vitro anti-tumor activity of dibutyltin complex of 2,4-dichloro-5-fluorobenzoic acid

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    Ming Li, Liqin Wang, Zhenlei Zhang, Yue Xin, Laijin Tian*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The dibutyltin complex of 2,4-dichloro-5- fluorobenzoic acid, [(2,4-Cl2 -5-FC6 H2 C(OOSnBu2 2 O]2 (Bu = CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 (1 , has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 119 Sn NMR spectroscopy, and Xray single crystal diffraction. Compound 1 is a centrosymmetric dimmer with two distinct types of carboxylate moieties and tin atoms with distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries. The in vitro  anti-tumor activity of 1 against two human tumor cell lines was found to be higher than that for cis-platin [cis diaminedichloroplatinum( II] used clinically. Supporting information : FT-IR, 119 Sn NMR, X-Ray, Proliferation inhibitory rate, Cif file.

  3. Combined IL-21 and Low-Dose IL-2 therapy induces anti-tumor immunity and long-term curative effects in a murine melanoma tumor model

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    Fox Bernard A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo studies have recently demonstrated that interleukin 21 (IL-21 enhances the anti-tumor function of T-cells and NK cells in murine tumor models, and the combined use of IL-21 and IL-15 has resulted in prolonged tumor regression and survival in mice with previously established tumors. However, the combined anti-tumor effects of IL-21 and low dose IL-2 have not been studied even though IL-2 has been approved for human use, and, at low dose administration, stimulates the proliferation of memory T cells, and does not significantly increase antigen-induced apoptosis or regulatory T cell (Treg expansion. This study examined whether recombinant IL-21 alone or in combination with low-dose IL-2 could improve the in vivo anti-tumor function of naïve, tumor-antigen specific CD8+ T cells in a gp10025–33 T cell receptor transgenic pmel murine melanoma model. Methods Congenic C57BL/6 (Ly5.2 mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors were sublethally irradiated to induce lymphopenia. After irradiation naive pmel splenocytes were adoptively transferred, and mice were immunized with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with human gp10025–33 (hgp10025–33. Seven days after vaccination groups of mice received 5 consecutive days of intraperitoneal administration of IL-2 alone (20 × 103 IU, IL-21 alone (20 μg or IL-21 and IL-2. Control animals received no cytokine therapy. Results IL-21 alone and IL-2 alone both delayed tumor progression, but only IL-21 significantly augmented long-term survival (20% compared to the control group. However, combination therapy with IL-21 and IL-2 resulted in the highest long-term (>150 days tumor-free survival frequency of 46%. Animals that were tumor-free for > 150 days demonstrated tumor-specific protection after rechallenge with B16F10 melanoma cells. At peak expansion (21 days post vaccination, the combination of IL-21 plus IL-2 resulted in a 2- to 3-fold higher absolute number of

  4. Anti-HIV designer T cells progressively eradicate a latently infected cell line by sequentially inducing HIV reactivation then killing the newly gp120-positive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gautam K; Sango, Kaori; Selliah, Nithianandan; Ma, Qiangzhong; Skowron, Gail; Junghans, Richard P

    2013-11-01

    The current antiretroviral therapy (ART) can effectively reduce plasma HIV loads to undetectable levels, but cannot eliminate latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells that persist for the lifetime of infected patients. Therefore, designing new therapeutic approaches to eliminate these latently infected cells or the cells that produce HIV upon reactivation from latency is a priority in the ART era in order to progress to a cure of HIV. Here, we show that "designer" T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), CD4-CD28-CD3ζ, can target and kill HIV Env-expressing cells. Further, they secrete effector cytokines upon contact with HIV Env+ target cells that can reactivate latent HIV in a cell line model, thereby exposing those cells to recognition and killing by anti-HIV CAR+ T cells. Taken to the limit, this process could form the basis for an eventual functional or sterilizing cure for HIV in patients. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Arctigenin anti-tumor activity in bladder cancer T24 cell line through induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shucai; Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jianbing; Lv, Xiaohong; Li, Xinlei; Yang, Huike; Liu, Ying; Feng, Sijia; Zhang, Yafang

    2012-08-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common neoplasm in the urinary system. This study assesses arctigenin anti-tumor activity in human bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro and the underlying molecular events. The flow cytometry analysis was used to detect cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect changes in protein expression. The data showed that arctigenin treatment reduced viability of bladder cancer T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with arctigenin (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 μmol/L) for 24 hr and 48 hr. Arctigenin treatment clearly arrested tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was detected by hoechst stain and flow cytometry after Annexin-V-FITC/PI double staining. Early and late apoptotic cells were accounted for 2.32-7.01% and 3.07-7.35%, respectively. At the molecular level, arctigenin treatment decreased cyclin D1 expression, whereas CDK4 and CDK6 expression levels were unaffected. Moreover, arctigenin selectively altered the phosphorylation of members of the MAPK superfamily, decreasing phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and activated phosphorylation of p38 significantly in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that arctigenin may inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis by direct activation of the mitochondrial pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway may play an important role in the anti-tumor effect of arctigenin. The data from the current study demonstrate the usefulness of arctigenin in bladder cancer T24 cells, which should further be evaluated in vivo before translation into clinical trials for the chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pyruvate induces transient tumor hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of a hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

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    Yoichi Takakusagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2, with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2. Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500-1500 mm(3. Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (∼ 550 mm(3, significantly delayed tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the

  7. T-cell mediated anti-tumor immunity after photodynamic therapy: Why does it not always work and how can we improve it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Lucas Freitas; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless light to generate reactive oxygen species that destroy tumors by a combination of direct tumor cell killing, vascular shutdown, and activation of the immune system. It has been shown in some animal models that mice that have been cured of cancer by PDT, may exhibit resistance to rechallenge. The cured mice can also possess tumor specific T-cells that recognize defined tumor antigens, destroy tumor cells in vitro, and can be adoptively transferred to protect naïve mice from cancer. However, these beneficial outcomes are the exception rather than the rule. The reasons for this lack of consistency lie in the ability of many tumors to suppress the host immune system and to actively evade immune attack. The presence of an appropriate tumor rejection antigen in the particular tumor cell line is a requisite for T-cell mediated immunity. Regulatory T-cells (CD25+, Foxp3+) are potent inhibitors of anti-tumor immunity, and their removal by low dose cyclophosphamide can potentiate the PDT-induced immune response. Treatments that stimulate dendritic cells (DC) such as CpG oligonucleotide can overcome tumor-induced DC dysfunction and improve PDT outcome. Epigenetic reversal agents can increase tumor expression of MHC class I and also simultaneously increase expression of tumor antigens. A few clinical reports have shown that anti-tumor immunity can be generated by PDT in patients, and it is hoped that these combination approaches may increase tumor cures in patients. PMID:26062987

  8. The anti-tumor effect of A3 adenosine receptors is potentiated by pulsed electromagnetic fields in cultured neural cancer cells.

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    Fabrizio Vincenzi

    Full Text Available A(3 adenosine receptors (ARs play a pivotal role in the development of cancer and their activation is involved in the inhibition of tumor growth. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs on cancer have been controversially discussed and the detailed mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In the past we have demonstrated that PEMFs increased A(2A and A(3AR density and functionality in human neutrophils, human and bovine synoviocytes, and bovine chondrocytes. In the same cells, PEMF exposure increased the anti-inflammatory effect mediated by A(2A and/or A(3ARs. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if PEMF exposure potentiated the anti-tumor effect of A(3ARs in PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma and U87MG human glioblastoma cell lines in comparison with rat cortical neurons. Saturation binding assays and mRNA analysis revealed that PEMF exposure up-regulated A(2A and A(3ARs that are well coupled to adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP production. The activation of A(2A and A(3ARs resulted in the decrease of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB levels in tumor cells, whilst only A(3ARs are involved in the increase of p53 expression. A(3AR stimulation mediated an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation evaluated by thymidine incorporation. An increase of cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and apoptosis by caspase-3 activation in PC12 and U87MG cells, but not in cortical neurons, was observed following A(3AR activation. The effect of the A(3AR agonist in tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of PEMFs and blocked by using a well-known selective antagonist. Together these results demonstrated that PEMF exposure significantly increases the anti-tumor effect modulated by A(3ARs.

  9. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-05

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists.

  10. Co-delivery of antigen and IL-12 by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles enhances antigen-specific immune responses and anti-tumor effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Berglund, Peter; Morse, Michael A.; Hubby, Bolyn; Lewis, Whitney; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hobeika, Amy; Burnett, Bruce; Devi, Gayathri R.; Clay, Timothy M.; Smith, Jonathan; Lyerly, H. Kim

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus-based replicon particles (VRP) encoding tumor antigens could break tolerance in the immunomodulatory environment of advanced cancer. We hypothesized that local injection of VRP expressing Interleukin-12 (IL-12) at the site of injections of VRP-based cancer vaccines would enhance the tumor-antigen-specific T cell and antibody responses and anti-tumor efficacy. Mice were immunized with VRP encoding the human tumor-associated antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (VRP-CEA(6D)) and VRP-IL-12 was also administered at the same site or at a distant location. CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses were measured. To determine antitumor activity, mice were implanted with MC38-CEA-2 cells and immunized with VRP-CEA with and without VRP-IL-12 and tumor growth and mouse survival were measured. VRP-IL-12 greatly enhanced CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses when combined with VRP-CEA(6D) vaccination. VRP IL-12 was superior to IL-12 protein at enhancing immune responses. Vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) plus VRP-IL-12 was superior to VRP-CEA(6D) or VRP-IL-12 alone in inducing anti-tumor activity and prolonging survival in tumor-bearing mice. Importantly, local injection of VRP-IL-12 at the VRP-CEA(6D) injection site provided more potent activation of CEA-specific immune responses than VRP-IL-12 injected at a distant site from the VRP-CEA injections. Together, this study shows that VRP-IL-12 enhances vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) and was more effective at activating CEA-specific T cell responses when locally expressed at the vaccine site. Clinical trials evaluating the adjuvant effect of VRP-IL-12 at enhancing the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines are warranted. PMID:22488274

  11. Potent anti-tumor effect generated by a novel human papillomavirus (HPV antagonist peptide reactivating the pRb/E2F pathway.

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    Cai-ping Guo

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E7 is a viral oncoprotein believed to play a major role in cervical cancer. In this study, an antagonist peptide against HPV16E7 protein was first identified from screening the c7c phage display peptide library. The binding specificity and affinity of the selected peptide to HPV16E7 were tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The antagonist peptide showed obvious anti-tumor efficacy both in cell lines and animal tumor models. Significant cell proliferation inhibition with high specificity was noted when HPV16-positive cells were treated with the peptide. This anti-tumor efficacy was resulted from overriding the activities of HPV16E7 and reactivating the pRb/E2F pathway, as shown by a series of experiments. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the selected peptide induced G1 arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Competitive ELISA, pull down, and Co-IP experiments indicated that the selected peptide disrupted the interaction between HPV16E7 and pRb proteins both in vitro and in vivo. Luciferase reporter assay verified that transcription activities of E2F were suppressed by the peptide through restoration of pRb. RT-PCR and Western blot revealed that it reduced cyclins A, D1, and E1 expression, and led to HPV16E7 protein degradation, but pRb protein stabilization. The current study suggests that this specific peptide may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for HPV16-positive cervical cancer.

  12. EphA2-derived peptide vaccine with amphiphilic poly(gamma-glutamic acid) nanoparticles elicits an anti-tumor effect against mouse liver tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo; Sasakawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Masashi; Kohga, Keisuke; Miyagi, Takuya; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hiramastu, Naoki; Akagi, Takami; Akashi, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Norio

    2010-05-01

    The prognosis of liver cancer remains poor, but recent advances in nanotechnology offer promising possibilities for cancer treatment. Novel adjuvant, amphiphilic nanoparticles (NPs) composed of L: -phenylalanine (Phe)-conjugated poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA-Phe NPs) having excellent capacity for carrying peptides, were found to have the potential for use as a peptide vaccine against tumor models overexpressing artificial antigens, such as ovalbumin (OVA). However, the anti-tumor potential of gamma-PGA-Phe NPs vaccines using much less immunogenic tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-derived peptide needs to be clarified. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of immunization with EphA2, recently identified TAA, derived peptide-immobilized gamma-PGA-Phe NPs (Eph-NPs) against mouse liver tumor of MC38 cells (EphA2-positive colon cancer cells). Immunization of normal mice with Eph-NPs resulted in generation of EphA2-specific type-1 CD8+ T cells. Immunization with Eph-NPs tended to provide a degree of anti-MC38 liver tumor protection more than that observed for immunization with the mixture of EphA2-derived peptide and complete Freund's adjuvant (Eph + CFA). Neither Eph-NPs nor Eph + CFA vaccines inhibited tumor growth of BL6, EphA2-negative melanoma cells. Splenocytes isolated from MC38-bearing mice treated with Eph-NPs showed strong and specific cytotoxic activity against MC38 cells. Immunization with Eph + CFA induced liver damage as evidenced by elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, while Eph-NPs vaccination did not exhibit any toxic damage to the liver. These results demonstrated that immunization with Eph-NPs displayed anti-tumor effects against liver tumor by generating acquired immunity equivalent to the toxic adjuvant CFA, suggesting that safe gamma-PGA-Phe NPs could be applied clinically for the vaccine treatment of liver cancer.

  13. Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Chrysanthemum indicum Enhances Anti-Tumor Effect and Reduces Toxicity of Bleomycin in Tumor-Bearing Mice

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    Hong-Mei Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM, a family of anti-tumor drugs, was reported to exhibit severe side effects limiting its usage in clinical treatment. Therefore, finding adjuvants that enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the detrimental effect of BLM is a prerequisite. Chrysanthemum indicum, an edible flower, possesses abundant bioactivities; the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE have strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and lung protective effects. However, the role of CISCFE combined with BLM treatment on tumor-bearing mice remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the potential synergistic effect and the underlying mechanism of CISCFE combined with BLM in the treatment of hepatoma 22 (H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results suggested that the oral administration of CISCFE combined with BLM could markedly prolong the life span, attenuate the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, activities of myeloperoxidase, and malondiadehyde. Moreover, CISCFE combined with BLM promoted the ascites cell apoptosis, the activities of caspases 3 and 8, and up-regulated the protein expression of p53 and down-regulated the transforming growth factor-β1 by activating the gene expression of miR-29b. Taken together, these results indicated that CISCFE could enhance the anti-cancer activity of BLM and reduce the BLM-induced pulmonary injury in H22 tumor-bearing mice, rendering it as a potential adjuvant drug with chemotherapy after further investigation in the future.

  14. Effect of enteral immunonutrition after radical surgery for esophageal carcinoma on anti-tumor immune response and intestinal mucosal barrier function

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    Tong He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of enteral immunonutrition after radical surgery for esophageal carcinoma on anti-tumor immune response and intestinal mucosal barrier function. Methods: A total of 102 patients who received radical surgery for esophageal carcinoma in our hospital between May 2013 and December 2016 were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group who received postoperative enteral immunonutrition and routine enteral nutrition respectively. 1 d before operation as well as 1 d and 7 d after operation, peripheral blood immune cell marker expression and serum intestinal mucosal barrier injury marker levels were detected. Results: 1 d after operation, peripheral blood T-bet, NKG2D, NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46 fluorescence intensity of both groups of patients were significantly lower than those 1d before operation while peripheral blood GATA-3 and Foxp3 fluorescence intensity as well as serum DAO, Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-1 levels were significantly higher than those 1d before operation; peripheral blood T-bet, NKG2D, NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46 fluorescence intensity of observation group 7 d after operation were significantly higher than those 1 d after operation while peripheral blood GATA-3 and Foxp3 fluorescence intensity as well as serum DAO, Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-1 levels were significantly lower than those 1 d after operation; peripheral blood T-bet, GATA-3, Foxp3, NKG2D, NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46 fluorescence intensity of control group 7 d after operation were not significant different from those 1 d after operation, and serum DAO, Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-1 levels were significantly lower than those 1d after operation. Conclusion: Enteral immunonutrition after radical surgery for esophageal carcinoma can enhance the anti-tumor immune response and improve the intestinal mucosal barrier function.

  15. Resultado do teste rápido anti-HIV após o parto: uma ameaça à amamentação ao nascimento Resultado de la prueba rápida anti-HIV posterior al parto: una amenaza al amamantamiento en el nacimiento Delivering rapid HIV tests results after delivery: a threat to breastfeeding at birth

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    Maria Inês Couto de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores associados à não-amamentação na primeira hora de vida, sobretudo a influência do momento do resultado do teste rápido anti-HIV. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte, sendo o ponto inicial a submissão ao teste rápido e o final a primeira mamada do bebê. A população estudada incluiu 944 parturientes submetidas ao teste rápido anti-HIV, com resultado negativo, em 2006, nos cinco hospitais amigos da criança do Sistema de Gestação de Alto Risco no município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Entrevistadoras treinadas obtiveram dados do laboratório e do prontuário e no pós-parto aplicaram questionário para entrevista às mães. O modelo multinível foi adotado para analisar a influência de características sociodemográficas, de assistência pré-natal e ao parto sobre a não-amamentação na primeira hora de vida. RESULTADOS: Dentre as participantes, apenas 15,6% receberam seu resultado antes do parto, 30,8% depois do parto e 53,6% ainda desconheciam o resultado ao ser entrevistada. A prevalência de não-amamentação na primeira hora de vida foi de 52,5% (IC 95%: 49,3;55,8. Após ajuste, o recebimento do resultado do teste rápido após o parto dobrou o risco da não-amamentação na primeira hora de vida (RR=2,06; IC 95%: 1,55;2,75. Outros fatores de risco foram: cor não branca, renda materna de um salário mínimo ou menos, parto cesáreo, mãe não querer amamentar o bebê ao nascimento e mãe referir que a equipe hospitalar não a escutava. O desconhecimento da realização do teste rápido anti-HIV pela mãe se mostrou como fator de proteção. CONCLUSÕES: O principal fator de risco para a não-amamentação na primeira hora de vida foi o recebimento do resultado do teste rápido após o parto. O teste anti-HIV deve ser amplamente disponibilizado no pré-natal e o teste rápido deve ser realizado sob indicação, na admissão, com busca ativa e pronta comunicação do resultado à mulher.OBJETIVO: Analizar factores

  16. Anti-tumor activities of luteolin and silibinin in glioblastoma cells: overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented luteolin and silibinin to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis in glioblastoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. High systemic toxicity of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for controlling glioblastoma. The natural flavonoids luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL) have anti-tumor activities. LUT inhibits autophagy, cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis; while SIL activates caspase-8 cascades to induce apoptosis. However, synergistic anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL in glioblastoma remain unknown. Overexpression of tumor suppressor microRNA (miR) could enhance the anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL. Here, we showed that 20 µM LUT and 50 µM SIL worked synergistically for inhibiting growth of two different human glioblastoma U87MG (wild-type p53) and T98G (mutant p53) cell lines and natural combination therapy was more effective than conventional chemotherapy (10 µM BCNU or 100 µM TMZ). Combination of LUT and SIL caused inhibition of growth of glioblastoma cells due to induction of significant amounts of apoptosis and complete inhibition of invasion and migration. Further, combination of LUT and SIL inhibited rapamycin (RAPA)-induced autophagy, a survival mechanism, with suppression of PKCα and promotion of apoptosis through down regulation of iNOS and significant increase in expression of the tumor suppressor miR-7-1-3p in glioblastoma cells. Our in vivo studies confirmed that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL in RAPA pre-treated both U87MG and T98G tumors. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented the anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis for controlling growth of different human glioblastomas in vivo.

  17. Anti-tumor Effect of Rhaponticum uniflorum Ethyl Acetate Extract by Regulation of Peroxiredoxin1 and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Cancer

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    Hui Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore whether Rhaponticum uniflorum (R. uniflorum had anti-tumor effects in oral cancer and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in these anti-tumor effects.Methods: Chemical compositions of R. uniflorum ethyl acetate (RUEA extracts were detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Q/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS, followed by pharmacology-based network prediction analysis. The effects of RUEA extracts on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion ability of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC cell line SCC15 were evaluated by CCK8 assay, Annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, wound healing assay, and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression of peroxiredoxin1 (Prx1, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT marker E-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. A mouse xenograft model of SCC15 cells was established to further evaluate the effect of RUEA extracts in vivo. Immunohistochemical assessment of Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining of apoptotic cells were performed on the tumor tissues to assess the effects of RUEA extracts on proliferation and apoptosis.Results: Fourteen compounds were identified from RUEA extracts by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS. The pharmacology-based network prediction analysis showed that Prx1 could be a potential binder of RUEA extracts. In SCC15 cells, RUEA extracts inhibited cell viability, induced apoptosis, and suppressed cell invasion and migration in a concentration-dependent manner. After treatment with RUEA extracts, the mRNA and protein expression of E-cadherin increased, whereas those of Prx1, vimentin, and Snail decreased. RUEA extracts also affected the EMT program and suppressed cell invasion and migration in Prx1 knockdown SCC15 cells. In an OSCC mouse

  18. Radiotherapy-induced anti-tumor immunity contributes to the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by CTLA-4 blockade in a mouse model.

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    Yuya Yoshimoto

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is growing evidence that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in anti-cancer therapy, including radiotherapy. Using mouse tumor models we demonstrate that irradiation-induced anti-tumor immunity is essential for the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by modulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: C57BL/6 mice, syngeneic EL4 lymphoma cells, and Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/C cells were used. Cells were injected into the right femurs of mice. Ten days after inoculation, tumors were treated with 30 Gy of local X-ray irradiation and their growth was subsequently measured. The effect of irradiation on tumor growth delay (TGD was defined as the time (in days for tumors to grow to 500 mm3 in the treated group minus that of the untreated group. Cytokine production and serum antibodies were measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In the EL4 tumor model, tumors were locally controlled by X-ray irradiation and re-introduced EL4 cells were completely rejected. Mouse EL4-specific systemic immunity was confirmed by splenocyte cytokine production and detection of tumor-specific IgG1 antibodies. In the LL/C tumor model, X-ray irradiation also significantly delayed tumor growth (TGD: 15.4 days and prolonged median survival time (MST to 59 days (versus 28 days in the non-irradiated group. CD8(+ cell depletion using an anti-CD8 antibody significantly decreased the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation (TGD, 8.7 days; MST, 49 days. Next, we examined whether T cell modulation affected the efficacy of radiotherapy. An anti-CTLA-4 antibody significantly increased the anti-tumor activity of radiotherapy (TGD was prolonged from 13.1 to 19.5 days, while anti-FR4 and anti-GITR antibodies did not affect efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation. Immunomodulation, including CTLA-4

  19. Design and Synthesis of Analogues of Marine Natural Product Galaxamide, an N-methylated Cyclic Pentapeptide, as Potential Anti-Tumor Agent in Vitro

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    Jignesh Lunagariya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report design and synthesis of novel 26 galaxamide analogues with N-methylated cyclo-pentapeptide, and their in vitro anti-tumor activity towards the panel of human tumor cell line, such as, A549, A549/DPP, HepG2 and SMMC-7721 using MTT assay. We have also investigated the effect of galaxamide and its representative analogues on growth, cell-cycle phases, and induction of apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro. Reckon with the significance of conformational space and N-Me aminoacid (aa comprising this compound template, we designed the analogues with modification in N-Me-aa position, change in aa configuration from l to d aa and substitute one Leu-aa to d/l Phe-aa residue with respective to the parent structure. The efficient solid phase parallel synthesis approach is employed for the linear pentapeptide residue containing N-Me aa, followed by solution phase macrocyclisation to afford target cyclo pentapeptide compounds. In the present study, all galaxamide analogues exhibited growth inhibition in A549, A549/DPP, SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cell lines. Compounds 6, 18, and 22 exhibited interesting activities towards all cell line tested, while Compounds 1, 4, 15, and 22 showed strong activity towards SMMC-7221 cell line in the range of 1–2 μg/mL IC50. Flow cytometry experiment revealed that galaxamide analogues namely Compounds 6, 18, and 22 induced concentration dependent SMMC-7721 cell apoptosis after 48 h. These compounds induced G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and morphological changes indicating induction of apoptosis. Thus, findings of our study suggest that the galaxamide and its analogues 6, 18 and 22 exerted growth inhibitory effect on SMMC-7721 cells by arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and inducing apoptosis. Compound 1 showed promising anti-tumor activity towards SMMC-7721 cancer cell line, which is 9 and 10 fold higher than galaxamide and reference DPP (cisplatin, respectively.

  20. Superior anti-tumor activity of the MDM2 antagonist idasanutlin and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax in p53 wild-type acute myeloid leukemia models

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    Christian Lehmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venetoclax, a small molecule BH3 mimetic which inhibits the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and idasanutlin, a selective MDM2 antagonist, have both shown activity as single-agent treatments in pre-clinical and clinical studies in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. In this study, we deliver the rationale and molecular basis for the combination of idasanutlin and venetoclax for treatment of p53 wild-type AML. Methods The effect of idasanutlin and venetoclax combination on cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression was investigated in vitro using established AML cell lines. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft models generated in female nude or non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID mice. Mode-of-action analyses were performed by means of cell cycle kinetic studies, RNA sequencing as well as western blotting experiments. Results Combination treatment with venetoclax and idasanutlin results in synergistic anti-tumor activity compared with the respective single-agent treatments in vitro, in p53 wild-type AML cell lines, and leads to strongly superior efficacy in vivo, in subcutaneous and orthotopic AML models. The inhibitory effects of idasanutlin were cell-cycle dependent, with cells arresting in G1 in consecutive cycles and the induction of apoptosis only evident after cells had gone through at least two cell cycles. Combination treatment with venetoclax removed this dependency, resulting in an acceleration of cell death kinetics. As expected, gene expression studies using RNA sequencing showed significant alterations to pathways associated with p53 signaling and cell cycle arrest (CCND1 pathway in response to idasanutlin treatment. Only few gene expression changes were observed for venetoclax treatment and combination treatment, indicating that their effects are mediated mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Protein expression studies demonstrated that

  1. Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with HIV infection exposed to specific individual antiretroviral drugs from the 3 major drug classes: the data collection on adverse events of anti-HIV drugs (D:A:D) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe Westring; Sabin, Caroline; Weber, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been assessed in 13 anti-HIV drugs in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. METHODS. Poisson regression models were adjusted for cardiovascular risk...... factors, cohort, calendar year, and use of other antiretroviral drugs and assessed the association between MI risk and cumulative (per year) or recent (current or in the past 6 months) use of antiretroviral drugs, with >30,000 person-years of exposure. RESULTS. Over 178,835 person-years, 580 patients......% CI, 1.01-1.17], respectively) after adjustment for lipids but were not altered further after adjustment for other metabolic parameters. CONCLUSIONS. Of the drugs considered, only indinavir, lopinavir-ritonavir, didanosine, and abacavir were associated with a significantly increased risk of MI...

  2. Uso rotineiro do teste anti-HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens: do risco à prevenção

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    Bruna Robba Lara Redoschi

    Full Text Available Resumo: Desenvolvemos uma revisão crítica da literatura sobre o uso recorrente do teste anti-HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH. Procedemos a uma revisão narrativa da literatura, em que analisamos as diversas concepções sobre testagem frequente ao longo do tempo, suas implicações para os programas de saúde e os principais marcadores sociais que influenciam a incorporação do teste anti-HIV como rotina de cuidado. Embora exista desde os anos 1990, a testagem recorrente entre HSH era frequentemente interpretada como exposição aumentada ao HIV em razão da ausência de uso do preservativo e, consequentemente, uma testagem “desnecessária”. A partir dos anos 2000, a testagem periódica passou a ser uma recomendação programática e, sua realização, interpretada como meta a ser atingida. A percepção dos indivíduos sobre o uso que faziam do teste foi raramente considerada para caracterizar este uso como rotina de cuidado. No plano social e cultural, aspectos individuais associados ao teste recente ou de rotina estiveram inscritos em contextos de normas favoráveis ao teste e de menor estigma da AIDS. Diferenças geracionais, de escolarização e relacionadas ao tipo de parceria afetivo-sexual desempenham importantes papéis para o teste. Tais diferenças realçam que a categoria epidemiológica “homens que fazem sexo com homens” abrange diversas relações, identidades e práticas que resultam em usos específicos do teste como estratégia de prevenção. Assim, o diálogo entre programas, profissionais de saúde e as pessoas mais afetadas pela epidemia é central à construção de respostas com efetivo potencial de enfrentamento à epidemia de HIV, e pautadas no respeito aos direitos humanos.

  3. Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity

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    Fouquaert Elke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recent report, the carbohydrate-binding specificities of the plant lectins Galanthus nivalis (GNA and the closely related lectin from Zea mays (GNAmaize were determined by glycan array analysis and indicated that GNAmaize recognizes complex-type N-glycans whereas GNA has specificity towards high-mannose-type glycans. Both lectins are tetrameric proteins sharing 64% sequence similarity. Results GNAmaize appeared to be ~20- to 100-fold less inhibitory than GNA against HIV infection, syncytia formation between persistently HIV-1-infected HuT-78 cells and uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte SupT1 cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and subsequent transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virions to uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte cells. In contrast to GNA, which preferentially selects for virus strains with deleted high-mannose-type glycans on gp120, prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to dose-escalating concentrations of GNAmaize selected for mutant virus strains in which one complex-type glycan of gp120 was deleted. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis revealed that GNA and GNAmaize interact with HIV IIIB gp120 with affinity constants (KD of 0.33 nM and 34 nM, respectively. Whereas immobilized GNA specifically binds mannose oligomers, GNAmaize selectively binds complex-type GlcNAcβ1,2Man oligomers. Also, epitope mapping experiments revealed that GNA and the mannose-specific mAb 2G12 can independently bind from GNAmaize to gp120, whereas GNAmaize cannot efficiently bind to gp120 that contained prebound PHA-E (GlcNAcβ1,2man specific or SNA (NeuAcα2,6X specific. Conclusion The markedly reduced anti-HIV activity of GNAmaize compared to GNA can be explained by the profound shift in glycan recognition and the disappearance of carbohydrate-binding sites in GNAmaize that have high affinity for mannose oligomers. These findings underscore the need for mannose oligomer recognition of therapeutics to be endowed with anti-HIV activity and that mannose, but

  4. Structural insights into the specific anti-HIV property of actinohivin: structure of its complex with the α(1–2)mannobiose moiety of gp120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, M. Mominul [Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai-Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Rajshahi University, Rajshahi (Bangladesh); Suzuki, Kaoru [Iwaki Meisei University, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Tsunoda, Masaru; Jiang, Jiandong; Zhang, Fang; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ohbayashi, Naomi; Zhang, Xiaoxue [Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai-Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Tanaka, Haruo [Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai-Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai-Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); KIIM Pharmaceutical Laboratories Inc., Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Ōmura, Satoshi [Kitasato University, Tokyo 108-8641 (Japan); Takénaka, Akio, E-mail: atakenak@sakura.email.ne.jp [Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai-Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai-Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    X-ray analysis of anti-HIV actinohivin in complex with the target α(1-2)mannobiose moiety of high-mannose type glycans attached to HIV-1 gp120 reveals that the three rotamers generated with 120 rotations around the molecular pseudo-rotation axis are packed randomly in the unit cell according to the P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} symmetry to exhibit an apparent space group P2{sub 1}3 as the statistical structure. However, the high-resolution X-ray structure shows the detailed interaction geometry for specific binding. Actinohivin (AH) is an actinomycete lectin with a potent specific anti-HIV activity. In order to clarify the structural evidence for its specific binding to the α(1–2)mannobiose (MB) moiety of the D1 chains of high-mannose-type glycans (HMTGs) attached to HIV-1 gp120, the crystal structure of AH in complex with MB has been determined. The AH molecule is composed of three identical structural modules, each of which has a pocket in which an MB molecule is bound adopting a bracket-shaped conformation. This conformation is stabilized through two weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds facilitated by the α(1–2) linkage. The binding features in the three pockets are quite similar to each other, in accordance with the molecular pseudo-threefold symmetry generated from the three tandem repeats in the amino-acid sequence. The shape of the pocket can accept two neighbouring hydroxyl groups of the O{sup 3} and O{sup 4} atoms of the equatorial configuration of the second mannose residue. To recognize these atoms through hydrogen bonds, an Asp residue is located at the bottom of each pocket. Tyr and Leu residues seem to block the movement of the MB molecules. Furthermore, the O{sup 1} atom of the axial configuration of the second mannose residue protrudes from each pocket into an open space surrounded by the conserved hydrophobic residues, suggesting an additional binding site for the third mannose residue of the branched D1 chain of HMTGs. These structural features

  5. Exceptionally Potent Anti-Tumor Bystander Activity of an scFv:sTRAIL Fusion Protein with Specificity for EGP2 Toward Target Antigen-Negative Tumor Cells

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    Edwin Bremer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported on the target cell-restricted fratricide apoptotic activity of scFvC54:sTRAIL, a fusion protein comprising human-soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL genetically linked to the antibody fragment scFvC54 specific for the cell surface target antigen EGP2. In the present study, we report that the selective binding of scFvC54:sTRAIL to EGP2-positive target cells conveys an exceptionally potent pro-apoptotic effect toward neighboring tumor cells that are devoid of EGP2 expression (bystander cells. The anti-tumor bystander activity of scFvC54:sTRAIL was detectable at target-tobystander cell ratios as low as 1:100. Treatment in the presence of EGP2-blocking or TRAIL-neutralizing antibody strongly inhibited apoptosis in both target and bystander tumor cells. In the absence of target cells, bystander cell apoptosis induction was abrogated. The bystander apoptosis activity of scFvC54:sTRAIL did not require internalization, enzymatic conversion, diffusion, or communication (gap junctional intracellular communication between target and bystander cells. Furthermore, scFvC54:sTRAIL showed no detectable signs of innocent bystander activity toward freshly isolated blood cells. Further development of this new principle is warranted for approaches where cancer cells can escape from antibody-based therapy due to partial loss of target antigen expression.

  6. A study of 131iodine-labeling of histamine-indomethacin: its in vivo therapeutic effect and anti-tumor mechanisms in Lewis-bearing lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guoxiu; Zhang, Guoxu; Zhang, Caixia; Chen, Chunmei; Liu, Ruihao

    2013-03-26

    In our research,we study the effect of 131iodine-labeled histamine-indomethacin (131I-His-IN). We focus on its in vivo therapeutic effect and anti-tumor mechanisms in Lewis-bearing lung cancer. 131I-His-IN was administered by garage to the mice. At different timepoints, we made autoradiography (ARG) slices to observe the distribution of 131I-His-IN in the cellular, and the sliced samples underwent hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining for observation of tumor necrosis. Before treatment, the groups of mice underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans ,and they were then given physiologic saline, iodine 131 (131I), indomethacin (IN), Histamine-indomethacin (His-IN), and 131I-His-IN, respectively, three times daily for seven days. Seven days later, all the mice underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT scans again. We calculated the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the region of interest (ROI) and tumor inhibition rate at the same time. In ARG groups, black silver particle was concentrated in the nucleus and cytoplasm. 131I-His-IN mainly concentrated in tumor tissues. At 8 hours after 131I-His-IN, the radioactivity uptake in tumor tissue was higher than in other organs (F=3.46, Peffect and monitoring of disease prognosis.

  7. Proapoptotic protein Smac mediates apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells when treated with the anti-tumor agent AT101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbin; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jingsheng; Liu, Xinyu; Yuan, Zhu; Nie, Chunlai; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-01-02

    Chemoresistance of ovarian cancer has been previously attributed to the expression and activation of Bcl-2 family proteins. BH3-mimetic molecules possessing potential anticancer activity are able to inhibit antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. AT101 (R-(-)-gossypol), a natural BH3-mimetic molecule, has shown anti-tumor activity as a single agent and in combination with standard anticancer therapies in a variety of tumor models. Here, we report the effect of AT101 on apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells and identify the major molecular events that determine sensitivity. AT101 induced cell apoptosis by activating Bax through a conformational change, translocation, and oligomerization. The inhibition of Bax expression only partially prevented caspase-3 cleavage. However, the gene silencing of Bax had no effect on mitochondrial Smac release. Further experiments demonstrated that Smac reduction inhibited caspase-3 activation and attenuated cell apoptosis. More importantly, the inhibition of Smac or overexpression of XIAP attenuated Bax activation in ovarian cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that the Akt-p53 pathway is involved in the regulation of Smac release. Taken together, our data demonstrate the role of Smac and the molecular mechanisms of AT101-induced apoptosis of chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. Our findings suggest that AT101 not only triggers Bax activation but also induces mitochondrial Smac release. Activated Smac can enhance Bax-mediated cellular apoptosis. Therefore, Smac mediates Bax activation to determine the threshold for overcoming cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

  8. Combined expression of miR-34a and Smac mediated by oncolytic vaccinia virus synergistically promote anti-tumor effects in Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wen; Wang, Shibing; Yang, Chunmei; Huang, Xianbo; Chen, Zhenzhen; He, Wei; Shen, Jianping; Liu, Xinyuan; Qian, Wenbin

    2016-08-24

    Despite great progress made in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), it is still incurable. Promising phase II clinical results have been reported recently for oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) clinic therapeutics. One reason for this has focused on the critical therapeutic importance of the immune response raised by these viruses. However, few studies have performed their applications as an optimal delivery system for therapeutic gene, especially miRNA in MM. In this study, we constructed two novel OVVs (TK deletion) that express anti-tumor genes, miR-34a and Smac, respectively, in MM cell lines and xenograft model. The results demonstrated that the novel OVV can effectively infect MM cell lines, and forcefully enhance the exogenous gene (miR-34a or Smac) expression. Furthermore, utilization of VV-miR-34a combined with VV-Smac synergistically inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism is proposed that blocking of Bcl-2 by VV-miR-34a increases the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and then synergistically amplifies the antitumor effects of Smac-induced cell apoptosis. Our study is the first to utilize OVV as the vector for miR-34a or Smac expression to treat MM, and lays the groundwork for future clinical therapy for MM.

  9. Proapoptotic Protein Smac Mediates Apoptosis in Cisplatin-resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells When Treated with the Anti-tumor Agent AT101*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbin; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jingsheng; Liu, Xinyu; Yuan, Zhu; Nie, Chunlai; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-01-01

    Chemoresistance of ovarian cancer has been previously attributed to the expression and activation of Bcl-2 family proteins. BH3-mimetic molecules possessing potential anticancer activity are able to inhibit antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. AT101 (R-(−)-gossypol), a natural BH3-mimetic molecule, has shown anti-tumor activity as a single agent and in combination with standard anticancer therapies in a variety of tumor models. Here, we report the effect of AT101 on apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells and identify the major molecular events that determine sensitivity. AT101 induced cell apoptosis by activating Bax through a conformational change, translocation, and oligomerization. The inhibition of Bax expression only partially prevented caspase-3 cleavage. However, the gene silencing of Bax had no effect on mitochondrial Smac release. Further experiments demonstrated that Smac reduction inhibited caspase-3 activation and attenuated cell apoptosis. More importantly, the inhibition of Smac or overexpression of XIAP attenuated Bax activation in ovarian cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that the Akt-p53 pathway is involved in the regulation of Smac release. Taken together, our data demonstrate the role of Smac and the molecular mechanisms of AT101-induced apoptosis of chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. Our findings suggest that AT101 not only triggers Bax activation but also induces mitochondrial Smac release. Activated Smac can enhance Bax-mediated cellular apoptosis. Therefore, Smac mediates Bax activation to determine the threshold for overcoming cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:22052903

  10. The serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) is present in B-cell clones of diverse malignant origin: probing a potential anti-tumor target for psychotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Elizabeth J; Holder, Michelle J; Chamba, Anita; Challa, Anita; Drake-Lee, Adrian; Bunce, Christopher M; Drayson, Mark T; Pilkington, Geoffrey; Blakely, Randy D; Dyer, Martin J S; Barnes, Nicholas M; Gordon, John

    2005-07-01

    Following our previous description of the serotonin transporter (SERT) acting as a conduit to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-mediated apoptosis, specifically in Burkitt's lymphoma, we now detail its expression among a broad spectrum of B cell malignancy, while exploring additional SERT substrates for potential therapeutic activity. SERT was readily detected in derived B cell lines with origins as diverse as B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Concentration and timecourse kinetics for the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of the amphetamine derivatives fenfluramine (an appetite suppressant) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") revealed them as being similar to the endogenous indoleamine. A tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, instead mirrored the behavior of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, both being effective in the low micromolar range. A majority of neoplastic clones were sensitive to one or more of the serotonergic compounds. Dysregulated bcl-2 expression, either by t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation or its introduction as a constitutively active transgene, provided protection from proapoptotic but not antiproliferative outcomes. These data indicate a potential for SERT as a novel anti-tumor target for amphetamine analogs, while evidence is presented that the seemingly more promising antidepressants are likely impacting malignant B cells independently of the transporter itself.

  11. Relapse rates of inflammatory bowel disease patients in deep and clinical remission after discontinuing anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavaty, T; Krajcovicova, A; Letkovsky, J; Sturdik, I; Koller, T; Toth, J; Huorka, M

    2016-01-01

    Relapse rates after discontinuing anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in deep remission are poorly understood. This prospective single-center open-label study evaluated the relapse rates of IBD patients after stopping anti-TNFα therapy. All IBD patients who were in clinical remission and stopped anti-TNFα therapy in 2011-2013 and were followed up for at least 12 months were enrolled. The "Ultradeep" patients were in calprotectin-negative (risk factors identified. One year after stopping, 27 % and 27 % of the Ultradeep (n = 11) and Clinical (n = 11) patients relapsed, respectively. Two years after stopping, 57 % and 62 % relapsed, respectively (p = 0.89). All relapsed patients who underwent retreatment with anti-TNFα therapy re-entered remission. Male sex was a significant risk factor for relapse (p = 0.03). Our study showed that even highly selected IBD patients who lack clinical, endoscopic or laboratory signs of disease activity have a relatively high relapse rate in the follow-up period after ceasing anti-TNFα therapy (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 24).

  12. Patients with Crohn's disease on anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy are at significant risk of inadequate response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Kyun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Ye, Byong Duk; Lee, Kang-Moon; Kim, You Sun; Rhee, Sang Youl; Kim, Hyo-Jong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Moon, Won; Koo, Ja-Seol; Lee, Suck-Ho; Seo, Geom Seog; Park, Soo Jung; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jung, Sung-Ae; Hong, Sung Noh; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Eun Soo

    2014-05-01

    The effect of immunosuppressants on the efficacy of a variety of vaccines is a controversial issue in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study we determined whether specific immunosuppressants impair the serological response to the standard 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in a large cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). This was a multi-center, prospective observational study of adult patients with CD at 15 academic teaching hospitals in Korea. The study population received one intramuscular injection of PPSV23. Anti-pneumococcal IgG antibody titers were measured by immunoassay prior to and 4weeks after vaccination. All vaccination-related adverse events and the effect of the vaccine on disease activity were also evaluated. The overall serological response rate was 67.5% (133/197). The serological response rate was significantly lower in patients on anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy (50.0% on anti-TNF alone; 58.0% on anti-TNF combined with an immunomodulator, IM) than patients on 5-aminosalicylate (78.4%; all P-values vs. 5-aminosalicylaterisk of an inadequate response to PPSV23. The pneumococcal vaccination strategy should be optimized for patients with CD on anti-TNF therapy. © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS) in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Erica M. [Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, New Jersey Medical School-Cancer Center, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States); Barnes, Betsy J., E-mail: barnesbe@njms.rutgers.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, New Jersey Medical School-Cancer Center, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States)

    2014-04-23

    Following the successes of monoclonal antibody immunotherapies (trastuzumab (Herceptin{sup ®}) and rituximab (Rituxan{sup ®})) and the first approved cancer vaccine, Provenge{sup ®} (sipuleucel-T), investigations into the immune system and how it can be modified by a tumor has become an exciting and promising new field of cancer research. Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response. To date, however, few consistent, reproducible, or clinically-relevant effects have been shown using vaccine or autologous cell transfers due in part to the fact that the immunosuppressive mechanisms of the tumor have not been overcome. Much of the research focus has been on re-activating or priming cytotoxic T cells to recognize tumor, in some cases completely disregarding the potential roles that B cells play in immune surveillance or how a solid tumor should be treated to maximize immunogenicity. Here, we will summarize what is currently known about the induction or evasion of humoral immunity via tumor-induced cytokine/chemokine expression and how formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) within the tumor microenvironment may be used to enhance immunotherapy response.

  14. Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS) in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, Erica M.; Barnes, Betsy J.

    2014-01-01

    Following the successes of monoclonal antibody immunotherapies (trastuzumab (Herceptin ® ) and rituximab (Rituxan ® )) and the first approved cancer vaccine, Provenge ® (sipuleucel-T), investigations into the immune system and how it can be modified by a tumor has become an exciting and promising new field of cancer research. Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response. To date, however, few consistent, reproducible, or clinically-relevant effects have been shown using vaccine or autologous cell transfers due in part to the fact that the immunosuppressive mechanisms of the tumor have not been overcome. Much of the research focus has been on re-activating or priming cytotoxic T cells to recognize tumor, in some cases completely disregarding the potential roles that B cells play in immune surveillance or how a solid tumor should be treated to maximize immunogenicity. Here, we will summarize what is currently known about the induction or evasion of humoral immunity via tumor-induced cytokine/chemokine expression and how formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) within the tumor microenvironment may be used to enhance immunotherapy response

  15. Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M. Pimenta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the successes of monoclonal antibody immunotherapies (trastuzumab (Herceptin® and rituximab (Rituxan® and the first approved cancer vaccine, Provenge® (sipuleucel-T, investigations into the immune system and how it can be modified by a tumor has become an exciting and promising new field of cancer research. Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response. To date, however, few consistent, reproducible, or clinically-relevant effects have been shown using vaccine or autologous cell transfers due in part to the fact that the immunosuppressive mechanisms of the tumor have not been overcome. Much of the research focus has been on re-activating or priming cytotoxic T cells to recognize tumor, in some cases completely disregarding the potential roles that B cells play in immune surveillance or how a solid tumor should be treated to maximize immunogenicity. Here, we will summarize what is currently known about the induction or evasion of humoral immunity via tumor-induced cytokine/chemokine expression and how formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS within the tumor microenvironment may be used to enhance immunotherapy response.

  16. TRAF1/C5 but Not PTPRC Variants Are Potential Predictors of Rheumatoid Arthritis Response to Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Canhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our work was to replicate, in a Southern European population, the association reported in Northern populations between PTPRC locus and response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We also looked at associations between five RA risk alleles and treatment response. Methods. We evaluated associations between anti-TNF treatment responses assessed by DAS28 change and by EULAR response at six months in 383 Portuguese patients. Univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. In a second step to confirm our findings, we pooled our population with 265 Spanish patients. Results. No association was found between PTPRC rs10919563 allele and anti-TNF treatment response, neither in Portuguese modeling for several clinical variables nor in the overall population combining Portuguese and Spanish patients. The minor allele for RA susceptibility, rs3761847 SNP in TRAF1/C5 region, was associated with a poor response in linear and logistic univariate and multivariate regression analyses. No association was observed with the other allellic variants. Results were confirmed in the pooled analysis. Conclusion. This study did not replicate the association between PTPRC and the response to anti-TNF treatment in our Southern European population. We found that TRAF1/C5 risk RA variants potentially influence anti-TNF treatment response.

  17. Long-term survival of subcutaneous anti-tumor necrosis factor biological drugs administered between 2008 and 2012 in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rivas, Noelia; Vazquez Rodriguez, Tomas R; Miranda Filloy, Jose A; Garcia-Porrua, Carlos; Sanchez-Andrade Fernández, Amalia

    2017-05-25

    To compare the survival of subcutaneous anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs used between 2008 and 2012 prescribed in accordance with clinical practice. Retrospective, observational study of the patients in our center diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We included patients who had received a subcutaneous anti-TNF agent for at least 6 months. The data were analyzed using the SPSS V17.0 statistical package. Forty-nine RA patients started subcutaneous biological treatment with an anti-TNF agent (32 with etanercept and 17 with adalimumab). The mean age was 45.94 years (75.5% female). The mean disease duration prior to starting anti-TNF administration was 2.67 years. The mean age at the start of treatment was 51.84 years, and the average Disease Activity Score 28 was 4.93. The median survival of the anti-TNF treatment was 8.40 years; the survival of etanercept was the longer of the two. The main reason for discontinuation was secondary failure (90.9%). In routine clinical practice, the survival of subcutaneous anti-TNF treatment was extensive and was independent of whether or not the patients received concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-tumor compound RY10-4 suppresses multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Ding, Yufeng; Xiao, Miao; Liu, Xin; Ruan, Jinlan; Xue, Pingping

    2017-12-25

    RY10-4, an anti-tumor agent, exerts cytotoxicity to various human cancer cell lines. However, few studies reported the effect of combined application of RY10-4 and chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer cells with multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is reported to mediate MDR to anti-cancer drugs, was proved to be overexpressed in the adriamycin (ADR)-resistant human breast cancer cells, namely MCF-7/ADR cells. Furthermore, RY10-4 application resulted in a downregulation of P-gp in MCF-7/ADR cells, thus leading to higher chemosensitivity to ADR. Our study further demonstrated that the MDR phenomenon was under the control of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway, which was suppressed by RY10-4, leading to MDR reversal effects in MCF-7/ADR cells. In vivo, MCF-7/ADR cells were effectively suppressed by the combined ADR/RY10-4 treatment compared with the ADR-alone treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrated that RY10-4 reverses the MDR phenotype in MCF-7/ADR cells by suppressing the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic anti-tumor actions of luteolin and silibinin prevented cell migration and invasion and induced apoptosis in glioblastoma SNB19 cells and glioblastoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2015-12-10

    Glioblastoma is the most lethal brain tumor. Failure of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for treatment of glioblastoma. Plant-derived flavonoids could be alternative medicine for inhibiting not only glioblastoma cells but also glioblastoma stem cells (GSC). Two plant-derived flavonoids are luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL). We investigated anti-tumor mechanisms of LUT and SIL in different human glioblastoma cells and GSC and found significant synergistic inhibition of human glioblastoma LN18 and SNB19 cells and GSC following treatment with combination of 20µM LUT and 50µM SIL. Combination of 20µM LUT and 50µM SIL was more effective than a conventional chemotherapeutic agent (BCNU or TMZ). We continued our studies with SNB19 cells and GSC and found dramatic inhibition of cell migration from spheroids and also cell invasion through matrigel following treatment with combination of LUT and SIL. This combination was highly effective to block angiogenesis and survival pathways leading to induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of PKCα, XIAP, and iNOS ultimately caused induction of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Collectively, synergistic efficacy of LUT and SIL could be a promising therapy to inhibit cell migration and invasion and induce apoptosis in different glioblastoma cells including GSC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not change human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 markers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekita, Kunihiko; Umeki, Kazumi; Miyauchi, Shunichi; Ueno, Shiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Kusumoto, Norio; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologics are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is still not clear whether this treatment promotes the development of malignancies such as lymphoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is a causative agent of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), is prevalent in Japan. Many HTLV-1-positive patients with RA are assumed to exist; however, there have thus far been no reports on the effect of anti-TNF biologics on HTLV-1-positive patients. We analyzed the response to treatment with anti-TNF biologics and change of HTLV-1 markers in two cases of RA. The two cases showed no response based on the European League Against of Rheumatism response criteria 60-96 weeks after administration of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). No signs of ATL were observed and HTLV-1 markers, such as proviral load and clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells, showed no significant change in either of two cases. Therefore, treatment with anti-TNF biologics did not induce activation of HTLV-1, although the effect on RA was not as effective as in HTLV-1-negative patients in this limited study. Further long-term study with a greater number of patients is necessary to clarify the safety and efficacy of anti-TNF biologics in HTLV-1-positive patients with RA.

  1. Anti-tumor effect in human breast cancer by TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurio, Naito [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan); Shimo, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: shimotsu@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan); Fukazawa, Takuya; Takaoka, Munenori [Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, 700-0821 (Japan); Okui, Tatsuo; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Shinji [Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel (Switzerland); Ikeda, Masahiko [Department of Surgery, Fukuyama City Hospital, Fukuyama, 720-8511 (Japan); Naomoto, Yoshio [Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, 700-0821 (Japan); Sasaki, Akira [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK overexpression is frequently found in invasive and metastatic cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid, and prostate, but its role in osteolytic metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed anti-tumor effects of the novel FAK Tyr{sup 397} inhibitor TAE226 against bone metastasis in breast cancer by using TAE226. Oral administration of TAE226 in mice significantly decreased bone metastasis and osteoclasts involved which were induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and increased the survival rate of the mouse models of bone metastasis. TAE226 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in vivo and the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Significantly, TAE226 inhibited the osteoclast formation in murine pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, and actin ring and pit formation in mature osteoclasts. Moreover, TAE226 inhibited the receptor activator for nuclear factor {kappa} B Ligand (RANKL) gene expression induced by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in bone stromal ST2 cells and blood free calcium concentration induced by PTHrP administration in vivo. These findings suggest that FAK was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and activated in tumors, pre-osteoclasts, mature osteoclasts, and bone stromal cells and TAE226 can be effectively used for the treatment of cancer induced bone metastasis and other bone diseases.

  2. Blocking C5aR signaling promotes the anti-tumor efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Haoran; Han, Xiao; Zhu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Li, Yongsheng; Li, Qijing; Guo, Bo; Zhu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has achieved great success in the clinic; however, only a small fraction of cancer patient benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy, and overcoming resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade has thus become a primary priority. In this study, we demonstrated that administration of PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies resulted in the activation of the complement system and massive generation of C5a. Generation of C5a did not change the accumulation of MDSCs in either the tumor or spleen but enhanced their inhibitory potential. In addition, blockade of C5a-C5aR signaling in combination with PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies greatly enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies. Overall, these data indicate an immunosuppressive role of C5a in the context of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy and provide a strong incentive to clinically explore combination therapies using a C5a antagonist.

  3. Optimal MHC-II-restricted tumor antigen presentation to CD4+ T helper cells: the key issue for development of anti-tumor vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accolla Roberto S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Present immunoprevention and immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer suffer from the limitation of being not “sterilizing” procedures, as very poor protection against the tumor is obtained. Thus newly conceived anti-tumor vaccination strategies are urgently needed. In this review we will focus on ways to provide optimal MHC class II-restricted tumor antigen presentation to CD4+ T helper cells as a crucial parameter to get optimal and protective adaptive immune response against tumor. Through the description of successful preventive or therapeutic experimental approaches to vaccinate the host against the tumor we will show that optimal activation of MHC class II-restricted tumor specific CD4+ T helper cells can be achieved in various ways. Interestingly, the success in tumor eradication and/or growth arrest generated by classical therapies such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy in some instances can be re-interpreted on the basis of an adaptive immune response induced by providing suitable access of tumor-associated antigens to MHC class II molecules. Therefore, focussing on strategies to generate better and suitable MHC class II–restricted activation of tumor specific CD4+ T helper cells may have an important impact on fighting and defeating cancer.

  4. Priming B cell-mediated anti-HIV envelope responses by vaccination allows for the long-term control of infection in macaques exposed to a R5-tropic SHIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, Clarisa; Gines, Leoned G.; Saunders, Cheryl J.; Vojtech, Lucia; Srivastava, Indresh; Gettie, Agegnehu; Bohm, Rudolph; Blanchard, James; Barnett, Susan W.; Safrit, Jeffrey T.; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2004-01-01

    The potential of vaccine-elicited anti-HIV envelope antibodies to control HIV-infection was evaluated by immunizing macaques with the HIV envelope protein and transiently depleting them of their CD8+ cells before intravenous challenge with the pathogenic CCR5-tropic SIV/HIV chimeric virus, SHIV SF162P4 . Although sterilizing immunity was not achieved, all vaccinated animals effectively controlled infection and remained free of disease for the duration of observation (over 3 years). In contrast, during the same period, the control animals progressed to disease. Both the vaccinees and the controls developed robust cell-mediated antiviral and neutralizing antibody responses following infection. A comparative analysis of these responses suggests that the more effective long-term control of infection by the vaccinated animals is due to the more rapid development of anti-HIV envelope antibodies. These studies suggest that priming by vaccination of B cell anti-HIV envelope responses maybe crucial for the long-term control of HIV infection

  5. A realização do teste anti-hiv no pré-natal: os significados para a gestante El establecimiento de la lucha contra la prueba del vih en pre-navidad: significados para el embarazo The establishment of anti-hiv test in pre-natal: meanings for pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maria de Oliveira Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo conhecer e analisar o significado da realização do teste anti-HIV no pré-natal para as gestantes. Trata-se de uma pesquisa com abordagem qualitativa e foi realizada em um Hospital Escola e em uma Maternidade do município do Rio de Janeiro. Como recurso técnico-metodológico utilizou-se o discurso do sujeito coletivo (DSC. Após a análise dos discursos verificamos que para as gestantes a realização do teste significa a possibilidade de prevenir a transmissão vertical do HIV e como parte da assistência pré-natal. O pré-natal foi considerado pelas gestantes uma excelente oportunidade para a realização do teste anti HIV, para o conhecimento da condição sorológica e início precoce do tratamento. Conclui-se que o teste, para a maioria das gestantes, representa a possibilidade de proteger o filho do HIV, além de fazer parte da construção do papel materno a partir de um cuidado concreto com a saúde do bebê.El estudio que tenía para que el objetivo sepa y analice el significado de la realización del anti-VIH de la prueba en el prenatal para las mujeres embarazadas. Uno está sobre una investigación con acercamiento cualitativo y fue ejecutado en una escuela del hospital y una maternidad de la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro. Como recurso técnico-metodológico el discurso del ciudadano colectivo fue utilizado (DSC. Después de que el análisis de los discursos, nosotros verificamos que para las mujeres embarazadas la realización de la prueba significa la posibilidad para prevenir la transmisión vertical del VIH y como parte de la ayuda prenatal. El prenatal era considerado por las mujeres embarazadas una ocasión excelente para la realización del anti VIH de la prueba, para el conocimiento de la condición sorological y del principio precoz del tratamiento. Se concluye que la prueba, para la mayoría de las mujeres embarazadas, representa la posibilidad para proteger al hijo del VIH, más allá de ser

  6. A novel class of anti-HIV agents with multiple copies of enfuvirtide enhances inhibition of viral replication and cellular transmission in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsing Chang

    Full Text Available We constructed novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitors that may overcome the current limitations of enfuvirtide, the first such therapeutic in this class. The three prototypes generated by the Dock-and-Lock (DNL technology to comprise four copies of enfuvirtide tethered site-specifically to the Fc end of different humanized monoclonal antibodies potently neutralize primary isolates (both R5-tropic and X4-tropic, as well as T-cell-adapted strains of HIV-1 in vitro. All three prototypes show EC(50 values in the subnanomolar range, which are 10- to 100-fold lower than enfuvirtide and attainable whether or not the constitutive antibody targets HIV-1. The potential of such conjugates to purge latently infected cells was also demonstrated in a cell-to-cell viral inhibition assay by measuring their efficacy to inhibit the spread of HIV-1(LAI from infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Jurkat T cells over a period of 30 days following viral activation with 100 nM SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. The IgG-like half-life was not significantly different from that of the parental antibody, as shown by the mean serum concentration of one prototype in mice at 72 h. These encouraging results provide a rationale to develop further novel anti-HIV agents by coupling additional antibodies of interest with alternative HIV-inhibitors via recombinantly-produced, self-assembling, modules.

  7. Design, synthesis and anti-HIV evaluation of novel diarylnicotinamide derivatives (DANAs) targeting the entrance channel of the NNRTI binding pocket through structure-guided molecular hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoqiang; Chen, Wenmin; Zhan, Peng; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Liu, Xinyong

    2014-11-24

    Through a structure-based molecular hybridization approach, a novel series of diarylnicotinamide derivatives (DANAs) targeting the entrance channel of HIV-1 NNRTIs binding pocket (NNIBP) were rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT-4 cells together with the inhibition against the reverse transcriptase (RT) in an enzymatic assay. Encouragingly, most of the new DANAs were found to be active against wild-type HIV-1 with an EC50 in the range of 0.027-4.54 μM. Among them, compound 6b11 (EC50 = 0.027 μM, SI > 12518) and 6b5 (EC50 = 0.029 μM, SI = 2471) were identified as the most potent inhibitors, which were more potent than the reference drugs nevirapine (EC50 = 0.31 μM) and delavirdine (EC50 = 0.66 μM). Some DANAs were also active at micromolar concentrations against the K103N + Y181C resistant mutant. Compound 6b11 exhibited the highest enzymatic inhibition activity (IC50 = 20 nM), which is equal to that of efavirenz (EC50 = 20 nM) and 31 times higher than that of nevirapine (EC50 = 0.62 μM). Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) and molecular modeling of these new DANAs have been discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Medicinal chemistry discoveries among 1,3,5-triazines: recent advances (2000-2013) as antimicrobial, anti-TB, anti-HIV and antimalarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rahul V; Keum, Young-Soo; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The chemistry and an extensive spectrum of biological activities of s-triazines have been examined since several decades and this heterocyclic core has received emerging consensus. This article aims to summarize recent advances (2000-2013) made towards the discovery of antimicrobial, antituberculosis, anti-HIV and antimalarial agents holding 1,3,5-triazine ring as a nucleus with the substitution of several types of nucleophiles. Molecular patterns associated with particular potency have been identified targeting several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and some fungal species, mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, HIV type I and HIV type II, particularly, HIV-1I IIB and HIV- 1ROD strains as well as a variety of P. falciparum malarial strains as chloroquine-resistant K1, chloroquine-susceptible NF54, chloroquine-sensitive 3D7, P. falciparum (D6 clone), P. falciparum (W2 clone), cycloguanil-resistant FCR-3, chloroquine sensitive RKL2. The report will be of considerable interest to gain useful information for the furtherance of drug discovery with extended 1,3,5-triazine designs.

  9. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of 1-(thiophen-2-yl)-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole Derivatives as Anti-HIV-1 Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Penta; Lu, Cui-Lin; Chander, Subhash; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Murugesan, Sankarnarayanan

    2015-06-01

    A novel series of 1-(thiophen-2-yl)-9H-pyrido [3,4-b]indole derivatives were synthesized using DL-tryptophan as starting material. All the compounds were characterized by spectral analysis such as (1) H NMR, Mass, IR, elemental analysis and evaluated for inhibitory potency against HIV-1 replication. Among the reported analogues, compound 7g exhibited significant anti-HIV activity with EC(50) 0.53 μm and selectivity index 483; compounds 7e, 7i, and 7o displayed moderate activity with EC(50) 3.8, 3.8, and 2.8 μm and selectivity index >105, >105, and 3.85, respectively. Interestingly, compound 7g inhibited p24 antigen expression in acute HIV-1(IIIB) infected cell line C8166 with EC50 1.1 μm. In this study, we also reported the Lipinski rule of 5 parameters, predicted toxicity profile, drug-likeness, and drug score of the synthesized analogues. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Genome-wide expression profiling analysis to identify key genes in the anti-HIV mechanism of CD4+and CD8+T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lijie; Wang, Yunqi; Li, Yi; Dong, Ya; Yang, Aimin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhang, Rongqiang

    2018-03-06

    Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were performed to explore the key biomarkers in response to HIV infection of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. The numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of HIV infected individuals were analyzed and the GEO database (GSE6740) was screened for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Gene Ontology enrichment, KEGG pathway analyses, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to identify the key pathway and core proteins in anti-HIV virus process of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Finally, we analyzed the expressions of key proteins in HIV-infected T cells (GSE6740 dataset) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) (GSE511 dataset). 1) CD4 + T cells counts and ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells decreased while CD8 + T cells counts increased in HIV positive individuals; 2) 517 DEGs were found in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at acute and chronic stage with the criterial of P-value CD8 + T cells changed significantly in HIV infection, in which ISG15 gene may play a central role in activating the natural antiviral process of immune cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Formação, práticas e trajetórias de aconselhadores de centros de testagem anti-HIV do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Perante a importância do aconselhamento na testagem anti-HIV, analisamos as diretrizes institucionais, as competências privilegiadas no treinamento profissional e os saberes/práticas de aconselhadores. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo centrado na análise documental, observação e entrevista com aconselhadores de Centros de Testagem e Aconselhamento (CTA do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A análise foi orientada pela teoria de Pierre Bourdieu. Foi evidenciado que o habitus profissional dos aconselhadores resulta da articulação dos treinamentos, da graduação e de experiências e interesses pessoais. A operacionalização de competências, como a escuta ativa, é limitada pela rotina dos serviços e escassez de espaços de reflexão. Para incrementar a prática do aconselhamento, é importante desenvolver competências no treinamento, manter a educação continuada e fazer adequações na rotina do serviço. Tais ajustes podem fortalecer a passagem das diretrizes à ação e o aprimoramento da organização e gestão dos CTA.

  12. Melanoma vectorized radiotherapy: anti tumoral efficiency of a new marker labelled by iodine 131; Radiotherapie vectorisee du melanome: efficacite antitumorale d'un nouveau vecteur marque par l'Iode 131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet-Duquennoy, M.; Papon, J.; Miot-Noirault, E.; Madelmont, J.C.; Chezal, J.M.; Moins, N. [EA4231, universite d' Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, (France); Mishellany, F.; Cayre, A. [laboratoire d' anatomopathologie, centre Jean-Perrin, Clermont-Ferrand, (France); Maublant, J. [service de medecine nucleaire, centre Jean-Perrin, Clermont-Ferrand, (France); Guerquin-Kern, J.L. [Inserm U759, laboratoire de microscopie ionique, institut Curie, Orsay, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The melanoma is an invasive pathology for which no treatment is efficient on the disseminated form. The works of the Laboratory aim to conceive molecules presenting a specific affinity for the melanoma by targeting the melanin. The aim of this project is to evaluate for the mouse, the anti tumoral effect of vectorized {sup 131}I by the tracer ICF01012 that presents a durable and specific tumor concentration adapted to an application in internal vectorized radiotherapy. Conclusions: A significant anti tumoral effect of the internal vectorized radiotherapy using the compound {sup 131}I-ICF01012 is demonstrated on two models of melanomas whatever their aggressive potential is. This effect is associated to a inhibition of the tumor cells dissemination towards lungs. The optimization of the therapy protocol is running in order to get a maximal therapy efficiency associated to a controlled toxicity of non-targeted pigmented organs. (N.C.)

  13. Enhanced anti-tumor effect of a gene gun-delivered DNA vaccine encoding the human papillomavirus type 16 oncoproteins genetically fused to the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Diniz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anti-cancer DNA vaccines have attracted growing interest as a simple and non-invasive method for both the treatment and prevention of tumors induced by human papillomaviruses. Nonetheless, the low immunogenicity of parenterally administered vaccines, particularly regarding the activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses, suggests that further improvements in both vaccine composition and administration routes are still required. In the present study, we report the immune responses and anti-tumor effects of a DNA vaccine (pgD-E7E6E5 expressing three proteins (E7, E6, and E5 of the human papillomavirus type 16 genetically fused to the glycoprotein D of the human herpes simplex virus type 1, which was administered to mice by the intradermal (id route using a gene gun. A single id dose of pgD-E7E6E5 (2 µg/dose induced a strong activation of E7-specific interferon-γ (INF-γ-producing CD8+ T cells and full prophylactic anti-tumor effects in the vaccinated mice. Three vaccine doses inhibited tumor growth in 70% of the mice with established tumors. In addition, a single vaccine dose consisting of the co-administration of pgD-E7E6E5 and the vector encoding interleukin-12 or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor further enhanced the therapeutic anti-tumor effects and conferred protection to 60 and 50% of the vaccinated mice, respectively. In conclusion, id administration of pgD-E7E6E5 significantly enhanced the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the DNA vaccine, representing a promising administration route for future clinical trials.

  14. Sunitinib indirectly enhanced anti-tumor cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells and CD3⁺CD56⁺ subset through the co-culturing dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Wongkajornsilp

    Full Text Available Cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells have reached clinical trials for leukemia and solid tumors. Their anti-tumor cytotoxicity had earlier been shown to be intensified after the co-culture with dendritic cells (DCs. We observed markedly enhanced anti-tumor cytotoxicity activity of CIK cells after the co-culture with sunitinib-pretreated DCs over that of untreated DCs. This cytotoxicity was reliant upon DC modulation by sunitinib because the direct exposure of CIK cells to sunitinib had no significant effect. Sunitinib promoted Th1-inducing and pro-inflammatory phenotypes (IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-6 in DCs at the expense of Th2 inducing phenotype (IL-13 and regulatory phenotype (PD-L1, IDO. Sunitinib-treated DCs subsequently induced the upregulation of Th1 phenotypic markers (IFN-γ and T-bet and the downregulation of the Th2 signature (GATA-3 and the Th17 marker (RORC on the CD3⁺CD56⁺ subset of CIK cells. It concluded that sunitinib-pretreated DCs drove the CD3⁺CD56⁺ subset toward Th1 phenotype with increased anti-tumor cytotoxicity.

  15. Chemo-immunotherapy using saffron and its ingredients followed by E7-NT (gp96) DNA vaccine generates different anti-tumor effects against tumors expressing the E7 protein of human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, Afshin; Bolhassani, Azam; Alizadeh, Fatemeh; Bathaie, S Zahra; Balaram, Prabha; Agi, Elnaz; Vahabpour, Rouhollah

    2015-02-01

    Saffron and its components have been suggested as promising candidates for cancer prevention. Carotenoids and monoterpene aldehydes are two potent ingredients of saffron. The goal of the current study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect of chemo-immunotherapy using saffron and its ingredients followed by E7-NT (gp96) DNA vaccine against tumors expressing the E7 protein of human papillomavirus. The in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of aqueous saffron extract and its components were evaluated in malignant TC-1 and non-malignant COS-7 cell lines. Then, multimodality treatments using E7-NT (gp96) DNA vaccine combined with saffron extract and its ingredients as well as single-modality treatments were tested for their efficacy in inhibiting large and bulky tumor growth. Saffron and its components exerted a considerable anti-tumor effect through prevention of cell growth and stimulation of programmed cell death. Furthermore, 100 % of mice treated with crocin were tumor-free, in contrast to DNA vaccine alone (~66.7 %) and DNA + crocin (~33.3 %) indicating the high potency of crocin as a chemotherapeutic agent. Interestingly, the multimodality treatment using DNA vaccine along with picrocrocin augmented the anti-tumor effects of picrocrocin. Thus, the combination of DNA vaccine with saffron extract and crocin at certain concentrations did not potentiate protective and therapeutic effects compared to mono-therapies for the control of TC-1 tumors.

  16. Depletion of regulatory T cells by anti-ICOS antibody enhances anti-tumor immunity of tumor cell vaccine in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Lijun; Chen, Qianmei; Zhang, Xinji; Shi, Xiaojun; Wei, Lili; Zheng, Dianpeng; Li, Hongwei; Gao, Jimin; Li, Jinlong; Hu, Zhiming

    2017-10-13

    ICOS + Treg cells exert important immunosuppressive effects in tumor immunity. We adopt a combination approach of ICOS + Treg cells depletion with tumor cell vaccine to evaluate anti-tumor immunity in mouse prostate cancer model. Streptavidin (SA)-mGM-CSF surface-modified RM-1 cells were prepared as the vaccine and the mouse subcutaneous prostate tumor model was used to evaluate the immunity. Tumor growth, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to evaluate the therapeutic effects. Our results demonstrated that SA-mGM-CSF vaccine was prepared successfully and tumor growth was inhibited. The tumor size in the combination group was much smaller than that in the vaccine with IgG mAb group. The portions of dendritic cells, CD8 + and CD4 + T cells in the mice blood and tumor tissues were increased after treatment with vaccine. There were more immune-suppressing Tregs infiltrated into tumor after treatment with tumor cell vaccine, and ICOS blocking could deplete the infiltrated Tregs, and T lymphocytes increased more dramatically in the combination therapy group. The concentrations of interferon-γ were increased in all vaccine group, the concentrations of Interleukin-10 and Interleukin-4 were much lower in the combination group. Our study demonstrated that ICOS blocking could deplete the tumor-infiltrated ICOS + Treg cells. Combining GM-CSF surface-modified RM-1 cell vaccine with Anti-ICOS antibody could induce better antitumor immunity than a vaccine alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chloroquine upregulates TRAIL/TRAILR2 expression and potentiates doxorubicin anti-tumor activity in thioacetamide-induced hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Sahar A; El-Mesery, Mohamed; El-Karef, Amro; Eissa, Laila A; El Gayar, Amal M

    2018-01-05

    Impaired apoptosis and systemic toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs make cancer treatment suboptimal. Thus, there is urgency for drug repurposing which facilitates discovery of safe and effective combination therapy. This study aimed to evaluate chloroquine's (CQ) ability to trigger TRAIL/TRAILR2 apoptotic pathway in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) either alone or in combination with doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, its ability to attenuate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity was investigated. TAA was injected in male Sprague Dawely rats (200 mg/kg; ip; 2 times/week) for 16 weeks. After the 16th week, rats were further divided into different groups (n = 10) and treated for 7 weeks. CQ group (received CQ 25 mg/kg/day; orally), DOX group (received DOX 1 mg/kg; ip; 2 times/week) and CQ/DOX group. Liver function biomarkers, AFP, hepatic levels of MDA and GSH, serum CK-MB and LDH enzymes activity were measured. Quantitative, Real-Time PCR was used to measure TRAIL, TRAILR2, caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, BCL-2 and TGF-β1 genes expression levels. Necroinflammation and fibrosis were scored by histopathological examination. CQ improved liver functions, reduced AFP level and attenuated HCC progression. CQ induced apoptosis via upregulation of TRAIL/TRAILR2, caspase-8, caspase-3 and caspase-8 genes and downregulation of BCL-2 gene. Moreover, CQ/DOX showed marked decrease in hepatic MDA level, serum CK-MB, LDH enzymes activity, as well as marked increase in hepatic GSH level. In conclusion, this work assess the in vivo efficacy of CQ/DOX combination therapy in this HCC model that not only has enhanced anti-tumor activity but it also protects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Nevertheless, more studies should be performed to illustrate the molecular mechanism of CQ's cardioprotective effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Equol enhances tamoxifen’s anti-tumor activity by induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charalambous, Christiana; Pitta, Chara A; Constantinou, Andreas I

    2013-01-01

    Soy phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and its metabolite equol, have been proposed to be responsible for the low breast cancer rate in Asian women. Since the majority of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients are treated with tamoxifen, the basic objective of this study is to determine whether equol enhances tamoxifen’s anti-tumor effect, and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. For this purpose, we examined the individual and combined effects of equol and tamoxifen on the estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells using viability assays, annexin-V/PI staining, cell cycle and western blot analysis. We found that equol (>50 μM) and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT; >100 nM) significantly reduced the MCF-7 cell viability. Furthermore, the combination of equol (100 μM) and 4-OHT (10 μM) induced apoptosis more effectively than each compound alone. Subsequent treatment of MCF-7 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK inhibited equol- and 4-OHT-mediated apoptosis, which was accompanied by PARP and α-fodrin cleavage, indicating that apoptosis is mainly caspase-mediated. These compounds also induced a marked reduction in the bcl-2:bax ratio, which was accompanied by caspase-9 and caspase-7 activation and cytochrome-c release to the cytosol. Taken together, these data support the notion that the combination of equol and tamoxifen activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway more efficiently than each compound alone. Consequently, equol may be used therapeutically in combination treatments and clinical studies to enhance tamoxifen’s effect by providing additional protection against estrogen-responsive breast cancers

  19. The anti-tumor histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA and the natural flavonoid curcumin exhibit synergistic neuroprotection against amyloid-beta toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Li, Yan; Camarillo, Cynthia; Yao, Yue; Zhang, Yina; Xu, Chun; Jiang, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    With the trend of an increasing aged population worldwide, Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, as one of the major causes of dementia in elderly people is of growing concern. Despite the many hard efforts attempted during the past several decades in trying to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying AD and putting forward potential therapeutic strategies, there is still a lack of effective treatments for AD. The efficacy of many potential therapeutic drugs for AD is of main concern in clinical practice. For example, large bodies of evidence show that the anti-tumor histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA), may be of benefit for the treatment of AD; however, its extensive inhibition of HDACs makes it a poor therapeutic. Moreover, the natural flavonoid, curcumin, may also have a potential therapeutic benefit against AD; however, it is plagued by low bioavailability. Therefore, the integrative effects of SAHA and curcumin were investigated as a protection against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in vitro. We hypothesized that at low doses their synergistic effect would improve therapeutic selectivity, based on experiments that showed that at low concentrations SAHA and curcumin could provide comprehensive protection against Aβ25-35-induced neuronal damage in PC12 cells, strongly implying potent synergism. Furthermore, network analysis suggested that the possible mechanism underlying their synergistic action might be derived from restoration of the damaged functional link between Akt and the CBP/p300 pathway, which plays a crucial role in the pathological development of AD. Thus, our findings provided a feasible avenue for the application of a synergistic drug combination, SAHA and curcumin, in the treatment of AD.

  20. Multiseed liposomal drug delivery system using micelle gradient as driving force to improve amphiphilic drug retention and its anti-tumor efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Li, Caibin; Jin, Ya; Liu, Xinyue; Wang, Zhiyu; Shaw, John P; Baguley, Bruce C; Wu, Zimei; Liu, Jianping

    2018-11-01

    To improve drug retention in carriers for amphiphilic asulacrine (ASL), a novel active loading method using micelle gradient was developed to fabricate the ASL-loaded multiseed liposomes (ASL-ML). The empty ML were prepared by hydrating a thin film with empty micelles. Then the micelles in liposomal compartment acting as 'micelle pool' drove the drug to be loaded after the outer micelles were removed. Some reasoning studies including critical micelle concentration (CMC) determination, influencing factors tests on entrapment efficiency (EE), structure visualization, and drug release were carried out to explore the mechanism of active loading, ASL location, and the structure of ASL-ML. Comparisons were made between pre-loading and active loading method. Finally, the extended drug retention capacity of ML was evaluated through pharmacokinetic, drug tissue irritancy, and in vivo anti-tumor activity studies. Comprehensive results from fluorescent and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, encapsulation efficiency (EE) comparison, and release studies demonstrated the formation of ML-shell structure for ASL-ML without inter-carrier fusion. The location of drug mainly in inner micelles as well as the superiority of post-loading to the pre-loading method , in which drug in micelles shifted onto the bilayer membrane was an additional positive of this delivery system. It was observed that the drug amphiphilicity and interaction of micelles with drug were the two prerequisites for this active loading method. The extended retention capacity of ML has been verified through the prolonged half-life, reduced paw-lick responses in rats, and enhanced tumor inhibition in model mice. In conclusion, ASL-ML prepared by active loading method can effectively load drug into micelles with expected structure and improve drug retention.

  1. The anti-tumor histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA and the natural flavonoid curcumin exhibit synergistic neuroprotection against amyloid-beta toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Meng

    Full Text Available With the trend of an increasing aged population worldwide, Alzheimer's disease (AD, an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, as one of the major causes of dementia in elderly people is of growing concern. Despite the many hard efforts attempted during the past several decades in trying to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying AD and putting forward potential therapeutic strategies, there is still a lack of effective treatments for AD. The efficacy of many potential therapeutic drugs for AD is of main concern in clinical practice. For example, large bodies of evidence show that the anti-tumor histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA, may be of benefit for the treatment of AD; however, its extensive inhibition of HDACs makes it a poor therapeutic. Moreover, the natural flavonoid, curcumin, may also have a potential therapeutic benefit against AD; however, it is plagued by low bioavailability. Therefore, the integrative effects of SAHA and curcumin were investigated as a protection against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in vitro. We hypothesized that at low doses their synergistic effect would improve therapeutic selectivity, based on experiments that showed that at low concentrations SAHA and curcumin could provide comprehensive protection against Aβ25-35-induced neuronal damage in PC12 cells, strongly implying potent synergism. Furthermore, network analysis suggested that the possible mechanism underlying their synergistic action might be derived from restoration of the damaged functional link between Akt and the CBP/p300 pathway, which plays a crucial role in the pathological development of AD. Thus, our findings provided a feasible avenue for the application of a synergistic drug combination, SAHA and curcumin, in the treatment of AD.

  2. Telmisartan Exerts Anti-Tumor Effects by Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telmisartan, a member of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, is usually used for cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have showed that telmisartan has the property of PPARγ activation. Meanwhile, PPARγ is essential for tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis. In this work we explore whether telmisartan could exert anti-tumor effects through PPARγ activation in A549 cells. MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were included to determine the survival rates and cell viabilities. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-9 and PPARγ. DNA binding activity of PPARγ was evaluated by EMSA. Our data showed that the survival rates and cell viabilities of A549 cells were all reduced by telmisartan in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, our results also demonstrated that telmisartan dose-dependently inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and MMP-9. Moreover, the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects, ICAM-1 and MMP-9 inhibitive properties of telmisartan were totally blunted by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Our findings also showed that the expression of PPARγ was up-regulated by telmisartan in a dose dependent manner. And, the EMSA results also figured out that DNA binding activity of PPARγ was dose-dependently increased by telmisartan. Additionally, our data also revealed that telmisartan-induced PPARγ activation was abrogated by GW9662. Taken together, our results indicated that telmisartan inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and MMP-9 in A549 cells, very likely through the up-regulation of PPARγ synthesis.

  3. Tissue Drug Concentrations of Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor Agents Are Associated with the Long-term Outcome of Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Takeo; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Kawai, Shoichiro; Fujii, Hironobu; Iwatani, Shuko; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Araki, Manabu; Hiyama, Satoshi; Inoue, Takahiro; Hayashi, Yoshito; Watabe, Kenji; Iijima, Hideki; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2017-12-01

    Many reports indicate that a high-serum trough level of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents is required for sustained remission in patients with Crohn's disease The pharmacokinetics of anti-TNF agents in inflamed intestinal tissue, however, is not well investigated. We investigated the association between the tissue concentration of anti-TNF agents and long-term disease outcome. This was a prospective single-center study that enrolled 25 patients with Crohn's disease who were administered infliximab or adalimumab. All participants underwent endoscopy 2 weeks after administration of the anti-TNF agents, and biopsy samples were obtained from both inflamed and noninflamed intestinal tissue. Tissue concentrations of anti-TNF agents were evaluated and the correlation with serum trough levels was compared. The relation between the tissue drug concentration and clinical course over 24 months was also investigated. Concentrations of anti-TNF agents were significantly higher in inflamed tissue than in noninflamed tissue. Patients with high-serum trough concentrations of anti-TNF agents had significantly higher drug levels in the noninflamed tissue than those with low-serum trough concentrations, but no difference in the levels was detected in the inflamed tissue. Patients with high-drug levels in the noninflamed tissue had a significantly higher sustained response rate than patients with low-drug levels. Concentrations of anti-TNF agents in the noninflamed tissue can reflect sustained remission and may be a useful biomarker for monitoring therapeutic intensity in patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-TNF agents (see Video Abstract, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/IBD/B623).

  4. Asymmetric dimethylarginine but not osteoprotegerin correlates with disease severity in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis undergoing anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Trinitario; Genre, Fernanda; Lopez-Mejias, Raquel; Armesto, Susana; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Veronica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Corrales, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Lopez, Marcos A; Gonzalez-Vela, Maria C; Blanco, Ricardo; Hernández, Jose L; Llorca, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Patients with psoriasis, in particular those with severe disease, have an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events compared with the general population. The aim of the present study is to determine whether correlation between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), two biomarkers associated with CV disease, and disease severity may exist in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We also aimed to establish if baseline serum levels of these two biomarkers could correlate with the degree of change in the clinical parameters of disease severity following the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy in these patients. This was a prospective study on a series of consecutive non-diabetic patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis who completed 6 months of therapy with anti-TNF-α-adalimumab. Patients with kidney disease, hypertension or body mass index of 35 kg/m(2) or more were excluded. Metabolic and clinical evaluation was performed immediately prior to the onset of treatment and at month 6. Twenty-nine patients were assessed. Unlike OPG, a significant positive correlation between ADMA and resistin serum levels was found at the onset of adalimumab and also after 6 months of biologic therapy. We also observed a positive correlation between the percent of body surface area affected (BSA) and ADMA levels obtained before the onset of adalimumab and a negative correlation between baseline ADMA levels and a 6-month BSA change compared with baseline results. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, ADMA levels correlate with clinical markers of disease severity. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Hsa-let-7g miRNA regulates the anti-tumor effects of gastric cancer cells under oxidative stress through the expression of DDR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiqing; Zhao, Xuanzhong; Jin, Zhao; Hou, Mingxing

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress is linked to increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). Recent reports have found that hsa-let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) has properties of anti-tumor and resistance to damages induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Dysregulation of hsa-let-7 g was present in GC in vivo and in vitro under exogenous stress. However, we didn't know whether there are regulatory mechanisms of hsa-let-7 g in GC under oxidative stress. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of hsa-let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) on GC under oxidative stress. The results showed that H2O2 induced the increase of DNA damage response (DDR) genes (ATM, H2AX and Chk1) and downregulation of hsa-let-7 g in GC cells. Further study confirmed Hsa-let-7 g caused the apoptosis and loss of proliferation in GC cells exposed to H2O2 associated with repression of DDR system. Yet, we found let-7 g didn't target DDR genes (ATM, H2AX and Chk1) directly. In addition, data revealed hsa-let-7 g miRNA increased the sensitivity of GC to X-rays involving in ATM regulation as well according to application of X-rays (another DDR inducer). In conclusion, Hsa-let-7 g miRNA increased the sensitivity of GC to oxidative stress by repression activation of DDR indirectly. Let-7 g improved the effects of X-rays on GC cells involving in DDR regulation as well.

  6. Properties of a non-bioactive fluorescent derivative of differentiation-inducing factor-3, an anti-tumor agent found in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Matsuo, Yusuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Homma, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Differentiation-inducing factor-3 (DIF-3), found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and its derivatives, such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3), are potent anti-tumor agents. To investigate the activity of DIF-like molecules in tumor cells, we recently synthesized a green fluorescent DIF-3 derivative, BODIPY-DIF-3G, and analyzed its bioactivity and cellular localization. In this study, we synthesized a red (orange) fluorescent DIF-3 derivative, BODIPY-DIF-3R, and compared the cellular localization and bioactivities of the two BODIPY-DIF-3s in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Both fluorescent compounds penetrated the extracellular membrane within 0.5 h and localized mainly to the mitochondria. In formalin-fixed cells, the two BODIPY-DIF-3s also localized to the mitochondria, indicating that the BODIPY-DIF-3s were incorporated into mitochondria independently of the mitochondrial membrane potential. After treatment for 3 days, BODIPY-DIF-3G, but not BODIPY-DIF-3R, induced mitochondrial swelling and suppressed cell proliferation. Interestingly, the swollen mitochondria were stainable with BODIPY-DIF-3G but not with BODIPY-DIF-3R. When added to isolated mitochondria in vitro, BODIPY-DIF-3G increased dose-dependently the rate of O2 consumption, but BODIPY-DIF-3R did not. These results suggest that the bioactive BODIPY-DIF-3G suppresses cell proliferation, at least in part, by altering mitochondrial activity, whereas the non-bioactive BODIPY-DIF-3R localizes to the mitochondria but does not affect mitochondrial activity or cell proliferation. PMID:24682009

  7. Revealing the Anti-Tumor Effect of Artificial miRNA p-27-5p on Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line T-47D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs cause mRNA degradation or translation suppression of their target genes. Previous studies have found direct involvement of miRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Artificial miRNAs, designed to target single or multiple genes of interest, provide a new therapeutic strategy for cancer. This study investigates the anti-tumor effect of a novel artificial miRNA, miR P-27-5p, on breast cancer. In this study, we reveal that miR P-27-5p downregulates the differential gene expressions associated with the protein modification process and regulation of cell cycle in T-47D cells. Introduction of this novel artificial miRNA, miR P-27-5p, into breast cell lines inhibits cell proliferation and induces the first “gap” phase (G1 cell cycle arrest in cancer cell lines but does not affect normal breast cells. We further show that miR P-27-5p targets the 3′-untranslated mRNA region (3′-UTR of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4 and reduces both the mRNA and protein level of CDK4, which in turn, interferes with phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB1. Overall, our data suggest that the effects of miR p-27-5p on cell proliferation and G1 cell cycle arrest are through the downregulation of CDK4 and the suppression of RB1 phosphorylation. This study opens avenues for future therapies targeting breast cancer.

  8. Conversion of adipose-derived stem cells into natural killer-like cells with anti-tumor activities in nude mice.

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    Hongxiu Ning

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop peripheral blood-derived nature killer (NK cells into therapeutic products have been hampered by these cells' low abundance and histoincompatibility. On the other hand, derivation of NK-like cells from more abundant cell sources such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs and umbilical cord blood (UCB requires the selection of rare CD34+ cells. Thus, we sought to convert adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs, which are abundant and natively CD34+, into NK-like cells. When grown in hematopoietic induction medium, ADSCs formed sphere clusters and expressed hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and KDR. Further induction in NK cell-specific medium resulted in a population of cells that expressed NK cell marker CD56, and thus termed ADSC-NK. Alternatively, the hematopoietically induced ADSCs were transduced with NK cell-specific transcription factor E4BP4 prior to induction in NK cell-specific medium. This latter population of cells, termed ADSC-NKE, expressed CD56 and additional NK cell markers such as CD16, CD94, CD158, CD314, FasL, and NKp46. ADSC-NKE was as potent as NK leukemia cell NKL in killing breast cancer cell MCF7 and prostate cancer cells DU145, PC3, LnCap, DuPro, C4-2 and CWR22, but exhibited no killing activity toward normal endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In nude mice test ADSC-NKE was able to significantly delay the progression of tumors formed by MCF7 and PC3. When injected into immunocompetent rats, ADSC-NKE was detectable in bone marrow and spleen for at least 5 weeks. Together, these results suggest that ADSCs can be converted into NK-like cells with anti-tumor activities.

  9. Changes of serum endocrine hormone levels in patients with cancerrelated fatigue and their correlation with anti-tumor immune response and tumor load

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    Lu Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the changes of serum endocrine hormone levels in patients with cancerrelated fatigue (CRF and their correlation with anti-tumor immune response and tumor load. Methods: A total of 137 patients who were diagnosed with primary lung cancer in West China Hospital, Sichuan University between June 2014 and November 2016 were selected and then divided into CRF group and control group according to their self-reported symptoms, serum was collected to determine the levels of endocrine hormones and tumor markers, and peripheral blood was collected to detect the levels of immune cells. Results: Serum ACTH and TSH levels of CRF group were significantly higher than those of control group while Cor, FT3 and FT4 levels were significantly lower than those of control group; peripheral blood CD11b+ CD15 - CD33+ CD14+ M-MDSC, CD11b+ CD15-CD33+ CD14- G-MDSC, CD4+ CD25+ CD127lowTreg and CD19+ CD5+ CD1d+ Breg levels as well as serum CEA, Cyfra21-1, SCC-Ag, HE4, GDF- 15 and PCNA levels of CRF group were significantly higher than those of control group, positively correlated with serum ACTH and TSH levels, and negatively correlated with Cor, FT3 and FT4 levels. Conclusion: The changes of thyroid hormone and adrenal cortical hormone levels in patients with cancer-related fatigue are closely related to the inhibited antitumor immune response and increased tumor load.

  10. Anti-Tumor Effects of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase of Newcastle Disease Virus in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Dongyun He

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy has been an attractive drug platform for targeted therapy of cancer over the past few years. Viral vectors can be used to target and lyse cancer cells, but achieving good efficacy and specificity with this treatment approach is a major challenge. Here, we assessed the ability of a novel dual-specific anti-tumor oncolytic adenovirus, expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene from the Newcastle disease virus under the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT promoter (Ad-hTERTp-E1a-HN, to inhibit esophageal cancer EC-109 cells in culture and to reduce tumor burden in xenografted BALB/c nude mice. In vitro, infection with Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN could inhibit the growth of EC-109 cells significantly and also protect normal human liver cell line L02 from growth suppression in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays. Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN also effectively and selectively decreased the sialic acid level on EC-109 cells, but not on L02 cells. Furthermore, Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN was shown to induce the apoptosis pathway via acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining (AO/EB staining, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS, reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and release cytochrome c. In vivo, xenografted BALB/c nude mice were treated via intratumoral or intravenous injections of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN. Although both treatments showed an obvious suppression in tumor volume, only Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN delivered via intratumoral injection elicited a complete response to treatment. These results reinforced previous findings and highlighted the potential therapeutic application of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN for treatment of esophageal cancer in clinical trials.

  11. Extraction, Isolation, Structural Characterization and Anti-Tumor Properties of an Apigalacturonan-Rich Polysaccharide from the Sea Grass Zostera caespitosa Miki

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    Youjing Lv

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An apigalacturonan (AGA-rich polysaccharide, ZCMP, was isolated from the sea grass Zostera caespitosa Miki. The depolymerized fragments derived from ZCMP were obtained by either acidic degradation or pectinase degradation, and their structures were characterized by electrospray ionization collision-induced-dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS2 and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The average molecular weight of ZCMP was 77.2 kD and it consisted of galacturonic acid (GalA, apiosefuranose (Api, galactose (Gal, rhamnose (Rha, arabinose (Ara, xylose (Xyl, and mannose (Man, at a molar ratio of 51.4꞉15.5꞉6.0꞉11.8꞉4.2꞉4.4꞉4.2. There were two regions of AGA (70% and rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-Ι, 30% in ZCMP. AGA was composed of an α-1,4-D-galactopyranosyluronan backbone mainly substituted at the O-3 position by single Api residues. RG-Ι possessed a backbone of repeating disaccharide units of →4GalAα1,2Rhaα1→, with a few α-L-arabinose and β-D-galactose residues as side chains. The anti-angiogenesis assay showed that ZCMP inhibited the migratory activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs, with no influence on endothelial cells growth. ZCMP also promoted macrophage phagocytosis. These findings of the present study demonstrated the potential anti-tumor activity of ZCMP through anti-angiogenic and immunoregulatory pathways.

  12. GU81, a VEGFR2 antagonist peptoid, enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin in the murine MMTV-PyMT transgenic model of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, Kristi D; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika; Roland, Christina L; Castrillon, Diego H; Kodadek, Thomas J; Brekken, Rolf A

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary stimulant of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. Anti-VEGF therapy is a clinically proven strategy for the treatment of a variety of cancers including colon, breast, lung, and renal cell carcinoma. Since VEGFR2 is the dominant angiogenic signaling receptor, it has become an important target in the development of novel anti-angiogenic therapies. We have reported previously the development of an antagonistic VEGFR2 peptoid (GU40C4) that has promising anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we utilize a derivative of GU40C4, termed GU81 in therapy studies. GU81 was tested alone or in combination with doxorubicin for in vivo efficacy in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic model of breast cancer. The derivative GU81 has increased in vitro efficacy compared to GU40C4. Single agent therapy (doxorubicin or GU81 alone) had no effect on tumor weight, histology, tumor fat content, or tumor growth index. However, GU81 is able to significantly to reduce total vascular area as a single agent. GU81 used in combination with doxorubicin significantly reduced tumor weight and growth index compared to all other treatment groups. Furthermore, treatment with combination therapy significantly arrested tumor progression at the premalignant stage, resulting in increased tumor fat content. Interestingly, treatment with GU81 alone increased tumor-VEGF levels and macrophage infiltration, an effect that was abrogated when used in combination with doxorubicin. This study demonstrates the VEGFR2 antagonist peptoid, GU81, enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin in spontaneous murine MMTV-PyMT breast tumors

  13. Cleavage mechanism and anti-tumor activity of 3,6-epidioxy-1,10-bisaboladiene isolated from edible wild plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ken-ichi; Sakamoto, Yoshimi; Fujisawa, Nozomi; Uesugi, Shota; Aburai, Nobuhiro; Kawada, Manabu; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Yamori, Takao; Tsuchiya, Eiko; Koshino, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-15

    A bisabolane sesquiterpene endoperoxide compound, 3,6-epidioxy-1,10-bisaboladiene (EDBD), was isolated from edible wild plants grown in the northern area of Japan, Cacalia delphiniifolia and Cacalia hastata, using a mutant yeast (cdc2-1 rad9Δ). It showed cytotoxicity at IC(50) = 3.4 μM and induced apoptosis against the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60 through a new stable rearrangement product (1) when in the presence of FeSO(4). This conversion mechanism is different from another sesquiterpene endoperoxide lactone compound, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), which is an anti-malarial drug. The cytotoxicity of EDBD decreased in the presence of the ferrous ion chelating drug deferoxamine mesylate (DFOM), and this suggested that the structural change of the drug caused by Fe(2+) may be responsible for its biological activities. EDBD induced apoptosis via phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in HL60 cells, and was detected by Western blot. EDBD resulted in an immediate increase in DCF fluorescence intensity in HL60 cells using DCFH-DA (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) assay. The in vitro reaction of EDBD with FeSO(4) also increased DCF fluorescence intensity in a dose dependent manner. These results showed that the biological activity of EDBD involves an unstable carbon-centered radical intermediate. Furthermore, there was no similarity between the JFCR39 fingerprints of EDBD and DHA (correlation coefficient on COMPARE Analysis γ = 0.158). EDBD showed anti-tumor effects against a xenograft of Lox-IMVI cells in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-tumor activity of a novel compound-CDF is mediated by regulating miR-21, miR-200, and PTEN in pancreatic cancer.

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    Bin Bao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs or cancer stem-like cells in a tumor mass is believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence because of their intrinsic and extrinsic drug-resistance characteristics. Therefore, targeted killing of CSCs would be a newer strategy for the prevention of tumor recurrence and/or treatment by overcoming drug-resistance. We have developed a novel synthetic compound-CDF, which showed greater bioavailability in animal tissues such as pancreas, and also induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, which was mediated by inactivation of NF-κB, COX-2, and VEGF in pancreatic cancer (PC cells.In the current study we showed, for the first time, that CDF could significantly inhibit the sphere-forming ability (pancreatospheres of PC cells consistent with increased disintegration of pancreatospheres, which was associated with attenuation of CSC markers (CD44 and EpCAM, especially in gemcitabine-resistant (MIAPaCa-2 PC cells containing high proportion of CSCs consistent with increased miR-21 and decreased miR-200. In a xenograft mouse model of human PC, CDF treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with decreased NF-κB DNA binding activity, COX-2, and miR-21 expression, and increased PTEN and miR-200 expression in tumor remnants.These results strongly suggest that the anti-tumor activity of CDF is associated with inhibition of CSC function via down-regulation of CSC-associated signaling pathways. Therefore, CDF could be useful for the prevention of tumor recurrence and/or treatment of PC with better treatment outcome in the future.

  15. Enhancement of the anti-tumor activity of FGFR1 inhibition in squamous cell lung cancer by targeting downstream signaling involved in glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumarola, Claudia; Cretella, Daniele; La Monica, Silvia; Bonelli, Mara A.; Alfieri, Roberta; Caffarra, Cristina; Quaini, Federico; Madeddu, Denise; Falco, Angela; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Digiacomo, Graziana; Mazzaschi, Giulia; Vivo, Valentina; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Tiseo, Marcello; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling is a complex pathway which controls several processes, including cell proliferation, survival, migration, and metabolism. FGFR1 signaling is frequently deregulated via amplification/over-expression in NSCLC of squamous histotype (SQCLC), however its inhibition has not been successfully translated in clinical setting. We determined whether targeting downstream signaling implicated in FGFR1 effects on glucose metabolism potentiates the anti-tumor activity of FGFR1 inhibition in SQCLC. In FGFR1 amplified/over-expressing SQCLC cell lines, FGF2-mediated stimulation of FGFR1 under serum-deprivation activated both MAPK and AKT/mTOR pathways and increased glucose uptake, glycolysis, and lactate production, through AKT/mTOR-dependent HIF-1α accumulation and up-regulation of GLUT-1 glucose transporter. These effects were hindered by PD173074 and NVP-BGJ398, selective FGFR inhibitors, as well as by dovitinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor. Glucose metabolism was hampered by the FGFR inhibitors also under hypoxic conditions, with consequent inhibition of cell proliferation and viability. In presence of serum, glucose metabolism was impaired only in cell models in which FGFR1 inhibition was associated with AKT/mTOR down-regulation. When the activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway persisted despite FGFR1 down-regulation, the efficacy of NVP-BGJ398 could be significantly improved by the combination with NVP-BEZ235 or other inhibitors of this signaling cascade, both in vitro and in xenotransplanted nude mice. Collectively our results indicate that inhibition of FGFR1 signaling impacts on cancer cell growth also by affecting glucose energy metabolism. In addition, this study strongly suggests that the therapeutic efficacy of FGFR1 targeting molecules in SQCLC may be implemented by combined treatments tackling on glucose metabolism. PMID:29190880

  16. Bortezomib enhances expression of effector molecules in anti-tumor CD8+ T lymphocytes by promoting Notch-nuclear factor-κB crosstalk.

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    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Dudimah, Duafalia F; Pellom, Samuel T; Uzhachenko, Roman V; Carbone, David P; Dikov, Mikhail M; Shanker, Anil

    2015-10-20

    The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment usurps host antitumor immunity by multiple mechanisms including interference with the Notch system, which is important for various metazoan cell fate decisions and hematopoietic cell differentiation and function. We observed that treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in mice bearing various solid tumors resulted in an upregulated expression of various Notch signaling components in lymphoid tissues, thereby increasing CD8+T-lymphocyte IFNγ secretion and expression of effector molecules, perforin and granzyme B, as well as the T-box transcription factor eomesodermin. Bortezomib also neutralized TGFβ-mediated suppression of IFNγ and granzyme B expression in activated CD8+T-cells. Of note, bortezomib reversed tumor-induced downregulation of Notch receptors, Notch1 and Notch2, as well as increased the levels of cleaved Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and downstream targets Hes1 and Hey1 in tumor-draining CD8+T-cells. Moreover, bortezomib promoted CD8+T-cell nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) activity by increasing the total and phosphorylated levels of the IκB kinase and IκBα as well as the cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of phosphorylated p65. Even when we blocked NFκB activity by Bay-11-7082, or NICD cleavage by γ-secretase inhibitor, bortezomib significantly increased expression of Notch Hes1 and Hey1 genes as well as perforin, granzyme B and eomesodermin in activated CD8+T-cells. Data suggest that bortezomib can rescue tumor-induced dysfunction of CD8+T-cells by its intrinsic stimulatory effects promoting NICD-NFκB crosstalk. These findings provide novel insights on using bortezomib not only as an agent to sensitize tumors to cell death but also to provide lymphocyte-stimulatory effects, thereby overcoming immunosuppressive actions of tumor on anti-tumor T-cell functions.

  17. Liver myeloid-derived suppressor cells expand in response to liver metastases in mice and inhibit the anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CEA CAR-T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burga, Rachel A.; Thorn, Mitchell; Point, Gary R.; Guha, Prajna; Nguyen, Cang T.; Licata, Lauren A.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Ayala, Alfred; Espat, N. Joseph; Junghans, Richard P.; Katz, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell (CAR-T) technology, a promising immunotherapeutic tool, has not been applied specifically to treat liver metastases (LM). While CAR-T delivery to LM can be optimized by regional intrahepatic infusion, we propose that liver CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (L-MDSC) will inhibit the efficacy of CAR-T in the intrahepatic space. We studied anti-CEA CAR-T in a murine model of CEA+ LM and identified mechanisms through which L-MDSC expand and inhibit CAR-T function. We established CEA+ LM in mice and studied purified L-MDSC and responses to treatment with intrahepatic anti-CEA CAR-T infusions. L-MDSC expanded three-fold in response to LM and their expansion was dependent on GM-CSF, which was produced by tumor cells. L-MDSC utilized PD-L1 to suppress anti-tumor responses through engagement of PD-1 on CAR-T. GM-CSF, in cooperation with STAT3, promoted L-MDSC PD-L1 expression. CAR-T efficacy was rescued when mice received CAR-T in combination with MDSC depletion, GM-CSF neutralization to prevent MDSC expansion, or PD-L1 blockade. As L-MDSC suppressed anti-CEA CAR-T, infusion of anti-CEA CAR-T in tandem with agents targeting L-MDSC is a rational strategy for future clinical trials. PMID:25850344

  18. Enhanced anti-tumor effect of zoledronic acid combined with temozolomide against human malignant glioma cell expressing O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase.

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    Junya Fukai

    Full Text Available Temozolomide (TMZ, a DNA methylating agent, is widely used in the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltranferase (MGMT, a DNA repair enzyme, is frequently discussed as the main factor that limits the efficacy of TMZ. Zoledronic acid (ZOL, which is clinically applied to treat cancer-induced bone diseases, appears to possess direct anti-tumor activity through apoptosis induction by inhibiting mevalonate pathway and prenylation of intracellular small G proteins. In this study, we evaluated whether ZOL can be effectively used as an adjuvant to TMZ in human malignant glioma cells that express MGMT. Malignant glioma cell lines, in which the expression of MGMT was detected, did not exhibit growth inhibition by TMZ even at a longer exposure. However, combination experiment of TMZ plus ZOL revealed that a supra-additive effect resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth. In combined TMZ/ZOL treatment, an increased apoptotic rate was apparent and significant activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase were observed compared with each single drug exposure. There were decreased amounts of Ras-GTP, MAPK and Akt phosphorylation and MGMT expression in the ZOL-treated cells. Subcutanous xenograft models showed significant decrease of tumor growth with combined TMZ/ZOL treatment. These results suggest that ZOL efficaciously inhibits activity of Ras in malignant glioma cells and potentiates TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity, inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis of malignant glioma cells that express MGMT and resistant to TMZ. Based on this work, combination of TMZ with ZOL might be a potential therapy in malignant gliomas that receive less therapeutic effects of TMZ due to cell resistance.

  19. Multi-Modality Therapeutics with Potent Anti-Tumor Effects: Photochemical Internalization Enhances Delivery of the Fusion Toxin scFvMEL/rGel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbo, Pål K.; Rosenblum, Michael G.; Cheung, Lawrence H.; Zhang, Wendy; Berg, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a need for drug delivery systems (DDS) that can enhance cytosolic delivery of anti-cancer drugs trapped in the endo-lysosomal compartments. Exposure of cells to specific photosensitizers followed by light exposure (photochemical internalization, PCI) results in transfer of agents from the endocytic compartment into the cytosol. Methodology and Principal Findings The recombinant single-chain fusion construct scFvMEL/rGel is composed of an antibody targeting the progenitor marker HMW-MAA/NG2/MGP/gp240 and the highly effective toxin gelonin (rGel). Here we demonstrate enhanced tumor cell selectivity, cytosolic delivery and anti-tumor activity by applying PCI of scFvMEL/rGel. PCI performed by light activation of cells co-incubated with scFvMEL/rGel and the endo-lysosomal targeting photosensitizers AlPcS2a or TPPS2a resulted in enhanced cytotoxic effects against antigen-positive cell lines, while no differences in cytotoxicity between the scFvMEL/rGel and rGel were observed in antigen-negative cells. Mice bearing well-developed melanoma (A-375) xenografts (50–100 mm3) were treated with PCI of scFvMEL/rGel. By 30 days after injection, ∼100% of mice in the control groups had tumors>800 mm3. In contrast, by day 40, 50% of mice in the PCI of scFvMEL/rGel combination group had tumorsmodality approach combining a recombinant, targeted therapeutic such as scFvMEL/rGel and PCI act in concert to provide potent in vivo efficacy without sacrificing selectivity or enhancing toxicity. The present DDS warrants further evaluation of its clinical potential. PMID:19690617

  20. Physiological intermolecular modification spectroscopy for the prediction of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Pierre; Glaubitz, Lisa; Breidert, Matthias; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Atreya, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies have clinical efficiency only in a subgroup of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Prediction of clinical response is a critical clinical problem. Physiological intermolecular modification spectroscopy (PIMS) is a label-free technology performed in physiological conditions. PIMS enables real-time monitoring of dynamic molecular resonance of entire proteins and macromolecules of an individual. The aim of this study was to explore the capacity of PIMS to discriminate IBD patients regarding response to anti-TNF treatment. Protein extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 30 outpatients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) and treated with infliximab were subjected to PIMS analysis in a blinded transversal study. Total protein from each patient's PBMCs was challenged with infliximab. Dynamic changes in macromolecular interaction were registered while the temperature rose from -37 to 37°C. Individual macromolecular volume and molecular elasticity were determined for each patient. Clinical data revealed that 67% of UC and 79% of CD patients responded to infliximab therapy during the 3-month study period based on their respective clinical activity score. These results confirm that PIMS data predicted response to anti-TNF therapy with an accuracy of 96%. PIMS stratified IBD patients into two groups, responders and nonresponders, which correlated with the clinical efficacy of anti-TNF therapy. PIMS seems to be a powerful technology to adapt IBD treatment to the individual patient. Further studies with PIMS might enable to predict clinical response to biological treatment in IBD patients before the therapy is initiated. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (Infliximab) Attenuates Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, and Calcium Ion Entry Through Modulation of Cation Channels in Neutrophils of Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugan, Yunus; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Şahin, Mehmet; Aykur, Mehmet

    2016-08-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is known to be associated with increased neutrophil activation and oxidative stress, however, the mechanism of neutrophil activation is still unclear. We have hypothesized that the antioxidant and anti-tumor necrosis factor properties of infliximab may affect intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in the neutrophils of AS patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of infliximab on calcium signaling, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in neutrophils of AS patients. Neutrophils collected from ten patients with AS and ten healthy controls were used in the study. In a cell viability test, the ideal non-toxic dose and incubation time of infliximab were found as 100 μM and 1 h, respectively. In some experiments, the neutrophils were incubated with the voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blockers verapamil + diltiazem (V + D) and the TRPM2 channel blocker 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB). Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, caspase 3, and caspase 9 values were high in neutrophils of AS patients and were reduced with infliximab treatment. Reduced glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity were low in the patients and increased with infliximab treatment. The intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations were low in 2-APB and V + D groups. In conclusion, the current study suggests that infliximab is useful against apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress in neutrophils of patients with AS, which seem to be dependent on increased levels of intracellular Ca(2+) through activation of TRPM2 and VGCC.

  2. Comparison of time until elective intestinal resection regarding previous anti-tumor necrosis factor exposure: a Brazilian study on patients with Crohn's disease

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    Paulo Gustavo Kotze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF agents seems to reduce surgical rates and delay surgical procedures in prospective trials and population-based studies in the management of Crohn's disease (CD. This study aimed to identify whether preoperative anti-TNF agents influence the time from diagnosis to surgery. Methods: An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with CD submitted to intestinal resections due to complications or medical therapy failure in a period of 7 years. The patients were allocated into 2 groups according to their previous exposure to anti-TNF agents in the preoperative period. Epidemiological aspects regarding age at diagnosis, smoking, perianal disease, and preoperative conventional therapy were considered. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to outline possible differences between the groups regarding the time to surgery. Results: A total of 123 patients were included (71 and 52 with and without previous exposure to biologics, respectively. The overall time to surgery was 108±6.9 months (maximum, 276 months. The survival estimation revealed no difference in the mean time to intestinal resection between the groups (99.78±10.62 months in the patients without and 114.01±9.07 months in those with previous anti-TNF use (log-rank P=0.35. There was no significant difference in the time to surgery regarding perianal CD (P=0.49, smoking (P=0.63, preoperative azathioprine (P=0.073 and steroid use (P=0.58. Conclusions: The time from diagnosis to surgery was not influenced by the preoperative use of anti-TNF therapy in this cohort of patients.

  3. Aconselhamento pós-teste anti-HIV: análise à luz de uma teoria humanística de Enfermagem Consejería pós test Anti-HIV: análisis a luz de una teoría humanistica de enfermería Anti-HIV after-test counselling: analysis at a light of a Nursing humanistic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alix Leite Araújo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o aconselhamento pós-teste anti-HIV em Unidades Básicas de Saúde. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo desenvolvido em Unidades Básicas de Saúde da Família de Fortaleza (UBASF. O trabalho de campo ocorreu pela observação do atendimento de 12 enfermeiros em consultas de pré-natal. O referencial teórico de análise foi a Teoria Humanística de Enfermagem de Paterson e Zderad visto que a Enfermagem, segundo a teoria, implica um tipo especial de encontro entre seres humanos. A análise baseou-se no conceito de diálogo, tendo como variáveis seus elementos estruturais: o encontro, o relacionamento, a presença e o chamado, e a resposta. Observou-se que a assistência às gestantes não atingiu o relacionamento EU-TU, ou seja, o relacionamento sujeito-sujeito, com a presença do diálogo genuíno. Prevaleceu o relacionamento EU-ISSO, sujeito-objeto. As consultas eram rápidas e puramente mecânicas, levando esses profissionais, em certos momentos, a fugirem de uma assistência humanizada.Este trabajo analiza el pos test de consejería anti-HIV en las Unidades Básicas de Salud. Es un estudio cualitativo desarrollado en las Unidades Básicas de Salud de la Familia en la ciudad de Fortaleza (UBASF. El trabajo de campo sucedió por la observación de la asistencia de 12 enfermeros en las consultas de pré-natal. El referencial teórico de análisis fué la Teoría Humanistica de Paterson y Zderad de Enfermería, visto en la enfermería, según la teoría, implica en un tipo especial de encuentro entre los seres humanos. El análisis era basado en el concepto de diálogo, teniendo como las variables sus elementos estructurales: el encuentro, la relación, la presencia y el llamamiento y la respuesta. Fue observado que la ayuda a la embarazada no alcanzó la relación YO-USTED, en otros términos, el sujeto-sujeto de la relación, con la presencia del diálogo auténtico. La relación que prevaleció era el YO-AQUEL, sujeto

  4. Controlling drug efficiency by encapsulation into carbon nanotubes: A theoretical study of the antitumor Cisplatin and the anti-HIV TIBO molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessrour, R.; Belmiloud, Y.; Hosni, Z.; Tangour, B.

    2012-06-01

    From the beginning of last century, Paul Ehrlich, a specialist in the immune system and the Nobel Prize (1908) had raised the possibility of "magic bullets" can directly address, in an organism, drugs in a particular area of the body, sparing all other parts of side effects. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have particular property to cross cell membranes easily. In an effort to optimize the use of CNT as drug nanocarriers, we divided our study into two parts. In the first, our concern was to find the minimum diameter of a single wall CNT can encapsulate an anticancer drug that iscisplatin without altering its geometry in order conserve its therapeutic power. Behavior of one and two Cisplatin(Cp) molecules confined in capped and opened single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is studied by means of ab-initio calculations. Single molecule binding energies clearly exhibit encapsulation dependence on tube diameters that range from 6.26 Å to 12.04 Å. A weak stabilization energy of the Cp@(11,0) equal to -70 kcal.mol-1 has been obtained corresponding to a CNT's diameter of 8.5Å. We noticed that Cisplatin molecule changes shape when encapsulated into CNTs' whose diameters are less than 7.6 Å. In the presence of a second Cisplatin molecule in the (10,0) CNT, preferred position stays parallel to CNT's axis leading to a linear density of roughly 1588 molecules/μm of CNT's length corresponding to a linear density of 7.9 10-19 g/μm. The 195Pt chemical shift tensors are calculated using GIAO method. NMR calculations reveal that Platinum chemical shift is sensitive to CNT's diameter and is linearly correlated to confinement energy. 195Pt chemical shift measurement may be a direct method to access to the diameter of the encapsulating CNT's and to control the amount of drug molecule transported by this CNT. In the second part, the opposite has been sought is to say how the use of nanotubes with different diameters can control the change in a geometry of an anti-HIV drug that is TIBO

  5. Developing a community-level anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention in new York city: The project CHHANGE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Paige, Mark Q; Gordon, Steven; Matthews, David; Musgrave, Geneva; Kornegay, Mark; Greene, Emily; Phelan, Jo C; Koblin, Beryl A; Taylor-Akutagawa, Vaughn

    2017-08-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia are associated with significant negative health and social outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and those at risk of infection. Interventions to decrease HIV stigma have focused on providing information and education, changing attitudes and values, and increasing contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), activities that act to reduce stereotyped beliefs and prejudice, as well as acts of discrimination. Most anti-homophobia interventions have focused on bullying reduction and have been implemented at the secondary and post-secondary education levels. Few interventions address HIV stigma and homophobia and operate at the community level. Project CHHANGE, Challenge HIV Stigma and Homophobia and Gain Empowerment, was a community-level, multi-component anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention designed to reduce HIV stigma and homophobia thus increasing access to HIV prevention and treatment access. The theory-based intervention included three primary components: workshops and trainings with local residents, businesses and community-based organizations (CBO); space-based events at a CBO-partner drop-in storefront and "pop-up" street-based events and outreach; and a bus shelter ad campaign. This paper describes the intervention design process, resultant intervention and the study team's experiences working with the community. We conclude that CHHANGE was feasible and acceptable to the community. Promoting the labeling of gay and/or HIV-related "space" as a non-stigmatized, community resource, as well as providing opportunities for residents to have contact with targeted groups and to understand how HIV stigma and homophobia relate to HIV/AIDS prevalence in their neighborhood may be crucial components of successful anti-stigma and discrimination programming. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Long-acting combination anti-HIV drug suspension enhances and sustains higher drug levels in lymph node cells than in blood cells and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, John C; McConnachie, Lisa A; Koehn, Josefin; Kinman, Loren; Collins, Carol; Shen, Danny D; Collier, Ann C; Ho, Rodney J Y

    2017-03-27

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs - tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) - in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) a