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Sample records for anti-helicobacter pylori activity

  1. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Terminalia macroptera root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Olga; Viegas, Sílvia; de Mello-Sampayo, Cristina; Costa, Maria João P; Serrano, Rita; Cabrita, José; Gomes, Elsa T

    2012-07-01

    The root of Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) is widely used in African traditional medicine to treat various infectious diseases, including stomach-associated diseases. This study investigates the in vitro activity of T. macroptera root extract against reference strains and clinical isolates of H. pylori and attempts to localize the extract bioactivity. T. macroptera hydroethanol (80% V/V) root extract (Tmr) activity was tested against three standard strains and sixty two clinical strains of H. pylori. Tmr liquid-liquid partition fractions were screened against twenty H. pylori strains. Qualitative analysis of Tmr and its fractions was performed by HPLC-UV/DAD. The antibiotic characterization of the H. pylori strains revealed that 20% of the tested clinical isolates were resistant to at least two of the three antibiotics belonging to the main groups of antibiotics used in multi-therapy to eradicate H. pylori infections. In contrast, Tmr showed anti-H. pylori activity against the majority (92%) of the tested strains (MIC(50) and MIC(90)=200 μg/ml). The Tmr water liquid-liquid fraction (Tmr-3) and the precipitate obtained from this fraction (Tmr-5) were the most active tested samples, showing a MIC(50) of 100 μg/ml. The present work proves the in vitro activity of T. macroptera against H. pylori, thus confirming the utility of this traditional medicinal plant to treat stomach complaints due to H. pylori infection. The main compounds of Tmr and of Tmr-3 were the ellagitannins terchebulin and punicalagin. These compounds can be considered as markers of T. macroptera root active extracts against H. pylori. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of six Iranian plants.

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    Nariman, Farahnaz; Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Habibi, Zohreh; Falsafi, Tahereh

    2004-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major worldwide cause of bacterial gastrointestinal infections in adults and children. Antibiotic therapy and a combination of two or three drugs have been widely used to eradicate these infections. However, development of drug resistance in bacteria calls for new sources of drugs, and plants seem to be a logical source of new antibacterial compounds. The anti-H. pylori activities of six native Iranian plants (Glycyrrhiza aspera, Juglans regia, Ligustrum vulgare, Thymus kotschyanus, Trachyspermum copticum and Xanthium brasilicum) and seven antibiotics were determined against 70 clinical isolates from children using the disk susceptibility assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were also measured for the biologically active extracts. One extract with the best anti-H. pylori activity was fractionated by silica gel and thin layer chromatography and the active compounds were identified by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)HNMR) spectroscopy. All plant extracts showed anti-H. pylori activity by the disk sensitivity method, but the most active extracts were those from X. brasilicum and T. copticum. In fact, the anti-H. pylori activities of the two extracts were superior to the disk antibiotic susceptibility profile. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the range of 31.25-250 micro g/ml. Fractionation and chemical identification of the extract from X. brasilicum showed the presence of two substances, a flavonoid and a xanthanolide. Due to the rise in antibiotic resistance, new sources of anti-H. pylori drugs are needed. The use of medicinal plants and/or their chemical components may have potential benefit in eradicating such problems.

  3. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of fermented milk with lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Chi-Rei; Fang, Tony J; Guo, Jiun-Ting; Huang, Shi-Ying; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2011-06-01

    Ten strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated for their anti-Helicobacter pylori effects. The bactericidal activity and organic acid content in spent culture supernatants (SCS) from fermented milk were measured. In addition, the exclusion effect of SCS against H. pylori infection of human gastric epithelial AGS cells was assayed. Three LAB strains, LY1, LY5 and IF22, showed better anti-Helicobacter effects than the other strains. There were no significant differences in the bactericidal activity of LAB strains between original SCS, artificial SCS and SCS treated by heating or protease digestion. However, neutralised SCS lost this activity. These results suggest that the anti-H. pylori activity of SCS may be related to the concentration of organic acids and the pH value but not to protein components. In the AGS cell culture test, both fermented LY5-SCS and artificial LY5-SCS significantly reduced H. pylori infection and urease activity (P < 0.05). In this study, in vitro methods were used to screen potential probiotics with anti-H. pylori activity. This may provide an excellent and rapid system for studying probiotics in the functional food and dairy industries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Anti-Helicobacter pylori and antiulcerogenic activity of Aframomum pruinosum seeds on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouitcheu Mabeku, Laure Brigitte; Nanfack Nana, Blandine; Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Tchuenteu Tchuenguem, Roland; Nguepi, Eveline

    2017-12-01

    Peptic ulcer is one of the most common diseases affecting mankind. Although there are many products used for its treatment, most of these products produce severe adverse reactions requiring the search for novel compounds. Some Afromomum species are used traditionally to cure acute gastritis. To evaluate the antiulcer activity of the methanol extract of Aframomum pruinosum Gagnepain (Zingiberaceae) seeds against two major etiologic agents of peptic ulcer disease; Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The anti-Helicobacter activity of A. pruinosum was evaluated using the broth microdilution method. After oral administration of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days, gastric ulcerated animals were divided into control group and five other groups: three groups that recieved respectively 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of plant extract, the fourth group received Maalox (50 mg/kg) and the fifth group, Misoprostol (100 μg/kg), respectively, for 5 days. Ulcer areas, gastric mucus content and nitric oxide gastric levels of animals were assessed 24 h after this treatment. A. pruinosum extract shows a moderate anti-Helicobacter activity with an MIC value of 128 μg/mL. A. pruinosum extract, like Misoprostol and Maalox, markedly reduces the % of ulcerated area from 8.15 ± 0.33 to 1.71 ± 0.44% (500 mg/kg). It also increased significantly mucus and NO gastric production with respective values of 4.44 ± 1.35 and 965.81 ± 106.74 μmol/g (500 mg/kg). These findings suggest that A. pruinosum methanol extract possesses antiulcer properties as ascertained by the comparative decreases in ulcer areas, increase of mucus and NO gastric production.

  5. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and immunostimulatory effect of extracts from Byrsonima crassa Nied. (Malpighiaceae

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    Vilegas Wagner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several in vitro studies have looked at the effect of medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Regardless of the popular use of Byrsonima crassa (B. crassa as antiemetic, diuretic, febrifuge, to treat diarrhea, gastritis and ulcers, there is no data on its effects against H. pylori. In this study, we evaluated the anti-H. pylori of B. crassa leaves extracts and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Methods The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by broth microdilution method and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. Results The methanolic (MeOH and chloroformic (CHCl3 extracts inhibit, in vitro, the growth of H. pylori with MIC value of 1024 μg/ml. The MeOH extract induced the production H2O2 and NO, but CHCl3 extract only NO. Conclusion Based in our results, B. crassa can be considered a source of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity, but its use should be done with caution in treatment of the gastritis and peptic ulcers, since the reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury induced by ulcerogenic agents and H. pylori infections.

  6. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and immunostimulatory effect of extracts from Byrsonima crassa Nied. (Malpighiaceae).

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    Bonacorsi, Cibele; Raddi, Maria Stella G; Carlos, Iracilda Z; Sannomiya, Miriam; Vilegas, Wagner

    2009-01-16

    Several in vitro studies have looked at the effect of medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Regardless of the popular use of Byrsonima crassa (B. crassa) as antiemetic, diuretic, febrifuge, to treat diarrhea, gastritis and ulcers, there is no data on its effects against H. pylori. In this study, we evaluated the anti-H. pylori of B. crassa leaves extracts and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth microdilution method and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. The methanolic (MeOH) and chloroformic (CHCl3) extracts inhibit, in vitro, the growth of H. pylori with MIC value of 1024 microg/ml. The MeOH extract induced the production H2O2 and NO, but CHCl3 extract only NO. Based in our results, B. crassa can be considered a source of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity, but its use should be done with caution in treatment of the gastritis and peptic ulcers, since the reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury induced by ulcerogenic agents and H. pylori infections.

  7. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

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    Laura Lúcia Cogo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori.

  8. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Lycopodium cernuum (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori, a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium is a major etiological agent in duodenal, peptic and gastric ulcers. In this study, gastric biopsy samples were obtained from patients presenting with gastroduodenal complications. H. pylori was isolated from the specimens following standard microbiology ...

  9. Anti-secretory, anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of several fractions isolated from Piper carpunya Ruiz & Pav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quílez, A; Berenguer, B; Gilardoni, G; Souccar, C; de Mendonça, S; Oliveira, L F S; Martín-Calero, M J; Vidari, G

    2010-04-21

    The leaves of Piper carpunya Ruiz & Pav. (syn Piper lenticellosum C.D.C.) (Piperaceae), are widely used in folk medicine in tropical and subtropical countries of South America as an anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-diarrheal and anti-parasitical remedy as well as an ailment for skin irritations. To study the anti-inflammatory, anti-secretory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of different fractions isolated from an ethanolic extract of the leaves of Piper carpunya, in order to provide evidence for the use of this plant as an anti-ulcer remedy. Moreover, to isolate the main compounds of the extract and relate their biological activity to the experimental results obtained with the fractions. Sixteen fractions were obtained from the ethanolic extract (F I-XVI) and 16 pure compounds were isolated and identified from these fractions. We studied the effects of the fractions (0.1-400microg/mL) on the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme from rat peritoneal leukocytes, on rabbit gastric microsomal H(+), K(+)-ATPase activity and anti-Helicobacter pylori anti-microbial activity using the microdilution method (MM). The main compounds contained in the fractions were isolated and identified by (1)H- and (13)C NMR spectra analysis and comparison with the literature data. Eight fractions showed inhibition of MPO enzyme (F I-IV, X, XII, XIV and XV). The highest inhibition was observed with F XIV (50microg/mL, 60.9%, p<0.001). F X and XII were the most active ones, inhibiting the gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase activity with IC(50) values equal to 22.3microg/mL and 28.1microg/mL, respectively. All fractions, except F XV, presented detectable anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, with a diameter of inhibition zones ranging from 11mm up to 50mm. The best anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was obtained with F III and V. Both fractions killed Helicobacter pylori with lowest concentration values, about 6.25mug/mL. Sixteen pure compounds were isolated, five of them are flavonoids that

  10. Anti-Helicobacter Pylori Activities of Shoya Powder and Essential Oils of Thymus Vulgaris and Eucalyptus Globulus

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    Esmaeili, D; Mobarez, A Mohabati; Tohidpour, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, an infective agent of more than 50% of the world population is prominent to be the main causative factor in the etiologies of chronic, active or type B gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tumors. A high prevalence of this bacterium in dental plaque is always reported. Pharmacological treatment of H. pylori infections includes administration of 3-fold therapeutic regimens which are typically used to suppress H. pylori activity. However, antibiotic resistance frequently develops as a consequence of such treatment. Thus, searching for alternative therapies for H. pylori infections is of special interest. Materials and Methods: In this study, anti H. pylori activities of a traditional antimicrobial drug so-called Shoya and also essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus were investigated using antimicrobial analysis and serological screening methods. Results: The agar dilution method results revealed the Shoya with the highest inhibitory effect against H. pylori. Also serological screening on tested mice showed a significant effect of this drug in lowering the sera amount of anti H. pylori specific IgA and IgG titers. Both of the essential oils showed different degrees of antibacterial effect against H. pylori. Conclusion: The obtained results showed the antibacterial effect of Shoya powder and Essential oils from Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus and purposes new therapeutical alternatives to control the H. pylori infection. Additional studies and clinical trials are necessary to approve the use of these data in health care and pharmacopeia systems. PMID:22927892

  11. Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants.

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    Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang

    2005-02-01

    In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity.

  12. Contribution to the ethnopharmacological and anti-Helicobacter pylori knowledge of Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth (Anacardiaceae).

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    Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; Del Carpio, Joel Díaz; Palacios-Espinosa, Juan Francisco; Romero, Irma

    2012-08-30

    Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth (Anacardiaceae) is a Mexican endemic tree; its bark has been traditionally employed in Mexico since prehispanic times to relieve digestive disorders. To perform an acute evaluation of the toxicity, gastroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the anti-Helicobacter pylori action of C. procera bark extracts, in order to determine polypharmalcological activities. Five different polarity extracts (hexanic, CH(2)Cl(2), CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH, methanolic, and aqueous) were prepared. Each of them was evaluated in the following acute mice models: toxicity Lorke test, ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, TPA-induced ear edema; and the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity with a broth dilution method. None of the extracts were toxic under acute administration. The methanolic, hexanic, and aqueous extracts possess remarkable gastroprotective activity. All the extracts inhibit H. pylori growth, being the hexanic the most active, and only this one showed significant anti-inflammatory effect. This work demonstrates that C. procera bark has polypharmacological activities; which makes it a promising asset to the development of an integral treatment for gastritis or peptic ulcer related or not to H. pylori. Our findings contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge about this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EKSPRESI ANTI-HELICOBACTER PYLORI PADA GASTRITIS KRONIS, LESI PRAKANKER, DAN KARSINOMA GASTER

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    Lina Damayanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia was 36-46%. In Jakarta and Surabaya, the prevalence were 85,7%-93,9%. Helicobacter pylori infection play role in pathogenesis of pectic ulcers, chronic gastritis, carcinoma of gaster and gastric lymphoma. Epidemiologic study showed 80% of carcinoma of gaster related with H pylori infection.This study analyzed expression of anti-Helicobacter pylori in chronic gastritis, precancer lesion , and carcinoma of gaster. This study was a observational descriptive study with case control design. Thirty (30 samples from paraffin bloc that were diagnosed with chronic gastritis, precancer lesion, and carcinoma of gaster at Dokter Kariadi hospital in 2013 was stained by hematoxylin eosin, giemsa and immunohistochemistry of anti-helicobacter pylori. Data was analyzed by descriptive analysis. Thirty (30 samples were diagnosed as gastritis chronis 13 (43,3% , pra cancer lesion(36.6%, and carcinoma(20.1%. Chronic gastritis can be occurred at all age and no distinct difference on sex, while gastric carcinoma predominant in male older than 40 years. Expresion of Helicobacter pylori on chronic gastritis was 84.6%, precancer lesion was 54.5%, and gastric carcinoma was 83.3%. The Giemsa stain gave 23.3% false positive and 20% false negative. Helicobacter pylori expression can be showed in chronic gastritis, precancer lesion, and gastric carcinoma. Keywords: Chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma, Helicobacter pylori

  14. Impact of Anti-Helicobacter Therapy of H.pylori-Infected Parents on H.pylori Reinfection Rate in Children after Successful Eradication

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    O.P. Volosovets

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data about the rate of H.pylori reinfection during 12 months after anti-helicobacter therapy among the children after successful eradication. It was shown that H.pylori reinfection rate was lower in children after successful eradication who were living after the treatment with parents non-infectead with H.pylori than among children who were living with H.pylori-infected parents. It was demonstrated that simultaneous anti-helicobacter therapy in H.pylori-infected parents of children with with chronic gastroduodenal diseases associated with H.pylori decreased H.pylori reinfection rate in children with successful eradication.

  15. Correlation of Serum Anti- Helicobacter pylori Immunoglobulin A (IGA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgA antibodies has been reported to vary among populations and in relation to strains of Helicobacter pylori bacterium. However, there has been conflicting reports on the association between IgA serological status and the histological variables of chronic gastritis. This study ...

  16. correlation of serum anti-helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin a (iga)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. It is now established that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is believed to be the commonest bacterial infection of man, is the major causative agent of chronic gastritis.1 This chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa which is histologically characterized by mucosal infiltration by plasma cells has been ...

  17. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

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    Malm Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC values of the assayed extracts were as follows: the extracts from coneflower herbs showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC = 31.3-125 μg/ml; the extracts from chamomile flowers demonstrated MIC = 31.3-62.5 μg/ ml; the extracts from peppermint leaves had MIC = 15.6-250 μg/ml; and the extracts from thyme herbs revealed MIC = 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, depending on the solvent used. The most active were the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate or ethanol alcohol absolute 99.8%. These showing MIC within the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, while the lowest activity was observed in case of the extract obtained with 70% aqueous ethanol. This last showing MIC within the range of 62.5-250 μg/ml. The MIC values of essential oil components were 15.6 μg/ml for bisabolol and menthol or 31.3 μg/ml for thymol. The obtained data indicate that the assayed herbs possessed promising anti-H. pylori bioactivity.

  18. Anti- Helicobacter pylori Effects Of The Methanol Extracts Of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bulb is of considerable importance in African cooking and in salads . Various species have been reported to have anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolaemic, fibrinolytic, anti-ulcer and diuretic potentials. Crude methanol extracts of Allium ascalonicum bulb was screened against three strains of Helicobacter pylori (UCH 97001, ...

  19. Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Constituent Analysis of Modified Xiaochaihutang for the Treatment of Chronic Gastritis and Gastric Ulcer

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    Xin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers are prevalent throughout the world and are considered to be a global health problem. Modified Xiaochaihutang (MXCHT prescription is broadly used in traditional medicine hospital for the treatment of gastritis. In order to assess the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori effect of MXCHT, agar diffusion method in vitro and fluid dilution method for the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC were established. The anti-inflammatory effects were then evaluated using mouse ear edema model and rat paw edema model. The ethanol-induced gastric ulcer method was employed to verify the gastroprotective effect of active extracts in MXCHT. HPLC-TOF-MS/MS was used for analyzing the possible active constituents after oral administration of effective extracts in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models. MXCHT and 4 different extracts of the bacterial inhibition diameter and MIC were dramatically decreased compared with control group, showing anti-Helicobacter pylori effects. High dose groups of MXCHT, water extract, EtOAc extract, and n-BuOH extract displayed significant anti-inflammatory effects in xylene-induced mouse ear edema model and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model test. MXCHT and all active extracts exhibited gastroprotective activity and prevented gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats. 4 prototype components and 4 metabolites were identified after oral administration of EtOAc extract. In addition, 6 prototype components and 6 metabolites were identified in n-BuOH extract. MXCHT, EtOAc extract, and n-BuOH extract demonstrate gastroprotective effects through anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, this prescription may be a suitable natural source for the prevention and treatment of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers.

  20. Anti-Helicobacter pylori Properties of the Ant-Venom Peptide Bicarinalin

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    Jesus Guzman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The venom peptide bicarinalin, previously isolated from the ant Tetramorium bicarinatum, is an antimicrobial agent with a broad spectrum of activity. In this study, we investigate the potential of bicarinalin as a novel agent against Helicobacter pylori, which causes several gastric diseases. First, the effects of synthetic bicarinalin have been tested against Helicobacter pylori: one ATCC strain, and forty-four isolated from stomach ulcer biopsies of Peruvian patients. Then the cytoxicity of bicarinalin on human gastric cells and murine peritoneal macrophages was measured using XTT and MTT assays, respectively. Finally, the preventive effect of bicarinalin was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy using an adherence assay of H. pylori on human gastric cells treated with bicarinalin. This peptide has a potent antibacterial activity at the same magnitude as four antibiotics currently used in therapies against H. pylori. Bicarinalin also inhibited adherence of H. pylori to gastric cells with an IC50 of 0.12 μg·mL−1 and had low toxicity for human cells. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that bicarinalin can significantly decrease the density of H. pylori on gastric cells. We conclude that Bicarinalin is a promising compound for the development of a novel and effective anti-H. pylori agent for both curative and preventive use.

  1. Anti-ulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori potentials of the ethyl acetate fraction of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Solanaceae) in rodent.

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    Wang, Yong; Wang, Sui Lou; Zhang, Jiong Yi; Song, Xiao Ning; Zhang, Zhi Yong; Li, Jing Feng; Li, Song

    2018-01-30

    Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Solanaceae) has been widely used in Chinese folk medicine due to its wide distribution throughout the country, for the treatment of a wide range of diseases including heat and cold, sore throat, fever, fungal infection, inflammation, toothache, rheumatism, burn, analgesic, ulcer and urinary diseases. However, the effect of P. alkekengi var. franchetii on ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection has not been reported to date. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-Helicobacter pylori and analgesic properties of ethyl acetate fraction of the crude aqueous methanolic extract from the aerial parts of the plant P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii in rodents. Acute toxicity of the crude extract of P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii (PAF) was evaluated in rats. The petroleum ether fraction (PEF), butanol fraction (BF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and aqueous fraction (AF) of crude aqueous methanolic extract from PAF were screened for anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer potential at doses of 100, 250 and 500mg/kg (p.o.), using carrageenin-induced hind paw edema and ethanol-induced gastric lesions test in rats. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of EAF was assayed subsequently. In addition, three doses of EAF were evaluated for analgesic activity using hot plate and writhing tests, respectively. Finally, we performed a phytochemical analysis of EAF. Four fractions of crude extract from PAF significantly reduced the paw volume in carrageenin-induced hind paw edema model at different doses (100, 250 and 500mg/kg, p.o.). The fraction EAF at a dose of 500mg/kg exhibited the highest (75.92%) (0.150 ± 0.045***, ***p < 0.001) anti-inflammatory potential, which is similar to indomethacin (***P < 0.001)(0.120 ± 0.014***, 80.74% inhibition of inflammation) at 5mg/kg. Pretreatment with EAF (500mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the intensity of gastric mucosal damage and showed higher gastroprotective

  2. Protein microarray analysis for detection of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies after eradication therapy: a clinical follow-up.

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    Cui, Meihua; Wei, Hong; Mu, Fanghong; Yi, Guoxing; Fu, Yi; Yue, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to observe the changes in the anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) serum antibodies to Hp virulence factors after eradication therapy and evaluate the potential application value of protein microarray in detecting Hp antibodies after eradication therapy. A total of 107 Hp-positive patients with peptic ulcers (55) and chronic gastritis (52) were recruited. Serum antibodies to Hp urease (Ure), cytotoxin-associated protein (CagA), vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and anti-RdxA nitroreductase were measured. Four weeks after treatment, a 13C-urea breath test (13C- UBT) was applied to assess the Hp eradication state and to analyze correlations between the Hp eradication rate and the five antibodies. Six months after the therapy, protein microarray analysis was used to study the changes in these five serum antibodies. The overall Hp eradication rate was 86.0%There was no significant difference in the rate among the groups that tested positive and negative for the remaining four virulence factors. The disease type and serum anti-CagA antibody levels affect the therapeutic outcome of Hp eradication therapy. Protein microarray detection of Hp-related antibodies did not have significant application value for the long-term follow-up of Hp infection after eradication therapy.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of amoxicillin loaded dual molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy.

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    Wu, Zhihui; Hou, Jiapeng; Wang, Yuyan; Chai, Miaolin; Xiong, Yan; Lu, Weiyue; Pan, Jun

    2015-12-30

    This paper reports studies on preparation and evaluation of amoxicillin loaded dual molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (Amo/Dual-MIPs) designed for anti-H. pylori therapy. Both MNQA and AmoNa were chosen as templates to prepare Dual-MIPs using inverse microemulsion polymerization method. NQA was modified with myristic acid (MNQA) to become amphiphilic and assist in leaving NQA cavities on the surface of Dual-MIPs for H. pylori adhesion. AmoNa was applied to produce imprinting sites in Dual-MIPs for rebinding AmoNa to exert its anti-H. pylori effect. Batch rebinding test demonstrated a preferential rebinding effect of NQA toward the Dual-MIPs. In vivofluorescence imaging showed the prolonged residence time of Dual-MIPs in H. pylori infected mice stomachs after intragastric administration of nanoparticles.In vivo H. pylori clearance tests indicated Amo/Dual-MIPs had a better aniti-H. pylori effect than amoxicillin powder did. In conclusion, Amo/Dual-MIPs may provide an alternative drug delivery strategy for anti-H. pylori therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Terminalia catappa L.: a medicinal plant from the Caribbean pharmacopeia with anti-Helicobacter pylori and antiulcer action in experimental rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Silva, Laísa; Damacena de Angelis, Célio; Bonamin, Flavia; Kushima, Hélio; José Mininel, Francisco; Campaner Dos Santos, Lourdes; Karina Delella, Flavia; Luis Felisbino, Sergio; Vilegas, Wagner; Regina Machado da Rocha, Lucia; Aparecido Dos Santos Ramos, Matheus; Maria Bauab, Tais; Toma, Walber; Akiko Hiruma-Lima, Clelia

    2015-01-15

    Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) is a medicinal plant listed as a pharmacopeia vegetable from Caribbean to treat gastritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effect of the aqueous fraction (FrAq) obtained from the leaves of Terminalia catappa and to determine the antiulcer mechanism of action in experimental rodent models and its activity to Helicobacter pylori. In rodents, the FrAq was challenged by different necrotizing agents, such as absolute ethanol and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The antiulcer mechanism of action of FrAq was assessed and the healing effects of the fraction after seven and 14 days of treatment was evaluated by matrix metalloproteinase activity (MMP-2 and MMP-9). The toxicological effect of subacute treatment with FrAq during 14 days of treatment was also analyzed. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was determined by microdilution. The phytochemical study of the fraction was analyzed by experiments with FIA-ESI-IT-MS(n) (Direct Flow Analysis-ionization Electrospray Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA). Oral treatment with FrAq (25mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of ulcerative lesions induced by ethanol and ischemia/reperfusion injury. The action of FrAq was mediated by the activation of defensive mucosa-protective factors, such as increases in mucus production, the nitric oxide (NO) pathway and endogenous prostaglandins. Oral treatment with FrAq for seven and 14 days significantly reduced the lesion area (80% and 37%, respectively) compared to the negative control group. Analyses of MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity from gastric mucosa confirmed the accelerated gastric healing effect of FrAq. This extract also presented considerable activity against Helicobacter pylori. The mass spectrum and MS/MS of the aqueous fraction indicates the existence of many different phenolic compounds, including punicalagin

  5. PANORAMA ACTUAL DEL ESTUDIO DE LAS PLANTAS CON ACTIVIDAD ANTI-Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO PALACIOS-ESPINOSA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La bacteria Helicobacter pylori es reconocida como el principal agente causal de la gastritis crónica activa, de la úlcera péptica, así como un factor de predisposición del carcinoma gástrico. Se estima que más del 50% de la población mundial está infectada por esta bacteria y, en el caso de México, se reporta una seroprevalencia del 66%. La terapia empleada para la erradicación de la bacteria falla en más del 20%, principalmente por la generación de resistencia a los antibióticos comerciales. De tal manera, es importante controlar estas enfermedades, buscando nuevos tratamientos y/o compuestos que sean más específicos, menos tóxicos y de fácil acceso a la población. Los productos naturales vegetales constituyen potenciales fuentes para el descubrimiento y esarrollo de nuevos agentes efectivos contra la infección de esta bacteria. En este trabajo se presenta la perspectiva actual a nivel mundial, acerca de las investigaciones que se están llevando a cabo en este campo. Se tratan temas como la evaluación preliminar de extractos de una cantidad considerable de plantas, el aislamiento de compuestos puros a partir de los extractos bioactivos, la elucidación del probable mecanismo de acción, estudios integrales que evalúan propiedades antiinflamatorias y gastroprotectoras y, por último, la modificación química de compuestos prototipo.

  6. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend pylori density score increased from 0 to 3, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers also increased from 24.7 to 44.8 EIU (p for trend pylori IgG titer was associated positively with serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17 concentrations and negatively with PGI/II ratio, and the association was the strongest for PGII. The mean PGII concentration of the patients in the highest quartile of IgG titer was twice the mean concentration of the patients in the lowest quartile (17.2 vs. 8.6 EIU, p pylori IgG titer was associated positively with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.

  7. Impact of Lactobacillus reuteri Supplementation on Anti-Helicobacter pylori Levofloxacin-Based Second-Line Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ojetti

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion. In H. pylori-positive subjects L. reuteri supplementation increases the eradication rate while reducing the incidence of the most common side effects associated with antibiotic therapy in second-line treatment.

  8. Anti Helicobacter pylori IgG and IgA response in patients with gastric cancer and chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Nebojsa; Babic, Dragana; Filipovic-Ljeshovic, Ivana; Pilcevic, Dijana

    2008-01-01

    Immune response against Helicobacter pylori is important for the course and outcome of infection. We conducted study looking for the difference in anti H. pylori IgG and IgA between patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer, superficial and atrophic gastritis. For this study, 133 patients infected with H. pylori were enrolled: 50 with superficial gastritis, 42 with atrophic gastritis and 41 with gastric cancer. Anti H. pylori IgG and IgA ELISA tests were performed. The difference in antibody titers of IgG and IgA, frequency of IgA > IgG ratio and combination of low IgG and IgA > IgG ratio were analyzed. The patients with gastritis had higher titer of IgG that the patients with gastric cancer (p gastritis had higher titer of IgA than the patients with gastric cancer (p IgG ratio is more frequent in patients with gastric cancer than in the patients with superficial gastritis (p IgG is more frequent in the patients with gastric cancer than in the patients with gastritis (p cancer elicit different anti H. pylori IgG and IgA response than the patients with superficial and atrophic gastritis. Low IgG and IgA predominance seems characteristic for gastric cancer.

  9. Comparative analysis of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography, and the titer of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG focusing on the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Nobutake; Hirano, Chigaya; Takahashi, Yu; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Nakayama, Chiemi; Matsuda, Rie; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGI-ES) and double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) are two major image-based methods to diagnose atrophic gastritis, which is mostly induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. However, there have been few studies directly comparing them. Atrophic gastritis was evaluated using the data of 962 healthy subjects who underwent UGI-ES and UGI-XR within 1 year. Based on UGI-ES and UGI-XR, 602 subjects did not have atrophic gastritis and 254 subjects did have it. Considering UGI-ES-based atrophic gastritis as the standard, sensitivity and specificity of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis were 92.0 % (254/276) and 92.8 % (602/649), respectively. The seven-grade Kimura-Takemoto classification of UGI-ES-based atrophic gastritis showed a strong and significant association with the four-grade UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis. Sensitivity and specificity of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG to detect UGI-ES/UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis were 89.4 % (227/254) and 99.8 % (601/602), indicating that atrophic gastritis can be overlooked according to serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG alone.

  10. cagA Status and Eradication Treatment Outcome of Anti-Helicobacter pylori Triple Therapies in Patients with Nonulcer Dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutet, Nathalie; Marais, Armelle; Lamouliatte, Hervé; de Mascarel, Antoine; Samoyeau, Roland; Salamon, Roger; Mégraud, Francis

    2001-01-01

    The differences in eradication rates reported in clinical trials aiming to cure Helicobacter pylori infection cannot be entirely explained by the type of regimen, bacterial resistance, or lack of compliance. Using data from a clinical trial, a logistic regression model was constructed to determine whether cagA status, assessed by PCR, affects the outcome of eradication. Resistance to clarithromycin (10% of the strains) predicted failure perfectly. In the model (n = 156), a cagA-lacking strain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], (1.1 to 4.7), tobacco smoking OR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.0), and a double dose of proton pump inhibitor in the treatment regimen (OR = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.7) were associated with the treatment outcome. The exact role of cagA in the outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy has not been explored. However, the type of histological lesions which it causes in the gastric mucosa may be implicated. Regardless of the mechanism involved, cagA status is a good predictive marker of eradication outcome. PMID:11283049

  11. ASSESSMENT OF RELATED ANAMNESTIC AND CLINICAL FACTORS ON EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTI-HELICOBACTER PYLORI THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Andreev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a prospective clinical study in which 100 patients with H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease of stomach/duodenum were examined. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of concomitant anamnestic and clinical factors on the efficacy and safety of eradication therapy (ET. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a factor that significantly reduces the efficiency of ET with OR 0.21 (95% CI 0,06-0,69, p = 0,0102. Using a macrolide antibiotics prior to ET during the previous 12 months is associated with a reduction in the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication with OR 0.27 (95% CI 0,08-0,90, p = 0,0342. Despite the lack of statistical significance observed negative effect on the efficiency of ET factors such as smoking and increased BMI. Smoking, female gender, age over 50 years and the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus had no significant impact on the safety profile of ET. 

  12. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among Alaskans: Factors associated with infection and comparison of urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernyk, Karen M; Bulkow, Lisa R; Gold, Benjamin D; Bruce, Michael G; Hurlburt, Debby H; Griffin, Patricia M; Swerdlow, David L; Cook, Kim; Hennessy, Thomas W; Parkinson, Alan J

    2018-03-14

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infections in the world, and studies in Alaska Native people, as well as other Indigenous peoples, have shown a high prevalence of this gastric infection. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection by urea breath test (UBT) and anti- H. pylori IgG among Alaskans living in four regions of the state and to identify factors associated with infection. A convenience sample of persons > 6 months old living in five rural and one urban Alaskan community were recruited from 1996 to 1997. Participants were asked about factors possibly associated with infection. Sera were collected and tested for anti- H. pylori IgG antibodies; a UBT was administered to participants > 5 years old. We recruited 710 people of whom 571 (80%) were Alaska Native and 467 (66%) were from rural communities. Rural residents were more likely to be Alaska Native compared with urban residents (P  5 years old had a UBT performed. H. pylori prevalence was 69% by UBT and 68% by anti- H. pylori IgG. Among those with a result for both tests, there was 94% concordance. Factors associated with H. pylori positivity were Alaska Native racial status, age ≥ 20 years, rural region of residence, living in a crowded home, and drinking water that was not piped or delivered. Helicobacter pylori prevalence is high in Alaska, especially in Alaska Native persons and rural residents. Concordance between UBT and serology was also high in this group. Two socioeconomic factors, crowding and drinking water that was not piped or delivered, were found to be associated with H. pylori positivity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The safety and efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with antibiotics for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyeth, J. W.; Pounder, R. E.; Duggan, A. E.; O'Morain, C. A.; Schaufelberger, H. D.; de Koster, E. H.; Rauws, E. A.; Bardhan, K. D.; Gilvarry, J.; Buckley, M. J.; Gummett, P. A.; Logan, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Ranitidine bismuth citrate is a novel salt of ranitidine and a bismuth citrate complex. It has intrinsic antisecretory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, but monotherapy rarely eradicates H. pylori infection in man. A pilot study to investigate rates of H. pylori eradication achieved by

  14. (Nutmeg) on Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis in albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activities of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. seed (nutmeg) was studied to authenticate ... Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested the effect of the groups on the treatment days and revealed a significant difference between the treatments at p< 0.05.

  15. POTENTIAL IN VITRO ANTI-HELICOBACTER ACTIVITY OF BACTERIOCIN AND BACTERIOCIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS PRODUCED BY LACTOBACILLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Ramadan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed for screening of the potential activity of lactic acid bacteria against Helicobacter pylori and other enteropathogenic organisms. A total of 40 samples including natural cow milk and fresh infant stools were tested for the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Of these samples, 73 lactic acid bacterial isolates were recovered on MRS agar medium using the streak-plate method. Isolates inducing probiotic effect were tested under microaerophilic conditions against standard cultures of H. pylori, Esherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. The data obtained showed that five isolates of lactic acid bacteria were able to produce bacteriocin or bacteriocin-like compounds. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that five isolates belonged to Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum in addition to other lactic acid bacteria. The most effective isolate (LAB1 showed a marked large inhibition zone against H. pylori. The bacteriocin or bacteriocin like compound(s produced by lactobacilli were further analyzed and characterized. We can conclude that probiotics might be useful in the prophylaxis or as co-therapy for treatment of H. pylori infections.

  16. Seroprevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-CagA antibodies in peptic ulcer and healthy subjects in the city of Rafsanjan

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    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is thought to play an etiologic role in several gastroduodenal diseases including gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric MALT lymphoma, and distal gastric cancer. Several studies have suggested that H. pylori which express cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA may be more virulent than those that do not, but limited populations have been studied to date. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG, IgA and anti-CagA antibodies in peptic ulcer (PU patients and healthy individuals in the city of Rafsanjan. METHODS: A total of 60 PU patients (30 males and 30 females, aged 17 to 60 years and 138 age-matched healthy individuals (65 males, 73 females were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of PU disease was established on the basis of findings by gastrointestinal endoscopy. The control group was recruited from among healthy blood donors referred to Blood Transfusion Center of Rafsanjan. A blood sample was collected from each participant and the sera were tested for the presence of anti- H. pylori IgG and IgA antibodies and antibody to bacterial virulence factor (CagA by use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum concentrations of anti-H. pylori IgA and anti-CagA antibody were expressed as mean ± SD in each group. RESULTS: In PU patients the overall seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG (95.8%, IgA (96.6% and anti-CagA (91.6% were higher than those observed in the control group (73.2%, P<0.003; 79%, P<0.002; 47.82%, P<0.0000001; respectively. In the control group the prevalence of serum anti-CagA IgG antibodies was significantly higher in males compared to females (58.46% vs. 38.35%; P<0.01. Moreover, the mean titer of anti-H. pylori IgA antibodies was significantly higher in anti-CagA+ subjects compared to anti-CagA- subjects (47.5 Uarb/ml ± 35 vs. 27 Uarb/ml ± 18; P<0.01. Furthermore, an inverse association was found between levels and the

  17. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Lycopodium cernuum (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Briefly, dried plants. (1.6 Kg) were macerated separately in methanol in extraction pots. The mixture was left for an extended ... Extraction and Fractionation scheme for extract of L. cernuum. boratory standards (NCCLS) (now known ... Subsequently, from tube 2, serial dilutions were carried out and 1 ml was ...

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Twenty Iranian Plant Extracts Against Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori

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    Farahnaz Nariman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDue to increasing emergence of drug-resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates, traditional plants arepotentially valuable sources of novel anti-H. pylori agents. In this research, anti-H. pylori activity of theorganic extracts of twenty native Iranian plants was determined against ten clinical isolates of H. pylori.Materials and MethodsDisc diffusion was used to determine the biological activity of 20 plant extracts as well as 8 antibioticscommonly used to treat H. pylori infections. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were also measured by tubeand agar dilution methods for the biologically active plant extracts.ResultsOf the twenty plant extracts analyzed, sixteen exhibited good anti-H. pylori activity, using disc diffusion.The ten most active extracts were Carum bulbocastanum, Carum carvi, Mentha longifolia, Saliva limbata,Saliva sclarea, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Thymus caramanicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum. Minimum inhibitory concentrations measured for the 10 biologically activeplant extracts were within the range of 31.25 to 500 μg/ml.ConclusionAmong the ten plant extracts effective against H. pylori clinical isolates, Carum carvi, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum showed the highest activity.Keywords: Anti-Helicobacter pylori, Iranian plants, Organic extracts

  19. The efficacy of second-line anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy using an extended 14-day levofloxacin/amoxicillin/proton-pump inhibitor treatment--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Tai, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Ming-Luen; Chou, Yeh-Pin; Kuo, Yuan-Hung; Liang, Chih-Ming; Chiu, King-Wah; Hu, Tsung-Hui

    2012-10-01

    Large meta-analyses of second-line Helicobacter pylori eradication with fluoroquinolone triple therapy have shown that neither 7-day nor 10-day therapy provides 90% or better treatment success. Reports describing second-line H. pylori eradication using 14-day fluoroquinolone-containing triple therapy are few. Current study aimed to determine the efficacy of a 14-day levofloxacin/amoxicillin/proton-pump inhibitor regimen as second-line therapy and the clinical factors influencing the outcome. One-hundred and one patients who failed H. pylori eradication using the standard triple therapy for 7 days were randomly assigned to either a levofloxacin/amoxicillin/esomeprazole group (levofloxacin 500 mg once daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily for 14 days) or a esomeprazole/metronidazole/bismuth salt/tetracycline group (esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, metronidazole 250 mg four times daily, tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate 300 mg four times daily, and tetracycline 500 mg four times daily for 14 days). Follow-up to assess treatment response consisted of either endoscopy or a urea breath test, which were carried out 8 weeks later. Eradication rates attained by levofloxacin/amoxicillin/esomeprazole and esomeprazole/metronidazole/bismuth salt/tetracycline treatments in the per-protocol analysis were 44/47 (93.6%; 95% CI = 86-99.8) and 43/47 (91.8%; 95% CI = 83.2-98.5). In the intention-to-treat analysis, these were 43/47 (86.3%; 95% CI = 76.5-96.1) in the LAE group (four lost to follow-up) and 43/50 (86%; 95% CI = 76-96) in the EMBT groups. The observed adverse events were 25.5% and 38.5% among the two groups. There was 100% drug compliance among the levofloxacin/amoxicillin/esomeprazole group. Levofloxacin-resistant strains occurred at a frequency of 32.3%. H. pylori eradication rates for the levofloxacin-susceptible strains and levofloxacin-resistant strains were 92% (11/12) and 33% (1/3) in the per-protocol analysis. A

  20. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory activities of seven Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains against antibiotic susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, L; Gergova, G; Markovska, R; Yordanov, D; Mitov, I

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to detect anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (GLB) strains by four cell-free supernatant (CFS) types. Activity of non-neutralized and non-heat-treated (CFSs1), non-neutralized and heat-treated (CFSs2), pH neutralized, catalase-treated and non-heat-treated (CFSs3), or neutralized, catalase- and heat-treated (CFSs4) CFSs against 18 H. pylori strains (11 of which with antibiotic resistance) was evaluated. All GLB strains produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLISs), the neutralized CFSs of two GLB strains inhibited >81% of test strains and those of four GLB strains were active against >71% of antibiotic resistant strains. Two H. pylori strains were BLIS resistant. The heating did not reduce the CFS activity. Briefly, all GLB strains evaluated produced heat-stable BLISs, although GLB and H. pylori strain susceptibility patterns exhibited differences. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance activity can be an advantage for the probiotic choice for H. pylori infection control. In this study, anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (GLB) strains was evaluated by four cell-free supernatant (CFS) types. The GLB strains produced heat-stable bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLISs) with a strong anti-H. pylori activity and some neutralized, catalase- and heat-treated CFSs inhibited >83% of the test strains. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance production of GLB strains can render them valuable probiotics in the control of H. pylori infection. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Gastric Cancer Screening by Combined Assay for Serum Anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG Antibody and Serum Pepsinogen Levels--The ABC Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuharu; Nagata, Yasuhiko; Hiratsuka, Ryuuta; Kawase, Yoshihiko; Tominaga, Tatsurou; Takeuchi, Shunji; Sakagami, Shinya; Ishida, Shusei

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and gastric atrophy are both risk factors for gastric cancer. Recently it has been found that X-ray examination for gastric cancer screening does not have much effect on the detection rate for gastric cancer in Japan. A candidate for a new mass screening for gastric cancer, the ABC method, using the combination assay of Hp and serum pepsinogen, was useful for identifying the development of gastric cancer in high-risk and low-risk populations. People with higher cancer risk are recommended to receive endoscopy. The ABC method was carried out as a gastric cancer mass-screening on the initiative of Nishitokyo Medical Association in Nishitokyo city from 2011. This paper reviewed the present status of gastric cancer screening using the ABC method, including the latest results of our ongoing screening. We report results for 36,627 individuals from 2011 to 2013. Among them, 16,965 received blood examination for the ABC method. Of those, 8,083 planned to undergo endoscopic examination according to stratification of the risk for the development of gastric cancer. In fact, a total of 2,911 individuals underwent endoscopic examination. Gastric cancer was detected in 65 patients, including 52 (80%) diagnosed with early gastric cancer. The ABC method was not organized screening but opportunistic screening. X-ray examination was the organized screening that was ongoing during the same period. Detection cost for 1 gastric cancer case using the ABC method was cheaper than the conventional X-ray screening method (¥1,267,452 vs. ¥2,807,763). Although further large epidemiological studies are required, the ABC method might be positioned as an effective mass screening for gastric cancer. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Sung-Eun; Piao, Xiang-Lan; Takeoka, Gary R; Wong, Rosalind Y; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2006-04-21

    The growth-inhibiting activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC dried inner bark-derived constituents against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 was examined using paper disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) bioassays. The activity of the isolated compounds was compared to that of the commercially available anti-Helicobacter pylori agents, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. The biologically active components of Tabebuia impetiginosa dried inner bark (taheebo) were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone, anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (lapachol). With the paper disc diffusion assay 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited strong activity against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 at 0.01 mg/disc. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, lapachol and metronidazole were less effective, exhibiting moderate anti-Helicobacter pylori activity at 0.1 mg/disc. Amoxicillin and tetracycline were the most potent compounds tested, displaying very strong activity at 0.005 mg/disc. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited moderate activity at this dose. Tetracycline still had strong activity at 0.001 mg/disc while amoxicillin had little activity at this dose. In the MIC bioassay, 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone (2 microg/mL), anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (8 microg/mL), and lapachol (4 microg/mL) were more active than metronidazole (32 microg/mL) but less effective than amoxicillin (0.063 microg/mL) and tetracycline (0.5 microg/mL). The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (structurally related to lapachol), 1,4-naphthoquinone, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone), 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin), 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone), and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (dichlone) was also evaluated using the paper disc

  3. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infected mice with Bryophyllum pinnatum, a medicinal plant with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, reduces bacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouitcheu Mabeku, Laure Brigitte; Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Tchouangueu, Thibau Flaurant; Nguepi, Eveline; Leundji, Hubert

    2017-12-01

    Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz (Crassulaceae) is a plant known for its antiulcer properties. This study evaluates the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bryophyllum pinnutum methanol extract with a mouse model and its antioxidant properties. Dried leaves of Bryophyllum pinnutum were extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate. Broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter activity of extract samples in vitro. Swiss mice were inoculated with a suspension of Helicobacter pylori and divided into control group and four others that received 125, 250, 500 mg/kg of methanol extract or ciprofloxacin (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 7 days. Helicobacter pylori colonization and bacterial load of mouse stomach was assessed on day 1 and 7 post-treatment. The antioxidant activity of Bryophyllum pinnutum was evaluated through DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and reducing power assay. Methanol extract showed a significant anti-Helicobacter activity with MIC and MBC values of 32 and 256 μg/mL, respectively. Bryophyllum pinnatum and ciprofloxacin reduced H. pylori colonization of gastric tissue from 100% to 17%. Bryophyllum pinnatum extract (85.91 ± 52.91 CFU) and standard (25.74 ± 16.15 CFU) also reduced significantly (p Helicobacter pylori growth, and may also acts as an antioxidant to protect gastric mucosa against reactive oxygen species.

  4. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  5. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori haemagglutination activity by human salivary mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, A; Tzouvelekis, L; Spiliadis, C; Blackwell, C C; Weir, D M

    1990-10-01

    Thirty isolates of Helicobacter pylori from gastric biopsies agglutinated human erythrocyte suspensions. Crude mucin preparations derived from saliva of 20 different donors were examined for their ability to inhibit haemagglutination. All mucin preparations exhibited strong inhibitory activity. Removal of sialic residues from mucin preparations by treatment with neuraminidase resulted in a substantial reduction of their inhibitory activity. The mucin preparations had no bactericidal or aggregation activity for H. pylori. These results are discussed in the context of the role of mucins in colonization of the gastric mucosa by H. pylori.

  6. In vitro antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus casei against Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymaa Enany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ, clarithromycin (CLR, tetracycline (TET, and amoxicillin (AMX by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach.

  7. Lymphocytic gastritis is not associated with active Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer A; Roberts, Cory A; Lager, Donna J; Putcha, Rajesh V; Jain, Rajeev; Lewin, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis (LG), characterized by marked intra-epithelial lymphocytosis in the gastric mucosa, has been frequently associated with both celiac disease (CD) and H. pylori gastritis. The aim of this study was to review and correlate the morphology of LG with the presence of CD and H. pylori. Gastric biopsies diagnosed with LG from 1/1/2006 to 8/1/2013 at our institution and corresponding small bowel biopsies, when available, were reviewed for verification of the diagnosis and to assess for the presence of H. pylori and CD. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for H. pylori was performed on all gastric biopsies. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from the medical record. Fifty-four of the 56 cases that met inclusion criteria demonstrated significant intra-epithelial lymphocytosis as the predominant histologic abnormality; however, none were associated with H. pylori infection by IHC staining. Two cases that also showed a prominent intra-epithelial and lamina propria neutrophilic infiltrate were both positive for H. pylori and were excluded from further study. Of the 36 small bowel biopsies available, 19 (53%) showed changes in CD. LG is not a distinct clinicopathologic entity, but a morphologic pattern of gastric injury that can be secondary to a variety of underlying etiologies. When restricted to cases with lymphocytosis alone, LG is strongly associated with CD and not with active H. pylori infection. However, cases that also show significant neutrophilic infiltrate should be regarded as "active chronic gastritis" and are often associated with H. pylori infection. A morphologic diagnosis of LG should prompt clinical and serologic workup to exclude underlying CD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. HELICOBACTER PYLORI GROWTH INHIBITION BY SUBSTANCE PRODUCED PSEUDOMONAS BY AEROGINOSA: IN VTRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FAZELI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of H.pylori against metronidazole is increasingly appeared in reports of investigators of gastric infections. So that, seeking to find more effective anti-helicobacter drugs is a necessity. In this study, inhibitory effect of the P. aeroginosa-produced substance on H. pylori growth was determined using two methods, Cross-streak and Well-diffusion Only two out of 37 P. aeroginosa isalates were able to inhibit H. pylori growth which one of them was chosen for further investigation. Its antibacterial activity was tested on 31 isolates of H. pylori consisting 27 metrondazole-sensitive and 4 metronidazole-resistant isolates. The inhibitory substance was enable to kill both metrondazole-sensitive and resistant isolates of H. pylori. The substance could also inhibit the of several other bacteria including E.coli, Salmonella sp., Klebsiella sp., S. aureus and a gram positive bacilli. While the inhibitory effect of the substance had no change at 40c for 30 days, its effect substantially reduced by treating at 600c for 15 minutes. Treatment of substance at 600c (30 min. 80?c and 100?c (15 & 30min, and freezing (-20?c and melting (37?c inactivated its inhibitory effect completely. Treatment with trips in also could inactivate it. Thus P. aeroginosa-produced substance, probably is a protein and may be classified in bacteriocin group.

  9. Anti-Helicobactor pylori activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Alzoubi, Karem H; Tumah, Haitham N; Bani-Hani, Kamal

    2014-05-01

    Natural flora are considered a major source of new agents for the treatment of Helicobactor pylori. The plants used in this study were selected based on previous traditional use. In this study, we evaluated the effect of extracts of 16 medicinal plants grown in Jordan against clinical isolates of H. pylori. Tested plant extracts included Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton (Verbenaceae), Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae), Artemisia inculata Delile (Asteraceae), Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc ex. DC. (Rosaceae), Inula viscose (L.) Ait (Asteraceae), Lavandula officinalis Chaix. (Lamiaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Cruciferae), Origanum syriaca L. (Lamiaceae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Passiflora incarnate L. (Passifloraceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach (Rosaceae), Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) and Varthemia iphionoids Boiss (Asteraceae). Clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested in vitro for susceptibility to each of the above plant crude extracts using disk diffusion method, and the MIC value was determined for each plant extract using the serial dilution method. Results showed that ethanol extracts of most medicinal plants exerted cytotoxiciy against H. pylori isolates. Among the tested plant extracts, A. triphylla (MIC: 90 µg/mL, MBC: 125 µg/mL) and I. viscosa (MIC: 83 µg/mL, MBC: 104 µg/mL) showed the strongest activity against both isolates of H. pylori. Jordanian medicinal plants might be valuable sources of starting materials for the synthesis of new antibacterial agents against H. pylori.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity.

  11. Fusion expression of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein in E.coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Qiao-Zhen; Duan, Guang-Cai; Fan, Qing-Tang; Xi, Yuan-Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To produce a recombinant protein rMBP-NAP, which was fusionally expressed by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) neutrophil-activating protein (NAP) and E. coli maltose-binding protein (MBP) and to evaluate its immunoreactivity and immunogenicity.

  12. A novel nanobody against urease activity of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardekani, Leila Safaee; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rasooli, Iraj; Bazl, Masoumeh Rajabi; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimizadeh, Walead; Bakherad, Hamid; Zare, Hamed

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis and in some cases with gastric and duodenal ulcers, and even adenocarcinoma. Antibiotic therapy has significant limitations, such as the high cost and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, generating the need for new treatments. The administration of antibody against H. pylori is a new effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, we successfully developed a single-variable domain of heavy chain antibody against recombinant UreC. A VHH phagemid library was constructed from immune camel heavy chain antibodies. The nanobodies were displayed on M13 phage. Library selection was performed against UreC recombinant protein. A specific single-variable domain of heavy chain antibody against UreC was screened in five rounds of panning. The nanobody with the highest score in the phage ELISA was selected for soluble expression. The nanobody was purified with a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) column and confirmed with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. Affinity, specificity, and urease inhibitory properties of the nanobody were assayed. Here we showed the isolation and purification of a specific nanobody with high affinity against UreC recombinant protein that can inhibit urease activity. The isolated UreC nanobody can specifically detect and bind to UreC and inhibit urease activity. This nanobody could be a novel class of treatment measure against H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [In vitro activity of 16 antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, J A; García-García, M I; García-Sánchez, E; García-Sánchez, J E; Muñoz Bellido, J L

    1989-12-01

    Campylobacter pylori has been associated with the etiology of gastritis and duodenal ulcer. It has been shown that several drugs, among them a variety of antimicrobials, eliminate C. pylori from gastric mucosa at least for a time, resulting in an improvement of the patients' symptoms. The activity of 16 antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, imipenem, aztreonam, tigemonam, erythromycin, vancomycin, nalidixic acid, colistin , norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, ofloxacin and perfloxacin) was tested against 30 clinical isolates of C. pylori. The antimicrobials showing the highest activity were ampicillin, imipenem and ciprofloxacin, followed by cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, tigemonam, erythromycin and difloxacin. Nalidixic acid, colistin and vancomycin were virtually ineffective against C. pylori.

  14. Significance of dormant forms of Helicobacter pylori in ulcerogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Reshetnyak, Tatiana Magomedalievna

    2017-01-01

    Nearly half of the global population are carriers of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in the healthy human stomach. H. pylori can be a pathogen and causes development of peptic ulcer disease in a certain state of the macroorganism. It is well established that H. pylori infection is the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Decontamination of the gastric mucosa with various antibiotics leads to H. pylori elimination and longer remission in this disease. However, the reasons for repeated detection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD after its successful eradication remain unclear. The reason for the redetection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD can be either reinfection or ineffective anti-Helicobacter therapy. The administration of antibacterial drugs can lead not only to the emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms, but also contribute to the conversion of H. pylori into the resting (dormant) state. The dormant forms of H. pylori have been shown to play a potential role in the development of relapses of PUD. The paper discusses morphological H. pylori forms, such as S-shaped, C-shaped, U-shaped, and coccoid ones. The authors proposes the classification of H. pylori according to its morphological forms and viability. PMID:28785141

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Multi-Drug Resistant Helicobacter pylori Isolated From Gastric Biopsies

    OpenAIRE

    Fozieh Jahani Moghadam; Tahereh Navidifar; Mansour Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) exhibit a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against both gram negative and gram-positive bacteria. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main factor in peptic and duodenal ulcer diseases. Some strains of H. pylori have becom eresistant to the current antibiotics. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial effects of garlic on H. pylori. Materials and Methods: The gastric biopsies were inoculated on ...

  16. Immunohistochemical evaluation of p53 expression and proliferative activity in children with Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Yesim; Ozer, Erdener; Lebe, Banu; Bekem, Ozlem; Buyukgebiz, Benal

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of p53 expression and proliferative activity of glandular epithelium and intestinal metaplasia in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis of pediatric patients. The study included endoscopic gastric biopsies of 54 children with dyspeptic complaints. Immunohistochemistry was performed for evaluation of p53 expression and Ki-67 labeling index, an indicator of proliferative activity. Grading of H. pylori density, intestinal metaplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration were performed in histologic tissue sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and Alcian-blue. Of 54 children, 35 (64%) were infected by H. pylori. Positive immunostaining for p53 was observed in 11 of 54 cases (20.4%). H. pylori infection was found in 10 (91%) of the p53-positive patients. There was a positive correlation between H. pylori density and Ki-67 labeling index in H. pylori infected children. H. pylori density, Ki-67 labeling index and inflammatory cell infiltration in the p53-positive group were significantly higher than in the p53-negative group. Although intestinal metaplasia was more common in H. pylori infected children (n = 11; 31.4%), there was no difference in the rate of intestinal metaplasia between the p53-positive and p53-negative groups. The present study shows that p53 mutations and higher proliferative activity of glandular epithelium may be related to H. pylori associated gastritis in children. Because p53 mutation does not appear to be associated with intestinal metaplasia, a precursor for gastric cancer in adults, we think that H.pylori associated p53 alterations do not initiate and promote gastric cancer that may occur in adulthood.

  17. In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Vargas, Julio; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio

    2007-02-07

    Helicobacter pylori is linked to a majority of peptic ulcers and to some types of gastric cancer, and resistance of the microorganism to antibiotic treatment is now found worldwide. Virgin olive oil is an unrefined vegetable oil that contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds. Under simulated conditions, we have demonstrated that these substances can diffuse from the oil into the gastric juice and be stable for hours in this acidic environment. In vitro, they exerted a strong bactericidal activity against eight strains of H. pylori, three of them resistant to some antibiotics. Among the phenolic compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed the strongest bactericidal effect at a concentration as low as 1.3 microg/mL. Although the experimental conditions are different from other reported works, this bactericidal concentration is much lower than those found for phenolic compounds from tea, wine, and plant extracts. These results open the possibility of considering virgin olive oil a chemopreventive agent for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, but this bioactivity should be confirmed in vivo in the future.

  18. Inhibitory activity of mangiferin on Helicobacter pylori -induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We, concluded that MF treatment with H. pylori-infected AGS cells significantly suppressed the adhesion and invasion process as well as deactivated NF-p65 thereby blocking inflammatory response and thus lower the incidence of gastric carcinoma. Keywords: Gastric cancer, mangiferin, AGS cells, H. pylori, ...

  19. Loss of TFF1 promotes Helicobacter pylori-induced ?-catenin activation and gastric tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Soutto, Mohammed; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Krishna, Uma; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Washington, M. Kay; Belkhiri, Abbes; Peek, Richard M.; El-Rifai, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the role of TFF1 in suppressing H. pylori-mediated activation of oncogenic ?-catenin in gastric tumorigenesis. A reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cells decreased H. pylori-induced ?-catenin nuclear translocation, as compared to control (p < 0.001). These cells exhibited significantly lower ?-catenin transcriptional activity, measured by pTopFlash reporter, and induction of its target genes (CCND1 and c-MYC), as compared to ...

  20. Lon protease affects the RdxA nitroreductase activity and metronidazole susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, I-Fan; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Chan, Hong-Lin; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2014-10-01

    The lon gene of Helicobacter pylori strains is constitutively expressed during growth. However, virtually nothing is understood concerning the role of Lon in H. pylori. This study examined the function and physiological role of Lon in H. pylori (HpLon) using a trapping approach to identify putative Lon binding partners in the bacterium. Protease-deficient Lon was expressed and served as the bait in trapping approach to capture the interacting partners in H. pylori. The antibiotic susceptibility of wild-type and lon derivative mutants was determined by the E test trips and the disc diffusion assay. The effect of HpLon on RdxA activity was detected the change in NADPH oxidation and metronidazole reduction by spectrophotometer. Lon in Helicobacter pylori (HpLon) interacting partners are mostly associated with metronidazole activation. lon mutant presents more susceptible to metronidazole than that of the wild type, and this phenotype is recovered by complementation of the wild-type Lon. We found that the ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA(+) ) module of HpLon causes a decrease in both NADPH oxidase and Mtz reductase activity in RdxA, a major Mtz-activating enzyme in H. pylori. Metronidazole resistance of H. pylori causes the serious medical problem worldwide. In this study, HpLon is involved in metronidazole susceptibility among H. pylori strains. We provide the evidence that HpLon alters RdxA activity in vitro. The decrease in metronidazole activation caused by HpLon is possibly prior to accumulate mutation in rdxA gene before the metronidazole-resistant strains to be occurred. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Helicobacter pylori Activates IL-6-STAT3 Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells: Potential Roles for Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Juan-Yu; Lee, Hee Geum; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Han, Hyeong-Jun; Ngo, Hoang-Kieu-Chi; Park, Sin-Aye; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Na, Hye-Kyung; Cha, Young-Nam; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying H. pylori-mediated STAT3 activation is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated H. pylori-induced activation of STAT3 signaling in AGS human gastric cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. AGS cells were cocultured with H. pylori, and STAT3 activation was assessed by Western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunocytochemistry. To demonstrate the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H. pylori-activated STAT3 signaling, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was utilized. The expression and production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The interaction between IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) was determined by the immunoprecipitation assay. H. pylori activates STAT3 as evidenced by increases in phosphorylation on Tyr(705) , nuclear localization, DNA binding and transcriptional activity of this transcription factor. The nuclear translocation of STAT3 was also observed in H. pylori-inoculated mouse stomach. In the subsequent study, we found that H. pylori-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was dependent on IL-6. Notably, the increased IL-6 expression and the IL-6 and IL-6R binding were mediated by ROS produced as a consequence of H. pylori infection. H. pylori-induced STAT3 activation is mediated, at least in part, through ROS-induced upregulation of IL-6 expression. These findings provide a novel molecular mechanism responsible for H. pylori-induced gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Komplet remission af højmalignt lymfom i ventriklen efter eradikation af Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Rasmus Tetens; Skau, Anne-Marie; Nørgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    . The recommended treatment of DLBCL is chemotherapy followed by involved-field irradiation. However, small prospective trials have shown high rates of complete remission after eradication of H. pylori alone and this treatment is an option in patients of advanced age or with severe co-morbidities.......A 91 year-old man was found to have diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), localized to the stomach. Because of his age, his only treatment was anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. He achieved a complete remission, and six months after the initial presentation, there were no signs of recurrence...

  3. Komplet remission af højmalignt lymfom i ventriklen efter eradikation af Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Rasmus Tetens; Skau, Anne-Marie; Nørgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A 91 year-old man was found to have diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), localized to the stomach. Because of his age, his only treatment was anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. He achieved a complete remission, and six months after the initial presentation, there were no signs of recurrence....... The recommended treatment of DLBCL is chemotherapy followed by involved-field irradiation. However, small prospective trials have shown high rates of complete remission after eradication of H. pylori alone and this treatment is an option in patients of advanced age or with severe co-morbidities....

  4. Altered mucosal DNA methylation in parallel with highly active Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Maekita, Takao; Yamashita, Satoshi; Enomoto, Shotaro; Ando, Takayuki; Niwa, Tohru; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2013-10-01

    Chronic inflammation triggered by Helicobacter pylori causes altered DNA methylation in stomach mucosae, which is deeply involved in gastric carcinogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between altered mucosal DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis, because inflammatory activity shows particular correlations with the development of diffuse-type cancer. Methylation levels in stomach mucosae of 78 healthy volunteers were determined by real-time methylation-specific PCR or bisulfite pyrosequencing. Examined loci were the promoter CpG islands of six genes (FLNc, HAND1, THBD, p41ARC, HRASLS, and LOX) and the CpG sites of non-coding repetitive elements (Alu and Satα) that are reportedly altered by H. pylori infection. Activity of H. pylori-related gastritis was evaluated using two serum markers: H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen II. Methylation levels of the six CpG islands were consistently increased, and those of the two repetitive elements were consistently decreased in a stepwise manner with the activity of gastric inflammation as represented by serum marker levels. Each serum marker level was well correlated with the overall DNA methylation status of stomach mucosa, and these two serologic markers were additive in the detection of the mucosa with severely altered DNA methylation. Alteration in mucosal DNA methylation level was closely correlated with activity of H. pylori-related gastritis as evaluated by serum markers. The observed correlation between altered DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis appears to be one of the relevant molecular mechanisms underlying the development of diffuse-type cancer.

  5. Helicobacter pylori induces lymphocyte activation in peripheral blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, R; Andersson, G; Poikonen, K; Kosunen, T U; Karttunen, T; Juutinen, K; Niemelä, S

    1990-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori-induced in vitro stimulation of mononuclear cells was characterized by measuring DNA synthesis response, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion and the number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells. The strength of these responses was measured in 51 subjects comprising 36 dyspeptic patients from the Gastroenterological Unit and 15 members of the laboratory staff. Nineteen subjects had antibodies to H. pylori and 32 did not. The responses were compared with respect to H. pylori antibody status. Positive stimulation of DNA synthesis (stimulation index greater than 2) was obtained in 96% of the subjects, and the bacterium induced IFN-gamma secretion in all of them. The induction of immunoglobulin-secreting cells revealed B cell in vitro stimulation. The antibody-positive subjects had a tendency to synthesize less DNA (P not significant) and secrete less IFN-gamma (P less than 0.05) in response to H. pylori than did the antibody-negative ones, but the differences were not marked. The results show that the whole H. pylori bacterium stimulates mononuclear cells. The nature of the stimulation is not yet characterized (non-specific versus specific).

  6. Helicobacter pylori Activates HMGB1 Expression and Recruits RAGE into Lipid Rafts to Promote Inflammation in Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Wei; Lee, Che-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Chen, Chih-Jung; Huang, Mei-Zi; Kao, Min-Chuan; Chen, Yu-An; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several gastrointestinal disorders in the human population worldwide. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, mediates various inflammation functions. The interaction between HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) triggers nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression, which in turn stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8, and enhances the inflammatory response. However, how H. pylori activates HMGB1 expression and mobilizes RAGE into cholesterol-rich microdomains in gastric epithelial cells to promote inflammation has not been explored. In this study, we found that HMGB1 and RAGE expression increased significantly in H. pylori-infected cells compared with -uninfected cells. Blocking HMGB1 by neutralizing antibody abrogated H. pylori-elicited RAGE, suggesting that RAGE expression follows HMGB1 production, and silenced RAGE-attenuated H. pylori-mediated NF-κB activation and IL-8 production. Furthermore, significantly more RAGE was present in detergent-resistant membranes extracted from H. pylori-infected cells than in those from -uninfected cells, indicating that H. pylori exploited cholesterol to induce the HMGB1 signaling pathway. These results indicate that HMGB1 plays a crucial role in H. pylori-induced inflammation in gastric epithelial cells, which may be valuable in developing treatments for H. pylori-associated diseases.

  7. Helicobacter pylori activates HMGB1 expression and recruits RAGE into lipid rafts to promote inflammation in gastric epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwai-Jeng Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several gastrointestinal disorders in the human population worldwide. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, mediates a variety of inflammation functions. The interaction between HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE triggers nuclear factor (NF-κB expression, which in turn stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-8 and enhances the inflammatory response. However, how H. pylori activates HMGB1 expression and mobilizes RAGE into cholesterol-rich microdomains in gastric epithelial cells to promote inflammation has not been explored. In this study, we found that HMGB1 and RAGE expression increased significantly in H. pylori-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Blocking HMGB1 by neutralizing antibody abrogated H. pylori-elicited RAGE, suggesting that RAGE expression follows HMGB1 production, and silenced RAGE-attenuated H. pylori-mediated NF-κB activation and IL-8 production. Furthermore, significantly more RAGE was present in detergent-resistant membranes extracted from H. pylori-infected cells than in those from uninfected cells, indicating that H. pylori exploited cholesterol to induce the HMGB1 signaling pathway. These results indicate that HMGB1 plays a crucial role in H. pylori-induced inflammation in gastric epithelial cells, which may be valuable in developing treatments for H. pylori-associated diseases.

  8. In vitro and in vivo activities of Chios mastic gum extracts and constituents against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschos, Sotirios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Mitakou, Sofia; Petraki, Kalliopi; Kalliaropoulos, Antonios; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Mentis, Andreas; Sgouras, Dionyssios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2007-02-01

    The extracts and pure major constituents of Chios mastic gum (resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) were tested for their activities against Helicobacter pylori. A total mastic extract without polymer (TMEWP) was prepared after removal of the contained insoluble polymer in order to ameliorate solubility and enhance in vivo activity. Administration of TMEWP to H. pylori SS1-infected mice over the period of 3 months with an average dose of 0.75 mg/day led to an approximately 30-fold reduction in the H. pylori colonization (1.5 log CFU/g of tissue). However, no attenuation in the H. pylori-associated chronic inflammatory infiltration and the activity of chronic gastritis was observed. To further characterize potential active mastic constituents, the TMEWP was separated into an acidic and a neutral fraction. Both were extensively characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy to elucidate the structure of the components contained within each fraction. After chromatographic separation, the acid fraction gave the major triterpenic acids, while the neutral fraction gave several triterpenic alcohols and aldehydes. Mastic extracts and isolated pure triterpenic acids were tested for in vitro activity against a panel of 11 H. pylori clinical strains. The acid fraction was found to be the most active extract (minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC], 0.139 mg/ml), and the most active pure compound was isomasticadienolic acid (MBC, 0.202 mg/ml [0.443 mM]). Our results show that administration of TMEWP may be effective in reducing H. pylori colonization and that the major triterpenic acids in the acid extract may be responsible for such an activity.

  9. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against Helicobacter pylori strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, L; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Genovese, S; Locatelli, M; Di Giulio, M

    2014-07-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is a herbal remedy widely used for a variety of illnesses; A. vera leaf extracts have been promoted for detoxification, cure constipation, help flush out toxins and wastes from the body, promote digestion and are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer for cytoprotective action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of A. vera inner gel against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in Abruzzo region, Italy. The inner gel of leaves of a 5-year-old plant of A. vera was extracted, homogenized and tested from 800 to 1.56 mg ml(-1) against 14 clinical strains and one reference strain of H. pylori using the broth microdilution methodology. Furthermore, the sample of A. vera was investigated for the chemical fingerprint of anthraquinones. The inhibitory concentrations of A. vera inner gel were similar to the bactericidal ones, with values ranging from 6.25 to 800 mg ml(-1) . Fifty per cent of the detected strains, independently of their susceptibility profile, were inhibited in their growth at 100 mg ml(-1) . Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against H. pylori and, therefore, in combination with antibiotics, could represent a novel strategy for the treatment of the infection of H. pylori, especially in cases of multiresistance. The study demonstrates that the Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains. These findings may impact on the antimicrobial resistance phenomenon of H. pylori, proposing the A. vera inner gel as a novel effective natural agent for combination with antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori gastric infection. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Loss of TFF1 promotes Helicobacter pylori-induced β-catenin activation and gastric tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutto, Mohammed; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Krishna, Uma; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Washington, M Kay; Belkhiri, Abbes; Peek, Richard M; El-Rifai, Wael

    2015-07-20

    Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the role of TFF1 in suppressing H. pylori-mediated activation of oncogenic β-catenin in gastric tumorigenesis. A reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cells decreased H. pylori-induced β-catenin nuclear translocation, as compared to control (p PMSS1 H. pylori strain, we detected an increase in the nuclear staining for β-catenin and Ki-67 with a significant induction in the levels of Ccnd1 and c-Myc in the stomach of the Tff1-KO, as compared to Tff1-WT mice (p < 0.05). Only 10% of uninfected Tff1-KO mice, as opposed to one-third of H. pylori-infected Tff1-KO mice, developed invasive adenocarcinoma (p = 0.03). These findings suggest that loss of TFF1 could be a critical step in promoting the H. pylori-mediated oncogenic activation of β-catenin and gastric tumorigenesis.

  11. The assessment of carotid intima media thickness and serum Paraoxonase-1 activity in Helicobacter pylori positive subjects

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    Akbas Halide S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis has been increasingly discussed. Although the seroepidemiological studies have suggested a relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and atherosclerosis; the issue is still controversial. It is well known that abnormal lipid profil is related to atherosclerosis and the measurement of carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT is one of the surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C has been known to have an inverse correlation with the development of atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a major anti-atherosclerotic component of HDL-C. PON1 activity is related to lipid peroxidation and prospective cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate CIMT and serum PON1 activities along with lipid parameters in H. pylori positive and negative subjects. Methods Thirty H. pylori positive subjects and thirty-one negative subjects were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by the presence of positivity of stool H. pylori antigen test or Carbon 14 labeled urea breath test. Serum PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were investigated and laboratory analysis included measurement of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. We assessed CIMT by high-resolution ultrasound of both common carotid arteries. Results We found that the mean and maximum values of right and overall CIMT in H. pylori positive subjects were significantly thicker than those of H. pylori negative subjects. There was no significant differences in serum HDL-C, LDL-C, TC levels and TC/HDL-C ratios between two groups. Serum TG levels of H. pylori positive subjects were significantly higher than those of H. pylori negative subjects (p = 0.014. We found that PON1

  12. Serum bactericidal activity against Helicobacter pylori in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desar, I.M.E.; Deuren, M. van; Sprong, T.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Namavar, F.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    The two major primary antibody deficiency disorders are X-linked hypogammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). CVID patients have an elevated risk for gastric cancer and extra-nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Both diseases are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  13. Serum bactericidal activity against Helicobacter pylori in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desar, I. M. E.; van Deuren, M.; Sprong, T.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Namavar, F.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.; van der Meer, J. W. M.

    2009-01-01

    The two major primary antibody deficiency disorders are X-linked hypogammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). CVID patients have an elevated risk for gastric cancer and extra-nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Both diseases are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  14. Gastric ulcer treatment: cure of Helicobacter pylori infection without subsequent acid-suppressive therapy: is it effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; van der Knoop, Bloeme

    2008-06-01

    Whether it is a requirement to continue with anti-secretory therapy following anti-Helicobacter therapy in H. pylori positive gastric ulcers is an important question. As gastric ulcers tend to heal more slowly than duodenal ulcers, may be asymptomatic or only causing mild symptoms and success at curing H. pylori with current fist line therapies is 80% at best, clinicians will likely err on the side of caution and continue acid suppressive therapy to ensure healing of gastric ulcers. This is certainly recommended when dealing with bleeding ulcers.

  15. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some Vietnamese medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Luong Thi My; Dung, Pham Phuong; Nhi, Nguyen Vang Thi Yen; Hoang, Nguyen van Minh; Hieu, Tran Trung

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infectious bacteria. The infection is highly associated with a number of the most important disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer. In addition, widespread use of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance. Metabolites of plants, particularly higher plants, have been suggested as alternative potential sources for antibacterial products due to their safe. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial activities of crude ethanolic extracts of seventeen Vietnamese medicinal plants toward one reference strain and three clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori using broth micro-dilution bioassay. The antibacterial activities of these extracts were also compared with those of seven antibiotics, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and metronidazole. The extracts of Ampelopsis cantoniensis and Cleistocalyx operculatus showed highest antibacterial activity with MIC (MBC) values of 0.31 - 0.97 (2.5 - 5) mg/mL, followed by the extracts of Hedyotis diffusa and Ardisia silvestris with MIC (MBC) values of 1.04 - 1.94 (7.5 - 10) mg/mL. The remaining plant extracts exhibited moderate, low and very low or no active to the H. pylori strains. Further studies are needed to determine the active compounds from the extracts that showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

  16. Study of Helicobacter Pylori Antibody Serum Level in Patients with Migraine Headache

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    Sh. Mazaheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Mechanisms underlying migraine precipitation are largely unknown. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection has recently been associated with various extraintes-tinal pathologies and migraine. The relation between Helicobacter pylori and Migraine is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the H. pylori infec-tion with migraine.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, a total of 80 patients with migraine with aura and without aura who came to neurology clinic of ّFarshchian hospital affiliated with Hamedan Medical University were enrolled in the study and compared with a group of 80 controls. The patients with the history of anti h. pylori medication, chronic inflammatory dis-eases and malignancy were excluded. Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed by ELISA test for IgG. The diagnosis and classification of migraine were made according to the Inter-national Headache Society (IHS criteria. The serum level of IgG was compared in each group by student t test.Results: The mean age in migraine and control groups were 27.26±8.99 and 29.04±9.75 years respectively. The serum level of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG were 39.75±45.09 and 24.93±27.88 Uarb/ml in migraine and control groups respectively (P=0.013. The mean of IgG based on the demographic data were not different in both group (P>0.05.Conclusion: This study demonstrated a higher level of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG in patients with migraine.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:57-61

  17. Helicobacter pylori-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shoumin; Soutto, Mohammed; Chen, Zheng; Peng, DunFa; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Krishna, Uma S; Belkhiri, Abbes; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard; El-Rifai, Wael

    2017-05-01

    DARPP-32 is a frequently amplified and overexpressed gene that promotes several oncogenic functions in gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection, proinflammatory NF-κB activation and regulation of DARPP-32. The study used in vivo and in vitro experiments. Luciferase reporter, quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblot, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), cell viability, H. pylori infection, tissue microarrays and immunohistochemical assays were used. Our results indicated that H. pylori infection increased the DARPP-32 mRNA and protein levels in gastric cancer cell lines and gastric mucosa of mice. H. pylori infection increased the activity of NF-κB reporter and p-NF-κB (S536) protein level in vitro and in vivo . To investigate the transcriptional regulation of DARPP-32, we cloned a 3019 bp of the DARPP-32 promoter into the luciferase reporter (pGL3-Luc). Both H. pylori infection and tumour necrosis factor-α treatment induced DARPP-32 reporter activity (ppylori infection counteracted H. pylori -induced cell death through activation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (AKT), as determined by ATP-Glo and clonogenic survival assays. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between NF-κB and DARPP-32 expression levels in gastric cancer tissues (r 2 =0.43, ppylori infection and activation of NF-κB provides a link between infection, inflammation and gastric tumourigenesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Characterization of and human serologic response to proteins in Helicobacter pylori broth culture supernatants with vacuolizing cytotoxin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, T L; Dooley, C P; Blaser, M J

    1990-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is strongly associated with histologic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Broth culture supernatants from a subset of H. pylori strains induce vacuolization in cultured cells, a phenomenon that has been attributed to cytotoxin activity. Concentrated culture supernatants from 15 of 28 (53.6%) H. pylori strains tested induced vacuolization in HeLa cells in titers ranging from 1:10 to 1:180. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining of supernatants from these 28 strains and 2 control strains demonstrated an 82-kilodalton (kDa) protein band in 3 of 16 supernatants with vacuolizing activity, but in none of 14 supernatants without vacuolizing activity. By immunoblotting with human sera, a 128-kDa band was recognized in all 16 supernatants with vacuolizing activity, compared with 9 of 14 (64%) supernatants without vacuolizing activity (P = 0.014). Serologic recognition of the 128-kDa band in H. pylori culture supernatants was more prevalent among persons infected with vacuolizing H. pylori strains than among persons infected with nonvacuolizing strains, but the difference was not statistically significant (80 versus 45%; P = 0.079); human serologic recognition of the 82-kDa band was less common. The 128-kDa band was recognized by 100% of 31 serum samples from H. pylori-infected patients with duodenal ulcer disease, compared with 60.8% of 74 serum samples from H. pylori-infected persons without peptic ulcer disease (P = 0.0001). These data indicate that antigenic 128- and 82-kDa proteins are present in H. pylori broth culture supernatants with vacuolizing activity and that serologic responses to the 128-kDa protein are more prevalent among H. pylori-infected persons with duodenal ulceration than among infected persons without peptic ulceration.

  19. The biological activity of H. pylori SlyD in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dan; Gong, Yuehua; Zhu, Yanmei; Li, Aodi; Dong, Nannan; Piao, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the biological activity of the H. pylori SlyD in vitro. Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) slyD prokaryotic expression vector was carried out in Escherichia coli (E.coli), and recombination SlyD (rSlyD) was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, transformation effects of rSlyD on AGS cells was detected by CCK-8, cell cycle, caspase-3 activity, matrigel invasion assay, and double-deck soft agar colony forming efficiency. In addition, the expressions of PCNA, KI-67, caspase-3, and MMP-9 were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. The CCK-8 assay revealed that cell proliferation was increased in a time and dose-dependent manner in AGS + rSlyD group compared with that of AGS or AGS + PBS group (p agar colony formation assay revealed the colony number (foci>100 μm) in AGS + rSlyD group was 26.3 ± 7.09, whereas 5.6 ± 1.15 in AGS and 5.0 ± 1.0 in AGS + PBS groups, respectively (p transformation and invasion in the AGS cell line. HpSlyD might contribute to gastric pathogenicity in H.pylori-associated diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Interaction of omeprazole and Helicobacter pylori-induced nuclear factor-κB activation and mediators in gastric epithelial cells

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    Yen-Chun Peng

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Using the Kato-III cells model, H. pylori induces NF-κB activation in a CagA-independent manner. Both CagA+ HPE and CagA– HPE induced COX-2 gene expression, but not for IL-6 and IL-8 expression. However, OMP suppressed NF-κB activation via a downregulation of IκB phosphorylation in CagA– HPE treated condition. OMP also suppressed CagA– H. pylori induced-transcription of proinflammatory COX-2, IL-6, and IL-8. OMP may provide different effects on CagA+ and CagA– H. pylori infection conditions.

  1. One-step chromatographic purification of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein expressed in Bacillus subtilis.

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    Kuo-Shun Shih

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP, a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, is capable of activating human neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and secrete inammatory mediators. HP-NAP is a vaccine candidate, a possible drug target, and a potential in vitro diagnostic marker for H. pylori infection. HP-NAP has also been shown to be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma and bladder cancer. Hence, an efficient way to obtain pure HP-NAP needs to be developed. In this study, one-step anion-exchange chromatography in negative mode was applied to purify the recombinant HP-NAP expressed in Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis. This purification technique was based on the binding of host cell proteins and/or impurities other than HP-NAP to DEAE Sephadex resins. At pH 8.0, almost no other proteins except HP-NAP passed through the DEAE Sephadex column. More than 60% of the total HP-NAP with purity higher than 91% was recovered in the flow-through fraction from this single-step DEAE Sephadex chromatography. The purified recombinant HP-NAP was further demonstrated to be a multimeric protein with a secondary structure of α-helix and capable of activating human neutrophils to stimulate ROS production. Thus, this one-step negative chromatography using DEAE Sephadex resin can efficiently yield functional HP-NAP from B. subtilis in its native form with high purity. HP-NAP purified by this method could be further utilized for the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics for H. pylori infection.

  2. One-Step Chromatographic Purification of Helicobacter pylori Neutrophil-Activating Protein Expressed in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kuo-Shun; Lin, Chih-Chang; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Yang, Yu-Chi; Wang, Chung-An; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Fu, Hua-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP), a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), is capable of activating human neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secrete inammatory mediators. HP-NAP is a vaccine candidate, a possible drug target, and a potential in vitro diagnostic marker for H. pylori infection. HP-NAP has also been shown to be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma and bladder cancer. Hence, an efficient way to obtain pure HP-NAP needs to be developed. In this study, one-step anion-exchange chromatography in negative mode was applied to purify the recombinant HP-NAP expressed in Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). This purification technique was based on the binding of host cell proteins and/or impurities other than HP-NAP to DEAE Sephadex resins. At pH 8.0, almost no other proteins except HP-NAP passed through the DEAE Sephadex column. More than 60% of the total HP-NAP with purity higher than 91% was recovered in the flow-through fraction from this single-step DEAE Sephadex chromatography. The purified recombinant HP-NAP was further demonstrated to be a multimeric protein with a secondary structure of α-helix and capable of activating human neutrophils to stimulate ROS production. Thus, this one-step negative chromatography using DEAE Sephadex resin can efficiently yield functional HP-NAP from B. subtilis in its native form with high purity. HP-NAP purified by this method could be further utilized for the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics for H. pylori infection. PMID:23577158

  3. Antigenic proteins of Helicobacter pylori of potential diagnostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilpour, Akbar; Santhanam, Amutha; Wei, Lee Chun; Saadatnia, Geita; Velusamy, Nagarajan; Osman, Sabariah; Mohamad, Ahmad Munir; Noordin, Rahmah

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori antigen was prepared from an isolate from a patient with a duodenal ulcer. Serum samples were obtained from culture-positive H. pylori infected patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers and gastritis (n=30). As controls, three kinds of sera without detectable H. pylori IgG antibodies were used: 30 from healthy individuals without history of gastric disorders, 30 from patients who were seen in the endoscopy clinic but were H. pylori culture negative and 30 from people with other diseases. OFF-GEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and Western blots of individual serum samples were used to identify protein bands with good sensitivity and specificity when probed with the above sera and HRP-conjugated anti-human IgG. Four H. pylori protein bands showed good (≥ 70%) sensitivity and high specificity (98-100%) towards anti-Helicobacter IgG antibody in culture- positive patients sera and control sera, respectively. The identities of the antigenic proteins were elucidated by mass spectrometry. The relative molecular weights and the identities of the proteins, based on MALDI TOF/ TOF, were as follows: CagI (25 kDa), urease G accessory protein (25 kDa), UreB (63 kDa) and proline/pyrroline- 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (118 KDa). These identified proteins, singly and/or in combinations, may be useful for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in patients.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum L. on Multi-Drug Resistant Helicobacter pylori Isolated From Gastric Biopsies

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    Fozieh Jahani Moghadam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L. exhibit a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against both gram negative and gram-positive bacteria. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the main factor in peptic and duodenal ulcer diseases. Some strains of H. pylori have becom eresistant to the current antibiotics. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial effects of garlic on H. pylori. Materials and Methods: The gastric biopsies were inoculated on Brucella agar base (Conda Pronadisa, Spain supplemented with 5% sterile sheep blood, 7 % fetal calf serum, vancomycin (5 mg/L, trimethoprim (5 mg/L, and polymyxin B (2500 U/L. Antibiotic susceptibility to garlic and commercial antibiotic disc was determined by agar disc diffusion method. Results: In this study, ten strains of H. pylori out of 120 samples were isolated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic extract for all isolates ranged between 25- 400 mg/mL. Resistance rates of 10 strains of H. pylori to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline were 20%, 20%, 30%, 60%, and 30%, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic on all H. pylori clinical isolates was confirmed. These findings might help us to use a new strategy for treatment of peptic ulcer.

  5. Antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori strains and antioxidant properties of blackberry leaves (Rubus ulmifolius) and isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia; D'Addario, Claudia; Colacevich, Andrea; Focardi, Silvia; Borghini, Francesca; Santucci, Annalisa; Figura, Natale; Rossi, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    Rubus spp. (Rosaceae) provide extracts used in traditional medicine as antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and radical scavenging agents. Resistance to antibiotics used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection as well as their poor availability in developing countries prompted us to test the antimicrobial activity of Rubus ulmifolius leaves and isolated polyphenols against two H. pylori strains with different virulence (CagA+ strain 10K and CagA(-) strain G21). The antioxidant activity (TEAC values) of the tested compounds ranged from 4.88 (gallic acid) to 1.60 (kaempferol), whilst the leaf extract gave a value of 0.12. All the isolated polyphenols as well as the leaf extract showed antibacterial activity against both of the H. pylori strains. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the extract for H. pylori strains G21 and 10K, respectively, were 1200 microg/mL and 1500 microg/mL after 24h of exposure and 134 microg/mL and 270 microg/mL after 48 h exposure. Ellagic acid showed very low MBC values towards both of the H. pylori strains after 48 h (2 microg/mL and 10 microg/mL for strains G21 and 10K, respectively) and kaempferol toward G21 strain (MBC=6 microg/mL). A relationship between antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity was found only for H. pylori strain G21 CagA(-) strain.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese maritime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Shao, Jing; Wang, Ligang; Zheng, Huichun; Xu, Yan; Song, Guirong; Liu, Qigui

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is very common worldwide. To evaluate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese maritime workers. Between March 2010 and October 2010, 3995 subjects were selected in the Hospital of Dalian Port. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed using laboratory tests (serum IgG anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies) and background information, family history, lifestyle and eating habits were collected using questionnaires. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 44.9% in these Chinese maritime workers. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was associated with family income, living space, family history of gastrointestinal diseases, smoking, drinking tea, raw vegetables consumption, spicy food, pickle food, dining outside, no regular meal and dish sharing. Further analysis with multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that raw vegetables consumption, pickle food consumption, family income and family history of gastrointestinal diseases were independent predictors for Helicobacter pylori infection. No association was found between infection and gender, marital status, education, alcohol consumption and tap water consumption. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with raw vegetables consumption, pickle food consumption, family income and family history of gastrointestinal disease among Chinese maritime workers.

  7. The Effect of Psychological Stress on Mucosal IL-6 and Helicobacter pylori Activity in Functional Dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin, Eryati; Murni, Arina Widya; Nurdin, Adnil E

    2017-04-01

    pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia remains poorly understood. Many factors such as gastric motility disorder, visceral hypersensitivity, Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, psychological stress and excessive gastric acid secretion play roles in this symptom. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and has an effect on ulcers-associated Hp. This study aimed to determine Helicobacter pylori activity and expression of mucosal IL-6 and their association with psychological stress. a cross-sectional study was done among 40 outpatients with dyspeptic syndromes in M. Djamil General Hospital and two-community health centers in Padang. The subjects were divided into two groups, with and without psychological stress, which were identified using DASS 42. Gastric biopsy specimens and peripheral blood samples were taken while performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Immunohistochemistry methods was used to determine the expression of IL-6 and Hp in gastric mucosa. The correlation of each variable in the group experiencing psychological stress and non-stress was analyzed using Chi-square test. there were 40 patients with functional dyspepsia with average age of 37.58(SD 11.82) years old. The cortisol levels were significantly different between both groups (non-stress vs. stress groups); moreover, morning cortisol level in psychological stress group was higher beyond normal limit. Inter-Leukin-6 expression, as the evidence of inflammatory activity, seemed higher in non-stress group than the group with psychological stress (8.25% vs. 7.25%). Helicobacter pylori activity was seemed to be increased in the stress group as characterized by higher numbers of invasion to the sub mucosa epithelium compared to the non-stress group (11 vs. 7 subjects). psychological stress seems to have no correlation with IL-6 in gastric mucous of patients with functional dyspepsia; however, there is an evidence of increasing activity of Helicobacter pylori.

  8. Cancer development based on chronic active gastritis and resulting gastric atrophy as assessed by serum levels of pepsinogen and Helicobacter pylori antibody titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Inoue, Izumi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Oka, Masashi; Watanabe, Mika; Enomoto, Shotaro; Niwa, Toru; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Masataka; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-03-15

    Our study investigated the relationship between gastric cancer development and activity of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis or the resulting chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A cohort of 4,655 healthy asymptomatic subjects, in whom serum pepsinogen (PG) and H. pylori antibody titer had been measured to assess the activity and stage of H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, was followed for up to 16 years, and cancer development was investigated. In subjects with a serologically diagnosed healthy stomach (H. pylori-negative/CAG-negative), cancer incidence rate was low, at 16/100,000 person-years. With the establishment of H. pylori infection and progression of chronic gastritis, significant stepwise cancer risk elevations were seen from CAG-free subjects (H. pylori-positive/CAG-negative) [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.7-54.7] to subjects with CAG (H. pylori-positive/CAG-positive) (HR = 17.7, 95% CI = 5.4-108.6) and finally to subjects with metaplastic gastritis (H. pylori-negative/CAG-positive) (HR = 69.7, 95% CI = 13.6-502.9). In H. pylori-infected CAG-free subjects, significantly elevated cancer risk was observed in the subgroup with active inflammation-based high PG II level or potent immune response-based high H. pylori antibody titer; the former was associated with a particularly high risk of diffuse-type cancer, and both subgroups showed high cancer incidence rates of around 250/100,000 person-years, comparable to that in subjects with CAG. No such risk elevation was observed in H. pylori-infected subjects with CAG. These results clearly indicate that gastric cancer develops mainly from the gastritis-atrophy-metaplasia-cancer sequence and partly from active inflammation-based direct carcinogenesis, and that serum levels of PG and H. pylori antibody titer provide indices of cancer development in H. pylori-infected subjects. © 2013 UICC.

  9. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and intracellular growth inhibition of Portuguese Thymus essential oils

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    Susana A. Dandlen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyme essential oils are well recognized by their excellent biological activities and the antimicrobial activity of Portuguese thyme essential oils has been investigated with promising results, particularly against food borne pathogens. In this study the potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of five species of Thymus (Lamiaceae, namely Th. caespititius Brot., Th. camphoratus Hoffmanns. & Link, Th. capitellatus Hoffmanns. & Link., Th. carnosus Boiss. and Th. zygis L. was evaluated against Candida albicans, Haemophilus influenza, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Streptococcus pneumoniae. H. pylori strains were the most susceptible bacteria, particularly to the essential oils of Th. caespititius (Planalto Central, Th. zygis (Rebordãos and Th. caespititius (Pico which minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 mg.mL-1. Th. caespititius essential oil from Planalto Central or its main component, carvacrol significantly (p<0.05 inhibited the intracellular growth of H. pylori, and showed no citotoxicity to the gastric cell line. Our results suggest the potential of this essential oil and its main component as a promising tool as anti-Helicobacter agent potentiating the eradication of this important gastroduodenal pathogen.

  10. Construction of an oral recombinant DNA vaccine from H pylori neutrophil activating protein and its immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Li, Zhao-Shen; Tu, Zhen-Xing; Xu, Guo-Ming; Du, Yi-Qi

    2006-11-21

    To construct a live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) strain harboring the H pylori neutrophil activating protein (HP-NAP) gene as an oral recombinant DNA vaccine, and to evaluate its immunogenicity. By genetic engineering methods, the genomic DNA of H pylori was extracted as a template. The total length of the HP-NAP gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into pBT vector for sequencing and BLAST analysis, then subcloned into a eukaryotic expression vector pIRES followed by PCR identification and restriction enzyme digestion. The identified recombinant plasmid pIRES-NAP was transfected into COS-7 cells for target fusion protein expression, and its antigenicity was detected by Western blotting. Then the recombinant plasmid was transformed into a live attenuated S. typhimurium strain SL7207 as an oral vaccine strain, and its immunogenicity was evaluated with animal experiments. A 435 bp product was cloned using high homology with HP-NAP gene in GenBank (more than 98%). With identification by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pIRES-NAP containing the HP-NAP gene of H pylori was successfully constructed. The expressed target protein had a specific reaction with H pylorii whole cell antibody and showed a single strip result detected by Western blotting. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant DNA vaccine strain SL7207 (pIRES-NAP) also induced a specific immune response. The successful construction of HP-NAP oral DNA vaccine with good immunogenicity may help to further investigate its immunoprotection effects and develop vaccine against H pylori infection.

  11. A small animal model of human Helicobacter pylori active chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Fox, J G; Otto, G; Murphy, J

    1990-11-01

    Isolation of a spiral-shaped bacterium closely related to Helicobacter pylori from the cat stomach made it possible to investigate new small animal models of gastric infection. Pure cultures of this bacterium, provisionally named "Helicobacter felis," were fed to germ-free mice. The organism colonized the stomach in large numbers in mucus and deep in the gastric pits and showed the same gastric trophism found with H. pylori. Significant histopathology was seen in all H. felis-infected mice. At 2 weeks postinfection, an acute inflammatory response was seen composed primarily of eosinophils and neutrophils. At 3 weeks, the polymorphonuclear response was more pronounced with large numbers of neutrophils in some areas forming small microabscesses. Lymphocytes also increased in number. By 8 weeks, several relatively large lymphoid nodules were present in the submucosa. Multiple small microabscesses were still present in the pyloric mucosa. This is the first animal model of bacterial gastritis to be described that shows progression from acute inflammation to persistent acute on chronic inflammation (active chronic) as is seen in human infection with H. pylori.

  12. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity

  13. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang, E-mail: lvguoqiangwuxivip@163.com

    2015-08-07

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity.

  14. Eradication of H. pylori in a developing country: comparison of lansoprazole versus omeprazole with norfloxacin, in a dual-therapy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K; Dhar, A; Srinivasan, S; Rattan, A; Sharma, M P

    1997-07-01

    Lansoprazole, a newer benzimidazole, is more potent than omeprazole in its anti-Helicobacter pylori effect in vitro. The present study was aimed at assessing its efficacy in a developing country. Fifty patients were randomized to receive either lansoprazole or omeprazole, with norfloxacin for 2 wk; the ulcer healing rates, H. pylori eradication rates, and recurrence rates were compared over a 6-month period. Both lansoprazole and omeprazole were equally effective in inducing healing of ulcer (96.1 vs 95.5%, p > 0.05) and eradicating H. pylori (76.9 vs 63.9%, p > 0.05), with very low recurrence rates over a 6-month follow-up period. Either lansoprazole or omeprazole combined with norfloxacin is effective in eradicating H. pylori in a high percentage of cases of duodenal ulcer, with little difference between the two proton pump inhibitors.

  15. Activity of cefixime against Helicobacter pylori and affinities for the penicillin-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, F; Yokota, Y; Mine, Y; Tatsuta, M

    1990-12-01

    Cefixime induced the formation of rounded cells from the spiral bacillary form of Helicobacter pylori at the MIC or less. Three main penicillin-binding proteins, called A, B and C, were separated from H. pylori. Cefixime had the strongest affinity to penicillin-binding protein B. The binding of cefixime to this protein may induce the formation of rounded H. pylori cells.

  16. Opsonic activity of specific human IgG against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, M F; Czinn, S J

    1990-07-01

    There is a strong association between chronic gastroduodenal disease in adults and children and the recovery of Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) from gastric biopsy specimens. However, data relevant to host defense mechanisms directed against this organism are scarce. The ability of H. pylori-specific antibody and complement to enhance the in vitro phagocytosis and killing of H. pylori by human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were studied. Sera with IgG antibody to H. pylori from five children with culture-proven H. pylori gastric disease markedly enhanced complement-dependent phagocytosis of H. pylori in an assay using flow cytometry to measure uptake of fluorescent-labeled bacteria by PMNL. Absorption of specific antibody from patient sera with an excess of H. pylori organisms completely abrogated this enhancement. IgG purified from plasma with high IgG antibody titers to H. pylori enhanced complement-dependent phagocytosis of H. pylori and increased the killing of this organism by PMNL in the presence of 5% human opsonic complement by one full log. IgG antibody to H. pylori appears to be highly functional in vitro in promoting complement-dependent phagocytosis and killing of H. pylori by PMNL.

  17. Helicobacter pylori: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, M G

    1990-01-01

    The recent isolation and classification of the spiral gastric bacteria Helicobacter pylori has led to an explosion of worldwide research. The data strongly suggest that H. pylori is the causative agent for type-B active chronic gastritis. The role of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer awaits clarification, and, more importantly, potential treatment regimens need clear documentation and further detailed research. The past decade has revealed many intriguing facts about H. pylori infection. If, during the 1990s, eradication of H. pylori by means of appropriate and safe medication can lead to the control and prevention of gastroduodenal disease, then major clinical and economic benefits can be anticipated.

  18. Active Peptic Ulcer Disease in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus-Related Cirrhosis: The Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dore

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIM: The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease in cirrhosis remains controversial. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of H pylori infection and portal hypertension gastropathy in the prevalence of active peptic ulcer among dyspeptic patients with compensated hepatitis C virus (HCV-related cirrhosis.

  19. Dual Nuclease and Helicase Activities of Helicobacter pylori AddAB Are Required for DNA Repair, Recombination, and Mouse Infectivity*

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Susan K.; Fero, Jutta; Salama, Nina R.; Smith, Gerald R.

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is associated with disease-causing inflammation that elicits DNA damage in both bacterial and host cells. Bacteria must repair their DNA to persist. The H. pylori AddAB helicase-exonuclease is required for DNA repair and efficient stomach colonization. To dissect the role of each activity in DNA repair and infectivity, we altered the AddA and AddB nuclease (NUC) domains and the AddA helicase (HEL) domain by site-directed mutagenesis. Extracts...

  20. Structural basis for the substrate selectivity of Helicobacter pylori NucT nuclease activity.

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    Louisa Celma

    Full Text Available The Phospholipase D (PLD superfamily of proteins includes a group of enzymes with nuclease activity on various nucleic acid substrates. Here, with the aim of better understanding the substrate specificity determinants in this subfamily, we have characterised the enzymatic activity and the crystal structure of NucT, a nuclease implicated in Helicobacter pylori purine salvage and natural transformation and compared them to those of its bacterial and mammalian homologues. NucT exhibits an endonuclease activity with a strong preference for single stranded nucleic acids substrates. We identified histidine124 as essential for the catalytic activity of the protein. Comparison of the NucT crystal structure at 1.58 Å resolution reported here with those of other members of the sub-family suggests that the specificity of NucT for single-stranded nucleic acids is provided by the width of a positively charged groove giving access to the catalytic site.

  1. Prediction of extracellular proteases of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori reveals proteolytic activity of the Hp1018/19 protein HtrA.

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    Martin Löwer

    Full Text Available Exported proteases of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori are potentially involved in pathogen-associated disorders leading to gastric inflammation and neoplasia. By comprehensive sequence screening of the H. pylori proteome for predicted secreted proteases, we retrieved several candidate genes. We detected caseinolytic activities of several such proteases, which are released independently from the H. pylori type IV secretion system encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI. Among these, we found the predicted serine protease HtrA (Hp1019, which was previously identified in the bacterial secretome of H. pylori. Importantly, we further found that the H. pylori genes hp1018 and hp1019 represent a single gene likely coding for an exported protein. Here, we directly verified proteolytic activity of HtrA in vitro and identified the HtrA protease in zymograms by mass spectrometry. Overexpressed and purified HtrA exhibited pronounced proteolytic activity, which is inactivated after mutation of Ser205 to alanine in the predicted active center of HtrA. These data demonstrate that H. pylori secretes HtrA as an active protease, which might represent a novel candidate target for therapeutic intervention strategies.

  2. A 21-35 kDa Mixed Protein Component from Helicobacter pylori Activates Mast Cells Effectively in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ran-Jing; Sun, He-Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Han-Mei; Li, Bin; Yan, Hong-Tao; Lan, Chun-Hui; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Zhuo; Wu, Jin-Jin; Wu, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) seem to involve in the etiology of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). But studies of the pathogenic mechanism are very little. In this study, we detected the serum-specific anti-H. pylori IgG and IgE antibodies in 211 CSU and 137 normal subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), evaluated the direct activation effects of H. pylori preparations and its protein components on human LAD 2 mast cell line in vitro, and analyzed the specific protein ingredients and functions of the most effective H. pylori mixed protein component using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and ELISA assay. In CSU patients, the positive rate of anti-H. pylori IgG positive rate was significantly higher than that in normal controls, and the anti-H. pylori IgE levels had no statistical difference between H. pylori-infected patients with and without CSU. Further studies suggested that H. pylori preparations can directly activate human LAD 2 mast cell line in a dose-dependent manner and its most powerful protein component was a mixture of 21-35 kDa proteins. Moreover, the 21-35 kDa mixed protein component mainly contained 23 kinds of proteins, which can stimulate the release of histamine, TNF-a, IL-3, IFN-γ, and LTB4 by LAD 2 cells in a dose-dependent or time-dependent manner. A 21-35 kDa mixed protein component should be regarded as the most promising pathogenic factor contributing to the CSU associated with H. pylori infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Characterization and Antibacterial Activity Against Helicobacter pylori of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Thai Fermented Rice Noodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techo, Sujitra; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2018-01-23

    A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Khanom-jeen, a Thai traditional fermented rice noodle. They belonged to the genus Leuconostoc (Ln), Lactobacillus (Lb), Enterococcus (E), Lactococcus (Lc), and Weissella (W), based on their phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The strains were identified as Ln. pseudomesenteroides (group 1, two strains), Ln. citreum (group 2, three strains), Ln. lactis (group 3, three strains), Lb. paracasei subsp. tolerans (group 4, two strains), E. faecium (group 5, three strains), Lc. lactis subsp. lactis (group 6, one strain), W. confusa (group 7, six strains), Lb. fermentum (group 8, seven strains), and Lb. plantarum subsp. plantarum and Lb. pentosus (group 9, five strains). Fifteen strains exhibited the inhibitory activity against Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates by spot-on-lawn method. Lb. fermentum P43-01 resisted to bile acids showed the broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against H. pylori strains MS83 and BK364. These antagonistic effects were associated with proteinaceous compounds which are sensitive to α-chymotrypsin and pepsin. Results indicated that production of bacteriocin-like substances of selected strain might be the significant mechanism that exerted the inhibition on H. pylori. A potential strain could be used as probiotics in alternative or adjunctive therapy for a patient suffering from H. pylori infection.

  4. Assessment of p21, p53 expression, and Ki-67 proliferative activities in the gastric mucosa of children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saf, Coskun; Gulcan, Enver Mahir; Ozkan, Ferda; Cobanoglu Saf, Seyhan Perihan; Vitrinel, Ayca

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori that is generally acquired in childhood and infects the gastric mucosa is considered to be responsible for many pathobiological changes that are linked to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Although the majority of studies on the subject have been carried out in adults, there are a limited number of studies on children that reflect the early period of infection and may be of greater significance. We aimed to determine the role of H. pylori infection and/or gastritis in several histopathological changes, p53, p21, and cell proliferation-associated Ki-67 antigen expression in the gastric mucosa. We studied 60 patients with a mean age of 7.5 ± 4.5 years at referral. On the basis of endoscopic appearance and the evaluation of the gastric antral specimens, the patients were divided into three groups: patients without gastritis, patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis, and patients with H. pylori-negative gastritis. To determine the expression of p53, Ki-67, and p21 in gastric biopsy specimens, immunohistochemical stains were performed. The incidence of neutrophil activity, which was one of our histopathologic parameters, was significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. The presence of lymphoid aggregate was more frequent in H. pylori ± gastritis groups than the nongastritis group. p53 expression was found to be significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the nongastritis group. Ki-67 and p21 expressions were significantly more frequent in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. When we evaluated the density of H. pylori, as the density of bacteria increases, we found that the expressions of p53, p21, and Ki-67 increased significantly. Expression of the studied precancerous markers in significant amounts indicates the importance of childhood H. pylori infection in the constitution of gastric cancer in adulthood.

  5. Protease-activated receptor 1 suppresses Helicobacter pylori gastritis via the inhibition of macrophage cytokine secretion and interferon regulatory factor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chionh, Y-T; Ng, G Z; Ong, L; Arulmuruganar, A; Stent, A; Saeed, M A; Wee, J Lk; Sutton, P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic gastritis from Helicobacter pylori infection is a major factor in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Factors that regulate gastritis severity are important in determining which individuals are susceptible to H. pylori-associated disease. Although protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) has been identified as one such host factor, its mechanism of action is unknown. Using chimeric mice, we demonstrated that PAR1-mediated protection against H. pylori gastritis requires bone marrow-derived cells. Analyses of the gastric mucosa revealed that PAR1 suppresses cellular infiltration and both T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 17 (Th17) responses to infection. Moreover, PAR1 expression was associated with reduced vaccine-mediated protection against H. pylori. Analyses of H. pylori-stimulated macrophages revealed that PAR1 activation suppressed secretion of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, key drivers of Th1 and Th17 immunity, respectively. Furthermore, PAR1 suppressed interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), an important transcription factor for IL-12 and IL-23, both in the infected mucosa and following bacterial stimulation. PAR1 suppression of IRF5 and IL-12/23 secretion by macrophages provides a novel mechanism by which the host suppresses the mucosal Th1 and Th17 response to H. pylori infection. Dysregulation of this process is likely an important factor in the susceptibility of some individuals to H. pylori-associated disease.

  6. NF-κB activation and severity of gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontems, Patrick; Aksoy, Ezra; Burette, Alain; Segers, Valérie; Deprez, Carine; Mascart, Françoise; Cadranel, Samy

    2014-06-01

    In contrast to adults, Helicobacter pylori gastritis in children is reported as milder and ulcer disease as uncommon, but unequivocal data are lacking. To compare the frequency of gastro-duodenal ulcers in children and adults as well as the proportion of Helicobacter pylori infection in these patients and to study the effect of chronological age on NF-κB activation and on severity of gastritis. Patients referred in one pediatric and one adult facility for upper GI endoscopy were included. Gastric biopsies were obtained in consecutive Helicobacter pylori-infected patients and age-matched negative controls for immunohistochemistry and electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Three age groups were defined: younger than 8 years, 8-17 years, and adults. Peptic ulcer disease was less frequent in children and less frequently associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. When comparing infected subjects to controls, densities of neutrophils and CD20 cells in the lamina propria increased in all age groups, CD3 cells increasing only in patients older than 8 years and CD8 cells only in adults. NF-κB-p65-positive cells were also increased only in infected adults as well as NF-κB-binding activity. A positive correlation was found between age and densities of neutrophils and CD3, but not of CD8 or CD20 cells. Peptic ulcer disease was less frequent in children and less frequently caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. The different clinical outcome of the infection in children can be the consequence of the lower mucosal immune response. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Enrichment of Probiotic Yogurt with Broccoli Sprout Extract and its Effect on Helicobacter pylori

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    Ali Reza Sadeghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antibiotic consumption is the main way to cure infection induced by Helicobacter pylori. On the other hand, antibiotics have side effects on human body. So, finding an efficient way to replace antibiotic consumption seems necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of broccoli sprout extract on the viability of probiotic bacteria and yogurt’s physicochemical properties, and examine the synergistic effect of this extract with probiotics on Helicobacter pylori growth inhibition.Material and Methods: Four levels of broccoli sprout extract (22.5, 45, 90 and 180 mg ml-1 were prepared and their effect on probiotic yogurt samples was examined. Moreover, their anti- Helicobacter pylori effect was determined.Results and Conclusion: The research results revealed that Broccoli sprout extract did not have any inhibitory effect on Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The variations in acidity of the samples were not significant during storage. A positive correlation was observed between broccoli sprout extract concentration and syneresis. The findings showed the synergistic effect of broccoli sprout extract and probiotics on Helicobacter pylori growth inhibition. Therefore, using broccoli sprout extract and probiotic bacteria, we can produce a yogurt that is effective on the growth inhibition of Helicobacter pylori.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  8. Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angol, Denish Calmax; Ocama, Ponsiano; Ayazika Kirabo, Tess; Okeng, Alfred; Najjingo, Irene; Bwanga, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    Around 70-90% of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is due to Helicobacter pylori and requires treatment with antimicrobials to which these bacteria are susceptible. Common H. pylori diagnostic tests do not provide drug susceptibility data. Using the GenoType HelicoDR PCR test designed for gastric biopsies for simultaneous detection of H. pylori and its resistance to clarithromycin (CLA)/fluoroquinolones (FLQ), we present evidence for stool as an optional test specimen and also provide data on prevalence of H. pylori resistance to CLA and FLQ in Uganda. Stool from 142 symptomatic PUD patients at three hospitals in Kampala was screened for H. pylori using a rapid antigen test. The GenoType HelicoDR test was run on all H. pylori antigen positives to determine PCR positivity and resistance to CLA/FLQ. Thirty-one samples (22%) were H. pylori antigen positive, and 21 (68%) of these were H. pylori PCR positive. Six of the 21 (29%) were resistant to CLA and eight to FLQ (42%), while two gave invalid FLQ resistance results. Stool is a possible specimen for the GenoType HelicoDR test for rapid detection of H. pylori and drug resistance. In Uganda, Helicobacter pylori is highly resistant to CLA and FLQ.

  9. Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Tomomi; Takeshita, Eri; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Hara, Megumi; Akutagawa, Kayo; Sakata, Natsuko; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Ohyama, Takashi; Matsunaga, Keiji; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Shirai, Shinpei; Ito, Yoichiro; Tsuruoka, Nanae; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Kusano, Motoyasu; Fujimoto, Kazuma

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its eradication on the upper gastrointestinal symptoms of relatively healthy Japanese subjects. A total of 3,005 subjects (male/female: 1,549/1,456) undergoing medical health checkups were enrolled in the present study, at five hospitals in Saga, Japan, from January to December 2013. They had no significant findings following upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All subjects completed a questionnaire that addressed a frequency scale for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The questionnaire comprised seven questions regarding reflux symptoms and seven regarding acid-related dyspepsia, which were answered with a score based on the frequency of symptoms. Helicobacter pylori infection was identified by a rapid urease test and/or H. pylori antibody titer, and an eradication history was confirmed by the subjects' medical records. Helicobacter pylori infection was positive in 894 subjects out of 3,005 (29.8%). Eradication of Helicobacter pylori was successfully achieved in 440 subjects of 458 treated. Helicobacter pylori infection had no influence on the acid-related dyspepsia evaluated by the questionnaire, whereas the mean reflux score was relatively high in the Helicobacter pylori native negative subjects compared to Helicobacter pylori native positive. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori and time span after the eradication had no effect on the upper gastrointestinal symptoms evaluated by the questionnaire. Helicobacter pylori infection and history of eradication did not affect acid-related dyspepsia symptoms in Japanese healthy subjects.

  10. Helicobacter pylori CagA triggers expression of the bactericidal lectin REG3γ via gastric STAT3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Syin Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of what is known about the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori cytotoxin, CagA, pertains to a much-vaunted role as a determinant of gastric inflammation and cancer. Little attention has been devoted to potential roles of CagA in the majority of H. pylori infected individuals not showing oncogenic progression, particularly in relation to host tolerance. Regenerating islet-derived (REG3γ encodes a secreted C-type lectin that exerts direct bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria in the intestine. Here, we extend this paradigm of lectin-mediated innate immunity, showing that REG3γ expression is triggered by CagA in the H. pylori-infected stomach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In human gastric mucosal tissues, REG3γ expression was significantly increased in CagA-positive, compared to CagA-negative H. pylori infected individuals. Using transfected CagA-inducible gastric MKN28 cells, we recapitulated REG3γ induction in vitro, also showing that tyrosine phosphorylated, not unphosphorylated CagA triggers REG3γ transcription. In concert with induced REG3γ, pro-inflammatory signalling downstream of the gp130 cytokine co-receptor via the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 and transcription of two cognate ligands, interleukin(IL-11 and IL-6, were significantly increased. Exogenous IL-11, but not IL-6, directly stimulated STAT3 activation and REG3γ transcription. STAT3 siRNA knockdown or IL-11 receptor blockade respectively abrogated or subdued CagA-dependent REG3γ mRNA induction, thus demonstrating a requirement for uncompromised signalling via the IL-11/STAT3 pathway. Inhibition of the gp130-related SHP2-(Ras-ERK pathway did not affect CagA-dependent REG3γ induction, but strengthened STAT3 activation as well as augmenting transcription of mucosal innate immune regulators, IL-6, IL-8 and interferon-response factor (IRF1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a model of CagA-directed REG3

  11. H. pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Khandker Kawser; Kabir, Md Jahangir; Bhuyian, A K M Minhaj Uddin; Alam, Md Shahjadul; Chowdhury, Fazle Rabbi; Ahad, M Abdul; Rahman, Md Anisur; Rahman, M Mizanur

    2017-11-01

    Like that of other Asian countries gastric cancer (GC) is also a leading cancer in Bangladesh and also a cause for cancer-related mortality. Infection with Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is the strongest recognized risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. The infection is also prevalent in common people. This case-control study was carried out to find an association between GC and H. pylori infection in the community. To evaluate association of H. pylori and carcinoma of stomach this study was conducted at National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital, Dhaka from January 2013 to December 2014. H. pylori status was determined serologically by using H. pylori kit in the department of Biochemistry laboratory of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. In total, 114 patients with GC and 520 patients not having GC were studied as controls. Logistic regression method was used to calculate the odds ratio. Significantly more patients in the case group (86.8%) were found to be seropositive for H. pylori antigen in contrast to the control group (67.5%). All of the cases in the present study were in advanced stage. No significant association between H. pylori seropositivity and tumor location was found. It was noted that undifferentiated gastric carcinoma had slightly more association with H. pylori infection. Younger H. pylori -infected patients had been found to be at higher relative risk for GC than older patients. As there is a strong association found between GC and H. pylori infection special emphasis to eradicate H. pylori infection might reduce the incidence of this dreadly disease.

  12. TLR9 activation suppresses inflammation in response to Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Matthew G; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G; Suarez, Giovanni; Whitaker, Morgan E; Krishna, Uma S; Patel, Rachna V; Skaar, Eric P; Wilson, Keith T; Algood, Holly M S; Peek, Richard M

    2016-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces chronic gastritis in humans, and infection can persist for decades. One H. pylori strain-specific constituent that augments disease risk is the cag pathogenicity island. The cag island encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that translocates DNA into host cells. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an innate immune receptor that detects hypo-methylated CpG DNA motifs. In this study, we sought to define the role of the H. pylori cag T4SS on TLR9-mediated responses in vivo. H. pylori strain PMSS1 or its cagE - mutant, which fails to assemble a T4SS, were used to infect wild-type or Tlr9 -/- C57BL/6 mice. PMSS1-infected Tlr9 -/- mice developed significantly higher levels of inflammation, despite similar levels of colonization density, compared with PMSS1-infected wild-type mice. These changes were cag dependent, as both mouse genotypes infected with the cagE - mutant only developed minimal inflammation. Tlr9 -/- genotypes did not alter the microbial phenotypes of in vivo-adapted H. pylori strains; therefore, we examined host immunological responses. There were no differences in levels of T H 1 or T H 2 cytokines in infected mice when stratified by host genotype. However, gastric mucosal levels of IL-17 were significantly increased in infected Tlr9 -/- mice compared with infected wild-type mice, and H. pylori infection of IL-17A -/- mice concordantly led to significantly decreased levels of gastritis. Thus loss of Tlr9 selectively augments the intensity of IL-17-driven immune responses to H. pylori in a cag T4SS-dependent manner. These results suggest that H. pylori utilizes the cag T4SS to manipulate the intensity of the host immune response. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. H. pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Zhong; Tan, Gao; Wu, Fang; Zhi, Fa-Chao

    2017-09-26

    There is an epidemiological inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection and Crohn's disease (CD). However, whether H. pylori plays a protective role against CD remains unclear. Since 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is thought to resemble CD, we investigated whether H. pylori can attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Here we show that H. pylori can attenuate the severity of TNBS-induced colitis. In addition, H. pylori not only down-regulates Th17 and Th1 cytokine expression, but can up-regulate Th2 cytokine expression and increase the Th2:Th17 ratio of CD4 + T in the colonic mucosa of TNBS-induced colitis. Our results indicate that H. pylori attenuates TNBS-induced colitis mainly through increasing Th2 cells in murine colonic mucosa. Our finding offers a novel view on the role of H. pylori in regulating gastrointestinal immunity, and may open a new avenue for development of therapeutic strategies in CD by making use of asymptomatic H. pylori colonization.

  14. [Helicobacter pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøller, M

    1990-01-01

    Ever since 1983 when Marshall & Warren succeeded in cultivating Helicobacter pylori (HP) (previously known as Campylobacter pylori) a high incidence thereof has been demonstrated in patients with ulcers and non-ulcerous dyspepsia. Helicobacter pylori is easily diagnosed via microscopy, cultivation and serological tests. The bacterium may be treated with antibiotics or the ulcer drug bismuth subcitrate (De-Nol). The pathogenetic role of HP is not clear. Some studies have shown a lower recurrence rate of duodenal ulcers after treatment addressed to Helicobacter pylori with the ulcer drug De-Nol, which suggests that HP plays a role in the onset of recurrence in cases of ulcus duodeni.

  15. A novel synthetic peptide from a tomato defensin exhibits antibacterial activities against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, M M; Romanelli, A; Fulgione, A; Nocerino, N; D'Agostino, N; Avitabile, C; Frusciante, L; Barone, A; Capuano, F; Capparelli, R

    2012-12-01

    Defensins are a class of cysteine-rich proteins, which exert broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this work, we used a bioinformatic approach to identify putative defensins in the tomato genome. Fifteen proteins had a mature peptide that includes the well-conserved tetradisulfide array. We selected a representative member of the tomato defensin family; we chemically synthesized its γ-motif and tested its antimicrobial activity. Here, we demonstrate that the synthetic peptide exhibits potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus A170, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria monocytogenes, and Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi, Escherichia coli, and Helicobacter pylori. In addition, the synthetic peptide shows minimal (<5%) hemolytic activity and absence of cytotoxic effects against THP-1 cells. Finally, SolyC exerts an anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, as it downregulates the level of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. In vitro bactericidal activity of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its individual herb Chenopodium ambrosioides L. against antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xue-Zhi; Li, Ning; Cheng, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal effects of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its major component Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Four clinical antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains were isolated and incubated in liquid medium containing Jinghua Weikang Capsule or Chenopodium ambrosioides L. By means of time-kill curve method, the average colony counts and bactericidal rate were calculated at time points of 0, 4, 8 and 24 h after the incubation and the time-kill curves were charted. Both Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. at a concentration of 0.64 g/L showed obvious bactericidal effect against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori after 4 h of incubation. Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. are considered to be active against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori in vitro.

  17. Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Alexander; Langner, Cosima; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Habendorf, Wiebke; Weigt, Jochen; Venerito, Marino; Tammer, Ina; Schlüter, Dirk; Schlaermann, Philipp; Meyer, Thomas F; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2017-07-14

    To evaluate the frequency of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) CagA antibodies in H. pylori infected subjects and to identify potential histopathological and bacterial factors related to H. pylori CagA-immune response. Systematic data to H. pylori isolates, blood samples, gastric biopsies for histological and molecular analyses were available from 99 prospectively recruited subjects. Serological profile (anti- H. pylori , anti-CagA) was correlated with H. pylori isolates ( cagA , EPIYA, vacA s/m genotype), histology (Sydney classification) and mucosal interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and protein expression. Selected H. pylori strains were assessed for H. pylori CagA protein expression and IL-8 induction in co-cultivation model with AGS cells. Thirty point three percent of microbiologically confirmed H. pylori infected patients were seropositive for CagA. Majority of H. pylori isolates were cagA gene positive (93.9%) with following vacA polymorphisms: 42.4% vacA s1m1 , 23.2% s1m2 and 34.3% s2m2 . Anti-CagA-IgG seropositivity was strongly associated with atrophic gastritis, increased mucosal inflammation according to the Sydney score, IL-8 and cagA mRNA expression. VacA s and m polymorphisms were the major determinants for positive ( vacA s1m1) or negative ( vacA s2m2) anti-CagA serological immune response, which also correlated with the in vitro inflammatory potential in AGS cells. In vitro co-cultivation of representative H. pylori strains with AGS cells confirmed functional CagA translocation, which showed only partial correlation with CagA seropositivity in patients, supporting vacA as major co-determinant of the immune response. Serological immune response to H. pylori cagA + strain in H. pylori infected patients is strongly associated with vacA polymorphism, suggesting the crucial role of bacterial factors in immune and clinical phenotype of the infection.

  18. Development of gastric cancer in nonatrophic stomach with highly active inflammation identified by serum levels of pepsinogen and Helicobacter pylori antibody together with endoscopic rugal hyperplastic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mika; Kato, Jun; Inoue, Izumi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Yoshida, Takeichi; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Enomoto, Shotaro; Ueda, Kazuki; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Masataka; Tekeshita, Tatsuya; Mohara, Osamu; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate groups at high risk of developing cancer among patients with serologically identified Helicobacter pylori infection and nonatrophic stomach. Annual endoscopy was performed for a mean of 5.4 years in 496 asymptomatic middle-aged men who were H. pylori antibody-positive and pepsinogen (PG) test-negative. Subjects were stratified according to the activity of H. pylori-associated gastritis measured by serum levels of PG and H. pylori antibody, and/or by endoscopic findings of rugal hyperplastic gastritis (RHG), and cancer development was investigated. During the study period, seven cases of cancer developed in the cohort (incidence rate, 261/100,000 person-years), with 85.7% developing in the group showing a PGI/II ratio ≤ 3.0, reflecting active inflammation-based high PGII levels. Cancer incidence was significantly higher in this group (750/100,000 person-years) than in groups with less active gastritis. Furthermore, cancer incidence for this group was significantly higher in the subgroup with high H. pylori antibody titers than in the low-titer subgroup. Meanwhile, endoscopic findings revealed that 11.7% of subjects showed RHG reflecting localized highly active inflammation, and cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with RHG than in patients without. Combining the two serum tests and endoscopic examination for RHG allowed identification of subjects with more active gastritis and higher cancer risk. No cancer development was observed in these high-risk subjects after H. pylori eradication. Subjects with highly active gastritis identified by the two serological tests and endoscopic RHG constitute a group at high risk of cancer development with H. pylori-infected nonatrophic stomach. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. α-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Helicobacter pylori-Induced Oncogene Expression and Hyperproliferation by Suppressing the Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Byun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperproliferation and oncogene expression are observed in the mucosa of Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori- infected patients with gastritis or adenocarcinoma. Expression of oncogenes such as β-catenin and c-myc is related to oxidative stress. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA, a naturally occurring thiol compound, acts as an antioxidant and has an anticancer effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of α-LA on H. pylori-induced hyperproliferation and oncogene expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells by determining cell proliferation (viable cell numbers, thymidine incorporation, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, NADPH oxidase activation (enzyme activity, subcellular levels of NADPH oxidase subunits, activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1, expression of oncogenes (β-catenin, c-myc, and nuclear localization of β-catenin. Furthermore, we examined whether NADPH oxidase mediates oncogene expression and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells using treatment of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. As a result, α-LA inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase and, thus, reduced ROS production, resulting in inhibition on activation of NF-κB and AP-1, induction of oncogenes, nuclear translocation of β-catenin, and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. DPI inhibited H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1, oncogene expression and hyperproliferation by reducing ROS levels in AGS cells. In conclusion, we propose that inhibiting NADPH oxidase by α-LA could prevent oncogene expression and hyperproliferation occurring in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.

  20. Functional13C-urea and glucose hydrogen/methane breath tests reveal significant association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in individuals with active Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Kriegshäuser, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is considered to alter the bacterial flora in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at investigating the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with active H. pylori infection assessed by functional breath testing. A total of 109 outpatients, who were referred for the H. pylori 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) by general practitioners and specialists, were also tested for the presence of SIBO by the glucose hydrogen (H 2 )/methane (CH 4 ) breath test (HMBT). A detailed anamnesis was carried out about the history of H. pylori infection, eradication therapies, proton pump inhibitor intake, and comorbidities. In total, 36/109 (33.0%) patients had a positive H. pylori 13 C-UBT, and 35/109 (32.1%) patients had a positive glucose HMBT, the latter being indicative of SIBO. Interestingly, individuals with a positive H. pylori 13 C-UBT were significantly more often associated with a positive glucose HMBT (p=0.002). Cohen's κ measuring agreement between the 13 C-UBT and the glucose HMBT was 0.31 (confidence intervals: 0.12-0.50) (p=0.001). Altogether, 19 of 54 (35.2%) patients, who had completed up to four eradication therapies, were diagnosed with SIBO by HMBT. H. pylori infection was found to be significantly associated with the presence of SIBO as determined by functional breath testing. In addition, SIBO rates appeared to have increased after completed eradication therapies. However, further longitudinal studies are warranted to fully elucidate the relationship and treatment modalities of coincident H. pylori infection and SIBO. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the Association between H. pylori Infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Fouladi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of mortality in developing and industrial countries. Recently the involvement of infectious agents as a risk factor for Acute Coronary syndrome is drafted. So this study was designed to investigate the probable association between Acute Coronary syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection.   Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 300 hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of Acute Coronary syndrome (UA and MI and 300 hospitalized patients without the history of coronary heart disease. Anti Helicobacter pylori Antibody level was determined by as an indicator of infection history. Using chi-square and t- test the results were analyzed in SPSS software.   Results: Results showed that 79 patients (26.3% in control group and 122 patients (40.6% in case group were seropositive and the difference was significant. Relationship between cronory diseases risk factors and levels of IgG was not significant. Also the results showed that the rate of hypertension in seropositive patients in case group was significantly upper than control group.   Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study we can conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection probably is a risk factor for Acute Coronary Syndrome. Thus, further studies are needed to elucidate the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

  2. The impact of bismuth addition to sequential treatment on Helicobacter pylori eradication: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyigit, Sebahat; Kefeli, Ayse; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Yeniova, Abdullah Ozgür; Asilturk, Zeliha; Hokkaomeroglu, Murat; Uzman, Metin; Nazligul, Yasar

    2015-10-25

    The success of the current anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment protocols is reported to decrease by years, and research is needed to strengthen the H. pylori eradication treatment. Sequential treatment (ST), one of the treatment modalities for H. pylori eradication, includes amoxicillin 1 gr b.i.d and proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for first 5 days and then includes clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d, metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d and a proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for remaining 5 days. In this study, we investigated efficacy and tolerability of bismuth addition in to ST. We included patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in which H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histological examination of antral and corporal gastric mucosa biopsy. Participants were randomly administered ST or bismuth containing ST (BST) protocols for the first-line H. pylori eradication therapy. Participants have been tested by urea breath test for eradication success 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. One hundred and fifty patients (93 female, 57 male) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in eradication rates for both intention to treat population (70.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-74.1% vs. 71.8%, 95% CI: 61.8-81.7%, for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05) and per protocol population (74.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-85.8% vs. 73.7%, 95% CI: 63.9-83.5% for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05). Despite the undeniable effect of bismuth, there may be several possible reasons of unsatisfactory eradication success. Drug administration time, coadministration of other drugs, possible H. pylori resistance to bismuth may affect the eradication success. The addition of bismuth subcitrate to ST regimen does not provide significant increase in eradication rates.

  3. Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein: A potential Treg modulator suppressing allergic asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjna eSehrawat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate aim of immunology is to kill the pathogen without being harmful to the host. But what if eliminating the pathogen in itself is discomforting for the host? One such emerging case is of Helicobacter pylori. Modern medicine, infantile vaccination and ultra-hygienic conditions have led to progressive disappearance of H. pylori in different parts of the world. However, the adversities caused by H. pylori’s absence are much larger than those caused by its presence. Asthma is rising as an epidemic in last few decades and several reports suggest an inverse-relationship between H. pylori’s persistence and early-life onset asthma. Regulatory T cells play an important role in both the cases. This is further supported by experiments on mouse-models. Hence, need of the hour is to discern the relationship between H. pylori and its host and eliminating its negative impacts without disturbing our indigenous microbiota. To resolve whether H. pylori is a pathogen or an amphibiont is another important side. This review explores the biological basis of H. pylori-induced priming of immune system offering resistance to childhood-onset asthma. HP-NAP-Tregs interaction has been predicted using molecular docking and dynamic simulation.

  4. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  5. A novel insight into the oxidoreductase activity of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 protein.

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    Paula Roszczenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The formation of a disulfide bond between two cysteine residues stabilizes protein structure. Although we now have a good understanding of the Escherichia coli disulfide formation system, the machineries at work in other bacteria, including pathogens, are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this work was to improve our understanding of the disulfide formation machinery of Helicobacter pylori, a leading cause of ulcers and a risk factor for stomach cancer worldwide. METHODS AND RESULTS: The protein HP0231 from H. pylori, a structural counterpart of E. coli DsbG, is the focus of this research. Its function was clarified by using a combination of biochemical, microbiological and genetic approaches. In particular, we determined the biochemical properties of HP0231 as well as its redox state in H. pylori cells. CONCLUSION: Altogether our results show that HP0231 is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes disulfide bond formation in the periplasm. We propose to call it HpDsbA.

  6. In vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity of Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep. var. craveniana (S.Y.Hu) Lo and its main effective component, palmatine, against porcine Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Qian; Xu, Min; Dong, Qi; Zhang, Yuli; Li, Yinglun; Ye, Gang; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep. var. craveniana (S.Y.Hu) Lo (TSG) is a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection and has anti-bacterial and anti-ulcer activity. Our study investigated the bactericidal effects of TSG and its major component, palmatine, against a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strain isolated from pig and the standard strain H. pylori SS1 in vitro and in vivo. Methods H. pylori was isolated from pig and na...

  7. Active infection with Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population of middle aged to elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Peschke, F

    1998-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate prevalence and determinants of current Helicobacter pylori infection in an asymptomatic population of middle-aged to elderly people. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 337 participants of a general education programme of the University of Ulm aged 50...... of school education of the father, sharing a bed with parents or siblings during childhood, and the area in which participants had grown up were independent determinants of current infection status in a multivariable analysis. We conclude that the prevalence of current H. pylori infection in healthy elderly...

  8. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  9. EVALUATION OF HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN CLASS I AND II ANTIGENS IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI-POSITIVE PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE GASTRITIS AND DUODENAL ULCER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, Sevim; Sari, Sinan; Kandur, Yaşar; Dalgiç, Buket; Söylemezoğlu, Oğuz

    2017-12-01

    As being the first bacteria determined to be carcinogenic, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen localized in the stomach in more than half of the world population. Some earlier studies have found a relation between tissue histocompatibility antigens and gastric cancers depending on the regions. The present study aimed to determine the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II antigens in H. pylori-positive pediatric patients with active gastritis and duodenal ulcer, excluding cancer cases, in our center. The study included 40 patients diagnosed with H. pylori-positive active gastritis and duodenal ulcer and 100 controls consisting of healthy donor candidates. The HLA class I and class II antigens were studied in the isolated DNA samples using the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. The frequency of HLA-B*51 antigen was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (40% vs 17%; P=0.003). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ antigens. It was determined that HLA-B*51 plays a critical role in H. pylori infection.

  10. EVALUATION OF HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN CLASS I AND II ANTIGENS IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI-POSITIVE PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE GASTRITIS AND DUODENAL ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim GÖNEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: As being the first bacteria determined to be carcinogenic, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a pathogen localized in the stomach in more than half of the world population. Some earlier studies have found a relation between tissue histocompatibility antigens and gastric cancers depending on the regions. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I and class II antigens in H. pylori-positive pediatric patients with active gastritis and duodenal ulcer, excluding cancer cases, in our center. METHODS: The study included 40 patients diagnosed with H. pylori-positive active gastritis and duodenal ulcer and 100 controls consisting of healthy donor candidates. The HLA class I and class II antigens were studied in the isolated DNA samples using the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. RESULTS: The frequency of HLA-B*51 antigen was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (40% vs 17%; P=0.003. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ antigens. CONCLUSION: It was determined that HLA-B*51 plays a critical role in H. pylori infection.

  11. Disinfectant activity against different morphological forms of Helicobacter pylori: first results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gebel, J.; Vacata, V.; Sigler, Karel; Pietsch, H.; Rechenburg, A.; Exner, M.; Kistemann, T.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 48, Suppl A (2001), s. 58-63 ISSN 0195-6701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : desinfection * disinfectant efficacy * Helicobacter pylori Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.983, year: 2001

  12. The influences of pepsin concentrations and pH levels on the disinfective activity of ozone nanobubble water against helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawara, Fumiaki; Inoue, Jun; Takenaka, Mamoru; Hoshi, Namiko; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Nishiumi, Shin; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Azuma, Takeshi; Ohdaira, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the utility of ozone nanobubble water (NBW3) for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach, we tested the influence of pepsin concentrations and pH levels on the disinfective activity of NBW3, and the cytotoxicity of NBW3 against mammalian cells and mucosa. Different concentrations of pepsin were dissolved in NBW3, and the bactericidal activity was tested on H. pylori. NBW3 was adjusted to different pH levels (2.0-7.4) and the bactericidal activity on H. pylori was also tested. To examine the cytotoxicity of NBW3, AGS cells, human gastric epithelial cells, were treated with NBW3 and the viability of the cells was evaluated in vitro. Furthermore, NBW3 was administered to mice and gastric mucosal damage was evaluated by histology. Pepsin reduced the disinfective activity of NBW3 on H. pylori in a pepsin concentration-dependent manner. NBW3 showed stable disinfective activity at all pH levels examined. Cytotoxicity of NBW3 against human gastric epithelial cells and gastric mucosa was not observed in our experimental setting. NBW3 can sustain its disinfective activity in wide range of pH levels and show no cytotoxicity on mammalian cells and tissue. Pepsin can inhibit NBW3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Activation of EGFR and ERBB2 by Helicobacter pylori Results in Survival of Gastric Epithelial Cells with DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Asim, Mohammad; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Yan, Fang; Barry, Daniel P.; Sierra, Johanna Carolina; Delgado, Alberto G.; Hill, Salisha; Casero, Robert A.; Bravo, Luis E.; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Correa, Pelayo; Polk, D. Brent; Washington, M. Kay; Rose, Kristie L.; Schey, Kevin L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The gastric cancer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori upregulates spermine oxidase (SMOX) in gastric epithelial cells, causing oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and DNA damage. A subpopulation of SMOXhigh cells are resistant to apoptosis, despite their high levels of DNA damage. Because epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation can regulate apoptosis, we determined its role in SMOX-mediated effects. METHODS SMOX, apoptosis, and DNA damage were measured in gastric epithelial cells from H pylori-infected Egfrwa5 mice (which have attenuated EGFR activity), Egfr wild-type mice, or in infected cells incubated with EGFR inhibitors or deficient in EGFR. Phosphoproteomic analysis was performed. Two independent tissue microarrays containing each stage of disease, from gastritis to carcinoma, and gastric biopsies from Colombian and Honduran cohorts were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS SMOX expression and DNA damage were decreased, and apoptosis increased in H pylori-infected Egfrwa5 mice. H pylori-infected cells with deletion or inhibition of EGFR had reduced levels of SMOX, DNA damage, and DNA damagehigh apoptosislow cells. Phosphoproteomic analysis revealed increased EGFR and ERBB2 signaling. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of a phosphorylated (p)EGFR–ERBB2 heterodimer and pERBB2; knockdown of ErbB2 facilitated apoptosis of DNA damagehigh apoptosislow cells. SMOX was increased in all stages of gastric disease, peaking in tissues with intestinal metaplasia, whereas pEGFR, pEGFR–ERBB2, and pERBB2 were increased predominantly in tissues demonstrating gastritis or atrophic gastritis. Principal component analysis separated gastritis tissues from patients with cancer vs those without cancer. pEGFR, pEGFR–ERBB2, pERBB2, and SMOX were increased in gastric samples from patients whose disease progressed to intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia, compared with patients whose disease did not progress. CONCLUSIONS In an analysis

  14. Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Offor, E; Obiorah, C C

    2018-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related atrophic gastritis transits through a sequential pathway of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia to gastric cancer. Gastroscopy offers early detection, treatment and surveillance of gastric cancer. This study aims to study the prevalence of H. pylori infection and evaluate precancerous lesions (PCLs) of the stomach. This is a case controlled study of patients with dyspepsia undergoing gastroscopy at a referral endoscopy facility in Port Harcourt metropolis of Nigeria. The variables studied included demographics, clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic findings. Statistical analysis of data was done using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. (Armonk, NY, USA). A total of 104 patients were included in the study. Age ranged from 20 to 80 years (mean 47.1 ± 14.4 years); 56 were males and 48 were females. H. pylori were detected in 40 (38.5%) mucosal biopsies. The prevalence of PCLs was: chronic atrophic gastritis 6.7% (7 cases); intestinal metaplasia 2.9% (3 cases); and dysplasia 5.8% (6 cases). There was no statistical significance in sex distribution of PCLs (P = 0.245). There is a low prevalence of H. pylori in this metropolitan population. Mandatory multiple topographically targeted biopsies, even with normal mucosal appearance, at gastroscopy in addition to surveillance of PCL are recommended for early detection of gastric cancer.

  15. Helicobacter pylori: a sexually transmitted bacterium?

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral sex (fellatio) is a very common sexual activity. H. pylori is mainly a gastric organism, but studies have reported that infected individuals may permanently or transiently carry H. pylori in their mouth and saliva. Material and methods A Pubmed search was conducted using the words infection, oral sex and urethritis. Results The existing studies support the hypothesis that H. pylori could be a causative agent of non?gonococcal urethritis. Conclusions It is possible that H. py...

  16. In vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity of Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep. var. craveniana (S.Y.Hu) Lo and its main effective component, palmatine, against porcine Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qian; Xu, Min; Dong, Qi; Zhang, Yuli; Li, Yinglun; Ye, Gang; Zhao, Ling

    2016-08-30

    Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep. var. craveniana (S.Y.Hu) Lo (TSG) is a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection and has anti-bacterial and anti-ulcer activity. Our study investigated the bactericidal effects of TSG and its major component, palmatine, against a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strain isolated from pig and the standard strain H. pylori SS1 in vitro and in vivo. H. pylori was isolated from pig and named H. pylori SCYA201401. For in vitro experiments, the inhibitory activity of TSG and palmatine against H. pylori SCYA201401 and H. pylori SS1 were tested by use of the agar cup diffusion technique. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined from the absence of H. pylori colonies on agar plates. Time-kill curves were used to evaluate bactericidal activity; the average number of colonies was calculated at 0 to 48 h after liquid incubation, with concentrations of drugs at 0.5, 1, and 2 × MIC. For in vivo experiments, H. pylori SCYA201401-infected mice were randomly divided into TSG, palmatine, triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin), blank control, and model groups. The eradication ratios were determined by use of rapid urease tests and bacterial culture. In vitro, the MIC and MBC of TSG against H. pylori SCYA201401 and SS1 were both 6250 μg/mL, whereas palmatine against H. pylori SCYA201401 was 6.25 μg/mL and against H. pylori SS1 was 3.12 μg/mL. The time-kill curves showed a dose-dependent, progressive decline in the numbers of viable bacteria up to 40 h. In vivo, the eradication ratios in the TSG and palmatine groups of mice were 80 and 50 % compared with 70 % in the triple-therapy group. TSG and its major component, palmatine, have bactericidal activity against H. pylori in vitro and in vivo. The possibility that TSG or palmatine can be effective in the treatment of human and animals H. pylori

  17. Effects of sucralfate and sulglycotide treatment on active gastritis and Helicobacter pylori colonization of the gastric mucosa in non-ulcer dyspepsia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, L; Biasco, G; Capurso, L; Dobrilla, G; Lalli, A; Paganelli, G M; Pallone, F; Torsoli, A

    1990-09-01

    We conducted a double-blind randomized treatment study on patients affects by non-ulcer dyspepsia in whom multiple biopsy specimens showed active gastritis. Patients were given either 3 g/day of sucralfate (n = 39) or 600 mg/day of sulglycotide (n = 50) for 6 wk, a glycopeptide isolated from pig duodenum constituents. Endoscopy was carried out at baseline and at the end of treatment. We took biopsies from the gastric body (twice) and antrum (six times) at each endoscopy in order to determine grade and extent of gastritis and Helicobacter pylori colonization. Both treatments induced a marked regression of active gastritis (sucralfate group: p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.0001, respectively, in body and in antrum; sulglycotide group: p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). Conversely, Helicobacter pylori colonization remained unchanged at the end of the treatments. At baseline, a close relationship was found between grade of active inflammation in each biopsy and Helicobacter pylori density. After therapy, the association was lost in each treatment group. These results suggest that there can be a remission of active gastritis in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia even without changes in Helicobacter pylori colonization. This result can be achieved by enhancing the protective properties of the gastric mucosa.

  18. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18......-88 in the German National Health and Nutrition Survey. Detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits was obtained in personal interviews using a standardized food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall...... prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.2%. There was a clear inverse dose-response-relation between reported alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection. The relation persisted after control for potential confounding factors. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for H. pylori infection...

  19. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18...... prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.2%. There was a clear inverse dose-response-relation between reported alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection. The relation persisted after control for potential confounding factors. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for H. pylori infection...... among persons who consumed up to 10, 10 to 20, and more than 20 gm of alcohol per day compared with non-drinkers were 0.93 (0.77-1.13), 0.82 (0.65-1.04), and 0.71 (0.55-0.92). The inverse relation between alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection was even stronger when individuals with an indication...

  20. Structures and metal-binding properties of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein with a di-nuclear ferroxidase center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hideshi; Fujii, Satoshi

    2014-06-26

    Helicobacter pylori causes severe diseases, such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancers. H. pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is an iron storage protein that forms a dodecameric shell, promotes the adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells, and induces the production of reactive oxygen radicals. HP-NAP belongs to the DNA-protecting proteins under starved conditions (Dps) family, which has significant structural similarities to the dodecameric ferritin family. The crystal structures of the apo form and metal-ion bound forms, such as iron, zinc, and cadmium, of HP-NAP have been determined. This review focused on the structures and metal-binding properties of HP-NAP. These metal ions bind at the di-nuclear ferroxidase center (FOC) by different coordinating patterns. In comparison with the apo structure, metal loading causes a series of conformational changes in conserved residues among HP-NAP and Dps proteins (Trp26, Asp52, and Glu56) at the FOC. HP-NAP forms a spherical dodecamer with 23 symmetry including two kinds of pores. Metal ions have been identified around one of the pores; therefore, the negatively-charged pore is suitable for the passage of metal ions.

  1. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Apis mellifera honey on the Helicobacter pylori infection of Wistar rats gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Yamamoto AMARAL

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering that Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium able to colonize the upper gastrointestinal tract and cause mucosal injury, not always can be effectively eradicated by the traditional approaches, there is an interest in alternative therapies until a vaccine be available. Honey is a food supplement with high carbohydrate content and antioxidant activity, as well as broad antimicrobial spectrum. After analyzing the physicochemical and in vitro antimicrobial properties of an Apis mellifera honey from the Atlantic forest of Alagoas / Brazil, the purpose of the present work was evaluate its in vivo effects against Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats. First, it was verified the success of inoculation/infection of the pathogen in the gastric mucosa of the rats, through the subsequent removal of their stomachs for histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin stain and Giemsa stain. Then, four groups of animals were treated with sterilized distilled deionized water, the Apis mellifera honey, a combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and an association of such medicines and honey (1:1. Except the control, all treatments were effective in combating infection, however, honey reduced the inflammatory process, whilst the antibiotics increase the number of eosinophils.

  2. Enzyme-ligand interactions that drive active site rearrangements in the Helicobacter pylori 5´-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Donald R; Iacopelli, Natalie M; Mishra, Vidhi [Toledo

    2012-03-15

    The bacterial enzyme 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) plays a central role in three essential metabolic pathways in bacteria: methionine salvage, purine salvage, and polyamine biosynthesis. Recently, its role in the pathway that leads to the production of autoinducer II, an important component in quorum-sensing, has garnered much interest. Because of this variety of roles, MTAN is an attractive target for developing new classes of inhibitors that influence bacterial virulence and biofilm formation. To gain insight toward the development of new classes of MTAN inhibitors, the interactions between the Helicobacter pylori-encoded MTAN and its substrates and substrate analogs were probed using X-ray crystallography. The structures of MTAN, an MTAN-Formycin A complex, and an adenine bound form were solved by molecular replacement and refined to 1.7, 1.8, and 1.6 Å, respectively. The ribose-binding site in the MTAN and MTAN-adenine cocrystal structures contain a tris[hydroxymethyl]aminomethane molecule that stabilizes the closed form of the enzyme and displaces a nucleophilic water molecule necessary for catalysis. This research gives insight to the interactions between MTAN and bound ligands that promote closing of the enzyme active site and highlights the potential for designing new classes of MTAN inhibitors using a link/grow or ligand assembly development strategy based on the described H. pylori MTAN crystal structures.

  3. Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) are Gram-negative spiral bacteria which occur in the human stomach. The bacteria were cultured in vitro for the first time in 1983. It is suspected that the bacteria may cause chronic gastritis of type B and may also be a contributory cause of chronic ulceration and cancer...

  4. Helicobacter pylori Couples Motility and Diffusion to Actively Create a Heterogeneous Complex Medium in Gastric Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Henry; Mirbagheri, Seyed Amir

    2016-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori swims through mucus gel by generating ammonia that locally neutralizes the acidic gastric environment, turning nearby gel into a fluid pocket. The size of the fluid zone is important for determining the physics of the motility: in a large zone swimming occurs as in a fluid through hydrodynamic principles, while in a very small zone the motility could be strongly influenced by nonhydrodynamic cell-mucus interactions including chemistry and adhesion. We calculate the size of the fluid pocket. We model how swimming depends on the de-gelation range using a Taylor sheet swimming through a layer of Newtonian fluid bounded by a Brinkman fluid. Then, we model how the de-gelation range depends on the swimming speed by considering the advection-diffusion of ammonia exuded from a translating sphere. Self-consistency between both models determines the values of the swimming speed and the de-gelation range. We find that H. pylori swims through mucus as if unconfined, in a large pocket of Newtonian fluid. Funded by National Science Foundation award CBET-1252182.

  5. Inflammation, immunity, and vaccines for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elios, Mario M; Andersen, Leif P

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects almost half of the population worldwide and represents the major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, such as duodenal and gastric ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune gastritis, and B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Helicobacter pylori induces...... the activation of a complex and fascinating cytokine and chemokine network in the gastric mucosa. Different bacterial and environmental factors, other concomitant infections, and host genetics may influence the balance between mucosal tolerance and inflammation in the course of H. pylori infection. An inverse...... association between H. pylori prevalence and the frequencies of asthma and allergies was demonstrated, and the neutrophil activating protein of H. pylori was shown to inhibit the allergic inflammation of bronchial asthma. During the last year, significant progress was made on the road to the first efficient...

  6. Construction of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain expressing a fusion protein of Omp22 and HpaA from Helicobacter pylori for oral vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongguang; Duan, Guangcai; Shi, Qingfeng; Chen, Shuaiyin; Fan, Qingtang; Sun, Nan; Xi, Yuanlin

    2016-11-01

    To develop orally administrated anti-Helicobacter pylori vaccination, a Lactococcus lactis strain was genetically constructed for fusion expression of H. pylori protective antigens HpaA and Omp22. The fusion gene of omp22 and hpaA with an adapter encoding three glycines was cloned from a plasmid pMAL-c2x-omp22-hpaA into Escherichia coli MC1061 and L. lactis NZ3900 successively using a shutter vector pNZ8110. Expression of the fusion gene in L. lactis was induced with nisin resulting in production of proteins with molecular weights of 50 and 28 kDa. Both of them were immunoreactive with mouse anti-H. pylori sera as determined via western blotting. Oral vaccination of BALB/c mice using the L. lactis strain carrying pNZ8110-omp22-hpaA elicited significant systematic humoral immune response (P lactis with immunogenicity. This is a considerable step towards H. pylori vaccines.

  7. Helicobacter pylori: From Infection to Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 380 abstracts, presentations and posters of recent advances were highlighted at the European and International Helicobacter pylori meeting held July 7 to 9, 1995 in Edinburgh, Scotland. New advances abound, with major interest focusing on the simple, safe, inexpensive new `gold standard’ for H pylori eradication therapy: a single week of tid omeprazole 20 mg, metronidazole 400 mg and clarithromycin 250 mg, or omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg. To avoid false negative results, two biopsies must be taken from the antrum and two from the gastric body at least four weeks after completion of eradication therapy, and ideally should be supplemented with at least one further H pylori test such as a biopsy for urease activity or culture, or a urea breath test. While most patients with a gastric or duodenal ulcer (DU who do not consume nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are infected with H pylori, the association is much less apparent in those with a DU who present with an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. H pylori eradication for nonulcer dyspepsia is not widely recommended, and the patient with a DU given effective H pylori eradication who presents with dyspepsia likely has erosive esophagitis rather than recurrent DU or H pylori. Gastroenterologists are at increased risk of H pylori infection, particularly older gastroenterologists who are very busy endoscopists.

  8. Clinicopathological characteristics of invasive gastric Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Jonathan; Wieczorek, Tad; Selig, Martin; Cheung, Hoiwan; Shen, Jeanne; Odze, Robert; Deshpande, Vikram; Zukerberg, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori organisms have been observed deep within the stomach mucosa with an "intracellular" appearance, although the clinicopathological characteristics of such cases remain poorly understood. We analyzed 18 cases of deep mucosal H pylori and associated clinical (sex, age, history of H pylori infection, or proton pump inhibitor [PPI] use, medications, smoking, alcohol use, comorbidities, treatment response) and pathological (presence of lymphoid aggregates, intestinal metaplasia, PPI effect, active and/or chronic inflammation, quantity of invasive versus surface H pylori) characteristics. Electron microscopy was performed on 6 cases with the highest burden of invasive H pylori. Within our sample, 3 of 16 had a history of H pylori infection, 10 of 15 were receiving PPIs at the time of biopsy, and 12 of 13 had a negative posttreatment follow-up. Histology revealed that invasive H pylori were more commonly associated with chronic inflammation, in both the antrum (15/15 chronic, 8/15 acute) and fundus (17/18 chronic, 8/18 acute). Electron microscopy showed organisms within intercellular and luminal spaces, but no intracellular organisms. Deep mucosal H pylori often have an intracellular appearance but are contained within intercellular and luminal spaces and are responsive to standard therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  10. Helicobacter pylori susceptible/resistant to antibiotic eradication therapy differ in the maturation and activation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitar, Andreja N; Skvarc, Miha; Tepes, Bojan; Kos, Janko; Ihan, Alojz

    2013-12-01

    The natural course of Helicobacter pylori infection, as well as the success of antibiotic eradication is determined by the immune response to bacteria. The aim of the study is to investigate how different Helicobacter pylori isolates influence the dendritic cells maturation and antigen-presenting function in order to elucidate the differences between Helicobacter pylori strains, isolated from the patients with successful antibiotic eradication therapy or repeated eradication failure. Dendritic cells maturation and antigen presentation were monitored by flow cytometry analysis of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), Toll-like receptor (TLR) and costimulatory molecules expression, and by determining cytokine secretion. Dendritic cells stimulated with Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients with repeated antibiotic eradication failure expressed less human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR), CD86, TLR-2, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) compared to Helicobacter pylori strains susceptible to antibiotic therapy; the latter expressed lower production of IL-10. Polymyxin B inhibition of lipopolysaccharide reduces IL-8 secretion in the group of Helicobacter pylori strains susceptible to antibiotic therapy. The differences in IL-8 secretion between both groups are lipopolysaccharide dependent, while the differences in secretion of IL-10 remain unchanged after lipopolysaccharide inhibition. Inhibitor of cathepsin X Mab 2F12 reduced the secretion of IL-6, and the secretion was significantly lower in the group of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with repeated antibiotic eradication failure. Helicobacter pylori strains, susceptible/resistant to antibiotic eradication therapy, differ in their capability to induce DCs maturation and antigen-presenting function. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Comparison of 2 schedules based on pantoprazole for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with active duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehesa, M; Larisch, J; Dibildox, M; Vega, B; Di Silvio, M; Rodríguez, L; Camorlinga, M; Almaguer, I; Ramírez-Barba, E; Torres, J

    1998-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a triple vs dual pantoprazole based therapy to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in mexican patients with florid duodenal ulcer. The treatment of peptic ulcer disease was revolutionized by the fact that H. pylori generally induces chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and that the cure of the infection prevents ulcer relapses. 74 H. pylori positive patients with florid duodenal ulcer were randomized to receive either pantoprazole 40 mg bid in combination with clarithromycin 500 mg tid and amoxicillin 1 g bid (triple regimen PAC) or pantoprazole in combination with clarithromycin and placebo (dual regimen PC) during 14 days. To ensure complete ulcer healing all patients received an additional 2 weeks treatment with pantoprazole 40 mg od. 14C Urea Breath test (UBT) was the main criteria used to determine eradication rate with < 150 disintegrations per minute (DPM) to consider a patient eradicated. In all patients culture, antibiotic susceptibility (E-test) and histology were performed. In the per protocol analysis (n = 66) the eradication rate was: PAC 93.5% vs PC 54.3% (p < 0.001). 76% of H. pylori strains were resistant to metronidazole. Tolerance and compliance were excellent in both groups. Triple therapy (PAC) was shown to be superior to dual therapy (PC) for H. pylori eradication in mexican patients with florid duodenal ulcer.

  12. Cure of Helicobacter pylori-positive active duodenal ulcer patients: a double-blind, multicentre, 12-month study comparing a two-week dual vs a one-week triple therapy. GISU (Interdisciplinary Group for Ulcer Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, F; Battaglia, F; Dal Bò, N; Leandro, G; Benedetti, E; Bottona, E; Caroli, A; Costan-Biedo, F; De Bastiani, R; Germanà, B; Andrea Grassi, S; Madia, D; Marcon, V; Marin, R; Monica, F; Olivieri, P; Orzes, N; Pilotto, A; Ronzani, G; Saggioro, A; Tafner, G

    2000-03-01

    To compare a two-week dual therapy to a one-week triple therapy for the healing of duodenal ulcer and the eradication of the Helicobacter pylori infection. A total of 165 patients with active duodenal ulcer were enrolled in the study. At entry, endoscopy, clinical examination and laboratory tests were performed. Histology and the rapid urease test were used to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients received either lansoprazole 30 mg plus amoxycillin 1 g bid for two weeks (two-week, dual therapy) or lansoprazole 30 mg plus amoxycillin 1 g plus tinidazole 500 mg bid for one week plus lansoprazole qd for an additional week (one-week, triple therapy). Two and twelve months after cessation of therapy, endoscopy and clinical assessments were repeated. Duodenal ulcer healing and Helicobacter pylori eradication were both significantly greater (pcure rate: 72.6%) than in the dual therapy group (healing: 77.3%; Helicobacter pylori cure rate: 33.3%). Ulcers healed more frequently in Helicobacter pyloricured than in Helicobacter pylori-not cured patients (94.9% vs. 77.2%; pulcer relapses were observed throughout follow-up: all were in Helicobacter pylori-not cured patients. Triple therapy was more effective than dual both in curing Helicobacter pylori infection and healing active duodenal ulcers. The speed of ulcer healing obtained after only 7 days of antibiotics and 14 days of proton pump inhibitors confirmed that longer periods of anti ulcer therapy were not necessary. Helicobacter pylori -not cured patients had more slowly healing ulcers which were more apt to relapse when left untreated.

  13. Microbiological aspects of Helicobacter pylori (Campylobacter pylori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C S; Armstrong, J A

    1990-01-01

    The human gastric pathogen Campylobacter pylori has recently been reclassified as Helicobacter pylori, and a related spiral bacterium found in the stomach of ferrets has been designated Helicobacter mustelae. The general microbiological features of Helicobacter pylori are delineated here, with details of phenotypic differences between Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae; comparisons are made with Wolinella succinogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. The Helicobacter organisms possess an external glycocalyx which can be visualised by electron microscopy, and which may be involved in bacterial adherence. The finding of soluble and cell-associated haemagglutinins of Helicobacter pylori is reported. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in clinical specimens, susceptibility of the organism to antibacterial agents, and other aspects of practical and clinical significance are briefly reviewed.

  14. Investigation of the effect of recombinant Neutrophil activating protein (Hp-NapA of helicobacter pylori on proliferation and viability by peritoneal macrophage from BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP of Helicobacter pylori is a protective antigen and a major virulence factor of this bacteria. Stimulating the immune system for helicobacter infection treatment could have an important role. The aim of study is to assess the effect of recombinant Neutrophil activating protein (Hp-NapA of helicobacter pylori on proliferation and viability of peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, recombinant Hp-NapA of helicobacter pylori was produced in vitro. Mice peritoneal macrophages were purified and cultured. Different concentrations of recombinant Hp-NapA was used for macrophages stimulation. MTT assay was performed to assess the viability and proliferation of macrophages. Results: The results elucidated that the increasing effect of stimulation with recombinant Hp-NapA was significant at the dose of 30 µg/ml(p=0.01. The rate of viabitity was significantly higher than control group at the doses of 30 and 60 µg/ml and in the concurrency series of recombinant protein with lipopolysaccharid, there was a statistically significarit increase in proliferation at just these doses. Conclusion: According to our findings, recombinant Hp-NapA has a positive effect on proliferation, viability and function of peritoneal macrophages. Therefore, it is proposed that recombinant Hp-NapA can be studied as an immunomodulator for immunotherapy.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battan, R; Raviglione, M C; Palagiano, A; Boyle, J F; Sabatini, M T; Sayad, K; Ottaviano, L J

    1990-12-01

    A controlled study was conducted on patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection referred for upper endoscopy to evaluate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Four different stains and culture for H. pylori were performed on biopsy specimens from the gastric antrum. Sixteen (40%) of 40 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) were diagnosed to be infected with H. pylori versus 14 (39%) of 36 age-matched control patients. Eight of 15 AIDS/ARC patients without AIDS-related esophagogastroduodenal findings (53%) were infected with H. pylori versus 8/25 (32%) with endoscopic findings typical of AIDS. No invasion of the lamina propria by H. pylori was noted in any patient. Active chronic gastritis was present in 60% of AIDS/ARC patients and 61% of controls. Fifty-eight and 59%, respectively, of active chronic gastritis cases were infected with H. pylori. All the H. pylori infections, except one, were found in patients with chronic gastritis. In AIDS/ARC patients, H. pylori infection and active chronic gastritis are as common as in other patients referred for upper endoscopy. They may play a pathogenic role, especially when endoscopic AIDS-related findings are lacking. Cell-mediated immune deficiency does not appear to increase the risk of infection with H. pylori.

  16. Differential Mechanisms for SHP2 Binding and Activation Are Exploited by Geographically Distinct Helicobacter pylori CagA Oncoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Hayashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori East Asian CagA is more closely associated with gastric cancer than Western CagA. Here we show that, upon tyrosine phosphorylation, the East Asian CagA-specific EPIYA-D segment binds to the N-SH2 domain of pro-oncogenic SHP2 phosphatase two orders of magnitude greater than Western CagA-specific EPIYA-C. This high-affinity binding is achieved via cryptic interaction between Phe at the +5 position from phosphotyrosine in EPIYA-D and a hollow on the N-SH2 phosphopeptide-binding floor. Also, duplication of EPIYA-C in Western CagA, which increases gastric cancer risk, enables divalent high-affinity binding with SHP2 via N-SH2 and C-SH2. These strong CagA bindings enforce enzymatic activation of SHP2, which endows cells with neoplastic traits. Mechanistically, N-SH2 in SHP2 is in an equilibrium between stimulatory “relaxed” and inhibitory “squeezed” states, which is fixed upon high-affinity CagA binding to the “relaxed” state that stimulates SHP2. Accordingly, East Asian CagA and Western CagA exploit distinct mechanisms for SHP2 deregulation.

  17. [Frequency of Helicobacter pylori nitroreductase RdxA mutations for metronidazole activation in a population in the Cauca Department, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Claudia Patricia; Quiroga, Andrés Javier; Sierra, Carlos H; Trespalacios, Alba Alicia

    2017-06-01

    Resistance to metronidazole is a key factor associated with Helicobacter pylori treatment failure. Even though resistance is mostly associated with RdxA nitroreductase mutations, studies of this H. pylori protein in Popayán (Colombia) are still incipient. To evaluate the frequency of mutations in the RdxA nitroreductase in a population of patients with H. pylori-positive gastrointestinal disease. We amplified the DNA of 170 gastric biopsies by PCR to detect mutations in the RdxA nitroreductase. An analysis of DNA sequences translated into amino acid sequences was done and then compared to the reference strain 26695. The frequency of RdxA nitroreductase mutations in this study population was 78%. Its most frequent distribution was found in positions D59N (153 samples), R131K (101 samples), R90K (97 samples), A118T (42 samples), I160F (32 samples) and H97T (26 samples), and meaningful stop codons Q50*, D59*; E75*, C159* and I160* in five, one, three, ten and six samples, respectively. The most common virulence genotype was vacAs1/m1 cagA negative (48.6 %). The high frequency of RdxA nitroreductase mutations in H. pylori isolates in Popayán (Colombia) indicates that empirical therapy with metronidazole may not be a valid option for the eradication of H. pylori in patients of the studied population.

  18. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norn, Svend

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load and cytoki...

  19. Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori: Lessons from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Zhang, Wei; Graham, David Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antimicrobial resistance has continued to undermine many popular anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies. Antibiotic resistance to commonly used anti-H. pylori drugs in China has increased remarkably making China an ideal site to identify regimens that remain effective despite widespread antimicrobial resistance. Bismuth is one of the few antimicrobials to which resistance does not develop. Factors contributing to H. pylori treatment success include host factors (e.g., genetic differences in metabolism of the drugs used), bacterial factors (e.g., susceptibility) and details of the regimen (e.g., doses, dosing interval, dosing in relation of meals, formulation, etc). Methods We reviewed the recent experience in China with bismuth-containing quadruple therapies. The experience consists of 16 studies with 25 arms involving 1,971 patients to identify successful regimens (defined as reliably obtaining 90% or greater eradication per protocol) deserving of further study. Results Despite high rates of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials, several regimens were able to achieve high success. These were characteristically 14 day regimens containing a proton pump inhibitor and either tetracycline and metronidazole or furazolidone and amoxicillin. Conclusions We propose approaches for further development including for optimization and simplification relation to convenience and side effects (e.g., twice rather than three or 4 times daily or administration at the noon and evening meal instead of at breakfast and evening) while maintaining effectiveness ≥ 90%. Studies in China identified regimens that were highly effective despite the high prevalence of resistance to metronidazole, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides. Multicenter randomized studies will be required to confirm which is best. PMID:23778309

  20. [The use of fermented milk drink with topinambur for the treatment of Helicobacter infection in the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubchenko, P N; Skobeleva, N V; Shirokova, E B; Zubova, Iu E; Suchkov, S V; Donskaia, G A

    2003-01-01

    For estimation of anti-helicobacter activity of new fermented milk drink with Helianthus tuberosus called 23 liquidators of crash after-effects of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were observed. Helicobacter pylori were determined in faeces by PCR-method, immune system readings--by first-level methods. The drink was applied in 200 grams portions during 18 days. After therapy appearance of Helicobacter pylori in faeces was reduced for 3 times. Reading of HCT-test, increased up to 16% in the first test before therapy, was normalized after therapy. Listed figures prove anti-helicobacter activity of fermented milk drink with Helianthus tuberosus.

  1. Helicobacter pylori eradication by sitafloxacin-lansoprazole combination and sitafloxacin pharmacokinetics in Mongolian gerbils and its in vitro activity and resistance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Nishiyama, Akihito; Taneike, Ikue; Yoshida, Kumi; Kanda, Hiroko; Imamura, Yuichiro

    2011-09-01

    A total of 293 strains of Helicobacter pylori, including strains resistant to levofloxacin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, or amoxicillin, were examined for in vitro susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents. Among these agents, sitafloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) showed the greatest activity (MIC(90), 0.06 μg/ml), with high bactericidal activity and synergy in sitafloxacin-lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) combination. In a Mongolian gerbil model with a H. pylori ATCC 43504 challenge, marked eradication effects were observed at ≥1 mg/kg for sitafloxacin, ≥10 mg/kg for levofloxacin, and ≥10 mg/kg for lansoprazole, reflecting MIC levels for each agent (0.008, 0.25, and 2 μg/ml, respectively). The therapeutic rates were 83.3% for the sitafloxacin (0.3 mg/kg)-lansoprazole (2.5 mg/kg) combination and 0% for either sitafloxacin or lansoprazole alone. The maximum serum concentration (C(max)) of sitafloxacin was 0.080 ± 0.054 μg/ml at 30 min, when orally administered at 1 mg/kg. The simultaneous administration of lansoprazole resulted in no difference. In the resistance development assay, MICs of levofloxacin increased 64- to 256-fold with gyrA mutations (Ala88Pro and Asn87Lys), while MICs of sitafloxacin only up to 16-fold with the Asn87Lys mutation. The data suggest that sitafloxacin exhibited superior anti-H. pylori activity with low rates of resistance development in vitro and that, reflecting high in vitro activities, sitafloxacin-lansoprazole combination exhibited strong therapeutic effects in Mongolian gerbils with a C(max) of sitafloxacin that was 10-fold higher than the MIC value at a 1-mg/kg administration.

  2. Functional and evolutionary analyses of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 (DsbK protein with strong oxidative and chaperone activity characterized by a highly diverged dimerization domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Marta Bocian-Ostrzycka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori does not encode the classical DsbA/DsbB oxidoreductases that are crucial for oxidative folding of extracytoplasmic proteins. Instead, this microorganism encodes an untypical two proteins playing a role in disulfide bond formation – periplasmic HP0231, which structure resembles that of EcDsbC/DsbG, and its redox partner, a membrane protein HpDsbI (HP0595 with a -propeller structure. The aim of presented work was to assess relations between HP0231 structure and function.We showed that HP0231 is most closely related evolutionarily to the catalytic domain of DsbG, even though it possesses a catalytic motif typical for canonical DsbA proteins. Similarly, the highly diverged N-terminal dimerization domain is homologous to the dimerization domain of DsbG. To better understand the functioning of this atypical oxidoreductase, we examined its activity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. We found that HP0231 exhibits oxidizing and chaperone activities but no isomerizing activity, even though H. pylori does not contain a classical DsbC. We also show that HP0231 is not involved in the introduction of disulfide bonds into HcpC (Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C, a protein involved in the modulation of the H. pylori interaction with its host. Additionally, we also constructed a truncated version of HP0231 lacking the dimerization domain, denoted HP0231m, and showed that it acts in E. coli cells in a DsbB-dependent manner. In contrast, HP0231m and classical monomeric EcDsbA (Escherichia coli DsbA protein were both unable to complement the lack of HP0231 in H. pylori cells, though they exist in oxidized forms. HP0231m is inactive in the insulin reduction assay and possesses high chaperone activity, in contrast to EcDsbA. In conclusion, HP0231 combines oxidative functions characteristic of DsbA proteins and chaperone activity characteristic of DsbC/DsbG, and it lacks isomerization activity.

  3. Evaluation of SD BIOLINEH. pyloriAg rapid test against double ELISA with SDH. pyloriAg ELISA and EZ-STEPH. pyloriAg ELISA tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Markos; Kassu, Afework; Amare, Bemnet; Yismaw, Gizachew; Moges, Beyene

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori antibody titters fall very slowly even after successful treatment. Therefore, tests detecting H. pylori antibody lack specificity and sensitivity. On the other hand, H. pylori stool antigen tests are reported as an alternative assay because of their reliability and simplicity. However, the comparative performance of H. pylori stool antigen tests for detecting the presence of the bacterium in clinical specimens in the study area is not assessed. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test with reference to the commercially available EZ- STEP ELISA and SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag ELISA tests. Stool samples were collected to analyse the diagnostic performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test kit using SD H. pylori Ag ELISA kit and EZ- STEP ELISA tests as a gold standard. Serum samples were also collected from each patient to test for the presence of H. pylori antibodies using dBest H. pylori Test Disk. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa value are assessed. P values rapid test were: 95.6% (95% CI, 88.8-98.8), 92.5% (95%CI, 89-94.1%), 86.7% (95% CI, 80.5-89.6), and 97.6% (95% CI, 993.9-99.3) respectively. The performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test was better than the currently available antibody test in study area. Therefore, the SD BIOLINE Ag rapid stool test could replace and be used to diagnose active H. pylori infection before the commencement of therapy among dyspeptic patients.

  4. Changes in Antibiotic Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori in the Course of Eight Years in the Zaanstreek Region in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. L. F. Loffeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Failure of anti-Helicobacter therapy is the result noncompliance and resistance to the prescribed antibiotics. Aim. Antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori was determined in native Dutch patients and patients of Turkish descent. Methods. In a period of eight years a total of 925 strains of H. pylori were cultured. Bacterial susceptibility was successfully determined in 746 (80.6% of these isolates. Three hundred and nine strains (33% originated from patients of Turkish descent. Results. In total clarithromycin resistance was found in 146 (20.5% strains, metronidazole resistance in 147 (19.9% strains. Amoxicillin resistance was found to be present in five strains. There is a slight but nonsignificant decrease in the percentage of clarithromycin-resistant strains in the consecutive period of eight years from 20% to 18%. No changes were seen in the consecutive years in metronidazole resistance. The number of clarithromycin-resistant strains decreased in Turkish patients, not in native Dutch patients. Conclusion. Resistance did not change significantly in consecutive years. But clinicians should take not only the antibiotic history into account but also ethnicity before prescribing metronidazole or clarithromycin.

  5. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vallejo-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion.

  6. [Helicobacter pylori and nonsteroidal antirheumatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherak, O; Hirschl, A M; Nemec, H; Amann, B; Kolarz, G; Thumb, N

    1990-08-03

    The frequency of occurrence of Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa was investigated prospectively in a group of 66 patients (17 men, 49 women, mean age 58 +/- 8.4 years) who had been treated with nonsteroidal anti-rheumatic drugs and 33 controls (14 men, 19 women, mean age 60.7 +/- 6.6 years) who had not received these drugs. In the first group the indication for gastroscopy was ingestion of nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs for at least 8 weeks, irrespective of dyspeptic symptoms (present in 25 patients), while in the second group the reason for endoscopy was either clinical symptoms (n = 18) or the presence of blood in the faeces. Helicobacter pylori was demonstrated by culture in 36 out of the 66 patients who had received nonsteroidal antirheumatics (54.5%); these comprised 24 out of 46 patients (52.2%) with chronic inactive gastritis and 12 out of 15 patients (80%) with chronic active gastritis. In the control group H. pylori was detected by culture in 22 out of 33 patients (66.7%); these included 11 out of 19 patients (57.9%) with chronic inactive gastritis and 11 out of 12 patients (91.7%) with chronic active gastritis. H. pylori was not demonstrated in any of the seven patients who had histologically normal gastric mucosa. In both groups there was significant correlation between demonstration of the microorganism and severity of inflammation. There is hence no evidence that nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs have any influence on the colonisation of the antral mucosa by Helicobacter pylori.

  7. Effects of ingesting Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Li, Shui-Nin; Liu, Chiang-Shin; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Su, Yu-Chung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Jan, Chang-Ming; Lai, Chun-Huang; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2004-09-01

    Evidence suggests that ingesting lactic acid bacteria exerts a suppressive effect on Helicobacter pylori infection in both animals and humans. Supplementing with Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt (AB-yogurt) was shown to improve the rates of eradication of H. pylori in humans. We administered AB-yogurt to subjects with asymptomatic H. pylori to test whether the yogurt could inhibit H. pylori growth. The in vitro inhibition of H. pylori growth was determined by inoculating Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 or Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 on plates that were inoculated with H. pylori. Assessment of the viability of H. pylori was performed by the mixed culture method with La5 or Bb12. In an intervention study, 59 adult volunteers infected with H. pylori were given AB-yogurt (10(7) colony-forming units of both La5 and Bb12/mL) twice daily after a meal for 6 wk. Eleven subjects positive for H. pylori infection were treated with milk placebo as control subjects. H. pylori bacterial loads were determined with use of the (13)C-urea breath test, which was performed before and 4 and 8 wk after the start of AB-yogurt supplementation. Bb12 exerted an in vitro inhibitory effect against H. pylori, whereas La5 did not show an effect. Administration of AB-yogurt decreased the urease activity of H. pylori after 6 wk of therapy (P yogurt containing Bb12 and La5 effectively suppressed H. pylori infection in humans.

  8. The prevalence and related symptomatology of Helicobacter pylori in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Andersen, L P; Pærregaard, Anders

    1998-01-01

    in 46/66 by culture and histology. The presence of H. pylori was significantly associated with active or inactive chronic gastritis. The presence of H. pylori was associated with both parents being born in a country with a high prevalence and a low social class. Helicobacter pylori-positive children had...

  9. Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, B.A.; Fishman, E.K.; Kuhlman, J.E.; Jones, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the CT scans of patients with Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) infection and histologic gastritis reviewed to determine if the inflammatory changes can mimic the CT appearance of gastric neoplasm. Records were obtained of 288 consecutive cases of biopsy-confirmed. Helicobacter pylori gastritis, spanning a 21-month period from July 1988 to March 1990. Abdominal CT scans had been performed in 70 of these cases and were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Seven of the 70 cases of confirmed Helicobacter pylori gastritis were suggestive of malignancy on CT

  10. Crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein with a di-nuclear ferroxidase center in a zinc or cadmium-bound form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Hideshi, E-mail: h-yokoya@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Tsuruta, Osamu; Akao, Naoya; Fujii, Satoshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures of a metal-bound Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two zinc ions were tetrahedrally coordinated by ferroxidase center (FOC) residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cadmium ions were coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and octahedral manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second metal ion was more weakly coordinated than the first at the FOC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A zinc ion was found in one negatively-charged pore suitable as an ion path. -- Abstract: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is a Dps-like iron storage protein forming a dodecameric shell, and promotes adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells. The crystal structure of HP-NAP in a Zn{sup 2+}- or Cd{sup 2+}-bound form reveals the binding of two zinc or two cadmium ions and their bridged water molecule at the ferroxidase center (FOC). The two zinc ions are coordinated in a tetrahedral manner to the conserved residues among HP-NAP and Dps proteins. The two cadmium ions are coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and distorted octahedral manner. In both structures, the second ion is more weakly coordinated than the first. Another zinc ion is found inside of the negatively-charged threefold-related pore, which is suitable for metal ions to pass through.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    AbstrakFaktor risiko infeksi Helicobacter pylori adalah tinggal di negara berkembang, kondisi sosial ekonomi yang rendah, jumlah anggota keluarga yang banyak, etnik dan genetik. Tatalaksana dan diagnosis Helicobacter pylori belum memuaskan karena adanya resistensi antibiotik pada pasien Helicobacter pylori. Kami melaporkan seorang pasien perempuan usia 8 tahun 6 bulan yang terinfeksi Helicobacter pylori. Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik, dan hasil laboratorium. Pa...

  12. Campylobacter pylori as possible factor in peptic ulcer recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the literature up to 1988 about the close association of Campylobacter pylori with chronic active gastritis, duodenitis and peptic ulcer disease. No firm data however demonstrate that Campylobacter pylori causes duodenal ulcer but long term eradication of this bacterium prevents

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gerrits (Monique)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAn estimated 4 to 5 million individuals in the Netherlands are actively infected with Helicobacter pylori. Eradication of this bacterium becomes more difficult as the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide. Most H. pylori infections are now diagnosed by

  14. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load...... and cytokines which may improve knowledge concerning the outcome of gastric diseases caused by H. pylori. Antral biopsies from 42 dyspeptic patients including 27 H. pylori-positive and 15 H. pylori-negative patients were tested for apoptotic activity by the TUNEL assay, and immuno-histochemically for p53...... and the proliferative marker Ki-67. H. pylori infection, bacteria load and inflammatory activity were associated with increased cell turnover as judged by enhanced activities of TUNEL, p53 and Ki-67. Only p53 was significantly correlated to IFN-gamma, IL-8 and IL-10. The H. pylori-positive state was furthermore...

  15. Helicobacter pylori-elicited induction in gastric mucosal matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) release involves ERK-dependent cPLA2 activation and its recruitment to the membrane-localized Rac1/p38 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

    2016-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases implicated in a wide rage of degenerative and inflammatory diseases, including Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, and gastric and duodenal ulcer. As gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to H. pylori are characterized by the rise in MMP-9 production, as well as the induction in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 activation, we investigated the role of Rac1/MAPK in the processes associated with the release of MMP-9. We show that H. pylori LPS-elicited induction in gastric mucosal MMP-9 release is associated with MAPK, ERK and p38 activation, and occurs with the involvement of Rac1 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). Further, we demonstrate that the LPS-induced MMP-9 release requires ERK-mediated phosphorylation of cPLA2 on Ser(505) that is essential for its membrane localization with Rac1, and that this process necessitates p38 participation. Moreover, we reveal that the activation and membrane translocation of p38 to the Rac1-GTP complex plays a pivotal role in cPLA2-dependent enhancement in MMP-9 release. Hence, our findings provide a strong evidence for the role of ERK/cPLA2 and Rac1/p38/cPLA2 cascade in H. pylori LPS-induced up-regulation in gastric mucosal MMP-9 release.

  16. Helicobacter pylori and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 325(16):1127–1131. [PubMed Abstract] Huang ... pylori infection and the development of gastric cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 345(11):784–789. [PubMed Abstract] The ...

  17. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black stools, or bloody vomit or vomit that looks like coffee grounds. H. pylori testing may also be ordered when a person has completed a regimen of prescribed antibiotics to confirm that the H. pylori bacteria have been eliminated. A follow-up test is ...

  18. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y; Kramer, Jennifer R; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P=0.06). We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known.

  19. Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastritis: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E.; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. METHODS Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known. PMID:23147524

  20. The effect of some Nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Nigerian medicinal plants commonly used in the treatment of bacterial infections were tested for antimicrobial activity against twenty local strains of Helicobacterpylori recovered from patients with gastro-duodenal ulcers and gastritis. In vitro agar diffusion assay revealed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of ethanolic ...

  1. Therapeutic effect of H. pylori nosode, a homeopathic preparation in healing of chronic H. pylori infected ulcers in laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Prabhakar Gosavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: H. pylori is classified as class I carcinogen by World Health Organization and is a global as it is the primary cause of gastric carcinoma. The objective of present investigation was made to investigate the protective effect of homeopathically potentized H. pylori nosode in rats infected with H. pylori. Methods: The infection was induced in the rats using a bacterial suspension of 5 x 108 CFU per ml. The various animals were treated with three potencies of H. pylori nosode (3X, 6X and 12X and standard (Clarithromycin 25mg/kg + amoxicillin 50 mg/kg + omeprazole 20 mg/kg. A period of ten weeks followed and then the rats were sacrificed. Results: H. pylori nosode was able to stop the initiation of infection in the pretreatment group of animals. This defines and provides us with the data regarding its sphere of action. A plethora of parameters such as ulcer area, infection status, biomarkers of oxidative stress, total intracellular ROS, degree of apoptosis, TNF level and load of bacteria in the gastric tissue served as the hallmarks to prove the preventive role of H. pylori nosode in the amelioration of the infection. It is evident that homeopathic drug H. pylori nosode was able to transform the susceptibility of the animals to the induction of infection. It provides a novel avenue in the field of research in homeopathy as the results suggest that H. pylori nosode was able to initiate the infection resistive forces in the animals before being subjected to the infection of H. pylori. Conclusion: H. pylori nosode possesses potent prophylactic anti H. pylori activity in vivo.

  2. NOD1-Mediated Mucosal Host Defense against Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Watanabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Although it has been well established that persistent colonization by H. pylori is associated with adaptive Th1 responses, the innate immune responses leading to these Th1 responses are poorly defined. Recent studies have shown that the activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1 in gastric epithelial cells plays an important role in innate immune responses against H. pylori. The detection of H. pylori-derived ligands by cytosolic NOD1 induces several host defense factors, including antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and chemokines. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanisms by which NOD1 contributes to mucosal host defense against H. pylori infection of the stomach.

  3. Inverse Association Between Helicobacter pylori Gastritis and Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is known to be inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that a similar inverse association also applied to microscopic colitis. The associations between microscopic colitis and presence of H. pylori-positive chronic active gastritis (CAG), H. pylori-negative CAG, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric atrophy were expressed as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust these associations for sex, age, percentage residents per ZIP code with white, black, Hispanic, or Asian ethnicity, percentage with college education, average housing values, annual income, and population size of individual ZIP codes. H. pylori-positive CAG was less common among patients with than without microscopic colitis (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.70). Intestinal metaplasia also occurred less frequently among patients with than without microscopic colitis (0.75, 0.65-0.86). These inverse associations remained unaffected by adjustments for parameters of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In contradistinction with H. pylori-positive CAG, H. pylori-negative CAG was more common in patients with than without microscopic colitis (1.54, 1.17-1.97). H. pylori infection and microscopic colitis are inversely associated. This observation is consistent with similar inverse associations found between H. pylori and inflammatory bowel disease. These relationships may provide clues about the yet unknown etiology of microscopic colitis.

  4. Helicobacter pylori gastritis in HIV-infected patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Daniel T; Morgan, Christopher J; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are different: H. pylori is transmitted by gastro- or fecal-oral routes and is associated with low socioeconomic conditions, while HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, infected body fluids, and transplacentally. If the host responses to these infections were independent, the prevalence of H. pylori should be similar in HIV-infected and non-infected patients. Yet, several studies have detected a lower prevalence of H. pylori in patients with HIV infection, whereas other studies found either no differences or greater rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-positive subjects. To review studies that addressed the issue of these two simultaneous infections and attempt to determine whether reliable conclusions can be drawn from this corpus of often contrasting evidence. Electronic literature search for relevant publications, followed by manual search of additional citations from extracted articles. The initial search yielded 44 publications; after excluding case reports, reviews, narrowly focused articles, and duplicate reports, there remained 29 articles, which are the corpus of this review. With one exception, all studies reported higher rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-negative subjects. Five studies also examined the CD4 lymphocyte counts and found an inverse correlation between the degree of immunosuppression and the prevalence of active H. pylori infection. Current evidence suggests that it is likely that H. pylori needs a functional immune system to successfully and persistently colonize the human gastric mucosa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Antibody to cytotoxin in infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunk, R D; Ferguson, M A; Morgan, D R; Low, D E; Simor, A E

    1990-06-01

    Gastrointestinal disease and colonization by Helicobacter pylori were determined in 36 asymptomatic volunteers and 30 symptomatic individuals undergoing endoscopy and biopsy. Serum antibody immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA to H. pylori were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum antibody to a cytotoxin produced by H. pylori was detected with a neutralization assay. Serum IgG was 95% predictive of infection by H. pylori, and serum IgA was 88% predictive. Antibody to the cytotoxin was detected in 12 of 18 infected individuals. Antibody to the cytotoxin was a highly specific (96%), but not a very sensitive (67%), indicator of infection by H. pylori. The neutralization assay was 87% predictive of infection. These data confirm the diagnostic value of serum antibody to H. pylori for the detection of infection. The toxin-neutralizing activity of sera from individuals infected with H. pylori suggests that the cytotoxin is produced in vivo. It may therefore contribute to disease associated with H. pylori.

  6. Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis as a risk factor for colonic neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation. PMID:24587623

  7. Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis as a risk factor for colonic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-02-14

    To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation.

  8. Synthesis, physicochemical characterization, DFT calculation and biological activities of Fe(III) and Co(II)-omeprazole complexes. Potential application in the Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marcos G.; Vega Hissi, Esteban G.; Rizzi, Alberto C.; Brondino, Carlos D.; Salinas Ibañez, Ángel G.; Vega, Alba E.; Silva, Humberto J.; Mercader, Roberto; Narda, Griselda E.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction between the antiulcer agent omeprazole (OMZ) with Fe(III) and Co(II) ions was studied, observing a high ability to form metal complexes. The isolated microcrystalline solid complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements, thermal study, FTIR, UV-Visible, Mössbauer, electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and DFT calculations. The metal-ligand ratio for both complexes was 1:2 determined by elemental and thermal analysis. FTIR spectroscopy showed that OMZ acts as a neutral bidentate ligand through the pyridinic nitrogen of the benzimidazole ring and the oxygen atom of the sulfoxide group, forming a five-membered ring chelate. Electronic, Mössbauer, and EPR spectra together with magnetic measurements indicate a distorted octahedral geometry around the metal ions, where the coordination sphere is completed by two water molecules. SEM and XRPD were used to characterize the morphology and the crystal nature of the complexes. The most favorable conformation for the Fe(III)-OMZ and Co(II)-OMZ complexes was obtained by DFT calculations by using B3LYP/6-31G(d)&LanL2DZ//B3LYP/3-21G(d)&LanL2DZ basis set. Studies of solubility along with the antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori for OMZ and its Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes are also reported. Free OMZ and both metal complexes showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Co(II)-OMZ presented a minimal inhibitory concentration ˜32 times lower than that of OMZ and ˜65 lower than Fe(III)-OMZ, revealing its promising potential use for the treatment of gastric pathologies associated with the Gram negative bacteria. The morphological changes observed in the cell membrane of the bacteria after the incubation with the metal-complexes were also analyzed by SEM microscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes was proved by the viability test.

  9. Strategies used by helicobacter pylori to establish persistent infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative and motile bacterium that colonizes the hostile microniche of the human stomach, then persists for the host’s entire life, if not effectively treated. Clinically, H. pylori plays a causative role in the development of a wide spectrum of diseases including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Due to the global distribution of H. pylori, it is no exaggeration to conclude that smart strategies are contributing to adaptation of the bacterium to its permanent host. Thirty-four years after the discovery of this bacterium, there are still many unanswered questions. For example, which strategies help the bacterium to survive in this inhospitable microniche? This question is slightly easier to answer if we presume the same clinical concept for both persistent infection and disease. Understanding the mechanisms governing H. pylori persistence will improve identification of the increased risk of diseases such as gastric cancer in patients infected with this bacterium. A well-defined and long-term equilibrium between the human host and H. pylori allows bacterial persistence in the gastric microniche; although this coexistence leads to a high risk of severe diseases such as gastric cancer. To escape the bactericidal activity of stomach acid, H. pylori secretes large amounts of surface-associated and cytosolic urease. The potential to avoid acidic conditions and immune evasion are discussed in order to explain the persistence of H. pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa, and data on bacterial genetic diversity are included. Information on the mechanisms related to H. pylori persistence can also provide the direction for future research concerning effective therapy and management of gastroduodenal disorders. The topics presented in the current review are important for elucidating the strategies used by H. pylori to help the bacterium

  10. Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori detection by Giemsa staining is poor in comparison with immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization and strongly depends on inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsmár, Éva; Szirtes, Ildikó; Kramer, Zsófia; Szijártó, Attila; Bene, László; Buzás, György Miklós; Kenessey, István; Bronsert, Peter; Csanadi, Agnes; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich; Kiss, András; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Lotz, Gábor

    2017-08-01

    Conventional stainings (including H&E and special stains like Giemsa) are the most widely applied histopathologic detection methods of Helicobacter pylori (HP). We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Giemsa staining with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a monocentric cohort of 2896 gastric biopsies and relate results to histologic alterations in order to find such histopathologic subgroups in which these methods underperform. All cases were categorized regarding presence or absence of chronic gastritis, inflammatory activity, and mucosal structural alterations. Giemsa revealed 687 cases (23.7%), IHC 795 cases (27.5%), and FISH 788 cases (27.2%) as being HP positive. Giemsa showed significantly lower overall sensitivity (83.3%) compared to IHC (98.8%) and FISH (98.0%). Moreover, the sensitivity of Giemsa dramatically dropped to 33.6% in the nonactive cases. We found that sensitivity of Giemsa strongly depends on HP density and, accordingly, on the presence of activity. Structural alterations (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, etc.) had only no or weak effect on sensitivity of the three stainings. Both IHC and FISH proved to be equally reliable HP detecting techniques whose diagnostic performance is minimally influenced by mucosal inflammatory and structural alterations contrary to conventional stainings. We highly recommend immunohistochemistry for clinically susceptible, nonactive chronic gastritis cases, if the conventional stain-based HP detection is negative. Moreover, we recommend to use IHC more widely as basic HP stain. Helicobacter pylori FISH technique is primarily recommended to determine bacterial clarithromycin resistance. Furthermore, it is another accurate diagnostic tool for HP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alakkari, Alaa

    2012-02-01

    Research published over the past year has documented the continued decline of Helicobacter pylori-related peptic ulcer disease and increased recognition of non-H. pylori, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ulcer disease--idiopathic ulcers. Despite reduced prevalence of uncomplicated PUD, rates of ulcer complications and associated mortality remain stubbornly high. The role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia is unclear, with some authors considering H. pylori-associated nonulcer dyspepsia a distinct organic entity. There is increasing acceptance of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but little understanding of how GERD might be more common\\/severe in H. pylori-negative subjects. Research has focused on factors such as different H. pylori phenotypes, weight gain after H. pylori eradication, and effects on hormones such as ghrelin that control appetite.

  12. Human immune responses to H. pylori HLA Class II epitopes identified by immunoinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Zhang

    Full Text Available H. pylori persists in the human stomach over decades and promotes several adverse clinical sequelae including gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer that are linked to the induction and subsequent evasion of chronic gastric inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that H. pylori infection may also protect against asthma and some other immune-mediated conditions through regulatory T cell effects outside the stomach. To characterize the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response generated during H. pylori infection, computational methods were previously used to generate a panel of 90 predicted epitopes conserved among H. pylori genomes that broadly cover HLA Class II diversity for maximum population coverage. Here, these sequences were tested individually for their ability to induce in vitro responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interferon-γ ELISpot assay. The average number of spot-forming cells/million PBMCs was significantly elevated in H. pylori-infected subjects over uninfected persons. Ten of the 90 peptides stimulated IFN-γ secretion in the H. pylori-infected group only, whereas two out of the 90 peptides elicited a detectable IFN-γ response in the H. pylori-uninfected subjects but no response in the H. pylori-infected group. Cytokine ELISA measurements performed using in vitro PBMC culture supernatants demonstrated significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 in the H. pylori-infected subjects, whereas IL-17A expression was not related to the subjects H. pylori-infection status. Our results indicate that the human T cell responses to these 90 peptides are generally increased in actively H. pylori-infected, compared with H. pylori-naïve, subjects. This information will improve understanding of the complex immune response to H. pylori, aiding rational epitope-driven vaccine design as well as helping identify other H. pylori epitopes with potentially immunoregulatory effects.

  13. Peptide Extracts from Cultures of Certain Lactobacilli Inhibit Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Luc; Vincent, Pascal; Makras, Eleftherios; Leroy, Frédéric; Pot, Bruno

    2010-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori inhibition by probiotic lactobacilli has been observed in vitro and in vivo. Carefully selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains could therefore play an important role in the treatment of H. pylori infection and eradication. However, the underlying mechanism for this inhibition is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine if peptide extracts, containing bacteriocins or other antibacterial peptides, from six Lactobacillus cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus La1, Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471, Lactobacillus casei YIT 9029, Lactobacillus gasseri K7, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) contribute to the inhibition of H. pylori. Peptide extracts from cultures of Lact. amylovorus DCE 471 and Lact. johnsonii La1 were most active, reducing the viability of H. pylori ATCC 43504 with more than 2 log units within 4 h of incubation (P < 0.001). The four other extracts were less or not active. When six clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested for their susceptibility towards five inhibitory peptide extracts, similar observations were made. Again, the peptide extracts from Lact. amylovorus DCE 471 and Lact. johnsonii La1 were the most inhibitory, while the three other extracts resulted in a much lower inhibition of H. pylori. Protease-treated extracts were inactive towards H. pylori, confirming the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory substance.

  14. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.; de Laat, L.; van Oijen, A. H.; de Boer, W. A.

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to

  15. Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics Against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have

  16. Immune subversion by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldari, Cosima T; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Telford, John L

    2005-04-01

    To maintain prolonged colonization of the human gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori must avoid both innate and adaptive immune responses. During its long coexistence with humans, it has evolved complex strategies to maintain a mild inflammation of the gastric epithelium while limiting the extent of immune effector activity. Severe disease, associated with bacterial colonization, might reflect loss of this control. Several mechanisms and the bacterial factors involved in immune subversion have, in recent years, been elucidated, thus opening the possibility of a better understanding of the pathogenicity of this microorganism.

  17. Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peng; Zhou, Li Ya; Xiao, Xiu Mei; Luo, Yang; Ding, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been increasing worldwide. The study aimed to evaluate in vitro susceptibility and resistance patterns to antibiotics in empirical H. pylori eradication regimens, and to determine the optimal antibiotics for treatment. H. pylori strains (n =181) were obtained from gastric biopsies of patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from March to December 2013. The susceptibility of H. pylori strains to amoxicillin (AMX), metronidazole (MTZ), clarithromycin (CLR), amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC), cephalothin (CEP), cefuroxime (CXM), cefixime (CFM), moxifloxacin (MFX) and minocycline (MNO) was determined. Dual resistance to MTZ + CLR was detected in 48 (26.5%) isolates, MTZ + MFX in 94 (51.9%), and CLR + MFX in 49 (27.1%). Overall, 41 (22.7%) were resistant to MTZ + CLR + MFX. MTZ and CLR resistance rates were significantly associated with the history of H. pylori eradication but there was no significant difference in MFX resistance rates between treated and untreated patients (P = 0.674). No significant relationship was found between antibiotic resistance and patient's gender, age, endoscopic findings, inflammatory severity or gastric atrophy. AMX, AMC, MNO and cephalosporins, but not MTZ, CLR and MFX, showed good in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. Among cephalosporins, CXM was the most active. H. pylori resistance is higher in patients with previous H. pylori eradication. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Nitric oxide synthetase and Helicobacter pylori in patients undergoing appendicectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine whether Helicobacter pylori forms part of the normal microenvironment of the appendix, whether it plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis, and whether it is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) in appendicular macrophages. METHODS: Serology for H. pylori was performed on 51 consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy. Appendix samples were tested for urease activity, cultured and stained for H. pylori, graded according to the degree of inflammatory infiltrate, and probed immunohistochemically for iNOS expression. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 21 (range 7-51) years. Seventeen patients (33 per cent) were seropositive for H. pylori but no evidence of H. pylori was found in any appendix specimen. However, an enhanced inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in seropositive patients (P < 0.04) and the expression of macrophage iNOS in the mucosa of normal and inflamed appendix specimens was increased (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: H. pylori does not colonize the appendix and is unlikely to be a pathogenic stimulus for appendicitis. Priming effects on mucosal immunology downstream from the foregut may occur after infection with H. pylori.

  19. Helicobacter pylori induces cell migration and invasion through casein kinase 2 in gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Do Yeon; Yu, Da Yeon; Kim, Shin; Lee, Yong Chan

    2014-12-01

    Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is causally linked with gastric carcinogenesis. Virulent H. pylori strains deliver bacterial CagA into gastric epithelial cells. Induction of high motility and an elongated phenotype is considered to be CagA-dependent process. Casein kinase 2 plays a critical role in carcinogenesis through signaling pathways related to the epithelial mesenchymal transition. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of H. pylori infection on the casein kinase 2-mediated migration and invasion in gastric epithelial cells. AGS or MKN28 cells as human gastric epithelial cells and H. pylori strains Hp60190 (ATCC 49503, CagA(+)) and Hp8822 (CagA(-)) were used. Cells were infected with H. pylori at multiplicity of infection of 100 : 1 for various times. We measured in vitro kinase assay to examine casein kinase 2 activity and performed immunofluorescent staining to observe E-cadherin complex. We also examined β-catenin transactivation through promoter assay and MMP7 expression by real-time PCR and ELISA. H. pylori upregulates casein kinase 2 activity and inhibition of casein kinase 2 in H. pylori-infected cells profoundly suppressed cell invasiveness and motility. We confirmed that casein kinase 2 mediates membranous α-catenin depletion through dissociation of the α-/β-catenin complex in H. pylori-infected cells. We also found that H. pylori induces β-catenin nuclear translocation and increases MMP7 expressions mediated through casein kinase 2. We show for the first time that CagA(+) H. pylori upregulates cellular invasiveness and motility through casein kinase 2. The demonstration of a mechanistic interplay between H. pylori and casein kinase 2 provides important insights into the role of CagA(+) H. pylori in the gastric cancer invasion and metastasis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 15NH4+ excretion test: a new method for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J C; Liu, G L; Zhang, Z H; Mou, Y L; Chen, Q A; Wu, J C; Yang, S L

    1992-01-01

    A noninvasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection that uses [15N]urea as a tracer has been established. The principle the test is based on is the strong urease activity of H. pylori. After oral ingestion, [15N]urea is broken down into ammonia and carbon dioxide by H. pylori urease in the stomach. The ammonia is absorbed into the blood and excreted in the urine. The amount of [15N]urea, reflecting the magnitude of H. pylori infection, is evaluated by measuring the abundance and excretion rate of 15N in ammonia in the urine. Thirty-six patients were examined in our study. The 15N excretion rates in urine ammonia of patients who were H. pylori positive were significantly higher than those of H. pylori-negative patients (P less than 0.05). Twenty-three patients were H. pylori positive by Gram stain and culture. The sensitivity of the 15NH4 excretion test compared with these techniques was 96%, and no false positives were obtained. The 15NH4+ excretion rates of 13 H. pylori-negative subjects were all in the normal range (less than 0.3%). This method is a simple, precise, highly sensitive, noninvasive, nonradioactive test. It could be used for diagnosis as well as for the followup of patients receiving H. pylori eradication therapy, especially children and pregnant women. It could also be used in epidemiological investigation of H. pylori infection in a general population.

  1. Severe gastritis decreases success rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar

    2016-05-01

    In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.

  2. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  3. [Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of treatment in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A A; Grechushnikov, V B; Andreev, D N; Iurenev, G L; Korovina, T I; Lezhneva, Iu A; Maev, I V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the pharmacoeconomic parameters of treatment in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases when using 6 eradication therapy (ET) regimens. The investigation enrolled a total of 231 patients who received anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy according to the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle, including 229 patients who met the protocol requirements, i.e. who completed the prescribed per-protocol (PP) treatment: 106 patients with duodenal bulb ulcer disease, 2 with gastric ulcer, 90 with erosive gastritis, and 31 patients with non-atrophic gastritis. In an outpatient setting, the patients received one of the 6 ET regimens: OAC, RBMA, RBCA, EBCA, sequential OACM therapy, and modified sequential OACMB therapy (O--omeprazole; A--amoxicillin; C--clarithromycin; B--bismuth tripotassium dicitrate, R--rabeprazole; M--metronidazole; E--esomeprazole). Treatment costs were calculated only from direct drug expenditures. The effective cost coefficient (K(eff)) was determined from the cost/ treatment efficiency ratio: K(eff) = cos/eff, where the cost was the average total costs; the eff was efficiency (%). The modified sequential OACMB therapy has proven to be more cost-efficient than the other regimens as it has a lower K(eff), (14). The RBMA regimens can overcome an 80% ET barrier (82.4%); however, in this case the K(eff) is 21.5. the sequential OACM therapy can also overcome an 80% ET barrier (84.8%); the K(eff) being 10.8. Incorporation of the bismuth preparation can achieve a more noticeable therapeutic effect up to 95.4%. The EBCA regimen has turned out to be most expensive with the highest K(eff) of 36.9. The RBCA regimen is most effective with the least K(eff) of 29; the therapeutic effect is 96.7%. The clinical cost-efficiency of ET is enhanced by the incorporation of the bismuth preparation for the treatment of patients with H. pylori-associated diseases. The modified sequential OACMB therapy can overcome resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole

  4. Helicobacter pylori Evolution: Lineage- Specific Adaptations in Homologs of Eukaryotic Sel1-Like Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Masako; Perez, J. Christian; Mittl, Peer R. E; Lee, Hae-Kyung; Dailide, Geidrius; Tan, Shumin; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Secka, Ousman; Dailidiene, Daiva; Putty, Kalyani; Berg, Douglas E; Kalia, Awdhesh

    2007-01-01

    Geographic partitioning is postulated to foster divergence of Helicobacter pylori populations as an adaptive response to local differences in predominant host physiology. H. pylori's ability to establish persistent infection despite host inflammatory responses likely involves active management of host defenses using bacterial proteins that may themselves be targets for adaptive evolution. Sequenced H. pylori genomes encode a family of eight or nine secreted proteins containing repeat motifs t...

  5. Efficacy of Sulforaphane in Eradicating Helicobacter pylori in Human Gastric Xenografts Implanted in Nude Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Haristoy, Xavier; Angioi-Duprez, Karine; Duprez, Adrien; Lozniewski, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate abundant in the form of its glucosinolate precursor in broccoli sprouts, has shown in vitro activity against Helicobacter pylori. We evaluated the effect of sulforaphane in vivo against this bacterium by using human gastric xenografts in nude mice. H. pylori was completely eradicated in 8 of the 11 sulforaphane-treated grafts. This result suggests that sulforaphane might be beneficial in the treatment of H. pylori-infected individuals.

  6. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karima, Talal M; Bukhari, Syed Z; Ghais, Mohammad A; Fatani, Mohammad I; Hussain, Waleed M

    2006-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among patients presenting with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and to establish the relationship between H. pylori infection and its diverse pathology. Secondly, we aimed to examine the effect of age, gender, and geographical distribution on the prevalence of the disease. The study included patients with PUD who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2003 and February 2004. We tested the biopsies for the detection of H. pylori by Campylobacter like organism (CLOTM) test, histopathology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The overall prevalence rate of H. pylori infection among 132 patients with PUD was 63%, while it was high among females (70%) as compared with males (58%). The H. pylori were mainly found in chronic active gastritis (89%) and severe active gastritis (96%). Helicobacter pylori were documented by CLOTM test in 73 (55.3%) cases, histopathology in 69 (52.3%) cases, microbiological culture in 59 (44.7%) cases, and IgG antibodies in 61 (46.2%) cases. The highest resistance (31%) was found in metronidazole, while lowest the (3%) in tetracycline and erythromycin. The highest prevalence of H. pylori was found in the younger age group with female preponderance. The leading causes of multifocal pathology were chronic and severe active gastritis secondary to H. pylori infection.

  7. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with nodular antritis and follicular gastritis

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    Tomašević Ratko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is known to be the must common cause of chronic gastritis having some endoscopic and pathologic characteristies as determinated by the Sydney System for Gastritis Classification. The aim of our case report was to point out the relationship between an endoscopic finding of nodular antritis and the presence of H. pylori infection and active chronic gastritis. Case report. Our patient underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic complaints and was diagnosed as having nodular antritis, but also underwent urease test and hystopathologic examination of antral mucosa, to determine the presence and density of H. pylori infection and the presence and severity of gastritis. After a course of anti H. pylori treatment, dyspepsia improved and new biopsy specimens obtained two months and six months afterwards revealed no pathological findings. Conclusion. The case report supported the association of H. pylori infection of lymphoid follicles with nodular gastric mucosis.

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection induces genetic instability of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastric carcinoma. To investigate a possible link between bacterial infection and genetic instability of the host genome, we examined the effect of H. pylori infection on known cellular repair pathways in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, various types...... of genetic instabilities in the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were examined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We observed the effects of H. pylori infection on a gastric cell line (AGS), on C57BL/6 mice, and on individuals with chronic gastritis. In AGS cells, the effect of H. pylori infection on base excision...... cells and chronic gastritis tissue were determined by PCR, single-stranded conformation polymorphism, and sequencing. H. pylori vacA and cagA genotyping was determined by multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization. RESULTS: Following H. pylori infection, the activity and expression of base excision repair...

  9. The prevalence and related symptomatology of Helicobacter pylori in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Andersen, L P; Pærregaard, Anders

    1998-01-01

    in 46/66 by culture and histology. The presence of H. pylori was significantly associated with active or inactive chronic gastritis. The presence of H. pylori was associated with both parents being born in a country with a high prevalence and a low social class. Helicobacter pylori-positive children had......The aim of the study was to assess and compare the IgG seroprevalence of H. pylori in children with recurrent abdominal pain with healthy children and to investigate the related symptoms. IgG antibodies against low-molecular weight H. pylori antigens were assessed in 438 children with recurrent...... of the abdominal pain, presence of pyrosis, nocturnal pain, relation of pain to meals and bowel irregularities. The seroprevalence was 21% (95% CI: 17-25%) in the children with recurrent abdominal pain and 10% (95% CI: 5-18%) in the healthy controls (p = 0.30). In seropositive children with RAP H. pylori was found...

  10. Animal models for the study of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Miszczyk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacillus Helicobacter pylori is widely recognized as a major etiologic agent responsible for chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, the development of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. Still, little is known about the natural history of H. pylori infection, since patients usually after many years of not suffering from symptoms of the infection are simply asymptomatic. Since the research investigators carried out on human models has many limitations, there is an urgent need for the development of an animal model optimal and suitable for the monitoring of H. pylori infections. This review summarizes the recent findings on the suitability of animal models used in H. pylori research. Several animal models are useful for the assessment of pathological, microbiological and immunological consequences of infection, which makes it possible to monitor the natural

  11. Probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in a fermented milk product with added fruit preparation reduce antibiotic associated diarrhea and Helicobacter pylori activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael; Kristen, Holger; Rautenberg, Peter; Laue, Christiane; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    To investigate matrix-specifity of probiotic effects and particularly of the reduction of antibiotics-associated diarrhea, a controlled, randomized, double-blind study was performed, in which 88 Helicobacter pylori-infected but otherwise healthy subjects were given for eight weeks either a) a probiotic fruit yoghurt "mild" containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, n = 30), b) the same product but pasteurized after fermentation (n = 29) or c) milk acidified with lactic acid (control, n = 29). During week five, a Helicobacter eradication therapy was performed. Helicobacter activity was measured via 13C-2-urea breath tests and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal complaints were recorded by validated questionnaires. In intervention group a, b and c the mean number of days with diarrhoea was 4, 10 and 10 (Pprobiotic bacteria but (rather) to components of acidified milk (most probably lactic acid). Fruit-yogurt-like fermented milk products with living probiotic bacteria significantly shorten the duration of antibiotics-associated diarrhoea and improve gastrointestinal complaints. Fruit yogurt-like fermented milk is a matrix suitable for probiotic bacteria.

  12. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of peptic ulcers, and it can also cause gastritis and stomach cancer. About 30 to 40 percent of people in the United States get an H. pylori infection. Most people get it as a child. ... This can lead to gastritis or a peptic ulcer. Researchers aren't sure ...

  13. The effect of Helicobacter pylori on asthma and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Amedei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amedeo Amedei1, Gaia Codolo2, Gianfranco Del Prete1, Marina de Bernard2, Mario M D’Elios11Policlinico AOU Careggi, Department Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 2Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, ItalyAbstract: Current evidence indicates an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma and allergy. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which represents the major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and preferentially elicits a T helper (Th-1 response. Many H. pylori factors, such as the neutrophil-activating factor of H. pylori (HP-NAP, are able to drive Th-1 polarization and to display a powerful inhibition of allergic Th-2 response. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about the effects of H. pylori on asthma and allergy. Special attention has been drawn to HP-NAP as a potential novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of asthma and atopy.Keywords: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating factor, protein, Th-1/Th-2, Treg, asthma

  14. Helicobacter pylori and Hepatitis C virus coinfection in Egyptian patients

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    El-Masry Samir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide. It has been shown that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori plays an important role in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies, and its eradication has been advocated. The association between H. pylori infection and liver cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C virus has been documented in different parts of the world; nevertheless, no conclusive data is available in Egypt. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the status of H. pylori infection was sought in 90 patients with chronic HCV infection and in 66 HCV-free healthy controls. Results: The study showed that the H. pylori positivity was increased significantly (P = 0.03 in the HCV-infected patients when compared to that in healthy controls, where H. pylori infection was found in 50 (55.6% out of 90 of the HCV-infected patients versus 26 (39.4% out of 66 of the healthy controls. In HCV-infected patients, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was increased significantly (P = 0.04 from chronic active hepatitis to cirrhosis. H. pylori infection was present in 6/18 (33.3%, 10/21 (47.6%, 16/27 (59.3%, 18/24 (75.0% patients with chronic active hepatitis, Child-Pugh score A, Child-Pugh score B and Child-Pugh score C, respectively. More importantly, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in HCV-infected patients was increased very significantly (P = 0.003 with increasing Meld (model for end-stage liver disease score. The prevalence of H. pylori was documented in 9/28 (32.1% patients with Meld score ≤10 and in 41/62 (66.1% patients with Meld score> 10. Conclusion: It may be stated that our results collectively reflect a remarkable increase in H. pylori prevalence with advancing hepatic lesions, and the eradication treatment may prove beneficial in those patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  15. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with protection against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Perry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, a lifelong and typically asymptomatic infection of the stomach, profoundly alters gastric immune responses, and may benefit the host in protection against other pathogens. We explored the hypothesis that H. pylori contributes to the control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.We first examined M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma and H. pylori antibody responses in 339 healthy Northern Californians undergoing routine tuberculin skin testing. Of 97 subjects (29% meeting criteria for latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI, 45 (46% were H. pylori seropositive. Subjects with LTBI who were H. pylori-seropositive had 1.5-fold higher TB antigen-induced IFN-gamma responses (p = 0.04, ANOVA, and a more Th-1 like cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared to those who were H. pylori seronegative. To explore an association between H. pylori infection and clinical outcome of TB exposure, we evaluated H. pylori seroprevalence in baseline samples from two high risk TB case-contact cohorts, and from cynomolgus macaques experimentally challenged with M. tuberculosis. Compared to 513 household contacts who did not progress to active disease during a median 24 months follow-up, 120 prevalent TB cases were significantly less likely to be H. pylori infected (AOR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.0.36-0.83, p = 0.005, though seroprevalence was not significantly different from non-progressors in 37 incident TB cases (AOR: 1.35 [95% CI 0.63-2.9] p = 0.44. Cynomolgus macaques with natural H. pylori infection were significantly less likely to progress to TB 6 to 8 months after M. tuberculosis challenge (RR: 0.31 [95% CI 0.12-0.80], p = 0.04.H. pylori infection may induce bystander effects that modify the risk of active TB in humans and non-human primates. That immunity to TB may be enhanced by exposure to other microbial agents may have important implications for vaccine development and disease control.

  16. Helicobacter pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy: an open randomized clinical trial Erradicação de Helicobacter pylori com o uso de tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cidrão Frota

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment has not yet been established. AIM: To evaluate H. pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy in northeastern of Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and four patients with H. pylori infection, as determined by rapid urease testing and histology, were randomly assigned to receive either: lansoprazole (30 mg q.d., tetracycline (500 mg q.i.d., and furazolidone (200 mg t.i.d. for 7 days (LTF; n = 52; or lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d. and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d. for 1 week, plus azithromycin (500 mg q.d. for the first 3 days (LAAz; n = 52. H. pylori eradication was assessed 3 months following completion of therapy by means of rapid urease testing, histology and a 14C-urea breath test. RESULTS: H. pylori eradication was achieved in 46 of 52 (88.4%, 95% CI: 77.5%-95.1% patients in LTF group and in 14 of 52 (26.9%, 95% CI: 16.2%-40,1% patients in LAAz group. On a per-protocol analysis, eradication rates were 91.8% (95% CI: 81.4%-97.3% and 28.5% (95% CI: 17.2%-42.3%, respectively in LTF and LAAz groups. CONCLUSION: The LAAz regimen yielded unacceptably low eradication rates. On the other hand, the LTF scheme represents a suitable alternative for H. pylori eradication.RACIONAL: Ainda não está estabelecida a melhor terapêutica anti-H. pylori. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a erradicação de H.pylori usando tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol no nordeste do Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Cento e quatro pacientes infectados por H. pylori, diagnosticado através do teste rápido da urease e histologia, foram selecionados aleatoriamente para receber: lansoprazol (30 mg q.d., tetraciclina (500 mg q.i.d., furazolidona (200 mg t.i.d. por 7 dias (LTF; n = 52; ou lansoprazol (30 mg b.i.d. e amoxicilina (1 g b.i.d. por 1 semana, mais azitromicina (500 mg q.d. nos primeiros 3

  17. Biopatologia do Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladeira Marcelo Sady Plácido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori induz inflamação persistente na mucosa gástrica com diferentes lesões orgânicas em humanos, tais como gastrite crônica, úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. Os fatores determinantes desses diferentes resultados incluem a intensidade e a distribuição da inflamação induzida pelo H. pylori na mucosa gástrica. Evidências recentes demonstram que cepas do H. pylori apresentam diversidade genotípica, cujos produtos acionam o processo inflamatório por meio de mediadores e citocinas, que podem levar a diferentes graus de resposta inflamatória do hospedeiro, resultando em diferentes destinos patológicos. Cepas H. pylori com a ilha de patogenicidade cag induzem resposta inflamatória mais grave, através da ativação da transcrição de genes, aumentando o risco para desenvolvimento de úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. O estresse oxidativo e nitrosativo induzido pela inflamação desempenha importante papel na carcinogênese gástrica como mediador da formação ou ativação de cancerígenos, danos no DNA, bem como de alterações da proliferação celular e da apoptose.

  18. Infecciones por helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Alvarez Gil

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se revisan los conocimientos sobre el papel de Helicobacter pylori en varias enfermedades gastroduodenales como la gastritis crónica (GC, úlcera gástrica (UG, úlcera duodenal (UD y dispepsia no ulcerosa (DNU. La revisión abarca aspectos históricos, microbiológicos, clínicos, epidemiológicos, diagnósticos de laboratorio, terapéuticos y de patogénesis.

    The current knowledge of the role of Helicobacter Pylori in several gastroduodenal  diseases is reviewed. It includes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and nonulcerous dyspepsia. The following aspects are treated in this paper: history, microbiology. Clinical presentation, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, therapy and pathogenesis.

  19. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization on Histological Grading of Chronic Gastritis in Korean Patients with Peptic Ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joongwon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Sill Moo

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: We conducted an analysis of correlation between histological grading of chronic gastritis and the presence of H. pylori infection to investigate if H. pylori influences histological severity of chronic gastritis in Korean patients with peptic ulcers. Methods: Gastroscopic antral biopsy specimens and peripheral venous blood were taken from 80 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. H. pylori was identified microscopically in sections with Giemsa staining and quantitative grading of cultured H. pylori was reported on a scale 0 to 3. The histopathological features of biopsy specimens were reported according to the Sydney classification of chronic gastritis. Serum gastritis and pepsinogen concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: H. pylori was identified in 62.5% (20 of 32 GU, 30 of 48 DU) of the study group. Gastric clonization rate of H. pylori did not increased with age. Forty of 50 biopsy specimens with H. pylori and also 23 of 30 biopsy specimens without H. pylori showed active chronic gastritis. There was no significant correlation overall between the presence of H. pylori and histological grading of chronic gastritis, including activity, and also no association was found between the quantitative grading of H. pylori and the histological grading of chronic gastritis. With and without H. pylori, a mean of serum gastritis concentration (79.4±43.0 pg/ml and 80.2±31.9 pg/ml) showed no significant difference, but a mean of serum pepsinogen concentration (87.7±41.6 ng/ml and 119±34.4 ng/ml) showed significant difference between the populations with and without H. pylori (p=0.001) Conclusions: The influence of H. pylori on histological grading of chronic gastritis in Korean is less than that in prior studies of Western countries, and further investigation of pathogenesis of H. pylori in chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration is necessary. PMID:7495770

  20. Structural modifications of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide: An idea for how to live in peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Miszczyk, Eliza; Rudnicka, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the findings and concepts underlying the “persistence mechanisms” of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative rod bacterium that was discovered as a gastric pathogen by Marshall and Warren in 1984. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of nearly half of the human population. Infections appear in early childhood and, if not treated, persist for life. The presence or absence of symptoms and their severity depend on multiple bacterial components, host susceptibility and environmental factors, which allow H. pylori to switch between pathogenicity and commensalism. Many studies have shown that H. pylori components may facilitate the colonization process and the immune response of the host during the course of H. pylori infection. These H. pylori-driven interactions might result from positive or negative modulation. Among the negative immunomodulators, a prominent position is occupied by a vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein. However, in light of the recent studies that are presented in this review, it is necessary to enrich this panel with H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Together with CagA and VacA, LPS suppresses the elimination of H. pylori bacteria from the gastric mucosa by interfering with the activity of innate and adaptive immune cells, diminishing the inflammatory response, and affecting the adaptive T lymphocyte response, thus facilitating the development of chronic infections. The complex strategy of H. pylori bacteria for survival in the gastric mucosa of the host involves both structural modifications of LPS lipid A to diminish its endotoxic properties and the expression and variation of Lewis determinants, arranged in O-specific chains of H. pylori LPS. By mimicking host components, this phenomenon leaves these bacteria “invisible” to immune cells. Together, these mechanisms allow H. pylori to survive and live for many years within their hosts. PMID:25110419

  1. Helicobacter pylori: Helicobacter pylori gastritis--a novel distinct disease entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Mori, Hideki

    2015-10-01

    A global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been developed. Topics discussed include whether dyspepsia caused by H. pylori infection is separate from functional dyspepsia or not, the evaluation method for H. pylori-induced gastritis, eradication therapy for H. pylori gastritis to prevent gastric carcinogenesis and management after H. pylori eradication.

  2. Probiotic BIFICO cocktail ameliorates Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong

    2015-06-07

    To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P pylori-induced inflammatory response in gastric mucosal epithelial cells in vitro via the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Indeed, we observed a decrease in the expression of the NF-κB subunit p65 and in the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK and p38. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the production of IL-8, TNF-α, G-CSF and GM-CSF (P pylori in the stomach was also significantly reduced following BIFICO treatment (P pylori-induced gastritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells.

  3. Amoxicillin resistance with beta-lactamase production in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y-S; Wu, D-C; Chang, C-Y; Kuo, C-H; Yang, Y-C; Jan, C-M; Su, Y-C; Kuo, F-C; Chang, L-L

    2009-09-01

    Amoxicillin-resistant Helicobacter pylori with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) >or= 256 mg L(-1) was isolated from a gastritis patient. The aims were to investigate the mechanism of high-level amoxicillin resistance in H. pylori. The beta-lactamase production was determined by means of nitrocefin sticks and the presence of gene encoding the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance enzyme TEM beta-lactamase was analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing and dot-blot hybridization. Sequencing analysis of pbp1A gene was performed and amoxicillin-susceptible isolate was transformed with pbp1A PCR products from the resistant isolate. The expression of hefC efflux system was analysed using real-time quantitative PCR. Activity of beta-lactamase was detected. Sequence analysis showed that the PCR product derived from H. pylori 3778 was identical to the bla(TEM-1) (GenBank accession EU726527). Dot-blot hybridization confirmed the presence of beta-lactamase gene bla(TEM-1.) By transformation of PCR product of mutated pbp1A gene from H. pylori 3778 into amoxicillin-susceptible strain showed that substitutions in Thr(556)-->Ser, Lys(648)-->Gln, Arg(649)-->Lys and Arg(656)-->Pro contribute to low-level amoxicillin resistance. The MIC of amoxicillin for the transformants was 0.75 mg L(-1). Over-expression of hefC was not found. High-level amoxicillin resistance is associated with beta-lactamase production in H. pylori. Low-level amoxicillin resistance is linked to a point mutation on pbp1A. Because H. pylori can exchange DNA through natural transformation, spreading of bla(TEM-1) amoxicillin resistance gene among H. pylori is a potential threat when treating H. pylori infection.

  4. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in autoimmune systemic rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Mislav

    2014-09-28

    The relationship between infection and autoimmunity has been increasingly defined over the last 20 years. The systemic rheumatic diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a loss of tolerance to self-antigen. The exact etiology for the majority of these diseases is unknown; however, a complex combination of host and environmental factors are believed to play a pivotal role. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widely studied infectious agents proposed as agents triggering autoimmune response. The persistent presence of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa results in chronic immune system activation with ongoing cytokine signaling, infiltration of gastric mucosa by neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, as well as production of antibodies and effector T-cells. Various mechanisms have been proposed in an attempt to explain the extra-intestinal manifestations of H. pylori infections. These include: molecular mimicry, endothelial cell damage, superantigens and microchimerism. I performed a systematic literature review using the keywords "rheumatoid arthritis", "Sjögren's syndrome", "systemic sclerosis", "systemic lupus erythematosus", "Helicobacter pylori" and "pathogenesis". A systematic literature search was carried out in MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cochrane Library and ACR/EULAR meeting abstracts. In systemic rheumatic diseases H. pylori infection prevalence alone should not be expected to provide sufficient evidence for or against a pathologic role in the disease. In this article I review studies examining the potential involvement of H. pylori infection in autoimmune systemic rheumatic diseases. Further studies of the immunological response to H. pylori and its role in the pathogenesis of systemic rheumatic diseases are warranted.

  5. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in nonulcer dyspepsia. Importance of stratification according to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R E; Bank, S

    1990-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) is causally related to active antral gastritis and is highly associated with duodenal and gastric ulcers. However, the relationship of H pylori to nonulcer dyspepsia is less clear. We determined the presence of H pylori in unselected patients who were undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy, and we found a prevalence of 37% in 110 patients with nonulcer dyspepsia that was similar to previous data. Patients with nonulcer dyspepsia who had H pylori were found to be significantly older than patients with nonulcer dyspepsia who did not have H pylori. In addition, when stratified according to age, we detected an increased prevalence of H pylori in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia with increasing age, similar to that reported for asymptomatic control populations. This finding casts doubt as to the causal role of H pylori for most patients with nonulcer dyspepsia and stresses the importance of considering epidemiologic factors, such as age, when evaluating the role of H pylori in specific disease states.

  6. Association of mast cells with helicobacter pylori infection in the antral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR KC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Helicobacter pylori lead to mast cell degranulation and release of active chemical compounds in in-vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association of mast cell density and Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa of the stomach. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 endoscopic biopsies were included in the study. In addition to routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides, Giemsa stain was done in each case for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori and mast cell density in the gastric mucosa. Results: Out of 150 gastric biopsies with histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis, 36 cases (24% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. In the antral mucosa, mast cell density was significantly higher in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group than in the Helicobacter pylori-negative group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Mast cells may play a role in the development of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Keywords: Gastritis; Mast Cell; Helicobacter pylori DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v1i1.4448 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2011 Vol.1, 34-36

  7. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titer and Gastric Cancer Screening

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    Hiroshi Kishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The “ABC method” is a serum gastric cancer screening method, and the subjects were divided based on H. pylori serology and atrophic gastritis as detected by serum pepsinogen (PG: Group A [H. pylori (− PG (−], Group B [H. pylori (+ PG (−], Group C [H. pylori (+ PG (+], and Group D [H. pylori (− PG (+]. The risk of gastric cancer is highest in Group D, followed by Groups C, B, and A. Groups B, C, and D are advised to undergo endoscopy, and the recommended surveillance is every three years, every two years, and annually, respectively. In this report, the reported results with respect to further risk stratification by anti-H. pylori antibody titer in each subgroup are reviewed: (1 high-negative antibody titer subjects in Group A, representing posteradicated individuals with high risk for intestinal-type cancer; (2 high-positive antibody titer subjects in Group B, representing active inflammation with high risk for diffuse-type cancer; and (3 low-positive antibody titer subjects in Group C, representing advanced atrophy with increased risk for intestinal-type cancer. In these subjects, careful follow-up with intervals of surveillance of every three years in (1, every two years in (2, and annually in (3 should be considered.

  8. The Immunomodulator VacA Promotes Immune Tolerance and Persistent Helicobacter pylori Infection through Its Activities on T-Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Djekic, Aleksandra; M?ller, Anne

    2016-01-01

    VacA is a pore-forming toxin that has long been known to induce vacuolization in gastric epithelial cells and to be linked to gastric disorders caused by H. pylori infection. Its role as a major colonization and persistence determinant of H. pylori is less well-understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various target cell types of VacA and its mechanism of action; specifically, we focus on the evidence showing that VacA targets myeloid cells and T-cells to directly and indirect...

  9. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by the probiotic strains Lactobacillus johnsonii MH-68 and L. salivarius ssp. salicinius AP-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Teh, Su-Fen; Ou, Chung-Mou; King, V An-Erl

    2012-12-01

    The current therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection includes antimicrobial agents and proton pump inhibitors. We have examined the ability of Lactobacillus spp. to inhibit H. pylori infection. Probiotic strains isolated from samples of adult feces, infant feces, breast milk, and vaginal swab collected from healthy volunteers in Taiwan and commercially available strains were screened for antagonism toward H. pylori. Inhibition liquid culture assay was used to screen potential anti-H. pylori activity. Then, we performed agar plate inhibition assay, and assays to determine the capacity of probiotics for adhesion, and inhibition and killing of H. pylori, and measured the levels of IL-8 and IL-10. Using animal models, we studied regulation of gastric acid and histopathological changes accompanying anti-H. pylori activity. We found that six of the tested strains suppressed urease activity of H. pylori: Lactobacillus acidophilus TYCA08, L. acidophilus TYCA15, L. johnsonii MH-68, and L. salivarius subsp. salicinius AP-32 were more effective than the others. In vivo, L. johnsonii MH-68 and L. salivarius subsp. salicinius AP-32 alone or in combination, reduced the H. pylori load in the gastric mucosa, and also reduced inflammatory chemokine expression and lymphocyte infiltration. Lactobacillus johnsonii MH-68 and L. salivarius subsp. salicinius AP-32 effectively suppress H. pylori viability, and when used as probiotics, they may help decrease the occurrence of gastritis, and even reduce the risk of H. pylori infection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in patients with peptic ulcer and gastritis following eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Chika; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Moritani, Isao; Tanaka, Junichiro; Oya, Yumi; Inoue, Hidekazu; Tameda, Masahiko; Shiraki, Katsuya; Ito, Masaaki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Kojiro

    2016-10-04

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and eradication therapy have been known to influence gastric ghrelin and leptin secretion, which may lead to weight gain. However, the exact relationship between plasma ghrelin/leptin levels and H. pylori infection has remained controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in H. pylori-positive and -negative patients, to compare the two levels of the hormones before and after H. pylori eradication, and to examine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and active ghrelin or leptin levels, as well as that between atrophic pattern and active ghrelin or leptin levels. Seventy-two H. pylori-positive patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 46 diagnosed as having peptic ulcer and 26 as atrophic gastritis, were enrolled. Control samples were obtained from 15 healthy H. pylori-negative volunteers. The extent of atrophic change of the gastric mucosa was assessed endoscopically. Body weight was measured and blood was collected before and 12 weeks after H. pylori eradication therapy. Blood samples were taken between 8 and 10 AM after an overnight fast. Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly lower in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients. In particular, plasma active ghrelin levels were significantly lower in patients with gastritis compared with patients with peptic ulcer. Plasma ghrelin levels decreased after H. pylori eradication in both peptic ulcer and gastritis patients, while plasma leptin levels increased only in peptic ulcer patients. Plasma leptin levels and BMI were positively correlated, and active ghrelin levels and atrophic pattern were weakly negatively correlated in peptic ulcer patients. H. pylori infection and eradication therapy may affect circulating ghrelin/leptin levels. This finding suggests a relationship between gastric mucosal injury induced by H. pylori infection and changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin levels.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Toxin and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Mark S.; Beckett, Amber C.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori VacA is a channel-forming toxin unrelated to other known bacterial toxins. Most H. pylori strains contain a vacA gene, but there is marked variation among strains in VacA toxin activity. This variation is attributable to strain-specific variations in VacA amino acid sequences, as well as variations in the levels of VacA transcription and secretion. In this review, we discuss epidemiologic studies showing an association between specific vacA allelic types and gastric cancer, as well as studies that have used animal models to investigate VacA activities relevant to gastric cancer. We also discuss the mechanisms by which VacA-induced cellular alterations may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:29023421

  12. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by Chloramination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take...

  14. Endoscopic transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000

  15. Campylobacter pylori. Diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Rauws, E. A.; de Koster, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    There is now a plethora of methods to diagnose colonization of the human stomach with Campylobacter pylori, such as microbiological culture on various media, identification of C. pylori in biopsies or biopsy smears using various stains or neurological methods, serological demonstration of specific

  16. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Waste Pickers: A Case Control Seroprevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-10-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection in waste pickers had not been previously studied. This study aims to determine the association of H. pylori seropositivity and waste picking activity; and to determine socio-demographic, clinical, work, and behavioral characteristics associated with H. pylori seropositivity in waste pickers. Through a case-control study design, we examined 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched control subjects for the presence of anti- H. pylori IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical, work and behavioral characteristics of the waste pickers were also investigated. Antibodies to H. pylori were found in 60 (66.7%) of the 90 waste pickers and in 51 (56.7%) of the 90 controls (P = 0.16). Stratification by age showed that waste pickers aged 14 -30 years old had significantly higher frequency of H. pylori infection than controls of the same age group (56.5% versus 35.6%, respectively; P = 0.04). The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was not influenced by gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic status, residence, or housing conditions of waste pickers. The presence of underlying diseases and the frequency of gastritis were similar among H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative waste pickers. Logistic regression analysis showed that the duration (years) in the waste picking activity was positively associated with H. pylori exposure (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.22 - 6.25; P = 0.01). In contrast, consumption of alcohol was negatively associated with H. pylori exposure (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09 - 0.78; P = 0.01). Other work or behavioral characteristics of waste pickers including washing hands before eating, eating from the garbage, animal contacts, consumption of unpasteurized milk, unwashed raw vegetables, fruits, or untreated water, and contact with soil were not associated with H. pylori exposure. This is the first report on the seroprevalence

  17. Helicobacter pylori as a crucial factor in intestinal metaplasia development of gastric mucosa

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    Sergii Vernygorodskyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is detected on the surface of gastric epithelium and in goblet cells, predominantly in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and incomplete intestinal metaplasia (IM. H. pylori infection persistence leads to the formation of gastrointestinal phenotype of IM. H. pylori can be considered as an etiological factor of IM. It inhibits the expression of SOX2 in gastric epithelial cells, hence activating transcription factor CDX2 as a counterpart to MUC5AC gene inhibition and MUC2 gene induction. Thus, in metaplastic cells, programming differentiation after intestinal phenotype will develop. The role of H. pylori in the origin of intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was defined in this study to elucidate the probable mechanism of cell reprogramming. The activation of CDX2, with simultaneous inactivation and decreased number of genes (e.g., SHH, SOX2, and RUNX3 responsible for gastric differentiation, was identified to cause the appearance of IM.

  18. Overview of the phytomedicine approaches against Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) successfully colonizes the human stomach of the majority of the human population. This infection always causes chronic gastritis, but may evolve to serious outcomes, such as peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori first line therapy recommended by the Maastricht-4 Consensus Report comprises the use of two antibiotics and a proton-pomp inhibitor, but in some regions failure associated with this treatment is already undesirable high. Indeed, treatment failure is one of the major problems associated with H. pylori infection and is mainly associated with bacterial antibiotic resistance. In order to counteract this situation, some effort has been allocated during the last years in the investigation of therapeutic alternatives beyond antibiotics. These include vaccines, probiotics, photodynamic inactivation and phage therapy, which are briefly revisited in this review. A particular focus on phytomedicine, also described as herbal therapy and botanical therapy, which consists in the use of plant extracts for medicinal purposes, is specifically addressed, namely considering its history, category of performed studies, tested compounds, active principle and mode of action. The herbs already experienced are highly diverse and usually selected from products with a long history of employment against diseases associated with H. pylori infection from each country own folk medicine. The studies demonstrated that many phytomedicine products have an anti-H. pylori activity and gastroprotective action. Although the mechanism of action is far from being completely understood, current knowledge correlates the beneficial action of herbs with inhibition of essential H. pylori enzymes, modulation of the host immune system and with attenuation of inflammation. PMID:24914319

  19. Overview of the phytomedicine approaches against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) successfully colonizes the human stomach of the majority of the human population. This infection always causes chronic gastritis, but may evolve to serious outcomes, such as peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori first line therapy recommended by the Maastricht-4 Consensus Report comprises the use of two antibiotics and a proton-pomp inhibitor, but in some regions failure associated with this treatment is already undesirable high. Indeed, treatment failure is one of the major problems associated with H. pylori infection and is mainly associated with bacterial antibiotic resistance. In order to counteract this situation, some effort has been allocated during the last years in the investigation of therapeutic alternatives beyond antibiotics. These include vaccines, probiotics, photodynamic inactivation and phage therapy, which are briefly revisited in this review. A particular focus on phytomedicine, also described as herbal therapy and botanical therapy, which consists in the use of plant extracts for medicinal purposes, is specifically addressed, namely considering its history, category of performed studies, tested compounds, active principle and mode of action. The herbs already experienced are highly diverse and usually selected from products with a long history of employment against diseases associated with H. pylori infection from each country own folk medicine. The studies demonstrated that many phytomedicine products have an anti-H. pylori activity and gastroprotective action. Although the mechanism of action is far from being completely understood, current knowledge correlates the beneficial action of herbs with inhibition of essential H. pylori enzymes, modulation of the host immune system and with attenuation of inflammation.

  20. Helicobacter pylori in gastroduodenal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B Dogra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:peptic ulcers were earlier believed to be caused by dietary factors, gastric acid, and stress. However, in 1983, Warren and Marshall identified the correlation between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and peptic ulcers. It is now well established that most of the peptic ulcers occur as a result of H. pylori infection. But the co-relation between perforated peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection is not yet fully established. Aims and objectives : to study the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with perforated peptic ulcer. Materials and methods: this was a prospective study carried out in all cases of perforated peptic ulcer reporting in surgical wards of a medical college during 2008-2010. A total of 50 cases, presenting as acute perforation of duodenum and stomach during this period, formed the study group. After resuscitation, all the cases were subjected to emergency exploratory laparotomy. The exact site of perforation was identified, biopsy was taken from the ulcer margin from 2-3 sites and the tissue was sent for H. pylori culture and histopathological examination. Simple closure of perforation, omentoplasty, thorough peritoneal lavage and drainage was carried out. Results: out of the 50 cases of perforated peptic ulcer, 38 happened to be males, and only 12 were females. The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 70 years. All the patients underwent only emergency laparotomy. As many as 46 cases (92% turned out to be positive for H. pylori and only four cases (8% were negative for this infection. Postoperatively, patients who were found to be positive for H. pylori were put on anti-H. pylori treatment. Conclusion: there was a high prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with perforated gastroduodenal ulcers.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection increases sirt2 gene expression in gastric epithelial cells of gastritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Seiran; Hedayati, Manouchehr A; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Sheikhesmaeili, Farshad

    2018-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori Infection causes some clinical features of the human stomach such as gastritis, duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer. It has been shown that Helicobacter pylori infection increases proinflammatory cytokine gene expressions in Gastric Epithelial Cells by activation of NF-kB signaling. Sirt1 and sirt2 as deacetylases play a certain role in the progress of inflammation in arthritis and lung infection by impacting the NF-kB. Sirt1 and sirt2 gene expressions in Gastric Epithelial cells of gastritis patients were surveyed with and without Helicobacter pylori infection and rate of prevalence of cagA and hopQ genes in Helicobacter pylori strains were investigated. 25 biopsy samples of gastritis patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and 25 biopsy samples of gastritis patients without Helicobacter pylori infection were collected from Tohid Hospital in the city of Sanandaj throughout the year 2016. CDNA was made from total RNA extracted from biopsy samples (Qiagen ® Kit). Sirt1 and sirt2 gene expressions were determined using the Corbett machine (Rotor-Gene 6000 Software). CagA and hopQ genes of Helicobacter pylori strains were determined by PCR using specific primers. The sirt2 gene expression was increased in Gastric Epithelial Cells of gastritis patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. No significant relationship was found between sirt1 and sirt2 gene expressions as well as cagA and hopQ as Helicobacter pylori virulence genes. This study shows the Helicobacter pylori infection duo to sirt2 gene up-expression. There is not a statistically significance relationship between cagA and hopQ Helicobacter pylori genotypes and sirt2 gene up-expression in Gastric Epithelial Cells of gastritis patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The short-term effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on symptoms of functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Tezer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori infection is major etiologic factor of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Functional dyspepsia (FD is defined as “persistent or recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen in patient who has no definite structural or biochemical explanation of their symptoms. It is uncertain whether treatment of H.pylori infection relieves symptoms in patients with FD. We searched short term effects of H.pylori eradication for symptoms in patients with FD.Material and method: We enrolled patients with dyspeptic symptoms which were diagnosed FD and satisfied en-rollment criteria of trial. Endoscopic biopsy was taken from each patient during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. H.pylori infected patients were assigned to seven days of treatment with 30 mgr of lansoprozole twice daily, 1000 mg of amoksisilin twice daily, and 500 mg levofloxacin once daily. Patients were assessed whether treatment was suc-cessful or not by 14C urea breathe test after 6-8 week. Also pretreatment and post treatment symptom scores were questioned.Results: There were 99 female and 68 male patients. After treatment 114 patients (68% was negative for H. pylori, 53 patients (32% remained positive. Mean of age and proportion of sex was similar in H.pylori (+ and (- groups. While 111 (97.4% of H.pylori (- patients’ symptom scores decreased, 38 (71.7% of H.pylori (+ patients’ scores de-creased. There was significant differences between two groups (p=0.001.Conclusion: Eradication of H.pylori relieves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia. New trials for long term effect of H.pylori eradication on symptoms must be conducted in future.

  3. Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island's role in B7-H1 induction and immune evasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima T Lina

    Full Text Available During Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection CD4+ T cells in the gastric lamina propria are hyporesponsive and polarized by Th1/Th17 cell responses controlled by Treg cells. We have previously shown that H. pylori upregulates B7-H1 expression on GEC, which, in turn, suppress T cell proliferation, effector function, and induce Treg cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and the functional relevance of B7-H1 induction by H. pylori infection to chronic infection. Using H. pylori wild type (WT, cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI- and cagA- isogenic mutant strains we demonstrated that H. pylori requires its type 4 secretion system (T4SS as well as its effector protein CagA and peptidoglycan (PG fragments for B7-H1 upregulation on GEC. Our study also showed that H. pylori uses the p38 MAPK pathway to upregulate B7-H1 expression in GEC. In vivo confirmation was obtained when infection of C57BL/6 mice with H. pylori PMSS1 strain, which has a functional T4SS delivery system, but not with H. pylori SS1 strain lacking a functional T4SS, led to a strong upregulation of B7-H1 expression in the gastric mucosa, increased bacterial load, induction of Treg cells in the stomach, increased IL-10 in the serum. Interestingly, B7-H1-/- mice showed less Treg cells and reduced bacterial loads after infection. These studies demonstrate how H. pylori T4SS components activate the p38 MAPK pathway, upregulate B7-H1 expression by GEC, and cause Treg cell induction; thus, contribute to establishing a persistent infection characteristic of H. pylori.

  4. Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island's role in B7-H1 induction and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Taslima T; Alzahrani, Shatha; House, Jennifer; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Sharpe, Arlene H; Rampy, Bill A; Pinchuk, Irina V; Reyes, Victor E

    2015-01-01

    During Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection CD4+ T cells in the gastric lamina propria are hyporesponsive and polarized by Th1/Th17 cell responses controlled by Treg cells. We have previously shown that H. pylori upregulates B7-H1 expression on GEC, which, in turn, suppress T cell proliferation, effector function, and induce Treg cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and the functional relevance of B7-H1 induction by H. pylori infection to chronic infection. Using H. pylori wild type (WT), cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI-) and cagA- isogenic mutant strains we demonstrated that H. pylori requires its type 4 secretion system (T4SS) as well as its effector protein CagA and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments for B7-H1 upregulation on GEC. Our study also showed that H. pylori uses the p38 MAPK pathway to upregulate B7-H1 expression in GEC. In vivo confirmation was obtained when infection of C57BL/6 mice with H. pylori PMSS1 strain, which has a functional T4SS delivery system, but not with H. pylori SS1 strain lacking a functional T4SS, led to a strong upregulation of B7-H1 expression in the gastric mucosa, increased bacterial load, induction of Treg cells in the stomach, increased IL-10 in the serum. Interestingly, B7-H1-/- mice showed less Treg cells and reduced bacterial loads after infection. These studies demonstrate how H. pylori T4SS components activate the p38 MAPK pathway, upregulate B7-H1 expression by GEC, and cause Treg cell induction; thus, contribute to establishing a persistent infection characteristic of H. pylori.

  5. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Characterization of the respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Andersen, L P; Zhai, L

    1999-01-01

    The respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori has been investigated. The total insensitivity of activities of NADH dehydrogenase to rotenone and of NADH-cytochrome c reductase to antimycin is indicative of the absence of the classical complex I of the electron transfer chain in this bacterium. NADPH......-dependent respiration was significantly stronger than NADH-dependent respiration, indicating that this is a major respiratory electron donor in H. pylori. Fumarate and malonate exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase. The activity of succinate-cytochrome c...

  7. Endoscopic gastritis, serum pepsinogen assay, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer.

  8. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-15

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  9. Characterization of the respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Andersen, L P; Zhai, L

    1999-01-01

    The respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori has been investigated. The total insensitivity of activities of NADH dehydrogenase to rotenone and of NADH-cytochrome c reductase to antimycin is indicative of the absence of the classical complex I of the electron transfer chain in this bacterium. NADPH......-dependent respiration was significantly stronger than NADH-dependent respiration, indicating that this is a major respiratory electron donor in H. pylori. Fumarate and malonate exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase. The activity of succinate-cytochrome c...... reductase was inhibited by antimycin, implying the presence of a classical pathway from complex II to complex III in this bacterium. The presence of NADH-fumarate reductase (FRD) was demonstrated in H. pylori and fumarate could reduce H2O2 production from NADH, indicating fumarate to be an endogenous...

  10. Interleukin-17C in Human Helicobacter pylori Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shingo; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Cruz, Modesto; Uchida, Tomohisa; Uotani, Takahiro; Jiménez Abreu, José A; Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-10-01

    The interleukin-17 (IL-17) family of cytokines (IL-17A to IL-17F) is involved in many inflammatory diseases. Although IL-17A is recognized as being involved in the pathophysiology of Helicobacter pylori -associated diseases, the role of other IL-17 cytokine family members remains unclear. Microarray analysis of IL-17 family cytokines was performed in H. pylori -infected and uninfected gastric biopsy specimens. IL-17C mRNA was upregulated approximately 4.5-fold in H. pylori -infected gastric biopsy specimens. This was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in infected and uninfected gastric mucosa obtained from Bhutan and from the Dominican Republic. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that IL-17C expression in H. pylori -infected gastric biopsy specimens was predominantly localized to epithelial and chromogranin A-positive endocrine cells. IL-17C mRNA levels were also significantly greater among cagA -positive than cagA -negative H. pylori infections ( P = 0.012). In vitro studies confirmed an increase in IL-17C mRNA and protein levels in cells infected with cagA -positive infections compared to cells infected with either cagA -negative or cag pathogenicity island (PAI) mutant. Chemical inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK), mitogen-activated protein extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK), and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibited induction of IL-17C proteins in infected cells, whereas p38 inhibition had no effect on IL-17C protein secretion. In conclusion, H. pylori infection was associated with a significant increase in IL-17C expression in human gastric mucosa. The role of IL-17C in the pathogenesis of H. pylori -induced diseases remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Role of Probiotics in the Management of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zare Javid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped, microaerophilic organism that colonizes the stomach of humans and causes chronic-active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancers, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach and MALT (mucosal-associated lymphoid tumor lymphomas. H. pylori colonizes the stomach of over 50 % the world’s human population, primarily those who reside in developing nations. Infection is generally first acquired in children, who may be entirely asymptomatic, and then persists for life, unless specific eradication therapy is initiated. All infected individuals have mucosal inflammation in the stomach in response to the organism, but only a subset will develop disease complications, such as an ulcer in the stomach or proximal duodenum and cancer in either the body or the antrum of the stomach. It is estimated that the lifetime risk of developing peptic ulceration is roughly 15%. However, this is an exceedingly important disease, because it has serious morbidity and mortality. Eradication of H. pylori infection is not successful when using antibiotics as monotherapy or dual therapy using combinations of an acid-suppressing agent and an antibiotic or two antibiotics without acid blockage. Multiple studies show that some probiotic strains can inhibit the growth of H. pylori. To date, probiotics do not appear to have a role as sole therapy for use in the prevention or treatment of H. pylori infection. However, there is increasing evidence that a variety of probiotic agents are useful as adjunctive therapy, which can both enhance the success of eradicating the gastric pathogen while, reduce the frequency and severity of adverse effects arising from the other agents that are employed in current combination treatment regimens. Future studies should assess the role of prebiotics and synbiotics and products derived from probiotics as additional options for use in the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection

  12. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data indicate that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness demonstrates the sophisticated relationship among H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori’s activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. PMID:26385073

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection studies using 14C UBT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaroop, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Patil, Shrikanth L.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon 14 ( 14 C) is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of 14 C is about 5,730 years, and it decays by emitting a low energy beta (â) particle of mean energy 49 KeV. The biological half life of 14 C is 10 to 12 days. 14 C is present in the environment and in all organic materials and behaves in the environment in the same manner as other carbon isotopes. In medicine, 14 C can be injected to study abnormalities of metabolism that underlie diabetes, gout, anaemia and acromegaly (adult 'gigantism'), and for diagnosis of Helicobacterpylori (H pylori), The discovery H Pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982 changed the approach to treat peptic ulcer disease (PUD), Since then H pylori has been the focus of clinical research and debate. The causal relationship between H pylori infection and chronic gastritis is well established, H pylori infection is one of the most common human infections worldwide. This organism has been shown to infect over half of the world's population. By the application of radiation much progress has been made worldwide in the field of medicine. This article presents the application of 14 C Urea Breath Test ( 14 C UBT) for the diagnosis of the H pylori bacteria which present in the stomach and duodenum, 14 C UBT relies on the urease activity of H pylori to detect the presence of active infection. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Mumbai has developed 14 C UBT method and already in regular practice in many hospitals across the country. Orally administered 14 C urea will be hydrolyzed into ammonia (NH 4 ) and 14 C labelled carbon dioxide ( 14 CO 2 ). The presence of a significant amount of ( 14 CO 2 ) in the exhaled breath indicates active H pylori infection. 14 C UBT is relatively inexpensive, is easy to perform, and does not require endoscopy. 14 C UBT has proved to be one of the most accurate methods for assessing H pylori status. The ionizing radiation dose involved in this test is extremely low

  14. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardi, Enzo; Goni, Elisabetta; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Di Mario, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding and recurrence rate are strongly linked to Helicobacter pylori infection even if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play a relevant role in this setting. Further studies confirm that H. pylori eradication lowers the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Therefore, a test-and-treat strategy appears to be mandatory for patients with a history of ulcer bleeding and NSAIDs and/or aspirin use. Concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), evidence clearly shows that H. pylori status has no effect on symptoms and treatment. Therefore, H. pylori treatment is not contraindicated in patients with GERD. The exact role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia (FD) remains controversial. Novel possible mechanisms by which H. pylori may elicit dyspeptic symptoms include alterations of gastric motility, as well as endocrine and acid-secretory abnormalities. Hunger sensations, acid secretion, and gastrointestinal motility are regulated by ghrelin, particularly produced by the gastric enteroendocrine cell compartment. The improvement of symptoms correlates with enhanced plasma ghrelin levels. Apart from the need for more trials on this topic, these findings may give insight into the underlying pathophysiology of FD symptoms. Recent reports suggest that the presence of bacterial DNA in the oral cavity may be relevant to its transmission. A potential protective role of H. pylori on inflammatory bowel diseases needs to be better elucidated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molecular characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA induction of IL-8 in U937 cells reveals a prominent role for p38MAPK in activating transcription factor-2, cAMP response element binding protein, and NF-kappaB activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Nakayama, Masaaki; Isomoto, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori VacA induces multiple effects on susceptible cells, including vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, inhibition of cell growth, and enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. To assess the ability of H. pylori to modulate the production of inflammatory mediators, we examined...... the mechanisms by which VacA enhanced IL-8 production by promonocytic U937 cells, which demonstrated the greatest VacA-induced IL-8 release of the cells tested. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580), ERK1/2 (PD98059), IkappaBalpha ((E)-3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile), Ca(2+) entry (SKF96365......+) in mediating activation of MAPK and the canonical NF-kappaB pathway. VacA stimulated translocation of NF-kappaBp65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA of activating transcription factor (ATF)-2 or CREB, which...

  16. Emerging Role of Probiotics in the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Histopathologic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Mohamed H; Elhawari, Soha A; Yousef, Salem; Radwan, Mohamed I; Abdel-Aziz, Hesham R

    2016-02-01

    There is growing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that emphasizes the efficacy of probiotics in the management of Helicobacter (H) pylori infection; it increased the eradication rate, improved patient clinical manifestations and lowered treatment associated side effects. In this review we documented the potential ability of probiotics to ameliorate H. pylori induced histological features. We searched the available literature for full length articles focusing the role of probiotics on H. pylori induced gastritis from histologic perspectives. Probiotics lowered H. pylori density at the luminal side of epithelium, improved histological inflammatory and activity scores both in the gastric corpus and antrum. This effect persists for long period of time after discontinuation of probiotic supplementation and this is probably through an immune mechanism. The current evidence support the promising role of probiotics in improving H. pylori induced histopathological features both in gastric antrum and corpus and for long periods of time. Because increased density of H. pylori on the gastric mucosa is linked to more severe gastritis and increased incidence of peptic ulcers, we can infer that a reduction of the density might help to decrease the risk of developing pathologies, probably the progression toward atrophic gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma. These effects together with improving the H. pylori eradication rates and amelioration of treatment related side effects might open the door for probiotics to be added to H. pylori eradication regimens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer: Timing and Impact of Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type. Studies that have examined the impact of GC prevention through H. pylori eradication have shown mixed results, but recent data suggest that prevention is only efficacious in patients without intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. This indicates that, like in Barrett's esophagus, we need better clinical risk markers to indicate which patients are at greatest risk of developing cancer to guide clinical strategies. Furthermore, recent epidemiological data have suggested a possible contribution of H. pylori in modifying the risk of developing other gastrointestinal malignancies (including esophageal, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer), although mechanistically these associations remain unexplained. We review clinically relevant aspects of H. pylori infection in the context of GC development as well as studies that have examined the impact of eradication on GC development and, lastly, discuss these recent epidemiological studies connecting H. pylori infection to extragastric gastrointestinal malignancies.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...... in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take...

  19. Caveolin-1 Protects B6129 Mice against Helicobacter pylori Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitkova, Ivana; Yuan, Gang; Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus; Kirchner, Thomas; Reu, Simone; Röcken, Christoph; Schäfer, Claus; Schmid, Roland M.; Vogelmann, Roger; Ebert, Matthias P. A.; Burgermeister, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC) where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES) but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS), infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies (“humming bird”) compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1). Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1) to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87) and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs) in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells. PMID:23592983

  20. Frequency of virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Bagheri, Nader; Zamanzad, Behnam; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-03-01

    The outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been related to specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), cagA gene, oipA and babA2 gene are important virulence factor involving gastric diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between virulence factors of H. pylori and histopathological findings. Gastroduodenoscopy was performed in 436 dyspeptic patients. Antrum biopsy was obtained for detection of H. pylori, virulence factors and for histopathological assessment. The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect virulence factors of H. pylori using specific primers. vacA genotypes in patients infected with H. pylori were associated with cagA, iceA1 and iceA2. In the patients with H. pylori infection there was a significant relationship between cagA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and chronic inflammation (P = 0.013) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.034). Neutrophil infiltration was found to be more severe in the s1 group than in the s2 group (P = 0.042). Also was a significant relationship between oipA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.018). No significant relationships were observed between other vacA genotypes and histopathological parameters. H. pylori strains showing cagA, vacA s1 and oipA positivity are associated with more severe gastritis in some histological features but virulence factors of H. pylori do not appear to determine the overall pattern of gastritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Drug therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: problems and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glupczynski, Y; Burette, A

    1990-12-01

    Antibacterial chemotherapy against Helicobacter pylori is currently being assessed by open or randomized controlled clinical studies for its efficacy in eradicating this bacterium from the stomach of patients with gastritis or gastroduodenal ulcer. Whereas there is presently no "optimal" agent and treatment scheme, the combination of some antibiotics (metronidazole, tinidazole, amoxicillin) with bismuth salts proves definitely superior in vivo to either of these agents administered alone. Several reasons have been proposed, to explain the clinical failure after treatment: insufficient concentration of active drugs in gastric mucus, instability of some agents at an acidic pH, inappropriate formulation of drug, insufficient duration of treatment, and variable compliance of patients. Recently, it has appeared from several clinical trials that H. pylori may rapidly acquire resistance to some antibiotics, and that this event might also account for clinical failure. A critical review of the literature on H. pylori treatment indicates that association of bismuth and antibiotics or of antibiotics alone both may efficiently reduce the risk of emergence of resistance and improve the therapeutic outcome. Guidelines of treatment are suggested in order to avoid the future misuse of antibiotics that would increase selection of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori and negatively affect the ecology of the gastric microflora. Likewise, an accurate definition of a subset of patients with H. pylori who really will require treatment needs to be rapidly established.

  2. Correlation between the Intensity of Helicobacter pylori Colonization and Severity of Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common cause of chronic gastritis is infection with Helicobacter pylori. Identifying the relationship between intensities of colonization and activity of gastritis helps the clinician in more effective treatment and posttreatment follow-ups. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, endoscopic gastric biopsy samples of 544 patients who complained symptoms of dyspepsia for more than three months referring to the laboratory were studied. To determine the colonization rate of H. pylori and other pathological findings, Giemsa and H&E stains were, respectively, used. Results. Among 544 subjects, 47 (8.64% patients had no gastritis, 203 (37.32% had mild gastritis, 278 (10.51% suffered moderate gastritis, and 16 (2.94% had severe gastritis. In this study, patients with mild H. pylori colonization rates had the highest level of mild activity (33.52%; in contrast, those with severe H. pylori colonization had the highest level of severe activity (43.75%. 93.96% of people with severe H. pylori colonization suffered from moderate and severe chronic gastritis. There is a significant statistical relationship between the intensity of H. pylori colonization and histopathological findings including intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, and lymphoid follicle formation. Conclusions. According to the present study, with increasing intensity of H. pylori colonization, chronicity and activity of gastritis and its complications increase.

  3. Histologic characteristics of Campylobacter pylori (Helicobacter pylori) mediated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, E; Kemp, J; Westblom, T U; Chaffin, J; Foster, A M

    1990-01-01

    One hundred-nineteen specimens were reviewed to determine whether or not there were histologic changes specific for Campylobacter pylori (CP), (Helicobacter pylori) mediated gastritis. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Brown-Hopp, and Wright-Giemsa stained sections were examined independently by two pathologists for (a) the presence of acute cryptitis, (b) percent and degree of crypt involvement, and (c) spectrum of inflammatory cells within the lamina propriae. The amount of mucus was quantified on the Periodic Acid Schift (PAS)-Alcian Blue stain sections. Changes in the character of the mucus were noted by using both the PAS-Alcian Blue and the High Iron Diamine-Alcian Blue. A positive specimen for Campylobacter pylori (CP+), (Helicobacter pylori) was defined as one in which curved or spiral shaped microbes were identified on Wright-Giemsa and Brown-Hopp stain. Seventy-eight specimens were CP+ and 41 CP-. Statistically significant histologic findings included the extent and degree of superficial cryptitis and the preponderance of plasma cells in CP+ cases. These findings confirm aspects seen in an animal model and suggest that there is an histologic pattern consistent with C. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) mediated gastritis.

  4. Extragastric Diseases and Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Polyzos, Stergios A; Kountouras, Jannis

    2015-09-01

    The extragastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection still remain a very strong topic throughout the H. pylori world. Indeed, H. pylori may interfere with many biological processes, both inside and outside of the stomach, possibly influencing or determining the occurrence of many diseases outside of the stomach. While its role in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and sideropenic anemia has already been recognized, emerging evidence suggests that H. pylori may increase the risk of acute coronary syndrome, contribute to insulin resistance and be associated with neurodegenerative, respiratory, and other miscellaneous disorders previously associated with other conditions. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been hypothesized, including the induction of a low-grade inflammatory state and the occurrence of molecular mimicry mechanisms. This review summarizes the results of the most relevant studies published on this topic in the last year. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. KCTD5 and Ubiquitin Proteasome Signaling Are Required for Helicobacter pylori Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Alhejandra; Uribe, Felipe; Canales, Jimena; Romero, Cristóbal; Soza, Andrea; Peña, María A.; Antonelli, Marcelo; Almarza, Oscar; Cerda, Oscar; Toledo, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    In order to establish infection, bacterial pathogens modulate host cellular processes by using virulence factors, which are delivered from the bacteria to the host cell leading to cellular reprogramming. In this context, several pathogens regulate the ubiquitin proteasome system in order to regulate the cellular effectors required for their successful colonization and persistance. In this study, we investigated how Helicobacter pylori affect the ubiquitination of the host proteins to achieve the adherence to the cells, using AGS gastric epithelial cells cultured with H. pylori strains, H. pylori 26695 and two isogenic mutants H. pylori cag::cat and vacA::apha3, to characterize the ability of H. pylori to reprogram the ubiquitin proteasome systems. The infection assays suggest that the ubiquitination of the total proteins does not change when cells were co-culture with H. pylori. We also found that the proteasome activity is necessary for H. pylori adhesion to AGS cells and the adherence increases when the level of KCTD5, an adaptor of Cullin-3, decrease. Moreover, we found that KCTD5 is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome system and that CagA and VacA played no role on reducing KCTD5 levels. Furthermore, H. pylori impaired KCTD5 ubiquitination and did not increase global proteasome function. These results suggest that H. pylori affect the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to facilitate the adhesion of this microorganism to establish stable colonization in the gastric epithelium and improve our understanding of how H. pylori hijack host systems to establish the adherence. PMID:29114497

  6. Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal disease in children. Diagnostic utility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, M S; Dallal, S; Berezin, S H; Bostwick, H E; Newman, L J; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of IgG and IgA serological tests in establishing a diagnosis of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori gastric infection, 60 children presenting with chronic abdominal pain were prospectively studied. Endoscopic antral biopsies were obtained and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori using three standard methods: culture and identification of bacterial isolates, microscopic examination for morphologically characteristic bacteria, and urease production by the biopsy specimen. Concomitantly obtained serum samples were analyzed for the presence of IgG and IgA antibodies against H. pylori surface antigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thirty-four of 60 (56.6%) had histological evidence of chronic active gastritis, eight of whom (13.3%) also had evidence of H. pylori infection by at least one criteria. Six of the eight infected patients had H. pylori demonstrated by all three methods. Of the eight infected patients, seven had IgG antibodies against H. pylori (sensitivity of 87%) and six had IgA antibodies (sensitivity of 75%). Among the six patients who had H. pylori infection confirmed by all three methods, all had IgG antibodies (sensitivity of 100%). In the patients without evidence of H. pylori infection, the IgG ELISA had a specificity of 96% (50/52), and the IgA ELISA had a specificity of 100% (52/52). Our data suggest that serological testing for the presence of antibodies against H. pylori may be a useful diagnostic tool in screening children with chronic abdominal pain for the presence of gastric infection with H. pylori.

  7. KCTD5 and Ubiquitin Proteasome Signaling Are Required for Helicobacter pylori Adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhejandra Álvarez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish infection, bacterial pathogens modulate host cellular processes by using virulence factors, which are delivered from the bacteria to the host cell leading to cellular reprogramming. In this context, several pathogens regulate the ubiquitin proteasome system in order to regulate the cellular effectors required for their successful colonization and persistance. In this study, we investigated how Helicobacter pylori affect the ubiquitination of the host proteins to achieve the adherence to the cells, using AGS gastric epithelial cells cultured with H. pylori strains, H. pylori 26695 and two isogenic mutants H. pylori cag::cat and vacA::apha3, to characterize the ability of H. pylori to reprogram the ubiquitin proteasome systems. The infection assays suggest that the ubiquitination of the total proteins does not change when cells were co-culture with H. pylori. We also found that the proteasome activity is necessary for H. pylori adhesion to AGS cells and the adherence increases when the level of KCTD5, an adaptor of Cullin-3, decrease. Moreover, we found that KCTD5 is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome system and that CagA and VacA played no role on reducing KCTD5 levels. Furthermore, H. pylori impaired KCTD5 ubiquitination and did not increase global proteasome function. These results suggest that H. pylori affect the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS to facilitate the adhesion of this microorganism to establish stable colonization in the gastric epithelium and improve our understanding of how H. pylori hijack host systems to establish the adherence.

  8. Brain-gut axis in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Jacek; Kłopocka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main pathogenic factor for upper digestive tract organic diseases. In addition to direct cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, H. pylori infection may also induce abnormalities indirectly by affecting the brain-gut axis, similar to other microorganisms present in the alimentary tract. The brain-gut axis integrates the central, peripheral, enteric and autonomic nervous systems, as well as the endocrine and immunological systems, with gastrointestinal functions and environmental stimuli, including gastric and intestinal microbiota. The bidirectional relationship between H. pylori infection and the brain-gut axis influences both the contagion process and the host’s neuroendocrine-immunological reaction to it, resulting in alterations in cognitive functions, food intake and appetite, immunological response, and modification of symptom sensitivity thresholds. Furthermore, disturbances in the upper and lower digestive tract permeability, motility and secretion can occur, mainly as a form of irritable bowel syndrome. Many of these abnormalities disappear following H. pylori eradication. H. pylori may have direct neurotoxic effects that lead to alteration of the brain-gut axis through the activation of neurogenic inflammatory processes, or by microelement deficiency secondary to functional and morphological changes in the digestive tract. In digestive tissue, H. pylori can alter signaling in the brain-gut axis by mast cells, the main brain-gut axis effector, as H. pylori infection is associated with decreased mast cell infiltration in the digestive tract. Nevertheless, unequivocal data concerning the direct and immediate effect of H. pylori infection on the brain-gut axis are still lacking. Therefore, further studies evaluating the clinical importance of these host-bacteria interactions will improve our understanding of H. pylori infection pathophysiology and suggest new therapeutic approaches. PMID:24833851

  9. Brain-gut axis in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Jacek; Kłopocka, Maria

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main pathogenic factor for upper digestive tract organic diseases. In addition to direct cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, H. pylori infection may also induce abnormalities indirectly by affecting the brain-gut axis, similar to other microorganisms present in the alimentary tract. The brain-gut axis integrates the central, peripheral, enteric and autonomic nervous systems, as well as the endocrine and immunological systems, with gastrointestinal functions and environmental stimuli, including gastric and intestinal microbiota. The bidirectional relationship between H. pylori infection and the brain-gut axis influences both the contagion process and the host's neuroendocrine-immunological reaction to it, resulting in alterations in cognitive functions, food intake and appetite, immunological response, and modification of symptom sensitivity thresholds. Furthermore, disturbances in the upper and lower digestive tract permeability, motility and secretion can occur, mainly as a form of irritable bowel syndrome. Many of these abnormalities disappear following H. pylori eradication. H. pylori may have direct neurotoxic effects that lead to alteration of the brain-gut axis through the activation of neurogenic inflammatory processes, or by microelement deficiency secondary to functional and morphological changes in the digestive tract. In digestive tissue, H. pylori can alter signaling in the brain-gut axis by mast cells, the main brain-gut axis effector, as H. pylori infection is associated with decreased mast cell infiltration in the digestive tract. Nevertheless, unequivocal data concerning the direct and immediate effect of H. pylori infection on the brain-gut axis are still lacking. Therefore, further studies evaluating the clinical importance of these host-bacteria interactions will improve our understanding of H. pylori infection pathophysiology and suggest new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Helicobacter pylori in out-patients of a general practitioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Winz, T

    1997-01-01

    Data on prevalence and determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection in well-defined populations are scarce. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of active H. pylori infection in a population of out-patients attending a general practitioner in Southern Germany. Infection status.......4%). Prevalence of H. pylori infection increased with age from 10.8% (95% CI 5.7-18.1%) in the age group 15-29 years to 30.8% (95% CI 22.1-40.6%) in the age group 60-79 years and was 20.3%, 30.4% and 28.2% for the age groups 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years, respectively. Education and childhood living conditions...

  11. Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

    2012-01-01

    The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

  12. Evidence of helicobacter pylori infection in dental plaque and gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, M.; Haseeb-ur-Rehman; Mahmood, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in dental plaque of individuals suffering from H. pylori associated gastric disease. Patients and Methods: Patients presenting with symptoms/signs of chronic gastritis were included in the study. Specimens of dental plaque and gastric biopsy were collected from all the patients. The dental plaque specimen was processed for helicourease test and the gastric biopsy specimens were processed both for the helicourease test and histopathology. Results: Out of all patients studied (n=52), 32 (61.53%) were positive for helicourease test with gastric biopsy while 48 (92.30%) were positive with dental plaque. The histopathology of gastric biopsy showed H. pylori associated chronic active gastritis in 42 (80.76%) patients. Eight (15.38%) patients showed chronic active gastritis which was not associated with H. pylori while in 2 (3.84%) patients the gastric biopsy specimen was unremarkable. Conclusion: Majority of the patients have possible H. pylori colonization in dental plaque while about two-thirds have H. pylori associated chronic active gastritis. Oral cavity may be the first place for colonization and then the infection involves the gastric mucosa. (author)

  13. Synthesis of New Nitrofluoroquinolone Derivatives with Novel Anti-Microbial Properties against Metronidazole Resistant H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qatouseh, Luay; Abu-Sini, Mohammad; Mayyas, Amal; Al-Hiari, Yusuf; Darwish, Rula; Aburjai, Talal

    2017-01-04

    One of the major therapeutic approaches to preventing relapse and accelerating the healing of duodenal and gastric ulcers is the eradication of Helicobacter pylori . Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among clinical strains of H. pylori , alternative approaches using newly discovered antimicrobial agents in combination with the standard regimens for the treatment of H. pylori are increasingly needed. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of newly synthesized 8-nitroflouroqunolone derivatives when used either alone or when combined with metronidazole against metronidazole-resistant H. pylori . Based on the standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and checkerboard titration assay, all of the tested compounds showed interesting antimicrobial activity against 12 clinical strains of H. pylori , with the best in vitro effect for compound 3c . In addition, synergistic and additive activities of some of the tested compounds were observed when combined with metronidazole. Furthermore, among the tested nitroflouroquinolone derivatives, compound 3b showed significant urease inhibition activity with IC 50 of 62.5 µg/mL. These results suggest that 8-nitroflouroquinolone derivatives may have a useful role in combination with anti- H. pylori drugs in the management of H. pylori -associated diseases.

  14. Effect on cell surface hydrophobicity and susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuk, H; Hirmo, S; Türi, E; Mikelsaar, M; Arak, E; Wadström, T

    1999-03-01

    Effects on aqueous extracts of medicinal plants on ten Helicobacter pylori strains were studied by the salt aggregation test to determine the possibility to modulate their cell surface hydrophobicity and by an agar diffusion assay for detection of antimicrobial activity. It was established that aqueous extracts of bearberry and cowberry leaves enhance cell aggregation of all H. pylori strains tested by the salt aggregation test, and the extract of bearberry possessed a remarkable bacteriostatic activity. Pure tannic acid showed a result similar to that of bearberry and cowberry extracts which contained a large amount of tannins. In contrast, extracts of wild camomile and pineapple-weed, which blocked aggregation of H. pylori, contained small amounts of tannins and did not reveal any antimicrobial activity. Tannic acid seems to be the component of bearberry and cowberry aqueous extracts with the highest activity to decrease cell surface hydrophobicity as well as in antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

  15. Pleiotropic Actions of Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin, VacA

    OpenAIRE

    Isomoto, Hajime; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces a vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, and most virulent H. pylori strains secrete VacA. VacA binds to two types of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP), RPTPα and RPTPβ, on the surface of host cells. VacA bound to RPTPβ, relocates and concentrates in lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. VacA causes vacuolization, membrane anion-selective channel and pore formation, and disruption of endosomal and lysosomal activity in host cells. Secreted VacA is processed in...

  16. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori infection is significantly high in rural and suburban population of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential for prevention of serious complications. Keywords: Gastrointestinal complications, Helicobacter pylori infection, Histopathological ...

  17. The number of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells is increased in Helicobacter pylori gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae Jung

    2010-01-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. Recent studies have shown that CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the immune response to H. pylori. Persistent H. pylori-associated gastritis is closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated the number of Tregs in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, examined the relationship between it and histopathological findings and compared it with that of gastric dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. This study was based on the analysis of gastric biopsy specimens from 126 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis, 16 cases of H. pylori-negative gastritis, 17 cases of gastric dysplasia, and 25 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma. The number of Tregs was elevated in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation and the number of lymphoid follicles. It was significantly elevated in adenocarcinomas compared to chronic gastritis and gastric dysplasia. In summary, the number of Tregs is increased in H. pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Helicobacter pylori on the healing process of the gastric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnich, Eliza; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Sicińska, Paulina; Hinc, Krzysztof; Obuchowski, Michał; Gajewski, Adrian; Moran, Anthony P; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the impact of selected well defined Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antigens on gastric barrier cell turnover. METHODS In this study, using two cellular models of gastric epithelial cells and fibroblasts, we have focused on exploring the effects of well defined H. pylori soluble components such as glycine acid extract antigenic complex (GE), subunit A of urease (UreA), cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cell turnover by comparing the wound healing capacity of the cells in terms of their proliferative and metabolic activity as well as cell cycle distribution. Toxic effects of H. pylori components have been assessed in an association with damage to cell nuclei and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. RESULTS We showed that H. pylori GE, CagA and UreA promoted regeneration of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, which is necessary for effective tissue healing. However, in vivo increased proliferative activity of these cells may constitute an increased risk of gastric neoplasia. In contrast, H. pylori LPS showed a dose-dependent influence on the process of wound healing. At a low concentration (1 ng/mL) H. pylori LPS accelerated of healing epithelial cells, which was linked to significantly enhanced cell proliferation and MTT reduction as well as lack of alterations in cell cycle and downregulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) production as well as cell nuclei destruction. By comparison, H. pylori LPS at a high concentration (25 ng/mL) inhibited the process of wound repair, which was related to diminished proliferative activity of the cells, cell cycle arrest, destruction of cell nuclei and downregulation of the EGF/STAT3 signalling pathway. CONCLUSION In vivo H. pylori LPS driven effects might lead to the maintenance of chronic inflammatory response and pathological disorders on the level of the gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:27672275

  19. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermato...

  20. What Do We Do about Helicobacter pylori?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Hawkey

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliobacter pylori and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs cause ulcers by different mechanisms. Under some circumstances, patients infected with H pylori may be less prone to NSAID-associated ulcers than those who are H pylori-negative. Eradication trials have yielded differing results. However, those who have studied patients who have a past history of ulcer disease and are already established on NSAIDs have shown no benefit from H pylori eradication.

  1. What Do We Do about Helicobacter pylori?

    OpenAIRE

    CJ Hawkey

    1999-01-01

    Heliobacter pylori and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause ulcers by different mechanisms. Under some circumstances, patients infected with H pylori may be less prone to NSAID-associated ulcers than those who are H pylori-negative. Eradication trials have yielded differing results. However, those who have studied patients who have a past history of ulcer disease and are already established on NSAIDs have shown no benefit from H pylori eradication.

  2. Rifalazil and derivative compounds show potent efficacy in a mouse model of H. pylori colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, David M; Mullin, Steve; Sirokman, Klari; Söndergaard, Karen L; Johnson, Starrla; Gwathmey, Judith K; van Duzer, John; Murphy, Christopher K

    2008-08-01

    The rifamycin rifalazil (RFZ), and derivatives (NCEs) were efficacious in a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori colonization. Select NCEs were more active in vitro and showed greater efficacy than RFZ. A systemic component contributes to efficacy.

  3. ( Asteraceae ) methanol extracts against Helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol vehicle did not affect H. pylori growth. Conclusion: The observed antibacterial effect of G. glutinosum extracts may be of benefit as an adjuvant treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori. Key words: Gymnosperma glutinosum, Helicobacter pylori, methanol extract, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC).

  4. Helicobacter Pylori : Serological Testing and Treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with dyspepsia and eradication of H. pylori after a non-invasive testing is an integral part of most management guidelines. This study evaluated the benefit of serological testing and treatment of H. pylori in Nigerian patients presenting with uninvestigated dyspepsia.

  5. TFF1 expression suppresses H. pylori-induced inflammation in gastric carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutto, Mohammed; Chen, Zheng; Katsha, Ahmed; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Krishna, Uma; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Washington, M. Kay; Peek, Richard M.; Belkhiri, Abbes; El-Rifai, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a high-risk factor for gastric cancer, is frequently associated with chronic inflammation through activation of NFκB. TFF1 is a constitutively expressed protein in the stomach that has tumor suppressor functions and plays a critical role in maintaining mucosal integrity. In this study, we investigated the role of TFF1 in regulating the proinflammatory response to H. pylori infection. Methods For in vitro studies, we performed immunofluorescence, luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to investigate activation of NFκB and its target genes in response to infection with H. pylori strains J166 and 7.13. In addition, we utilized the Tff1 knockout (KO) and Tff1 wild-type (WT) mice for infection with PMSS1 H. pylori strain. Results The reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cells significantly suppressed an H. pylori-mediated increase of NFκB-p65 nuclear staining, transcriptional activity and expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (TNFα, IL1β, CXCL5, and IL4R) that were associated with reduction in expression and phosphorylation of NFκB-p65 and IKKα/β proteins. The in vivo studies using the Tff1-KO mouse model of gastric neoplasia confirmed the in vitro findings. Furthermore, they demonstrated an increase in chronic inflammation scores and frequency of invasive gastric adenocarcinoma in the Tff1-KO mice infected with H. pylori, as compared to uninfected Tff1-KO mice. Conclusion These findings underscore an important protective role of TFF1 in abrogating H. pylori-mediated inflammation, a crucial hallmark of gastric tumorigenesis. Therefore, loss of TFF1 expression could be an important step in the H. pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26372254

  6. EXAMINATION OF THE PROTEIN PROFILE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI UNDER DIFFERENT GROWTH CONDITIONS USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA currently has H. pylori on its Contaminant Candidate List 2 (CCL 2), methods are needed to detect the occurrence of viable H. pylori in drinking water. H. pyloi is an interesting microorganism because it can change from a cultural and metabolically active state with a heli...

  7. Histopathological evaluation of H. Pylori associated gastric lesions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Endoscopic biopsy of the gastric mucosa allows early diagnosis, grading, staging and classification of gastric diseases. Helicobacter pylori, has been ... Amongst patients with chronic gastritis, inflammatory activity was present in 65%; atrophy in 53%; and intestinal metaplasia in 16.6%. All gastric malignancies ...

  8. the effect of some nigerian local herbs on helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE EFFECT OF SOME NIGERIAN LOCAL HERBS ON HELICOBACTER PYLORI. S. I. Smith, K.S. Oyedeji, B. Opere, B. A. Iwalokun, E. A. Omonigbehin. Abstract. Four Nigerian medicinal plants commonly used in the treatment of bacterial infections were tested for antimicrobial activity against twenty local strains of ...

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis | Ebule | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori-infection associated gastritis is known to be a significant risk factor of gastric cancer. Serum levels of Gastrin-17 and Pepsinogen1which are respectively biomarkers of gastric antral and corpus mucosal activity are well known parameters of atrophic gastritis. Objectives: To determine the ...

  10. Pattern of gastritis and Helicobacter pylori colonization of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach causes chronic active gastritis. The pattern of gastritis is related to the disease outcome. This study aimed to determine the predominant gastritis pattern in Nigerian dyspeptic patients with a view to predicting gastroduodenal disease outcomes. Methods: Patients referred ...

  11. Lactobacillus reuteri in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Maria Pina; Cuccu, Marianna; Pes, Gianni Mario; Manca, Alessandra; Graham, David Yates

    2014-09-01

    Probiotics have proven to be useful in the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases. Probiotics may compete directly with Helicobacter pylori, possibly by interference with adherence or by the production of antimicrobial molecules. Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to inhibit H. pylori in vitro and in vivo, and theoretically may play a role in eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of L. reuteri in H. pylori eradication therapy. This was an open label single center study. H. pylori infection was defined as positive gastric histopathology and (13)C-UBT. Intervention consisted of L. reuteri (DSM 17938) 10(8) cfu plus pantoprazole 20 mg twice a day for 8 weeks. Eradication was defined as a negative (13)C-UBT, 4-6 weeks post therapy. Compliance was considered good if at least 90% of the total number of the pills were taken. 21 of 22 subjects completed the study without protocol violation (mean age 52 years; 36% men). L. reuteri plus pantoprazole twice a day cured 13.6% (3/22; 95% CI 2.9-34.9%) of patients with H. pylori infection by ITT analysis and 14.2% (3/21; 95% CI 3.0-36%) by PP analysis. Overall urease activity assessed before and 4-6 weeks post therapy showed a significant reduction with a difference of mean of 38.8 vs. 25.4 by one-tailed test (P = 0.002). In conclusion, L. reuteri may have a potential role in H. pylori eradication therapy if the cure rate can be improved by changes in dose, dosing interval, or duration of therapy.

  12. [Biochemical, physiological, and enzymatic study of 78 strains of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori isolated from gastroduodenal biopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, J; Alomar, P

    1990-03-01

    A biochemical, physiological and enzymatic study of 78 C. pylori strains isolated from gastroduodenal biopsies is reported. All strains were positive in the oxidase, catalase and urease tests. 97.4% produced SH2 in the lead acetate band and 79.4% showed beta-hemolytic activity in sheep blood agar. In the antibiotic selection tests, C. pylori was characterized to be resistant to nalidixic acid and sensitive to cefalotin . The enzymatic study demonstrated the presence of acid and alkaline phosphatases. This finding and the urease test give C. pylori a define bacteriological character which differentiate it from the remaining campylobacteria.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okimoto Tadayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of H. pylori infection in Vietnam is reportedly high, but the spectrum of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases has not been systematically investigated. Moreover, despite the similarities of ethnicity and diet, the age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer in the northern city of Hanoi is higher than that in the southern city of Ho Chi Minh, but the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. The virulence of Vietnamese H. pylori has also not been investigated in detail. Methods Individuals undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy were randomly recruited. H. pylori infection status was determined based on the combined results of culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urine test and serum ELISA. Peptic ulcer (PU and gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed by endoscopy, and chronic gastritis was determined histologically. H. pylori virulence factors were investigated by PCR and sequencing. Results Among the examined patients, 65.6% were infected with H. pylori. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those over 40 years of age than in those aged ≤40. Chronic gastritis was present in all H. pylori-infected individuals, 83.1% of whom had active gastritis, and 85.3% and 14.7% had atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. PU was present in 21% of infected patients, whereas its incidence was very low in non-infected individuals. The prevalence of PU was significantly higher in Hanoi than in Ho Chi Minh. The prevalence of vacA m1, which has been identified as an independent risk factor for PU in Vietnam, was significantly higher among H. pylori isolates from Hanoi than among those from Ho Chi Minh. Conclusions H. pylori infection is common in Vietnam and is strongly associated with PU, active gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. vacA m1 is associated with an increased risk for PU and might contribute to the difference in the prevalence of PU and gastric cancer between

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection: approach of primary care physicians in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shah Hasnain

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and practices of primary care physicians in diagnosis and management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in developing country. Methods This convenient sample based, cross sectional study was conducted in primary care physicians of Karachi, Pakistan from March 2008 to August 2008 through a pretested self-designed questionnaire, which contained 11 items pertaining to H. pylori route of transmission, diagnosis, indication for testing, treatment options, follow up and source of information. Results Out of 509 primary care physicians, 451 consented to participate with the response rate of 88.6%. Responses of 426 primary care physicians were analyzed after excluding 19 physicians. 78% of the physicians thought that contaminated water was the source of spread of infection, dyspepsia was the most frequent indication for investigating H. pylori infection (67% of the physicians, while 43% physicians were of the view that serology was the most appropriate test to diagnose active H. pylori infection. 77% of physicians thought that gastric ulcer was the most compelling indication for treatment, 61% physicians preferred Clarithromycin based triple therapy for 7–14 days. 57% of the physicians would confirm H. pylori eradication after treatment in selected patients and 47% physicians preferred serological testing for follow-up. In case of treatment failure, only 36% of the physicians were in favor of gastroenterologist referral. Conclusion The primary care physicians in this study lacked in knowledge regarding management of H. pylori infection. Internationally published guidelines and World gastroenterology organization (WGO practice guideline on H. pylori for developing countries have little impact on current practices of primary care physicians. We recommend more teaching programs, continuous medical education activities regarding H. pylori infection.

  15. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection Decreases with Older Age in Atrophic Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical pathological characteristics of 3969 adult patients with chronic atrophic gastritis were retrospectively studied. The positivity of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in atrophic gastric specimens increased with age; however, H. pylori positivity and inflammatory activity decreased significantly with increased age. H. pylori infection was present in 21.01% of chronic atrophic gastritis patients, and 92.33% of the subjects with H. pylori infection were found to have simultaneous inflammatory activity. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity markedly increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. In conclusion, the incidence of H. pylori infection decreased with age and correlated significantly with inflammatory activity in atrophic gastritis patients. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity notably increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. Large population-based prospective studies are needed to better understand the progression of CAG.

  16. Protective effect of Korean Red Ginseng extract against Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation includes induction of inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, which are mediated by oxidant-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. High levels of lipid peroxide (LPO and increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO, a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration, are observed in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Panax ginseng Meyer, a Korean herb medicine, is widely used in Asian countries for its biological activities including anti-inflammatory efficacy. The present study aims to investigate whether Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils. One wk after intragastric inoculation with H. pylori, Mongolian gerbils were fed with either the control diet or the diet containing RGE (200 mg RGE/gerbil for 6 wk. The following were determined in gastric mucosa: the number of viable H. pylori in stomach; MPO activity; LPO level; mRNA and protein levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant factor (KC, a rodent IL-8 homolog, IL-1β, and iNOS; protein level of phospho-IκBα (which reflects the activation of NF-κB; and histology. As a result, RGE suppressed H. pylori-induced mRNA and protein levels of KC, IL-1β, and iNOS in gastric mucosa. RGE also inhibited H. pylori-induced phosphorylation of IκBα and increases in LPO level and MPO activity of gastric mucosa. RGE did not affect viable H. pylori colonization in the stomach, but improved the histological grade of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, intestinal metaplasia, and hyperplasia. In conclusion, RGE inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by suppressing induction of inflammatory mediators (KC, IL-1β, iNOS, MPO activity, and LPO level in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa.

  17. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  18. Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal pathology: new threats of the old friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Niyaz; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2005-01-05

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. It infects over 50% of the worlds' population, however, only a small subset of infected people experience H. pylori-associated illnesses. Associations with disease-specific factors remain enigmatic years after the genome sequences were deciphered. Infection with strains of Helicobacter pylori that carry the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (cagA) gene is associated with gastric carcinoma. Recent studies revealed mechanisms through which the cagA protein triggers oncopathogenic activities. Other candidate genes such as some members of the so-called plasticity region cluster are also implicated to be associated with carcinoma of stomach. Study of the evolution of polymorphisms and sequence variation in H. pylori populations on a global basis has provided a window into the history of human population migration and co-evolution of this pathogen with its host. Possible symbiotic relationships were debated since the discovery of this pathogen. The debate has been further intensified as some studies have posed the possibility that H. pylori infection may be beneficial in some humans. This assumption is based on increased incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus following H. pylori eradication in some countries. The contribution of comparative genomics to our understanding of the genome organisation and diversity of H. pylori and its pathophysiological importance to human healthcare is exemplified in this review.

  19. Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal pathology: New threats of the old friend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sechi Leonardo A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. It infects over 50% of the worlds' population, however, only a small subset of infected people experience H. pylori-associated illnesses. Associations with disease-specific factors remain enigmatic years after the genome sequences were deciphered. Infection with strains of Helicobacter pylori that carry the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (cagA gene is associated with gastric carcinoma. Recent studies revealed mechanisms through which the cagA protein triggers oncopathogenic activities. Other candidate genes such as some members of the so-called plasticity region cluster are also implicated to be associated with carcinoma of stomach. Study of the evolution of polymorphisms and sequence variation in H. pylori populations on a global basis has provided a window into the history of human population migration and co-evolution of this pathogen with its host. Possible symbiotic relationships were debated since the discovery of this pathogen. The debate has been further intensified as some studies have posed the possibility that H. pylori infection may be beneficial in some humans. This assumption is based on increased incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD, Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus following H. pylori eradication in some countries. The contribution of comparative genomics to our understanding of the genome organisation and diversity of H. pylori and its pathophysiological importance to human healthcare is exemplified in this review.

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic patients in an industrial belt of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathi, Parthasarathi; Satpathi, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj K; Behera, Prativa K; Maity, Amit Bikram

    2017-01-01

    The present study is done to study different aspects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) such as its prevalence, association with upper gastrointestinal pathology, diagnosis and treatment outcome. Gastric antral biopsy and serology for H. pylori was done for all dyspeptic patients. Histopathology, gram stain and biopsy urease test was done from the gastric biopsy specimen. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 58.8%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for histopathology was 96.9%, 100%, 100% and 95.8%, respectively; for biopsy urease test 80.4%, 100%, 100% and 78.2%, respectively; for gram stain 85.6%, 97.1%, 97.6% and 82.5%, respectively, and for serology 94.8%, 77.9%, 86% and 91.4%, respectively. Mostly peptic ulcer and duodenitis cases followed by chronic active gastritis were associated with H. pylori infection. Repeat biopsy revealed eradication of H. pylori in 90.7% cases. In dyspeptic patients, endoscopic biopsy not only detects H. pylori infection, but also reveals different gastric pathologies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. [Changes in Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases according to Improvement of Helicobacter pylori Prevalence Rate in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Heon

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause variety of upper gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcer, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma, and gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection has significantly decreased in Korea since 1998 owing to active eradication of H. pylori. Along with its decrease, the prevalence of peptic ulcer has also decreased. However, the mean age of gastric ulcer increased and this is considered to be due to increase in NSAID prescription. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Korea and Japan, and IARC/WHO has classified H. pylori as class one carcinogen of gastric cancer. Despite the decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection, the total number of gastric cancer in Korea has continuously increased from 2006 to 2011. Nevertheless, the 5 year survival rate of gastric cancer patients significantly increased from 42.8% in 1993 to 67% in 2010. This increase in survival rate seems to be mainly due to early detection of gastric cancer and endoscopic mucosal dissection treatment. Based on these findings, the prevalence of peptic ulcer is expected to decrease even more with H. pylori eradication therapy and NSAID will become the main cause of peptic ulcer. Although the prevalence of gastric cancer has not changed along with decreased the prevalence of H. pylori, gastric cancer is expected to decrease in the long run with the help of eradication therapy and endoscopic treatment of precancerous lesions.

  2. Helicobacter pylori genotypes associated with gastric histo-pathological damages in a Moroccan population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Alaoui Boukhris

    Full Text Available H. pylori persistent infection induces chronic gastritis and is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma development. The severity of these diseases is related to human's genetic diversity, H. pylori genetic variability and environmental factors. To identify the prevalence of histo-pathological damages caused by H. pylori infection in Moroccan population, and to determine their association to H. pylori genotypes, a prospective study has been conducted during 3 years on patients attending the gastroenterology department of Hassan II University Hospital (CHU of Fez, Morocco. A total of 801 Moroccan adults' patients were recruited; H. pylori was diagnosed and genotyped by PCR in biopsy specimens and histological exam was performed. We found a high rate of glandular atrophy. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity and glandular atrophy showed statistically significant association with H. pylori infection. However, intestinal metaplasia was inversely associated to this infection and no association was observed with gastric cancer cases. A statistically significant association was found between intestinal metaplasia and vacAs1 and vac Am1 genotypes in patients aged 50 years and more but not in younger. This last genotype is also associated to gastric cancer. In this study, gastric cancer showed no significant association with H. pylori. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of other etiological agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and possibly environmental and dietetic factors in the occurrence of this pathology.

  3. Helicobacter pylori and gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffeld, R J; Willems, I; Flendrig, J A; Arends, J W

    1990-12-01

    A retrospective study was performed on gastric carcinomas to establish the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric epithelium adjacent to the tumour. A total of 105 carcinomas were studied. The overall prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 59%. The prevalence in different age cohorts from patients with gastric carcinoma was compared with that in patients suffering from non-ulcer dyspepsia and, based on serological testing, with that in healthy blood donors. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in cancer patients aged 41-50 and 51-60 was significantly higher than in blood donors. No difference was seen in comparison with non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. The presence of Helicobacter pylori showed an inverse correlation with the extent of intestinal metaplasia. The intestinal type of carcinoma was associated with a higher bacterial load than the diffuse type. These data suggest that the presence of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa could play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma, especially in the young age group.

  4. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Resveratrol Protects against Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastritis by Combating Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Jiang, Anmin; Qi, Banghua; Ma, Zhongyou; Xiong, Youyi; Dou, Jinfeng; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-11-20

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced oxidative stress has been shown to play a very important role in the inflammation of the gastric mucosa and increases the risk of developing gastric cancer. Resveratrol has many biological functions and activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study was to probe whether resveratrol inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of any effect in mice. A mouse model of H. pylori infection was established via oral inoculation with H. pylori. After one week, mice were administered resveratrol (100 mg/kg body weight/day) orally for six weeks. The mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and IL-8 were assessed using RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA. The expression levels of IκBα and phosphorylated IκBα (which embodies the level and activation of NF-κB), Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1; a potent antioxidant enzyme) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined using Western blot, and lipid peroxide (LPO) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were examined using an MPO colorimetric activity assay, thiobarbituric acid reaction, and histological-grade using HE staining of the gastric mucosa. The results showed that resveratrol improved the histological infiltration score and decreased LPO level and MPO activity in the gastric mucosa. Resveratrol down-regulated the H. pylori-induced mRNA transcription and protein expression levels of IL-8 and iNOS, suppressed H. pylori-induced phosphorylation of IκBα, and increased the levels of HO-1 and Nrf2. In conclusion, resveratrol treatment exerted significant effects against oxidative stress and inflammation in H. pylori-infected mucosa through the suppression of IL-8, iNOS, and NF-κB, and moreover through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  6. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitory peptide attenuates Helicobacter pylori-mediated hyper-proliferation in AGS enteric epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himaya, S.W.A. [Marine Bio-Process Research Center, Pukyong National University, Nam-Gu, Busan, 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Dewapriya, Pradeep [Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Nam-Gu, Busan, 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se-Kwon, E-mail: sknkim@pknu.ac.kr [Marine Bio-Process Research Center, Pukyong National University, Nam-Gu, Busan, 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Nam-Gu, Busan, 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most critical causes of stomach cancer. The current study was conducted to explore the protective effects of an isolated active peptide H-P-6 (Pro-Gln-Pro-Lys-Val-Leu-Asp-Ser) from microbial hydrolysates of Chlamydomonas sp. against H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis. The peptide H-P-6 has effectively suppressed H. pylori-induced hyper-proliferation and migration of gastric epithelial cells (AGS). However, the peptide did not inhibit the viability of the bacteria or invasion into AGS cells. Therefore, the effect of the peptide on regulating H. pylori-induced molecular signaling was investigated. The results indicated that H. pylori activates the EGFR tyrosine kinase signaling and nuclear translocation of the β-catenin. The EGFR activation has led to the up-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Moreover, the nuclear translocation levels of β-catenin were significantly increased as a result of Akt mediated down-regulation of GSK3/β protein levels in the cytoplasm. Both of these consequences have resulted in increased expression of cell survival and migration related genes such as c-Myc, cyclin-D, MMP-2 and matrilysin. Interestingly, the isolated peptide potently inhibited H. pylori-mediated EGFR activation and thereby down-regulated the subsequent P13K/Akt signaling leading to β-catenin nuclear translocation. The effect of the peptide was confirmed with the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1487 and molecular docking studies. Collectively this study identifies a potent peptide which regulates the H. pylori-induced hyper-proliferation and migration of AGS cells at molecular level. - Highlights: • Chlamydomonas sp. derived peptide H-P-6 inhibits H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. • H-P-6 suppresses H. pylori-induced hyper-proliferation and migration of AGS cells. • The peptide inhibits H. pylori-induced EGFR activation.

  7. H pylori are associated with chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Feng; Hu, Lu; Yi, Ping; Liu, Wei-Wen; Fang, Dian-Chun; Cao, Hong

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study whether H pylori are associated with chronic cholecystitis. METHODS: The subjects were divided into three groups: H pylori-infected cholecystitis group, H pylori-negative cholecystitis group and control group. Pathologic changes of the gallbladder were observed by optic and electronic microscopes and the levels of interleukin-1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, 6 and 8) were detected by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Histological evidence of chronic cholecystitis including degeneration, necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, were found in the region where H pylori colonized. Levels of IL-1, 6 and 8 in gallbladder mucosa homogenates were significantly higher in H pylori-infected cholecystitis group than those in H pylori-negative cholecystitis group and control group. CONCLUSION: H pylori infection may be related to cholecystitis. PMID:17373750

  8. Effect of propolis in gastric disorders: inhibition studies on the growth of Helicobacter pylori and production of its urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Nimet; Karaoglu, Sengul Alpay; Tarakci, Cemre; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in alternative approaches to inhibit Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and thus treat many stomach diseases. Propolis is a pharmaceutical mixture containing many natural bioactive substances. The aim of this study was to use propolis samples to treat H. pylori. The anti-H. pylori and anti-urease activities of 15 different ethanolic propolis extracts (EPEs) were tested. The total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents of the EPE were also measured. The agar-well diffusion assay was carried out on H. pylori strain J99 and the inhibition zones were measured and compared with standards. All propolis extracts showed high inhibition of H. pylori J99, with inhibition diameters ranging from 31.0 to 47.0 mm. Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitory activity was measured using the phenol-hypochlorite assay; all EPEs showed significant inhibition against the enzyme, with inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ; mg/mL) ranging from 0.260 to 1.525 mg/mL. The degree of inhibition was related to the phenolic content of the EPE. In conclusion, propolis extract was found to be a good inhibitor that can be used in H. pylori treatment to improve human health.

  9. Differential modulation of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide-mediated TLR2 signaling by individual Pellino proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sinéad M; Freeley, Michael; Moynagh, Paul N; Kelleher, Dermot P

    2017-02-01

    Eradication rates for current H. pylori therapies have fallen in recent years, in line with the emergence of antibiotic resistant infections. The development of therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics, such as immunomodulatory therapy and vaccines, requires a more lucid understanding of host-pathogen interactions, including the relationships between the organism and the innate immune response. Pellino proteins are emerging as key regulators of immune signaling, including the Toll-like receptor pathways known to be regulated by H. pylori. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of Pellino proteins in the innate immune response to H. pylori lipopolysaccharide. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were utilized to elucidate the role of individual Pellino proteins in the Toll-like receptor 2-mediated response to H. pylori LPS by monitoring NF-ĸB activation and the induction of proinflammatory chemokines. Expression of Pellino family members was investigated in gastric epithelial cells and gastric tissue biopsy material. Pellino1 and Pellino2 positively regulated Toll-like receptor 2-driven responses to H. pylori LPS, whereas Pellino3 exerted a negative modulatory role. Expression of Pellino1 was significantly higher than Pellino3 in gastric epithelial cells and gastric tissue. Furthermore, Pellino1 expression was further augmented in gastric epithelial cells in response to infection with H. pylori or stimulation with H. pylori LPS. The combination of low Pellino3 levels together with high and inducible Pellino1 expression may be an important determinant of the degree of inflammation triggered upon Toll-like receptor 2 engagement by H. pylori and/or its components, contributing to H. pylori-associated pathogenesis by directing the incoming signal toward an NF-kB-mediated proinflammatory response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Primary and secondary clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin resistance to Helicobacter pylori in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewska, Elżbieta; Wojtas-Bonior, Izabela; Sito, Edward; Zwolińska-Wcisło, Małgorzata; Budak, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the primary and secondary resistance of H. pylori strains cultured from adult patients of the Małopolska region of Poland, mainly of Kraków and the surrounding areas, to antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin). In total, 115 H. pylori strains were isolated, of which 90 strains originated from patients who had never been treated for H. pylori infection, while the remaining 25 were isolated from patients in whom eradication of the infection failed after treatment. All tested H. pylori strains were susceptible to amoxicillin. Forty-four percent of strains isolated were resistant to metronidazole. The primary and secondary resistance to this antimicrobial chemotherapeutic reached 37% and 72% (p = 0.002), respectively. In total, 34% of strains were resistant to clarithromycin, and the ratio of strains with secondary resistance was significantly greater than that of the strains with primary resistance (80% vs. 21%, p resistance to both metronidazole and clarithromycin was confirmed in 23% of H. pylori strains. Five percent of H. pylori strains were resistant to levofloxacin, while primary and secondary resistance to this drug accounted for 2% and 16% (p = 0.006), respectively. In total, 4% of H. pylori strains were simultaneously resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Thus, the high resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin excludes the possibility of using these drugs for treatment of H. pylori infection without earlier antibiogramming. Levofloxacin, as a drug of high efficacy against H. pylori, should be reserved for an "emergency" therapy and used in a limited capacity in order to preserve its potent antimicrobial activity. The Polish Society of Gastroenterology recommends levofloxacin as a third-line therapy.

  11. Peptic ulcer bleeding: is Helicobacter pylori a risk factor in an endemic area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Asgari, Ali Ali; Fakheri, Hafez Tirgar; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khatibian, Morteza; Shirazian, Nahid

    2005-01-01

    A high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection has been reported in Iran. Although the importance of H. pylori in the induction of peptic ulcer disease is clearly defined, only few studies have addressed its role in bleeding from peptic ulcers. We evaluated the role of H. pylori in peptic ulcer bleeding. Patients with acute peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and those with peptic ulcer disease without bleeding ('controls') were enrolled. Upper GI endoscopy and rapid urease test were performed in both groups. Histological study for detection of H. pylori was performed in patients with active bleeding, if RUT was negative. Other variables evaluated included sex, age, smoking, previous history of bleeding, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use, ulcer size, ulcer location, and duration of acid-peptic disease. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors. 161 patients with PUB and 287 control patients were enrolled. H. pylori infection was seen more frequently in patients with duodenal ulcer than gastric ulcer (88.9% vs. 60.5%, pulcer located in the stomach and not in the duodenum, and more often had large ulcer (>1 cm). Logistic regression analysis showed that H. pylori infection was protective in PUB after controlling for confounders (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.79), when ulcer location was not entered in the model. A second model including ulcer location (to test for a residual effect) showed that H. pylori infection was not a significant risk factor in PUB (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.30-1.24). H. pylori may not be an independent factor in bleeding from peptic ulcers. The lower frequency of this infection in these patients can be described by the higher frequency of bleeding from gastric ulcers, which are less H. pylori related compared with duodenal ulcer.

  12. DRUG RESISTANCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Silveira VIANNA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Helicobacter pylori has a worldwide distribution and is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases of the digestive system. Treatment to eradicate this microorganism involves the use of a combination of antimicrobials, such as amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin, combined with proton pump inhibitors. Although the current therapy is effective, a high rate of treatment failure has been observed, mainly because of the acquisition of point mutations, one of the major resistance mechanisms developed by H. pylori. This phenomenon is related to frequent and/or inappropriate use of antibiotics. Conclusion This review reported an overview of the resistance to the main drugs used in the treatment of H. pylori, confirming the hypothesis that antibacterial resistance is a highly local phenomenon and genetic characteristics of a given population can influence which therapy is the most appropriate.

  13. Coinfection with Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species Can Ameliorate or Promote Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Pathology in C57BL/6 Mice ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhongming; Feng, Yan; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Eurell, Laura Lemke; Taylor, Nancy S.; Whary, Mark T.; Fox, James G.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how different enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) influence Helicobacter pylori gastric pathology, C57BL/6 mice were infected with Helicobacter hepaticus or Helicobacter muridarum, followed by H. pylori infection 2 weeks later. Compared to H. pylori-infected mice, mice infected with H. muridarum and H. pylori (HmHp mice) developed significantly lower histopathologic activity index (HAI) scores (P pylori (HhHp mice) developed more severe gastric pathology at 6 MPI (P = 0.01), with a HAI at 11 MPI (P = 0.8) similar to that of H. pylori-infected mice. H. muridarum-mediated attenuation of gastritis in coinfected mice was associated with significant downregulation of proinflammatory Th1 (interlukin-1beta [Il-1β], gamma interferon [Ifn-γ], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [Tnf-α]) cytokines at both time points and Th17 (Il-17A) cytokine mRNA levels at 6 MPI in murine stomachs compared to those of H. pylori-infected mice (P pylori-induced elevation of gastric Th1 cytokines Ifn-γ and Tnf-α (P helicobacter-induced gastric pathology (HhHp>H. pylori>HmHp) (at 6 MPI, r2 = 0.92, P gastritis, colonization levels of gastric H. pylori were increased in HhHp mice (at 6 MPI) and HmHp mice (at both time points) compared to those in mono-H. pylori-infected mice. These data suggest that despite consistent downregulation of Th1 responses, EHS coinfection either attenuated or promoted the severity of H. pylori-induced gastric pathology in C57BL/6 mice. This modulation was related to the variable effects of EHS on gastric interleukin 17 (IL-17) responses to H. pylori infection. PMID:21788386

  14. No evidence of a role for mitochondrial complex I in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Garrett Z; Ke, Bi-Xia; Laskowski, Adrienne; Thorburn, David R; Sutton, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Complex I is the first enzyme complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, responsible for generating a large fraction of energy during oxidative phosphorylation. Recently, it has been identified that complex I deficiency can result in increased inflammation due to the generation of reactive oxygen species by innate immune cells. As a reduction in complex I activity has been demonstrated in human stomachs with atrophic gastritis, we investigated whether complex I deficiency could influence Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis. Ndufs6 gt/gt mice have a partial complex I deficiency. Complex I activity was quantified in the stomachs and immune cells of Ndufs6 gt/gt mice by spectrophotometric assays. Ndufs6 gt/gt mice were infected with H. pylori and bacterial colonization assessed by colony-forming assay, gastritis assessed histologically, and H. pylori -specific humoral response quantified by ELISA. The immune cells and stomachs of Ndufs6 gt/gt mice were found to have significantly decreased complex I activity, validating the model for assessing the effects of complex I deficiency in H. pylori infection. However, there was no observable effect of complex I deficiency on either H. pylori colonization, the resulting gastritis, or the humoral response. Although complex I activity is described to suppress innate immune responses and is decreased during atrophic gastritis in humans, our data suggest it does not affect H. pylori pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among Nigerian patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pylori positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori among dyspeptics using biopsy based methods is high in the South-Western part of Nigeria. It is therefore important to test and treat H. pylori among Nigerians with dyspepsia.

  16. Fucoidans Disrupt Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to AGS Cells In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Eng-Guan; Verbrugghe, Phebe; Perkins, Timothy T.; Tay, Chin-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidans are complex sulphated polysaccharides derived from abundant and edible marine algae. Helicobacter pylori is a stomach pathogen that persists in the hostile milieu of the human stomach unless treated with antibiotics. This study aims to provide preliminary data to determine, in vitro, if fucoidans can inhibit the growth of H. pylori and its ability to adhere to gastric epithelial cells (AGS). We analysed the activity of three different fucoidan preparations (Fucus A, Fucus B, and Und...

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Peptic Ulcer Diseases and Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyo Rang; Han, Ki Soo; Yoo, Byung Chul; Park, Sill Moo; Cha, Young Joo

    1993-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori is known to be a cause of active chronic gastritis and has been proposed as an etiologic factor in the development of peptic ulcer disease, but controversy continues regarding the pathogenic importance and mechanism. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcers and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Method: 749 patients (373 with duodenal ulcer, 303 with gastric ulcer, 73 with non-ulcer dyspepsia) were included. Endoscopic mucosal biopsies...

  18. Vacuolating Cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori Plays a Role during Colonization in a Mouse Model of Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Nina R.; Otto, Glen; Tompkins, Lucy; Falkow, Stanley

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of gastritis and ulcer disease in humans, secretes a toxin called VacA (vacuolating cytotoxin) into culture supernatants. VacA was initially characterized and purified on the basis of its ability to induce the formation of intracellular vacuoles in tissue culture cells. H. pylori strains possessing different alleles of vacA differ in their ability to express active toxin. Those strains expressing higher toxin levels are correlated with more severe gast...

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus ameliorates H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFκB pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao-Jong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori infection may trigger Smad7 and NFκB expression in the stomach, whereas probiotics promote gastrointestinal health and improve intestinal inflammation caused by pathogens. This study examines if probiotics can improve H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFκB pathways. Results Challenge with H. pylori increased IL-8 and TNF-α expressions but not TGF-β1 in MKN45 cells. The RNA levels of Smad7 in AGS cells increased after H. pylori infection in a dose-dependent manner. A higher dose (MOI 100 of L. acidophilus pre-treatment attenuated the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expressions, but not TGF-β1. Such anti-inflammatory effect was mediated via increased cytoplasmic IκBα and depletion of nuclear NFκB. L. acidophilus also inhibited H. pylori-induced Smad7 transcription by inactivating the Jak1 and Stat1 pathways, which might activate the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. L. acidophilus pre-treatment ameliorated IFN-γ-induced Smad7 translation level and subsequently reduced nuclear NF-κB production, as detected by western blotting. Conclusions H. pylori infection induces Smad7, NFκB, IL-8, and TNF-α production in vitro. Higher doses of L. acidophilus pre-treatment reduce H. pylori-induced inflammation through the inactivation of the Smad7 and NFκB pathways.

  20. In Vivo Analysis of the Viable Microbiota and Helicobacter pylori Transcriptome in Gastric Infection and Early Stages of Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorell, Kaisa; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Liu, Oscar Hsin-Fu; Palacios Gonzales, Reyna Victoria; Nookaew, Intawat; Rabeneck, Linda; Paszat, Lawrence; Graham, David Y; Nielsen, Jens; Lundin, Samuel B; Sjöling, Åsa

    2017-10-01

    Emerging evidence shows that the human microbiota plays a larger role in disease progression and health than previously anticipated. Helicobacter pylori , the causative agent of gastric cancer and duodenal and gastric ulcers, was early associated with gastric disease, but it has also been proposed that the accompanying microbiota in Helicobacter pylori -infected individuals might affect disease progression and gastric cancer development. In this study, the composition of the transcriptionally active microbial community and H. pylori gene expression were determined using metatranscriptomic RNA sequencing of stomach biopsy specimens from individuals with different H. pylori infection statuses and premalignant tissue changes. The results show that H. pylori completely dominates the microbiota not only in infected individuals but also in most individuals classified as H. pylori uninfected using conventional methods. Furthermore, H. pylori abundance is positively correlated with the presence of Campylobacter , Deinococcus , and Sulfurospirillum Finally, we quantified the expression of a large number of Helicobacter pylori genes and found high expression of genes involved in pH regulation and nickel transport. Our study is the first to dissect the viable microbiota of the human stomach by metatranscriptomic analysis, and it shows that metatranscriptomic analysis of the gastric microbiota is feasible and can provide new insights into how bacteria respond in vivo to variations in the stomach microenvironment and at different stages of disease progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Helicobacter pylori serostatus in backpackers following travel to tropical countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potasman, I; Yitzhak, A

    1998-03-01

    The mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori is unknown. The seroprevalence of H. pylori and the rate of transmission of feco-oral pathogens in developing countries are both high. Long-term travelers to these regions, who come from developed countries are thus potentially at increased risk of an infection with this bacterium. We studied the H. pylori serology status before and after travel of 104 backpackers who traveled to tropical countries; 76 medical students who did not leave Israel served as controls. Southeast Asia (70%) and South America (24%) were the major destinations, but the area of travel had no effect on the seroconversion rate. The total time spent abroad was 53 person-years. Thirty six of the travelers and 30 controls were positive at the outset. Seropositivity at entry was significantly associated with being a Sepharadic Jew or having a parent with a peptic ulcer disease. The majority of travelers (86.5%) and controls (92.1%) did not change their serostatus. Four travelers seroconverted, but 10 seroreverted, while three controls seroconverted, and three others seroreverted. No significant association with gastroenteritis was found. Serostatus may have been affected by mefloquine use because none of the four seroconverters, but eight of 10 seroreverters used it as malaria prophylaxis. In vitro studies demonstrated that mefloquine has anti-H. pylori activity. Feco-oral transmission is apparently not an important route of transmission of this organism among travelers.

  2. Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein induces release of histamine and interleukin-6 through G protein-mediated MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways in HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Che; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Hong, Zhi-Wei; Yeh, Ying-Chieh; Shih, Kuo-Shun; Du, Shin-Yi; Fu, Hua-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) activates several innate leukocytes including neutrophils, monocytes, and mast cells. It has been reported that HP-NAP induces degranulation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion of rat peritoneal mast cells. However, the molecular mechanism is not very clear. Here, we show that HP-NAP activates human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells to secrete histamine and IL-6. The secretion depends on pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive heterotrimeric G proteins but not on Toll-like receptor 2. Moreover, HP-NAP induces PTX-sensitive G protein-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and Akt in HMC-1 cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) suppresses HP-NAP-induced release of histamine and IL-6 from HMC-1 cells. Thus, the activation of HMC-1 cells by HP-NAP is through Gi-linked G protein-coupled receptor-mediated MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  3. Intrafamilial clustering of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumm, B; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J; Sherman, P M

    1990-02-08

    Colonization of the gastric antrum by Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) has been associated with primary gastritis. We determined the frequency of colonization by H. pylori in gastric-antrum biopsy specimens from 93 children undergoing gastroscopy for the evaluation of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. We also determined H. pylori IgG antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in coded serum samples from these children, family members, and control subjects of comparable ages. Among 27 children with primary, or unexplained, gastritis, H. pylori was identified by silver staining in 24 biopsy specimens and by culture in 22; specific antibodies were present in 23 children (96 percent). Three children with unexplained gastritis had no evidence of H. pylori in the antrum, nor did any of 13 children with secondary gastritis or any of 53 children with normal antral histologic features; specific antibodies were present in only 1 of these 69 children. H. pylori antibody was detected in 25 of 34 parents of colonized children, but in only 8 of 33 parents of noncolonized children (P less than 0.001). Of 22 siblings of children colonized by H. pylori, 18 had specific antibodies, as compared with only 5 of 37 controls (P less than 0.001). We conclude that H. pylori-specific IgG antibodies are associated with bacterial colonization of the gastric antrum by this organism. The intrafamilial clustering of H. pylori infection suggests that there may be person-to-person spread of these bacteria.

  4. Parental smoking and infection with Helicobacter pylori among preschool children in southern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to parental smoking is known to increase children's susceptibility to a variety of infections. We investigated the relation of parental smoking to infection with Helicobacter pylori in a population-based study among preschool children who were screened for school fitness in the city of Ulm......, Germany, in 1996. Current infection with H. pylori was measured by a 13C-labeled urea breath test. Information on factors potentially related to H. pylori infection, including parental smoking in the household, was obtained from children's parents through a self-administered standardized questionnaire....... Among 1,201 eligible children, 945 participated in the study (response rate = 79%). Overall prevalence of active infection was 13.7%. After adjustment for confounding factors, we found a strong positive relation between smoking by the father in the household and H. pylori infection (odds ratio = 3.7; 95...

  5. Helicobacter pylori and Peptic Ulcers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-17

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. David Swerdlow discusses the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease and trends in hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease in the United States between 1998 and 2005.  Created: 8/17/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/17/2010.

  6. Ultrastructural patterns of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Caselli, M; Aleotti, A; Boldrini, P; Ruina, M; Alvisi, V

    1993-01-01

    Ultrastructural morphology of the bacterial bodies was studied in 40 Helicobacter pylori positive cases. Two bacterial patterns were identified, which were associated with different modes of contact with the epithelial cells and possibly with different stages of the natural history of the infection.

  7. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burucoa, Christophe; Axon, Anthony

    2017-09-01

    The study of Helicobacter pylori genetic variability brought us interesting data on the history of mankind. Based on multilocus sequence typing and more recently on whole-genome sequencing, paleomicrobiology still attracts the attention of global researchers in relation to its ancestor roots and coexistence with humans. Three studies determining the prevalence of virulence factors illustrates the controversial results obtained since 30 years by studies trying to associate prevalence of different virulence markers and clinical outcomes of H. pylori infection. Three articles analyzed the prevalence and risk of multiple (genetically distinct isolates) and mixed (susceptible and resistant isolates) infections. A number of studies confirm that H. pylori prevalence is falling worldwide especially in the developed world and in children but that the level of infection is higher in certain ethnic minorities and in Migrants. There is little new in identifying the mode of H. pylori transmission though intrafamilial spread appears to be important. There have, however, been some interesting papers on the presence of the organism in food, water, and the oral cavity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Management of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    as a result of normal shedding of the epithelium. This implies that detection of these antigens is a direct test ... for diagnosing H. pylori include stool PCR, Urine antibody test (urinelisa) and Saliva antibody test (Miwa ... urea to produce ammonia that increases the pH of the medium which leads to a colour change. RUTs have.

  9. Newer agents for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricci C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Giulia Fiorini,1 Angelo Zullo,2 Luigi Gatta,3 Valentina Castelli,1 Chiara Ricci,3 Francesca Cassol,4 Dino Vaira11Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bologna, Italy; 2Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy, 'Nuovo Regina Margherita' Hospital, Rome, Italy; 3Versilia Hospital, Lido di Camaiore, Italy; 4School of Gastroenterology, University of Ferrera, Ferrera, ItalyAbstract: Helicobacter pylori infection remains widespread internationally, with a definite morbidity and mortality. The efficacy of standard 7–14 day triple therapies is decreasing, mainly due to increasing primary bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Currently, the most effective treatments are either the sequential regimen or the concomitant therapy. Different patents have been registered showing high bactericidal effects in vitro, some of which are active against clarithromycin- and metronidazole-resistant strains, even at low pH values. Among these novel molecules, benzimidazole-derivatives, polycyclic compounds, pyloricidin, and arylthiazole analogues seem to be the more promising. The identification of essential genes for either bacterial colonization or growth represents a route for potential target therapies in the near future.Keywords: Helicobacter pylori therapy, new antibiotic agents

  10. Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Review and the Role of Biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Galit H.; Davis, Nick; Beck, Paul L.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is typically a diagnosis of exclusion, assigned by clinicians after ruling out other identifiable etiologies. Since a report by Gasbarrini et al. in 1998, an accumulating body of evidence has proposed a pathophysiological link between ITP and chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Clinical reports have described a spontaneous resolution of ITP symptoms in about 50% of chronic ITP patients following empirical treatment of H. pylori infection, but response appears to be geography dependent. Studies have also documented that ITP patients in East Asian countries are more likely to express positive antibody titers against H. pylori-specific cytotoxic-associated gene A (CagA), a virulence factor that is associated with an increased risk for gastric diseases including carcinoma. While a definitive mechanism by which H. pylori may induce thrombocytopenia remains elusive, proposed pathways include molecular mimicry of CagA by host autoantibodies against platelet surface glycoproteins, as well as perturbations in the phagocytic activity of monocytes. Traditional treatments of ITP have been largely empirical, involving the use of immunosuppressive agents and immunoglobulin therapy. However, based on the findings of clinical reports emerging over the past 20 years, health organizations around the world increasingly suggest the detection and eradication of H. pylori as a treatment for ITP. Elucidating the exact molecular mechanisms of platelet activation in H. pylori-positive ITP patients, while considering biogeographical differences in response rates, could offer insight into how best to use clinical H. pylori eradication to treat ITP, but will require well-designed studies to confirm the suggested causative relationship between bacterial infection and an autoimmune disease state. PMID:25728540

  11. Development of inducible systems to engineer conditional mutants of essential genes of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneca, Ivo G; Ecobichon, Chantal; Chaput, Catherine; Mathieu, Aurélie; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Colland, Frédéric; Labigne, Agnès; de Reuse, Hilde

    2008-04-01

    The Escherichia coli-Helicobacter pylori shuttle vector pHeL2 was modified to introduce the inducible LacI(q)-pTac system of E. coli, in which the promoters were engineered to be under the control of H. pylori RNA polymerase. The amiE gene promoter of H. pylori was taken to constitutively express the LacI(q) repressor. Expression of the reporter gene lacZ was driven by either pTac (pILL2150) or a modified version of the ureI gene promoter in which one or two LacI-binding sites and/or mutated nucleotides between the ribosomal binding site and the ATG start codon (pILL2153 and pILL2157) were introduced. Promoter activity was evaluated by measuring beta-galactosidase activity. pILL2150 is a tightly regulated expression system suitable for the analysis of genes with low-level expression, while pILL2157 is well adapted for the controlled expression of genes encoding recombinant proteins in H. pylori. To exemplify the usefulness of these tools, we constructed conditional mutants of the putative essential pbp1 and ftsI genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 3 of H. pylori, respectively. Both genes were cloned into pILL2150 and introduced in the parental H. pylori strain N6. The chromosomally harbored pbp1 and ftsI genes were then inactivated by replacing them with a nonpolar kanamycin cassette. Inactivation was strictly dependent upon addition of isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside. Hence, we were able to construct the first conditional mutants of H. pylori. Finally, we demonstrated that following in vitro methylation of the recombinant plasmids, these could be introduced into a large variety of H. pylori isolates with different genetic backgrounds.

  12. Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Review and the Role of Biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Galit H; Davis, Nick; Beck, Paul L; Fox, James G

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is typically a diagnosis of exclusion, assigned by clinicians after ruling out other identifiable etiologies. Since a report by Gasbarrini et al. in 1998, an accumulating body of evidence has proposed a pathophysiological link between ITP and chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Clinical reports have described a spontaneous resolution of ITP symptoms in about 50% of chronic ITP patients following empirical treatment of H. pylori infection, but response appears to be geography dependent. Studies have also documented that ITP patients in East Asian countries are more likely to express positive antibody titers against H. pylori-specific cytotoxic-associated gene A (CagA), a virulence factor that is associated with an increased risk for gastric diseases including carcinoma. While a definitive mechanism by which H. pylori may induce thrombocytopenia remains elusive, proposed pathways include molecular mimicry of CagA by host autoantibodies against platelet surface glycoproteins, as well as perturbations in the phagocytic activity of monocytes. Traditional treatments of ITP have been largely empirical, involving the use of immunosuppressive agents and immunoglobulin therapy. However, based on the findings of clinical reports emerging over the past 20 years, health organizations around the world increasingly suggest the detection and eradication of H. pylori as a treatment for ITP. Elucidating the exact molecular mechanisms of platelet activation in H. pylori-positive ITP patients, while considering biogeographical differences in response rates, could offer insight into how best to use clinical H. pylori eradication to treat ITP, but will require well-designed studies to confirm the suggested causative relationship between bacterial infection and an autoimmune disease state. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Quinolone-Containing Rescue Therapies After the Failure of Non-Bismuth Quadruple Treatments for Helicobacter pylori Eradication: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Alicia C; Nyssen, Olga P; McNicholl, Adrian G; Gisbert, Javier P

    2017-05-01

    Anti-Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment fails in a significant percentage of cases. Although this percentage has been reduced to 5-15% with the use of non-bismuth quadruple therapies, limited data exist regarding rescue after failure of these treatments. The aim of this study was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of quinolone-containing therapies after the failure of non-bismuth quadruple regimens. Studies evaluating the efficacy of second-line quinolone-containing therapies after the failure of non-bismuth sequential or concomitant regimens were selected. Efficacy (by intention to treat) was analyzed using the inverse variance method; safety data were recorded as the occurrence of any adverse event. The risk of bias of each primary study was evaluated using the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies-of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. The quality of the evidence was summarized using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Sixteen studies were included. The 10-day levofloxacin/amoxicillin/proton pump inhibitor (PPI) triple therapy (LT) achieved eradication rates of 80% (95% CI 71-88). Regarding the moxifloxacin/amoxicillin/PPI triple therapy (MT), its efficacy was higher when administered for 14 days instead of 7 days (80 vs 63%). Two studies investigated the levofloxacin/bismuth-containing quadruple therapies (LBQ) obtaining eradication rates over 90%. Safety was similar in all treatments. The sensitivity analyses showed that results for LT were robust, but MT had weak evidence. Quinolone-containing triple therapies reported eradication rates ≤80%, but LBQ therapies showed encouraging rates. However, the strength of the evidence was very low. The efficacy of LBQ should be corroborated in more studies, and the usefulness of quinolones needs to be evaluated in areas with moderate to high bacterial resistances.

  14. Unusual features of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori--associated gastritis in India. A study of 200 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanivadekar, S A; Bhat, P P; Sawant, P D; Shroff, C P; Patel, H D

    1990-09-01

    Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori has been cultured from the antral biopsies of 85-90% of patients of gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer at different centres. Studies conducted all over the world have firmly implicated this organism in the aetiology of active superficial gastritis and recurrences of duodenal ulcer. Two hundred patients with upper abdominal pain, distension, vomiting and/or haemetemesis were subjected to OGD scopy. In 163 of these patients there was endoscopic evidence of gastritis; in 24 there was DU; in 3, GU and in 10 it was normal. Diagnosis of H pylori infection was made by the rapid biopsy urease test which is nearly 100% specific and 98% sensitive. 170 out of 200 patients were positive for H pylori. Among these were 138 patients of gastritis (84.6%); 22 cases of DU (91.6%); 2 cases of GU (66.6%) and 8 in whom endoscopy was normal. Histological examination of the antral biopsy specimens showed mild to severe infiltration of mucosa with lymphocytes and plasma cells. None of the 170 H pylori positive cases showed polymorphonuclear infiltration which has been stressed repeatedly by most Western authors to be characteristic of "active" superficial gastritis associated with H pylori infection. Even in those with a history of dyspepsia of barely 4 weeks duration or less there was no PMN infiltration in the mucosa. Thus the local response to infection by H pylori of the gastric mucosa is different in Indian patients.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection: a simplified diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Nibali, S; Sferlazzas, C; Fera, M T; Saitta, G; Tedeschi, A; Magazzù, G

    1990-12-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic finding of nodular antritis and rapid urease test (RUT) in order to simplify the approach to the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Forty-four consecutive patients (mean age 7.9 yr, range 6-13 yr) referred because of recurrent abdominal pain as the main symptom, were prospectively investigated for the presence of H. pylori. H. pylori positivity or negativity was defined as the concordance of two of the following tests: RUT, microbiologic culture, and histologic examination on bioptic samples. RUT sensitivity was 100%, whereas specificity was 87.5%. The presence of nodular antritis had a sensitivity of 96.4% and specificity of 87.5% in H. pylori infection diagnosis. The predictivity value of combined RUT and nodular antritis, whether positive or negative, was 100%. Only in case of discordance do we suggest the utilization of other expensive tools for diagnosis of H. pylori infection.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum ferritin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Bode, G; Blettner, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori may possibly affect the iron metabolism by occult bleeding, impaired absorption of non-hem iron, and by scavenging hem iron or ferritin, as some studies have suggested. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between H. pylori infection and serum ferritin...... in 1987/1988. The examination included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7-day food record, and blood samples. Infection with H. pylori was measured serologically by ELISA and Westernblot. RESULTS: In total, 39.2% of 1806 persons aged 18 to 89 yr included in the study...... were H. pylori positive, of whom 57.6% had an infection with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean of ferritin was 54.5 microg/dl among H. pylori-infected compared with 63.8 microg/dl among uninfected persons. A multiple linear regression model with log...

  17. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection in Omani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sinani, Siham; Sharef, Sharef W; Al-Naamani, Khalid; Al-Sharji, Hyatt

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the most common chronic bacterial infection in humans. Its prevalence in Omani adults and children is not known. To report histology-based H. pylori infection prevalence in Omani children. A retrospective study of biopsy proven H. pylori infection in children over a 3 year period in a single center. Age, gender, indication for endoscopy, history of recurrent abdominal pain, and anemia were compared between H. pylori-positive and negative children. Of 143 patients who underwent endoscopy, gastric biopsies were available on 112. The overall prevalence of biopsy proven H. pylori infection was 25%. The prevalence in children with recurrent abdominal pain was 30% compared to 22% in children who underwent endoscopy for other indications (p = .382). The prevalence increased from 7% in children aged pylori infection in Omani children. H. pylori infection prevalence is 25%, is lower than regional and many Arab countries. The prevalence appears to increase till age of 5 years. There was no significant association between H. pylori and recurrent abdominal pain, gender, or anemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Helicobacter Pylori Seropostivity of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tugba Kos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Until now many researches have showed that Helicobacter pylori infection may be etiological factor of colorectal cancer. The aim of current study was to investigate the frequency of H.pylori infection seropositivity of colorectal cancer patients and compare the clinicopathological features of H.pylori positive patients with negative ones. Material and Method: Seventy four colorectal patients were included in study. Retrospectively, patients clinical features, surgery history and pathological characteristics were screened. Patients group serum samples were collected. H.pylori Ig G level were quantitatively measured with ELISA method and levels above 5 arbU/ml were accepted as seropositive. Results: Patients median age was 60.5 ( range 26-83 and 56.8% (n=42 were male. H.pylori Ig G was positive in 37.8% (n=28 and negative in 62.2% (n=46 of patient group. H.pylori serpositive and negative patients median age of diagnosis were 56 and 64 respectively (p=0.01. There were no significant difference between H.pylori seropositive group when compared with negative group according to age, level of CEA and Ca 19-9, stage, lymph node involvement, perineural and vascular invasion, presence of polyps, differantion, localisation of tumours. Discussion: H.pylori seropositive patients were diagnosed at younger age. Association of this finding with etiology was confusing. Further studies with healthy controls may provide detailed information about whether H.pylori seropositivity is associated with colorectal cancer etiology.

  20. Dietary prevention of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer with kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Park, Kun Young; Lee, Don Haeng; Yoo, Joon-Hwan; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-10-06

    To prove whether dietary intervention can prevent Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, we developed cancer preventive kimchi (cpKimchi) through special recipe and administered to chronic H. pylori-initiated, high salt diet-promoted, gastric tumorigenesis mice model. H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice were administered with cpKimchi mixed in drinking water up to 36 weeks. Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively and explored underlying molecular changes to explain efficacies. Cancer preventive actions of anti-inflammation and anti-mutagenesis were compared between standard recipe kimchi (sKimchi) and special recipe cpKimchi in in vitro H. pylori-infected cell model. The erythematous and nodular changes, mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions in the stomach were noted at 24th weeks, but cpKimchi administration significantly ameliorated. After 36th weeks, scattered nodular masses, some ulcers, and thin nodular gastric mucosa were noted in H. pylori-infected mice, whereas these gross lesions were significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. On molecular analysis, significant expressions of COX-2 and IL-6, activated NF-κB and STAT3, increased apoptosis, and marked oxidative stresses were noted in H. pylori-infected group relevant to tumorigenesis, but these were all significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. cpKimchi extracts imparted significant selective induction of apoptosis only in cancer cells, led to inhibition of H. pylori-induced proliferation, while no cytotoxicity through significant HO-1 induction in non-transformed gastric cells. In conclusion, daily dietary intake of cpKimchi can be an effective way either to rejuvenate H. pylori-atrophic gastritis or to prevent tumorigenesis supported with the concerted actions of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic mechanisms.

  1. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-07-21

    To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P pylori.

  2. Effects of multispecies probiotic combination on helicobacter pylori infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllyluoma, E; Ahonen, A-M; Korpela, R; Vapaatalo, H; Kankuri, E

    2008-09-01

    Probiotic bacteria alleviate many gastrointestinal symptoms, but the current trend of combining bacteria for additional benefit may make their effects more complex. We characterize four probiotics and their combination in terms of pathogen adhesion, barrier function, cell death, and inflammatory response in Helicobacter pylori-infected epithelial cells. H. pylori-infected Caco-2 cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii Js, Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, or all four organisms in combination. We evaluated the adhesion of H. pylori by in situ immunofluorescence; epithelial barrier function by measurement of transepithelial resistance; apoptosis by measurement of caspase 3 activation; cell membrane leakage by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase release; and inflammation by measurement of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-10, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) release. All probiotics inhibited H. pylori adhesion. L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii Js, and the combination inhibited H. pylori-induced cell membrane leakage. L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, and the combination initially improved epithelial barrier function but increased the H. pylori-induced barrier deterioration after incubation for 24 to 42 h. L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii Js inhibited H. pylori-induced IL-8 release, whereas L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, and B. breve Bb99 suppressed PGE(2) release. None of these anti-inflammatory effects persisted when the probiotics were used in combination. The combination thus increased the levels of IL-8, PGE(2), and LTB(4) released from H. pylori-infected epithelial cells. The proinflammatory actions of the individual components dominated the anti-inflammatory effects when the probiotic bacteria were used in combination. Our results stress that the therapeutic response

  3. Genotyping analysis of Helicobacter pylori using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis in five regions of China and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinyong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori is the major causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The population of H. pylori shows a high genomic variability among isolates. And the polymorphism of repeat-units of genomics had participated the important process of evolution. Its long term colonization of the stomach caused different clinical outcomes, which may relate to the high degree of genetic variation of H. pylori. A variety of molecular typing tools have been developed to access genetic relatedness in H. pylori isolates. However, there is still no standard genotyping system of this bacterium. The MLVA (Multi-locus of variable number of tandem repeat analysis method is useful for performing phylogenetic analysis and is widely used in bacteria genotyping; however, there's little application in H. pylori analysis. This article is the first application of the MLVA method to investigate H. pylori from different districts and ethnic groups of China. Results MLVA of 12 VNTR loci with high discrimination power based on 30 candidates were performed on a collection of 202 strains of H. pylori which originated from five regions of China and Japan. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MLVA profiles. 12 VNTR loci presented with high various polymorphisms, and the results demonstrated very close relationships between genotypes and ethnic groups. Conclusions This study used MLVA methodology providing a new perspective on the ethnic groups and distribution characteristics of H. pylori.

  4. Helicobacter pylori filtrate impairs spatial learning and memory in rats and increases β-amyloid by enhancing expression of presenilin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Lian; Zeng, Ji; Feng, Jin; Tian, Yi-Tao; Liu, Yu-Jian; Qiu, Mei; Yan, Xiong; Yang, Yang; Xiong, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related with a high risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the intrinsic link between H. pylori infection and AD development is still missing. In the present study, we explored the effect of H. pylori infection on cognitive function and β-amyloid production in rats. We found that intraperitoneal injection of H. pylori filtrate induced spatial learning and memory deficit in rats with a simultaneous retarded dendritic spine maturation in hippocampus. Injection of H. pylori filtrate significantly increased Aβ42 both in the hippocampus and cortex, together with an increased level of presenilin-2 (PS-2), one key component of γ-secretase involved in Aβ production. Incubation of H. pylori filtrate with N2a cells which over-express amyloid precursor protein (APP) also resulted in increased PS-2 expression and Aβ42 overproduction. Injection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) filtrate, another common intestinal bacterium, had no effect on cognitive function in rats and Aβ production in rats and cells. These data suggest a specific effect of H. pylori on cognition and Aβ production. We conclude that soluble surface fractions of H. pylori may promote Aβ42 formation by enhancing the activity of γ-secretase, thus induce cognitive impairment through interrupting the synaptic function.

  5. Helicobacter pylori filtrate impairs spatial learning and memory in rats and increases β-amyloid by enhancing expression of presenilin-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Lian eWang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori infection is related with a high risk of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, but the intrinsic link between H.pylori infection and AD development is still missing. In the present study, we explored the effect of H.pylori infection on cognitive function and β-amyloid production in rats. We found that intraperitoneal injection of H.pylori filtrate induced spatial learning and memory deficit in rats with a simultaneous retarded dendritic spine maturation in hippocampus. Injection of H.pylori filtrate significantly increased Aβ42 both in the hippocampus and cortex, together with an increased level of presenilin-2 (PS-2, one key component of γ-secretase involved in Aβ production. Incubation of H.pylori filtrate with N2a cells which over-express APP also resulted in increased PS-2 expression and Aβ42 overproduction. Injection of Escherichia coli (E.coli filtrate, another common intestinal bacterium, had no effect on cognitive function in rats and Aβ production in rats and cells. These data suggest a specific effect of H.pylori on cognition and Aβ production. We conclude that soluble surface fractions of H.pylori may promote Aβ42 formation by enhancing the activity of γ-secretase, thus induce cognitive impairment through interrupting the synaptic function.

  6. Crohn disease ATG16L1 polymorphism increases susceptibility to infection with Helicobacter pylori in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Deepa; Hussey, Séamus; Jones, Nicola L

    2012-09-01

    Autophagy plays key roles both in host defense against bacterial infection and in tumor biology. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes chronic gastritis and is the single most important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer in humans. Its vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) promotes gastric colonization and is associated with more severe disease. Acute exposure to VacA initially triggers host autophagy to mitigate the effects of the toxin in epithelial cells. Recently, we demonstrated that chronic exposure to VacA leads to the formation of defective autophagosomes that lack CTSD/cathepsin D and have reduced catalytic activity. Disrupted autophagy results in accumulation of reactive oxygen species and SQSTM1/p62 both in vitro and in vivo in biopsy samples from patients infected with VacA(+) but not VacA(-) strains. We also determined that the Crohn disease susceptibility polymorphism in the essential autophagy gene ATG16L1 increases susceptibility to H. pylori infection. Furthermore, peripheral blood monocytes from individuals with the ATG16L1 risk variant show impaired autophagic responses to VacA exposure. This is the first study to identify both a host autophagy susceptibility gene for H. pylori infection and to define the mechanism by which the autophagy pathway is affected following H. pylori infection. Collectively, these findings highlight the synergistic effects of host and bacterial autophagy factors on H. pylori pathogenesis and the potential for subsequent cancer susceptibility.

  7. In vivo tests of natural therapy, Tibetan yogurt or fresh broccoli, for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekun, A R; Yeh, C W; Opekun, J L; Graham, D Y

    2005-06-01

    Plants and probiotics have a long history in the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of Tibetan yogurt and fresh broccoli tips in Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori) infected volunteers, using the urea breath test (UBT) to assess the effect on H. pylori. Clinical trials consisted of ingestion of approximately 135 g of fresh, finely minced juvenile broccoli tips (var. Emperor) in commercial plain yogurt t.i.d, for ten servings (3.3 days) or ingestion of freshly made Tibetan yogurt whey (120 ml) given twice a day for 3.5 days. Urea breath testing was done before and after the natural therapies. Five volunteers received broccoli tips and seven received Tibetan yogurt. No trend for a beneficial effect was seen; the UBT results (delta over baseline) before and after yogurt (35.5+/-12.8 vs. 40.7+/-12.2) (p=0.76) or broccoli (15.8 vs. 19.4) (p=1.0) were unchanged. Antimicrobial end products derived from Tibetan yogurt or broccoli tips have little or no anti-H. pylori effect in vivo. It appears that the gastric mucosal microenvironment apparently shielded H. pylori. In vitro studies suggesting anti-H. pylori activity of compounds should be considered as hypotheses to be tested. Copyright (c) 2005 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  8. Helicobacter heilmannii-associated Gastritis: Clinicopathologic Findings and Comparison with Helicobacter pylori-associated Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ji Eun; Chang, Sun Hee; Kim, Hanseong; Chi, Je G.; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yang, Jeon Ho; Lee, June Sung; Moon, Young-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of Helicobacter heilmannii-associated gastritis and to compare H. heilmannii-associated gastritis with H. pylori-associated gastritis. We reviewed 5,985 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens. All cases of chronic gastritis with Helicobacter infection were evaluated with the Updated Sydney System, and the grades of all gastritis variables were compared between H. heilmannii-associated gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastritis groups. There were 10 cases of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis (0.17%) and 3,285 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis (54.9%). The organisms were superficially located within the mucous layer without adhesion to epithelial cells. Interestingly, in one case many intracytoplasmic H. heilmannii organisms were observed in parietal cells with cell damage. A case of low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma concomitant with H. heilmannii infection was detected. Compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis, H. heilmannii-associated gastritis showed less severe neutrophilic activity (pgastritis devoid of erosion or ulcer (p=0.0309). In conclusion, we present the detailed clinicopathologic findings of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis. H. heilmannii-associated gastritis is uncommon and milder than H. pylori-associated gastritis, however it may be noteworthy with respect to the development of MALT lymphoma. PMID:17297253

  9. Helicobacter pylori Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that H. pylori also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA have been considered to be major H. pylori virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with H. pylori wild type (vacA+/cagA+, single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. H. pylori disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to H. pylori exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that H. pylori activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  10. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Antral Gastritis in Peptic Ulcer Disease Patients and Normal Healthy Population of Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, G. M.; Bhat, M. Youssuf; rather, Ab. Rashid; Basu, Javaid Ahmad; Qureshi, Khursheed Ahmad

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy population of Kashmir. Methods: 50 peptic ulcer patients (duodenal ulcer = 46, gastric ulcer = 2 and combined duodenal and gastric ulcer = 2) and 30 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were included in this study. Peptic ulcer was diagnosed on endoscopic examination. 4–6 punch biopsies were taken from gastric antrum in all the individuals and in case of gastric ulcer an additional biopsy was taken from the edge of the ulcer to exclude its malignant nature. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) organism was diagnosed using three different test methods, viz. Histology (using Giemsa Stain), Microbiology (Gram Stain) and Biochemistry (using one minute Endoscopy Room Test). Histological diagnosis of H. pylori was taken as the “gold standard” for the presence of H. pylori organism. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made using Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain and the gastritis was classified as active chronic gastritis and superficial chronic gastritis. Results: Out of 30 peptic ulcer disease patients with associated antral gastritis, 27 (90%) were positive for H. pylori on histological examination (13 superficial chronic gastritis and 14 active chronic gastritis) whereas out of 8 healthy volunteers with histological evidence of chronic antral gastritis, H. pylori was observed in 7 individuals (87.50%) (4 active chronic gastritis and 3 superficial chronic gastritis). Conclusion: A highly significant association between H. pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis both in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy volunteers of Kashmir was found in this study. Association between H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis was 90% in peptic ulcer group and 87.50% in healthy population (P<0.005). PMID:18493464

  11. A colorimetric broth microdilution method for assessment of Helicobacter pylori sensitivity to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Petar; Aleksic Sabo, Verica; Simin, Natasa; Lesjak, Marija; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2018-04-15

    Helicobacter pylori is a major infective etiological agent of the upper gastrointestinal tract diseases. The bacterium exhibits resistance to various conventional antibiotics, being usually challenging for eradication. Since there is an urge to consider alternative therapeutic strategies, the aim of the study was to examine selected essential oils of plants belonging to families Cupressaceae (Juniperus communis) and Lamiaceae (Hyssopus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus serpyllum) against H. pylori, using an improved microdilution broth method. The oils were examined in concentration range from 0.03 to 4 μL/mL. The method comprises Brain-heart infusion broth supplemented with yeast extract, horse serum and IsoVitaleX. After 3 day incubation, an equal volume of double strengthen Christensen's urea was added into each well and incubated for additional 4 h. In wells with present H. pylori, the medium changed color from yellow to purple, allowing MIC determination even without a microtitre plate reader. The microtitre format method is convenient as it is less expensive, easier to perform and requires less amount of an anti-H. pylori agent. The improved method enhances specificity to H. pylori, as fast urease activity is almost an exclusive property of this bacterium. The application of the second step incubation with Christensen's urea decreases the possibility of false positive/negative results due to contaminant growth or commonly poor H. pylori growth. Among the examined oils, J. communis, H. officinalis and O. basilicum were not active with the highest applied concentrations, while the most active was T. serpyllum, with MIC 2.0-4.0 μL/mL. This is the first report on essential oils activity of T. serpyllum and H. officinalis against H. pylori. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation of Helicobacter pylori from dental plaques in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majmudar, P; Shah, S M; Dhunjibhoy, K R; Desai, H G

    1990-10-01

    The presence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) was looked for in dental plaques of 40 healthy volunteers by CLO test, culture and smear stained with Warthin-Starry stain. H pylori was found to be present in the dental plaques of all 40 volunteers. The dental plaque is an important reservoir of H pylori.

  13. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  14. Current knowledge on alleviating Helicobacter pylori infections through the use of some commonly known natural products: bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Raman Murali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, a spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacterium, has been classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization and recognized as the causative agent for peptic ulcers, duodenal ulcer, gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, and gastric cancer. Owing to their alarming rate of drug resistance, eradication of H. pylori remains a global challenge. Triple therapy consisting of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and either amoxicillin or metronidazole, is generally the recommended standard for the treatment of H. pylori infection. Complementary and alternative medicines have a long history in the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and various compounds has been tested for anti-H. pylori activity both in vitro and in vivo; however, their successful use in human clinical trials is sporadic. Hence, the aim of this review is to analyze the role of some well-known natural products that have been tested in clinical trials in preventing, altering, or treating H. pylori infections. Whereas some in vitro and in vivo studies in the literature have demonstrated the successful use of a few potential natural products for the treatment of H. pylori-related infections, others indicate a need to consider natural products, with or without triple therapy, as a useful alternative in treating H. pylori-related infections. Thus, the reported mechanisms include killing of H. pylori urease inhibition, induction of bacterial cell damage, and immunomodulatory effect on the host immune system. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the successful use of some potential natural products for the treatment of H. pylori-related infections. Nevertheless, the routine prescription of potential complementary and alternative medicines continues to be restrained, and evidence on the safety and efficacy of the active compounds remains a subject of ongoing debate.

  15. Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazolo[4,5-h]quinolone Derivatives with Novel Anti-Microbial Properties against Metronidazole Resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Sini, Mohammad; Mayyas, Amal; Al-Karablieh, Nehaya; Darwish, Rula; Al-Hiari, Yusuf; Aburjai, Talal; Arabiyat, Shereen; Abu-Qatouseh, Luay

    2017-05-20

    Helicobacter pylori infection can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer, and the development of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Treatment and eradication of H. pylori infection can prevent relapse and accelerate the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as regression of malignancy. Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of H. pylori , alternative approaches using newly discovered antimicrobial agents in combination with the standard antibiotic regimens for the treatment of H. pylori are of major importance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of newly synthesized 8-amino 7-substituted fluoroquinolone and their correspondent cyclized triazolo derivatives when either alone or combined with metronidazole against metronidazole-resistant H. pylori . Based on standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and checkerboard titration assay, all of the tested compounds showed interesting antimicrobial activity against 12 clinical strains of H. pylori , with best in vitro effect for compounds 4b and 4c . Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) mean values showed synergistic pattern in all compounds of Group 5. In addition, additive activities of some of the tested compounds of Group 4 were observed when combined with metronidazole. In contrast, the tested compounds showed no significant urease inhibition activity. These results support the potential of new fluoroquinolone derivatives to be useful in combination with anti- H. pylori drugs in the management of H. pylori -associated diseases.

  16. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was seen. Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori infection is significantly high in rural and suburban population of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential for prevention of serious complications. Keywords: Gastrointestinal complications, Helicobacter pylori infection, Histopathological ...

  17. Management of Helicobacter Pylori Infection | Jemilohun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review aims at outlining the various diagnostic and therapeutic options available to the clinician in the management of H. pylori infection with an appraisal of their strength and weaknesses. Relevant literatures on diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection in texts and journals were reviewed. Extensive internet ...

  18. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study assessed the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies among Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It also examines whether anti H. pylori seroprevalence was associated with the severity of the HIV infection or the antiretroviral treatment. Material and Methods: ...

  19. Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with various upper gastrointestinal problems was 84.7%. The use of medication that can reduce the H. pylori density was common among the infected patients, as history of antibiotics use, acid suppressant use and medications for eradication treatment were ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Helicobacter pylori: Prevalence and antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    affordable media on which isolation and susceptibility testing of H. pylori can be performed.4-7 Lack of information on the susceptibility patterns of H. pylori strains implicated in infections leads to poor management, resulting in treatment failures. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin has been reported to be highly ...

  1. Magnitude of Helicobacter pylori among Dyspeptic patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is predominantly acquired in childhood from family members. The infection can cause dypepepsia, chronic and acute gastritis and gastric cancer. Dyspepsia is the most common illness in the Ethiopian population visiting outpatient department of health facilities, and it has ...

  2. Geographic pathology of Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yi; Ponsioen, Cyriel I. J.; Xiao, Shu-Dong; Tytgat, Guido N. J.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Background and aim. Helicobacter pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis and gastric cancer. There are significant geographical differences between the clinical manifestation of H. pylori infections. The aim of this study was to compare gastric mucosal histology in relation to age among H.

  3. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Whatmore, A M; Barer, M R; Eastham, E J; Kehoe, M A

    1990-12-01

    Sera from 100 children (ages, 6 to 16 years) presenting with upper gastrointestinal symptoms were examined for antibodies to Helicobacter pylori by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on crude, loosely cell-associated antigens and a partially purified urease antigen preparation. All children underwent endoscopy, and 20 children were shown to have H. pylori infection by histology or direct culture. Serum anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (crude antigen) were clearly raised in the infected group, particularly after preabsorption of sera against a Campylobacter jejuni antigen preparation, while IgM and IgA ELISA determinations did not discriminate between infected and H. pylori-negative patients. Only 14 children in the infected group had raised anti-urease IgG levels. Two patients in whom the organism was not demonstrated or cultured had raised specific IgG levels against both crude and urease antigens and pathological features consistent with H. pylori disease. Immunoblotting studies did not reveal any single protein antigen or simple combination of antigens that could be considered as a candidate for a more defined serodiagnostic reagent. Anti-H. pylori antibody determinations (crude antigen) performed on posttreatment samples from children in whom the organism could no longer be demonstrated suggested that sustained IgG levels may not be a reliable index of treatment failure. An IgG ELISA based on crude, loosely cell-associated antigens of H. pylori can be used for the serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection in childhood.

  4. Molecular mimicry in Helicobacter pylori infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Gonciarz, Weronika

    2017-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize gastric mucosa in humans and increase the risk of serious diseases such as gastric and duodenal ulcers, stomach cancers and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of several extragastric diseases has been suggested including immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and dermatological disorders. Also neurological diseases and even lung cancer have attracted researchers concern. The relation between H. pylori infection and a growth retardation in children has also been suggested. Many mechanisms of molecular mimicry between H. pylori and the host have been proposed as a pathogen strategy to manipulate the immune system of the host in order to remain unrecognized and avoid eradication. A lot of effort has been put into the demonstration of homologous sequences between H. pylori and host compounds. However, knowledge about how often autoantibodies or autoreactive T lymphocytes induced during H. pylori infections cause pathological disorders is insufficient. This review provides data on H. pylori antigenic mimicry and possible deleterious effects due to the induction of immune response to the components common to these bacteria and the host. PMID:28652651

  5. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  6. Living Conditions and Helicobacter pylori in Adults

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    Odete Amaral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is transmissible and is considered a public health issue which affects people of all ages. The objective of this study was to identify factors (lifestyles, dietary factors, and hygiene conditions related to the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We carried out an observational cross-sectional study with a community sample of adults from the municipalities of Viseu and Sátão, Portugal. The final sample resulted in 166 adults. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire with questions regarding sociodemographic aspects and lifestyles. H. pylori infection was identified using the 13C-urea breath test. Results. No association was found between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or coffee or dietary factors. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in adults who reported higher consumption of fried food and lower consumption of vegetables and fruit. H. pylori infection was significant for the variables of lower frequency of handwashing before going to the bathroom (p=0.02 and well water consumption (p=0.05. Conclusion. A significant association was found for H. pylori infection with the lower frequency of handwashing before going to the bathroom and the consumption of well water.

  7. HELICOBACTER PYLORI SEROLOGY AND EVALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been strongly associated with various gastroduodenal diseases worldwide with only a few studies emanating from developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and underlying gastroduodenal pathology in Nigerian ...

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori related gastritis is a major health ailment in developing nations. There is high morbidity and mortality ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric malignancies. Prevalence of H. pylori infection varies markedly from country to country and in a country, region to region. Aim: To study the prevalence ...

  9. Establishment of an animal model for chronic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori: potential model for long-term observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, T; Kubota, T; Shuto, R; Kodama, R; Murakami, K; Perparim, K; Nasu, M

    1994-12-01

    To assess the suitability of an established experimental model for chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori for use in long-term observations. In a 3-year follow-up study of acute gastritis induced by H. pylori using an established experimental model with Japanese monkeys, we compared H. pylori-infected animals (n = 6) with a non-infected control group (n = 7). Colonization by H. pylori, gastritis scores, volume of intracellular periodic acid-Schiff-positive substances and the height of antral glands were investigated every 3 months for 3 years and compared with those of a control group. In the infected group, persistent colonization with H. pylori was demonstrated by culture and histological examinations. Gastritis scores were significantly higher than those of the control group, and the histological findings were quite similar to those of chronic active gastritis observed in humans. Simultaneously, significant decreases in the contents of periodic acid-Schiff-positive substances and in the height of antral glands were also demonstrated in infected animals. In Japanese monkeys, persistent colonization with H. pylori caused chronic gastritis quite similar to that observed in humans, thus providing a suitable animal model for evaluating the long-term prognosis of H. pylori infection.

  10. Are endoscopic findings predictive for the presence of H. pylori infection? What about indirect histologic findings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Emami

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: It is still controversial whether certain endoscopic features can be used to diagnose Helicobacter pylori related gastritis. Our aim was to determine how macroscopic findings were related to histomorphological changes and the presence of H. pylori in patients undergoing endoscopy.

    METHODS: The study population involved 501 consecutive gastrointestinal (GI clinic admissions who underwent esphagogastroduodenoscopy for upper GI symptoms between October 2002 and March 2004. At least 2 antral and 2 body biopsies were obtained from each patient and were examined histologically for the presence of gastritis and were stained for H. pylori using modified Giemsa staining method. Endoscopic findings were reviewed retrospectively by two experts blinded to the H. pylori status and patients history. The endoscopic findings of gastritis, classified by a modification of the Sydney system and histological findings were determined by updated Sydney system. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 11.

    RESULTS: A total of 501 consecutive patients (256 females, 245males ranging from 8 to 91 years (mean, 49.5 years were studied. H. pylori was found in 326 patients (65.1%. Relative frequency of H pylori in females was 53% and in males was 47%. Rugal hypertrophy, raised erosion and bleeding were observed only in patients with H. pylori infection (specificity = 100%. Neutrophil activity also was observed only in patients with H. pylori infection. Among endoscopic findings, erythema showed a high sensitivity (81.3% and positive predictive value (87.1% for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Gastritis

  11. Effect of Byrsonima crassa and Phenolic Constituents on Helicobacter pylori-Induced Neutrophils Oxidative Burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Vilegas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Byrsonima crassa Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric ulcers. In a previous study, our group described the gastric protective effect of the methanolic extract from the leaves of B. crassa. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of methanolic extract and its phenolic compounds on the respiratory burst of neutrophils stimulated by H. pylori using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay as well as their anti-H. pylori activity. The suppressive activity on oxidative burst of H. pylori-stimulated neutrophils was in the order of methyl gallate > (+-catechin > methanol extract > quercetin 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside > quercetin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside > amentoflavone. Methyl gallate, compound that induced the highest suppressive activity with IC50 value of 3.4 µg/mL, did not show anti-H. pylori activity. B. crassa could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant in gastric ulcers by attenuating the effects on the damage to gastric mucosa caused by neutrophil generated reactive oxygen species, even when H. pylori displays its evasion mechanisms.

  12. Effect of Byrsonima crassa and phenolic constituents on Helicobacter pylori-induced neutrophils oxidative burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacorsi, Cibele; Raddi, Maria Stella G; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Sannomiya, Miriam; Vilegas, Wagner

    2012-01-01

    Byrsonima crassa Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric ulcers. In a previous study, our group described the gastric protective effect of the methanolic extract from the leaves of B. crassa. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of methanolic extract and its phenolic compounds on the respiratory burst of neutrophils stimulated by H. pylori using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay as well as their anti-H. pylori activity. The suppressive activity on oxidative burst of H. pylori-stimulated neutrophils was in the order of methyl gallate > (+)-catechin > methanol extract > quercetin 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside > quercetin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside > amentoflavone. Methyl gallate, compound that induced the highest suppressive activity with IC(50) value of 3.4 μg/mL, did not show anti-H. pylori activity. B. crassa could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant in gastric ulcers by attenuating the effects on the damage to gastric mucosa caused by neutrophil generated reactive oxygen species, even when H. pylori displays its evasion mechanisms.

  13. Association of Malaysian Helicobacter pylori virulence polymorphisms with severity of gastritis and patients' ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfizah, Hanafiah; Ramelah, Mohamed; Rizal, Abdul M; Anwar, Abdullah S; Isa, Mohamed R

    2012-10-01

    Polymorphisms of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes do exist and may contribute to differences in H. pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases among races in the Malaysian population. This study was conducted to characterize the polymorphisms in H. pylori cagA and vacA in Malaysian population. A total of 110 H. pylori isolates were genotyped by PCR and sequenced for cagA and PCR-RFLP for vacA. East Asian cagA was predominantly detected (64.5%), whereas vacA s1m1 and s1m2 alleles were detected in 60.9 and 37.3% of strains, respectively. A statistical association between cagA type with patients' ethnicity (p 50 years old (p = .027) was identified. vacA alleles showed significant association with age group >50 years old (p = .017) and increased neutrophil activity in gastric mucosa (p = .028 and p = .016 for moderate and marked activity, respectively). Further identification of vacA polymorphism revealed that 84% of strains from Malays and Indians showed one RFLP pattern (RFLP-1), whereas more than one RFLP patterns (RFLP-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8) were predominantly observed in strains from Chinese (82%) (p pylori strains with East Asian cagA were vacA RFLP-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8, and 88% of Western cagA strains were vacA RFLP-1 (p pylori, whereas Malays showed a mixed virulence genotypes. Marked differences in the polymorphisms of cagA and vacA were observed among strains in Malaysian population. This provides a new insight into the pathogenicity of H. pylori in multiracial population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. EGFR and Bcl-2 in gastric mucosa of children infected with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ryszczuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins as inhibitory markers of apoptosis in surface epithelial cells and gland cells of antral gastric mucosa in children infected with Helicobacter pylori according to the severity and activity of antral gastritis and to assess the correlation between the number of cells expressing EGFR and the number of cells expressing Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Materials and methods: The study included 44 children: 68.2% with chronic gastritis and positive IgG against H. pylori, and 31.8% with functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and with normal IgG against H. pylori. The evaluation of EGFR expression in gastric mucosa was performed immunohistochemically using monoclonal mouse anti-EGFR antibody. The polyclonal antibody was used to determine the expression of anti-Bcl-2.Results: A significant increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was found in the epithelial cells in severe as well as mild and moderate gastritis in the group of children infected with H. pylori. An increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was also found in the epithelial cells in group I according to the activity of gastritis. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Conclusion: Increased expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins in the epithelial cells and a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children could suggest increased regeneration abilities of gastric mucosa.

  15. Helicobacter pylori-Induced HB-EGF Upregulates Gastrin Expression via the EGF Receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and Erk2 in the MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardhana, Niluka; Jang, Sungil; Choi, Yun Hui; Hong, Youngmin A; Jeon, Yeong-Eui; Kim, Aeryun; Su, Hanfu; Kim, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Merrell, D Scott; Kim, Jinmoon; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with hypergastrinemia, which has been linked to the development of gastric diseases. Although the molecular mechanism is not fully understood, H. pylori is known to modulate the Erk pathway for induction of gastrin expression. Herein we found that an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase inhibitor significantly blocked H. pylori -induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting involvement of EGF receptor ligands. Indeed, H. pylori induced mRNA expression of EGF family members such as amphiregulin, EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and transforming growth factor-α. Of these, specific siRNA targeting of HB-EGF significantly blocked H. pylori -induced gastrin expression. Moreover, H. pylori induced HB-EGF ectodomain shedding, which we found to be a critical process for H. pylori -induced gastrin expression. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for human mature HB-EGF in stimulating gastrin promoter activity during H. pylori infection. Further investigation using specific siRNAs targeting each isoform of Raf, Mek, and Erk elucidated that the mechanism underlying H. pylori -induced gastrin expression can be delineated as the sequential activation of HB-EGF, the EGF receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and the Erk2 molecules in the MAPK pathway. Surprisingly, whereas Erk2 acts as a potent activator of gastrin expression, siRNA knockdown of Erk1 induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting that Erk1 typically acts as a repressor of gastrin expression. Elucidation of the mechanism of gastrin modulation by HB-EGF-mediated EGF receptor transactivation should facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against H. pylori -related hypergastrinemia and consequently gastric disease development, including gastric cancers.

  16. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to the new oral cephalosporins cefpodoxime, ceftibuten and cefixime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westblom, T U; Gudipati, S; Midkiff, B R

    1990-09-01

    The in vitro activity against 30 Helicobacter pylori strains of three new third generation cephalosporins, cefpodoxime, ceftibuten and cefixime, which can be administered orally, was determined using an agar dilution technique under microaerophilic conditions. The MIC50 and MIC90 of cefpodoxime was 0.5 and 4.0 micrograms/ml respectively, of ceftibuten 2.0 and 8.0 micrograms/ml, and of cefixime 0.06 and 0.5 microgram/ml. All antibiotics showed good activity against Helicobacter pylori, cefixime having the highest activity of the three agents.

  17. Five-day bismuth-free triple therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and reduction of duodenal ulcer relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, L.G.; Passos, M.C.; Chausson, Y.; Castro L de, P.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a significant reduction of the rate of duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effect of a bismuth-free triple therapy on the eradication of H. pylori and reduction of DU relapse. After informed consent, 61 patients with endoscopically proven DU and H. pylori infection detected on 14C-urea breath test (BT) were included in the study. All patients received a combination of furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole, three times a day, for 5 days, in addition to eventual classical antiulcer agents prescribed by their attending physicians. BT was repeated after an interval of at least 60 days to evaluate H. pylori eradication. Endoscopy and another BT were performed again at 6.5 months after therapy to detect possible recurrences. Forty-eight patients completed the trial: 26 (54%) patients were negative for H. pylori at 6.5 months after the end of treatment, and 22 (46%) persisted H. pylori positive. Ninety-two percent of the patients in whom the bacteria were eradicated showed endoscopically healed ulcers and were asymptomatic, and two that were symptomatic presented only occasional pain not requiring therapy. Among the 22 patients who persisted H. pylori positive, six (27%) showed endoscopically active ulcers (p = 0.012) and eight (36%) patients continued to be symptomatic (p less than 0.01), and were still using antiulcer drugs (p = 0.002) 6.5 months after treatment. It is concluded that combined treatment with furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole for 5 days represents a well-tolerated, inexpensive, and effective therapeutic regime for the eradication of H. pylori and abolition of DU relapse in more than 50% of the patients during a follow-up period of 6.5 months

  18. Five-day bismuth-free triple therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and reduction of duodenal ulcer relapse

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    Coelho, L.G.; Passos, M.C.; Chausson, Y.; Castro L de, P. (Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Digestive Surgery Unit, University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil))

    1991-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a significant reduction of the rate of duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effect of a bismuth-free triple therapy on the eradication of H. pylori and reduction of DU relapse. After informed consent, 61 patients with endoscopically proven DU and H. pylori infection detected on 14C-urea breath test (BT) were included in the study. All patients received a combination of furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole, three times a day, for 5 days, in addition to eventual classical antiulcer agents prescribed by their attending physicians. BT was repeated after an interval of at least 60 days to evaluate H. pylori eradication. Endoscopy and another BT were performed again at 6.5 months after therapy to detect possible recurrences. Forty-eight patients completed the trial: 26 (54%) patients were negative for H. pylori at 6.5 months after the end of treatment, and 22 (46%) persisted H. pylori positive. Ninety-two percent of the patients in whom the bacteria were eradicated showed endoscopically healed ulcers and were asymptomatic, and two that were symptomatic presented only occasional pain not requiring therapy. Among the 22 patients who persisted H. pylori positive, six (27%) showed endoscopically active ulcers (p = 0.012) and eight (36%) patients continued to be symptomatic (p less than 0.01), and were still using antiulcer drugs (p = 0.002) 6.5 months after treatment. It is concluded that combined treatment with furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole for 5 days represents a well-tolerated, inexpensive, and effective therapeutic regime for the eradication of H. pylori and abolition of DU relapse in more than 50% of the patients during a follow-up period of 6.5 months.

  19. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

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    Robert H Riddell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paediatric population, the associations of Helicobacter pylori with gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenitis and duodenal ulcer, and with duodenal gastric surface metaplasia and disorders of the D cell-G cell axis resulting in hypergastrinemia, are well established and in many ways resemble their counterparts in adults. Eradication of H pylori invariably results in the reversal of these diseases with time. There are also suggestions that gastric surface metaplasia is more extensive in children with H pylori, and may be the site of duodenal H pylori infection and associated duodenal erosions or ulcers. There is no consensus as to whether H pylori in children is more or less severe than in adults. In one paediatric cohort, H pylori was associated with increased intensity of inflammation, while other studies suggest that acute inflammation may be less intense in children overall but that chronic inflammation may be increased in intensity, including lymphoid hyperplasia, which in turn may correlate with endoscopic nodularity. Lymphoid hyperplasia and nodular gastritis appear to be more frequent in children than in adults and usually regress following H pylori eradication. However, in children, other diseases or morphological abnormalities, including some loss of glands (atrophy, occasionally intestinal metaplasia, lymphoproliferative diseases including low grade mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, lymphocytic gastritis and hypertrophic gastritis/Menetrier’s disease, are much less frequently associated with H pylori than in adults. Other associations are rarely seen in children, primarily because the time required for these to develop takes the individual to adulthood; for example, while intestinal metaplasia occurs in the pediatric population, the complications of adenoma/dysplasia and carcinoma are rare. In adults, inflammatory and hyperplastic polyps, atrophic gastritis and pernicious anemia, and in some patients granulomas

  20. Helicobacter pylori cholesteryl α-glucosides contribute to its pathogenicity and immune response by natural killer T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ito

    Full Text Available Approximately 10-15% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori will develop ulcer disease (gastric or duodenal ulcer, while most people infected with H. pylori will be asymptomatic. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic partly due to the inhibition of synthesis of cholesteryl α-glucosides in H. pylori cell wall by α1,4-GlcNAc-capped mucin O-glycans, which are expressed in the deeper portion of gastric mucosa. However, it has not been determined how cholesteryl α-glucosyltransferase (αCgT, which forms cholesteryl α-glucosides, functions in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Here, we show that the activity of αCgT from H. pylori clinical isolates is highly correlated with the degree of gastric atrophy. We investigated the role of cholesteryl α-glucosides in various aspects of the immune response. Phagocytosis and activation of dendritic cells were observed at similar degrees in the presence of wild-type H. pylori or variants harboring mutant forms of αCgT showing a range of enzymatic activity. However, cholesteryl α-glucosides were recognized by invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells, eliciting an immune response in vitro and in vivo. Following inoculation of H. pylori harboring highly active αCgT into iNKT cell-deficient (Jα18(-/- or wild-type mice, bacterial recovery significantly increased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, cytokine production characteristic of Th1 and Th2 cells dramatically decreased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate that cholesteryl α-glucosides play critical roles in H. pylori-mediated gastric inflammation and precancerous atrophic gastritis.

  1. G6PD Deficiency Does Not Enhance Susceptibility for Acquiring Helicobacter pylori Infection in Sardinian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Maria Pina; Marras, Giuseppina; Rocchi, Chiara; Soro, Sara; Pes, Giovanni Mario

    2016-01-01

    Subjects with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may be more susceptible to infections due to impaired leukocyte bactericidal activity. The disorder is common in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this study was to investigate whether G6PD deficiency may be a risk factor for acquiring H. pylori infection. We performed a retrospective study. Data from clinical records of 6565 patients (2278 men and 4287 women, median age 51, range 7‒94) who underwent upper endoscopy between 2002 and 2014 were collected. H. pylori status, assessed by histology plus rapid urease test or 13C-urea breath test, and G6PD status were also reported. A multiple logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between G6PD deficiency and H. pylori infection. Enzyme deficiency was detected in 12% (789/6565) of the entire cohort, and more specifically in 8.3% of men and in 14.0% of women. Overall, the proportion of patients positive for H. pylori was 50.6% and 51.5% among G6PD deficient and non-deficient patients (χ² = 0.271; p = 0.315). Moreover, among G6PD-deficient and normal patients the frequency of previous H. pylori infection was similar. After adjustment for age and gender the risk for acquiring H. pylori infection was similar in G6PD-deficient and normal patients. Only age was a strong statistically significant risk predictor. These results demonstrate for the first time that G6PD deficiency does not enhance patients' susceptibility to acquire H. pylori infection in Sardinia.

  2. Curcumin as a potential therapeutic candidate for Helicobacter pylori associated diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Avijit; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment and principal polyphenolic Curcuminoid obtained from the turmeric rhizome Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a food-coloring agent. Studies suggest that curcumin has a wide range of beneficial properties e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-fungal and anti-microbial. These pleiotropic activities prompted several research groups to elucidate the role of curcumin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This is the first review with this heading where we discussed regarding the role of curcumin as an anti-H. pylori agent along with its potential in other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on several in vitro, early cell culture, animal research and few pre-clinical trials, curcumin projected as a potential therapeutic candidate against H. pylori mediated gastric pathogenesis. This review sheds light on the anti-H. pylori effects of curcumin in different models with meticulous emphasis on its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects as well as some critical signaling and effecter molecules. Remarkably, non-toxic molecule curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent against H. pylori mediated gastric carcinogenesis but the foremost challenge is to obtain the optimum therapeutic levels of curcumin, due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Further, we have discussed about the possibilities for improving its efficacy and bioavailability. Lastly, we concluded with the anticipation that in near future curcumin may be used to develop a therapeutic drug against H. pylori mediated gastric ailments through improved formulation or delivery systems, facilitating its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. PMID:26973412

  3. Nodular Gastritis and Pathologic Findings in Children and Young Adults with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hong; Noh, Tae-Woong; Baek, Seoung-Yon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic characteristics of nodular gastritis in children and young adults infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Materials and Methods A total of 328 patients were enrolled in this study, and the diagnosis of H. pylori infection was done with gastroduodenal endoscopy concomitant with a CLO™ test and pathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens. Diagnoses of normal, superficial gastritis, nodular gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease were made from the gastroduodenal endoscopic findings. The density of H. pylori organisms in the gastric mucosa was rated as normal, mild, moderate, or marked. The pathologic findings of nodular gastritis were based on the histopathologic findings of inflammation, immune activity, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Each of these findings was scored as either normal (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or marked (3) according to the updated Sydney system and using visual analog scales. The gastritis score was the sum of the four histopathologic scores. Results In this study, nodular gastritis (50.6%) was most common, and mild density (51.5%) H. pylori infection was also common upon microscopic examination. Intestinal metaplasia occurred in 9 patients (2.7%). Conclusion Logistic regression revealed a significant increase in the incidence of nodular gastritis with gastritis score (p = 0.008), but not an association with sex, age, or H. pylori density. Gastritis score was the only significant factor influencing the occurrence of nodular gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia, which was originally thought to be a pre-malignant lesion, occurred in 2.7% of the patients with H. pylori infection. PMID:17461522

  4. Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Borén, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori J99, 2 clinical isolates, AGS cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Bacterial adhesins affected by FE were pinpointed using a dot-blot overlay assay with immobilized Lewisb, sialyl-Lewisa, H-1, laminin, and fibronectin. 125I-radiolabeled Okra FE polymer served for binding studies to different H. pylori strains and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. Iron nanoparticles with different coatings were used to investigate the influence of the charge-dependence of an interaction on the H. pylori surface. Principal findings Okra FE dose-dependently (0.2 to 2 mg/mL) inhibited H. pylori binding to AGS cells. FE inhibited the adhesive binding of membrane proteins BabA, SabA, and HpA to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled compounds from FE bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori, as well as to BabA/SabA deficient mutants, indicating an interaction with a still-unknown membrane structure in the vicinity of the adhesins. The binding depended on the charge of the inhibitors. Okra FE did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. Conclusion Non-specific interactions between high molecular compounds from okra fruits and the H. pylori surface lead to strong antiadhesive effects. PMID:24416297

  5. [Helicobacter pylori and gastro-duodenal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, L; Fiocca, R; Perego, M; De Giacomo, C; Trespi, E; Alvisi, C; Turpini, R; Solcia, E

    1990-01-01

    Helicobacter Pylori (HP) were found in 878 (73%) of 1205 patients undergoing upper G-I endoscopy with multiple biopsies for gastroduodenal diseases. HP were present in similar percentages among patients with active (89%) or healed (81%) peptic ulcer as well as in non ulcerous dyspeptics affected with gastritis (85%). 96% of active chronic gastritis were infected by HP as compared with 55% of quiescent gastritis. Antral gastritis was more frequently active in patients with ulcer diseases (76%) than in dyspeptic and asyntomatic patients (50%). Healed gastric and duodenal ulcers showed decreased incidence of active antral gastritis (69) as compared with active ulcers. Conversely body gastritis was more frequently active in healed (37%) than in overt (18%) duodenal ulcers. 95 histologically normal stomachs as well as 9 cases exhibiting type A gastritis were devoid of HP. High rates of infection were found in 610 cases of chronic gastritis without atrophy as well as in 151 atrophic antral (type B) gastritis. Cytoplasmic vacuolization and swelling of foveolar-superficial cells with adhering bacteria, micropapillae and microerosions were commonly found in HP-infected mucosa. In 16 of 19 children with type B chronic gastritis antibacterial therapy eradicated HP. This was followed by resolution or striking improvement of gastritis and disappearance of epithelial lesions.

  6. Inhibitory effect of Raphanobrassica on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takanori; Wei, Min; Toyoda, Takeshi; Yamano, Shoutaro; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with chronic gastritis and also development of gastric cancer. Raphanobrassica (RB) is an intergeneric hybrid of the genera Raphanus (radish) and Brassica (cabbages) containing appreciable amounts of glucoraphanin (GR) and glucoraphenin (GRe), which are actively hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase to sulforaphane and sulforaphene, respectively. Both of these metabolites exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of two freeze-dried products of RB (RB1 and RB2) on H. pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. Six-week-old male Mongolian gerbils were inoculated orally with H. pylori (ATCC 43504), and 2weeks later were fed diets containing no additives or diets supplemented with 2% RB1 (containing both GR and GRe) or 2% RB2 (containing GR only) for 10weeks. In the RB1, but not the RB2 group, mononuclear cell infiltration, mRNA expression of IL-6, and cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa were significantly suppressed. These results indicate that RB1 containing both GR and GRe exerted significant inhibitory effects on H. pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils apparently mediated via suppression of IL-6 expression and chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid paper disk test for identification of Helicobacter pylori in mixed cultures of gerbil gastric homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Juarez, Israel; Rangel-Vega, Adrian; Romero, Irma

    2010-10-01

    A method denominated rapid paper disk test (RPDT) was developed to identify H. pylori colonies in complex cultures obtained from gerbil gastric homogenates. Identification is based on a characteristic reaction pattern (RP) for H. pylori colonies given by the combination of the urease-oxidase activities on a paper disk. Compared to the RPs obtained from gerbil's intestinal tract isolated bacteria, H. pylori RP is completely distinguishable, even from those of bacteria that share one or both activities as are Aerococcus urinae, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus brevis, Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium, and Staphylococcus simulans, as well as from those produced by collection strains Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This method allows the practical quantification of H. pylori colonies in highly contaminated plates. RPDT has the following advantages over other methodologies that use indicators in the medium: it employs two of the three routinely used H. pylori biochemical identification tests, the reagents do not interfere with bacterial viability, there are no restrictions in relation to the medium used, and it is a simple, fast, and low-cost method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Molecular Events in Murine Gastric Epithelial Cells Mediated by Helicobacter pylori CagA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Basu, Malini; Blanchard, Thomas G; Chintalacharuvu, Subba R; Guang, Wei; Lillehoj, Erik P; Czinn, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    Murine models of Helicobacter pylori infection are used to study host-pathogen interactions, but lack of severe gastritis in this model has limited its usefulness in studying pathogenesis. We compared the murine gastric epithelial cell line GSM06 to the human gastric epithelial AGS cell line to determine whether similar events occur when cultured with H. pylori. The lysates of cells infected with H. pylori isolates or an isogenic cagA-deficient mutant were assessed for translocation and phosphorylation of CagA and for activation of stress pathway kinases by immunoblot. Phosphorylated CagA was detected in both cell lines within 60 minutes. Phospho-ERK 1/2 was present within several minutes and distinctly present in GSM06 cells at 60 minutes. Similar results were obtained for phospho-JNK, although the 54 kDa phosphoprotein signal was dominant in AGS, whereas the lower molecular weight band was dominant in GSM06 cells. These results demonstrate that early events in H. pylori pathogenesis occur within mouse epithelial cells similar to human cells and therefore support the use of the mouse model for the study of acute CagA-associated host cell responses. These results also indicate that reduced disease in H. pylori-infected mice may be due to lack of the Cag PAI, or by differences in the mouse response downstream of the initial activation events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  10. The Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Gubina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to Helicobacter pylori involves different mechanisms that are both protective and damaging to the host. The innate and the adaptive immune responses lead to inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory responses, allowing for persistence of many infections. Thus, developing new therapeutics and effective vaccines against H. pylori has proven to be arduous. Despite many immunisation experiments, using various routes of immunisation with classical as well as recombinant H. pylori vaccines (urease, CagA, HP-NAP, HspA, DNA, chimeric molecules, live vectors, microspheres, no effective vaccine is currently available for humans. New directions for successful vaccine construction should follow a profound knowledge of immunopathological events during natural H. pylori infection and factors leading to resolution of infection: mandatory is a new knowledge about the interplay of the innate response to H. pylori, mucosal inflammation, H. pylori virulence factors inducing immune responses, regulation of the adaptive responses to H. pylori as well as construction of novel vaccine platforms for achieving a broad immune response, leading to a sterilizing immunity.

  11. Helicobacter pylori and associated duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C K; Fu, K H; Yuen, K Y; Ng, W F; Tsang, T M; Branicki, F J; Saing, H

    1990-11-01

    Twenty three children with coexistent duodenal ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with either two weeks of amoxycillin (25 mg/kg/day) in addition to six weeks of cimetidine, or cimetidine alone. Endoscopy with antral and duodenal biopsies for urease test, microaerophilic culture, and histological studies were performed at entry, six weeks, 12 weeks, and at six months. Children with persistent H pylori infection at six weeks were given a further two weeks' course of amoxycillin. H pylori persisted in all children not receiving amoxycillin treatment but cleared in six of the 13 children (46%) treated with amoxycillin. With failure of H pylori clearance at six months, only two out of six (33%) ulcers had healed and 50% of patients had experienced ulcer recurrence. In contrast, when H pylori remained cleared all ulcers healed and no ulcer recurred. Persistent H pylori infection was associated with persistent gastritis and duodenitis despite endoscopic evidence of ulcer healing. Detection and eradication of H pylori deserves particular attention in the routine management of duodenal ulceration in children.

  12. Effect of the oral intake of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici BA28 on Helicobacter pylori causing peptic ulcer in C57BL/6 mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Garg, Neena; Sachdev, Atul; Kumar, Balvir

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are being proposed to cure peptic ulcers by reducing colonization of Helicobacter pylori within the stomach mucosa and by eradicating already established infection. In lieu of that, in vitro inhibitory activity of pediocin-producing probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici BA28 was evaluated against H. pylori by growth inhibition assays. Further, chronic gastritis was first induced in two groups of C57BL/6 mice by orogastric inoculation with H. pylori with polyethylene catheter, and probiotic P. acidilactici BA28 was orally administered to study the eradication and cure of peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori and P. acidilactici BA28 were detected in gastric biopsy and fecal samples of mice, respectively. A probiotic treatment with P. acidilactici BA28, which is able to eliminate H. pylori infection and could reverse peptic ulcer disease, is being suggested as a co-adjustment with conventional antibiotic treatment. The study provided an evidence of controlling peptic ulcer disease, by diet mod

  13. Human Lysozyme Synergistically Enhances Bactericidal Dynamics and Lowers the Resistant Mutant Prevention Concentration for Metronidazole to Helicobacter pylori by Increasing Cell Permeability

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    Xiaolin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MNZ is an effective agent that has been employed to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. The emergence of broad MNZ resistance in H. pylori has affected the efficacy of this therapeutic agent. The concentration of MNZ, especially the mutant prevention concentration (MPC, plays an important role in selecting or enriching resistant mutants and regulating therapeutic effects. A strategy to reduce the MPC that can not only effectively treat H. pylori but also prevent resistance mutations is needed. H. pylori is highly resistant to lysozyme. Lysozyme possesses a hydrolytic bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan and a cationic dependent mode. These effects can increase the permeability of bacterial cells and promote antibiotic absorption into bacterial cells. In this study, human lysozyme (hLYS was used to probe its effects on the integrity of the H. pylori outer and inner membranes using as fluorescent probe hydrophobic 1-N-phenyl-naphthylamine (NPN and the release of aspartate aminotransferase. Further studies using a propidium iodide staining method assessed whether hLYS could increase cell permeability and promote cell absorption. Finally, we determined the effects of hLYS on the bactericidal dynamics and MPC of MNZ in H. pylori. Our findings indicate that hLYS could dramatically increase cell permeability, reduce the MPC of MNZ for H. pylori, and enhance its bactericidal dynamic activity, demonstrating that hLYS could reduce the probability of MNZ inducing resistance mutations.

  14. VacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori, binds to multimerin 1 on human platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Kaneo; Hirayama, Toshiya; Takano, Katsuhiro; Suzuki-Inoue, Katsue; Sato, Tadashi; Ohta, Masato; Nakagomi, Junko; Ozaki, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Platelets were activated under the infection with H. pylori in human and mice. We investigated the role of VacA, an exotoxin released by H. pylori in this context. Acid-activated VacA, but not heated VacA, induced platelet CD62P expression. However, VacA reacted with none of the alleged VacA receptors present on platelet membranes. We therefore analyzed VacA associated proteins obtained through VacA affinity chromatography, using MALDI-TOF-MS. Multimerin1 was detected in two consecutive exper...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance and characterization of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Mexican adults with clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihu, L; Ayala, G; Mohar, A; Hernández, A; Herrera-Goepfert, R; Fierros, G; González-Márquez, H; Silva, J

    2005-06-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in Mexico is of great importance due to the elevated seroprevalence, however, there is yet very little information about antibiotic resistance rates in H. pylori isolates in our country. We analyzed susceptibility to three antimicrobials used in therapy of 49 H. pylori strains isolated from patients with active chronic gastritis, active chronic gastritis with lymphoid follicles, intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. All isolated strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, 28 (58%) were resistant to metronidazole and 2 (4%) were resistant to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. Sequence analysis of the 23S rRNA of the two clarithromycin-resistant strains showed the A2142G mutation in one and A2143G and T2182C mutations in the other. Metronidazole resistance was associated with cagA negative strains with a frequency of 82% (9/11). No significant correlation was found between vacA s/m alleles and metronidazole resistance.

  16. Structural Characteristics of Gastric Cell Populations in Chronic Gastritis and Chronic Hepatitis under Conditions of Helicobacter pylori Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapii, G A; Bakarev, M A; Nepomnyashchikh, G I; Kapustina, V I; Nepomnyashchikh, D L; Vinogradova, E V; Postnikova, O A

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori persistence in patients with chronic gastritis is associated with a complex of nonspecific structural reactions, the type of these reactions correlates with the severity of infection: catarrhal fibrotic changes in the gastric mucosa predominate in cases with manifest colonization, while the absence of H. pylori is associated with predominance of fibrotic process. Analysis of the incidence of some pathomorphological phenomena (degeneration, atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia of the surface epithelium) shows no relationship between the presence of H. pylori and colonization intensity. In all patients with chronic hepatitis, the gastric mucosa is involved in the pathological process; fibrosis (gastropathy) was the most common process. No appreciable correlations between the structural changes and hepatitis activity and the presence of H. pylori were detected.

  17. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

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    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  18. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori in immune pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hwei-Fang; Hsu, Ping-Ning

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Apoptosis induced by microbial infections is implicated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Enhanced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis during H. pylori infection was suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and gastric pathology. In addition to directly triggering apoptosis, H. pylori induces sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. Human gastric epithelial cells sensitized to H. pylori confer susceptibility to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via modulation of death-receptor signaling. The induction of TRAIL sensitivity by H. pylori is dependent upon the activation of caspase-8 and its downstream pathway. H. pylori induces caspase-8 activation via enhanced assembly of the TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex through downregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein. Moreover, H. pylori infection induces infiltration of T lymphocytes and triggers inflammation to augment apoptosis. In H. pylori infection, significant increases in CCR6 + CD3 + T cell infiltration in the gastric mucosa was observed, and the CCR6 ligand, CCL20 chemokine, was selectively expressed in inflamed gastric tissues. These mechanisms initiate chemokine-mediated T lymphocyte trafficking into inflamed epithelium and induce mucosal injury during Helicobacter infection. This article will review recent findings on the interactions of H. pylori with host-epithelial signaling pathways and events involved in the initiation of gastric pathology, including gastric inflammation and mucosal damage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Understanding Disease Outcome Following Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori Infection during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Day

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes chronic active (type B gastritis in the overwhelming majority of infected individuals. The relative contribution of virulence factors in the bacterium and host responses to the microbial infection in determining which subjects will go on to develop complications–such as peptic ulceration, gastric cancers and gastric lymphomas—is the subject of current investigative activities.

  20. Detection of Helicobacter pylori from endoscopic biopsies and the biochemical characteristics of these isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Y M; Ng, Y P; Ong, S C; Chang, P T; Pillai, S S

    1990-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) has been recently described as a gastritis-associated bacterium. We examined endoscopic biopsies of 100 patients with dyspepsia and found H. pylori in the gastric antrum of 34 (34%) by either culture, urease tests and/or histology. Thirty-one out of 41 patients (75.6%) confirmed to have chronic active gastritis histologically had H. pylori in their gastric antrum compared to 3 out of 59 patients (5.1%) with dyspepsia but normal histology (p less than 0.01). Histological examination, using gram stain and the Warthin-Starry Silver stain, detected 29 of the 34 positive cases (85.3%); urease test, 26 cases (76.5%) and culture, 22 cases (64.7%). A combination of histological examination and urease test increased the detection rate to 97.1%. Therefore we felt that for the detection of H. pylori in endoscopic biopsies, culture, which is time consuming and expensive, is not necessary in routine diagnosis as it did not improve the diagnostic rate over a combination of histology and urease test. A comparative study on three media (blood agar, chocolate agar and Skirrow's agar) used in the isolation of the organism showed that non-selective blood agar and chocolate agar were superior to Skirrow's agar. The strains isolated appeared to be homogeneous in their morphological and biochemical characteristics.

  1. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Stool Antigen in Patients With Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinan Karadeniz, R.; Ozdegirmenci, Ozlem; Metin Altay, M.; Solaroglu, Ayse; Dilbaz, Serdar; Hızel, Nedret; Haberal, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori is an etiologic factor in hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty one patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and twenty nine pregnant controls without hyperemesis gravidarum were included in this prospective study. All pregnant women were examined both for Helicobacter pylori serum immunoglobulin G antibodies (HpIgG Ab), showing chronic infection, and Helicobacter pylori stool antigens (HpSA), showing active gastrointestinal colonization. Chi-square and Student t tests were used accordingly for statistical analysis. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was 67.7% in the patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and 79.3% in the control group (χ2 = 1.02, P = .31). HpSA was detected in 22.6% of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, whereas 6.9% of patients in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant (χ2 = 2.89, P = .08). In this study, no relation was found between Helicobacter pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum. The low social status of women in both groups could be one of the reasons for the high prevalence of Hp infection. PMID:17093356

  2. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Stool Antigen in Patients With Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori is an etiologic factor in hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty one patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and twenty nine pregnant controls without hyperemesis gravidarum were included in this prospective study. All pregnant women were examined both for Helicobacter pylori serum immunoglobulin G antibodies (HpIgG Ab, showing chronic infection, and Helicobacter pylori stool antigens (HpSA, showing active gastrointestinal colonization. Chi-square and Student t tests were used accordingly for statistical analysis. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was 67.7% in the patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and 79.3% in the control group ( χ 2 =1.02,P=.31 . HpSA was detected in 22.6% of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, whereas 6.9% of patients in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant ( χ 2 =2.89,P=.08 . In this study, no relation was found between Helicobacter pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum. The low social status of women in both groups could be one of the reasons for the high prevalence of Hp infection.

  3. Natural transformation of an engineered Helicobacter pylori strain deficient in type II restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Blaser, Martin J

    2012-07-01

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems are important for bacteria to limit foreign DNA invasion. The naturally competent bacterium Helicobacter pylori has highly diverse strain-specific type II systems. To evaluate the roles of strain-specific restriction in H. pylori natural transformation, a markerless type II restriction endonuclease-deficient (REd) mutant was constructed. We deleted the genes encoding all four active type II restriction endonucleases in H. pylori strain 26695 using sacB-mediated counterselection. Transformation by donor DNA with exogenous cassettes methylated by Escherichia coli was substantially (1.7 and 2.0 log(10) for cat and aphA, respectively) increased in the REd strain. There also was significantly increased transformation of the REd strain by donor DNA from other H. pylori strains, to an extent corresponding to their shared type II R-M system strain specificity with 26695. Comparison of the REd and wild-type strains indicates that restriction did not affect the length of DNA fragment integration during natural transformation. There also were no differentials in cell growth or susceptibility to DNA damage. In total, the data indicate that the type II REd mutant has enhanced competence with no loss of growth or repair facility compared to the wild type, facilitating H. pylori mutant construction and other genetic engineering.

  4. Gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo F S; Rocha, Gifone A; Penna, Francisco J; Queiroz, Dulciene M M

    2006-01-01

    To show important aspects of gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents. Technical textbooks and MEDLINE and LILACS databases including publications between 1966 and 2006. The etiology of peptic ulcer in children and adolescents may be primary, associated with H. pylori infection, or secondary, in which etiopathogenic mechanisms rely upon the underlying disease. The infection is acquired predominantly in childhood, with prevalence rates between 56.8 and 83.1% in children who live in the poorest Brazilian regions, amounting to nearly 10% in children aged less than 10 years in industrialized countries. The infection can be diagnosed by invasive methods, which investigate the presence of the bacterium, or of DNA, RNA or bacterial products in biopsy fragments of the gastric mucosa obtained at endoscopic examination; it can also be diagnosed through noninvasive methods, which include the detection of anti-H. pylori antibodies in serum, urine or saliva samples, detection of bacterial antigens in stool samples, and the carbon 13-labeled urea breath test. However, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the method of choice for the diagnosis of peptic ulcer, as it allows collecting fragments from the gastric mucosa during the procedure for the diagnosis of infection and for histopathological analysis. H. pylori infection is the major cause of peptic ulcer among children. Eradication of the bacterium with antimicrobial therapy results in the cure of the disease, and is therefore indicated for all children with H. pylori infection with an active, recurrent, healed, or complicated peptic ulcer.

  5. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    This article aims to examine current best practice in the field reference to first-line, second-line, rescue and emerging treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication. The recommended first-line treatment in published guidelines in Europe and North American is proton pump inhibitor combined with amoxicillin and clarithromycin being the favoured regimen. Rates of eradication with this regimen however are falling alarmingly due to a combination of antibiotic resistance and poor compliance with therapy. Bismuth based quadruple therapies and levofloxacin based regimes have been shown to be effective second line regimens. Third-line options include regimes based on rifabutin or furazolidone, but susceptibility testing is the most rational option here, but is currently not used widely enough. Sequential therapy is promising but needs further study and validation outside of Italy. Although the success of first line treatments is falling, if compliance is good and a clear treatment paradigm adhered to, almost universal eradication rates can still be achieved. If compliance is not achievable, the problem of antibiotic resistance will continue to beset any combination of drugs used for H. pylori eradication.

  6. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Oderda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. It is accepted as the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, carcinoma of the distal part of the stomach and gastric lymphoma. However, how and when the infection is acquired remain largely unknown. Identification of mode of transmission is vital for developing preventive measures to interrupt its spread, but studies focused on this issue are difficult to implement. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there are great differences in the prevalence of infection in different populations and in ethnic groups originating from high prevalence regions. This is likely related to inferior hygienic conditions and sanitation. In developing countries, infection occurs at a much earlier age. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is related to poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly density of living. Humans seem to be the only reservoir of H pylori, which spread from person to person by oral-oral, fecal-oral or gastro-oral routes. Most infections are acquired in childhood, possibly from parents or other children living as close contacts. Infection from the environment or from animals cannot be entirely excluded.

  7. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with dyspeptic symptoms in patients undergoing gastroduodenoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R M; Wang, T C; Kelsey, P B; Compton, C C; Ferraro, M J; Perez-Perez, G; Parsonnet, J; Blaser, M J

    1990-10-01

    . pylori with active inflammation rather than with quiescent gastritis is consistent with a pathologic role of this organism.

  8. Helicobacter pylori: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure

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    ABR Thomson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its rediscovery 10 years ago, Helicobacter pylori has reshaped our thinking about the course of peptic ulcer disease. Our approach to the patient with a duodenal ulcer has become one of attempting eradication therapy at the time of first diagnosis, in the hope of curing the ulcer disease. Gastric and duodenal ulceration are only two of the manifestations of this chronic antral infection; other complications of H pylori include gastritis, gastric cancer and possible maltomas. Therapy of H pylori infection is complicated and involves dual therapy with an antibiotic plus a protein pump inhibitor, such as omeprazole 20 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1 g bid for two weeks, triple or quadruple therapy with bismuth, two antibiotics and an H2-receptor antagonist. Vaccination against H pylori is on the far horizon.

  9. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Andreas; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2015-09-01

    During the period reviewed, prevalence studies were essentially performed in less economically advanced countries and a high prevalence was found. The traditional risk factors for Helicobacter pylori positivity were mostly found. Transmission studied by molecular typing showed a familial transmission. The eventual role of water transmission was explored in several studies with controversial results. Concerning diagnosis, most of the invasive and noninvasive methods used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection are long standing with efficient performance. The most interesting recent improvements in H. pylori diagnosis include advances in endoscopy, developments in molecular methods, and the introduction of omics-based techniques. Interpretation of old or newer method should take into account the pretest probability and the prevalence of H. pylori in the population under investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among patients with dyspepsia and correlation between endoscopic and histological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyspepsia is a prevalent complaint in general practice and gastrointestinal clinics. Helicobacter pylori have major causal relationship with gastro duodenal disease. The following study seeks to identify the prevalence of H. pylori based on histology and to correlate endoscopic findings with histopathology.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in GRP Polyclinic and Om Hospital and research centre from April 2015-September 2015. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings were recorded and were correlated with histopathological findings. All the relevant data were collected and analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences version 16 for windows.  Results: Endoscopy finding was divided into reflux esophagitis, antral gastritis, duodenitis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer was noted more frequently in males than in females (55.0% vs. 45.0% and 58.2% vs. 41.8%, respectively, P < 0.001.Chronic follicular gastritis was the most common in gastric ulcer (41.7%, whereas chronic persistent gastritis was common in non-ulcerative disease. Chronic active gastritis and chronic follicular gastritis were more common in ulcerative diseases, whereas chronic persistent gastritis was more common in gastritis and duodenitis (P < 0.001. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 68.1% with male preponderance. Chronic active gastritis had highest prevalence of H. pylori (84.8%, followed by chronic follicular gastritis (84.1% and chronic persistent gastritis (p value < 0.001.Conclusion: Rate of H. pylori infected patients with dyspepsia was high. Ulcerative lesions were more common in males than in females with higher rate of infection with H. Pylori.  Histological diagnosis of chronic active gastritis and chronic follicular gastritis was the most common pathologies in ulcerative lesions. 

  11. Binary and Tertiary Mixtures of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils as Potent Antimicrobial Agents Against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Natasa; Orcic, Dejan; Franciskovic, Marina; Knezevic, Petar; Beara, Ivana; Aleksic, Verica; Svircev, Emilija; Buzas, Krisztina; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity, even against multiresistant Helicobacter pylori. Available therapies against H. pylori infection have multiple disadvantages, indicating a great need for a development of new therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to develop a potent natural product based anti-H. pylori formulation. First, anti-H. pylori activity of nine essential oils was determined, after which the most active oils were mixed in various ratios for further testing. Satureja hortensis, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils expressed the highest activity (MIC = 2 μL mL(-1)). Their binary and ternary mixtures exhibited notably higher antimicrobial activity (MIC ≤ 2 μL mL(-1)). The most active was the mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum oils in volume ratio 2:1, which expressed 4 times higher activity than individual oils (MIC = 0.5 μL mL(-1)). According to GC-MS, both oils in the mixture were characterized by high content of phenols (48-73%), with carvacrol as the main carrier of antimicrobial activity. Presented in vitro study pointed out binary mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils in volume ratio 2:1 as promising candidate for further in vivo studies targeting H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Features of Immune Response to Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children with Bronchial Asthma

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    M.V. Kalichevska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The course of bronchial asthma in children is often accompanied by gastrointestinal (GI diseases associated with H.pylori infection. The presence of H.pylori leads to the activation and maintenance of inflammatory process with release of cytokines and mediators of inflammation and subsequent systemic effects. Objective: to study the peculiarities of interferon gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-4, -5 and -13 production as markers of allergic inflammation severity in children with bronchial asthma infected with H.pylori. Materials and methods. There were examined 120 children with bronchial asthma aged 6 to 18 years. Identification of H.pylori was carried out with the help of brea­thing Helic-test (LLC AMA, Russia. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ and IL‑4, -5 and -13 were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (Diaclone test-kits, France before and 7 days after the end of treatment for GI pathology. Statistical processing was performed using the methods of variation statistics implemented in the software package Statistica 6.1. Results. 78 children with bronchial asthma were diagnosed with GI disease, including 37 cases associated with H.pylori infection. To study the influence of H.pylori on the course of bronchial asthma, children were divided into 3 groups: I group — 37 children with bronchial asthma and GI pathology, infected with H.pylori, II — 41 H.pylori-negative children with bronchial asthma and GI pathology, III — 42 H.pylori-negative children with bronchial asthma without GI disorders. Duration of bronchial asthma in group I was 7.80 ± 0.17 years, in II — 5.90 ± 0.26 years, in group III — 3.90 ± 0.48 years (p < 0.05. The presence of H.pylori infection in children with bronchial asthma was accompanied by lower concentrations of IFN-γ compared to children of group II (8.47 ± 0.14 pg/ml and 9.69 ± 0.32 pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05. The level of IL‑13 in the blood serum was

  13. Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori vacA increase markedly gastric mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in gastritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Sanei, Mohammad Hosein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Taghikhani, Afshin; Salimzadeh, Loghman; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Bagheri, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main cause of gastric inflammation. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) suppress the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells and mediate immunologic tolerance. TGF-β1 was shown to be secreted in a subset of Treg cells known as 'Th3 cells'. These cells have not been sufficiently studied in context to H. pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric mucosa. In this study we therefore, aimed to investigate the expression of TGF-β1 in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, to examine the relationship between it and histopathologic findings and to compare it with virulence factors. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 48 H. pylori-infected patients and 38 H. pylori-negative patients with gastritis. Mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time PCR. Presence of vacA, cagA, iceA, babA2 and oipA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. TGF-β1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori-uninfected patients. There was association between virulence factors and TGF-β1 mRNA expression. TGF-β1 mRNA expression in mucosa was significantly higher in patients with vacA s1 and s1m1. TGF-β1 may play an important role in the inflammatory response and promote the chronic and persistent inflammatory changes in the gastric. This may ultimately influence the outcome of H. pylori-associated diseases that arise within the context of gastritis and vacA may suffice to induce expression of TGF-β1 mRNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Special licorice extracts containing lowered glycyrrhizin and enhanced licochalcone A prevented Helicobacter pylori-initiated, salt diet-promoted gastric tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Park, Sang-Ho; Hong, Kyung-Sook; Han, Young-Min; Jang, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2014-06-01

    In spite of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions, conventional licorice extracts (c-lico) were limitedly used due to serious side effects of glycyrrhizin. As our group had successfully isolated special licorice extracts (s-lico) lowering troublesome glycyrrhizin, but increasing licochalcone A, we have compared anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective actions of s-lico and c-lico against either in vitro or in vivo Helicobacter pylori infection. RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to check anti-inflammatory action and electron spin resonance (ESR) and DCFDA spectroscopy to check antioxidative action. s-lico or c-lico was pretreated 1 hours before H. pylori infection on AGS cells. Interleukin-10 deficient mice inoculated H. pylori and followed with high salt containing pallet diets to produce H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumors, during which s-lico or c-lico-containing pellet diets were administered up to 24 weeks. s-lico had fabulous efficacy on scavenging ROS which was further confirmed by DCFDA study and ESR measurement. The expressions of COX-2, iNOS, VEGF, and IL-8 were increased after H. pylori infection, of which levels were significantly decreased with s-lico in a dose-dependent manner. s-lico significantly ameliorated hypoxia-induced or H. pylori-induced angiogenic activities. s-lico significantly ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastric damages as well as gastritis. Our animal model showed significant development of gastric tumors including adenoma and dysplasia relevant to H. pylori infection, and s-lico administration significantly attenuated incidence of H. pylori-induced gastric tumorigenesis. Special licorice extracts can be anticipating substance afforded significant attenuation of either H. pylori-induced gastritis or tumorigenesis based on potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic actions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Morphological and Cellular Features of Innate Immune Reaction in Helicobacter pylori Gastritis: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; Rigoli, Luciana; Fedele, Francesco; Tuccari, Giovanni; Caruso, Rosario Alberto

    2016-01-15

    Innate and adaptive immunity are both involved in acute and chronic inflammatory processes. The main cellular players in the innate immune system are macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and natural killer (NK), which offer antigen-independent defense against infection. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection presents peculiar characteristics in gastric mucosa infrequently occurring in other organs; its gastric colonization determines a causal role in both gastric carcinomas and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. In contrast, an active role for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been identified only in 9% of gastric carcinomas. The aim of the present review is to discuss the role of cellular morphological effectors in innate immunity during H. pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis.

  16. 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a 14 C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi 14 C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled 14 CO 2 which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The 14 C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture

  17. No Helicobacter pylori, no Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    Virtually all duodenal ulcers (DUs) and the vast majority of gastric ulcers (GUs) are the consequence of Helicobacter pylori-associated inflammation. In DUs, the inflammation is maximal in the antrum and is associated with gastric metaplasia in the bulb. Gastrin homeostasis is disturbed by H. pylori

  18. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection Angiogénesis gástrica e infección por Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  19. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) induced apoptosis by soluble TNF receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, J; Goto, H; Arisawa, T; Niwa, Y; Hayakawa, T; Nakayama, A; Mori, N

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a predominant cytokine produced in the gastric mucosa of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. TNF induces apoptosis in a variety of cells. The soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-Rs) can be divided into sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII, both of which inhibit TNF activity. However, their precise mechanisms remain unclear.
AIM—To investigate the role of sTNF-Rs in H pylori infection.
METHODS—In 40 patients, production of TNF and sTNF-Rs in gastric mucosa was measu...

  20. Helicobacter pylori: a poor man's gut pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Mohammed

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori is one of the human pathogens with highest prevalence around the world; yet, its principal mode of transmission remains largely unknown. The role of H. pylori in gastric disease and cancer has not been established until the end of the 20th century. Since then, its epidemiology has been extensively studied, and an accruing body of literature suggests that not all humans are equally at risk of infection by this gut pathogen. Here, we briefly review the different epidemiological aspects of H. pylori infection with emphasis on those factors related to human poverty. The epidemiology of H. pylori infection is characterized by marked differences between developing and developed countries, notably among children. In addition, congruent lines of evidence point out to socioeconomic factors and living standards as main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. These data are alarming in the light of the changing global climate and birth rate, which are expected to change the demography of our planet, putting more children at risk of H. pylori and its complications for years to come.

  1. Paf-acether synthesis by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizot, Y; Sobhani, I; Rambaud, J C; Lewin, M; Thomas, Y; Benveniste, J

    1990-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori may play a role in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal ulcers in man but direct evidence of mucosal injury by this microorganism is still lacking. Paf-acether (paf) causes a number of disorders including ischaemic bowel necrosis and gastroduodenal ulceration. Since paf is produced by Escherichia coli, we investigated whether it could be synthesised by H pylori. Five H pylori isolates were collected from antral biopsy specimens from patients with gastritis and duodenal ulcer and cultured with selective antibiotics. Colonies obtained from both blood agar and brucella broth medium were used. Paf was determined by platelet aggregation assay after ethanolic extraction and subsequent purification by high performance liquid chromatography. Paf was detected in H pylori in blood agar plates (680 (390) pg paf/1 x 10(6) organisms) but not in bacteria cultured on brucella broth medium. Supplementation of the latter medium with lyso paf and acetyl-CoA, two paf precursors present in high amounts in the mammalian intestine, induced paf production in three of five isolates. The platelet aggregating material extracted from H pylori exhibited biological and physiochemical characteristics identical to those of paf released from eukaryotic cells. These findings suggest that H pylori may add to the local production of paf in inflamed gastric mucosa.

  2. Changing epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is known as the most important cause of gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, and socioeconomic status. In Japan, H. pylori infection has been highly correlated with the incidence rate of gastric cancer, and a reduction in H. pylori infection is therefore crucial for decreasing the incidence of gastric cancer, especially at the population level. Infection occurs during childhood, commonly before 5 years of age. In Japan, where gastric cancer has ranked as the most common cancer by incidence and mortality for the last several decades, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has dramatically declined by birth cohort effect, mainly due to improvements in the general hygiene environment in childhood. Older generations born before around 1950 show a high prevalence of around 80-90 %, decreasing with age to reach around 10 % or less in those born around the 1990s, and less than 2 % for children born after the year 2000. This change will have generational effects on gastric cancer prevention strategies, both primary and secondary. The risk-stratified approach to gastric cancer prevention should be considered in Japan and other countries which have similarly experienced rapid economic development.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with type 2 diabetes among a middle- and old-age Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Li, Yaru; Wang, Jing; Liu, Bing; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Miao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with diabetes mellitus has been evaluated, findings are controversial. This study investigated the association in a Chinese population. A cross-sectional study, including a total of 30 810 subjects from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort study, was conducted. H. pylori status was measured via (14) C urea breath test. Association analysis was performed by logistic regression, with multivariable adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history of diabetes, physical activity and the use of antibiotics. Among a middle-age and old-age Chinese population, individuals with H. pylori infection also had a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (21.3% versus 20.2%, p = 0.026). H. pylori infection was associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes [odds ratio, 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.14); p = 0.008] after adjustment for other confounders. The association was significant among women, those who were above 65 years old, not overweight or obese, and those who did not smoke, did not consume alcohol and without family history of diabetes. However, there was no interaction between H. pylori infection and other traditional risk factors on type 2 diabetes risk. Subjects with H. pylori infection had a lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p pylori infection was associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in a middle-age and old-age Chinese population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Helicobacter pylori colonization and obesity - A Mendelian randomization study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. den Hollander (Wouter); L. Broer (Linda); C. Schurmann (Claudia); D. Meyre (David); C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); J. Mayerle (Julia); Hofman, A. (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Lerch, M.M. (Markus M.); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObesity is associated with substantial morbidity, costs, and decreased life expectancy, and continues to rise worldwide. While etiological understanding is needed for prevention, epidemiological studies indicated that colonization with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may affect body mass

  5. Helicobacter Pylori – A Moving Target | Lambiotte | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pylori) continues to grow. Testing is also now advised for patients with immune thrombocytopenia purpura, unexplained vitamin B12 or iron deficiency anemia. Despite the indications for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection widening, definitive ...

  6. Helicobacter Pylori Positivity in Patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

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    Emel Ebru Özçimen

    2006-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Contradicting with most of the studies which investigated the relationship between H. pylori infection and HG, our results indicate no significant relationship between HG and H. pylori IgG and HpSA.

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection in Africa: Pathology and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    alkalinization (McNamara and ..... pylori from gastric biopsy specimens, saliva, faeces and archival specimens (Smith et al., 2002; .... (2003). Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in normal or asymptomatic patients. Tunis. Med.

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and risk factors among dyspepsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori antibody conjugated with colloid gold nitrocellulose membrane strip and a structured face-to-face interview was also administered to assess risk factors for H. pylori infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic ...

  9. II Consenso Brasileiro sobre Helicobacter pylori Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avanços significativos ocorridos desde o Primeiro Consenso Brasileiro sobre H. pylori realizado em 1995, em Belo Horizonte, MG, justificam este segundo consenso. O evento foi organizado pela Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia e pelo Núcleo Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter, sendo realizado em São Paulo nos dias 19 e 20 de junho de 2004. Contou com a participação das principais autoridades nacionais na área, a partir de lista elaborada pelas duas sociedades organizadoras do evento. Assim, participaram 36 delegados provenientes de 15 estados brasileiros, incluindo gastroenterologistas, patologistas, pediatras e microbiologistas. Os participantes foram alocados em um dos cinco sub-temas a serem contemplados no encontro, a saber: Helicobacter pylori e dispepsia funcional; Helicobacter pylori e AINEs; Helicobacter pylori e doença do refluxo gastroesofágico; tratamento Helicobacter pylori e retratamento Helicobacter pylori. Foi adotado como consensual as decisões que atingissem 70% ou mais de concordância entre os participantes. Os resultados foram apresentados em outubro de 2004 durante sessão especial da VI Semana Brasileira do Aparelho Digestivo, realizada em Recife, PE, e esta publicação apresenta o sumário das principais recomendações e conclusões do evento.Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The

  10. Comparison of different stains in imprint cytology with the conventional diagnostic tools in detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Shashikant Adlekha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is one of the most common causes of gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis of infection is imperative for the cure of distressing symptoms and prevention of complications. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate imprint cytology of gastric biopsy specimens as a rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool and its comparison with conventional diagnostic tests. Materials and Methods: Antral biopsies were collected from 130 patients and evaluated for H. pylori infection by imprint cytology and histopathological examination by different stains and rapid urease test (RUT. Histopathological features of gastric biopsy specimens were also assessed. Results: A total of 118 patients showed H. pylori infection by two or more methods. Giemsa histology showed highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Youden′s Index (YI. Among imprint cytology stain methods, toluidine blue showed highest sensitivity and highest YI was obtained for PAP stain. Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric mucosa changes like chronic active gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, ulceration and carcinoma. Imprint cytology has high sensitivity and comparable predictive values to conventional diagnostic tools-histopathological examination and RUT in the detection of H. pylori infection.

  11. Identification of self-growth-inhibiting compounds lauric acid and 7-(Z)-tetradecenoic acid from Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shinpei; Igarashi, Masayuki; Hayashi, Chigusa; Shitara, Tetsuo; Nomoto, Akio; Mizote, Tomoko; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori growth medium is usually supplemented with horse serum (HS) or FCS. However, cyclodextrin derivatives or activated charcoal can replace serum. In this study, we purified self-growth-inhibiting (SGI) compounds from H. pylori growth medium. The compounds were recovered from porous resin, Diaion HP-20, which was added to the H. pylori growth medium instead of known supplements. These SGI compounds were also identified from 2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which was supplemented in a pleuropneumonia-like organisms broth. The growth-inhibiting compounds were identified as lauric acid (LA) and 7-(Z)-tetradecenoic acid [7-(Z)-TDA]. Although several fatty acids had been identified in H. pylori, these specific compounds were not previously found in this species. However, we confirmed that these fatty acids were universally present in the cultivation medium of the H. pylori strains examined in this study. A live/dead assay carried out without HS indicated that these compounds were bacteriostatic; however, no significant growth-inhibiting effect was observed against other tested bacterial species that constituted the indigenous bacterial flora. These findings suggested that LA and 7-(Z)-TDA might play important roles in the survival of H. pylori in human stomach epithelial cells.

  12. Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and pre-neoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V.; Iczkowski, Kenneth A.; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age 8.3±4.8y) with chronic gastritis (36 H. pylori +, 46 H. pylori -) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers CDX2, ephrin type-B receptor 4, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7/82 (9%) and intestinal metaplasia in 5/82 (6%) by routine histology, while 6 (7%) additional children (3 H. pylori +) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without intestinal metaplasia. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (p<0.0001). Atrophy and follicular pathology were more frequent in H. pylori + biopsies (p<0.0001), while intestinal metaplasia and CDX2 expression showed no significant correlation with H. pylori status. Antral biopsies demonstrating atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and/or aberrant CDX2 expression were seen in 21.95 % (18/82) of the children, potentially identifying those who would benefit from closer surveillance and preventive dietary strategies. Biomarkers CDX2, EphB4, MMP3, and MIF may be useful in the work-up of pediatric gastritis. PMID:24656654

  13. Non-Viable Lactobacillus reuteri DSMZ 17648 (Pylopass™ as a New Approach to Helicobacter pylori Control in Humans

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    Andreas Busjahn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infections by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen involved in a number of gastrointestinal diseases, remains high in developing countries. Management of infections by eradication is not always an option. Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri DSMZ17648 (Pylopass™/Lonza specifically co-aggregates H. pylori in vitro and was shown to reduce 13C urea breath test in vivo. In this pilot study, we tried to replicate previous findings in an independent sample and to evaluate effects of spray-drying vs. freeze-drying of cultures. A single-blinded, placebo-controlled study was done in 22 H. pylori positive, asymptomatic adults. H. pylori levels were determined by 13C-urea-breath method after 14 days of supplementation, as well as after 6, 12, and 24 weeks follow-up. In the test group, but not in the placebo group, a significant reduction of H. pylori was observed. For the first time, spray-dried cells of L. reuteri DSMZ17648 have been used in a human study and results are in line with the first study results, supplementing with freeze-dried material. This is of special interest as spray-drying results in dead cell material, meaning that the effect of L. reuteri must be independent of its probiotic activity. These results confirm the potential of Pylopass™ as a novel way to reduce the load of H. pylori.

  14. CXC chemokine CXCL12 tissue expression and circulating levels in peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Vahid; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Mirzaee, Vahid; Khorramdelazad, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is among the most prevalent human infections. CXCL12 is a well-known CXC chemokine involved in inflammation and play major roles in angiogenesis. There is currently very limited data on the role of CXCL12 in peptic ulcer disease. Hence, we aimed to explore whether CXCL12 is involved in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer induced by H. pylori. In this study, we enrolled 102 H. pylori-infected patients, including 51 with active ulcer (GA) and 51 with healing ulcer (GH). We also recruited 50 healthy subjects as control, which did not show any sign or symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases, infection, or immune-related disorders. Endoscopy was performed to determine the stage of the disease. ELISA was used for detection of H. pylori infection and CXCL12 measurement. We also employed western blotting to detect CXCL12 in ulcerative lesions of H. pylori. Demographic data were also collected by questionnaire. Our results demonstrated that CXCL12 serum levels in GA group (151.8±18.31pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in GH (36.89±6.78pg/mL) and control groups (33.77±9.12pg/mL) (Ppeptic ulcer. CXCL12 serum levels may also be used to distinguish between GA and GH phases of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictive computational modeling of the mucosal immune responses during Helicobacter pylori infection.

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    Adria Carbo

    Full Text Available T helper (Th cells play a major role in the immune response and pathology at the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection. There is a limited mechanistic understanding regarding the contributions of CD4+ T cell subsets to gastritis development during H. pylori colonization. We used two computational approaches: ordinary differential equation (ODE-based and agent-based modeling (ABM to study the mechanisms underlying cellular immune responses to H. pylori and how CD4+ T cell subsets influenced initiation, progression and outcome of disease. To calibrate the model, in vivo experimentation was performed by infecting C57BL/6 mice intragastrically with H. pylori and assaying immune cell subsets in the stomach and gastric lymph nodes (GLN on days 0, 7, 14, 30 and 60 post-infection. Our computational model reproduced the dynamics of effector and regulatory pathways in the gastric lamina propria (LP in silico. Simulation results show the induction of a Th17 response and a dominant Th1 response, together with a regulatory response characterized by high levels of mucosal Treg cells. We also investigated the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ activation on the modulation of host responses to H. pylori by using loss-of-function approaches. Specifically, in silico results showed a predominance of Th1 and Th17 cells in the stomach of the cell-specific PPARγ knockout system when compared to the wild-type simulation. Spatio-temporal, object-oriented ABM approaches suggested similar dynamics in induction of host responses showing analogous T cell distributions to ODE modeling and facilitated tracking lesion formation. In addition, sensitivity analysis predicted a crucial contribution of Th1 and Th17 effector responses as mediators of histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa during chronic stages of infection, which were experimentally validated in mice. These integrated immunoinformatics approaches

  16. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori cells and their surface components to HeLa cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchère, J L; Blaser, M J

    1990-12-01

    Four Helicobacter pylori strains were used to develop in vitro methods to assess adherence to HeLa cells. Using direct detection by microscopy, adhesion scores increased with the initial bacteria-to-cell ratio. The urease method assessed H. pylori bound to HeLa cells by their urease activity. The percentage of the original inoculum adhering to HeLa cells remained constant for initial ratios from 10(2) to 10(5) bacteria per cell. An ELISA using anti-H. pylori serum assessed whole bacteria or components bound to HeLa cell fractions. By all three methods, the four H. pylori strains were adherent to HeLa cells or membranes whereas Campylobacter fetus and Providencia control strains were not. The adherence of H. pylori whole cells decreased following extraction with saline, water, or glycine buffer and most of the superficial adhering material (SAM) was present in the saline or water extracts. SAM bound better to HeLa membranes than to calf fetuin or bovine serum albumin (BSA); binding was inhibited by preincubation of SAM with HeLa membranes but not with fetuin or BSA or by pretreatment of HeLa membranes with neuraminidase. These data indicate that SAM has a specific receptor on the HeLa cell membranes. By gel exclusion chromatography of bacterial extracts, the most adherent components were found in the fractions which also contained the highest urease activity; these fractions included urease subunit antigens. We conclude that adherence of H. pylori can be assessed by microtiter assays and involves bacterial surface material which co-purifies with urease and is different from the N-acetyl-neuraminyl-lactose binding hemagglutinin.

  17. The B-cell-activating factor signalling pathway is associated with Helicobacter pylori independence in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without t(11;18)(q21;q21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Tsai, Hui-Jen; Lin, Chung-Wu; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Lee, Hsiao-Wei; Wei, Ming-Feng; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Chen, Li-Tzong; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2017-02-01

    We previously reported that activation of the B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) pathway upregulates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and induces BCL3 and BCL10 nuclear translocation in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-independent gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tumours with evidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). However, the significance of BAFF expression in HP independence of gastric low-grade MALT lymphomas without t(11;18)(q21;q21) remains unexplored. Sixty-four patients who underwent successful HP eradication for localized HP-positive gastric MALT lymphomas without t(11;18)(q21;q21) were studied. BAFF expression was significantly higher in the HP-independent group than in the HP-dependent group [22/26 (84.6%) versus 8/38 (21.1%); p t(11;18)(q21;q21). The biological significance of BAFF signalling in t(11;18)(q21;q21)-negative lymphoma cells was further studied in two types of lymphoma B cell: OCI-Ly3 [non-germinal centre B-cell origin DLBCL without t(11;18)(q21;q21) cell line] and MA-1 [t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1-positive DLBCL cell line]. In both cell lines, we found that BAFF activated the canonical NF-κB and AKT pathways, and induced the formation of BCL10-BCL3 complexes, which translocated to the nucleus. BCL10 and BCL3 nuclear translocation and NF-κB (p65) transactivation were inhibited by either LY294002 or by silencing BCL3 or BCL10 with small interfering RNA. BAFF also activated non-canonical NF-κB pathways (p52) through tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 degradation, NF-κB-inducing kinase accumulation, inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) α/β phosphorylation and NF-κB p100 processing in both cell lines. Our data indicate that the autocrine BAFF signal transduction pathway contributes to HP independence in gastric MALT lymphomas without the t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of

  18. Specific cellular immune response in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixa, B; Komárková, O; Krejsek, J; Nozicka, Z; Bures, J

    1990-12-01

    The leukocyte migration inhibition test was performed in 39 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and in 38 patients without such infection. The culture of Helicobacter pylori was used as antigen. A highly significant inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration was found in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. The results can be taken as proof of a systemic immune response to helicobacters at the cellular level in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  19. Association Between Helycobacter Pylori Infection and Pathological Oral Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from the literature are controversial regarding the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in dental plaque and its association with gastric infection. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for re-infection is the recolonization with H. pylori from dental plaque. The purpose of this review was to determine whether dental plaque, poor oral hygiene, and periodontal disease were risk factors for H. pylori infection.

  20. Successful isolation of Helicobacter pylori after prolonged incubation: A case report of prolonged incubation for H. pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of Helicobacter pylori from a gastric biopsy is the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. However, the primary isolation of H. pylori from gastric biopsies is rather demanding. The duration of incubation for the isolation of H. pylori has been recommended to be five to seven days: in the present case, we found that a prolonged incubation period allowed the successful isolation of H. pylori from a patient with ulcus ventriculi. Biopsies were placed directly into transport medium and processed for culture within two hours. On day 14, one suspected H. pylori-like colony appeared on one of the plates. The isolate was confirmed to be H. pylori based on its typical colony morphology, negative Gram stain, and positive urease, catalase and oxidase tests. The isolate, requiring 14 days recovery, later exhibited the normal growth characteristics of H. pylori strains, indicating its unusually long incubation requirement was a temporary predicament.

  1. Helicobacter pylori-associated upper gastrointestinal disease in Saudi Arabia: a pathologic evaluation of 298 endoscopic biopsies from 201 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, M B; Twum-Danso, K; al-Freihi, H M; Ibrahim, E M; al-Gindan, Y; al-Quorain, A; al-Ghassab, G; al-Hamdan, A; al-Idrissi, H Y

    1990-05-01

    In a prospective study, histopathological examination 298 upper gastrointestinal (UGI) biopsies, obtained from 201 consecutive patients, was made. Patients were referred with mild to severe dyspeptic symptoms. The aim of the study was to compare the rate of identification of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the histologically normal gastric mucosa with that in histologically confirmed gastritis or peptic ulcer disease. The gastroduodenal mucosa was histologically normal in 35 patients (17.4%); among those patients, H. pylori was identified in only three (9%). Chronic gastritis was histologically confirmed in 162 patients (80.6%). H. pylori was identified in 123 (76%) of those patients. The difference was statistically significant (p less than 0.00001). Furthermore, when cases with a histological diagnosis of superficial chronic active gastritis (SCAG) are considered separately, the identification rate of H. pylori increases to 88% (121 of 137). When this rate is compared with that of 8% (two of 25), found in superficial chronic quiescent gastritis (SCQG), the difference is highly significant (p less than 0.00001). Of 38 endoscopically diagnosed peptic ulcers, H. pylori was identified in the gastric mucosa of 34 (89%). The organisms were always seen in the antral gastric mucosa, but never in duodenal mucosa. Identification of H. pylori correlates significantly with the histologic activity of chronic gastritis, in both peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia.

  2. Effect of curcumin on Helicobacter pylori biofilm formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... biofilm formation by H. pylori, making it as a potential complimentary medicine for curing of H. pylori- biofilm related infections. ... presence of H. pylori in subgingival biofilm and saliva samples of chronic .... pellicles and planktonic cells were collected and fixed in 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M PBS (pH.

  3. Helicobacter pylori : the causative agent of peptic ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review examines Helicobacter pylori as an organism and as the causative agent of peptic ulcers. The review also examined the classification of ulcers, ... Elimination of Helicobacter pylori by treatment with antibiotics in peptic ulcer patients resulted in the healing of the ulcer. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infections is ...

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection: past, present and future | Jemilohun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori infection: past, present and future. ... The discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by Warren and Marshall in 1982 was preceded by nearly a hundred year of inconspicuous publications in ... A major challenge is the absence of a specific antibiotic monotherapy for effective treatment of the infection.

  5. Association of Helicobacter pylori with acid peptic disease in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, J I; Jafarey, N A; Alam, S M; Zuberi, S J; Kazi, A M; Qureshi, H; Ahmed, W

    1990-10-01

    The prevalence of H. pylori infection in 200 dyspeptic patients undergoing upper G.I. endoscopy was investigated by histology and rapid urease test. H. pylori was associated with 86% cases of chronic gastritis, 84.6% cases of duodenal ulcers and 78.5% of gastric ulcers. None of the 15 histologically normal gastric biopsies showed H. pylori.

  6. Catalase epitopes vaccine design for Helicobacter pylori: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Helicobacter pylori is necessary, because of high prevalence of the infection (25 to 90%). ... immunoinformatics tools would be valuable for developing new immuoprophylatic strategy against H. pylori infection. Key words: Helicobacter pylori, catalase, epitopes. ..... tuberculosis epitopes by HLA alleles.

  7. Investigation of association of Helicobacter pylori and simple nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate a possible contribution of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) in the etiopathogenesis of simple nasal polyps. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial. Methods: Twenty five patients with simple nasal polyps underwent nasal polypectomy were studied. Helicobacter pylori DNA was investigated for ...

  8. Clinical correlates of helicobacter pylori infection in children seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is the commonest global chronic human bacterial infection. Data from developed countries show that acquisition occurs in childhood but manifestation of chronic gastroduodenal diseases occur more commonly in adulthood. H. pylori infection has however been associated ...

  9. Changing patterns of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) discovered in 1982, has strongly been associated with multiple clinical disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. This study described the prevalence of H. pylori among large numbers of patients over two different time periods in Accra, Ghana. Methods: It was a retrospective records ...

  10. Helicobacter pylori induces vascular endothelial growth factor production in gastric epithelial cells through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jung; Song, Eun-Jung; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori have been known to induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in gastric epithelial cells, the precise mechanism for cellular signaling is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of bacterial virulence factor and host cellular signaling in VEGF production of H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. We evaluated production of VEGF, activation of nuclear factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stabilization in gastric epithelial cells infected with H. pylori WT or isogenic mutants deficient in type IV secretion system (T4SS). H. pylori induced VEGF production in gastric epithelial cells via both T4SS-dependent and T4SS-independent pathways, although T4SS-independent pathway seems to be the dominant signaling. The inhibitor assay implicated that activation of NF-κB and MAPKs is dispensable for H. pylori-induced VEGF production in gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori led to HIF-1α stabilization in gastric epithelial cells independently of T4SS, NF-κB, and MAPKs, which was essential for VEGF production in these cells. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, treatment impaired H. pylori-induced HIF-1α stabilization and VEGF production in gastric epithelial cells. We defined the important role of ROS-HIF-1α axis in VEGF production of H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells, and bacterial T4SS has a minor role in H. pylori-induced VEGF production of gastric epithelial cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and preneoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig

    2014-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (Ppylori+ biopsies (Ppylori status. Antral biopsies demonstrating atrophy, IM, and/or aberrant CDX2 expression were seen in 21.95% (18/82) of the children, potentially identifying those who would benefit from closer surveillance and preventive dietary strategies. Biomarkers CDX2, EphB4, MMP3, and MIF may be useful in the workup of pediatric gastritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Iron status and Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic children: an international multi-centered study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciene Maria Magalhaes Queiroz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency (ID and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA are global major public health problems, particularly in developing countries. Whilst an association between H. pylori infection and ID/IDA has been proposed in the literature, currently there is no consensus. We studied the effects of H. pylori infection on ID/IDA in a cohort of children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for upper abdominal pain in two developing and one developed country. METHODS: In total 311 children (mean age 10.7±3.2 years from Latin America--Belo Horizonte/Brazil (n = 125, Santiago/Chile (n = 105--and London/UK (n = 81, were studied. Gastric and duodenal biopsies were obtained for evaluation of histology and H. pylori status and blood samples for parameters of ID/IDA. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 27.7% being significantly higher (p<0.001 in Latin America (35% than in UK (7%. Multiple linear regression models revealed H. pylori infection as a significant predictor of low ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations in children from Latin-America. A negative correlation was observed between MCV (r = -0.26; p = 0.01 and MCH (r = -0.27; p = 0.01 values and the degree of antral chronic inflammation, and between MCH and the degree of corpus chronic (r = -0.29, p = 0.008 and active (r = -0.27, p = 0.002 inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that H. pylori infection in children influences the serum ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations, markers of early depletion of iron stores and anaemia respectively.

  13. Histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infect millions of people around the world. It occupies a niche in the human gastrointestinal tract characterized by high expression of a repertoire of carbohydrates. ABO and Lewis histo-blood group systems are controlled by genes coding for functional glycosyltransferases which synthesize great diversity of related fucosylated carbohydrate in different tissues, including gastrointestinal mucosa, and exocrine secretions. The structural diversity of histo-blood group carbohydrates is highly complex and depends on epistatic interactions among gene-encoding glycosyltransferases. The histo-blood group glycosyltransferases act in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids in the human gastrointestinal tract allowing the expression of a variety of potential receptors in which H. pylori can adhere. These oligosaccharide molecules are part of the gastrointestinal repertoire of carbohydrates which act as potential receptors for microorganisms, including H. pylori. This Gram-negative bacillus is one of the main causes of the gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, and cancer of stomach. Previous reports showed that some H. pylori strains use carbohydrates as receptors to adhere to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Since some histo-blood group carbohydrates are highly expressed in one but not in others histo-blood group phenotypes it has pointed out that quantitative differences among them influence the susceptibility to diseases caused by H. pylori. Additionally, some experiments using animal model are helping us to understand how this bacillus explore histo-blood group carbohydrates as potential receptors, offering possibility to explore new strategies of management of infection, disease treatment, and prevention. This text highlights the importance of structural diversity of ABO and Lewis histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Resistance: Trends Over Time

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    Raymond G Lahaie

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antibiotics can be a major problem in the treatment of bacterial infections. As the use of antibiotics increases, bacterial resistance to these agents is rising and in many cases is responsible for the failure of treatment regimens. Although the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection requires the use of more than one antibiotic to obtain adequate eradication rates, the efficacy of the currently used antibiotic combinations has been shown to be decreased by resistance to one of the antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in regimens for the treatment of H pylori is increasing in many countries, including Canada. This increase is both in the use of these antibiotics alone for the treatment of nongastrointestinal infections and in their use in association with proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of H pylori infection. In several European and Asian countries, where resistance to antibiotics is being monitored, it has been demonstrated that H pylori resistance to metronidazole and to clarithromycin increased throughout the 1990s. Thus far, the data available in Canada do not show increased resistance to either of these antibiotics. As for other antibiotics used in the treatment of H pylori infection, such as tetracycline and amoxicillin, the rate of resistance to these agents is still very low and does not constitute a significant problem. Because the efficacy of the regimens used in the treatment of H pylori infection is compromised by resistance to the antibiotics used, it is important that H pylori resistance rates in Canada and throughout the world continue to be monitored. Only with such reliable data can the most optimal regimens be recommended.

  15. Comparison of IL-6, IL-8 Concentrations in H. pylori- and non-H. pylori-associated Gastritis

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    Gontar Alamsyah Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a non-invasive microorganism causing intense gastric mucosal inflammatory and immune reaction. The gastric mucosal levels of the proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin 6 (IL-6 and IL-8 have been reported to be increased in H. pylori infection, but the serum levels in H. pylori infection is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in H. pylori infection. METHODS: A cross sectional study was done on eighty consecutive gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and Permata Bunda Hospital, Medan, Indonesia from May-October 2014. Histopathology was performed for the diagnosis of gastritis. Rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Serum samples were obtained to determine circulating IL-6 and IL-8. Univariate and bivariate analysis (independent t test were done. RESULTS: There were 41.25% patients infected with H. pylori. Circulatory IL-6 levels were significantly higher in H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori negative, but there were no differences between serum levels of IL-8 in H. pylori positive and negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response to H. pylori promotes systemic inflammation, which was reflected in an increased level of serum IL-6. Serum levels of IL-8 were not significantly different between H. pylori positive and negative. KEYWORDS: Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, IL-6, IL-8, cytokine.

  16. Determinants of Disease Outcome following Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

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    Nicola L Jones

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is primarily acquired during childhood, causes chronic, active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is associated with the development of gastric malignancies. However, only a small number of infected individuals ever develop the more severe sequelae of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancers. Therefore, the identification of bacterial and host factors that play a role in determining the outcomes and pathophysiology of infection is a major focus of current research. Recent advances in the understanding of disease pathogenesis are critically considered, with particular reference to the paediatric population.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new peptide deformylase from human pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Cong; Wang Qi; Dong Lei; Sun Haifang; Peng Shuying; Chen Jing; Yang Yiming; Yue Jianmin; Shen Xu; Jiang Hualiang

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium, which is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. It is urgent to discover novel drug targets for appropriate antimicrobial agents against this human pathogen. In bacteria, peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the removal of a formyl group from the N-termini of nascent polypeptides. Due to its essentiality and absence in mammalian cells, PDF has been considered as an attractive target for the discovery of novel antibiotics. In this work, a new PDF gene (def) from H. pylori strain SS1 was cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli system. Sequence alignment shows that H. pylori PDF (HpPDF) shares about 40% identity to E. coli PDF (EcPDF). The enzymatic properties of HpPDF demonstrate its relatively high activity toward formyl-Met-Ala-Ser, with K cat of 3.4 s -1 , K m of 1.7 mM, and K cat /K m of 2000 M -1 s -1 . HpPDF enzyme appears to be fully active at pH between 8.0 and 9.0, and temperature 50 deg. C. The enzyme activity of Co 2+ -containing HpPDF is apparently higher than that of Zn 2+ -containing HpPDF. This present work thereby supplies a potential platform that facilitates the discovery of novel HpPDF inhibitors and further of possible antimicrobial agents against H. pylori

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new peptide deformylase from human pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cong; Wang, Qi; Dong, Lei; Sun, Haifang; Peng, Shuying; Chen, Jing; Yang, Yiming; Yue, Jianmin; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2004-07-09

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium, which is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. It is urgent to discover novel drug targets for appropriate antimicrobial agents against this human pathogen. In bacteria, peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the removal of a formyl group from the N-termini of nascent polypeptides. Due to its essentiality and absence in mammalian cells, PDF has been considered as an attractive target for the discovery of novel antibiotics. In this work, a new PDF gene (def) from H. pylori strain SS1 was cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli system. Sequence alignment shows that H. pylori PDF (HpPDF) shares about 40% identity to E. coli PDF (EcPDF). The enzymatic properties of HpPDF demonstrate its relatively high activity toward formyl-Met-Ala-Ser, with K(cat) of 3.4s(-1), K(m) of 1.7 mM, and K(cat) / K(m) of 2000M(-1)s(-1). HpPDF enzyme appears to be fully active at pH between 8.0 and 9.0, and temperature 50 degrees C. The enzyme activity of Co(2+)-containing HpPDF is apparently higher than that of Zn(2+)-containing HpPDF. This present work thereby supplies a potential platform that facilitates the discovery of novel HpPDF inhibitors and further of possible antimicrobial agents against H. pylori.

  19. Dietary Intervention of Artemisia and Green Tea Extracts to Rejuvenate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Chronic Atrophic Gastritis and to Prevent Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Kangwan, Napapan; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Bok-Nam; Kim, Won-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2016-02-01

    As nonmicrobial dietary approach is capable of controlling Helicobacter pylori infection, we evaluated the efficacy of long-term dietary administration of Artemisia and/or green tea extracts on H. pylori-initiated, high-salt-promoted chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumorigenesis mouse model. Helicobacter pylori-infected and high-salt-diet-administered C57BL/6 mice were administered with Artemisia extracts (MP group) and/or green tea extracts (GT group) for 36 weeks in addition to the control group (ES group, gastroprotective drug, ecabet sodium 30 mg/kg, diet pellet). Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively, and their underlying molecular changes were measured in gastric homogenates. Detailed mechanisms were further evaluated in in vitro cell models. The erythematous and nodular changes and mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions were noted in the control group at 24 weeks. MP, GT, MPGT, and ES groups all showed significantly ameliorated pathologic lesion compared to the control group (p pylori infection were significantly decreased with MPGT administration (p pylori infection (p pylori-induced serum TNF-α and NF-κB activations were significantly decreased with MPGT administration (p pylori atrophic gastritis or to suppress tumorigenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 18F-FDG uptake in the stomach on screening PET/CT: value for predicting Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis.

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    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Ogura, Mayumi; Suzawa, Naohisa; Horiki, Noriyuki; Katsurahara, Masaki; Ogura, Toru; Sakuma, Hajime

    2016-10-18

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of 18 F-FDG uptake on screening PET/CT images for the prediction of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. Among subjects who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT for cancer screening from April 2005 to November 2015, PET/CT images were analyzed in 88 subjects who had gastrointestinal fiberscopy within 6 months. The volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the fornix, corpus and antrum of the stomach to determine maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic performance of SUV indicators in predicting H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. SUV indicators of the stomach were significantly higher in subjects with H. pylori infection than those without (from P pylori infection (AUC 0.807) and chronic atrophic gastritis (AUC 0.784). SUVmean exhibited the sensitivity of 86.5 % and the specificity of 70.6 % in predicting H. pylori infection, and the sensitivity of 75.0 % and 78.6 % in predicting chronic atrophic gastritis. Assessment of 18 F-FDG uptake in the stomach reflecting active inflammation is useful in predicting patients with H. pylori infection and subsequent chronic atrophic gastritis which is closely associated with the risk of gastric neoplasms.

  1. 18F-FDG uptake in the stomach on screening PET/CT: value for predicting Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Ogura, Mayumi; Suzawa, Naohisa; Horiki, Noriyuki; Katsurahara, Masaki; Ogura, Toru; Sakuma, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of 18 F-FDG uptake on screening PET/CT images for the prediction of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. Among subjects who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT for cancer screening from April 2005 to November 2015, PET/CT images were analyzed in 88 subjects who had gastrointestinal fiberscopy within 6 months. The volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the fornix, corpus and antrum of the stomach to determine maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic performance of SUV indicators in predicting H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. SUV indicators of the stomach were significantly higher in subjects with H. pylori infection than those without (from P < 0.001 to P < 0.05). ROC analysis revealed that SUVmean had the highest performance in predicting H. pylori infection (AUC 0.807) and chronic atrophic gastritis (AUC 0.784). SUVmean exhibited the sensitivity of 86.5 % and the specificity of 70.6 % in predicting H. pylori infection, and the sensitivity of 75.0 % and 78.6 % in predicting chronic atrophic gastritis. Assessment of 18 F-FDG uptake in the stomach reflecting active inflammation is useful in predicting patients with H. pylori infection and subsequent chronic atrophic gastritis which is closely associated with the risk of gastric neoplasms

  2. [Peptic Ulcer Disease Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Se-Hwan; Yang, Chang-Hun

    2016-06-25

    Although the global prevalence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is decreasing, PUD is still one of the most common upper gastrointestinal diseases in the world due to Helicobacter pylori infection and increased use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In Korea, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is also declining, but it is still the major cause of PUD. The outcomes of H. pylori infection are caused by imbalances between bacterial virulence factors, host factors, and environmental influences. In this review, we describe the prevalence trends of H. pylori infection in Korea, the mechanism of H. pylori infection-related PUD, and treatment strategies.

  3. Oral Immunization with a Multivalent Epitope-Based Vaccine, Based on NAP, Urease, HSP60, and HpaA, Provides Therapeutic Effect on H. pylori Infection in Mongolian gerbils

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    Le Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epitope-based vaccine is a promising strategy for therapeutic vaccination against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. A multivalent subunit vaccine containing various antigens from H. pylori is superior to a univalent subunit vaccine. However, whether a multivalent epitope-based vaccine is superior to a univalent epitope-based vaccine in therapeutic vaccination against H. pylori, remains unclear. In this study, a multivalent epitope-based vaccine named CWAE against H. pylori urease, neutrophil-activating protein (NAP, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60 and H. pylori adhesin A (HpaA was constructed based on mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, Th1-type adjuvant NAP, multiple copies of selected B and Th cell epitopes (UreA27–53, UreA183–203, HpaA132–141, and HSP60189–203, and also the epitope-rich regions of urease B subunit (UreB158–251 and UreB321–385 predicted by bioinformatics. Immunological properties of CWAE vaccine were characterized in BALB/c mice model. Its therapeutic effect was evaluated in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbil model by comparing with a univalent epitope-based vaccine CTB-UE against H. pylori urease that was constructed in our previous studies. Both CWAE and CTB-UE could induce similar levels of specific antibodies against H. pylori urease, and had similar inhibition effect of H. pylori urease activity. However, only CWAE could induce high levels of specific antibodies to NAP, HSP60, HpaA, and also the synthetic peptides epitopes (UreB158–172, UreB181–195, UreB211–225, UreB349–363, HpaA132–141, and HSP60189–203. In addition, oral therapeutic immunization with CWAE significantly reduced the number of H. pylori colonies in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils, compared with oral immunization using CTB-UE or H. pylori urease. The protection of CWAE was associated with higher levels of mixed CD4+ T cell (Th cell response, IgG, and secretory IgA (sIgA antibodies to H. pylori. These results indic

  4. Oral Immunization with a Multivalent Epitope-Based Vaccine, Based on NAP, Urease, HSP60, and HpaA, Provides Therapeutic Effect onH. pyloriInfection in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Le; Yang, Hua; Tang, Feng; Yin, Runting; Liu, Hongpeng; Gong, Xiaojuan; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Guangxian; Liu, Kunmei

    2017-01-01

    Epitope-based vaccine is a promising strategy for therapeutic vaccination against Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. A multivalent subunit vaccine containing various antigens from H. pylori is superior to a univalent subunit vaccine. However, whether a multivalent epitope-based vaccine is superior to a univalent epitope-based vaccine in therapeutic vaccination against H. pylori , remains unclear. In this study, a multivalent epitope-based vaccine named CWAE against H. pylori urease, neutrophil-activating protein (NAP), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and H. pylori adhesin A (HpaA) was constructed based on mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Th1-type adjuvant NAP, multiple copies of selected B and Th cell epitopes (UreA 27-53 , UreA 183-203 , HpaA 132-141 , and HSP60 189-203 ), and also the epitope-rich regions of urease B subunit (UreB 158-251 and UreB 321-385 ) predicted by bioinformatics. Immunological properties of CWAE vaccine were characterized in BALB/c mice model. Its therapeutic effect was evaluated in H. pylori -infected Mongolian gerbil model by comparing with a univalent epitope-based vaccine CTB-UE against H. pylori urease that was constructed in our previous studies. Both CWAE and CTB-UE could induce similar levels of specific antibodies against H. pylori urease, and had similar inhibition effect of H. pylori urease activity. However, only CWAE could induce high levels of specific antibodies to NAP, HSP60, HpaA, and also the synthetic peptides epitopes (UreB 158-172 , UreB 181-195 , UreB 211-225 , UreB 349-363 , HpaA 132-141 , and HSP60 189-203 ). In addition, oral therapeutic immunization with CWAE significantly reduced the number of H. pylori colonies in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils, compared with oral immunization using CTB-UE or H. pylori urease. The protection of CWAE was associated with higher levels of mixed CD4 + T cell (Th cell) response, IgG, and secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies to H. pylori . These results indic ate

  5. Horizontal versus familial transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

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    Sandra Schwarz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Helicobacter pylori is thought to occur mainly during childhood, and predominantly within families. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining H. pylori isolates from large population samples and to the extensive genetic diversity between isolates, the transmission and spread of H. pylori remain poorly understood. We studied the genetic relationships of H. pylori isolated from 52 individuals of two large families living in a rural community in South Africa and from 43 individuals of 11 families living in urban settings in the United Kingdom, the United States, Korea, and Colombia. A 3,406 bp multilocus sequence haplotype was determined for a total of 142 H. pylori isolates. Isolates were assigned to biogeographic populations, and recent transmission was measured as the occurrence of non-unique isolates, i.e., isolates whose sequences were identical to those of other isolates. Members of urban families were almost always infected with isolates from the biogeographic population that is common in their location. Non-unique isolates were frequent in urban families, consistent with familial transmission between parents and children or between siblings. In contrast, the diversity of H. pylori in the South African families was much more extensive, and four distinct biogeographic populations circulated in this area. Non-unique isolates were less frequent in South African families, and there was no significant correlation between kinship and similarity of H. pylori sequences. However, individuals who lived in the same household did have an increased probability of carrying the same non-unique isolates of H. pylori, independent of kinship. We conclude that patterns of spread of H. pylori under conditions of high prevalence, such as the rural South African families, differ from those in developed countries. Horizontal transmission occurs frequently between persons who do not belong to a core family, blurring the pattern of familial

  6. Molecular and Structural Analysis of the Helicobacter pylori cag Type IV Secretion System Core Complex.

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    Frick-Cheng, Arwen E; Pyburn, Tasia M; Voss, Bradley J; McDonald, W Hayes; Ohi, Melanie D; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-01-12

    Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) can function to export or import DNA, and can deliver effector proteins into a wide range of target cells. Relatively little is known about the structural organization of T4SSs that secrete effector proteins. In this report, we describe the isolation and analysis of a membrane-spanning core complex from the Helicobacter pylori cag T4SS, which has an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. We show that this complex contains five H. pylori proteins, CagM, CagT, Cag3, CagX, and CagY, each of which is required for cag T4SS activity. CagX and CagY are orthologous to the VirB9 and VirB10 components of T4SSs in other bacterial species, and the other three Cag proteins are unique to H. pylori. Negative stain single-particle electron microscopy revealed complexes 41 nm in diameter, characterized by a 19-nm-diameter central ring linked to an outer ring by spoke-like linkers. Incomplete complexes formed by Δcag3 or ΔcagT mutants retain the 19-nm-diameter ring but lack an organized outer ring. Immunogold labeling studies confirm that Cag3 is a peripheral component of the complex. The cag T4SS core complex has an overall diameter and structural organization that differ considerably from the corresponding features of conjugative T4SSs. These results highlight specialized features of the H. pylori cag T4SS that are optimized for function in the human gastric mucosal environment. Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are versatile macromolecular machines that are present in many bacterial species. In this study, we investigated a T4SS found in the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori is an important cause of stomach cancer, and the H. pylori T4SS contributes to cancer pathogenesis by mediating entry of CagA (an effector protein regarded as a "bacterial oncoprotein") into gastric epithelial cells. We isolated and analyzed the membrane-spanning core complex of the H. pylori T4SS and showed that it contains unique proteins

  7. The internalization of Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the failure of H. pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Hua; Lv, Zhi-Fa; Zhong, Yao; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Ping; Xie, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) internalization involves invasion of cells by the bacterium. Several studies have shown that H. pylori can invade human gastric epithelial cells, immune cells, and Candida yeast in vivo and in vitro. Whether bacterial invasion plays a role in eradication failure is unclear. To investigate the relationship between H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells and H. pylori eradication failure. Forty-two clinical strains isolated from H. pylori-positive patients with different outcomes after treatment with furazolidone-based therapy were examined (17 failures and 25 successes). The H. pylori strains were shown to be susceptible to amoxicillin and furazolidone, and the patients also exhibited good compliance. Genotyping was performed for cagA and vacA (s and m). The antibiotic susceptibility of the strains to amoxicillin, furazolidone, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was determined by E-tests. The levels of H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells were detected by gentamicin colony-forming unit assays. The internalization level in the eradication success group was 5.40±5.78 × 10 -3  cfu/cell, and the median was 6.194 × 10 -3  cfu/cell; the internalization level in the eradication failure group was 8.98±5.40 × 10 -3  cfu/cell, and the median was 10.28 × 10 -3  cfu/cell. The eradication failure group showed a greater invasion level than the eradication success group (P.05). The results showed that H. pylori invasion of the gastric epithelia might play a role in eradication failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori in Children

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    F Famouri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childrenwith Helicobacter infection need treatment. The aim of treatment is elimination of H.Pylori. Most patients with this infection are asymptomatic and without peptic disease. Treatment and management of these patients are controversy. Conventional Treatment: The best treatment for H. pylori eradication regimens should have cure rates of at least 80%, be without major side effects, and induce minimal bacterial resistance. Antibiotics alone have not achieved this. Luminal acidity influences both the effectiveness of some antimicrobial agents and the survival of the bacteri; thus antibiotics have been combined with acid suppression such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, bismuth, or H2 antagonists. The “classic” regimen is treatment twice daily for 7 days with a PPI and clarithromycin plus either amoxicillin or metronidazole Bismuth has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and 1 part o quadruple therapy for H.Pylori but compliance of children for it is low.   Sequential Therapy  Sequential therapyinvolves dual therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed sequentially by clarithromycin, Tinidazole and omeperazole for 5 days or other triple therapy for 7 days. This treatment has had 97% efficacy.   Adjunctive Therapies A number of studies have showed the potential benefits of probiotic therapy in H. pylori treatment regimens.Consumption of these drugs accompanied with other medications increase H.Pylori eradication.    

  9. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in the Elderly

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    Jyh-Ming Liou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The elderly often seek medical attention because of gastroduodenal diseases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is associated with several gastroduodenal diseases and its prevalence increases with age worldwide. It is estimated that 10–15% of infected patients will have peptic ulcer disease and 1% of patients will have gastric cancer or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Notably, the most severe clinical outcomes, i.e., gastric cancer and complicated peptic ulcer diseases, usually occur in elderly patients. Thus the test-and-treatment strategy is not recommended for elderly patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia. However, biopsy specimens for the rapid urease test and histology should be taken from both the antrum and corpus to increase the detection rate in elderly patients, especially in those with atrophic gastritis. The urea breath test may increase the detection rate if the rapid urease test or histology are negative in elderly patients with atrophic gastritis. Standard triple therapy and sequential therapy can achieve satisfactory eradication rates for H. pylori in elderly patients. Elderly patients with peptic ulcers may have a similar benefit from treatment of H. pylori infection as non-elderly patients. Eradication of H. pylori infection may also lead to improvement in histologic grading of gastritis, but the risk of gastric cancer cannot be completely reduced, especially in patients with existing premalignant lesions.

  10. Helicobacter pylori: prospettive per un vaccino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Del Giudice

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes one of the most widespread infections worldwide: it affects more than 50% of the human population, and is responsible for serious gastric pathologies such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis and, in some individuals, gastric cancer. Current treatments with antibiotics are efficacious, but encounters several drawbacks at the level of compliance, side effects, antibiotic resistance, etc.The availability of vaccines could contribute in reducing the burden of H. pylori associated diseases. Several bacterial antigens have been identified as virulence factors and proposed as potential vaccine candidates. Some of these antigens have been tested in experimental animal models of challenge with H. pylori. The experiments in animals have shown that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against H. pylori is indeed feasible. Several open questions still remain concerning the understanding of the host-microbe relationship and the quality of the immune response which should be induced in order to confer protective immunity in man.The answers to these questions will be crucial in helping the preparation of appropriate vaccine formulations able to efficaciously protect humans both prophylactically and therapeutically. A few clinical trials have been carried out so far with still limited results. Other trials in humans are in progress and are planned for the next few years.The final hope is that these new vaccines will show the expected efficacy against H. pylori and will permit the elimination of this pathogen which has cohabited with humans for more than 100,000 years.

  11. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, E; Mentis, A; Spiliadis, C; Sophianos, D; Stergiatou, I; Skandalis, N; Weir, D M

    1990-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is strongly associated with chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. As the prevalence of H. pylori infection in southern European populations is not known, a serological survey of 1069 samples from three different age groups in the Greek population was carried out with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to these bacteria. The antigen was an ultracentrifuged supernate of whole cell sonicates of 5 isolates of H. pylori assessed by electrophoresis and by immunoblotting with negative and positive sera. The sensitivity of the test was 97.43% and the specificity 100% for IgG antibodies; IgA and IgM antibodies to the antigen preparation were not found. Antibodies to H. pylori were detected among 39.4% of children aged 1-10 years, 67.1% of recruits (20-27 years) and 70% of blood donors (20-50 years). The prevalence of antibodies did not differ with sex in each of the age groups. The proportion of individuals with antibodies to H. pylori was higher in the younger age groups than those reported for similar age groups in western Europe.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Biosynthesis in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liao, Tingting; Debowski, Aleksandra W; Tang, Hong; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Stubbs, Keith A; Marshall, Barry J; Benghezal, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    This review covers the current knowledge and gaps in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure and biosynthesis. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which colonizes the luminal surface of the human gastric epithelium. Both a constitutive alteration of the lipid A preventing TLR4 elicitation and host mimicry of the Lewis antigen decorated O-antigen of H. pylori LPS promote immune escape and chronic infection. To date, the complete structure of H. pylori LPS is not available, and the proposed model is a linear arrangement composed of the inner core defined as the hexa-saccharide (Kdo-LD-Hep-LD-Hep-DD-Hep-Gal-Glc), the outer core composed of a conserved trisaccharide (-GlcNAc-Fuc-DD-Hep-) linked to the third heptose of the inner core, the glucan, the heptan and a variable O-antigen, generally consisting of a poly-LacNAc decorated with Lewis antigens. Although the glycosyltransferases (GTs)