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Sample records for anti-hcv signal-to-cutoff ratio

  1. Frequency of anti-HCV antibodies in patients with lichen planus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of anti-HCV antibodies, identify risk factors associated with HCV infection and to screen asymptomatic carries in patients with lichen planus. Subjects and Methods: A total of 184 clinically diagnosed cased of lichen (LP) were selected for the study. Blood samples of all the patients were tested for anti hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV-Ab). Polymerase chain reaction for hepatitis C virus was done in patients with positive anti-HCV-Ab. Trancutaneous liver biopsy was performed in 7 patients with positive HCV-RNA. The histopathological results were evaluated using validated Metavir and Knodell scoring systems. Results: Out of 184 LP patients, 43 (23.4%) were anti-HCV antibodies positive. Females were predominantly affected and male to female ratio was 1:5.1. Maximum positively for anti-HCV was observed in age group 31-40 years (39.53%) followed by 41-50 years (25.58%). Eighty-one percent patients had history of dental treatment and 63% had received multiple injections for various ailments. Forty percent patients had family history of jaundice while 26% had jaundice in the past. Ten out of 16 anti-HCV antibody positive patients, checked for HCV-RNA, had high levels of virus in blood. Transcutaneous liver biopsy done in 7 patients revealed underlying liver disease at various stages. Four patients treated with alpha-interferon and ribazole therapy for liver disease, showed marked improvement in their skin disease. Conclusion: A high prevalence of HCV infection was detected in patients with lichen planus. Patients with lichen planus should be screened for HCV carrier state. (author)

  2. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

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    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  3. Recent advances in the anti-HCV mechanisms of interferon

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    Menghao Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN in combination with ribavirin has been the standard of care (SOC for chronic hepatitis C for the past few decades. Although the current SOC lacks the desired efficacy, and 4 new direct-acting antiviral agents have been recently approved, interferons are still likely to remain the cornerstone of therapy for some time. Moreover, as an important cytokine system of innate immunity, host interferon signaling provides a powerful antiviral response. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which HCV infection controls interferon production, and how interferons, in turn, trigger anti-HCV activities as well as control the outcome of HCV infection remain to be clarified. In this report, we review current progress in understanding the mechanisms of IFN against HCV, and also summarize the knowledge of induction of interferon signaling by HCV infection.

  4. Screening of HBsAg and anti HCV from tertiary care, private and public sector hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To find out the frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies in patients referred from a tertiary care public sector hospital, other public sector and private hospitals of Karachi. Settings and duration: Pakistan Medical Research Council's Specialized Research Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi from January to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted where patients were referred from different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (tertiary care public sector hospital), other public sector hospitals, private hospitals and clinics for the screening of hepatitis B and C virus infection. Three ml blood was collected from each patient, serum separated and tested for HBsAg and Anti HCV using Abbott Murex fourth Generation ELISA kits. Results: A total of 2965 cases were referred in a year. Overall sero prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV was 5.9% and 12.8% respectively. HBsAg positivity in patient referred from public sector hospitals was 5.8%, those from private hospitals/clinics were 7.2%, and self-referred patients was 5.6%. Anti HCV positivity rates amongst these cases were 12.5%, 16.7% and 8.5% respectively. Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus was seen in 0.9, 2.5 and 1.4% cases respectively. Breakdown of viral positivity within different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi showed HBsAg positivity of 7.1% in Medical department, 5.2% in Surgical department, 5.0% in Gynaecology department, 6.6% in other departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre while, only 1.7% were positive from Pakistan Railway, hospital Anti HCV positivity was maximally (20.3%) seen in medical department followed by 14% in other departments, 10.9% in surgical department, 7.9% in gynaecology and 5.1% in railway hospital. Co-infection of HBV and HCV was seen in 2% cases referred from medical department, while rest of the

  5. [Investigation of the correlation between anti-HCV levels (S/Co) with HCV-RNA in the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection].

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    Şanlıdağ, Tamer; Akçalı, Sinem; Ecemiş, Talat; Süer, Kaya; Erbay Dündar, Pınar; Arıkan, Ayşe; Güvenir, Meryem; Güler, Emrah

    2016-07-01

    Detection of borderline and/or low positive anti-HCV results by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) leads to severe problems in routine laboratories and needs confirmation with nucleic acid amplification tests which can increase the cost. In EIA tests, if the ratio of sample to cut-off (S/Co) is ≥ 1, the sample is accepted as positive according to the manufacturers' instructions. Although over the last decade the application of S/Co values have also applied to HCV-RNA readings, the current study aims to determine whether the S/Co value is adequate and applicable for the anti-HCV EIA test, and to determine whether a correlation exists between HCV-RNA and HCV infections. A total of 658 cases (402 female, 256 male; mean age: 49.4 ± 17.0 years) who were found anti-HCV positive between January 2011-July 2013 were included in the study. Anti-HCV tests were performed by chemiluminescent EIA (Architect i2000SR, Abbott, USA and LiaisonXL Murex, DiaSorin, Italy) and HCV-RNA by real-time PCR (Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche, USA). The mean S/Co value of the cases was 7.3 ± 4.8 (range: 1.00-17.59) and mean HCV-RNA value was 2.3x105 ± 2.1x106 copies/ml. When the anti-HCV S/Co value of varying ranges was compared with HCV-RNA readings a particular trend was noted. In the anti-HCV S/Co values of 1.0-4.0; 4.1-7.0; 7.1-10.0; 10.1-13.0; 13.1-16.0 and ³16.1, HCV-RNA positivity rates were detected as 1.9%, 24.7%,37.1%, 46.7%, 56.4% and 75%, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated an intermediate positive correlation (r= 0.454) between anti-HCV ve HCV-RNA readings (p= 0.000). An adequate S/Co value was accepted as 5.0 based on the ROC analysis, and this value gave a performance confidence level of 95.6% when determining whether a patient is HCV positive. Based on the data of this study it became evident that further EIA testing is not required if the S/Co value is ≥ 5.0, however if the S/Co value is less than 5.0, then further clinical analysis and revaluation of the patient

  6. Seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among blood donors of north India

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    R N Makroo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Transfusion of blood and blood products although considered as a life saving treatment modality, but may lead to certain infectious and non-infectious complications in the recipients. The purpose of this analysis was to monitor the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in the blood donor population in a hospital based blood bank in north India, to evaluate the trends over the years (2001-2011. Methods: Relevant information of all the blood donors who donated whole blood at the department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi from the January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2011 was retrieved from the departmental records. The number of donors who were found reactive for anti-HCV anatibodies was calculated. Results: Of the 2,06,022 blood donors, 1,93,661 were males and 12,361 were females. The percentage of whole blood donors found seroreactive for anti-HCV antibodies was 0.39 per cent (n=795. The seroprevalence of anti-HCV in male blood donors was 0.38 per cent (n=750 and the respective seroprevalence in female blood donors was 0.36 per cent (n=45. No significant change in the trend of HCV seroprevalence was observed over the period under consideration. Maximum seroprevalence of anti-HCV was observed in the age group of 18 to 30 yr (0.41% and the minimum in the age group of 51 to 60 yr (0.26%. Interpretation & conclusion: HCV seroprevalence in our study was 0.39 per cent and a decreasing trend with age was observed. No significant change in the trend of anti-HCV seroprevalence was seen over a decade. Since, no vaccine is presently available for immunization against HCV infection, transfusion transmitted HCV infection remains a potential threat to the safety of the blood supply.

  7. A study on the relationship of anti-HCV antibody and hepatitis C viremia in post-transfusion hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specimens of blood transfusion recipients who recieved the Anti-HCV antibody positive bloods were analyzed at irregular intervals by enzyme immunoassay to measure the anti-HCV antibody and reverse transcription PCR of hepatitis C virus to evaluate the viremic states. At the same time, the specimens of anti-HCV antibody positive healthy blood donors are analyzed by the reverse transcription PCR method. We analyzed the 9 cases of anti-HCV positive blood donors by reverse transcription PCR and no cases of positive HCV reverse transcription PCR is found. The 5 patients who recieved the anti-HCV positive blood by blood transfusion was followed at irregular interval. Of 5 blood recipients, Hepatitis C virus was detected in 2 patients (40%) and Anti-HCV antibody was detected in 2 patients (40%). We suppose that in contrast to disease group (Non A non B hepatitis), the possibility of viremia in the anti-HCV positive blood donors is significantly low and the character of those antibody may be convalescent antibody after hepatitis C resolution. (Author)

  8. 4'-Substituted pyrimidine nucleosides lacking 5'-hydroxyl function as potential anti-HCV agents.

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    Shakya, Neeraj; Vedi, Satish; Liang, Chao; Yang, Fang; Agrawal, Babita; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major health problems worldwide. If left untreated, it leads to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. Herein, we report synthesis and anti-HCV activity of a new class of pyrimidine nucleosides possessing a 4'-carboxymethyl (9-16, 21 and 23) or 4'-carboxamide function (17-19 and 24). Among these, 10-12 (EC50=33.1-42.4 μM), 14 and 21 (EC50=43.4-59.5 μM) exhibited potent activity in HCV-1a replicon cells without any toxicity to parent Huh-7 cells (CC50=>829-1055 μM). The anti-HCV activities demonstrated by this unusual class of compounds were superior to that of ribavirin (EC50=81.9 μM). Further, the most active analog, 12, was found to interact synergistically with ribavirin to inhibit HCV RNA replication. PMID:24485784

  9. Kan vericilerde HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV ve Sifilis seroprevalansı

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    Altındiş, Mustafa; Aslan, Savaş; Kalaycı, Raike

    2011-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Kan Merkezi'ne başvuran donörlerde HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV 1/2 ve RPR seroprevalansının tespiti ve oranların yıllara ve cinsiyete göre dağılımının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ocak'2001 ve Aralık'2010 tarihleri arasında Kan Merkezi'ne başvuran 37343 kan donörünün HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV ½ tarama testleri mikropartikül ELISA (Vitros, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) yöntemi ile Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics (HBsAg, HCV 3.jenerasyon, HIV 1/2) ki...

  10. Discovery of Metal Ions Chelator Quercetin Derivatives with Potent Anti-HCV Activities

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    Dongwei Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Analogues or isosteres of α,γ-diketoacid (DKA 1a show potent inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV NS5B polymerase through chelation of the two magnesium ions at the active site. The anti-HCV activity of the flavonoid quercetin (2 could partly be attributed to it being a structural mimic of DKAs. In order to delineate the structural features required for the inhibitory effect and improve the anti-HCV potency, two novel types of quercetin analogues, 7-O-arylmethylquercetins and quercetin-3-O-benzoic acid esters, were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HCV properties in cell-based assays. Among the 38 newly synthesized compounds, 7-O-substituted derivative 3i and 3-O-substituted derivative 4f were found to be the most active in the corresponding series (EC50 = 3.8 μM and 9.0 μΜ, respectively. Docking studies suggested that the quercetin analogues are capable of establishing key coordination with the two magnesium ions as well as interactions with residues at the active site of HCV NS5B.

  11. Frequency of active HCV infection among anti-HCV positive patients in selected districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Sajid Ali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine frequency of active HCV infection among confirmed anti-HCV positive subjects of KPK in order to help the infected subjects decide about anti-viral treatment options. Methods: Blood samples (3075 samples were collected from patients in selected districts of KPK and were transported to Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Diagnostic laboratory, University of Peshawar. These patients were already screened for anti-HCV by ICT (Immuno Chromatographic Technique and ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay in the local laboratories of the concern districts. Subsequently, viral RNA was isolated from serum sample and subjected to Real-time PCR. The frequency of the results was calculated for the HCV-RNA positive and negative samples. Results:Out of 3075 confirmed anti-HCV samples, HCV-RNA positive and negative samples were 2055 (66.6% and 1020 (33.3% respectively. The frequency of male and female HCV-RNA positive samples was 57.6% and 42.4% respectively. Rate of false anti-HCV positivity was 33.3%. Moreover, rate of active HCV infection was found more in district Bunir followed by districts Dir and Mardan. Comparatively less positive percent frequency of active HCV infection was found in districts Swabi, Peshawar and Kohat, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that viremia is present in more than 50% of confirmed anti-HCV positive patients. Anti-HCV positive, but HCV-RNA negative samples represent either false- positivity of anti-HCV or a spontaneous clearance of HCV.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 199-202

  12. Seropositivity of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in preoperative patients

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    Berrin Karaayak Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV viruses pose a serious occupational risk for the healthcare workers especially those in emergency services, laboratories and surgery wards. Vaccination and establishment of the strict biosafety procedures are the main principles to prevent blood-borne infections in healthcare workers. Additionally, serological screening of the preoperative patients could decrease the risk for exposure. In this study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV 1/2 in preoperative patients. Methods: Hospital automation records were evaluated retrospectively for 4.367 patients who were scheduled for surgery and scanned for anti-HIV 1/2, HBsAg and anti-HCV as preoperative procedures in the preparation period of operation between January 2012 and December 2012. Results: HBsAg positivity rate was found in 7.7% (n=336, anti-HCV positivity rate was found in 2.3% (n=101. A two (0.05% of five patients were positive for anti-HIV 1/2 was found positive verification test and the other three samples were accepted as false positive test results. Conclusion: All healthcare workers must be trained about occupational diseases and vaccinated against Hepatitis B. Universal precautions must be strictly followed particularly in the operating room. In addition, all patients should be considered as potential carriers regarded as a carrier of the potential for infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 449-452

  13. Frequency of anti-HCV, Hbsag and related risk factors in pregnant women at Nishtar Hospital, Multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Viral hepatitis is a global issue. Among the hepatitis viruses hepatitis B and C are important in South Asia including Pakistan. There are various modes of transmission of these viruses. Vertical transmission is also gaining importance. Antepartum screening for HBV and HCV would help the infected women for appropriate antiviral therapy at appropriate time as well as for taking proper care of the newborns. The present study was designed to see the frequency of HBsAg and anti-HCV in pregnant women at Nishtar Hospital, Multan. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out using non-probability purposive sampling technique. The period of the study was from June 2006 to August 2007. Five hundred (500) pregnant women attending outpatient department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics were included. Informed consent was taken. A specially designed proforma was filled in. Anti-HCV and HBsAg were tested by device method. Data were analyzed on SPSS-11. Results: Out of 500 pregnant women 35 (7.00%) were found to be anti-HCV positive and 23 (4.60%) were positive for HBsAg. Mean age was 26.7+-4.8 years. Majority of the patients 263 (52.60%) were in the age group 26-35 years. 138 (27.60%) women were nulliparous and 282 (56.40%) were para 1-4 and anti-HCV and HBsAg were common in this parity group. Only 80 (16.00%) women were para 5 or more. All anti-HCV and HBsAg positive women were house-wives. Most of them were belonging to rural areas having poor socio-economic status. Among 35 anti-HCV positive women, 20 (57.14%) had history of previous surgery, while 13 (37.14%) had history of multiple injections, 5 (14.28%) received blood transfusion, 4 (11.42%) had ear/nose piercing while tattooing was seen in only 2 (5.71%). Among 23 HBsAg positive women, 10 (43.47%) had history of previous surgery. History of multiple injections was present in 6 (26.08%) patients, 4 (17.39%) patients had history of blood transfusion, tattooing, ear/nose piercing, history of dental

  14. Seroprevalence of anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen in HIV infected patients

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    Tankhiwale S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is known to influence the natural history of infections with certain hepatitis viruses and interactions between HIV and hepatitis viruses may potentiate HIV replication. There is high degree of epidemiological similarity between hepatitis B virus and HIV as regard to high-risk group and route of transmission. Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV through blood transfusion and intravenous drug abuse is well documented. Present study deals with the study of concurrent infection of HBV and HCV with HIV infection. In the study of 110 HIV seropositive patients, 34(30.4% were positive for HBV and 8(7.27% for HCV. The difference of concomitant infection was highly significant compared to controls. (p value < 0.0001. Heterosexual high risk behaviour was observed in 89(80.91% of 110 HIV positive patients, out of which 23(25.8% and 5(5.62% were HBsAg and anti-HCV positive respectively. History of transmission was unclear in remaining patients. Concomitant infection of HIV and HBV was found to be significantly more in the symptomatic group (40.68% compared to asymptomatic group (19.6%. As HIV infection is known to affect the natural history of both HBV and HCV infection, screening of their concurrent association is necessary.

  15. Evaluation of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL test results in blood donors

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    Deveci, Özcan; Tekin, Alicem; Günbay, Seda Sibel; Kılıç, Dilek; KAYGUSUZ, Sedat; Ağalar, Canan; Özer, Türkan Toka

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The most frequently encountered complication in the transfusion of blood and blood products are transmitted infections from these products. Infections caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain the leading most important health problems in the transfusion of blood and blood products worldwide. Therefore, screening tests such as HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and RPR or VDRL for Treponema pallidum are mandatory tests to loo...

  16. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

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    Patrícia L. Gonçalves

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV primers 939/209 and 940/211. HCV genotyping was carried out by RFLP (using Mva I and Hinf 1 or Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes. Thirty-two out of 39 (82%; 95% CI=70-94% anti-HCV-positive patients had HCV-RNA in plasma samples. Eight out of 39 (20.5%; 95% CI=6.6-34.4% had HCV-RNA in the saliva. The HCV genotype in saliva samples from these patients matched the genotype found for plasma HCV-RNA. No significant correlation between the presence of HCV and either age, gender, HCV genotype or any risk factor for HCV infection was found. The observed prevalence (20.5% of anti HCV positive patients or 25% of the patients with HCV-RNA in plasma was lower than that previously reported from other countries. The low frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples observed in our study may be due to the use of cell-free saliva. Other authors reporting higher frequencies of HCV-RNA in saliva used whole saliva, without centrifugation.

  17. Prevalence of active HCV infection among the blood donors of Khyber Pakhtunkwa and FATA region of Pakistan and evaluation of the screening tests for anti-HCV

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    Khan Sanaullah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C is a fatal liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. In this study, blood donors, from various districts of the KPK province and the federally administered tribal area (FATA of Pakistan were tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA by ICT (Immuno-chromatographic test, ELISA and RT-PCR. Out of the 7148 blood donors, 224 (3.13% were positive for anti-HCV antibodies by ICT, 135 (1.89% by ELISA while 118 (1.65% blood donors had active HCV infection as detected by RT-PCR. We suggest that ELISA should be used for anti-HCV screening in public sector hospitals and health care units.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Celecoxib Derivatives as Possible Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antioxidant, Anticancer and Anti-HCV Agents

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    Amartya Basu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel N-(3-substituted aryl/alkyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-2-ylidene-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl-3-(trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides 2a–e were synthesized by the addition of ethyl a-bromoacetate and anhydrous sodium acetate in dry ethanol to N-(substituted aryl/alkylcarbamothioyl-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl-3-(trifluoro-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzene sulfonamides 1a–e, which were synthesized by the reaction of alkyl/aryl isothiocyanates with celecoxib. The structures of the isolated products were determined by spectral methods and their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer and anti-HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp activities evaluated. The compounds were also tested for gastric toxicity and selected compound 1a was screened for its anticancer activity against 60 human tumor cell lines. These investigations revealed that compound 1a exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and further did not cause tissue damage in liver, kidney, colon and brain compared to untreated controls or celecoxib. Compounds 1c and 1d displayed modest inhibition of HCV NS5B RdRp activity. In conclusion, N-(ethylcarbamothioyl-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl-3-(trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide (1a may have the potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent.

  19. Anti-HCV prevalence in firstyear students, that will practise professions of high risk of infection with the HCV

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    Penelope Siourda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We have studied the prevalence of Hepatitis C on the first‐year students of the Paramedical Schools (Medical Lab Department, Nursing Department, Baby Nursing Department and Obstetrics Department of the Health and Foresight Professions School of Technological Educational School of Thessaloniki. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 502 students of the Paramedical Schools. The students at first filled a questionnaire form (25 questions about the knowledge and the information in point of the infectious diseases in the Immunological – Hormonological Health Center. Then they gave blood sample and at the end, they were given a "Basic Guidebook for Preventing and Handling Hospital Infections". The samples were checked with ELISA method for anti‐HCV antibodies. Results: All the tests were negative for anti-HCV antibodies. Conclusions: It was ascertained that the prevalence of Hepatitis C on our target group is similar to the literature's known data (low in Greece. However since there is not a vaccine yet, anyone must be careful with Hepatitis C, specially the students of paramedical schools. Radical solution will be given inr the development of an appropriate vaccine.

  20. Frequency of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV in pregnant women and/or patients with gynecologic diseases in a tertiary hospital

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    Tülay Özlü

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are viruses that can be transmitted to the health care workers by infected body fluids and from mother to the baby before, during or after delivery. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg, hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV, and HIV antibodies (anti-HIV in pregnant women and/or patients with gynecologic diseases that admit to a university hospital in Bolu.Methods: HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV results of the pregnant women and/or patients with gynecologic diseases that admitted to the obstetrics and gynecology clinics between January 2006 and June 2012 were retrospectively investigated. All markers were tested in the microbiology laboratory of our hospital by using macro ELISA method (Axsyme and Architect i2000SR systems, Abbott Diagnostics, Chicago, IL, USA.Results: The frequency of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and antiHIV positivity were 1.8%, 0.5%, and 0% in pregnant women and 1.9%, 1.1%, and 0% in patients with gynecologic diseases, respectively.Conclusion: The frequencies detected in our hospital are at low levels as seen in developed countries. Since there is no effective method of prevention especially from HCV, awareness of this serologic result before high risk procedures will enable the doctors and the health care workers to take extensive measures to prevent the transmission of the disease. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (2: 166-170Key words: anti-HCV, anti-HIV, HBsAg, pregnant women, gynecology

  1. Synthesis, Anti-HCV, Antioxidant and Reduction of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species Generation of a Chlorogenic Acid Analogue with an Amide Bond Replacing the Ester Bond

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    Ling-Na Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid is a well known natural product with important bioactivities. It contains an ester bond formed between the COOH of caffeic acid and the 3-OH of quinic acid. We synthesized a chlorogenic acid analogue, 3α-caffeoylquinic acid amide, using caffeic and quinic acids as starting materials. The caffeoylquinc acid amide was found to be much more stable than chlorogenic acid and showed anti-Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV activity with a potency similar to chlorogenic acid. The caffeoylquinc acid amide potently protected HepG2 cells against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

  2. Successful Anti-HCV Therapy of a Former Intravenous Drug User with Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir in a Peritranspant Setting: A Case Report.

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    Seifert, Leon Louis; Heinzow, Hauke; Kabar, Iyad; Christensen, Stefan; Hüsing, Anna; Schmidt, Hartmut H-J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) represent a new hallmark in antiviral therapy of hepatitis C virus (HCV). DAAs have been shown to be safe and effective after liver transplantation (LT), but there is little information about their use in peritransplant settings. Former intravenous drug users represent an increasing group seeking HCV treatment. This case report demonstrates the successful peritransplant antiviral treatment of a former intravenous drug user who had been treated in a methadone maintenance program. CASE REPORT The patient was diagnosed with Child B cirrhosis for the first time in 2009. He had a Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 21 and started antiviral therapy with sofosbuvir (SOF) and daclatasvir (DCV) in March 2014. Due to hepatic decompensation, he received a LT in April 2014. Immunosuppression was performed with tacrolimus (TAC) and mycophenolate-mofetil (MMF), and boosted with prednisolone in the initial stage. Four weeks after his LT, the patient presented with an acute renal injury. The patient was discharged one week later after sufficient hydration, discontinuation of non-steroidal anti-phlogistics therapy, and adjustments to his immunosuppressive regimen. At the beginning of his therapy, the number of RNA copies was 13,000 IU/mL. He received 24 weeks of anti-HCV treatment with SOF and DCV; the antiviral treatment was successful and his LT was well tolerated.  CONCLUSIONS Treatment of HCV is feasible in a peritransplant setting. The antiviral regimen we used did not seem to have any relevant interactions with the patient's immunosuppressive regimens. Still, the peritransplant setting is a very demanding environment for anti-HCV therapy, and further studies are needed. PMID:27554644

  3. A clinical, epidemological, laboratorial, histological and ultrasonographical evaluation of anti-HCV EIA-2 positive blood donors Avaliação clínica, epidemiológica, laboratorial, histológica e ultrassonográfica de doadores de sangue anti-HCV EIA-2 positivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. GONÇALES JR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1992 and 1997, 790 blood donors with anti-HCV EIA-2 strongly reagent (relationship between the sample optical density/cut-off > 3 detected at the blood bank serological screening, were evaluated in ambulatory environment. They were all negative for Chagas disease, syphilis, hepatitis B (HBsAg and AIDS. Blood samples were collected at the first ambulatorial evaluation, for hemogram, biochemical tests and new serological tests for HCV (anti-HCV EIA-2. In blood samples of 226 repeatedly reagent anti-HCV EIA-2 blood donors, supplementary "immunoblot" test for HCV (RIBA-2 was used. In 209 donors, the presence of HCV-RNA was investigated by the PCR test. The abdominal ultrasonography was realized in 366 donors. In 269 patients liver biopsy was performed for the histopathological study. The follow-up of blood donors showed that 95.6% were repeatedly EIA-2 reagent, 94% were symptomless and denied any hepatitis history, with only 2% mentioning previous jaundice. In 47% of this population at least one risk factor has been detected for the HCV transmission, the use of intravenous drugs being the main one (27.8%. Blood transfusion was the second factor for HCV transmission (27.2%. Hepatomegaly was detected in 54% of the cases. Splenomegaly and signs of portal hypertension have seldom been found in the physical examination, indicating a low degree of hepatic compromising in HCV. Abdominal ultrasound showed alterations in 65% of the subjects, being the steatosis the most frequent (50%. In 83.5% of the donors submitted to the liver biopsy, the histopathological exam showed the presence of chronic hepatitis, usually classified as active (89% with mild or moderate grade in most of the cases (99.5%. The histopathological exam of the liver was normal in 1.5% of blood donors. The RIBA-2 test and the HCV-RNA investigation by PCR were positive in respectively 91.6 and 75% of the anti-HCV EIA-2 reagent donors. The HCV-RNA research was positive in 82% of the

  4. Hepatites pós-transfusionais na cidade de Campinas, SP, Brasil: II. Presença dos anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV em candidatos a doadores de sangue e ocorrência de hepatites pós-transfusionais pelo vírus C nos receptores de sangue ou derivados Post-transfusional hepatitis in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil: II- Presence of anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies in blood donors and occurrence of post-transfusional hepatitis C virus in recipients of blood or derivates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lopes Gonçales Júnior

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisamos os anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV em amostras de soros provenientes de 799 candidatos a doadores, que tiveram suas unidades de sangue ou derivados transfundidas a 111 receptores. O anti-HBc e o anti-HCV foram reagentes, em respectivamente 9 e 2,1% dos doadores testados. Observamos que entre os 111 receptores, 44 haviam recebido pelo menos uma unidade anti-HBc positiva e 67 haviam sido transfundidos somente com unidades anti-HBc negativas. Houve um risco 4,5 vezes maior de aquisição de hepatite por vírus C pelos receptores que receberam pelo menos uma unidade anti-HBc positiva Se a pesquisa do anti-HBc fosse realizada na triagem sorológica dos doadores de sangue, cerca de 56% dos casos de HVC nos receptores saiam evitados. A população de receptores que recebeu pelo menos uma unidade anti-HCV reagente, apresentou um risco 29 vezes maior de adquirir esta hepatite, quando comparada aos receptores transfundidos com todas as unidades anti-HCV negativas. A realização do teste para a pesquisa do anti-HCV na triagem dos doadores de sangue, preveniria 79% dos casos de HVC pós-transfusionais. Os candidatos a doadores brasileiros parecem ser acometidos simultânea ou sequencialmente, pelos vírus B e C das hepatites, pois, 44,4% dos doadores anti-HCV positivos, também foram anti-HBc positivos. A realização dos testes para as pesquisas dos anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV, nas triagens hemoterápicas, está indicada para prevenir a transmissão de hepatites pós-transfusionais, em nosso meio.We have analysed anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies in serum samples from 799 donors which had their blood or derivates transfused to 111 recipients. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV were reactive in respectively 9 and 2.1% of the donors tested. We have observed that among the 111 recipients, 44 had received at least one positive anti-HBc unit and 67 had been transfused only with negative anti-HBc, units. The risk of developing hepatitis C virus was 4.5 times

  5. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti HCV antibody and its associated risk factors among pregnant women attending maternity ward of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Sefinew; Munshea, Abaineh; Nibret, Endalkachew

    2015-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis is a life-threatening liver disease that has become important public health issue in developing countries including Ethiopia. This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAgs and anti-HCV antibodies and what socio-demographic factors are associated with sero-positivity of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections among pregnant women attending maternity ward of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest, Ethiopia. Methods Hospi...

  6. Stable replication of the EBNA1/OriP-mediated baculovirus vector and its application to anti-HCV gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Myint OO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the main causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Although combined interferon-α-ribavirin therapy is effective for about 50% of the patients with HCV, better therapies are needed and preventative vaccines have yet to be developed. Short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs inhibit gene expression by RNA interference. The application of transient shRNA expression is limited, however, due to the inability of the shRNA to replicate in mammalian cells and its inefficient transduction. The duration of transgene (shRNA expression in mammalian cells can be significantly extended using baculovirus-based shRNA-expressing vectors that contain the latent viral protein Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 and the origin of latent viral DNA replication (OriP sequences. These recombinant vectors contain compatible promoters and are highly effective for infecting primary hepatocyte and hepatoma cell lines, making them very useful tools for studies of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. Here, we report the use of these baculovirus-based vector-derived shRNAs to inhibit core-protein expression in full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV replicon cells. Results We constructed a long-term transgene shRNA expression vector that contains the EBV EBNA1 and OriP sequences. We also designed baculovirus vector-mediated shRNAs against the highly conserved core-protein region of HCV. HCV core protein expression was inhibited by the EBNA1/OriP baculovirus vector for at least 14 days, which was considerably longer than the 3 days of inhibition produced by the wild-type baculovirus vector. Conclusion These findings indicate that we successfully constructed a long-term transgene (shRNA expression vector (Ac-EP-shRNA452 using the EBNA1/OriP system, which was propagated in Escherichia coli and converted into mammalian cells. The potential anti-HCV activity of the long-term transgene (shRNA expression vector was evaluated with the view

  7. Analysis of primary carcinoma of the liver of two semi hepatitis B and anti-HCV test results%探析原发性肝癌乙肝两对半及抗-HCV检测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任爱英

    2015-01-01

    目的:对原发性的肝癌乙肝两对半和抗-HCV 的检测结果进行临床分析,探讨乙型肝炎(HBV)和丙型肝炎(HCV)的感染模式和原发性肝癌之间的关系。方法:收治原发性的肝癌乙肝患者130例,于早晨抽取患者空腹静脉血5 mL,并采用酶联免疫法对乙肝两对半和抗-HCV 进行检测,观察检测结果。结果:130例患者中,HBV 的感染率96.15%(112/130),HCV 的感染率16.92%(22/130),HBV 与 HCV 的双重感染率10.77%(14/130)。结论:HBV 的感染很有可能是造成原发性的肝癌发生的主要因素,并对于HBV和HCV的双重感染也必须加以重视。%Objective:To analyze the primary carcinoma of the liver of two semi hepatitis B and anti -HCV test results,discussing the relationship between infection mode of Hepatitis B virus(HBV)and hepatitis C virus(HCV)and the primary hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods:130 patients with primary liver cancer Hepatitis B were selected,in the morning drawing fasting blood 5 mL, and using ELISA for hepatitis B two pairs of semi-detection and anti-HCV,observing the test results.Results:Among the 130 patients,HBV infection rate of 96.15%(112/130),HCV infection rate of 16.92%(22/130) HBV and HCV double infection rate of 10.77%(14/130).Conclusion:HBV infection is likely to be the main factors contributing to the occurrence of primary liver cancer, and for HBV and HCV co-infection must also be valued.

  8. [Guideline for interpretation and report of the antibody to hepatitis C virus. Grupo de Desarrollo de la Guía ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Ana M; Ochoa-Jiménez, Rodolfo J; Kershenobich, David; Granados-García, Víctor; Conde-González, Carlos J; Celis, Alfredo; Pérez-Gómez, Héctor R; Ruelas-Hernández, Sara; Romero-Flores, Patricia; Alcántar-Luna, Ernesto; Sierra-García de Quevedo, Julio; Ancona-Pisté, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are detected by testing for the presence of antibodies to HCV (Anti-HCV). A positive Anti-HCV test represents a true positive result only in a variable proportion of subjects (35 to 95%). The qualitative interpretation as positive or negative Anti-HCV report is associated with a general lack of understanding regarding the interpretation of results, when more specific testing should be performed, and which tests should be considered for this purpose. Therefore, a substantial variation in supplemental testing practices exists among laboratories and physicians. This guideline was developed on the basis of the best available evidence to classify positive antibody in two (low and high) or three levels (very low, low and high) according to the signal to cutoff (S/CO) ratio: the very low level of the Anti-HCV identifies false-positive results and further diagnostic testing is not necessary. The low antibody level is frequently related with false-positive results and testing with Immunoblot is recommended; only Immunoblot-positive subjects require HCV RNA testing because of a low possibility of being viremic. The high Anti-HCV level is an accurate serological marker for predicting viremia and denotes the need of routine HCV RNA testing in order to efficiently confirm hepatitis C. Cost-effectiveness analysis, based on the Anti-HCV level, recommends the use of the two or three-levels to choose the confirmatory test of positive antibody. This approach can be implemented without increasing test costs because the S/CO ratio is automatically generated in most laboratory analyzers and would provide health care professionals with useful information for counseling and evaluating patients, to eliminate unwarranted notifications in cases of false antibody reactivity, and correctly identifying those Anti-HCV-positive patients who are infected and need antiviral treatment. The written report should include the antibody level (S/CO ratio

  9. Relationship between serum concetrations of type III procollagen, hyluronic acid and histopathological findings in the liver of HCV-positive blood donors Relação entre concentrações séricas de procolágeno tipo III, ácido hialurônico com achados histopatológicos do fígado em doadores de sangue anti-HCV positivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Regina Rodrigues Camacho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serologic markers have been proposed for monitoring hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. Among fibrosis markers, type III procollagen (PIIIP and hyaluronic acid have been studied in these patients. AIM: To evaluate the association between these serum markers with histological findings. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out with HCV-positive blood donors. The studied population included men and women whose age ranged from 18 to 60 years, with elevated liver function tests [ALT levels > 1.5 times the normal value and alterations of two or more of the following: any changes in the levels of ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, conjugated bilirrubin, gammaglobulin, gammaglutamyltranspeptidase, albumin, platelet count; alkaline phosphatase levels >1.5 times the normal value, or prothrombin time below 70% and above 60%]. Fourty-nine patients were submitted to liver biopsy, blood analysis of PIIIP, hyaluronic acid, besides liver function tests. RESULTS: Liver function tests were not associated with tissular fibrosis, as assessed by ALT (>1.5 times above normal, fibrosis risk=18.8%; RACIONAL: Marcadores sorológicos têm sido propostos para monitorar fibrose hepática em doença crônica do fígado. Dentre os marcadores de fibrose, ácido hialurônico e procolágeno tipo III têm sido estudados nestes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de marcadores séricos de fibrose com achados histológicos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal prospectivo em doadores de sangue anti-HCV positivos. A população estudada incluiu homens e mulheres com idade entre 18-60 anos com provas de função hepática alteradas (níveis de alanina aminotransferase >1.5 vezes do normal e alterações de dois ou mais dos seguintes: qualquer alteração nos níveis de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, bilirrubina conjugada, gamaglobulina, gamaglutamiltranspeptidase, albumina, plaquetas, níveis de fosfatase

  10. Correlation between Aminotransferase Ratio (AST/ALT and Other Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Liver Disease of Viral Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Md Fazlul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT in patients of chronic liver disease (CLD of various origins has gained much attention. This variable is readily available, easy to interpret, and inexpensive and the clinical utility of the AST/ALT ratio in the diagnostic workup of patients with CLD is quite promising. Objective: The present study was designed to find out the link between aminotransferase (AST/ALT ratio with commonly measured biochemical parameters of liver function tests in CLD of viral origin. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Forty four biopsy proven diagnosed subjects of chronic viral hepatitis without cirrhosis of both sex were selected purposively. With aseptic precaution 5 mL venous blood was collected from each subject and common liver function tests (serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin/globulin ratio, prothrombin time and viral serology (HBsAg, Anti HDV antibody, Anti HCV antibody were performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19 for Windows. Pearson’s correlation test was done to determine association between AST/ALT with other biochemical parameters. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 32.55±10.55 years (range 20-50 years with 48 (77.7% male and 14 (22.6% female subjects. Pearson’s correlation test was done between AST to ALT ratio with other biochemical parameters and prothrombin time showed significant positive correlation (p <0.01. Conclusion: In our study we found significant positive correlation between AST/ALT with prothrombin time in CLD subjects without cirrhosis.

  11. Anti-HCV RNA Aptamers Targeting the Genomic cis-Acting Replication Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Berzal-Herranz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV replication is dependent on the existence of several highly conserved functional genomic RNA domains. The cis-acting replication element (CRE, located within the 3' end of the NS5B coding region of the HCV genome, has been shown essential for efficient viral replication. Its sequence and structural features determine its involvement in functional interactions with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and distant RNA domains of the viral genome. This work reports the use of an in vitro selection strategy to select aptamer RNA molecules against the complete HCV-CRE. After six selection cycles, five potential target sites were identified within this domain. Inhibition assays using a sample of representative aptamers showed that the selected RNAs significantly inhibit the replication (>80% of a subgenomic HCV replicon in Huh-7 cell cultures. These results highlight the potential of aptamer RNA molecules as therapeutic antiviral agents.

  12. Dosing Recommendations for Concomitant Medications During 3D Anti-HCV Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Prajakta S; King, Jennifer R; Polepally, Akshanth R; McGovern, Barbara H; Dutta, Sandeep; Menon, Rajeev M

    2016-03-01

    The development of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has reinvigorated the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. The availability of multiple DAA agents and drug combinations has enabled the transition to interferon-free therapy that is applicable to a broad range of patients. However, these DAA combinations are not without drug-drug interactions (DDIs). As every possible DDI permutation cannot be evaluated in a clinical study, guidance is needed for healthcare providers to avoid or minimize drug interaction risk. In this review, we evaluated the DDI potential of the novel three-DAA combination of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir (the 3D regimen) with more than 200 drugs representing 19 therapeutic drug classes. Outcomes of these DDI studies were compared with the metabolism and elimination routes of prospective concomitant medications to develop mechanism-based and drug-specific guidance on interaction potential. This analysis revealed that the 3D regimen is compatible with many of the drugs that are commonly prescribed to patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Where interaction is possible, risk can be mitigated by paying careful attention to concomitant medications, adjusting drug dosage as needed, and monitoring patient response and/or clinical parameters. PMID:26330025

  13. Naringenin and quercetin - potential anti-HCV agents for NS2 protease targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajitha Lulu, S; Thabitha, A; Vino, S; Mohana Priya, A; Rout, Madhusmita

    2016-02-01

    Nonstructural proteins of hepatitis C virus had drawn much attention for the scientific fraternity in drug discovery due to its important role in the disease. 3D structure of the protein was predicted using molecular modelling protocol. Docking studies of 10 medicinal plant compounds and three drugs available in the market (control) with NS2 protease were employed by using rigid docking approach of AutoDock 4.2. Among the molecules tested for docking study, naringenin and quercetin revealed minimum binding energy of - 7.97 and - 7.95 kcal/mol with NS2 protease. All the ligands were docked deeply within the binding pocket region of the protein. The docking study results showed that these compounds are potential inhibitors of the target; and also all these docked compounds have good inhibition constant, vdW+Hbond+desolv energy with best RMSD value. PMID:25774442

  14. Prevalence of anti HCV infection in patients with beta-thalassemia in Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ataei

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings revealed that blood transfusion was the main risk factors for HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients. Therefore, more blood donor screening programs and effective screening techniques are needed to prevent transmission of HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients.

  15. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  16. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  17. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  18. Recombinant HBV vaccine enhances the rate of sustained virological response when early initiated after anti-HCV combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Amr Shaaban; Farag, Alaa Ahmad; Hassanin, Hassan Mahmoud; Hassaneen, Ahmad Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    The overall SVR rate for chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 using the Standard of care is 54.3%. HBV infection can be prevented by the administration of effective and safe vaccine. Evaluation of the vaccination-induced anti-HBs response rates in a cohort of HCV Egyptian patients after being exposed to antiviral combination therapy and the magnitude of its effect on the rate of SVR through its putative role in induction of crossed immunity. (A) 500 HCV patients who had completed the course of antiviral therapy and achieved ETR were retrospectively analyzed and received 20 μg of recombinant DNA vaccine for hepatitis B at time intervals (0, 1, and 4 months). The first dose of the vaccine was initiated one month post treatment. (B) Laboratory analysis: Included routine preliminary investigations to anti viral therapy and specific investigations as determination of anti-HBs antibodies 2 months following the third dose of vaccine. 433 patients showed protective response (86.6%), 67 patients were non-responders (13.4%) (P = 0.003). Adding HBV vaccine 1 month post-treatment increased SVR (400 patients, 80%) (χ(2)  = 40.3, P = 0.000). Diabetes affect response to HBV vaccine (P = 0.0001). Adding HBV vaccine to the post treatment care of patients with HCV after termination of antiviral therapy gain two benefits; protection from HBV and significant increase in rates of SVR. PMID:26147509

  19. Microwave assisted synthesis of some novel Flurbiprofen hydrazide- hydrazones as anti-HCV NS5B and anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Aydın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a new series of flurbiprofen hydrazide-hydrazones using microwave assisted reactions is described. Substituted aldehydes were condensed with flurbiprofen hydrazide by microwave irradiation to corresponding hydrazones. Synthesis of N’-[(4-bromothiophen-2-ylmethylidene]-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl propanehydrazide (3o employing microwave assisted process resulted in higher yields, in faster time and with less chemical waste compared to traditional techniques. (2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl-N’-(phenylmethylidenepropanehydrazide (3p andN’-[(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl methylidene]-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-ylpropanehydrazide (3s inhibited the growth of a leukemia cancercell line HL-60 (TB by 66.37% and an ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-4 by 77.34% (singledose, 10μM, respectively at the National Cancer Institute (NCI, but had no significant ef-fect on a panel of sixty human tumor cell lines. Flurbiprofen hydrazide-hydrazones were weak inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase activity with N’-[(5-ethylfuran-2-ylmethylidene]-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-ylpropanehydrazide (3m being the most active of this series. Binding mode investigations of compound 3m suggested that allosteric pocket (AP-B may be the potential binding site for flurbiprofen hydrazones and these results will alsoassist in further derivatization of 3m using the green chemistry approach and improve the potency of S-flurbiprofen hydrazide hydrazones

  20. Anti-HCV prevalence in firstyear students, that will practise professions of high risk of infection with the HCV

    OpenAIRE

    Penelope Siourda; Melpomeni Ioannidou; Christodoulos Likartsis; Assimoula Siochou; Ioannis Ioannidis

    2007-01-01

    Aim: We have studied the prevalence of Hepatitis C on the first‐year students of the Paramedical Schools (Medical Lab Department, Nursing Department, Baby Nursing Department and Obstetrics Department of the Health and Foresight Professions School of Technological Educational School of Thessaloniki). Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 502 students of the Paramedical Schools. The students at first filled a questionnaire form (25 questions about the knowledge and the information in po...

  1. Synthesis, Cytostatic, Antimicrobial, and Anti-HCV Activity of 6-Substituted 7-(Het)aryl-7-deazapurine Ribonucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nauš, Petr; Caletková, Olga; Konečný, P.; Džubák, P.; Bogdanová, K.; Kolář, M.; Vrbková, J.; Slavětínská, Lenka; Tloušťová, Eva; Perlíková, Pavla; Hajdúch, M.; Hocek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2014), s. 1097-1110. ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0344; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Grant ostatní: Operational Programme Research and Development for Innovations(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0030 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : adenosine-kinase-inhibitors * cross-coupling reactions * cytotoxic nucleoside analogs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.447, year: 2014

  2. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Deterrence and arrest ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R

    2006-02-01

    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  4. Sodium to phosphate ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate chemistry is widely used in fossil-fired utility boilers and many of these phosphate programs use the sodium to phosphate ratio as the controlling parameter. This paper steps through the fundamental chemical analyses to determine a systems Na/PO4 ratio. A mathematical equation is introduced to simply calculate the ratio using the pH and phosphate concentration. This equation is also used to build graphs to chart the boiler's phosphate chemistry. By looking at the dynamic nature of the chemistry, boiler health can be determined. (orig.)

  5. Simplifying Likelihood Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Likelihood ratios are one of the best measures of diagnostic accuracy, although they are seldom used, because interpreting them requires a calculator to convert back and forth between “probability” and “odds” of disease. This article describes a simpler method of interpreting likelihood ratios, one that avoids calculators, nomograms, and conversions to “odds” of disease. Several examples illustrate how the clinician can use this method to refine diagnostic decisions at the bedside.

  6. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Petersen, P H;

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  7. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  8. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  9. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human...... span many orders of magnitude from a low of 0.6 ppm for bisphenol A to a high of > 180,000 ppm for methyl paraben. Intermediate results were obtained for five phthalates and two chlorinated aromatic compounds: 120 ppm for butyl benzyl phthalate, 670 ppm for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 760 ppm for di...

  10. Multivariate variance ratio statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seok Young; Linton, Oliver; Zhang, Hui Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose several multivariate variance ratio statistics. We derive the asymptotic distribution of the statistics and scalar functions thereof under the null hypothesis that returns are unpredictable after a constant mean adjustment (i.e., under the Efficient Market Hypothesis). We do not impose the no leverage assumption of Lo and MacKinlay (1988) but our asymptotic standard errors are relatively simple and in particular do not require the selection of a band- width parameter. We extend the...

  11. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  12. Ratio Estimation in SIMS Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    OGLIORE, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator isotope of an individual ratio. This bias does not decrease as the number of ratios used in the average increases. By summing ...

  13. The Debt Ratio and Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Soren

    2003-01-01

    The agricultural development has caused still bigger and more expensive farms in Denmark. The debt ratio therefore has increased and has become a severe problem for the farmer. The magnitude of the debt ratio is the highest in Europe. The objective of this study is to analyse the possibility to optimise the debt ratio. In order to analyse the debt ratio 1200 financial statements have been investigated. The study confirms that it is impossible to optimise the debt ratio in line with Modigliani...

  14. Guidelines for laboratory testing and result reporting of antibody to hepatitis C virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Miriam J; Kuhnert, Wendi L; Finelli, Lyn

    2003-02-01

    Testing for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) is recommended for initially identifying persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (CDC. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR 1998;47[No. RR-19] :1-33). Testing for anti-HCV should include use of an antibody screening assay, and for screening test-positive results, a more specific supplemental assay. Verifying the presence of anti-HCV minimizes unnecessary medical visits and psychological harm for persons who test falsely positive by screening assays and ensures that counseling, medical referral, and evaluation are targeted for patients serologically confirmed as having been infected with HCV. However, substantial variation in reflex supplemental testing practices exists among laboratories, and an anti-HCV-positive laboratory report does not uniformly represent a confirmed positive result. These guidelines expand recommendations for anti-HCV testing to include an option for reflex supplemental testing based on screening-test-positive signal-to-cut-off (s/co) ratios. Use of s/co ratios minimizes the amount of supplemental testing that needs to be performed while improving the reliability of reported test results. These guidelines were developed on the basis of available knowledge of CDC staff in consultation with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration and public health, hospital, and independent laboratories. Adoption of these guidelines by all public and private laboratories that perform in vitro diagnostic anti-HCV testing will improve the accuracy and utility of reported anti-HCV test results for counseling and medical evaluation of patients by health-care professionals and for surveillance by public health departments. PMID:12585742

  15. Luminance ratio for extreme shadings

    OpenAIRE

    Kaňka, Jan; Mohelníková, Jitka; Ullmannová, Kateřina; Vychytil, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Luminance ratio k (-) is a photometric magnitude used for daylight calculation metrics. The paper is focused on specification of luminance ratio values and their influence on daylight factor calculations for of extremely shaded outdoor conditions.

  16. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  17. Matched population-based study examining the risk of type 2 diabetes in people with and without diagnosed hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, C; Wild, S; Kurdi, Z; Povey, C; Goldberg, D J; Hutchinson, S J

    2016-08-01

    Meta-analyses have found hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examine this association within a large population-based study, according to HCV RNA status. A data-linkage approach was used to examine the excess risk of diagnosed T2DM in people diagnosed with antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) in Scotland (21 929 anti-HCV(+ves) ; involving 15 827 HCV RNA(+ves) , 3927 HCV RNA(-ves) and 2175 with unknown RNA-status) compared to that of a threefold larger general population sample matched for gender, age and postcode (65 074 anti-HCV(-ves) ). To investigate effects of ascertainment bias the following periods were studied: up to 1 year before (pre-HCV)/within 1 year of (peri-HCV)/more than 1 year post (post-HCV) the date of HCV-diagnosis. T2DM had been diagnosed in 2.9% of anti-HCV(+ves) (including 3.2% of HCV RNA(+ves) and 2.3% of HCV RNA(-ves) ) and 2.7% of anti-HCV(-ves) . A higher proportion of T2DM was diagnosed in the peri-HCV period (i.e. around the time of HCV-diagnosis) for the anti-HCV(+ves) (22%) compared to anti-HCV(-ves) (10%). In both the pre-HCV and post-HCV periods, only those anti-HCV(+ves) living in less deprived areas (13% of the cohort) were found to have a significant excess risk of T2DM compared to anti-HCV(-ves) (adjusted odds ratio in the pre-HCV period: 4.0 for females and 2.3 for males; adjusted hazard ratio in the post-HCV period: 1.5). These findings were similarly observed for both HCV RNA(+ves) (chronic) and HCV RNA(-ves) (resolved). In the largest study of T2DM among chronic HCV-infected individuals to date, there was no evidence to indicate that infection conveyed an appreciable excess risk of T2DM at the population level. PMID:26910297

  18. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang;

    2012-01-01

    misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  19. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reji K Dhaman; V Krishnakumar; V P Mahadevan Pillai; M Satyanarayana; K Raghunath

    2014-02-01

    The study on the optical characteristics of aerosol is carried out using the dual polarization lidar observations from the tropical inland station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) for the period of observation during the year 2010. The summer and monsoon observation days show high scattering ratio at the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and at the lower stratosphere region. The depolarization ratio is also high at this altitude due to the transport of particulates to the TTL layer by the active convection prevailing at the period. The study reveals more dependable values of scattering ratio that are seasonal and range-dependent.

  20. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  1. Configurational Prigogine-Defay ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Garden, Jean-Luc; Richard, Jacques; Wondraczek, L

    2010-01-01

    Classically, the Prigogine-Defay (PD) ratio involves differences in isobaric volumic specific heat, isothermal compressibility and isobaric thermal expansion coefficient between a super-cooled liquid and the corresponding glass at the glass transition. However, determining such differences by extrapolation of coefficients that have been measured for super-cooled liquid and glassy state, respectively, poses the problem that it does not take into account the non-equilibrium character of the glass transition. In this paper, we asses this old question by taking into account the gradual change of configurational contributions to the three thermodynamic coefficients upon varying temperature and pressure. Macroscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics is applied to obtain a generalized form of the PD ratio. The classical PD ratio can then be taken as a particular case of this generalization. Under some assumptions, a configurational PD ratio (CPD ratio) can be expressed in terms of fictive temperature and fictive pressu...

  2. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  3. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  4. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  5. Color Ratios and Chromatic Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Finlayson, Graham D.; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of chromatic adaptation transforms based on stable color ratios is investigated.It was found that for three different sets of reflectance data, their performance was not statistically different from CMCCAT2000,when applying the chromatic adaptation transforms to Lam’s corresponding color data set and using a perceptual error metric of CIE Delta E94.The sensors with the best color ratio stability are much sharper and more de-correlated than the CMCCAT2000 sensors...

  6. [Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenard, H

    1987-01-01

    The ratios of ventilatory (V) and perfusion (Q) flow rates in the lung are to a large extent responsible for the efficiency of gas exchange. In a simplified monocompartmental model of the lung, the arterial partial pressure of a given gas (Pa) is a function of several factors: the solubility of this gas in blood, its venous and inspired partial pressures and the V/Q ratio. In a multicompartemental model, the mean arterial partial pressure of the gas is a function of the individual values of Pa in each compartment as well as the distribution of V/Q ratios in the lung and the relationship between the concentration and the partial pressure of the gas. The heterogeneity of the distribution of V/Q results from those of both V and Q. Two factors are mainly responsible for this heterogeneity: the gravity and the morphometric characteristics of bronchi and vessels. V/Q ratios are partially controlled at least in low V/Q compartments since hypoxia in these compartments leads to pulmonary arteriolar vasoconstriction. However lungs V/Q ratios range from 0.1 to 10 with a mode around 1. Age, muscular exercise, posture, accelerations, anesthesia, O2 breathing, pulmonary pathology are factors which may alter the distribution of V/Q ratios. PMID:3332289

  7. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  8. DCs pulsed with novel HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes against hepatitis C virus induced a broadly reactive anti-HCV-specific T lymphocyte response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongsheng Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the capacity of dendritic cells (DCs loaded with single or multiple-peptide mixtures of novel hepatitis C virus (HCV epitopes to stimulate HCV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL effector functions. METHODS: A bioinformatics approach was used to predict HLA-A2-restricted HCV-specific CTL epitopes, and the predicted peptides identified from this screen were synthesized. Subsequent IFN-γ ELISPOT analysis detected the stimulating function of these peptides in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from both chronic and self-limited HCV infected subjects (subjects exhibiting spontaneous HCV clearance. Mature DCs, derived in vitro from CD14(+ monocytes harvested from the study subjects by incubation with appropriate cytokine cocktails, were loaded with novel peptide or epitope peptide mixtures and co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes. Granzyme B (GrB and IFN-γ ELISPOT analysis was used to test for epitope-specific CTL responses. T-cell-derived cytokines contained in the co-cultured supernatant were detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We identified 7 novel HLA-A2-restricted HCV-specific CTL epitopes that increased the frequency of IFN-γ-producing T cells compared to other epitopes, as assayed by measuring spot forming cells (SFCs. Two epitopes had the strongest stimulating capability in the self-limited subjects, one found in the E2 and one in the NS2 region of HCV; five epitopes had a strong stimulating capacity in both chronic and self-limited HCV infection, but were stronger in the self-limited subjects. They were distributed in E2, NS2, NS3, NS4, and NS5 regions of HCV, respectively. We also found that mDCs loaded with novel peptide mixtures could significantly increase GrB and IFN-γ SFCs as compared to single peptides, especially in chronic HCV infection subjects. Additionally, we found that DCs pulsed with multiple epitope peptide mixtures induced a Th1-biased immune response. CONCLUSIONS: Seven novel and strongly stimulating HLA-A2-restricted HCV-specific CTL epitopes were identified. Furthermore, DCs loaded with multiple-epitope peptide mixtures induced epitope-specific CTLs responses.

  9. Spontaneous viral clearance, viral load, and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-infected patients with anti-HCV antibodies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Vincent; Mocroft, Amanda; Rockstroh, Juergen;

    2008-01-01

    , respectively. A greater HCV RNA level was associated with a greater chance of being infected with HCV genotype 1 (aOR, 1.60 per 1 log higher [95% CI, 1.36-1.88]). CONCLUSIONS: More than three-quarters of the HIV- and HCV Ab-positive patients in EuroSIDA showed active HCV replication. Viremia was more frequent......BACKGROUND: Variables influencing serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels and genotype distribution in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well known, nor are factors determining spontaneous clearance after exposure to HCV in this population. METHODS: All HCV...... antibody (Ab)-positive patients with HIV infection in the EuroSIDA cohort who had stored samples were tested for serum HCV RNA, and HCV genotyping was done for subjects with viremia. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance and HCV genotype 1. RESULTS: Of...

  10. Chimeric hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) subviral envelope particles induce efficient anti-HCV antibody production in animals pre-immunized with HBV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Elodie; Roingeard, Philippe

    2015-02-18

    The development of an effective, affordable prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a medical priority. The recently described chimeric HBV-HCV subviral envelope particles could potentially be used for this purpose, as they could be produced by industrial procedures adapted from those established for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine. We show here, in an animal model, that pre-existing immunity acquired through HBV vaccination does not influence the immunogenicity of the HCV E2 protein presented by these chimeric particles. Thus, these chimeric HBV-HCV subviral envelope particles could potentially be used as a booster in individuals previously vaccinated against HBV, to induce protective immunity to HCV. PMID:25596457

  11. DCs Pulsed with Novel HLA-A2-Restricted CTL Epitopes against Hepatitis C Virus Induced a Broadly Reactive Anti-HCV-Specific T Lymphocyte Response

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongsheng Guo; Henghui Zhang; Huiying Rao; Dong Jiang; Xu Cong; Bo Feng(Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road Hangzhou, 310027 P.R. China); Jianghua Wang; Lai Wei; Hongsong Chen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with single or multiple-peptide mixtures of novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) epitopes to stimulate HCV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector functions. METHODS: A bioinformatics approach was used to predict HLA-A2-restricted HCV-specific CTL epitopes, and the predicted peptides identified from this screen were synthesized. Subsequent IFN-γ ELISPOT analysis detected the stimulating function of these peptides in peripher...

  12. On the Road to Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banziger, George; Wagner, Anne Marie; Watts, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    For the College of Mt. Saint Joseph (Ohio) to remain financially sound and to inform decisions about resources and academic programs, college leaders needed to understand instructional costs: costs per credit hour; how these vary by department, program; and meaningful ratios of revenues to costs. A system of differential analysis was developed to…

  13. Measurements of RI dispersion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain the basic data for the design of unsealed-RI handling facilities, the dispersion ratios of RIs in the air under specific conditions were measured for those extensively used in Japan. The values should vary with the kinds of RI and their chemical forms. 25 ml of a sample solution in a 50 ml beaker was stirred with a magnetic stirrer at 300 - 400 rpm at room temperature with ventilation so that atmospheric wind velocity becomes 10 - 30 cm per sec. The dispersion ratios were obtained as the despersion per unit time (one hour). The large dispersion ratios were obtained in 3H, 14C, 35S, 75Se, 125I and 131I at 10-6 - 10-4 per hour. The detectable values were obtained in 32P, 75Se and sup(99m)Tc at 10-9 - 10-7 per hour. 22Na, 32P, 35S, 51Cr, 67Ga and 147Pm were scarcely detectable. The dispersion ratios of RIs differed largely with their chemical forms as well as the kinds. (J.P.N.)

  14. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants' performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  15. DYNAMIC TEACHING RATIO PEDAGOGIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiaying

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines an innovative pedagogic model, Dynamic Teaching Ratio (DTR Pedagogic Model, for learning design and teaching strategy aimed at the postsecondary technical education. The model draws on the theory of differential learning, which is widely recognized as an important tool for engaging students and addressing the individual needs of all students. The DTR model caters to the different abilities, interest or learning needs of students and provides different learning approaches based on a student’s learning ability. The model aims to improve students’ academic performance through increasing the lecturer-to-student ratio in the classroom setting. An experimental case study on the model was conducted and the outcome was favourable. Hence, a large-scale implementation was carried out upon the successful trial run. The paper discusses the methodology of the model and its application through the case study and the large-scale implementation.

  16. EVAM, A New Revolutionary Ratio?

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of the Economic Value Added Momentum ratio and to determine if Swedish non-real estate, non-financial companies been either positively or negatively affected by their Corporate Real Estate structure from an EVAM perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Using a regression analysis composed of the OMX large and mid cap non-real estate, non-financial companies, investigates the relationship between companies’ real estate holdings and their ability to susta...

  17. Declining sex ratios in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, B. B.; Brant, R; Seidel, J E; Jarrell, J F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in the proportion of annual live births that were male in Canada and to compare the trends with those in the United States. DESIGN: Analysis of census data. SETTING: Canada as a whole and 4 main regions (West, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic). SUBJECTS: All live births from 1930 to 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex ratio (expressed as the proportion of total live births that were male [male proportion]) overall and by region. RESULTS: The male proportion in Canada decr...

  18. DYNAMIC TEACHING RATIO PEDAGOGIC MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Jiaying; Wee Keat Kheng; Soh Guan Kiong

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines an innovative pedagogic model, Dynamic Teaching Ratio (DTR) Pedagogic Model, for learning design and teaching strategy aimed at the postsecondary technical education. The model draws on the theory of differential learning, which is widely recognized as an important tool for engaging students and addressing the individual needs of all students. The DTR model caters to the different abilities, interest or learning needs of students and provides different learning approaches ...

  19. Invariants and Likelihood Ratio Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    McCullagh, P.; Cox, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Because the likelihood ratio statistic is invariant under reparameterization, it is possible to make a large-sample expansion of the statistic itself and of its expectation in terms of invariants. In particular, the Bartlett adjustment factor can be expressed in terms of invariant combinations of cumulants of the first two log-likelihood derivatives. Such expansions are given, first for a scalar parameter and then for vector parameters. Geometrical interpretation is given where possible and s...

  20. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  1. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  2. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  3. An Approximation Ratio for Biclustering

    OpenAIRE

    Puolamäki, Kai; Hanhijärvi, Sami; Garriga, Gemma C

    2007-01-01

    The problem of biclustering consists of the simultaneous clustering of rows and columns of a matrix such that each of the submatrices induced by a pair of row and column clusters is as uniform as possible. In this paper we approximate the optimal biclustering by applying one-way clustering algorithms independently on the rows and on the columns of the input matrix. We show that such a solution yields a worst-case approximation ratio of 1+sqrt(2) under L1-norm for 0-1 valued matrices, and of 2...

  4. An Approximation Ratio for Biclustering

    CERN Document Server

    Puolamäki, Kai; Garriga, Gemma C

    2007-01-01

    The problem of biclustering consists of the simultaneous clustering of rows and columns of a matrix such that each of the submatrices induced by a pair of row and column clusters is as uniform as possible. In this paper we approximate the optimal biclustering by applying one-way clustering algorithms independently on the rows and on the columns of the input matrix. We show that such a solution yields a worst-case approximation ratio of 1+sqrt(2) under L1-norm for 0-1 valued matrices, and of 2 under L2-norm for real valued matrices.

  5. Line ratios for O VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New theoretical rates for electron excitation of the transitions 11S-23P and 11S-23P in O VII are used to calculate the line ratios R0 (forbidden line to intercombination line) and G0 (forbidden plus intercombination lines to resonance line). Our theoretical values of R0 are slightly larger than earlier calculations but our values of G0 are significantly lower than the earlier calculations. With our results the value of G0 1.0, from the solar observations of McKenzie and Landecker, would predict an electron temperature of 2.0 x 106 K, which is in good agreement with the temperature of 1.8 x 106 K predicted by recombination-ionization equilibrium calculations. (author)

  6. Understanding the Cash Flow-Fundamental Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Chyi-Lun Chiou

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of cash flow-fundamental ratio in forecasting stock market return and examines implications behind this ratio. By presuming the dynamics of cash flow-fundamental ratio I identify the relationship between economic uncertainty and risk premium. The evidence shows that cash flow-fundamental ratio is procyclical and is a predictor of cash flow growth and excess returns. The cash flow-fundamental ratio is proved to be negatively associated with risk premium. I als...

  7. Analisis Pengaruh Cash Position, Debt To Equity Ratio, Dan Return On Assets Terhadap Divident Payout Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Marlina, Lisa; Danica, Clara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the factors which is influence Dividend Payout Ratio in manufactur sector of Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI). The research use fundamental factors of company: financial ratio which is liquidity ratio represent by Cash Position (CP), leverage ratio represent by Debt Equity Ratio (DER) as independent variable, profitability ratio represent by Return On Assets (ROA), and dependent variable represent by Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR). The result of research in...

  8. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page ... known as: Microalbumin; ACR; UACR Formal name: Urine Albumin; Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Creatinine ; ...

  9. Pengaruh Inventory Turnover Ratio, Account Payable to Cost of Goods Sold Ratio, Net Working Capital to Total Asset Ratio, dan Debt Ratio Terhadap Gross Profit Margin

    OpenAIRE

    Fransisca, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Inventory Turnover Ratio, Accounts Payable to Cost of Goods Sold Ratio, Net Working Capital to Total Assets Ratio, and Debt Ratio influence simultaneously and partially on the gross profit margin in the consumer goods sector of manufacture companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange . This research is a type of associative causal research with research population are the consumer goods sector of manufacture companies listed on...

  10. p/e Geometric Mass Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    González-Martin, G R

    2000-01-01

    A previously proposed geometric definition of mass in terms of energy, in a geometrical unified theory, is used to obtain a numerical expression for a ratio of masses of geometrical excitations. The resultant geometric ratio is approximately equal the ratio of the proton to electron physical masses.

  11. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2,  were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio

  12. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size

  13. Striped ratio grids for scatter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Wang, Adam S.; Star-Lack, Josh

    2016-03-01

    Striped ratio grids are a new concept for scatter management in cone-beam CT. These grids are a modification of conventional anti-scatter grids and consist of stripes which alternate between high grid ratio and low grid ratio. Such a grid is related to existing hardware concepts for scatter estimation such as blocker-based methods or primary modulation, but rather than modulating the primary, the striped ratio grid modulates the scatter. The transitions between adjacent stripes can be used to estimate and subtract the remaining scatter. However, these transitions could be contaminated by variation in the primary radiation. We describe a simple nonlinear image processing algorithm to estimate scatter, and proceed to validate the striped ratio grid on experimental data of a pelvic phantom. The striped ratio grid is emulated by combining data from two scans with different grids. Preliminary results are encouraging and show a significant reduction of scatter artifact.

  14. Pengaruh Liquidity Ratio (Quick Ratio), Profitability Ratio (ROA dan ROE) Terhadap Dividend Payout Ratio pada Perusahaan Perbankan yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aldila, Devi Tri

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the influence quick ratio, return on asset and return on equity to dividend payout ratio of the banking corporation listing on Indonesian Stock Exchange since 2009 up to 2011. This study was also intended to know which performance meansures have the most significant effect to dividend payout ratio. Data that used in this research is financial statements from each company, publized through website www.idx.co.id and Indonesian Capital Market Directory ( ICMD ). Analysis ...

  15. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith Edward; Moser, William Elliott; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Knox, Kevin Jay

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  16. The Saving to Income Ratio: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Laurence H.

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that, whilst in the late 1960s to early 1970s saving rates were quite high, since then there has been a gradual and persistent reduction in the saving to income ratio (S/Y) - thus indicating a substantial change in behaviour. This note considers the ratio of private saving to an adjusted measure of income (S/Y*) finding evidence to suggest that whilst the S/Y ratio is a nonstationary random walk, the ratio S/Y* is stationary (random fluctuations about its mean). This 'me...

  17. Effect of particle aspect ratio in magnetorheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Jose R.; Carreón-González, Elizabeth; de Vicente, Juan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles in magnetorheology. Two systems are studied: conventional magnetorheological fluids prepared by dispersion of nickel nanowires, and inverse ferrofluids prepared by dispersion of glass fibers in a ferrofluid. In both cases the apparent yield stress is found to increase with aspect ratio in contradiction to available models in the literature. Experimental observations demonstrate that the particle volume fraction within the aggregates initially increases with increasing the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles. When the aspect ratio is further raised, a gel-like percolating structure forms inhibiting the formation of elongated clusters in the field direction.

  18. Sex ratio in relation to fathers' occupations.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, H O; Parker, L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the sex ratio of children varies between fathers of different occupations. METHODS: The sex ratio (the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls at birth) was calculated in relation to paternal occupation in the cohort of all 253,433 live births in Cumbria, north west England, from 1950-89. Exact binomial confidence intervals were used to estimate whether the sex ratio in each occupational category was significantly different from that for the rest o...

  19. Back Work Ratio of Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaver de la Fuente M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analizes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational soft ware helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine in let temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle.

  20. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  1. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze. PMID:26521052

  2. Sustainable sex ratio in lattice populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainaka, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yoshimura, J.

    2006-05-01

    We present a lattice model of mating populations. Simulation is performed by two different methods: local and global interactions. Simulation results account for the reason why the observed sex ratio is nearly one half in many animals. The male-biased sex ratio, such as in human populations, is also explained.

  3. Finite size effects in isobaric ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, S R

    2011-01-01

    The properties of isobaric ratios, between nuclei produced in the same reaction, are investigated using the canonical and grand-canonical statistical ensembles. Although the grand-canonical for- mulae furnish a means to correlate the ratios with the liquid drop parameters, finite size effects make it difficult to obtain their actual values from fitting nuclear collision data.

  4. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Cramer; L.H. Lumey

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet influenc

  5. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  6. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  7. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    OpenAIRE

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-01-01

    Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1), The Change of Debt to Equity ...

  8. CALIPSO Lidar Ratio Retrieval Over the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Damien B.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali H.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2011-01-01

    We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type

  9. Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...

  10. Sex Ratio at Birth in Croatia: Update

    OpenAIRE

    PAVIĆ, DARIO

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the sex ratio at birth is partially determined by environmental and social factors. The modern change in those factors serves as an explanation for the secular decline in sex ratio at birth in most of the industrialized countries. This article is the reexamination of the results from my previous communication in which no trend in sex ratio at birth was established for the Croatian data from 1946 to 2007. The data for the years 2008 to 2011 were added, which didn’...

  11. Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Garrett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.

  12. The Panofsky ratio in 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The branching ratios have been measured for γ-ray channels produced by π- stopping in liquid 3He. The results for the Panofsky ratio are P3 = ω(π-3He → π0t)/ω(π-3He → γt) = 2.83±0.07, and for the ratio of the radiative breakup channels, B3 = ω(π-3He → γnd+γnnp)/ω(π-3He → γt) = 1.35±0.11. (orig.)

  13. Losing money with a high Sharpe ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    A simple example shows that losing all money is compatible with a very high Sharpe ratio (as computed after losing all money). However, the only way that the Sharpe ratio can be high while losing money is that there is a period in which all or almost all money is lost. This note explores the best achievable Sharpe and Sortino ratios for investors who lose money but whose one-period returns are bounded below (or both below and above) by a known constant.

  14. IBA calculations of multipole mixing ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipole mixing ratios of gamma rays serve as a sensitive probe of nuclear structure. Directional measurements, mostly by γγ angular correlation and nuclear orientation, yield the mixing ratios delta with sign. Unfortunately the results are often double valued. Furthermore, comparison between experimental and theoretical conversion coefficients can give |delta|. The E2/M1 mixing ratio delta(E2/M1) is of special importance in studying collective phenomena and models for their description. Present study is carried out mostly in terms of IBA-1, which makes no distinction between proton and neutron bosons

  15. S V line ratios in the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufton, P. L.; Hibbert, A.; Keenan, F. P.; Kingston, A. E.; Doschek, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    In the present prediction of level populations and emission line intensity ratios for electron densities and temperatures appropriate to the sun, on the basis of new atomic data for S V, the electron impact collision rates for spin-forbidden transitions, and the intercombination transition spontaneous radiative rate, are noted to be substantially larger than previously ascertained. The S V intensity ratio is shown to be a useful electron density diagnostic for log N(e) greater than 11.5 ratios deduced from observations obtained with a slit spectrograph aboard Skylab generally agree with the theoretical values presented.

  16. S V line ratios in the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present prediction of level populations and emission line intensity ratios for electron densities and temperatures appropriate to the sun, on the basis of new atomic data for S V, the electron impact collision rates for spin-forbidden transitions and the intercombination transition spontaneous radiative rate are noted to be substantially larger than previously ascertained. The S V intensity ratio is shown to be a useful electron density diagnostic for log N(e) greater than 11.5 ratios deduced from observations obtained with a slit spectrograph aboard Skylab generally agree with the theoretical values presented. 29 references

  17. Analisis Hubungan Receivable Turnover Ratio, Inventory Turnover Ratio, dan Total Asset Turnover Ratio Dengan Kemampulabaan Perusahaan Pada PTPN III (Persero) Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Fitry Bertha H.

    2010-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menganalisis hubungan Receivable Turnover Ratio, Inventory Turnover Ratio, dan Total Asset Turnover Ratio dengan kemampulabaan perusahaan pada PTPN III (Persero) Medan. Penulis menarik hipotesis bahwa Receivable Turnover Ratio, Inventory Turnover Ratio, dan Total Asset Turnover Ratio berhubungan positif dengan kemampulabaan perusahaan pada PTPN III (Persero) Medan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode analisis deskriptif dan metode analisis K...

  18. Sex Ratio at Birth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The demographic structure of populations,particularly age and sex, has profound consequences for harmonious and sustainable social and economic development. Furthermore, analyzing sex ratios of populations is important in analyzing the development of the status Of women and girls.

  19. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  20. Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...

  1. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  2. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  3. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  4. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction

  5. Profit sharing ratios in mudaraba contract revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Zubair

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses three interconnected issues: Is the profit sharing between the Islamic banks and the depositors fair, can the profit sharing ratio between the banks and the borrowers on the one hand and between the banks and depositors on the other be identical in a two-tier mudaraba arrangement, and can the Central Bank of a country use the sharing of profit ratio as a tool for credit control in the economy?

  6. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  7. Explaining the Variance of Price Dividend Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, John H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a bound on the variance of the price-dividend ratio and a decomposition of the variance of the price-dividend ratio into components that reflect variation in expected future discount rates and variation in expected future dividend growth. Unobserved discount rates needed to make the variance bound and variance decomposition hold are characterized, and the variance bound and variance decomposition are tested for several discount rate models, including the consumption based ...

  8. Merger simulations with observed diversion ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Lars; Nilsen, Øivind Anti; Sørgard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    A common approach to merger simulations used in antitrust cases is to calibrate demand from market shares and a few additional parameters. When the products involved in the merger case are differentiated along several dimensions, the resulting diversion ratios may be very different from those based upon market shares. This again may affect the predicted post-merger price effects. This article shows how merger simulation can be improved by using observed diversion ratios. To illustrate the eff...

  9. Exchange ratio determination in a market equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Moretto; Stefano Rossi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The paper aims to present an exchange ratio for merging companies that incorporates the change in the level of riskiness. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is a theoretical one. Its main objective has been achieved exploiting standard modern finance results such as Capital Asset Pricing Model Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). Findings -The paper offers a formula that determines a risk-adjusted exchange ratio that takes into account both risk and synergy. Research limitations...

  10. Ratio versus difference comparators in choice.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbon, J; Fairhurst, S.

    1994-01-01

    Several theories in the learning literature describe decision rules for performance utilizing ratios and differences. The present paper analyzes rules for choice based on either delays to food, immediacies (the inverse of delays), or rates of food, combined factorially with a ratio or difference comparator. An experiment using the time-left procedure (Gibbon & Church, 1981) is reported with motivational differentials induced by unequal reinforcement durations. The preference results were comp...

  11. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis. PMID:19946367

  12. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  13. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  14. Duty-ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Dharan, Nadiv

    2012-01-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body, and have many different and important roles. These micro-machines move along filament tracks, and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty-ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II - a non-processive molecular machine with a low duty ratio - cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of non-processive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  15. Small Scale Variations in Carbon Oxygen Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research reported here is the development of a methodology for the measurement of small scale variations in chemical elements concentrations, in particular of carbon - oxygen ratio. Knowledge of the C/O ratio is of importance to many problems in various fields. Here we single out the application in obtaining important information about the oil fields. The most fundamental reservoir parameters - oil, gas and water content - are critical factors in determining how each oil field should be developed. It is well established that carbon to oxygen ratio log yields accurate and repeatable data that can be used to identify and monitor reserves depletion. Recent improvements in neutron generator and gamma detector technologies resulted in small devices which allowed through-tubing measurements. Although the ratio of carbon and oxygen yields is a measure of the amount of oil around the tool it should be realized that a carbon signal can originate from several sources including the borehole, the cement behind the casing, the formation rock and the formation fluid. In order to evaluate these contributions individually we are proposing the modification of the neutron generator by insertion of segmented associated alpha particle detector. From the measurement of time of flight spectra (alpha particle detector - start signal; gamma ray detector - stop signal) it would be possible to determine the location of gamma ray producing voxel and in such a way to determine radial variations in several chemical elements concentrations, in particular of carbon to oxygen ratio. (authors)

  16. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12C: 13C and 24Mg: 25Mg: 26Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author)

  17. A quantum framework for likelihood ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Rachael L; Ormerod, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to calculate precise likelihood ratios is fundamental to many STEM areas, such as decision-making theory, biomedical science, and engineering. However, there is no assumption-free statistical methodology to achieve this. For instance, in the absence of data relating to covariate overlap, the widely used Bayes' theorem either defaults to the marginal probability driven "naive Bayes' classifier", or requires the use of compensatory expectation-maximization techniques. Equally, the use of alternative statistical approaches, such as multivariate logistic regression, may be confounded by other axiomatic conditions, e.g., low levels of co-linearity. This article takes an information-theoretic approach in developing a new statistical formula for the calculation of likelihood ratios based on the principles of quantum entanglement. In doing so, it is argued that this quantum approach demonstrates: that the likelihood ratio is a real quality of statistical systems; that the naive Bayes' classifier is a spec...

  18. Advances in optical water isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometers routinely achieve impressive measurement precision and high throughput. In spite of this, a number of fundamental and practical problems are encountered. These are most notable in the case of water, arguably the most important molecule in the environment. Optical techniques to measure stable isotope ratios are able to address at least some of these issues; particularly, in relation to sample pretreatment and the difficulty of in-situ measurements. After discussing some general design criteria for infrared laser-based isotope ratio spectrometers, the case made above will be illustrated with a number of different instruments in applications from earthbound to the atmospheric: From laboratory based ice-core water isotope analyses to in-situ water isotope measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. (author)

  19. Arrival direction dependence of muon charge ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the geomagnetic influence on the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons observed at large zenith angles, the caculations of the motion of muons in the atmosphere have been carried out. The survival probabilities are computed as the function of momenta at sea level, zenith and azimuthal angles. The derived survival probabilities have been used together with a simplified model to give some qualitative estimations of the geomagnetic effects on the charge ratio in the case of the MUTRON spectrometer. It turns out that the geomagnetic effect on the charge ratio at sea level is still not negligible for muons of high momenta when the observations are made at large zenith angles or in east-west directions. (author)

  20. The CN isotopic ratios in comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfroid, J.; Jehin, E.; Hutsemékers, D.; Cochran, A.; Zucconi, J.-M.; Arpigny, C.; Schulz, R.; Stüwe, J. A.; Ilyin, I.

    2009-08-01

    Our aim is to determine the isotopic ratios 12C/13C and 14N/15N in a variety of comets and link these measurements to the formation and evolution of the solar system. The 12C/13C and 14N/15N isotopic ratios are measured for the CN radical by means of high-resolution optical spectra of the R branch of the B-X (0, 0) violet band. 23 comets from different dynamical classes have been observed, sometimes at various heliocentric and nucleocentric distances, in order to estimate possible variations of the isotopic ratios in parent molecules. The 12C/13C and 14N/15N isotopic ratios in CN are remarkably constant (average values of, respectively, 91.0 ± 3.6 and 147.8 ± 5.7) within our measurement errors, for all comets whatever their origin or heliocentric distance. While the carbon isotopic ratio does agree with the terrestrial value (89), the nitrogen ratio is a factor of two lower than the terrestrial value (272), indicating a fractionation in the early solar system, or in the protosolar nebula, common to all the comets of our sample. This points towards a common origin of the comets independently of their birthplaces, and a relationship between HCN and CN. Appendices and Table [see full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 268.C-5570, 270.C-5043, 073.C-0525, 274.C-5015 and 075.C-0355(A).

  1. Statistical inference for the quintile share ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Langel, Matti; Tillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Quintile Share Ratio (or QSR) has become a very popular measure of inequality. In 2001, the European Council decided that income inequality in European Union member states should be described using two indicators: the Gini Index and the QSR. The QSR is generally defined as the ratio of the total income earned by the richest 20% of the population relative to that earned by the poorest 20%. Thus, it can be expressed using quantile shares, where a quantile share is the share...

  2. Employment protection and capital-labor ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Janiak, Alexandre; Wasmer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Employment protection (EPL) has a well known negative impact on labor flows as well as an ambiguous but often negative effect on employment. In contrast, its impact on capital accumulation and capital-labor ratio is less well understood. The available empirical evidence suggests a non-monotonic relation between capital-labor ratios and EPL: positive at very low levels of EPL, and then negative. We explore the theoretical effects of EPL on physical capital in a model of a firm facing labor fri...

  3. Employment Protection and Capital-Labor Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Janiak, Alexandre; Wasmer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Employment protection (EPL) has a well known negative impact on labor flows as well as an ambiguous but often negative effect on employment. In contrast, its impact on capital accumulation and capital-labor ratio is less well understood. The available empirical evidence suggests a non-monotonic relation between capital-labor ratios and EPL: positive at very low levels of EPL, and then negative. We explore the theoretical effects of EPL on physical capital in a model of a firm facing labor fri...

  4. EPL and capital-labor ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Janiak; Etienne Wasmer

    2012-01-01

    Employment protection (EPL) has a well known negative impact on labor flows as well as an ambiguous but often negative effect on employment. In contrast, its impact on capital accumulation and capital-labor ratio is less well understood. The available empirical evidence suggests a hump-shaped relation between capital-labor ratios and EPL: positive at very low levels of EPL, and then negative. We explore the theoretical effects of EPL on physical capital in a model of a firm facing labor frict...

  5. Criminalization of Homosexuality and Sex Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activities between consenting adults of the same sex are still criminalized in more than one third of the countries in the world despite a global wave of decriminalization in the past sixty years. This paper empirically investigates the effect of sex ratios, i.e. relative number of men to women, on the criminalization of same-sex sexual conducts. At the individual level, people in high sex ratio countries are found to be more hostile against homosexuality and the homosexuals than their...

  6. Corrections to measurements of pion capture ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors conclude that the electromagnetic corrections to the C/O pion capture ratios deduced from the summed intensities of pionic Balmer series are small, and much less than their experimental errors. The magnitude of the correction due to nuclear absorption depends on the initial angular momentum distribution which in turn depends on molecular structure. The dependence of the capture ratios on molecular structure has raised serious questions about the effect on dose calculations for pion radiotherapy and on the definition of tissue equivalence for pions. (U.K.)

  7. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  8. Effect of grid aspect ratio on convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, P. E. O.; Venkateswaran, S.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of high-aspect-ratio grids on algorithm convergence are considered by means of vector stability theory and computational experiments. The results indicate that approximately factored implicit schemes experience convergence deterioration because of nonoptimum local time-stepping procedures and increased need for viscous preconditioning. Based on this insight, an enhanced algorithm is devised using improved selection of the local time step, appropriate definition of the viscous preconditioning matrix, and proper implementation of the boundary conditions. The new algorithm provides uniformly efficient convergence at all aspect ratios for both Euler and Navier-Stokes computations for a variety of test problems.

  9. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  10. Restrictions on commutativity ratios in finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Heffernan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider two commutativity ratios $Pr(G$ and $f(G$ in a finite group $G$ and examine the properties of $G$ when these ratios are `large'. We show that if $Pr(G > frac{7}{24}$, then $G$ is metabelian and we give threshold results in the cases where $G$ is insoluble and $G'$ is nilpotent. We also show that if $f(G > frac{1}{2}$, then $f(G = frac{n+1}{2n}$, for some natural number $n$.

  11. Is Canada's sex ratio in decline?

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, L; Armson, B A

    1997-01-01

    In this issue (see pages 37 to 41) Dr. Bruce B. Allan and associates report a small but statistically significant decrease--of about 0.2%--in the proportion of male live births in Canada over the period 1970-90. In this editorial, factors that have been reported in the literature to influence sex ratio are examined within a Canadian context. The authors suggest that although the reasons for the apparent decline in the sex ratio in Canada are unclear, the increasing use of ovulation induction ...

  12. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  13. Sulphur isotope ratios in Philippine geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data on sulfur isotope ratios in dissolved sulfate, H2S gas, anhydrite and pyrite minerals in four Philippine geothermal fields - Palinpinon, Mahanagdong, Mt. Apo and Bacon-Manito. Isotope ratios are used to determine the source of sulfur species in each geothermal system. Fluid temperature estimates using sulfur pairs are also included in the discussion. Finally, oxygen isotope distribution in dissolved sulfate, anhydrite and water is introduced. Dissolved sulfate sulfur isotope ratios can be divided into three groups: heavy (δ34S>15 per mille CDT), light (∼ 0 per mille) and transitional or mixed ratios (1-15 per mille). The heavy samples represent waters that have attained some degree of isotopic equilibrium with co-existing sulfides, either in the present geothermal environments or at deeper, hotter levels of the hydrothermal systems. Most of the well fluids in Palinpinon, Mahanagdong and Bacon-Manito belong to this group. Light fluids, on the other hand, are typical of surface and shallow thermal features, where H2S gas is oxidized and converted to SO4. The δ34SSO4 ratios here mirror that of the source H2S. Slightly heavy ratios, characteristic of Mt. Apo well waters, are apparently produced by dilution of 'heavy' fluids with 'light' waters, in this specific case the light end-member being steam condensate. δ34SH2S of well samples in Palinpinon, Mahanagdong and Bacon-Manito are in the vicinity of 0 per mille, similar to that of magmatic H2S and H2S produced from SO2 disproportionation. This implies that geothermal H2S in these fields are derived either directly or indirectly from a magmatic source. In Mt. Apo, δ34SH2S are depleted at -3 to -4 per mille. Although the ultimate source is still magmatic in origin, the depleted ratios are thought to be effects of extensive degassing of an originally δ34S-enriched reservoir fluid. Sulfur ratios in anhydrite are similar to those of dissolved SO4, suggesting that dissolved sulfate is the

  14. Leverage ratios and Basel III: proposed Basel III leverage and supplementary leverage ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Roedl, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The Basel III Leverage Ratio, as originally agreed upon in December 2010, has recently undergone revisions and updates – both in relation to those proposed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision – as well as proposals introduced in the United States. Whilst recent proposals have been introduced by the Basel Committee to improve, particularly, the denominator component of the Leverage Ratio, new requirements have been introduced in the U.S to upgrade and increase these ratios, and it is...

  15. The Period-Ratio and Mass-Ratio Correlation in Extra-Solar Multiple Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Hung, Wen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Employing the data from orbital periods and masses of extra-solar planets in 166 multiple planetary systems, the period-ratio and mass-ratio of adjacent planet pairs are studied. The correlation between the period-ratio and mass-ratio is confirmed and found to have a correlation coefficient of 0.5303 with a 99% confidence interval (0.3807, 0.6528). A comparison with the distribution of synthetic samples from a Monte Carlo simulation reveals the imprint of planet-planet interactions on the formation of adjacent planet pairs in multiple planetary systems.

  16. Ratio Analysis in Higher Education: Caveat Emptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvio, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Ratio analyses are useful, but care must be taken not to overstate their importance or disregard their limitations. Internally designated, nonstandardized recording techniques in interinstitutional comparisons, inflationary distortions in internal analysis, and judgments made on trends can obstruct the manager's efforts to assess a higher…

  17. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  18. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  19. Directed Percolation and the Golden Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Dammer, Stephan M.; Dahmen, Silvio R.; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2001-01-01

    Applying the theory of Yang-Lee zeros to nonequilibrium critical phenomena, we investigate the properties of a directed bond percolation process for a complex percolation parameter p. It is shown that for the Golden Ratio p=(1(+/-)sqrt(5))/2 and for p=2 the survival probability of a cluster can be computed exactly.

  20. Measurement of the eta decay branching ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Bargholtz, C; Bogoslawsky, D; Calén, H; Capellaro, F; Clement, H; Demirörs, L; Ekström, C; Fransson, K; Geren, L; Gustafsson, L; Höistad, Bo; Ivanov, G; Jacewicz, M; Jiganov, E; Johansson, T; Keleta, S; Koch, I; Kullander, Sven; Kupsc, A; Kuznetsov, A; Laukhin, I V; Lindberg, K; Marciniewski, P; Meier, R; Morosov, B; Oelert, W; Pauly, C; Pettersson, H; Petukhov, Yu P; Povtorejko, A; Ruber, Roger J M Y; Schönning, K; Scobel, W; Shafigullin, R; Shwartz, B; Skorodko, T Yu; Sopov, V; Stepaniak, J; Chernyshov, V; Tegnér, P E; Engblom, P T; Tikhomirov, V; Turowiecki, A; Wagner, G J; Wolke, M; Yamamoto, A; Zabierowski, J; Zartova, I; Zlomanczuk, Yu; Bargholtz, Chr.

    2007-01-01

    The reaction pd->3He eta at threshold was used to provide a clean source of eta mesons for decay studies with the WASA detector at CELSIUS. The branching ratio of the decay eta->pi+pi-e+e- is measured to be (4.6+/-1.4+/-0.5)x10^-4.

  1. Environmental risk and sex ratio in newborns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterka, Miroslav; Likovský, Zbyněk; Peterková, Renata

    Vol. 23. Dordrecht: Springer, 2007 - (Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P.), s. 295-319 ISBN 978-1-4020-4830-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : newborn sex ratio * spontaneous abortion s Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  2. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  3. Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

  4. Ratio method of measuring $w$ boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng; /SUNY, Stony Brook

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in D0 experiment. Instead of extracting M{sub W} from the fitting of W {yields} e{nu} fast Monte Carlo simulations to W {yields} e{nu} data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W {yields} e{nu} data and Z {yields} ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (M{sub W}/M{sub Z}). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W {yields} e{nu} and Z {yields} ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb{sup -1} D0 Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives M{sub W} = 80435 {+-} 43(stat) {+-} 26(sys) MeV.

  5. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Financial Responsibility § 668.172 Financial... effect of changes in accounting principles, and the effect of changes in accounting estimates; (2)...

  6. CHROMATIC ZEROS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-hock Peng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we investigate $au^n$, where au=fracc{1+sqrt{5}}{2}$is the golden ratio as chro-matic roots. Using some properties of {sc Fibonacci} numbers, we prove that $au^n (nin mathbb{N}$, cannot be roots of any chromatic polynomial.

  7. Compression ratio effect on methane HCCI combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S. M.; Pitz, W.; Smith, J. R.; Westbrook, C.

    1998-09-29

    We have used the HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport) chemical kinetics code to simulate HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion of methane-air mixtures. HCT is applied to explore the ignition timing, bum duration, NOx production, gross indicated efficiency and gross IMEP of a supercharged engine (3 atm. Intake pressure) with 14:1, 16:l and 18:1 compression ratios at 1200 rpm. HCT has been modified to incorporate the effect of heat transfer and to calculate the temperature that results from mixing the recycled exhaust with the fresh mixture. This study uses a single control volume reaction zone that varies as a function of crank angle. The ignition process is controlled by adjusting the intake equivalence ratio and the residual gas trapping (RGT). RGT is internal exhaust gas recirculation which recycles both thermal energy and combustion product species. Adjustment of equivalence ratio and RGT is accomplished by varying the timing of the exhaust valve closure in either 2-stroke or 4-stroke engines. Inlet manifold temperature is held constant at 300 K. Results show that, for each compression ratio, there is a range of operational conditions that show promise of achieving the control necessary to vary power output while keeping indicated efficiency above 50% and NOx levels below 100 ppm. HCT results are also compared with a set of recent experimental data for natural gas.

  8. From group diffusion to ratio bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Price

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The group-diffusion effect is the tendency for people to judge themselves to be less likely to experience a negative outcome as the total number of people exposed to the threat increases --- even when the probability of the outcome is explicitly presented (Yamaguchi, 1998. In Experiment 1 we replicated this effect for two health threat scenarios using a variant of Yamaguchi's original experimental paradigm. In Experiment 2, we showed that people also judge themselves to be less likely to be selected in a lottery as the number of people playing the lottery increases. In Experiment 3, we showed that explicitly presenting the number of people expected to be selected eliminates the group-diffusion effect, and in Experiment 4 we showed that presenting the number expected to be affected by a health threat without presenting the total number exposed to the threat produces a reverse effect. We propose, therefore, that the group-diffusion effect is related to the ratio bias. Both effects occur when people make risk or likelihood judgments based on information presented as a ratio. The difference is that the group-diffusion effect occurs when the denominator of the relevant ratio is more salient than the numerator, while the ratio bias occurs when the numerator is more salient than the denominator.

  9. Determination of Biotin: Antibody Molar Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the biotinylation yield (number of biotin molecules per molecule of antibody) is important to ensure that the MAb has maintained its immunoreactivity. If the biotinylation of the MAb is carried out with a molar ratio of biotin:antibody ~10:1, then the number of biotins per MAb usually ranges between 6 and 8

  10. Thermal evolution and Urey ratio of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, A.-C.; Tosi, N.; Grott, M.; Breuer, D.

    2015-05-01

    The upcoming InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission, to be launched in 2016, will carry out the first in situ Martian heat flux measurement, thereby providing an important baseline to constrain the present-day heat budget of the planet and, in turn, the thermal and chemical evolution of its interior. The surface heat flux can be used to constrain the amount of heat-producing elements present in the interior if the Urey ratio (Ur)—the planet's heat production rate divided by heat loss—is known. We used numerical simulations of mantle convection to model the thermal evolution of Mars and determine the present-day Urey ratio for a variety of models and parameters. We found that Ur is mainly sensitive to the efficiency of mantle cooling, which is associated with the temperature dependence of the viscosity (thermostat effect), and to the abundance of long-lived radiogenic isotopes. If the thermostat effect is efficient, as expected for the Martian mantle, assuming typical solar system values for the thorium-uranium ratio and a bulk thorium concentration, simulations show that the present-day Urey ratio is approximately constant, independent of model parameters. Together with an estimate of the average surface heat flux as determined by InSight, models of the amount of heat-producing elements present in the primitive mantle can be constrained.

  11. Muscle: Bone ratios in beef rib sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, H G; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L; McCartor, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-eight steers and thirty heifers (14 to 17 months of age, from F(1) Hereford × Brahman cows bred to Angus or Hereford bulls), were either forage-fed for 123 days on millet-bermudagrass pasture or grain-fed for 90 days on a high-concentrate diet and were then commercially slaughtered. Warm carcass weights ranged from 167·8 kg to 324·3 kg. At 24 h post mortem, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel (1) assigned scores or took measurements on each carcass for all factors used in yield grading and quality grading, (2) measured the length of hind leg (HL) and carcass length (CL) and (3) assigned a score for carcass muscling (MS) and, as appropriate, made an adjusted longissimus muscle area (ALA) evaluation. The 9th-10th-11th rib section from one side of each carcass was physically separated into longissimus muscle, fat, 'other soft tissue' and bone and ether extract determinations of the longissimus muscle and 'other soft tissue' components were made and used to adjust the yields of each of these components to a fat-free basis. Muscle to bone ratios ranged from 2·38 to 4·37. With both age and carcass weight held constant, diet, breed and sex explained only 35·8% of the variation in muscle to bone ratio. The best simple correlation with muscle to bone ratio was ALA/CL (r = ·59). Other measures significantly correlated with muscle to bone ratio included ALA (r = 0·55), MS (r = 0·50) and carcass weight (r = 0·49). Multiple regression analyses identified a three-variable subset comprised of ALA, carcass weight and CL which was related (P < 0·01) to muscle to bone ratio R(2) = 0·41). Data suggest that muscle to bone ratios differ widely among beef carcasses of similar genetic-management history and that there are carcass measures useful for predicting muscle to bone ratio. PMID:22054706

  12. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  13. Pengaruh Current Ratio, Leverage, Dividend Payout Ratio Dan Return On Equity Terhadap Price Earning Ratio Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Tahun 2005-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Putri Ayu Lia

    2010-01-01

    This research has a purpose to know that current ratio, leverage, dividend payout ratio and return on equity have an effect to price earning ratio on manufacturing company in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2005-2008. The independend variable is current ratio, leverage, dividend payout ratio, return on equity and the dependend variable is price earning ratio. Number of population in this research is 143companies that has been listed in Indonesia stock exchange since 2005-2008. The sample was sele...

  14. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam; Gygax, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality. PMID:26257681

  15. Liquid Asset Ratios and Financial Sector Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Marie Gulde

    1997-01-01

    As a monetary, selective credit, and government debt-management instrument, a liquid asset ratio is generally inefficient and may introduce serious distortions. However, it may play a limited role as a prudential instrument, particularly in less sophisticated banking systems or in the context of currency board arrangements. Recent trends in the use of this instrument have been to either abolish it altogether or to design it so as to minimize distortions. When necessary, these changes have bee...

  16. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry in oceanic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is an important and well established method in many scientific fields as analytical chemistry (isotope dilution MS), physical chemistry, nuclear sciences and technology, environmental, agricultural, geological isotope dating, archaeometric, cosmic, bioavailability and nutrition studies, food authentication and adulteration control, elucidation of chemical reaction mechanism, isotope effect studies on chemical reactions and isotope enrichment/separation processes. This paper is aimed to provide a brief summary of IRMS contribution to sea and oceanic studies

  17. Quantum Noise-to-Sensibility Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Escher, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The quantum variables that can be accessed directly by experiments are described by observables. Therefore, physical parameters can only be evaluated indirectly, via estimations based on experimental measurement results. I show that the quantum sensitivity, or the quantum statistical uncertainty in single-parameter estimation, can be defined as the (minimal) ratio between noise and sensibility with a parameter of a well-calibrated observable. Among one of its applications, I show that, measur...

  18. Baryon Ratios in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAZhong-Biao; MIAOHong; GAOChong-Shou

    2003-01-01

    A way to calculate ratios of baryon produced from quark gluon plasma in relativistic heavy ion collisions is presented. It is assumed that at the beginning of the hadronlzation there are diquarks and anti-diquarks in the quark matter. The number of three-quark states is distributed between the corresponding multiplets, and hadronic decays are taken into account. The results are shown at last.

  19. Detection Strategies for Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The w...

  20. Information ratio analysis of momentum strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernando F.; A. Christian Silva; Ju-Yi Yen

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, momentum or trend following strategies have become an established part of the investor toolbox. We introduce a new way of analyzing momentum strategies by looking at the information ratio (IR, average return divided by standard deviation). We calculate the theoretical IR of a momentum strategy, and show that if momentum is mainly due to the positive autocorrelation in returns, IR as a function of the portfolio formation period (look-back) is very different from momentum ...

  1. Analysis of changes in federal financial ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Belchoff, Boris S.

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, Congress has passed legislation in an attempt to improve federal accounting practices. Furthermore, the Office of Management and Budget standardized the format for federal entities to follow in preparing their annual financial statements. The central objective of this study was to analyze the patterns over time in federal financial ratios created from data contained in these annual statements. The study examined the form and content of the new federal financial stateme...

  2. The Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, Cosimo; Santoro, Nicola; Caprio, Sonia; Kim, Grace; Lartaud, Derek; Shaw, Melissa; Pierpont, Bridget; Weiss, Ram

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio is associated with insulin resistance (IR) in a large multiethnic cohort of obese youths. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Obese youths (1,452) had an oral glucose tolerance test and a fasting lipid profile. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR and evaluated, in a subgroup of 146 obese youths, by the hyperinsulinemic-eugl...

  3. Measurements of $\\Xi_c^{+}$ Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Wahl, M; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Luiggi, E; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M S; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2003-01-01

    Using data collected by the fixed target Fermilab experiment FOCUS, we measure the branching ratios of the Cabibbo favored decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$, $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\bar{K}^{*}(892)^0$, and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Lambda^0K^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be $0.91\\pm0.11\\pm0.04$, $0.78\\pm0.16\\pm0.06$, and $0.28\\pm0.06\\pm0.06$, respectively. We report the first observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^+K^-$ and we measure the branching ratio relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be $0.16\\pm0.06\\pm0.01$. We also set 90% confidence level upper limits for $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\phi$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^*(1690)^0(\\Sigma^+ K^-) K^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 and 0.05, respectively. We find an indication of the decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Omega^-K^{+}\\pi^+$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^{*}(1385)^+ \\bar{K}^0$ and set 90% confidence level upper limits for the branching ratios with respect to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 a...

  4. Elemental ratios in stars vs planets

    CERN Document Server

    Thiabaud, Amaury; Alibert, Yann; Leya, Ingo; Mezger, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Context. The chemical composition of planets is an important constraint for planet formation and subsequent differentiation. While theoretical studies try to derive the compositions of planets from planet formation models in order to link the composition and formation process of planets, other studies assume that the elemental ratios in the formed planet and in the host star are the same. Aims. Using a chemical model combined with a planet formation model, we aim to link the composition of stars with solar mass and luminosity with the composition of the hosted planets. For this purpose, we study the three most important elemental ratios that control the internal structure of a planet: Fe/Si, Mg/Si, and C/O. Methods. A set of 18 different observed stellar compositions was used to cover a wide range of these elemental ratios. The Gibbs energy minimization assumption was used to derive the composition of planets, taking stellar abundances as proxies for nebular abundances, and to generate planets in a self-consi...

  5. Database likelihood ratios and familial DNA searching

    CERN Document Server

    Slooten, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Familial Searching is the process of searching in a DNA database for relatives of a given individual. It is well known that in order to evaluate the genetic evidence in favour of a certain given form of relatedness between two individuals, one needs to calculate the appropriate likelihood ratio, which is in this context called a Kinship Index. Suppose that the database contains, for a given type of relative, at most one related individual. Given prior probabilities of being the relative for all persons in the database, we derive the likelihood ratio for each database member in favour of being that relative. This likelihood ratio takes all the Kinship Indices between target and members of the database into account. We also compute the corresponding posterior probabilities. We then discuss two ways of selecting a subset from the database that contains the relative with a known probability, or at least a useful lower bound thereof. We discuss the relation between these approaches and illustrate them with Familia...

  6. Clinical significance of elevated serum aminotransferases levels in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    /L) respectively. Similarly, 9.23% and 12.54% had serum AST and ALT levels < 40 U/L. Frequency of elevated AST and ALT levels in individuals who were sero - negative for both infections (HBV or HCV) were 10.66% and 13.33%, respectively. 56.95% of anti - HCV antibody positive subjects had serum ALT elevation of less than two times the upper level of normal (ALT = 80 U/L). Conclusion: The current study revealed that 90.76% and 87.45% had elevated AST and ALT levels (ALT = 40 U/L) respectively. We concluded from this study that biochemical markers (AST, ALT and AST: ALT ratios) are useful, dependable and highly specific parameters for monitoring HCV infected patients (particularly asymptomatic) and frequent retesting is recommended to assess progression or regression of chronic liver disease. (author)

  7. Financial Ratios - Reveal How a Business Is Doing?

    OpenAIRE

    MIRELA MONEA

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims to present the main financial ratios which provide a picture about company’s profitability, its financial position, use of its assets efficiency, its long-term debt financing. Discussion is focused on: profitability ratios, short-term financial ratios, activity ratios, long-term debt ratios or dividend policy ratios. Also, will try to answer at the following main questions: What financial ratios analysis tells us? What the users of these needs to know?

  8. Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.

  9. A two parameter ratio-product-ratio estimator using auxiliary information

    CERN Document Server

    Chami, Peter S; Thomas, Doneal

    2012-01-01

    We propose a two parameter ratio-product-ratio estimator for a finite population mean in a simple random sample without replacement following the methodology in Ray and Sahai (1980), Sahai and Ray (1980), Sahai and Sahai (1985) and Singh and Ruiz Espejo (2003). The bias and mean square error of our proposed estimator are obtained to the first degree of approximation. We derive conditions for the parameters under which the proposed estimator has smaller mean square error than the sample mean, ratio and product estimators. We carry out an application showing that the proposed estimator outperforms the traditional estimators using groundwater data taken from a geological site in the state of Florida.

  10. Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.

  11. Does the Mother or Father Determine the Offspring Sex Ratio? Investigating the Relationship between Maternal Digit Ratio and Offspring Sex Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Beom; Oh, Jin Kyu; Kim, Kwang Taek; Yoon, Sang Jin; Kim, Soo Woong

    2015-01-01

    Objective In mammals, high parental testosterone levels present around the time of conception are thought to skew offspring sex ratio toward sons. The second to fourth digit ratio (digit ratio) is now widely accepted as a negative correlate of prenatal testosterone. Thus, we investigated the association between digit ratio and offspring sex ratio. Methods A total of 508 Korean patients (257 males and 251 females) less than 60 years old who had one or more offspring were prospectively enrolled...

  12. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....

  13. Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV

  14. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  15. Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Vujović; Srdjan Popović; Ljiljana Mrvošević Marojević; Miomira Ivović; Milina Tančić-Gajić; Miloš Stojanović; Marina, Ljiljana V.; Marija Barać; Branko Barać; Milena Kovačević; Dragana Duišin; Jasmina Barišić; Djordjević, Miroslav L.; Dragan Micić

    2014-01-01

    Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D) associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT) and male to female transsexuals (MFT) and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ve...

  16. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

    2010-11-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found

  17. Text to reference ratios in scientific journals

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Anne E.; Roma M. Harris; Nicholls, Paul T.

    1990-01-01

    I n 1987, Peter Junars, the editor of Limnology and Oceanography, reported that the ratio of printed pages of text t o nunber of references had decreased during the period 1980 to 1987. I n other words, authors were using an increasing nunber o f references - an observation which was o f sane concern because Limnozoology and Oceanography publishes only a fixed nunber of pages per year. I n the present study, an attempt was made t o detenine whether journals from other scientific discipl...

  18. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  19. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  20. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  1. The ratio FK/Fpi in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Durr, S; Hoelbling, C; Katz, S D; Krieg, S; Kurth, T; Lellouch, L; Lippert, T; Ramos, A; Szabo, K K

    2010-01-01

    We determine the ratio FK/Fpi in QCD with Nf=2+1 flavors of sea quarks, based on a series of lattice calculations with three different lattice spacings, large volumes and a simulated pion mass reaching down to about 190 MeV. We obtain FK/Fpi=1.192 +/- 0.007(stat) +/- 0.006(syst). This result is then used to give an updated value of the CKM matrix element |Vus|. The unitarity relation for the first row of this matrix is found to be well observed.

  2. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores treated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcome the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better thermal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor

  3. Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Svetlana; Popović, Srdjan; Mrvošević Marojević, Ljiljana; Ivović, Miomira; Tančić-Gajić, Milina; Stojanović, Miloš; Marina, Ljiljana V.; Barać, Marija; Barać, Branko; Kovačević, Milena; Duišin, Dragana; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjević, Miroslav L.; Micić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D) associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT) and male to female transsexuals (MFT) and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D : 4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male's left hand ratio was lower than in control female's left hand. There was no difference in 2D : 4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D : 4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D : 4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism. PMID:24982993

  4. On Quadratic Programming with a Ratio Objective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskara, Aditya; Manokaran, Rajsekar; Vijayaraghavan, Aravindan

    2011-01-01

    Quadratic Programming (QP) is the well-studied problem of maximizing over {-1,1} values the quadratic form \\sum_ij a_ij x_i x_j. QP captures many known combinatorial optimization problems and SDP techniques have given optimal approximation algorithms for many of these problems. We extend this body of work by initiating the study of Quadratic Programming problems where the variables take values in the domain {-1,0,1}. The specific problem we study is: QP-Ratio: max_{-1,0,1}^n (x^T A x) / (x^T x). This objective function is a natural relative of several well studied problems. Yet, it is a good testbed for both algorithms and complexity because the techniques used for quadratic problems for the {-1,1} and {0,1} domains do not seem to carry over to the {-1,0,1} domain. We give approximation algorithms and evidence for the hardness of approximating the QP-Ratio problem. We consider an SDP relaxation obtained by adding constraints to the natural SDP relaxation for this problem and obtain an O(n^{2/7}) algorithm for...

  5. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  6. Impact of Inflation Accounting Application on Key Financial Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın KARAPINAR; Figen ZAİF; Rıdvan BAYIRLI

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of inflation accounting on key financal ratios. To this end, the financial statements of 132 companies listed in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) are studied. An analyis of paired samples t test has been conducted on the financial ratios of the companies. The results show that a significant difference between adjusted cost based financial ratios and historical cost based financial ratios occurs only for current, ratios, equity ratios and noncurrent turnover...

  7. 6 566例孕妇产前抗-HCV、抗-HIV、梅毒感染的检测结果分析%6 566 cases of pregnancy prenatal detection results of anti-HCV,anti-HIV, syphilis infection analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂飞; 黄吉娥; 胡讯; 赵鲁强; 刘琦; 李隐逸; 罗永忠; 田振; 曾小菁

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨围产期孕妇产前检测相关感染性疾病血清学指标的临床意义,了解孕妇产前人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)、丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)和梅毒的感染状况,为孕产妇感染经血源传染病提供客观依据,从而建立有效的防治母婴传播措施.方法:对6 566名孕妇进行血清检测,丙型肝病毒抗体(抗-HCV)、人类免疫缺陷病毒抗体(抗-HIV1+2)和梅毒抗体(抗-TP)采用酶联免疫吸附实验(ELISA).结果:6 566例孕妇中抗-HCV阳性19例(0.29%);梅毒螺旋体抗体初筛阳性68例(1.04%);梅毒螺旋体颗粒凝集确诊试验(TPPA)阳性38例(0.58%);抗-HIV阳性2例(0.03%).结论:揭示孕妇尚存在HCV、HIV、梅毒感染情况,孕期常规检测上述实验指标,有助于早期发现母婴健康隐患,有效阻断母婴传播,对优生优育以及降低医务人员的职业暴露风险有重要的意义.

  8. Anticorpo contra o vírus C da hepatite em pacientes sob programa de hemodiálise em Salvador, BA, Brasil Anti-HCV in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Salvador, BA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Genoile Oliveira; Cotrim, Helma P.; MOTA Eduardo; Paraná, Raymundo; Nelma Pereira SANTANA; Luiz LYRA

    2001-01-01

    Racional - A prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C em pacientes sob programa de hemodiálise tem sido amplamente variável. Objetivos -- Determinar a prevalência do anticorpo contra o vírus C da hepatite (anti-VHC) em pacientes sob hemodiálise em Salvador, BA e sua associação com transfusão de sangue, duração de hemodiálise e elevação de alaninoaminotransferase. Métodos - Durante um período de 17 meses, foram avaliados todos os pacientes em programa de hemodiálise, totalizando 395 in...

  9. Carbon to oxygen ratios in extrasolar planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David J.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Farihi, Jay; Koester, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    Observations of small extrasolar planets with a wide range of densities imply a variety of planetary compositions and structures. Currently, the only technique to measure the bulk composition of extrasolar planetary systems is the analysis of planetary debris accreting onto white dwarfs, analogous to abundance studies of meteorites. We present measurements of the carbon and oxygen abundances in the debris of planetesimals at ten white dwarfs observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, along with C/O ratios of debris in six systems with previously reported abundances. We find no evidence for carbon-rich planetesimals, with C/O ) = -0.92, and oxygen-rich objects with C/O less than or equal to that of the bulk Earth. The latter group may have a higher mass fraction of water than the Earth, increasing their relative oxygen abundance.

  10. Cosmological parameters from lenses distance ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Vincenzo F; Scudellaro, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Strong lensing provides popular techniques to investigate the mass distribution of intermediate redshift galaxies, testing galaxy evolution and formation scenarios. It especially probes the background cosmic expansion, hence constraining cosmological parameters. The measurement of Einstein radii and central velocity dispersions indeed allows to trace the ratio D_s/D_ls between the distance D_s from the observer to the source and the distance D_ls from the lens to the source. We present an improved method to explicitly include the two - component structure in the galaxy lens modeling, in order to analyze the role played by the redshift and the model dependence on a nuisance parameter, F_E, which is usually marginalized in the cosmological applications. We show how to deal with these problems and carry on a Fisher matrix analysis to infer the accuracy on cosmological parameters achieved by this method.

  11. Glueball masses from ratios of path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Della Morte, Michele

    2011-01-01

    By generalizing our previous work on the parity symmetry, the partition function of a Yang-Mills theory is decomposed into a sum of path integrals each giving the contribution from multiplets of states with fixed quantum numbers associated to parity, charge conjugation, translations, rotations and central conjugations. Ratios of path integrals and correlation functions can then be computed with a multi-level Monte Carlo integration scheme whose numerical cost, at a fixed statistical precision and at asymptotically large times, increases power-like with the time extent of the lattice. The strategy is implemented for the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, and a full-fledged computation of the mass and multiplicity of the lightest glueball with vacuum quantum numbers is carried out at two values of the lattice spacing (0.17 and 0.12 fm).

  12. Carbon to oxygen ratios in extrasolar planetesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, David J; Farihi, Jay; Koester, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    Observations of small extrasolar planets with a wide range of densities imply a variety of planetary compositions and structures. Currently, the only technique to measure the bulk composition of extrasolar planetary systems is the analysis of planetary debris accreting onto white dwarfs, analogous to abundance studies of meteorites. We present measurements of the carbon and oxygen abundances in the debris of planetesimals at ten white dwarfs observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, along with C/O ratios of debris in six systems with previously reported abundances. We find no evidence for carbon-rich planetesimals, with C/O)=-0.92, and oxygen-rich objects with C/O less than or equal to that of the bulk Earth. The latter group may have a higher mass fraction of water than the Earth, increasing their relative oxygen abundance.

  13. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...

  14. Tissue air ratio in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of dose readings in 102 patients treated with total body irradiation (TBI), a 'tissue air ratio (TAR) curve' has been produced. It could be useful to precalculate treatment time in TBI, for dose prescription to a specific point, provided the same source (60Co) and treatment setting (lateral irradiation; 3 m source-axis distance; reference point at thighs bifurcation, neat the perineum) is used. The TAR curve produced, and the formula relating tissue depth to TAR value, are presented, and compared to preexisting data for 'magna fields' treatments. This curve is exponential, and in semilog representation becomes straight, as every classic TAR curve; it is lower than others, reflecting non full-scatter situation in patient irradiation. (orig.)

  15. Laser Spectroscopic Measurement of Helium Isotope Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L B; Holt, R J; Lu, Z T; O'Connor, T P; Sano, Y; Sturchio, N C

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive laser spectroscopic method has been applied to the quantitative determination of the isotope ratio of helium at the level of 3He/4He = 10^-7 - 10^-5. The resonant absorption of 1083 nm laser light by the metastable 3He atoms in a discharge cell was measured with the frequency modulation saturation spectroscopy technique while the abundance of 4He was measured by a direct absorption technique. The results on three different samples extracted from the atmosphere and commercial helium gas were in good agreement with values obtained with mass spectrometry. The achieved 3-sigma detection limit of 3He in helium is 4 x 10^-9. This demonstration required a 200 micro-L STP sample of He. The sensitivity can be further improved, and the required sample size reduced, by several orders of magnitude with the addition of cavity enhanced spectroscopy.

  16. Laser spectroscopic measurement of helium isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive laser spectroscopic method has been applied to the quantitative determination of the isotope ratio of helium at the level of 3He/4He = 10-7--10-5. The resonant absorption of 1083 nm laser light by the metastable 3He atoms in a discharge cell was measured with the frequency modulation saturation spectroscopy technique while the abundance of 4He was measured by a direct absorption technique. The results on three different samples extracted from the atmosphere and commercial helium gas were in good agreement with values obtained with mass spectrometry. The achieved 3σ detection limit of 3He in helium is 4 x 10-9. This demonstration required a 200 μL STP sample of He. The sensitivity can be further improved, and the required sample size reduced, by several orders of magnitude with the addition of cavity enhanced spectroscopy.

  17. Ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis is based on five different papers. The labelling of specific tracer compounds with positron emitting radionuclides enables a range of structural, physiological and biochemical parameters in the lung to be measured non-invasively, using positron emission tomography. This concept affords a unique opportunity for in vivo studies of different expressions of pulmonary pathophysiology at the regional level. The present thesis describes the application of positron emission tomography to the measurements of ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios using inert gas tracers, neon-19 and nitrogen-13 respectively. The validity of the methods applied was investigated with respect to the transport of inert gas tracers in the human lung. Both ventilation and the ventilation/perfusion ratio may be obtained with errors less than 10 % in the normal lung. In disease, however, errors may increase in those instances where the regional ventilation is very low or the intra-regional gas flow distribution is markedly nonuniform. A 2-3 fold increase in ventilation was demonstrated in normal nonsmoking subjects going from ventral to dorsal regions in the supine posture. These large regional differences could be well explained by the intrinsic elastic properties of lung tissue, considering the gravitational gradient in transpulmonary pressure. In asymptomatic smokers substantial regional ventilatroy abnormalities were found whilst the regional gas volume was similar in smokers and nonsmokers. The uncoupling between ventilation and gas volume probably reflects inflammatory changes in the airways. The regional differences in dV/dt/dQ/dt were relatively small and blood flow was largely matched to ventilation in the supine posture. However, small regions of lung with very low ventilation, unmatched by blood flow commonly exists in the most dependent parts of the lung in both smokers and nonsmokers. (29 illustrations, 7 tables, 113 references)

  18. Hardness ratios of different neutron spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, L; Tripathy, S P

    2004-01-01

    Extensive data have been gathered in the past on the response of different detectors, based on the registration of neutron-induced fissions in bismuth, gold, tantalum and thorium by the spark-replica counter and the thin film breakdown counter. These detectors make it possible to exploit the excellent characteristics of the fission reactions for the measurements of high-energy neutrons. Most of the investigations have been carried out at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam facility at The Svedberg Laboratory-TSL of the Uppsala University in cooperation with the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI). The responses of different fission detectors in the neutron energy range 35-180 MeV have been evaluated: a region where the predictive power of available nuclear reaction models and codes is not reliable yet. For neutron energy >200 MeV, the fission-detector responses have been derived from the data of the proton fission cross sections. By using the ratio of the responses of these detectors, a simple and accurate way to evaluate the spectrum hardness can be obtained, thus providing a tool to obtain spectral information needed for neutron dosimetry without the need to know the entire spectrum. Extensive data have been already obtained for the high-energy neutron spectrum from the CERN concrete facility. In the present paper, the measured values of the response ratios for different fissile detectors exposed at the CERN facility are compared with those calculated for the spectra from the same facility and from different altitudes in the atmosphere, respectively. PMID:15353650

  19. Comparison of discrete ratios by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Caroline B; Rossa, Marley A; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving and comparing ratios are crucial skills for humans. Little is known about whether other animals can compare ratios. We trained two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to choose arrays that contained the greater ratio of positive to negative stimuli, regardless of the absolute number of stimuli in each of the two choice arrays. Subjects learned this task, and their performance generalized to novel ratios. Moreover, performance was modulated by the ratio between ratios; subjects responded more quickly and accurately when the ratio between ratios was higher. Control conditions ruled out the possibility that subjects were relying on surface area, although the ratio between ratios of surface area did seem to influence their choices. Our results demonstrate that rhesus monkeys can compare discrete ratios, demonstrating not only proportional reasoning ability but also the ability to reason about relations between relations. PMID:26286201

  20. Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Ratio and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaras, Vasilios J.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes and gives two illustrations of a method for solving a system of two linear equations. The ratio of left members is equated to the ratio of right members, the ratio of the two variables is solved for, and the resultant ratio is substituted into an original equation. (MN)

  1. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  2. Concentration ratio of radon progeny in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations have been made on the concentration ratio of radon progeny in air. Data have been acquired intermittently since 1988 using alpha spectroscopic method around the author's office that is located in the northeastern part of Japan. Clarifying the behavior of radon progeny is an issue of wide importance to radiation protection, predicting earthquakes, etc. Let Rabc=ECRn(RaA)/{ECRn(RaB) + ECRn(RaC)}; the concentration ratio, Rabc, is relevant to the stability of the air. Statistical and time series analyses indicated several interesting results. To examine the log-normal distribution, Lilliefors test was made for logarithm of outdoor data every one year. Rabc passed the test 6 times for 9 years, while Radon progeny passed 8 times. Outdoor data indicated that the value of Rabc was lower in the morning, in other world, the air was more stable in the morning than in the afternoon. To see the seasonal variation, one-way layout analysis was made for four groups of data, i.e., spring (March to May), summer (June to August), autumn (September to November), and winter (December to February). Rabc indicated significantly higher level in spring and winter, in other word, air was stable in summer and autumn. Time series analysis was made for various variables; power spectra were estimated with autoregressive model that is equivalent to maximum entropy method. Power spectrum for Rabc was most similar to that of wind speed. One-year period, that is always remarkable for radon progeny, was not significant for Rabc. Three- to nine-day periods were often seen for Rabc, radon progeny, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure. These several-day periods are probably attributed to the passage of air masses. Twenty-day to thirty-day peak may be attributed to meteorological phenomena corresponding to the rotation period of the sun. Temperature indicated no significant periodicity except overwhelming one-year period. Wind speed is well known to affect the radon progeny concentration

  3. A unitary test of the Ratios Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Goes, John; Miller, Steven J; Montague, David; Ninsuwan, Kesinee; Peckner, Ryan; Pham, Thuy

    2009-01-01

    The Ratios Conjecture of Conrey, Farmer and Zirnbauer predicts the answers to numerous questions in number theory, ranging from n-level densities and correlations to mollifiers to moments and vanishing at the central point. The conjecture gives a recipe to generate these answers, which are believed to be correct up to square-root cancelation. These predictions have been verified, for suitably restricted test functions, for the 1-level density of orthogonal and symplectic families of L-functions. In this paper we verify the conjecture's predictions for the unitary family of all Dirichlet $L$-functions with prime conductor; we show square-root agreement between prediction and number theory if the support of the Fourier transform of the test function is in (-1,1), and for support up to (-2,2) we show agreement up to a power savings in the family's cardinality. The interesting feature in this family (which has not surfaced in previous investigations) is determining what is and what is not a diagonal term in the R...

  4. Verification of the Surrogate Ratio Method

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of difference in the spin and parity distributions for the surrogate and neutron-induced reactions are investigated. It was found that the surrogate ratio method can be employed to determine neutron fission and capture cross sections if 1) weak Weisskopf-Ewing condition (defined in this paper) is satisfied, 2) there exist two surrogate reactions whose spin-parity distributions of the decaying nuclei are almost equivalent, and 3) difference of the representative spin values between the neutron-induced and surrogate reactions is no much larger than 10 $\\hbar$. The last condition may be loosened for the fission channel since the condition 1) seems to be valid for wider regions of spin. Achievable accuracy is estimated to be around 5 and 10 % for fission and capture channels, respectively, for nuclei of the Uranium region. The surrogate absolute method, on the contrary, can be only marginally applicable to determination of fission cross sections, but there will be little hope to apply this method for capt...

  5. Carbon to oxygen ratios in extrasolar planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David J.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Farihi, Jay; Koester, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    Observations of small extrasolar planets with a wide range of densities imply a variety of planetary compositions and structures. Currently, the only technique to measure the bulk composition of extrasolar planetary systems is the analysis of planetary debris accreting onto white dwarfs, analogous to abundance studies of meteorites. We present measurements of the carbon and oxygen abundances in the debris of planetesimals at ten white dwarfs observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, along with C/O ratios of debris in six systems with previously reported abundances. We find no evidence for carbon-rich planetesimals, with C/O confidence level. The range of C/O of the planetesimals is consistent with that found in the Solar System, and appears to follow a bimodal distribution: a group similar to the CI chondrites, with log ( ) = -0.92, and oxygen-rich objects with C/O less than or equal to that of the bulk Earth. The latter group may have a higher mass fraction of water than the Earth, increasing their relative oxygen abundance.

  6. Tomographic display of ventilation-perfusion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomographic displays of the distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratio in six subjects with a single photon radionuclide computed tomography (RCT) were obtained. The distribution of ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) were measured separately with continuous breathing of Kr-81m and with intravenous administration of Tc-99m labelled macroaggregates of human serum albumin (MAA). V/Q was calculated pixel-by-pixel and the distributions of V/Q were displayed in a logarithmic scale with the surrounding thoracic cage obtained from transmission CT. The number of voxel, ventilation and perfusion were plotted against log(V/Q). They had almost log normal distributions with smaller variances in healthy subjects than those with emphysema or bronchitis. In the former, much coincidence between V and Q was observed, whereas in the latter, dissociation was seen between them. This noninvasive technique provided not only the visualization of the distribution of V/Q in a transaxial images, but also the quantifications of the V-Q mismatch

  7. Carbon to oxygen ratios in extrasolar planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David J.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Farihi, Jay; Koester, Detlev

    2016-07-01

    Observations of small extrasolar planets with a wide range of densities imply a variety of planetary compositions and structures. Currently, the only technique to measure the bulk composition of extrasolar planetary systems is the analysis of planetary debris accreting on to white dwarfs, analogous to abundance studies of meteorites. We present measurements of the carbon and oxygen abundances in the debris of planetesimals at ten white dwarfs observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, along with C/O ratios of debris in six systems with previously reported abundances. We find no evidence for carbon-rich planetesimals, with C/O systems. Our results place an upper limit on the occurrence of carbon-rich systems at Solar system, and appears to follow a bimodal distribution: a group similar to the CI chondrites, with log () = -0.92, and oxygen-rich objects with C/O less than or equal to that of the bulk Earth. The latter group may have a higher mass fraction of water than the Earth, increasing their relative oxygen abundance.

  8. Population-Based Placental Weight Ratio Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Macdonald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The placental weight ratio (PWR is a health indicator that reflects the balance between fetal and placental growth. The PWR is defined as the placental weight divided by the birth weight, and it changes across gestation. Its ranges are not well established. We aimed to establish PWR distributions by gestational age and to investigate whether the PWR distributions vary by fetal growth adequacy, small, average, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA. The data came from a hospital based retrospective cohort, using all births at two London, Ontario hospitals in the past 10 years. All women who delivered a live singleton infant between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation were included (n=41441. Nonparametric quantile regression was used to fit the curves. The results demonstrate decreasing PWR and dispersion, with increasing gestational age. A higher proportion of SGA infants have extreme PWRs than AGA and LGA, especially at lower gestational ages. On average, SGA infants had higher PWRs than AGA and LGA infants. The overall curves offer population standards for use in research studies. The curves stratified by fetal growth adequacy are the first of their kind, and they demonstrate that PWR differs for SGA and LGA infants.

  9. Fetal gender ratio in recurrent miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Fabro A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Del Fabro1, Lorenza Driul1, Omar Anis1, Ambrogio P Londero1, Serena Bertozzi2, Livio Bortotto3, Diego Marchesoni11Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Clinic of Surgery, 3Unit of Genetics, University Hospital of Udine, Udine, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender ratio and incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the products of conception (POC from recurrent miscarriages.Methods: We determined the karyotypes of POC from patients with recurrent spontaneous miscarriages between 1999 and 2009.Results: In total, 313 specimens were successfully karyotyped, with a median gestational age of 10 weeks at miscarriage (interquartile range 8–13; 199 (64% were females and 114 (36% were males. In total, 121 (39% had abnormal karyotypes, the most prevalent of which were chromosome 21 and 16 trisomies, triploidy, and monosomy X.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that female POC might be more susceptible to recurrent miscarriages than male ones during embryogenesis, implantation, and initial fetal development.Keywords: fetal gender, recurrent miscarriages, karyotype anomalies

  10. CINR difference analysis of optimal combining versus maximal ratio combining

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, J. P.; Zeidler, J R; Rao, B D

    2005-01-01

    The statistical gain differences between two common spatial combining algorithms: optimum combining (OC) and maximal ratio combining (MRC) are analyzed using a gain ratio method. Using the receive carrier-to-interference plus noise ratio (CINR), the gain ratio CINROC/CINRMRC is evaluated in a flat Rayeligh fading communications system with multiple interferers. Exact analytical solutions are derived for the probability density function (PDF) and the average gain ratio with one interferer. Whe...

  11. Debt Ratio Analysis and Firm Investment: Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Faris Nasif Al-Shubiri

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether the total debt ratio and bank ratio of listed companies have any impact on their fixed investment during the years in 2004-2009, and whether this impact, if it existed, differed among companies with differing investment opportunities. The study has reveals the total debt ratio did have a negative impact on fixed investment among Jordanian listed companies. It has also been found that the bank ratio had a stronger impact on fixed investment than the total debt ratio.

  12. Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durbin, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilke, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Margraf, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank

  13. UNA NUEVA RATIO SECTORIAL. LA RATIO DE RETORNO LÍQUIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Linares Mustarós

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se dan a conocer dos índices de liquidez sectorial que permiten obtener una idea del riesgo de cada sector de no poder hacer frente a sus obligaciones a corto plazo. Se pretende que las ratios sean sensibles a ciertas variaciones de la tensión en la tesorería. Para ello, los índices permiten calcular qué parte del endeudamiento en un periodo determinado serían capaces de devolver las empresas. El objetivo es que el cálculo de las nuevas ratios complemente la información que ofrecen los índices de test ácidos sectoriales tradicionales, obteniendo con ello una mayor información de la solvencia del sector.

  14. Disinflation in a DSGE Perspective: Sacrifice Ratio or Welfare Gain Ratio?

    OpenAIRE

    Ascari, Guido; Ropele, Tiziano

    2009-01-01

    When used to examine disinflation monetary policies, the current workhorse dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of business cycle fluctuations is able to quantitatively account for the main stylized facts in terms of recessionary effects and sacrifice ratio. We complement the transitional analysis of the short-run costs with a rigorous welfare evaluation and show that, despite the long-lasting economic downturn, disinflation entails non-zero overall welfare gains.

  15. Survey of literature on dispersion ratio and collection ratio of radioisotopes in animal study using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14C, 3H, 125I and 35S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)

  16. Analisis Pengaruh Receivable Turnover Ratio, Inventory Turnover Ratio, dan Total Assets Turnover Ratio Terhadap Earning Power pada Perusahaan Farmasi di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bangun, Andri Primadana

    2011-01-01

    Tujuan dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh rasio aktivitas dengan variabel Receivable Turnover Ratio, Inventory Turnover Ratio, dan Total Assets Turnover Ratio terhadap Earning Power perusasahaan farmasi dengan analisis regresi berganda. Jenis data yang akan diolah dan diteliti adalah data sekunder berupa laporan keuangan seperti neraca dan laporan laba-rugi serta bahan publikasi lain yang relevan dengan permasalahan yang diteliti. Tahun buku akuntansi yang dipili...

  17. Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, Operational Efficiency Ratio, Financing To Deposit Ratio Terhadap Return On Asset Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nainggolan, Benget M.

    2011-01-01

    Tujuan dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah untuk menganalisis Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, Operational Efficiency Ratio, Financing to Deposit Ratio terhadap Return On Asset Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia Jenis data yang akan diolah dan diteliti adalah data sekunder berupa laporan keuangan seperti neraca dan laporan laba-rugi serta bahan publikasi lain yang relevan dengan permasalahan yang diteliti. Tahun buku akuntansi yang dipilih adalah tahun buku 2007 sampai dengan t...

  18. Analisis Pengaruh Return On Asset, Size, Debt To Equity Ratio Dan Cash Ratio Terhadap Dividend Payout Ratio Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Tercatat di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Liandra, Yoga

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of Return on Assets, Size, Debt To Equity Ratio and Cash Ratio on Dividend Payout Ratio at manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange the period 2008-2011 using the SPSS program. This study uses secondary data, in the form of financial statements obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website. The samples used were 19 companies that distribute dividends in the year 2008-2011 in the sample selection is done by sampling puposive....

  19. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Eskenazi, B; Hedegaard, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... Questionnaire (GHQ). RESULTS: We found an overall male to female ratio (sex ratio) of 1.03. There was an inverse dose response association (test for trend P < 0.01) between GHQ score and sex ratio. Each 5-point increase in the GHQ score was associated with a decreasing odds of having a boy [Odds ratio (OR) = 0...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....

  20. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Eskenazi, Brenda; Hedegaard, Morten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... Questionnaire (GHQ). RESULTS: We found an overall male to female ratio (sex ratio) of 1.03. There was an inverse dose response association (test for trend P < 0.01) between GHQ score and sex ratio. Each 5-point increase in the GHQ score was associated with a decreasing odds of having a boy [Odds ratio (OR) = 0...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  1. Transformer ratio studies for single bunch plasma wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) plasma oscillations are driven by ultra relativistic electron beams. The ratio of the maximum accelerating field behind the driving beam (bunch) and the maximum decelerating field inside the driving beam (bunch) is defined as Transformer Ratio, a key parameter that determines the energy gain in particle acceleration. We investigate the transformer ratio for different shapes of a single driving bunch. One dimensional, fluid, relativistic, cold plasma equations have been numerically solved. A complete map of the transformer ratio is obtained by varying: bunch shape, bunch length and density ratio. It is found that the transformer ratio critically depends on the bunch shape and on the density ratio. Moreover both in the linear as well as in the non-linear regime the theoretical limit of 2 for the transformer ratio of a single symmetric bunch can be exceeded using asymmetric bunches in the linear regime as well as symmetric bunches in nonlinear regime

  2. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  3. Molar optimization versus delayed reinforcement as explanations of choice between fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, J. E.; Vaughan, W

    1987-01-01

    In a discrete-trials procedure, pigeons chose between a fixed-ratio 81 schedule and a progressive-ratio schedule by making a single peck at the key correlated with one or the other of these schedules. The response requirement on the progressive-ratio schedule began at 1 and increased by 10 each time the progressive-ratio schedule was chosen. Each time the fixed-ratio schedule was chosen, the requirement on the progressive-ratio schedule was reset to 1 response. In conditions where there was n...

  4. Analisis Pengaruh Profitability, Current Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Market to Book Value Ratio, Corporate Tax, Sales Growth, dan Cash Flow Terhadap Dividend Payout Ratio Perusahaan Manufaktur yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2009-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Rimma Paulina

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing companies is the largest industrial sub on Indonesia Stock Exchange. Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange is a corporation whose ownership is divided into shares. Dividends are given by the companies to shareholders other than capital gains. Dividend payout ratio is an important measure for investors who want to invest . This study aims to determine whether the variable Profitability, Current Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Market to Book Value Ratio, Corporate Tax,...

  5. Disclosure of Voluntary Accounting Ratios by Malaysian Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Azrul; Ku Ismail, Ku Nor Izah

    2005-01-01

    Accounting ratios are believed to be of fundamental importance in financial analysis, and therefore are useful addition to financial reports. This paper examines the reporting of voluntary accounting ratio by Malaysian companies in corporate annual reports. Drawing on agency and signaling theories, this paper explores whether associations exist between company performance and voluntary disclosure of accounting ratios. In particular, associations are tested between the extent of ratio disclosu...

  6. HEDGE RATIO AND HEDGING EFFICIENCY: EVIDENCE FROM INDIAN DERIVATIVE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy NALINIPRAVA

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the hedge ratio & hedging effectiveness of S&P CNX Nifty stock index futures, Gold futures and Crude Oil futures contract of Indian derivative market for the period September 2008 to September 2010 by using conventional OLS, VAR, VECM and VAR-MGARCH models. This paper also compares the performance of time varying hedge ratios with constant hedge ratios by considering alternative models for estimating a hedge ratio that minimizes the variance of returns and takes care of ti...

  7. The effect of clay minerals on diasterane/sterane ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van; Koster, J.; Gaast, S. J. van der; Dekker, M.H.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effect of clay minerals on diasterane/sterane ratios, the mineral compositions of three sample sets of sedimentary rocks displaying a wide range of diasterane/sterane ratios were analysed quantitatively. Diasterane/sterane ratios do not to correlate with clay content but depend on the

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a turnover ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value...

  9. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  10. Auditory Discrimination of Frequency Ratios: The Octave Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Damien; Micheyl, Christophe; Semal, Catherine; Dauman, Rene; Demany, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity to frequency ratios is essential for the perceptual processing of complex sounds and the appreciation of music. This study assessed the effect of ratio simplicity on ratio discrimination for pure tones presented either simultaneously or sequentially. Each stimulus consisted of four 100-ms pure tones, equally spaced in terms of…

  11. Inferences about ungulate population dynamics derived from age ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N.C.; Kauffman, M.J.; Mills, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Age ratios (e.g., calf:cow for elk and fawn:doe for deer) are used regularly to monitor ungulate populations. However, it remains unclear what inferences are appropriate from this index because multiple vital rate changes can influence the observed ratio. We used modeling based on elk (Cervus elaphus) life-history to evaluate both how age ratios are influenced by stage-specific fecundity and survival and how well age ratios track population dynamics. Although all vital rates have the potential to influence calf:adult female ratios (i.e., calf:xow ratios), calf survival explained the vast majority of variation in calf:adult female ratios due to its temporal variation compared to other vital rates. Calf:adult female ratios were positively correlated with population growth rate (??) and often successfully indicated population trajectories. However, calf:adult female ratios performed poorly at detecting imposed declines in calf survival, suggesting that only the most severe declines would be rapidly detected. Our analyses clarify that managers can use accurate, unbiased age ratios to monitor arguably the most important components contributing to sustainable ungulate populations, survival rate of young and ??. However, age ratios are not useful for detecting gradual declines in survival of young or making inferences about fecundity or adult survival in ungulate populations. Therefore, age ratios coupled with independent estimates of population growth or population size are necessary to monitor ungulate population demography and dynamics closely through time.

  12. 7 CFR 1425.10 - Financial ratio requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial ratio requirement. 1425.10 Section 1425.10... Financial ratio requirement. To be financially able to make advances to their members and to market their commodities, CMA's shall have a current ratio of at least 1 dollar of current assets for each 1 dollar...

  13. Computation of compressible flows with high density ratio and pressure ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rong-san

    2008-01-01

    The WENO method, RKDG method, RKDG method with original ghost fluid method, and RKDG method with modified ghost fluid method are applied to single-medium and two-medium air-air, air-liquid compressible flows with high density and pressure ratios. We also provide a numerical comparison and analysis for the above methods. Numerical results show that, compared with the other methods, the RKDG method with modified ghost fluid method can obtain high resolution results and the correct position of the shock, and the computed solutions are converged to the physical solutions as the mesh is refined.

  14. Differential Capital Requirements: Leverage Ratio versus Risk-Based Capital Ratio from a Monitoring Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanyan, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to amalgamate the study of leverage-ratio performance with the monitoring decisions of a profit-maximizing bank. Applying tools used in studying the industrial organization of banking, my paper serves as a first step to tying the performance differences between the leverage and risk-based constraints to the more fundamental issue of monitoring. Does a bank faced with a leveragebased capital constraint monitor its loans better than a bank under a risk-based capital con...

  15. Debt Ratio Analysis and Firm Investment: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Nasif Al-Shubiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether the total debt ratio and bank ratio of listed companies have any impact on their fixed investment during the years in 2004-2009, and whether this impact, if it existed, differed among companies with differing investment opportunities. The study has reveals the total debt ratio did have a negative impact on fixed investment among Jordanian listed companies. It has also been found that the bank ratio had a stronger impact on fixed investment than the total debt ratio.

  16. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus

  17. Liquidity Analysis Using Cash Flow Ratios as Compared to Traditional Ratios in the Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the liquidity position of the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector using the traditional ratios as compared to the more recently developed cash flow ratios. The research involved the comparison between traditional ratios and cash flow ratios of the big seven companies of the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan over six years period (2007¨C2012). The companies were all from the same sector, and the data was obtained from the annual reports of these companies. T...

  18. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  19. Impact of Inflation Accounting Application on Key Financial Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın KARAPINAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of inflation accounting on key financal ratios. To this end, the financial statements of 132 companies listed in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE are studied. An analyis of paired samples t test has been conducted on the financial ratios of the companies. The results show that a significant difference between adjusted cost based financial ratios and historical cost based financial ratios occurs only for current, ratios, equity ratios and noncurrent turnover ratios. The study does not cover companies operating in the financial sector. The companies reporting in accordance with IFRS for the studied periods that spans 2001-2004 are not included in the study either. The study offers valuable information as to analysing companies operating in hiper inflation economies.

  20. Pengaruh Cash Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Return On Assets Terhadap Kebijakan Dividen Payout Ratio Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This research is an empirical study to examine the effect of cash ratio, debt to equity ratio, and return on asset to dividend policy which was measured by dividend payout ratio on the manufactur companies listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange in period of 2005-2009. The samples were collected using the purposive sampling method and it has resulting 27 companies for the samples. Data in this study using data that has been manipulated into normal logarithm (Ln) in order to obtain a normal dis...

  1. Temperature and air-fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions for lean burned and unburned mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important thermodynamic property used in heat release calculations for engines is the specific heat ratio. The functions proposed in the literature for the specific heat ratio are temperature dependent and apply at or near stoichiometric air-fuel ratios. However, the specific heat ratio is also influenced by the gas composition in the engine cylinder and especially becomes important for lean combustion engines. In this study, temperature and air-fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions were derived to minimize the error by using an equilibrium combustion model for burned and unburned mixtures separately. After the error analysis between the equilibrium combustion model and the derived functions is presented, the results of the global specific heat ratio function, as varying with mass fraction burned, were compared with the proposed functions in the literature. The results of the study showed that the derived functions are more feasible at lean operating conditions of a spark ignition engine

  2. Comparison between Financial Ratios Analysis and Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalad M.S. Alrafadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial ratios have long been used as a tool to evaluate the overall financial performance of a company. However, in early 1990s, a new method called Balanced Scorecard has been introduced by Robert Kaplan and David Norton to evaluate the overall controlling of a company. Problem statement: To the best of my knowledge at present there are no letrature review comparing between Financial ratios and Balanced Scorecard. Approach: This study is a conceptual paper comparing between the financial ratios analysis and balanced scorecard method. The objective of this paper is to compare between the benefits and problems of using financial ratios analysis and Balanced Scorecard method in evaluating the overall control of the company. Results: As a result, we found that the Balanced Scorecard is more efficient than financial ratios analysis. Conclusion/Recommendations: Both the balanced scorecard and financial ratios analysis are important tools for evaluating performance. So, we cannot ignore either of them.

  3. Aspect ratio dependence in magnetorotational instability shearing box simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bodo, G; Cattaneo, F; Rossi, P; Ferrari, A

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We study the changes in the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in a shearing box, as the computational domain size in the radial direction is varied relative to the height Methods: We perform 3D simulations in the shearing box approximation, with a net magnetic flux, and we consider computational domains with different aspect ratios Results: We find that in boxes of aspect ratio unity the transport of angular momentum is strongly intermittent and dominated by channel solutions in agreement with previous work. In contrast, in boxes with larger aspect ratio, the channel solutions and the associated intermittent behavior disappear. Conclusions: There is strong evidence that, as the aspect ratio becomes larger, the characteristics of the solution become aspect ratio independent. We conclude that shearing box calculations with aspect ratio unity or near unity may introduce spurious effects.

  4. Financial Ratio and Its Influence to Profitability in Islamic Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Amelia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influence of the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO to Return on Asset (ROA in Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mega. The data analysis method used in this research is multiple regression analysis. From the test results show that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO simultaneously effect to Return on Asset (ROA. Based on the test results of the t statistic was concluded that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF and the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR partially no significant effect to Return on Asset (ROA, while Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO partially significant effect to Return on Asset (ROADOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i2.1700

  5. Contingent Capital with a Capital-Ratio Trigger

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Glasserman; Behzad Nouri

    2012-01-01

    Contingent capital in the form of debt that converts to equity when a bank faces financial distress has been proposed as a mechanism to enhance financial stability and avoid costly government rescues. Specific proposals vary in their choice of conversion trigger and conversion mechanism. We analyze the case of contingent capital with a capital-ratio trigger and partial and ongoing conversion. The capital ratio we use is based on accounting or book values to approximate the regulatory ratios t...

  6. Uniform saddlepoint approximations for ratios of quadratic forms

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Ronald W.; Paolella, Marc S.

    2008-01-01

    Ratios of quadratic forms in correlated normal variables which introduce noncentrality into the quadratic forms are considered. The denominator is assumed to be positive (with probability 1). Various serial correlation estimates such as least-squares, Yule--Walker and Burg, as well as Durbin--Watson statistics, provide important examples of such ratios. The cumulative distribution function (c.d.f.) and density for such ratios admit saddlepoint approximations. These approximations are shown to...

  7. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied (Chapter 3). Additionally, we studied life history traits of male and female clones to detect sex-specific differences that might have contributed to the sex ratio bias observed in the field. Our res...

  8. Computed tomographic bronchioarterial ratio for brachycephalic dogs without pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Sungjun; Lee, Ahra; CHOI, Jihye; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The bronchoarterial (BA) ratio measured with computed tomography is widely used in human medicine to diagnose bronchial dilation or collapse. Although use of the BA ratio in veterinary medicine has been recently studied, this has not been evaluated in brachycephalic dogs predisposed to bronchial diseases including bronchial collapse. The purpose of this study was to establish BA ratios for brachycephalic dogs and compare the values with those of non-brachycephalic dogs. Twenty-three brachycep...

  9. An interresponse time analysis of variable-ratio punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Lande, Stephen D.

    1981-01-01

    An interresponse time analysis was used to study the effects of variable-ratio punishment schedules on the temporal pattern of reinforced responding. Twelve pigeons responded on a baseline variable-interval schedule of food reinforcement. A variable-ratio ten schedule of electric shock punishment was then introduced. The shock intensity was systematically increased to the highest intensity at which responding could be maintained. At this intensity, the mean variable-ratio value was increased ...

  10. Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: Causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hesketh, T; Xing, Z. W.

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, b...

  11. Extension of the ratio method to low energy

    OpenAIRE

    Colomer, F.; Capel, P.; Nunes, F. M.; Johnson, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ratio method has been proposed as a means to remove the reaction model dependence in the study of halo nuclei. Purpose: Originally, it was developed for higher energies but given the potential interest in applying the method at lower energy, in this work we explore its validity at 20 MeV/nucleon. Method: The ratio method takes the ratio of the breakup angular distribution and the summed angular distribution (which includes elastic, inelastic and breakup) and uses this observab...

  12. Structural estimates of the U.S. sacrifice ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen G. Cecchetti; Robert W. Rich

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the statistical properties of the U.S. sacrifice ratio -- the cumulative output loss arising from a permanent reduction in inflation. We derive estimates of the sacrifice ratio from three structural VAR models and then conduct Monte Carlo simulations to analyze their sampling distribution. While the point estimates of the sacrifice ratio confirm the results reported in earlier studies, we find that the estimates are very imprecise and that the degree of imprecision inc...

  13. Stable Isotope Ratios and Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Jarman, Kristin H.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of the anthrax letters of 2001, researchers have been exploring various analytical signatures for the purpose of characterizing the production environment of microorganisms. One such signature is stable isotope ratios, which in heterotrophs, are a function of nutrient and water sources. Here we discuss the use of stable isotope ratios in microbial forensics, using as a database the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen stable isotope ratios of 247 separate cultures of Bacill...

  14. Yearbook sectoral financial ratios in mexico for business benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Deyanira Bernal Domínguez; Oriol Amat Salas

    2012-01-01

    Financial analysis through ratios is a useful tool for improving organizational performance. Databases of financial information in Mexico are limited, therefore the importance of an annual publication of financial ratios per company and industry average. The objectives of this research are: describe the financial ratios with higher predictive potential and their formulas, as well as the design of a research instrument for measuring the relevance of the publication. A descriptive methodology w...

  15. Country and size effects in financial ratios: a European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Cinca, C.; Mar Molinero, C.; Gallizo Larraz, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Harmonised aggregate financial statements are published by the European Commission in the BACH database. This information is organised by country, size of firm, and year. Financial ratios obtained from this database are analysed using multivariate statistical techniques in order to explore country and size effects. The data relates to three size groups, eleven countries, fourteen years, and fifteen financial ratios. It is found that financial ratios reflect the size of the firm, but that the ...

  16. Likelihood ratios: Clinical application in day-to-day practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh Rajul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide an introduction to the use of likelihood ratios in clinical ophthalmology. Likelihood ratios permit the best use of clinical test results to establish diagnoses for the individual patient. Examples and step-by-step calculations demonstrate the estimation of pretest probability, pretest odds, and calculation of posttest odds and posttest probability using likelihood ratios. The benefits and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  17. Measurement of continuous distributions of ventilation-perfusion ratios - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, P. D.; Saltzman, H. A.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The resolution of the technique considered is sufficient to describe smooth distributions containing blood flow to unventilated regions (shunt), ventilation to unperfused regions (dead space), and up to three additional modes over the range of finite ventilation-perfusion ratios. In particular, areas whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are low can be separated from unventilated regions and those whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are high can similarly be distinguished from unperfused areas.

  18. Anxiety, Sex-linked Behavior, and Digit Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2007-01-01

    The second to fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio, a sexually dimorphic, phenotypic characteristic putatively associated with perinatal androgen action, has been used to evaluate the hypothesized relation between prenatal hormonal factors and a variety of sexually dimorphic behaviors, including sex-linked psychopathology. Smaller digit ratios, suggestive of stronger perinatal androgen action, have been associated with male-linked disorders (e.g., autism), and larger digit ratios, suggestive of weaker ...

  19. Risk ratio estimation in case-cohort studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    In traditional (cumulative-incidence) case-control studies, the exposure odds ratio can be used as an estimator of the risk ratio only when the disease under study is rare. The case-cohort study is a recently developed useful modification of the case-control study. This design allows direct estimation of the risk ratio from a fixed cohort, but does not require any rare-disease assumption. This article reviews recent developments in risk ratio estimation procedures for the analysis of case-coh...

  20. SPATIAL PATTERN OF SEX RATIO IN INDIA : A GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Gatade D.G; Mali S. R.

    2012-01-01

    in India general as well as child sex ratio has been declining remarkably.In India within the states there is wide range of general as well child sex ratio.In the present research paper an attempt has been made to find out and to analyse spatial pattern of general sex ratio and child sex ratio. 2011 Census year is selected for the study purpose. The entire paper is based on secondary source of data which is mainly derived from Census of India,State is considered as basic unit of study ...

  1. Sex ratio influences the motivational salience of facial attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, A. C; Fisher, C. I.; DeBruine, L. M.; Jones, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    The sex ratio of the local population influences mating-related behaviours in many species. Recent experiments show that male-biased sex ratios increase the amount of financial resources men will invest in potential mates, suggesting that sex ratios influence allocation of mating effort in humans. To investigate this issue further, we tested for effects of cues to the sex ratio of the local population on the motivational salience of attractiveness in own-sex and opposite-sex faces. We did thi...

  2. Tobin’s q Ratio and Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Singhal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobin’s q ratio has been extensively used as a proxy for investment opportunities in the finance literature. If Tobin’s q is a valid proxy for investment opportunities, we should observe a positive relationship between the q ratio and future operating performance of a firm. Extant research, however, has not established this link. In this paper, we provide evidence on the relationship between the q ratio and future operating performance for a sample of publicly traded US firms and show that firms with higher q ratios experience superior operating performance in the long run.

  3. Is increasing MB ratio a positive indicator of declining leprosy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Girdhar, B K

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing MB ratio-trend has been seen in most state reported leprosy data in India and elsewhere. The programme of leprosy all over the world has been integrated with general health system (GHS). This has given rise to gross under reporting of leprosy cases and increasing MB ratio. This paper examines this critical issue and attempt to find out the causes of this trend. The findings suggest clearly that increasing MB ratio is the result of early cases of leprosy being missed out. This can be to the extent of 73% when MB ratio is reached to 47.5%. PMID:17370687

  4. Possible significance of a new dimensionless ratio in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations suggest that the mass density of the Universe is dominated, not by ordinary matter, but by exotic particles which are a relic of the Big Bang. In this case, a new dimensionless cosmological ratio arises, the ratio of the mass density in ordinary matter to that in exotic matter, whose value is about 0.1. A priori it might seem remarkable that this ratio should be so close to unity. However, we point out that, for many exotic dark matter candidates, the ratio is related to the fundamental scales of particle physics. A value of order unity arises naturally providing rather simple relationships exist between these scales

  5. On ratio between strength characteristics in irradiated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate compression-to-bending strength ratio is considered for a wide range of structural carbon materials produced by electrode technology. The ratio is shown to decrease with the growth in the crystal lattice perfection, test temperature and increases with anisotropy of properties resulted from changes in bending strength when the load is applied in parallel to planes (00 l). For specimens of low-anisotropic graphite the ultimate compression-to-bending strength ratio within the limits of strength properties variation may be accepted constant. Neutron irradiation is established to produce a weakk effect on the value of the ratio under consideration

  6. The relative worst order ratio applied to paging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, Joan; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Larsen, Kim Skak

    2007-01-01

    The relative worst order ratio, a new measure for the quality of on-line algorithms, was recently defined and applied to two bin packing problems. Here, we apply it to the paging problem and obtain the following results: We devise a new deterministic paging algorithm, Retrospective-LRU, and show...... that it performs better than LRU. This is supported by experimental results, but contrasts with the competitive ratio. All deterministic marking algorithms have the same competitive ratio, but here we find that LRU is better than FWF. According to the relative worst order ratio, no deterministic...

  7. Does digit ratio (2DAD) predict penile length?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise Brooks McQuade

    2011-01-01

    @@ Now advertized in at least one locale as the 'sexy ratio' with the caption,'Your hands give away your hotness' (http://io9.com/#!5794008; accessed 3 May 2011),an online summary of a recent study linking facial attractiveness to the ratio of the index and ring fingers1 indicates that digit ratio (2DAD)research has reached mainstream culture.Digit ratio,most commonly the ratio of the index to ring fingers in humans,is sexually dimorphic (males have lower values than females) with greater differences on their right hand 2s Ratios are determined early in development and remain relatively stable thereafter.4 Perhaps the popular appeal is the relative simplicity of the measure,and the fact that researchers interested in any number of behavioral or physiological traits correlatedwith hormone activity have adopted digit ratio as a convenient biomarker for prenatal androgen exposure.5 Over the past decade,the correlation of digit ratio with sexual behavior and other aspects of reproductive biology has been well documented6-9 and there is a growing list of traits with links to digit ratio,although the associations are less well established.

  8. Odds Ratio: Review about the Meaning of an Epidemiological Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Pedro; Nunes, Baltazar

    2013-01-01

    [ENG] INTRODUCTION: It is very important to review the meaning of the Odds Ratio as a measure of effect and association, as well as, the bias of the Odds Ratio when it is assumed as a risk ratio or a prevalence ratio in the case of frequent disease or frequent health outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We simulated in a cohort of 200 individuals with 100 exposed and 100 non-exposed to a risk factor, a first setting of rare disease and a second setting of a more frequent disease. In both settin...

  9. Concentration ratios for BIOPATH: selection of the soil-to-plant concentration ratio database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Switzerland, high-level radioactive waste is planned to be deposited in deep crystalline formations. 'BIOPATH' is the computer code which has been used to simulate the movement of radionuclides in the biosphere, in order to calculate the doses to man. The key parameter used in the model on which the code is based is the concentration ratio (CR). This specifies the transfer of individual radionuclides via the various foodchains, ultimately to man. Five types of CR are required for the model, namely soil to plant, intake by cattle to milk, intake by cattle to meat, intake by poultry to eggs and from water to fish. Each of these CR are discussed in turn; it is shown that soil to plant CR exhibit a variability that greatly exceeds that observed in the other types of CR and for this reason the report goes on to consider these in much closer detail. The different methods and experimental techniques used to derive soil to plant CR are examined and assessed, to allow evaluation of a meaningful data base for use in BIOPATH. The report concludes by examining the data available for each radionuclide in turn and listing a recommended CR for it, to input into the BIOPATH model. (author)

  10. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. The Ratio of Public Investment in Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeyun; Yuan, Liansheng

    2007-01-01

    Based on cross-section data worldwide and time series data in China, the essay is intended to make an analysis of the factors which have impacts on the ratio of public investment in education by using econometric models and then the future ratio may be predicted. Conclusions are as follows. First, the proportion of fiscal revenue to GDP (gross…

  12. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied (C

  13. Ratio Tables to Promote Proportional Reasonings in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    There are many classroom activities that can be implemented with primary students that introduce and immerse them in ratio investigations. Some enjoyable tasks include finding the ratio of tongue rollers to non-tongue rollers in the classroom; left-hand dominant to right-hand dominant; right-thumb over left-thumb when clasping the hands to…

  14. Introducing errors in progress ratios determined from experience curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Progress ratios (PRs) derived from historical data in experience curves are used for forecasting development of many technologies as a means to model endogenous technical change in for instance climate–economy models. These forecasts are highly sensitive to uncertainties in the progress ratio. As a

  15. Explorations in Statistics: The Analysis of Ratios and Normalized Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores the analysis of ratios and normalized--or standardized--data. As researchers, we compute a ratio--a numerator divided by a denominator--to compute a…

  16. Topology Optimized Architectures with Programmable Poisson's Ratio over Large Deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    2015-01-01

    Topology optimized architectures are designed and printed with programmable Poisson's ratios ranging from -0.8 to 0.8 over large deformations of 20% or more.......Topology optimized architectures are designed and printed with programmable Poisson's ratios ranging from -0.8 to 0.8 over large deformations of 20% or more....

  17. Oxygen isotopic ratios toward molecular clouds in the Galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our observations of the J = 1 − 0 rotation transitions in molecular isotopes C18O and C17O toward a sample of molecular clouds with different galactocentric distances, using the Delingha 13.7m (DLH 13.7 m) telescope, administered by Purple Mountain Observatory, and its 9-beam SIS receiver. Complementary observations toward several sources with large galactocentric distance are obtained with the IRAM 30m and Mopra 22m telescopes. C18O/C17O abundance ratios reflecting the 18O/17O isotope ratios are obtained from integrated intensity ratios of C18O and C17O. We derived the ratio value for 13 sources covering a galactocentric distance range of 3kpc to 16kpc. In combination with our mapping results that provide a ratio value of 3.01±0.14 in the Galactic center region, it shows that the abundance ratio tends to increase with galactocentric distance, i.e., it supports a radial gradient along the Galactic disk for the abundance ratio. This is consistent with the inside-out formation scenario of our Galaxy. However, our results may suffer from small samples with large galactocentric distance. Combining our data with multi-transition lines of C18O and C17O will be helpful for constraining opacities and abundances and further confirming the Galactic radial gradient shown by the isotope ratio 18O/17O. (paper)

  18. Computed tomographic bronchioarterial ratio for brachycephalic dogs without pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sungjun; Lee, Ahra; Choi, Jihye; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The bronchoarterial (BA) ratio measured with computed tomography is widely used in human medicine to diagnose bronchial dilation or collapse. Although use of the BA ratio in veterinary medicine has been recently studied, this has not been evaluated in brachycephalic dogs predisposed to bronchial diseases including bronchial collapse. The purpose of this study was to establish BA ratios for brachycephalic dogs and compare the values with those of non-brachycephalic dogs. Twenty-three brachycephalic dogs and 15 non-brachycephalic dogs without clinical pulmonary disease were evaluated. The BA ratio of the lobar bronchi in the left and right cranial as well as the right middle, left, and right caudal lung lobes was measured. No significant difference in mean BA ratio was observed between lung lobes or the individual animals (p = 0.148). The mean BA ratio was 1.08 ± 0.10 (99%CI = 0.98~1.18) for brachycephalic dogs and 1.51 ± 0.05 (99% CI = 1.46~1.56) for the non-brachycephalic group. There was a significant difference between the mean BA ratios of the brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic groups (p = 0.00). Defining the normal limit of the BA ratio for brachycephalic breeds may be helpful for diagnosing bronchial disease in brachycephalic dogs. PMID:25643795

  19. Worldwide lead-isotope ratio in bivalves and sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jacobsen, Gitte; Strand, Jakob;

    The lead-isotope ratio have been used to assess and identify impact of leaded gasoline, coal combustion and  mineral activities[ref 1] due to the difference in 206Pb (~52%), 207Pb (~24%) and 208Pb (~23%) isotope ratios. The source of these differences is the decaying of the parent isotopes of 238U...

  20. Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yüksek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.

  1. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  2. The Eddington Ratio of H2O Maser Host AGN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Q. Guo; J. S. Zhang; J. Wang

    2011-03-01

    The Eddington ratio was derived for the entire maser host AGN sample, based on the intrinsic X-ray luminosity, the X-ray bolometric correction X and the mass of central black hole. Further the [O III] bolometric correction [O III] was estimated for our sample. Possible relations were also investigated between the maser luminosity and the bolometric luminosity – the Eddington ratio.

  3. Temperature measurements from oxygen isotope ratios of fish otoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, I

    1967-03-31

    Measurements have shown that the temperature of a fish's habitat can be deduced from the Oxygen isotope ratio of its otoliths (ear bones). Isotope ratios Obtained from fossil otoliths indicate a water temperature which agrees wiht that found by isotope measurements on associated benthonic foraminifera. PMID:6020293

  4. On the product and ratio of Bessel random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saralees Nadarajah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of products and ratios of random variables are of interest in many areas of the sciences. In this paper, the exact distributions of the product |XY| and the ratio |X/Y| are derived when X and Y are independent Bessel function random variables. An application of the results is provided by tabulating the associated percentage points.

  5. Measurements of K/Π ratio in cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of k/Π ratio in cosmic radiation by its half lives and its fluxes, were carried out. The kaon flux was obtained using the Cherenkov detector, and for pion flux scintillation detectors were used. The final results of K/Π ratio ∼ 0.2 was obtained. (M.C.K.)

  6. The Origin of the Ionic-Radius Ratio Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a reader query, this article traces the origins of the ionic-radius ratio rules and their incorrect attribution to Linus Pauling in the chemical literature and to Victor Goldschmidt in the geochemical literature. In actual fact, the ionic-radius ratio rules were first proposed within the context of the coordination chemistry…

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users with and without human immunodeficiency virus co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsuan Hsieh

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection among injection drug users (IDUs with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in southern Taiwan. For 562 IDUs (265 anti-HIV negative, 297 anti-HIV positive, we analyzed liver function, anti-HIV antibody, anti-HCV antibody, HCV viral loads, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. HIV RNA viral loads and CD4 cell count for anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs and the HCV genotype for HCV RNA-seropositive IDUs were measured. The seroprevalence rates of anti-HIV, anti-HCV, and HBsAg were 52.8%, 91.3%, and 15.3%, respectively. All the anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs were positive for HIV RNA. Anti-HCV seropositivity was the most important factor associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR], 25.06; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 8.97-74.9, followed by male gender (OR, 6.12; 95% CI, 4.05-9.39 and HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11-3.34. Among IDUs positive for anti-HCV, 80.7% had detectable HCV RNA. HCV viremia after HCV exposure was strongly related to HIV infection (OR, 6.262; 95% CI, 1.515-18.28, but negatively correlated to HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 0.161; 95% CI, 0.082-0.317. HCV genotype 6 was the most prevalent genotype among all IDUs (41.0%, followed by genotypes 1 (32.3%, 3 (12.8%, and 2 (5.6%. In conclusion, about half IDUs were infected with HIV and >90% with HCV infection. Male and seropositivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV were factors related to HIV infection among our IDUs. HIV was positively correlated, whereas hepatitis B co-infection was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among IDUs with HCV exposure. Different HCV molecular epidemiology was noted among IDUs.

  8. Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likanonsakul Sirirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and viral hepatitis infections in the same patient poses unique clinical and public health challenges, because medications to treat TB and HIV are hepatotoxic. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk factors for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV reactivity and to assess differences in adverse events and TB treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods Patients were evaluated at the beginning, during, and at the end of TB treatment. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (BR, complete blood count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte cell count. TB treatment outcomes were assessed at the end of TB treatment according to international guidelines. Results Of 769 enrolled patients, 752 (98% had serologic testing performed for viral hepatitis: 70 (9% were reactive for HBsAg, 237 (31% for anti-HCV, and 472 (63% non-reactive for both markers. At the beginning of TB treatment, 18 (26% patients with HBsAg reactivity had elevated liver function tests compared with 69 (15% patients non-reactive to any viral marker (p = 0.02. At the end of TB treatment, 493 (64% were successfully treated. Factors independently associated with HBsAg reactivity included being a man who had sex with men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–4.3 and having low TB knowledge (AOR, 1.8; CI, 1.0–3.0. Factors most strongly associated with anti-HCV reactivity were having injection drug use history (AOR, 12.8; CI, 7.0–23.2 and living in Bangkok (AOR, 15.8; CI, 9.4–26.5. The rate of clinical hepatitis and death during TB treatment was similar in patients HBsAg reactive, anti-HCV reactive, both HBsAg and anti-HCV reactive, and non-reactive to any viral marker. Conclusion Among HIV-infected TB patients living in Thailand, markers of viral hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C virus

  9. ITERA: IDL Tool for Emission-line Ratio Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Groves, Brent

    2010-01-01

    We present a new software tool to enable astronomers to easily compare observations of emission line ratios with those determined by photoionization and shock models, ITERA, the IDL Tool for Emission-line Ratio Analysis. This tool can plot ratios of emission lines predicted by models and allows for comparison of observed line ratios against grids of these models selected from model libraries associated with the tool. We provide details of the libraries of standard photoionization and shock models available with ITERA, and, in addition, present three example emission line ratio diagrams covering a range of wavelengths to demonstrate the capabilities of ITERA. ITERA, and associated libraries, is available from \\url{http://www.brentgroves.net/itera.html}

  10. A note on Youden's J and its cost ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Niels

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Youden index, the sum of sensitivity and specificity minus one, is an index used for setting optimal thresholds on medical tests. Discussion When using this index, one implicitly uses decision theory with a ratio of misclassification costs which is equal to one minus the prevalence proportion of the disease. It is doubtful whether this cost ratio truly represents the decision maker's preferences. Moreover, in populations with a different prevalence, a selected threshold is optimal with reference to a different cost ratio. Summary The Youden index is not a truly optimal decision rule for setting thresholds because its cost ratio varies with prevalence. Researchers should look into their cost ratio and employ it in a decision theoretic framework to obtain genuinely optimal thresholds.

  11. The C-12/C-13 Ratio as a Chemistry Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirstroem, Eva; Geppert, Wolf; Persson, Carina; Charnley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic ratios of elements are considered powerful tools, e.g. in tracing the origin of solar system body materials, or the degree of nucleosynthesis processing throughout the Galaxy. In interstellar molecules, some isotopic ratios like H/D and C-12/C-13 can also be used as indicators of their chemical origin. Isotope fractionation in gas-phase chemical reactions and gas-dust interaction makes observations of the ratio between C-12 and C-13 isotopologues suitable to distinguish between different formation scenarios. We will present observations of the C-12/C-13 ratio in methanol and formaldehyde towards a sample of embedded, massive young stellar objects. In relation to this we also present results from theoretical modeling showing the usefulness of the C-12/C-13 ratio as a chemistry indicator.

  12. POSSIBILISTIC SHARPE RATIO BASED NOVICE PORTFOLIO SELECTION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Bhattacharyya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the concept of possibilistic risk aversion to propose a new approach for portfolio selection in fuzzy environment. Using possibility theory, the possibilistic mean, variance, standard deviation and risk premium of a fuzzy number are established. Possibilistic Sharpe ratio is defined as the ratio of possibilistic risk premium and possibilistic standard deviation of a portfolio. The Sharpe ratio is a measure of the performance of the portfolio compared to the risk taken. The higher the Sharpe ratio, the better the performance of the portfolio is and the greater the profits of taking risk. New models of fuzzy portfolio selection considering the possibilistic Sharpe ratio, return and skewness of the portfolio are considered. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by numerical example extracted from Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE, India and is solved by multiple objective genetic algorithm (MOGA.

  13. Nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio using a single image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiscatter grid is an essential part of modern radiographic systems. Since the introduction of the antiscatter grid, however, there have been few methods proposed for acceptance testing and verification of manufacturer-supplied grid specifications. The grid ratio (r) is an important parameter describing the antiscatter grid because it affects many other grid quality metrics, such as the contrast improvement ratio (K), primary transmission (Tp), and scatter transmission (Ts). Also, the grid ratio in large part determines the primary clinical use of the grid. To this end, the authors present a technique for the nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio of antiscatter grids. They derived an equation that can be used to calculate the grid ratio from a single off-focus flat field image by exploiting the relationship between grid cutoff and off-focus distance. The calculation can be performed by hand or with included analysis software. They calculated the grid ratios of several different grids throughout the institution, and afterward they destructively measured the grid ratio of a nominal r8 grid previously evaluated with the method. They also studied the sensitivity of the method to technical factors and choice of parameters. With one exception, the results for the grids found in the institution were in agreement with the manufacturer's specifications and international standards. The nondestructive evaluation of the r8 grid indicated a ratio of 7.3, while the destructive measurement indicated a ratio of 7.53±0.28. Repeated evaluations of the same grid yielded consistent results. The technique provides the medical physicist with a new tool for quantitative evaluation of the grid ratio, an important grid performance criterion. The method is robust and repeatable when appropriate choices of technical factors and other parameters are made.

  14. Comparison of Three Methods of Measuring CA/C Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Goss, OD, PhD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical determination of convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C ratios may be useful for analysis of accommodation and vergence disorders, but there are no standard clinical methods of measurement of CA/C ratios. This study compared two potential clinical CA/C measurement methods to a laboratory procedure. Methods: CA/C ratios were measured for 19 young adult subjects using procedures in which accommodation was measured with the binocular cross cylinder (BCC test, Nott dynamic retinoscopy, and an eccentric photorefractor. Vergence was stimulated with prism, and the resultant change in accommodation was used to calculate CA/C ratios. Results: The mean CA/C ratios were 0.036 D/Δ with BCC and BI prism, -0.004 D/Δ with BCC and BO prism, 0.023 D/Δ with Nott retinoscopy and BI prism, 0.036 D/Δ with Nott retinoscopy and BO prism, and 0.115 D/Δ with eccentric photorefraction and BO prism. The differences between each pair of tests were statistically significant by paired t-test except for the comparison of the BCC BI prism CA/C ratio with the Nott BI prism CA/C ratio. The means and standard deviations of the paired differences were all high relative to the measurements themselves. Conclusion: The CA/C ratios obtained in the present study did not show good agreement with each other. The use of CA/C ratios in clinical analysis would therefore require further evaluation and standardization of measurement methods, establishment of norms, and development of analysis procedures in concert with AC/A ratios and other clinical findings.

  15. Stable isotope ratio determination of the origin of vanillin in vanilla extracts and its relationship to vanillin/potassium ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for isolating vanillin from vanilla extract, followed by stable isotope ratio analysis to determine the amount of natural vanillin contained in adulterated vanilla extracts. After the potassium content is determined, the percent Madagascar and/or Java vanilla beans incorporated into the extract may then be approximated from the vanillin/potassium ratio

  16. A Study on the Effects of Compression Ratio, Engine Speed and Equivalence Ratio on HCCI Combustion of DME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    adjusted in steps to find suitable regions of operation, and the effect of engine speed was studied at 1000, 2000 and 3000 RPM. It was found that leaner excess air ratios require higher compression ratios to achieve satisfactory combustion. Engine speed also affects operation significantly....

  17. Interactions of valproic acid with carbamazepine and its metabolites' concentrations, concentrations ratios, and level/dose ratios in epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Delgado, M R; Browne, R H

    1995-02-01

    In two groups of epileptic children receiving carbamazepine (CBZ) therapy with or without valproic acid (VPA) comedication, we investigate the drug interactions of VPA on serum CBZ and its metabolites' concentrations, concentration ratios, and level/dose ratios. Serum total and free CBZ-10, 11-epoxide (CBZ-E) concentrations are significantly increased in patients taking CBZ plus VPA, together with higher CBZ-E/CBZ concentration ratios and CBZ-E level/dose ratios. These results reflect the accumulation of CBZ-E. The decreased concentration ratios of trans-10, 11-dihydroxy-10, 11-dihydro-CBZ (CBZ-H)/CBZ-E observed in patients taking CBZ plus VPA suggest an inhibition in the biotransformation from CBZ-E to CBZ-H. Significant negative correlations are found between serum VPA level and CBZ-H/CBZ-E concentration ratios, indicating that the inhibition of CBZ-E hydrolysis by VPA may depend on the concentration of VPA (total or free CBZ-H/CBZ-E concentration ratio = [formula: see text], respectively). VPA concentration also shows significant positive correlations with CBZ-E and CBZ level/dose ratios. Patients taking CBZ plus VPA have significant higher free fractions of CBZ and CBZ-E than do patients on CBZ alone, suggesting a protein-binding displacement by VPA. PMID:8665529

  18. Effects of spatial resolution ratio in image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.

    2008-01-01

    In image fusion, the spatial resolution ratio can be defined as the ratio between the spatial resolution of the high-resolution panchromatic image and that of the low-resolution multispectral image. This paper attempts to assess the effects of the spatial resolution ratio of the input images on the quality of the fused image. Experimental results indicate that a spatial resolution ratio of 1:10 or higher is desired for optimal multisensor image fusion provided the input panchromatic image is not downsampled to a coarser resolution. Due to the synthetic pixels generated from resampling, the quality of the fused image decreases as the spatial resolution ratio decreases (e.g. from 1:10 to 1:30). However, even with a spatial resolution ratio as small as 1:30, the quality of the fused image is still better than the original multispectral image alone for feature interpretation. In cases where the spatial resolution ratio is too small (e.g. 1:30), to obtain better spectral integrity of the fused image, one may downsample the input high-resolution panchromatic image to a slightly lower resolution before fusing it with the multispectral image.

  19. 14CO2 ratios method for detecting pyruvate carboxylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of oxidative metabolism of pyruvate may be assessed by comparing the steady-state 14CO2 production from four isotopes in identical samples. The assay requires measuring the ratios of steady-state 14CO2 production from two isotope pairs, [2-14C]pyruvate:[3-14C]pyruvate and [1-14C]acetate:[2-14C]acetate. These ratios are defined as the ''pyruvate 14CO2 ratio'' and the ''acetate 14CO2 ratio,'' respectively. If pyruvate is metabolized exclusively via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the two ratios will be identical. Alternatively, if any pyruvate enters the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via pyruvate carboxylation (PC), the pyruvate 14CO2 ratio will be less than the acetate 14CO2 ratio. If pyruvate enters the TCA cycle only through PC (with oxaloacetate and fumarate in equilibrium) the pyruvate 14CO2 ratio will approach a value of 1.0. An equation is presented for the quantitative evaluation of pyruvate oxidation by these two pathways. We have used this method to detect relative changes in the pattern of pyruvate metabolism in rat liver mitochondria produced by exposure to 1 mM octanoyl carnitine, a compound known to alter the PC:PDH activity ratio. The major advantages of the method are (i) that it provides a sensitive method for detecting pyruvate carboxylation at physiological pyruvate concentrations and (ii) that it provides a method for distinguishing between effects on pyruvate transport and effects on pyruvate oxidation

  20. Selective Breeding for a Behavioral Trait Changes Digit Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Reginia H. Y.; Jessica L Malisch; Hannon, Robert M.; Hurd, Peter L.; Theodore Garland

    2008-01-01

    The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger) divided by the fourth digit (ring finger) tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized") in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ra...

  1. Relative profit maximization in duopoly: difference or ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Atsuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-01-01

    We compare two formulations of relative profit maximization in duopoly with differentiated goods: (1) (difference case) maximization of the difference between the profit of one firm and that of the other firm and (2) (ratio case) maximization of the ratio of the profit of one firm to the total profit. We show that in asymmetric duopoly the equilibrium output of the more efficient (lower cost) firm in the ratio case is larger than that in the difference case and the price of the good of the mo...

  2. Ratio Versus Regression Analysis: Some Empirical Evidence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Carneiro Affonso da Costa Jr.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work compares the traditional methodology for ratio analysis, applied to a sample of Brazilian firms, with the alternative one of regression analysis both to cross-industry and intra-industry samples. It was tested the structural validity of the traditional methodology through a model that represents its analogous regression format. The data are from 156 Brazilian public companies in nine industrial sectors for the year 1997. The results provide weak empirical support for the traditional ratio methodology as it was verified that the validity of this methodology may differ between ratios.

  3. Isotope ratio precision analysis using the Varian 820-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Scientific disciplines like food chemistry, geochemistry, paleontology are not only interested in the total concentration of an element but also in the isotope ratio of either two isotopes of the same element or isotopes of different elements. The research is focused on elements like selenium, zirconium, strontium, lead and uranium. The knowledge of the isotope ratio 10B/11B is essential for nuclear power plants. In addition to achieve accurate results, the challenge for ICPQMS is to obtain a required precision below 0.1 %. Different approaches to improve the precision of the isotope ratio analysis with ICPQMS are discussed. (author)

  4. THE INERT HOLDING RATIO OF COAL ANDTHE STRENGTH OF COKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    1996-01-01

    The variation regularity of coke strength was investigated in terms of the genetic fac-tors and petrographic parameters of coal in collaboration with the technical properties of coal. Aconcept of inert holding ratio of coal was proposed. There is an optimal inert holding ratio for dif-ferent ranks of coals for making coke with highest combined strength. The additive property of in-ert holding ratio under normal conditions was demonstrated with actual examples of coal blending.Thus it is possible to predict the combined strength of coke through reflectance, content of inertcomponents and caking index (Ro, max-I-G) diagram system.

  5. Ratio Monotonicity of Polynomials Derived from Nondecreasing Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, William Y C; Zhou, Elaine L F

    2010-01-01

    The ratio monotonicity of a polynomial is a stronger property than log-concavity. Let P(x) be a polynomial with nonnegative and nondecreasing coefficients. We prove the ratio monotone property of P(x+1), which leads to the log-concavity of P(x+c) for any $c\\geq 1$ due to Llamas and Mart\\'{\\i}nez-Bernal. As a consequence, we obtain the ratio monotonicity of the Boros-Moll polynomials obtained by Chen and Xia without resorting to the recurrence relations of the coefficients.

  6. Isomeric ratio measurements with the ILL LOHENGRIN spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebboubi, A.; Kessedjian, G.; Litaize, O.; Serot, O.; Faust, H.; Bernard, D.; Blanc, A.; Köster, U.; Méplan, O.; Mutti, P.; Sage, C.

    2016-03-01

    The modelling of γ heating and neutron damage inside a nuclear reactor is essential to design the next generation of nuclear reactors. The determination of the fission fragment momentum is a key element to perform accurate calculations of the γ heating. One way to assess this information is to look at the isomeric ratio of different nuclei. According to the lifetime of the isomeric state, different experimental techniques were developed at the LOHENGRIN spectrometer. A focus on the measurement of isomeric ratios of 136I in neutron induced fission of 241Pu is presented. A discussion with the current assumptions used in the evaluation process for isomeric ratio is also shown.

  7. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, N; Wang, Y; Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  8. K0/K+ ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that ratio of production yields of K0 and K+ mesons in collisions of isotopically asymmetric nuclei at incident energies ∼ 1 GeV/nucleon is related directly enough to temperature of nuclear matter at the initial stage of the collision. Sensitivity of the K0/K+ ratio to the temperature variation is analyzed. Ambiguities, associated with interpretation of this quantity as a probe of nuclear temperature, are discussed. It is argued that the K0/K+ ratio is a fairly model-independent quantity, provided channels with Δ isobars dominate the kaon production. (orig.)

  9. On collinear wake field acceleration with high transformer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main subject of the presented paper is related to collinear wake field acceleration schemes with high transformer ratio driven by a train of charged particle bunches. Based on the energy conservation, causality and superposition of the induced fields, an optimal transformer ratio in such collinear wake field accelerators has been treated. The main features of the wake field excitation by the train of point, short and symmetric bunches in single and many mode structures have been studied. A numerical example for a collinear multi-bunch wake field accelerator with high transformer ratio is discussed. (author)

  10. Nestling sex ratio in the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, T.D.; Keim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  11. Nestling sex ratios in the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, Tracy; Keim, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts.

  12. Precision measurement of cross sections by isomer ratio method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of determining the cross sections of isomer states measuring the ratio of yields of ground and isomer states (or σm/σg cross section ratio) by γ spectroscopy methods is investigated. Isomer ratio (IR) for 185Re(γ, n)184mgRe, 181Ta(α, n)184mgRe, 82Se(γ, n)81mSe and 39K(γ, n)38mgK reactions are studied. The IR determination error makes up several per cents. 6 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Poisson Ratio of Epitaxial Germanium Films Grown on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Jayesh; Narayan, Jagdish; Rozgonyi, George; Bulman, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of elastic constants of thin films is important in understanding the effect of strain on material properties. We have used residual thermal strain to measure the Poisson ratio of Ge films grown on Si ⟨001⟩ substrates, using the sin2 ψ method and high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The Poisson ratio of the Ge films was measured to be 0.25, compared with the bulk value of 0.27. Our study indicates that use of Poisson ratio instead of bulk compliance values yields a more accurate description of the state of in-plane strain present in the film.

  14. The H-alpha/H-beta ratio in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirin, H.; Liggett, M.; Patterson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation involves the study of an extensive body of data accumulated of simultaneous H-alpha and H-beta cinematography of flares. The data were obtained with two telescopes simultaneously photographing flares in H-alpha and H-beta. The results of measurements in a number of flares are presented in a table. The flares were selected purely by optical quality of the data. That the measured ratios are not too different from those in stellar flares is suggested by the last two columns of the table. These columns show that a variety of possible line width ratios could give an integrated intensity ratio of less than unity.

  15. Bumblebee sex ratios: why do bumblebees produce so many males?

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, M; Stratum, P. van

    1998-01-01

    Sex investment ratios in populations of bumblebees are male biased, which contradicts theoretical predictions. Male-biased investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera are assumed to be non-stable for both the queen and her workers. In this paper, we show that male-biased sex allocation does not necessarily decrease fitness in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. A male-biased investment ratio can be the result of an optimal allocation of resources when resources are scarce if (i) there is a large c...

  16. Planned Enhanced Wakefield Transformer Ratio Experiment at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kanareykin, Alex; Gai, Wei; Jing, Chunguang; Konecny, Richard; Power, John G

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a preliminary experimental study of a wakefield accelerating scheme that uses a carefully spaced and current ramped electron pulse train to produce wakefields that increases the transformer ratio much higher than 2. A dielectric structure was designed and fabricated to operate at 13.625 GHz with dielectric constant of 15.7. The structure will be initially excited by two beams with first and second beam charge ratio of 1:3. The expected transformer ratio is 3 and the setup can be easily extend to 4 pulses which leads to a transformer ratio of more than 6. The dielectric structure cold test results show the tube is within the specification. A set of laser splitters was also tested to produce ramped bunch train of 2 - 4 pulses. Overall design of the experiment and initial results will be presented.

  17. Use of plutonium isotope activity ratios in dating recent sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of plutonium presently in the biosphere has come from the testing of nuclear devices. In the early 1950s, the Pu-238/239+240 activity ratio of fallout debris was > 0.04; in the more extensive test series of 1961 to 1962, the Pu-238/239+240 activity ratios were quite consistent at 0.02 to 0.03 and maximum fallout delivery occurred in mid-1963. A significant perturbation in Pu isotope activity ratios occurred in mid-1966 with the deposition of Pu-238 from the SNAP-9A reentry and burn-up. Recently deposited sediments have recorded these events and where accumulation rates are rapid (> 1 cm/y), changes in Pu isotope activity ratios can be used as a geochronological tool

  18. Perspectives on low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of the low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron configuration is discussed from the point of view of plasma confinement. Recent numerical results on the configuration study and the experimental data base are reviewed. (author)

  19. PROFITABILITY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the profitability ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romanian companies, with the targeted event being represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were conducted over 2 paired samples of 1176 Romanian companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the profitability ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.663 and the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (62.6% out-of-sample accuracy. The results confirm the practical utility of the profitability ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy and thus validate the need for further research focused on developing a methodology of analysis.

  20. The HNC/HCN Ratio in Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Graninger, Dawn; Oberg, Karin I; Vasyunin, Anton I

    2014-01-01

    HNC and HCN, typically used as dense gas tracers in molecular clouds, are a pair of isomers that have great potential as a temperature probe because of temperature dependent, isomer-specific formation and destruction pathways. Previous observations of the HNC/HCN abundance ratio show that the ratio decreases with increasing temperature, something that standard astrochemical models cannot reproduce. We have undertaken a detailed parameter study on which environmental characteristics and chemical reactions affect the HNC/HCN ratio and can thus contribute to the observed dependence. Using existing gas and gas-grain models updated with new reactions and reaction barriers, we find that in static models the H + HNC gas-phase reaction regulates the HNC/HCN ratio under all conditions, except for very early times. We quantitively constrain the combinations of H abundance and H + HNC reaction barrier that can explain the observed HNC/HCN temperature dependence and discuss the implications in light of new quantum chemic...

  1. Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulacsy, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1997-05-23

    The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author).

  2. Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author)

  3. Measurement of the C/H ratio by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probe consisting of a Ra (α, n) Be neutron source and a boron-trifluoride-filled proportional counter were used for measuring the C/H ratio in hydrocarbons. The intensity of the thermal-neutron flux near the counter increases in proportion to the increase of the hydrogen concentration in the hydrocarbon surrounding the probe. The C/H ratio is found by measuring the density. The C/H ratio can be estimated as accurately by this method as by β-particle transmission. The errors resulting from the chemical nature of the hydrocarbon can be reduced to a minimum. The advantage of this method is that it renders possible an external measurement of the C/H ratio of hydrocarbons contained in steel vessels or thick steel piping by means of a portable apparatus. (author)

  4. Sample size for estimating the ratio of two means

    OpenAIRE

    Galeone, A; Pollastri, A

    2009-01-01

    The decision about the sample size is particularly difficult when we have to estimate the ratio of two means. This abstract presents a procedure for the sample size determination in the considered situation

  5. Stress Ratio Effect on Ratcheting Behavior of AISI 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya Bharathi, K.; Dutta, K.

    2016-02-01

    Ratcheting is known as accumulation of plastic strain during asymmetric cyclic loading of metallic materials under non-zero mean stress. This phenomenon reduces fatigue life of engineering materials and thus limits the life prediction capacity of Coffin-Manson relationship. This study intends to investigate the ratcheting behavior in AISI 4340 steel which is mainly used for designing of railway wheel sets, axles, shafts, aircraft components and other machinery parts. The effect of stress ratio on the ratcheting behaviour in both annealed and normalised conditions were investigated for investigated steel. Ratcheting tests were done at different stress ratios of -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8. The results showed that the material responds to hardening behavior and nature of strain accumulation is dependent on the magnitude of stress ratio. The post ratcheted samples showed increase in tensile strength and hardness which increases with increasing stress ratio and these variations in tensile properties are correlated with the induced cyclic hardening.

  6. Delayed-neutron branching ratios of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayed-neutron branching ratios have been reviewed for 86 nuclides, including a few isomers, among the fission products. The list comprises values reported before the end of December, 1987. (authors) (33 refs.)

  7. Determining Molar Combining Ratios Using Radioisotopes--A Student Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines an experimental procedure in which an iodine radioisotope is used to determine molar combining ratios of lead and silver with the iodine. Tables and graphs show the definitive results that should be attainable. (CP)

  8. Reduction of the bull: cow ratio in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sereno José Robson Bezerra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to study alternatives for reduction of the bull:cow ratio in the Brazilian lowland and, therefore, lower the production costs for the local beef cattle industry. The ratios 1:10, 1:25, and 1:40 were used in native pastures with a mean stocking rate of 0.27 mature animal unit per hectare over two consecutive breeding seasons. Statistical analysis did not show any effect (P>0.05 of year (P = 0.2097, animal category (P = 0.0773, bull:cow ratio (0.8134 on reproductive performance. However, the pregnancy rate in a multiple bull system was higher (P = 0.0228 than in the individual bull system. An evaluation of the economic impact of this management system in the extensive Lowland herds showed that at the ratio of 1:10 the bulls were sub utilized.

  9. Effect of area ratio on the performance of a 5.5:1 pressure ratio centrifugal impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, L. F.; Clark, D. A.; Wood, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A centrifugal impeller which was initially designed for a pressure ratio of approximately 5.5 and a mass flow rate of 0.959 kg/sec was tested with a vaneless diffuser for a range of design point impeller area ratios from 2.322 to 2.945. The impeller area ratio was changed by successively cutting back the impeller exit axial width from an initial value of 7.57 mm to a final value of 5.97 mm. In all, four separate area ratios were tested. For each area ratio a series of impeller exit axial clearances was also tested. Test results are based on impeller exit surveys of total pressure, total temperature, and flow angle at a radius 1.115 times the impeller exit radius. Results of the tests at design speed, peak efficiency, and an exit tip clearance of 8 percent of exit blade height show that the impeller equivalent pressure recovery coefficient peaked at a design point area ratio of approximately 2.748 while the impeller aerodynamic efficiency peaked at a lower value of area ratio of approximately 2.55. The variation of impeller efficiency with clearance showed expected trends with a loss of approximately 0.4 points in impeller efficiency for each percent increase in exit axial tip clearance for all impellers tested.

  10. High-precision mass spectrometric hydrogen isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical capabilities of mass spectrometric ion-current measurement systems are described on both a theoretical and a practical basis. From the theoretical standpoint, a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) model that evaluated the fundamental sources of noise present in ion-current measurement systems was developed. Use of this model accurately predicted the performance (precision) for ion-current ratio measurements made by two isotope ratio mass spectrometers, one designed for carbon isotopic measurements, and the other designed for hydrogen isotopic measurements. Isotope ratio measurements differ from current-ratio measurements in that the observed ion-current ratio must be corrected to reflect the ratio of the ion currents due to the isotopic species of interest, which, for hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry, are HD+ and H2+. Interfaces to these two ion currents are described in detail. To compensate for H3+ three measurement procedures, the two-standard calibration, the one-standard differential measurement with electronic H3+ compensation, and the two-standard differential measurement, are described. The one- and two-standard differential measurements were successfully used for measurement of isotopic abundances. Results of a collaborative investigation to validate the use of 18O in place of D as an isotopic label for total body water measurements are presented. In this research both 18O and D were administered simultaneously to several subjects. The weight of total body water of these subjects as measured by the dilution of D into the body water was in good agreement with the results of the 18O measurements. A brief description of the laboratory computer system is also given

  11. Prescribed therapy for asthma: therapeutic ratios and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Laurent; Licaj, Idlir; Devouassoux, Gilles; Eriksson, Irene; Caillet, Pascal; Chatte, Gérard; Belhassen, Manon; Van Ganse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of asthma therapy. The ICS-to-total-asthma-medication ratios, calculated from claims data, indicate potentially risky disease management in asthma. Our aim was to assess the utility of ICS-to-total-asthma-medication ratios from primary care electronic medical records (EMRs) in detecting patients at risk of asthma exacerbation, as approached by prescription of oral corticosteroids and/or antibiotics. Methods Retrospective cohort stud...

  12. International evidence on payout ratio, returns. earnings and dividends

    OpenAIRE

    ap Gwilym, Owain; Seaton, James; Suddason, Karina; Thomas, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Recent US evidence has shown that, contrary to popular wisdom, the greater the proportion of earnings paid out as dividends, the greater the subsequent real earnings growth. We extend previous work by examining whether a similar relationship exists in eleven international markets as well as considering the role payout ratio plays in explaining future real dividend growth and returns. Higher payout ratios do indeed lead to higher real earnings growth, although not to higher real dividend growt...

  13. Low-aspect-ratio toroidal equilibria of electron clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroidal electron clouds with a low aspect ratio (as small as 1.3) and lasting for thousands of poloidal rotation periods have been formed in the laboratory. Characteristic toroidal effects like a large inward shift of the minor axis of equipotential contours, elliptical and triangular deformations, etc., have been observed experimentally for the first time. The results of new analytic and numerical investigations of low-aspect-ratio electron cloud equilibria, which reproduce many of the observed features, are also presented

  14. Rho-0 Meson Helicity Amplitude Ratios at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The study of {\\rho}0 meson helicity amplitude ratios at HERMES shows that the amplitude hierarchy expected from pQCD is confirmed. The contribution of Unnatural Parity Exchange in the production of {\\rho}0 mesons is significant at HERMES kinematics and there is a large phase-difference in the leading F11 and F01 amplitudes. The kinematic dependences of the amplitude ratios only sometimes follow theory-based expectations.

  15. A Sharpe-ratio-based measure for currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Prado-Dominguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sharpe Ratio offers an excellent summary of the excess return required per unit of risk invested. This work presents an adaptation of the ex-ante Sharpe Ratio for currencies where we consider a random walk approach for the currency behavior and implied volatility as a proxy for market expectations of future realized volatility. The outcome of the proposed measure seems to gauge some information on the expected required return attached to the “peso problem”.

  16. Body composition analysis: Cellular level modeling of body component ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Wang; Heymsfield, S. B.; PI-SUNYER, F.X.; Gallagher, D.; PIERSON, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growt...

  17. Nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio using a single image

    OpenAIRE

    Pasciak, A. S.; Jones, A Kyle

    2009-01-01

    The antiscatter grid is an essential part of modern radiographic systems. Since the introduction of the antiscatter grid, however, there have been few methods proposed for acceptance testing and verification of manufacturer-supplied grid specifications. The grid ratio (r) is an important parameter describing the antiscatter grid because it affects many other grid quality metrics, such as the contrast improvement ratio (K), primary transmission (Tp), and scatter transmission (Ts). Also, the gr...

  18. Structured portfolio analysis under SharpeOmega ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Hentati, Rania; Prigent, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with performance measurement of financial struc- tured products. For this purpose, we introduce the SharpeOmega ratio, based on put as downside risk measure. This allows to take account of the asymmetry of the return probability distribution. We provide gen- eral results about the optimization of some standard structured portfolios with respect to the SharpeOmega ratio. We determine in particular the optimal combination of risk free, stock and calljput instruments with re- sp...

  19. The currency ratio in Tanzania: an econometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ndanshau, Michael O. A.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested some key hypotheses on the determinants of the currency ratio in Tanzania. The econometric results suggest that real income is, as theorized, negatively related to and a significant determinant of the currency ratio in Tanzania. The estimated income elasticity coefficient, found to be far less than unity, suggests there is poor substitution between currency and demand deposits in Tanzania. The results also showed that expected inflation was negatively related to the curre...

  20. High dynamic extinction ratio and pulse modulation of optical signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A.; Tronev, A. V.; Lebedev, V.; Il'ichev, I. V.; Velichko, E.; Shamray, A.

    2015-11-01

    The use of a saturable absorber for increasing the extinction ratio at external modulation of optical signals is considered. An erbium doped fiber was used as the saturable absorber in the experiments. A considerable increase in the static extinction ratio (up to 50 dB) was demonstrated. A rather long erbium doped fiber relaxation time (about 10 ms) was a limiting factor in the case of pulse modulation. Ways of overcoming this drawback are discussed.

  1. Factors determining gender ratio in the Maltese population

    OpenAIRE

    Savona-Ventura, Stephanie; Savona-Ventura, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Male/Female ratio at birth has been described to favour the male conceptus, a situation that persists throughout most of childhood and into the reproductive phase of life. The reasons behind this preferential male-favouring remain elusive. Methodology: The various relevant obstetric and population national registers kept by the Department of Health information and the National Statistics Office of the Maltese Islands were reviewed to elucidate the age-related M/F ratios ...

  2. Branching ratio approximation for the self-exciting Hawkes process

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiman, Stephen J.; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a model-independent approximation for the branching ratio of Hawkes self-exciting point processes. Our estimator requires knowing only the mean and variance of the event count in a sufficiently large time window, statistics that are readily obtained from empirical data. The method we propose greatly simplifies the estimation of the Hawkes branching ratio, recently proposed as a proxy for market endogeneity and formerly estimated using numerical likelihood maximisation. We employ ...

  3. Ratios of partition fucntions for the log-gamma polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Atilla; Georgiou, Nicos; Rassoul-Agha, Firas; Seppaelaeinen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a random walk in random environment associated to an underlying directed polymer model in 1 + 1 dimensions. This walk is the positive temperature counterpart of the competition interface of percolation and arises as the limit of quenched polymer measures. We prove this limit for the exactly solvable log-gamma polymer, as a consequence of almost sure limits of ratios of partition functions. These limits of ratios give the Busemann functions of the log-gamma polymer, and furnish ce...

  4. Consumption-Wealth Ratio and Expected Housing Return

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kundan Kishor; Swati Kumari

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate expected return on housing by exploiting information from the variations in the consumption- wealth ratio. We combine a present-value model of consumption with an unobserved component model to express the excess consumption-assets ratio (consumption in excess of labor income) as a linear function of unobserved return on housing assets, financial assets, and consumption growth. We apply a Kalman filter to extract expected housing asset returns from the history of rea...

  5. Pu600 energy window arithmetic of plutonium isotopes ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of calculating plutonium isotopes ratio using Pu600 energy window (630-670 keV) was put forward by the LLNL. And plutonium isotopes ratio arithmetic on Pu600 energy window was developed in this paper. Some γ energy spectra of two plutonium samples were calculated on this arithmetic, and the results are consistent with the results from PC/FRAM. (authors)

  6. Basel III and the Net Stable Funding Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon, F.; Petersen, Mark A.; Janine Mukuddem-Petersen; LNP Hlatshwayo

    2013-01-01

    We validate the new Basel liquidity standards as encapsulated by the net stable funding ratio in a quantitative manner. In this regard, we consider the dynamics of inverse net stable funding ratio as a measure to quantify the bank’s prospects for a stable funding over a period of a year. In essence, this justifies how Basel III liquidity standards can be effectively implemented in mitigating liquidity problems. We also discuss various classes of available stable funding and required stable fu...

  7. True stress and Poisson's ratio of tendons during loading

    OpenAIRE

    VERGARI, Claudio; Pourcelot, Philippe; HOLDEN, Laurène; RAVARY-PLUMIOEN, Bérangère; GERARD, Guillaume; Laugier, Pascal; Mitton, David; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Excessive axial tension is very likely involved in the aetiology of tendon lesions, and the most appropriate indicator of tendon stress state is the true stress, the ratio of instantaneous load to instantaneous cross-sectional area (CSA). Difficulties to measure tendon CSA during tension often led to approximate true stress by assuming that CSA is constant during loading (i.e. by the engineering stress) or that tendon is incompressible, implying a Poisson's ratio of 0.5, although these hypoth...

  8. Some Problems on Poisson's Ratio in the Earth's Crust

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Eiichi; Kamitsuki, Akira; Kishimoto, Yoshimichi

    2011-01-01

    Instead of the time-distance graph, the P-S diagram is effectively employed to estimate the value of Poisson's ratio in the earth's crust. This diagram is advantageous, especially to detect its local anomaly or distribution. The obtained results are as follows: 1 Applying this method to eighteen earthquakes occurring in south-western Japan, the domain with anomalously large Poisson's ratio was found in the Kyushu district. This hints to the possibility of an existence of a local magmatic res...

  9. Applications of the Golden Ratio on Riemannian Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    HRETCANU, Cristina-Elena

    2009-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is a fascinating topic that continually generates new ideas. The main purpose of the present paper is to point out and find some applications of the Golden Ratio and of Fibonacci numbers in Differential Geometry. We study a structure defined on a class of Riemannian manifolds, called by us a Golden Structure. A Riemannian manifold endowed with a Golden Structure will be called a Golden Riemannian manifold. Precisely, we say that an (1,1)-tensor field \\widetilde{P} ...

  10. The Golden Ratio in Time-based Media

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Verba

    2013-01-01

    Measure and proportion manifest themselves in all areas of beauty and virtue.–Socrates Mathematics and visual communication share a long historical, symbiotic relationship. In their pursuit of achieving order and beauty, they find common ground through geometry. The golden ratio is a mathematic and aesthetic phenomenon inherent in nature that has consistently evoked sensory enjoyment since antiquity. It may be assumed that the manifestation of the golden ratio in nature accounts for human’s i...

  11. Slight compressibility and sensitivity to changes in Poisson's ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, M. D.; Motherway, Julie A.; et al

    2013-01-01

    Finite element simulations of rubbers and biological soft tissue usually assume that the material being deformed is slightly compressible. It is shown here that, in shearing deformations, the corresponding normal stress distribution can exhibit extreme sensitivity to changes in Poisson's ratio. These changes can even lead to a reversal of the usual Poynting effect. Therefore, the usual practice of arbitrarily choosing a value of Poisson's ratio when numerically modelling rubbers and soft tiss...

  12. Tooth width ratios in crowded and non-crowded dentitions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabé, E.; Villanueva, KM; Flores-Mir, C

    2004-01-01

    Discrepancies in tooth width ratios could affect the excellence in the finishing of orthodontic cases. This study compares tooth width ratios in crowded and noncrowded dental arches. Tooth widths were measured from 143 dental casts (40 crowded and 33 spaced in male individuals and 43 crowded and 27 spaced in female individuals). Simultaneous crowded or spaced arches were selected. Tooth width measurements were made with a sliding caliper with a Vernier scale neared 0.1 mm. Inter- (0.990) and ...

  13. Dioecy and the evolution of sex ratios in ants

    OpenAIRE

    Diane C. Wiernasz; Cole, Blaine J.

    2009-01-01

    Split sex ratios, when some colonies produce only male and others only female reproductives, is a common feature of social insects, especially ants. The most widely accepted explanation for split sex ratios was proposed by Boomsma and Grafen, and is driven by conflicts of interest among colonies that vary in relatedness. The predictions of the Boomsma–Grafen model have been confirmed in many cases, but contradicted in several others. We adapt a model for the evolution of dioecy in plants to m...

  14. Punching tests of slabs with low reinforcement ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Guandalini, Stefano; Burdet, Olivier; Muttoni, Aurelio

    2009-01-01

    The results of a test series on the punching behavior of slabs with varying flexural reinforcement ratios and without transverse reinforcement are presented. The aim of the tests was to investigate the behavior of slabs failing in punching shear with low reinforcement ratios. The size of the specimens and of the aggregate was also varied to investigate its effect on punching shear. Measurements at the concrete surface as well as through the thickness of the specimens allowed the observation o...

  15. Comparison between Financial Ratios Analysis and Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Khalad M.S. Alrafadi; Mazila Md-Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Financial ratios have long been used as a tool to evaluate the overall financial performance of a company. However, in early 1990s, a new method called Balanced Scorecard has been introduced by Robert Kaplan and David Norton to evaluate the overall controlling of a company. Problem statement: To the best of my knowledge at present there are no letrature review comparing between Financial ratios and Balanced Scorecard. Approach: This study is a conceptual paper comparing between the financial ...

  16. Empirical Likelihood Ratio Test with Distribution Function Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingxi; Tewfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study non-parametric hypothesis testing problem with distribution function constraints. The empirical likelihood ratio test has been widely used in testing problems with moment (in)equality constraints. However, some detection problems cannot be described using moment (in)equalities. We propose a distribution function constraint along with an empirical likelihood ratio test. This detector is applicable to a wide variety of robust parametric/non-parametric detection problems. ...

  17. Deep Reactive Ion Etching for High Aspect Ratio Microelectromechanical Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Jacobsen, S.; Rasmussen, T.; Rasmussen, Frank Engel; Hansen, Ole

    A deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) process for fabrication of high aspect ratio trenches has been developed. Trenches with aspect ratios exceeding 20 and vertical sidewalls with low roughness have been demonstrated. The process has successfully been used in the fabrication of silicon-on-insulator (S......) released comb drive based resonators and tunable capacitors for MEMS applications. Brief characterizations of the devices are presented....

  18. Clinical implications of metastatic lymph node ratio in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shubao

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5-year survival rate in patients with gastric cancer is still poor, and lymph node metastasis is considered one of the most important prognostic factors. However, there are controversies in the classification of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. This study was carried out to investigate whether the metastatic lymph node ratio is a reliable classification of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer in Chinese. Methods 224 cases with gastric cancer with more than D1 dissection were retrospectively reviewed. The association between the total number of resected lymph nodes and the number of metastatic lymph nodes was determined. The prognostic value of the metastastic node ratio, defined as the ratio of the number of metastatic lymph nodes over the total number of resected lymph nodes, and the pN classification was assessed. Results The number of metastatic lymph node increased with the number of total resected lymph nodes. A Cox regression revealed that the metastatic node ratio, the number of metastatic nodes, histological type, and histological growth pattern independently influenced prognosis. The 5-year survival rates were 78%, 61%, 25%, 0% in cases with a metastastic node ratio of 0%, > 0% but 80%, respectively (P P Conclusion The metastatic lymph node ratio is a simple and useful independent prognostic factor. It may obviate possible confounding factors that are related to stage migration, and should be considered as an important component in the lymph node category.

  19. Regional sensitivity analysis using revised mean and variance ratio functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variance ratio function, derived from the contribution to sample variance (CSV) plot, is a regional sensitivity index for studying how much the output deviates from the original mean of model output when the distribution range of one input is reduced and to measure the contribution of different distribution ranges of each input to the variance of model output. In this paper, the revised mean and variance ratio functions are developed for quantifying the actual change of the model output mean and variance, respectively, when one reduces the range of one input. The connection between the revised variance ratio function and the original one is derived and discussed. It is shown that compared with the classical variance ratio function, the revised one is more suitable to the evaluation of model output variance due to reduced ranges of model inputs. A Monte Carlo procedure, which needs only a set of samples for implementing it, is developed for efficiently computing the revised mean and variance ratio functions. The revised mean and variance ratio functions are compared with the classical ones by using the Ishigami function. At last, they are applied to a planar 10-bar structure

  20. Biomass carbon-14 ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement methods of a biomass carbon ratio in biomass products based on 14C-radiocarbon concentration have been reviewed. Determination of the biomass carbon ratio in biomass products is important to secure the reliance in the commercial market, because the 'biomass products' could contain products from petroleum. The biomass carbon ratio can be determined from percent Modern Carbon (pMC) using ASTM D6866 methods. The pMC value is calculated from the comparison between the 14C in sample and 14C in reference material. The 14C concentration in chemical products can be measured by liquid scintillation counter (LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). LSC can be applicable to determine the biomass carbon ratio for liquid samples such as gasoline with bioethanol (E5 or E10). On the other hand, AMS can be used to determine the biomass carbon ratio for almost all kinds of organic and inorganic compounds such as starch, cellulose, ethanol, gasoline, or polymer composite with inorganic fillers. AMS can accept the gaseous and solid samples. The graphite derived from samples included in solid phase is measured by AMS. The biomass carbon of samples derived from wood were higher than 100% due to the effect of atomic bomb test in the atmosphere around 1950 which caused the artificial 14C injection. Exact calculation methods of the biomass carbon ratio from pMC will be required for the international standard (ISO standard). (author)

  1. Effect of mineral dust aerosol aspect ratio on polarized reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of dust particle aspect ratios on single- and multiple-scattering processes are studied using the spheroidal model in order to obtain a better understanding of the radiance and polarization signals at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) under various dust-aerosol-loading conditions. Specifically, the impact of the particle aspect ratio on the polarization state of the TOA radiation field is demonstrated by comparing the normalized polarized radiances observed by the POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances) instrument on board the PARASOL (Polarisation et Anisotropie des Reflectances au sommet de l'Atmosphère, couples avec un Satellite d'Observation emportant un Lidar) satellite with the corresponding theoretical counterparts. Furthermore, presented are the aspect ratio values inferred from multi-angular polarized radiance measurements of Saharan and Asian dust by the POLDER/PARASOL. - Highlights: • The radiative effect of dust aerosol aspect ratio is investigated. • A computational efficient vector radiative transfer model is developed. • Spaceborne Polarimetric measurements are used to retrieve aerosol properties. • A case study of Saharan dust shows a mean aspect ratio of 2.5. • Asian dust exhibits two aspect ratio values, 2.5 and 1.25

  2. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minimal value must be chosen that can achieve a reliable self-ignition when starting the engine in cold start conditions. In diesel engines, variable compression ratio provides control of peak cylinder pressure, improves cold start ability and low load operation, enabling the multi-fuel capability, increase of fuel economy and reduction of emissions. This paper contains both theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact that automatic variable compression ratios has on working process parameters in experimental diesel engine. Alternative methods of implementing variable compression ratio are illustrated and critically examined.

  3. Dioecy and the evolution of sex ratios in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernasz, Diane C; Cole, Blaine J

    2009-06-01

    Split sex ratios, when some colonies produce only male and others only female reproductives, is a common feature of social insects, especially ants. The most widely accepted explanation for split sex ratios was proposed by Boomsma and Grafen, and is driven by conflicts of interest among colonies that vary in relatedness. The predictions of the Boomsma-Grafen model have been confirmed in many cases, but contradicted in several others. We adapt a model for the evolution of dioecy in plants to make predictions about the evolution of split sex ratios in social insects. Reproductive specialization results from the instability of the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) sex ratio, and is independent of variation in relatedness. We test predictions of the model with data from a long-term study of harvester ants, and show that it correctly predicts the intermediate sex ratios we observe in our study species. The dioecy model provides a comprehensive framework for sex allocation that is based on the pay-offs to the colony via production of males and females, and is independent of the genetic variation among colonies. However, in populations where the conditions for the Boomsma-Grafen model hold, kin selection will still lead to an association between sex ratio and relatedness. PMID:19324757

  4. Pengaruh Likuiditas Terhadap Capital Adequacy Ratio Industri Perbankan di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sirait, Esta Surtiwaty

    2015-01-01

    There are several factors that influent in banking performance such as liquidity. There could be represented with its financial ratios which can predict banking performance on capital matter (Capital Adequacy Ratio). liquidity ratios is Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR, Quick Ratio (QR, Investing Policy Ratio (IPR), Loan to Asset Ratio (LAR), Liquidity Risk Ratio (LRR), Credit Risk Ratio (CRR). The purpose of this research is to test the influence of the variable liquidity toward Capital Adequacy R...

  5. Optimized aspect ratios of restrained thick-wall cylinders by virtue of Poisson's ratio selection. Part two: Temperature application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Incontrovertible evidence is presented that thermal stresses in cylindrical components which include nuclear reactors and containment vessels are shown to be highly dependent on the Poisson's ratio of the materials. → The key novelty is concerned with the identification of a new potential thermal applications for negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic) materials; i.e. those that get fatter when they are stretched. → Negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic) materials exhibit lower thermal stress build-up than conventional positive Poisson's ratio materials, this conjecture being proven using thermal surface plots. - Abstract: Analytical and numerical modelling have been employed to show that the choice of Poisson's ratio is one of the principal design criteria in order to reduce thermal stress build-up in isotropic materials. The modelling procedures are all twofold; consisting of a solution to a steady-state heat conduction problem followed by a linear static solution. The models developed take the form of simplistic thick-wall cylinders such model systems are applicable at macro-structural and micro-structural levels as the underlining formulations are based on the classical theory of elasticity. Generally, the results show that the Poisson's ratio of the material has a greater effect on the magnitude of the principal stresses than the aspect ratio of the cylinders investigated. Constraining the outside of these models significantly increases the thermal stresses induced. The most significant and original finding presented is that the for both freely expanding and constrained thick-wall cylinders the optimum Poisson's ratio is minus unity.

  6. Change Point in Panel Data with Small Fixed Panel Size: Ratio and Non-Ratio Test Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Peštová, Barbora; Pešta, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The main goal is to develop and, consequently, compare stochastic methods for detection whether a structural change in panel data occurred at some unknown time or not. Panel data of our interest consist of a moderate or relatively large number of panels, while the panels contain a small number of observations. Testing procedures to detect a possible common change in means of the panels are established. Ratio and non-ratio type test statistics are considered. Their asymptotic distributions und...

  7. Aspect ratio effect on shock-accelerated elliptic gas cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liyong; Liao, Shenfei; Liu, Cangli; Wang, Yanping; Zhai, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of an elliptic heavy-gas (SF6) cylinder accelerated by a planar weak shock wave is investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV) diagnostics, and the emphasis is on the aspect ratio effect on shock-elliptic cylinder interaction. Experiments are conducted at five different aspect ratios (the ratio of length in streamwise and spanwise directions) varied from 0.25 to 4.0. PIV raw images and quantitative flow field data are obtained at t = 0.6 ms after the shock impact. As the aspect ratio increases, the interface morphology develops faster owing to more vorticity produced along the interface and smaller vortex spacing between the two vortex cores. For each case in this study, the maximal fluctuating velocity locates at the middle point of the two counter-vortices. The histograms of fluctuating velocity reveal that a distinct double-peak structure appears in the largest aspect ratio case in comparison with a single-peak structure in the smallest aspect ratio case. The vortex velocities predicted by the theoretical model [G. Rudinger and L. M. Somers, "Behaviour of small regions of different gases carried in accelerated gas flows," J. Fluid Mech. 7, 161-176 (1960)] agree well with the experimental ones. With the increase of aspect ratio, the maximal value of vorticity increases as well as the circulation, and more low-magnitude quantities are generated, which indicates the formation of multi-scale flow structure in the late mixing process. It is found that the experimental circulation of the vortex motion is reasonably estimated by the ideal point vortex-pair model.

  8. Determining lead sources in Mexico using the lead isotope ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary-Webb Madhu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning can, in some cases, be traced to a specific route or source of exposure on the basis of the individual's blood lead isotope ratio. To assess the major source of lead exposure among women residing in Mexico City, we compared blood, ceramic, and gasoline lead isotope ratios. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population, randomly selected from participants of a large trial, (1/1996-12/1996 comprised of 16 women whose lead levels exceeded 10 µg/dl and who reported using lead-glazed ceramics. Lead isotope ratios were performed on a Perkin Elmer 5000 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS interfaced with a Perkin Elmer HGA-600MS Electrothermal Vaporization System (ETV. RESULTS: The isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb of both the blood specimens and their corresponding ceramic specimens were highly correlated, with r=0.9979, r²=0.9958, r=0.9957, r²=0.9915 and r=0.9945, r²=0.9890 values for the three isotope ratios, respectively, suggesting that the lead exposure most likely resulted from the use of these ceramic. Measurements of lead isotope ratios from leaded gasoline in use at the time of blood sampling, differed from those in blood and ceramics. CONCLUSIONS: Determining lead isotope ratios can be an efficient tool to identify a major source of lead exposure and to support the implementation of public health prevention and control measures.

  9. High Vp/Vs ratio: Saturated cracks or anisotropy effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.-Q.; Schubnel, A.; Fortin, J.; David, E. C.; Guéguen, Y.; Ge, H.-K.

    2012-06-01

    We measured Vp/Vs ratios of thermally cracked Westerly granite, thermally cracked Carrara marble and 4% porosity Fontainebleau sandstone, for an effective mean pressure ranging from 2 to 95 MPa. Samples were fluid-saturated alternatively with argon gas and water (5 MPa constant pore pressure). The experimental results show that at ultrasonic frequencies, Vp/Vs ratio of water saturated specimen never exceeded 2.15, even at effective mean pressure as low as 2 MPa, or for a lithology for which the Poisson's ratio of minerals is as high as 0.3 (calcite). In order to check these results against theoretical models: we examine first a randomly oriented cracked medium (with dispersion but without anisotropy); and second a medium with horizontally aligned cracks (with anisotropy but without dispersion). The numerical results show that experimental data agree well with the first model: at high frequency, Vp/Vs ratios range from 1.6 to 1.8 in the dry case and from 1.6 to 2.2 in the saturated case. The second model predicts both Vp/Sv and Vp/Sh to vary from 1.2 to 3.5, depending on the raypath angle relative to the crack fabric. In addition, perpendicular to the crack fabric, a high Vp/Vs ratio is predicted in the absence of shear wave splitting. From these results, we argue the possibility that high Vp/Vs ratio (>2.2) as recently imaged by seismic tomography in subduction zones, may come from zones presenting important crack anisotropy. The cumulative effects of crack anisotropy and high pore fluid pressure are required to get Vp/Vs ratios above 2.2.

  10. Classification of marine diatoms using pigment ratio suites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Peng; YU Zhigang; DENG Chunmei; LIU Shuxia; ZHEN Yu

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are widely distributed in many temperate areas and some species frequently form extensive blooms in spring.Hence,monitoring the variations of specific genera or species of diatoms is necessary for studying phytoplankton population dynamics in marine ecosystems.To test whether pigment ratios can be used to identify diatoms at a below-class taxonomic level,we analyzed 14 species/strains of diatoms isolated from Chinese seas using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).We normalized all pigment concentrations to total chlorophyll a to calculate the ratios of pigment to chlorophyll a,and calculated the ratios between accessory pigments (or pigment sums).Cluster analysis indicated that these diatoms could be classified into four clusters in terms of three accessory pigment ratios:chlorophyll c2:chlorophyll c1,fucoxanthin:total chlorophyll c and diadinoxanthin:diatoxanthin.The classification results matched well with those of biological taxonomy.To test the stability of the classification,pigment data from one species,cultured under different light intensities,and five new species/strains were calculated and used for discriminant analysis.The results show that the classification of diatom species using pigment ratio suites was stable for the variations of pigment ratios of species cultured in different light intensities.The introduction of new species,however,may confuse the classification within the current scheme.Classification of marine diatoms using pigment ratio suites is potentially valuable for the fine chemotaxonomy of phytoplankton at taxonomic levels below class and would advance studies on phytoplankton population dynamics and marine ecology.

  11. 7 CFR 400.172 - Qualifying with less than two of the required ratios or ten of the analytical ratios meeting the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or ten of the analytical ratios meeting the specified requirements. 400.172 Section 400.172... required ratios or ten of the analytical ratios meeting the specified requirements. An insurer with less than two of the required ratios or ten of the analytical ratios meeting the specified requirements...

  12. Analysis of fast reactor scenario with different conversion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korean fast reactor scenarios have been analyzed for various kinds of conversion ratio by the DANESS system dynamic analysis code. The once-through fuel cycle analysis was modeled based on the Korean 'National Energy Basic Plan' up to 2030 and a postulated nuclear demand growth rate until 2150. The fast reactor scenario analysis has been performed for three kinds of conversion ratios such as 0.3, 0.61 and 1.0. Through the calculations, the nuclear reactor deployment scenario, front-end cycle, back-end cycle, and long-term heat load have been investigated. From the once-through results, it is shown that the nuclear power demand would be ∼70 GWe and the total amount of the spent fuel accumulated by 2150 would be ∼168000 t. Also, the fast reactor scenario analysis results show that the spent fuel inventory and out-pile transuranic element can be reduced by increasing the fast reactor conversion ratio. Furthermore, the long-term heat load of spent fuel decreases with increasing the conversion ratio. However, it is known that the deployment of a fast reactor of low conversion ratio does not much reduce the spent fuel and out-pile transuranic element inventory due to the fast reactor deployment limitation which is related to the availability of transuranic elements. (author)

  13. Pollen-Ovule Ratio and Gamete Investment in Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Feng Yang; You-Hao Guo

    2007-01-01

    The Pedicularis species provides ideal materials to study floral evolution because of their substantial flower variation based on a narrow genetic basis, even though they are almost exclusively pollinated by bumblebee.These traits allow us to detect the evolutionary trends of floral parameters without considering genetic background and the difference of pollination vectors. The pollen-ovule ratio is widely used to estimate the pattern of resource investment in two sexual functions in flowering plants. Forty species representing all of the corolla types in Pedicularis were used to study pollen-ovule ratio, gamete investment, and their correlations. Results show that pollen-ovule ratio does not differ among both different corolla types and taxonomic groups. It is therefore suggested that pollen-ovule ratio should be a parallel evolution. The correlations between pollen-ovule ratio and pollen size (-), and ovule size (+) can be successfully explained in terms of sex allocation theory. The biological significance of such relationships was also discussed. Additionally, we analyzed the pattern of resource investment into female gamete, which has been somewhat neglected, and found that plants have different patterns of gamete investment between the two sexual functions.

  14. Incubation temperature causes skewed sex ratios in a precocial bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, Sarah E; Hopkins, William A; Carter, Amanda W; Kirkpatrick, Laila T; Navara, Kristin J; Hawley, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Many animals with genetic sex determination are nonetheless capable of manipulating sex ratios via behavioral and physiological means, which can sometimes result in fitness benefits to the parent. Sex ratio manipulation in birds is not widely documented, and revealing the mechanisms for altered sex ratios in vertebrates remains a compelling area of research. Incubation temperature is a key component of the developmental environment for birds, but despite its well-documented effects on offspring phenotype it has rarely been considered as a factor in avian sex ratios. Using ecologically relevant manipulations of incubation temperature within the range 35.0-37.0°C, we found greater mortality of female embryos during incubation than males regardless of incubation temperature, and evidence that more female than male embryos die at the lowest incubation temperature (35.0°C). Our findings in conjunction with previous work in brush turkeys suggest incubation temperature is an important determinant of avian secondary sex ratios that requires additional study, and should be considered when estimating the impact of climate change on avian populations. PMID:27143750

  15. All passive photonic power divider with arbitrary split ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; Wen, Xiang; Sun, Wenzhao; Zhang, Nan; Yi, Ningbo; Sun, Shang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    Integrated optical power splitter is one of the fundamental building blocks in photonic integrated circuits (PIC). Conventional multimode interferometer based power splitter is widely used as it has reasonable footprint and is easy to fabricate. However, it is challenging to realize arbitrary split ratio especially for multi-outputs. In this work, an ultra-compact power splitter with a QR code-like nanostructure is designed by a nonlinear fast search method (FSM). The highly functional structure is composed of a number of freely designed square pixels with the size of 120nm x 120nm which could be either dielectric or air. The lightwaves are scattered by a number of etched squares with optimized locations and the scattered waves superimpose at the outputs with the desired power ratio. We demonstrate 1x2 splitters with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 split ratios and a 1x3 splitter with the ratio of 1:2:1. The footprint for all the devices is only 3.6umx3.6 um. Well-controlled split ratios are measured for all the cases. The mea...

  16. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  17. Effects of snow ratio on annual runoff within Budyko framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Warmer climate may lead to less winter precipitation falling as snow. Such a switch in the state of precipitation not only alters temporal distribution of intra-annual runoff, but tends to yield less total annual runoff. Long-term water balance for 282 catchments across China is investigated, showing that decreasing snow ratio reduces annual runoff for a given total precipitation. Within the Budyko framework, we develop an equation to quantify the relationship between snow ratio and annual runoff from a water–energy balance viewpoint. Based on the proposed equation, attribution of runoff change during past several decades and possible runoff change induced by projected snow ratio change using climate experiment outputs archived in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 are analyzed. Results indicate that annual runoff in northwest mountainous and north high-latitude areas are sensitive to snow ratio change. The proposed model is applicable to other catchments easily and quantitatively for analyzing the effects of possible change in snow ratio on available water resources and evaluating the vulnerability of catchments to climate change.

  18. The sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators Alligator sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan ZHAO, Hai-Qiong YANG, Li-Ming FANG, Guo-Liang PAN, Wei-Qiang ZOU, Da-Bin REN, Qiu-Hong WAN, Sheng-Guo FANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is one of the most endangered crocodilian species, and typically exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. It is extremely important to clarify the sex structure of Chinese alligators to implement recovery projects successfully. However, the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators remains unknown. In this study, we collected 28 years of sex ratio data from Chinese alligators residing in the natural and artificial habitats of Changxing Nature Reserve, China, and examined the differences in the sex ratio dynamics between these two populations.We observed that the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators is 1 male to 4.507 females, which was significantly lower compared to that of the captive population (1 to 2.040; P 0.05. Overall, this study indicates that the stabilized female-biased sex ratio of Changxing Chinese alligators might result from selection pressure caused by local mate competition and major inbreeding [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 725–731, 2013 ].

  19. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    In climate change science the term 'Arctic amplification' has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the 'Ratio of Means' and 'Mean Ratio' approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases. PMID:27461918

  20. Microzooplankton regulation of surface ocean POC:PON ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmy, D.; Martiny, A. C.; Hill, C.; Hickman, A. E.; Follows, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    The elemental composition of particulate organic matter in the surface ocean significantly affects the efficiency of the ocean's store of carbon. Though the elemental composition of primary producers is an important factor, recent observations from the western North Atlantic Ocean revealed that carbon-to-nitrogen ratios (C:N) of phytoplankton were significantly higher than the relatively homeostatic ratio of the total particulate pool (particulate organic carbon:particulate organic nitrogen; POC:PON). Here we use an idealized ecosystem model to show how interactions between primary and secondary producers maintain the mean composition of surface particulates and the difference between primary producers and bulk material. Idealized physiological models of phytoplankton and microzooplankton, constrained by laboratory data, reveal contrasting autotrophic and heterotrophic responses to nitrogen limitation: under nitrogen limitation, phytoplankton accumulate carbon in carbohydrates and lipids while microzooplankton deplete internal C reserves to fuel respiration. Global ecosystem simulations yield hypothetical global distributions of phytoplankton and microzooplankton C:N ratio predicting elevated phytoplankton C:N ratios in the high-light, low-nutrient regions of the ocean despite a lower, homeostatic POC:PON ratio due to respiration of excess carbon in systems subject to top-down control. The model qualitatively captures and provides a simple interpretation for, a global compilation of surface ocean POC:PON data.

  1. Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Alexiou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR has prognostic value in patients with a variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of NLR in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on patients receiving surgery for glioblastoma. Preoperative NLR was recorded and correlated with other prognostic factors and survival. Results: Fifty-one patients were included in the study. The mean NLR ratio was 6.7 ± 4.6. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an NLR cut-off value of 4.7 was determined to best predict survival. Patients with NLR ratios exceeding 4.7 differed significantly from those with NLR ratios ≤ 4.7 and were associated with reduced survival. Patients with gross total tumor excision had a median survival of 18 months, whereas the median survival time was 11 months in patients with subtotal tumor excision. No significant difference in survival was observed with respect to patient age, gender, Karnofsky performance status, or tumor location. Using multivariate analysis, NLR and extent of tumor resection were identified as factors with independent prognostic power. Conclusion: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an inexpensive, widely available biomarker of glioblastoma aggressiveness and should be used alongside current glioblastoma prognostic factors.

  2. 210Po/210Pb equilibrium ratios in Kaveri river ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of 210Po, the terminal radioactive member of the naturally occurring 238U series is reported to display markedly interesting movement and accumulation behaviour in the aquatic environment, from that of its parent 210Pb. A study was therefore carried out to investigate the status of 210Po/210Pb activity ratios in Kaveri river ecosystem extending from Karur to Grand Anicut (95 km). The paper presents the activity distribution of 210Po and 210Pb, and the observed 210Po/210Pb activity ratios in water, sediment and certain aquatic organisms (plankton, prawn, bivalve and fish) of the river. The aquatic organisms preferentially accumulated more 210Po than 210Pb. The results also demonstrate that while dissolved 210Po/210Pb ratios in river water are less than unity (0.52 - 0.71), there is a gradual enhancement of these ratios in river sediments (1.31 - 1.67) and plankton (5.2). Significantly higher ratios were recorded in higher species like crustacea, mollusca and fish, with a typical range observed from ∼10 to ∼102. The study thus illustrates the active uptake of 210Po than 210Pb by the biotic components of the river. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. 3D Property Modeling of Void Ratio by Cokriging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Lingqing; Pan Mao; Cheng Qiuming

    2008-01-01

    Void ratio measures compactness of ground soil in geotechnical engineering. When samples are collected in certain area for mapping void ratios, other relevant types of properties such as water content may be also analyzed. To map the spatial distribution of void ratio in the area based on these types of point, observation data interpolation is often needed. Owing to the variance of sampling density along the horizontal and vertical directions, special consideration is required to handle anisotropy of estimator. 3D property modeling aims at predicting the overall distribution of property values from limited samples, and geostatistical method can he employed naturally here because they help to minimize the mean square error of estimation. To construct 3D property model of void ratio, cokriging was used considering its mutual correlation with water content, which is another important soil parameter. Moreover, K-D tree was adopted to organize the samples to accelerate neighbor query in 3D space during the above modeling process. At last, spatial configuration of void ratio distribution in an engineering body was modeled through 3D visualization, which provides important information for civil engineering purpose.

  4. Skewed sex ratios in India: "physician, heal thyself".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Badhoniya, Neetu; Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2013-06-01

    Sex selection, a gender discrimination of the worst kind, is highly prevalent across all strata of Indian society. Physicians have a crucial role in this practice and implementation of the Indian Government's Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act in 1996 to prevent the misuse of ultrasound techniques for the purpose of prenatal sex determination. Little is known about family preferences, let alone preferences among families of physicians. We investigated the sex ratios in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children, for which either one or both parents were physicians. The overall child sex ratio was more skewed than the national average of 914. The conditional sex ratios decreased with increasing number of previous female births, and a previous birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth. The heavily skewed sex ratios in the families of physicians are indicative of a deeply rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratios in India. PMID:23322380

  5. Development of f2/f1 ratio functions in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Barbara A.; Durrant, John D.; Sabo, Diane L.; Boston, J. Robert

    2004-05-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) presumably represent active processes within the cochlea fundamental to frequency-selectivity in peripheral auditory function. Maturation of the cochlear amplifier, vis-a-vis frequency encoding or selectivity, has yet to be fully characterized in humans. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the maturation of features of the f2/f1 frequency ratio (Distortion Product OAE amplitude X f2/f1 ratio) presumed to reflect cochlear frequency selectivity. A cross-sectional, multivariate study was completed comparing three age groups: pre-term infants, term infants and young adult subjects. Frequency ratio functions were analyzed at three f2 frequencies-2000, 4000 and 6000 Hz. An analysis included an estimation of the optimal ratio (OR) and a bandwidth-like measure (Q3). Analysis revealed significant interactions of age x frequency x gender for optimal ratio and a significant interaction of age x frequency for Q3. Consistent and statistically significant differences for both OR and Q3 were found in female subjects and when f2=2 or 6 kHz. This supports research by others [Abdala, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 3239-3250 (2003)] suggesting that the development of cochlear active mechanisms may still be somewhat in flux at least through term birth Furthermore, OAEs appear to demonstrate gender differences in the course of such maturational changes.

  6. Form factor ratio from unpolarized elastic electron proton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pacetti, Simone

    2016-01-01

    A reanalysis of unpolarized electron-proton elastic scattering data is done in terms of the electric to magnetic form factor squared ratio, $R^2$. The present analysis shows that $R^2$ is a useful quantity that contains reliable and coherent information. This ratio is in principle more robust against the experimental corrections. The comparison with the ratio extracted from the measurement of the longitudinal to transverse polarization of the recoil proton in polarized electron-proton scattering shows that the results are indeed compatible within the experimental errors. Limits are set on the kinematics where the physical information on the form factors can be safely extracted. The results presented in this work bring a decisive piece of information in the controversy on the deviation of the proton electromagnetic form factors from the dipole dependence.

  7. Meat characteristics of buffaloes fed with different roughage: concentrate ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sanghuayprai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Meat characteristics of mature swamp buffalo fed with two different ratios of roughage and concentrate feed was studied. Twelve draught buffaloes with an average weight of 350 kg were randomly divided into two treatments and kept individually in pens. The concentrate:roughage ratio (based on dry matter was 50:50 (T1 or 30:70 (T2, respectively. All buffaloes were slaughtered at a body weight of 500 kg (± 25 and M. longissimus dorsi was removed in order to study meat quality. The meat quality in terms of color, pH and conductivity values were not significantly different between the groups. Meat color in terms of L* (lightness showed that LD of T2 group was significantly lighter when compared with T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, meat characteristic traits of buffalo fed concentrate to roughage in ratios of 50:50 or 30:70 were similar.

  8. Medium effects on charged pion ratio in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Che Ming; Xu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We have recently studied in the delta-resonance--nucleon-hole model the dependence of the pion spectral function in hot dense asymmetric nuclear matter on the charge of the pion due to the pion p-wave interaction in nuclear medium. In a thermal model, this isospin-dependent effect enhances the ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions in neutron-rich nuclear matter, and the effect is comparable to that due to the uncertainties in the theoretically predicted stiffness of nuclear symmetry energy at high densities. This effect is, however, reversed if we also take into account the s-wave interaction of the pion in nuclear medium as given by chiral perturbation theory, resulting instead in a slightly reduced ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions. Relevance of our results to the determination of the nuclear symmetry energy from the ratio of negatively to positively charged pions produced in heavy ion collisions is discussed.

  9. Isomeric ratio measurements with the ILL LOHENGRIN spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebboubi A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of γ heating and neutron damage inside a nuclear reactor is essential to design the next generation of nuclear reactors. The determination of the fission fragment momentum is a key element to perform accurate calculations of the γ heating. One way to assess this information is to look at the isomeric ratio of different nuclei. According to the lifetime of the isomeric state, different experimental techniques were developed at the LOHENGRIN spectrometer. A focus on the measurement of isomeric ratios of 136I in neutron induced fission of 241Pu is presented. A discussion with the current assumptions used in the evaluation process for isomeric ratio is also shown.

  10. Elasticity Ratio of Resource Consumption and the Resource Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Weihua; Zhu Dajian; Zhou Xinhong

    2009-01-01

    Today the resources are becoming scarcer,which should not be regarded as unexhausted any more.Correspondingly,the production would be constrained by the scarcity of resources clearly.Then the economic researchers would pay much more attention to reducing the consumption of natural resources in the future.Therefore this paper brings foreword the conception of elasticity ratio of resource consumption based on the concept of elasticity and analyzes the relationship between the parameters.For the certain relationships between the elasticity ratio of resource consumption and resource consumption,this-paper will try to reveal,to keep economy growing while resource consumption reducing,what conditions should be met as to the relationships among resource productivity,its growth rate,energy saving efficiency,economic growth rate and elasticity ratio of resource consumption.This paper proves the relationship between the China's energy consumption and economy growth using statistic data from 1978 to 2003

  11. Comparative analysis of liquidity ratios of bankrupt manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Tomczak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent monitoring of the financial condition of the market increases the chances of survival of the company among of increasing competition in the market. Integrated models are used in the evaluation of corporate bankruptcy. The author has analyzed five liquidity ratios (which have a predictive characteristics of bankrupt and operating companies in the manufacturing sector in the period 2007-2012. In order to reflect changes in the financial condition of the examined companies, the author has analyzed the above-mentioned indicators during the year prior to bankruptcy. This article has attempted to designate the range limit of the liquidity ratios, below or above which there is over liquidity or the lack of liquidity in the manufacturing sector. The limit values were established for three analyzed indicators. However, for two liquidity ratios it was difficult to specify its limits values because of its positive values (caused by selling fixed assets by insolvent companies.

  12. Ratio of Pion Kaon Production in Proton Carbon Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Andrey V.; /Harvard U.

    2007-05-01

    The ratio of pion-kaon production by 120 GeV/c protons incident on carbon target is presented. The data was recorded with the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Production ratios of K{sup +}/{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -}, K{sup -}/K{sup +}, and {pi}{sup -}/{pi}{sup +} are measured in 24 bins in longitudinal momentum from 20 to 90 GeV/c and transverse momentum up to 2 GeV/c. The measurement is compared to existing data sets, particle production Monte Carlo results from FLUKA-06, parametrization of proton-beryllium data at 400/450 GeV/c, and ratios measured by the MINOS experiment on the NuMI target.

  13. Transformer ratio improvement for beam based plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the transformer ratio of wakefield accelerating systems improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer ratio of beam based plasma systems has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation systems. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R ≤ 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer ratio of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

  14. Turbulent convection at high Rayleigh numbers and aspect ratio 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of the Nusselt number, Nu, in turbulent thermal convection in a cylindrical container of aspect ratio 4. The highest Rayleigh number achieved was Ra=2x1013. Except for the last half a decade or so of Ra, experimental conditions obey the Boussinesq approximation accurately. For these conditions, the data show that the log Nu-log Ra slope saturates at a value close to 1/3, as observed previously by us in experiments with smaller aspect ratios. The increasing slope over the last half a decade of Ra is inconclusive because the corresponding conditions are non-Boussinesq. Finally, we report a modified scaling relation between the plume advection frequency and Ra that collapses data for different aspect ratios. (author)

  15. The electron gyromagnetic ratio corresponding to orbital magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is predicted, as a consequence of a new correction to the Dirac equation, that the electron gyromagnetic ratio gL associated with the orbital angular momentum L, is less than one. Calculations to first order approximations show that gL =1 - δ, where δ ∼ 0.0016. This may be contrasted with an earlier observation that to first order approximations, the electron gyromagnetic ratio corresponding to the spin magnetic moment is gS =2(1 + δ). It is emphasized that δ, the anomalous part of the gyromagnetic ratios calculated using the correct Dirac equation, is independent of the nuclear mass, and is therefore applicable to both atomic and unbound electrons. An experimental test of this new result is urged, in view of its physical significance for the relativistic quantum theories. (author)

  16. Ultima Ratio and the Judicial Application of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Ultima Ratio as a principle, its relationship to other principles in the criminal law is the first subject of this paper. After discarding approaches that deny any role to the ultima ratio principle like the criminal law of the enemy, the major readings of the justification of the ius puniendi – deontological and utilitarian – are related to the idea of a restrained resort to criminalisation and penal sanction. The role of the main protagonists in relation to punishment is next considered: transgressor, community and victim. The issues of impunity and overpunity are also considered in this part. The second part of the paper analyses the possible effects of ultima ratio, a general politico-moral principle mainly addressed to the legislator, on the application of the law by the judges. It is then turned into something closer to a general legal principle. The impact of ultima ratio on the different sub-decisions of the judicial application of the criminal law is spelt out in the decisions on qualification, evidence (inferences, interpretation and consequences in sentencing. Next, the role of ultima ratio on decisions in appeal and in cassation is analysed. The third part and conclusion deals with the main ideologies of ultima ratio and the wider issue of its role in securing a guarantee oriented criminal law in Europe. En este artículo se aborda, en primer lugar, el carácter de ultima ratio como principio, su relación con otros principios en el derecho penal. Después de descartar los enfoques que rechazan cualquier papel del principio de ultima ratio como el derecho penal del enemigo, las lecturas principales de la justificación del ius puniendi, deontológico y utilitarista, están relacionadas con la idea de un recurso restringido a la criminalización y sanción penal. A continuación, se analiza el papel de los protagonistas principales relacionados con el castigo: transgresor, comunidad y víctima. En esta parte tambi

  17. Medium effects on charged pion ratio in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently studied in the delta-resonance–nucleon-hole model the dependence of the pion spectral function in hot dense asymmetric nuclear matter on the charge of the pion due to the pion p-wave interaction in nuclear medium. In a thermal model, this isospin-dependent effect enhances the ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions in neutron-rich nuclear matter, and the effect is comparable to that due to the uncertainties in the theoretically predicted stiffness of nuclear symmetry energy at high densities. This effect is, however, reversed if we also take into account the s-wave interaction of the pion in nuclear medium as given by chiral perturbation theory, resulting instead in a slightly reduced ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions. Relevance of our results to the determination of the nuclear symmetry energy from the ratio of negatively to positively charged pions produced in heavy ion collisions is discussed. (author)

  18. Improved Absolute Approximation Ratios for Two-Dimensional Packing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harren, Rolf; van Stee, Rob

    We consider the two-dimensional bin packing and strip packing problem, where a list of rectangles has to be packed into a minimal number of rectangular bins or a strip of minimal height, respectively. All packings have to be non-overlapping and orthogonal, i.e., axis-parallel. Our algorithm for strip packing has an absolute approximation ratio of 1.9396 and is the first algorithm to break the approximation ratio of 2 which was established more than a decade ago. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme (mathcal{PTAS}) for strip packing where rotations by 90 degrees are permitted and an algorithm for two-dimensional bin packing with an absolute worst-case ratio of 2, which is optimal provided mathcal{P} not= mathcal{NP}.

  19. Finding the Minimum Ratio Traveling Salesman Tour by Artificial Ants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马良; 崔雪丽; 姚俭

    2003-01-01

    Ants of artificial colony are able to generate good solutions to the famous traveling salesman problem (TSP).We propose an artificial ants algorithm for solving the minimum ratio TSP, which is more general than the standard TSP in combinatorial optimization area. In the minimum ratio TSP, another criterion concerning each edge is added, that is,the traveling salesman can have a benefit if he travels from one city to another. The objective is to minimize the ratio between total costs or distances and total benefits. The idea of this type of optimization is in some sense quite similar to that of traditional cost-benefit analysis in management science. Computational results substantiate the solution quality and efficiency of the algorithm.

  20. Robust Logistic Regression to Static Geometric Representation of Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bahiraie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Some methodological problems concerning financial ratios such as non-proportionality, non-asymetricity, non-salacity were solved in this study and we presented a complementary technique for empirical analysis of financial ratios and bankruptcy risk. This new method would be a general methodological guideline associated with financial data and bankruptcy risk. Approach: We proposed the use of a new measure of risk, the Share Risk (SR measure. We provided evidence of the extent to which changes in values of this index are associated with changes in each axis values and how this may alter our economic interpretation of changes in the patterns and directions. Our simple methodology provided a geometric illustration of the new proposed risk measure and transformation behavior. This study also employed Robust logit method, which extends the logit model by considering outlier. Results: Results showed new SR method obtained better numerical results in compare to common ratios approach. With respect to accuracy results, Logistic and Robust Logistic Regression Analysis illustrated that this new transformation (SR produced more accurate prediction statistically and can be used as an alternative for common ratios. Additionally, robust logit model outperforms logit model in both approaches and was substantially superior to the logit method in predictions to assess sample forecast performances and regressions. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study presented a new perspective on the study of firm financial statement and bankruptcy. In this study, a new dimension to risk measurement and data representation with the advent of the Share Risk method (SR was proposed. With respect to forecast results, robust loigt method was substantially superior to the logit method. It was strongly suggested the use of SR methodology for ratio analysis, which provided a conceptual and complimentary methodological solution to many problems associated with the

  1. Selected financial and operating ratios of public power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the American Public Power Association published its fourth report on financial and operating ratios. Based on 1990 data for the largest public power distribution systems, the report examined 21 categories of ratio indicators that can be used by public power distribution systems to assess their performance relative to the utilities of of comparable size and in the same geographic region. The 394 utilities summarized in the report are those that are required to file financial statements with the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Ratios were calculated from financial and operating data reported by utilities to the EIA. Data are presented for the following ratios: (1) revenue per kW/hr; (2) revenue for customer; (3) debt to total assets; (4) operating ratio; (5) current ratio; (6) times interest earned; (7) net income per revenue dollar; (8) uncollectible accounts per revenue dollar; (9) retail MW hr sales per manpower generation employee; (10) retail customers per nonpower generation employee; (11) total operation and maintenane expense per kW hr sold; (12) total operation and maintenance expense per retail customer; (13) total power supply expense kW hr sold; (14) purchased power cost per kW hr; (15) production expense per not kW hr; (16) retail customers for with reader; (17) distribution operation and maintenance expenses per retail customer; (18) distribution operation and maintenance expenses per circuit mile; (19) customer accounting, customer service and sales expenses per retail customers; (20) administration and general expenses per retail customer; (21) labor expense per worker-hour; (22) OSHA incidence rate; and (23) the system average interruptible duration index

  2. Economic support ratios and the demographic dividend in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Prskawetz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Support ratios and dependency ratios are widely used as indicators for measuring the effects of population ageing on economic development. Both of these indicators use fixed age limits to distinguish between the working and the dependent populations. Objective: We apply age-specific profiles of consumption and labour income instead of using arbitrary age limits. Based on these age-specific characteristics, we study the impact of changes in the age structure on the economy. In addition to looking at the compositional effect of age structure changes, we also consider savings/wealth effects. Methods: The National Transfer Accounts (NTA offer researchers a new method for comprehensively analysing economic flows across age groups. Because they combine micro (survey data and macro controls, the NTA provide detailed profiles of consumption and labour income by age, as well as age profiles of transfers and assets, through which the differences between consumption and labour income are covered. Results: The development of the "NTA support ratio" for 2010-2050 indicates that the compositional effect of the changing population structure on economic development will range from -11Š for the UK to -25Š for Slovenia, which exceed the values of the conventional support ratio. The positive saving/wealth effect is almost negligible for the countries studied, except for the UK, Germany, and Spain. Conclusions: Given the current profiles of consumption and labour income in the European NTA countries, the rates of growth in the support ratio induced by the changing demographic structure will be negative in these countries. A positive effect of increased saving/wealth can counteract this decline in the support ratio, but depends on the institutional settings in which the elderly finance their consumption. Comments: We offer for the first time a European comparative study on the effect of changes in the age structure in the economy based on NTA data.

  3. Inversion of H/V ratio in layered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina Flores, J.; García-Jerez, A.; Luzon, F.; Perton, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Both coda of earthquakes and microtremors are assumed to be diffuse fields resulting from multiple scattering. From the diffuse field theory, the average of the autocorrelation of displacement components at a given receiver measures the directional energy densities that are proportional to the imaginary parts of the Green's function for source and receiver at the same point. The directional energies have been recently related to the calculation of microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR). These ratios are widely used in the assessment of the dominant frequency of soil sites and their measurements are relatively simple as only one station is required. The H/V spectral ratios have also been interpreted as representing either directly the S wave amplification or the Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Moreover, the H/V ratios can be also used for a finer characterization of the site assuming horizontally layered media without lateral heterogeneities. In that case and for an appropriate noise normalization the experimental spectral ratios H2/V2 should correspond to their theoretical counterpart: the ratio 2 ImG11 / ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary parts of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively and for horizontally layered media. In order to guarantee a viable inversion, the imaginary part of the theoretical Green's functions must be efficiently computed using both an integral in the complex k plane (in terms of homogeneous plane waves) and the pole contributions due to Rayleigh and Love normal modes, which result from the (application of the) Cauchy residue theorem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712 and the AXA Research Fund.

  4. Liquidus Temperatures of Cryolite Melts With Low Cryolite Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarov, Alexei; Dedyukhin, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Elena; Tinghaev, Pavel; Tkacheva, Olga; Redkin, Alexander; Zaikov, Yurii

    2011-02-01

    The effect of calcium fluoride on liquidus temperatures of the cryolite melts with a low cryolite ratio (CR) was studied. The systems KF-NaF-AlF3 and KF-LiF-AlF3 with CRs of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7 have been investigated. The liquidus curves of systems containing CaF2 are different and depend on the K/(K + Na) and K/(K + Li) ratios. In potassium cryolite with CRs of 1.3 and 1.5, the calcium fluoride solubility is low and increases with NaF (LiF) concentration.

  5. Ratios of biogenic elements for distinguishing recent from fossil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-09-01

    The ability to distinguish possible microfossils from recent biological contaminants is of great importance to Astrobiology. In this paper we discuss the application of the ratios of life critical biogenic elements (C/O; C/N; and C/S) as determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to this problem. Biogenic element ratios are provided for a wide variety of living cyanobacteria and other microbial extremophiles, preserved herbarium materials, and ancient biota from the Antarctic Ice Cores and Siberian and Alaskan Permafrost for comparison with macrofossils and microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites.

  6. Transformer ratio saturation in a beam-driven wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. P.; Martorelli, R.; Pukhov, A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich Heine Universität, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We show that for beam-driven wakefield acceleration, the linearly ramped, equally spaced train of bunches typically considered to optimise the transformer ratio only works for flat-top bunches. Through theory and simulation, we explain that this behaviour is due to the unique properties of the plasma response to a flat-top density profile. Calculations of the optimal scaling for a train of Gaussian bunches show diminishing returns with increasing bunch number, tending towards saturation. For a periodic bunch train, a transformer ratio of 23 was achieved for 50 bunches, rising to 40 for a fully optimised beam.

  7. Methods for the design of shielding concrete mix ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guided by general concrete mix principles, we made a comprehensive study on methods for the design of shielding concrete mix ratio as well as its related factors by means of orthogonal design experiments and regression analysis method. Then we put forward the calculating formulae and steps for the design of shielding concrete mix ratio which combined the weight-holding method with the volume method. A series of tests and practical application show that this method of mix design is accurate, efficient and reliable. (authors)

  8. Errors in trough: peak ratio determinations induced by patient behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrey-Dupagne; Vaur; Genès; Mallion; Meredith; Elkik

    1996-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Trough: peak ratio is often used to evaluate the duration of antihypertensive action. Whatever the method of measurement chosen, trough effect has to be measured 24 h after the last drug intake for a once daily regimen. Peak effect is usually measured 4-6 h after drug intake. If patients' compliance to therapeutic instructions is perfect, then the 'intrinsic' trough: peak ratio of the drug is equal to the measured trough: peak ratio. Some patients do not follow these instructions, leading to biases in the evaluation of the ratio. For trough evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the last dose of the drug the day before blood pressure measurement. However, if some patients (n1) wrongly take the drug in the morning of the visit, they will be evaluated at peak (type A error). For peak evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the drug a few hours before blood pressure measurement. If some patients (n2) miss their morning dose, they will be evaluated at trough (type B error). METHODS: In the MACH 1 study, the use of an electronic pill count monitor allowed us to quantify n1/N and n2/N. A total of 452 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group 1 received written instructions to take their last dose during the morning of the day before the visit, whereas patients of group 2 had to take their last dose on the morning of the visit. RESULTS: Electronic pill-box recording revealed that 32.9%: of patients in group 1 committed type A error, whereas 27.7% of patients in group 2 committed type B error. The resulting 'pill-box corrected' trough: peak ratio was lower (87.5% for diastolic blood pressure and 93.1% for systolic blood pressure) than the uncorrected trough: peak ratio (95.2% for diastolic blood pressure and 96.0% for systolic blood pressure) of the population. CONCLUSION: The random behaviour of patients, with respect to treatment compliance, results in a systematic overestimation of the measured trough

  9. Calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves from harvest age ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Otis, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined results from the first national-scale effort to estimate mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) age ratios and developed a simple, efficient, and generalizable methodology for calibrating estimates. Our method predicted age classes of unknown-age wings based on backward projection of molt distributions from fall harvest collections to preseason banding. We estimated 1) the proportion of late-molt individuals in each age class, and 2) the molt rates of juvenile and adult birds. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated our estimator was minimally biased. We estimated model parameters using 96,811 wings collected from hunters and 42,189 birds banded during preseason from 68 collection blocks in 22 states during the 2005–2007 hunting seasons. We also used estimates to derive a correction factor, based on latitude and longitude of samples, which can be applied to future surveys. We estimated differential vulnerability of age classes to harvest using data from banded birds and applied that to harvest age ratios to estimate population age ratios. Average, uncorrected age ratio of known-age wings for states that allow hunting was 2.25 (SD 0.85) juveniles:adult, and average, corrected ratio was 1.91 (SD 0.68), as determined from harvest age ratios from an independent sample of 41,084 wings collected from random hunters in 2007 and 2008. We used an independent estimate of differential vulnerability to adjust corrected harvest age ratios and estimated the average population age ratio as 1.45 (SD 0.52), a direct measure of recruitment rates. Average annual recruitment rates were highest east of the Mississippi River and in the northwestern United States, with lower rates between. Our results demonstrate a robust methodology for calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves and represent the first large-scale estimates of recruitment for the species. Our methods can be used by managers to correct future harvest survey data to generate recruitment estimates for use in

  10. Development of TIMS for isotopic ratio analysis of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetic sector based Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) has been developed at Technical Physics Division, for high precision isotope ratio analysis of Boron (in the form of Sodium Meta-borate) at the Boron enrichment facility, Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru. The performance of this indigenously developed TIMS has been tested for sensitivity, isotope ratio precision and accuracy for different levels of enrichment in the plant samples. The sensitivity of this instrument was found to be 1 ion per 200 atoms. The internal and external precision for natural concentration levels Boron isotopes were better than 0.05%. (author)

  11. DECLINING CHILD SEX-RATIO - A DANGEROUS SYMPTOM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. R. M. Yallatti

    2012-01-01

    The population census (2001-2011) is released recently and this provides much needed information for planning, for promoting socio-economic development of India. The present brief write-up attempts to capture the demographic changes that has been taken place and the declining child sex-ratio during 2001-2011 with reference to available data and the analysis of declining child sex-ratio is made with reference to India. However much attention is paid to the strategies for controlling the declin...

  12. Ratio of the dose factors of the isotopes of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of dose factors occurring during inhalation and ingestion to the respective dose factors of I-129 is calculated for the isotopes of I-123 to I-126 and I-129 to I-135. All the dose factors refer to the thyroid as the critical organ. A distinction is made between adults and infants up to 1 year of age. To calculate the ratios only the effective energies and the effective half-lives in the human body and on grass are required. Most of the data have been taken from the literature. The effective energies of I-123 and I-125 have been calculated as examples. (orig.)

  13. Stable Isotope Ratio Measurement by NAA for Environmental Source Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gone, Jeckong; Olmez, Ilhan; Ames, Michael R.

    1999-06-06

    The purpose of applying neutron activation analysis to the study of isotopic ratios is to examine whether ratios could be measured that are difficult to determine by other means and that could be used to distinguish between materials from different types of sources. The NAA is a sensitive analytical method for many elements that are typically present in levels too low to measure by other techniques, and because NAA is based on nuclear rather than chemical or physical reactions, the analytical signals from the two isotopes are readily distinguishable.

  14. Stable Isotope Ratio Measurement by NAA for Environmental Source Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of applying neutron activation analysis to the study of isotopic ratios is to examine whether ratios could be measured that are difficult to determine by other means and that could be used to distinguish between materials from different types of sources. The NAA is a sensitive analytical method for many elements that are typically present in levels too low to measure by other techniques, and because NAA is based on nuclear rather than chemical or physical reactions, the analytical signals from the two isotopes are readily distinguishable

  15. Idealized Compression Ratio for a Screw Briquetting Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues in determining the ideal compression ratio for a screw briquetting press. First, the principles of operation and a basic description of the main parts of a screw briquetting press are introduced. The next section describes the pressing space by means of 3D software. The pressing space was created using a Boolean subtract function. The final section of the paper measures the partial volumes of the pressing chamber in CATIA V5 by function of measuring. The measured values are substituted into the formula for the compression ratio, and the resulting evaluations are presented in the diagram in the conclusion of this paper.

  16. Determining the isotopic ratio of 10B/11B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic ratios can be very exactly determined by mass spectrometry. Using a mass spectrometer with an induction-coupled plasma as the excitation source (ICP-MS), radioactive contamination of the sample feeding system and the interface will result in very high blank readout. However, transforming the boron to the volatile boric acid trimethyl ester, the isotopic ratio can be measured with low blind value interference using a modified gas chromatographic mass spectrometer with thermal ionization (GC-MS). Space-charge effects also discussed in the paper have an influence on the accuracy of results, so that particular attention must be paid to calibration work. (orig./CB)

  17. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z.; Xuyên Hoàng; Toan Ngo Van

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births) has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 wom...

  18. Ratios of Biogenic Elements for Distinguishing Recent from Fossil Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish possible microfossils from recent biological contaminants is of great importance to Astrobiology. In this paper we discuss the application of the ratios of life critical biogenic elements (C/O; C/N; and C/S) as determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to this problem. Biogenic element ratios will be provided for a wide variety of living cyanobacteria and other microbial extremophiles, preserved herbarium materials, and ancient biota from the Antarctic Ice Cores and Siberian and Alaskan Permafrost for comparison with megafossils and microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites.

  19. Relationship Among Reserve Ratio, Government Spending and Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; ZHOU Sheng-Wu

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among reserve ration, government spending and economic growth was analyzed. A monetary endogenous growth model is well developed by taking into account the growth-enhancing effects of reserve-augmenting seigniorage. If the government spends all the seigniorage revenue on the provision of a public input which has positive externality on the private sector's production, some results to be utterly different from Bronx's have been obtained: the economy has a unique saddle-balanced growth path, but it has nothing to do with reserve ratio. However, the higher reserve ratio, the faster speed of economic convergence.

  20. Conversion ratio in epithermal PWR, in thorium and uranium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results obtained for the conversion ratio in PWR reactors with close lattices, operating in thorium and uranium cycles, are presented. The study of those reactors is done in an unitary fuel cell of the lattices with several ratios V sub(M)/V sub(F), considering only the equilibrium cycles and adopting a non-spatial depletion calculation model, aiming to simulate mass flux of reactor heavy elements in the reactor. The neutronic analysis and the cross sections generation are done with Hammer computer code, with one critical apreciation about the application of this code in epithermal systems and with modifications introduced in the library of basic data. (E.G.)

  1. Sulfonate to hydrocarbon ratio influencing thermostability of micellar dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.A. Jr.; Kunzman, W.J.

    1970-02-03

    Thermostability of micellar dispersions containing hydrocarbon, aqueous medium, and surfactant can be shifted to higher temperatures by increasing the ratio of surfactant to hydrocarbon within the micellar dispersion. Such dispersions are useful to recover crude oil in a tertiary oil recovery process wherein the temperature of the subterranean formation is as high as 200$F or more. For example, a subterranean formation at a temperature above about 80$F can be flooded by designing the surfactant to hydrocarbon ratio within the micellar dispersion to be stable at the temperature of the formation. (16 claims)

  2. A measurement of the Panofsky ratio in 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleus 3He is one of the simplest nuclear systems; hence it is often used to study the complications introduced by the presence of additional nucleons on basic processes such as pion absorption on a free nucleon. 3He is the only nucleus for which both the pion charge exchange and radiative capture processes can occur at rest with reasonable probability. The ratio of these two processes is the well-known Panofsky ratio, P3 = ω(π-3He→π0T)/ω(π-+3He→γT). (orig./WL)

  3. Family Structure and Declining Sex Ratios in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Mattias; Gooch, Pernille; Hatti, Neelambar

    2005-01-01

    This article builds on the recognizition that the declining child sex ratios in rural India are a result of an ongoing process of social change. It looks at areas both in the north and in the south which have shown significant decline in the child sex ratio between 1991 and 2001. In order to understand why the lives of female children are at risk and why there is an increasing discrimination against girls in India it is particularily important to consider the inter-househols allocation of res...

  4. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter A.

    1988-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described, which uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  5. Isotope yield ratios as a probe of the reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopically resolved yields of particles and complex fragments from 12C and 18O induced reactions on 53Ni, 54Ni, Ag, and 197Au in the intermediate range of bombarding energies 30 MeV ≤ E/A ≤ 84 MeV were measured. The systematic variation of the deduced isotope yield ratios with projectile and target is used to determine the degree of N/Z equilibration achieved and to establish time scales for the reaction process. A quantum statistical model is employed in order to derive entropies of the emitting systems from the measured isotope yield ratios. (orig.)

  6. The effects of roughness and offset on fracture compliance ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Taleghani, A. Dahi; Sayers, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    Fractures are a source of extra compliance in the rock mass. The mechanical properties of the rock matrix as well as the propagation of seismic waves inside the rock medium are dependent on the magnitude of roughness and offset between the imperfect fracture interfaces. Fracture compliance can estimate the degree of contact between fracture faces, type of fluid filling the fracture and the fracture roughness. To characterize these fracture properties, compliance ratio, known by the ratio of normal-to-shear compliance, can be a potential tool in the subsurface studies to improve the well layout design. The focus of this study is to illustrate how the compliance ratio of a rough fracture, with or without the offset between the fracture faces, can diverge from the compliance ratio of a fracture with smooth interface. Quasi-static and dynamic methods are two common ways to calculate the compliance. The former calculates the compliance by measuring the change in the displacement with the applied stress, while the latter estimates the compliance through monitoring the changes in propagation of seismic waves. To compare the compliance ratios of fractures with imperfect and smooth interfaces in an infinite medium, a numerical finite-element model is built in commercial finite-element software. The imperfect interface of the fracture is modeled with saw-tooth-like structures where they can be partially or fully in contact. The defined saw-tooth-like structures of contact asperities impose an in-plane asymmetry in the shear direction. This asymmetry causes two different values for the compliance in shear direction, known as the soft and stiff shear compliance. Our numerical simulations suggest the increase in the degree of contact between the fracture faces increases the compliance ratio in the stiff direction more than the soft direction. The compliance ratio of the fracture with the imperfect interface is larger than the compliance ratio of the smooth fracture. We suggest

  7. Measurement of Tau Branching Ratios to Five Charged Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Stumpf, L; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    The branching ratios of the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons have been measured with the OPAL detector at LEP using data collected between 1991 and 1995 at e+e- centre-of-mass energies close to the Z resonance. The branching ratios are measured to be BR(tau- to 3h-2h+nutau) = 0.091+-0.014+-0.005% BR(tau- to 3h-2h+pi0nutau) = 0.027+-0.018+-0.007% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  8. Measurement of muon charge ratio with the Large Volume Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N Yu; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Bertoni, R; Boyarkin, V V; Bressan, E; Bruno, G; Dadykin, V L; Dobrynina, E A; Enikeev, R I; Fulgione, W; Galeotti, P; Garbini, M; Ghia, P L; Giusti, P; Kemp, E; Malgin, A S; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Persiani, R; Pless, I A; Ryasny, V G; Ryazhskaya, O G; Saavedra, O; Sartorelli, G; Selvi, M; Trinchero, G C; Vigorito, C; Yakushev, V F; Zichichi, A

    2013-01-01

    The value of ${\\mu^+/\\mu^-}$ ratio for atmospheric muons has been measured with the Large Volume Detector, (LVD) at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy (minimal depth is 3000 m w.e.). To reach this depth muons should have an energy at the sea level higher than 1.3 TeV. The muon charge is determined studying the decay of stopping positive muons in the LVD iron structure and the decay of stopping positive and negative muons in scintillator. We obtain a ratio ${R = 1.26 \\pm 0.04(stat) \\pm 0.11(sys)}$.

  9. Fe/Ni ratio in the Ant Nebula Mz 3

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the [Fe II] and [Ni II] emission lines in the bipolar planetary nebula Mz~3. We find that the [Fe II] and [Ni II] lines arise exclusively from the central regions. Fluorescence excitation in the formation process of these lines is negligible for this low-excitation nebula. From the [Fe II]/[Ni II] ratio, we obtain a higher Fe/Ni abundance ratio with respect to the solar value. The current result provides further supporting evidence for Mz 3 as a symbiotic Mira.

  10. Cross Section to Multiplicity Ratios at Very High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Block, M M

    2014-01-01

    Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio sigma^{el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

  11. Observation of attachment ratio of fission products on solution aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosols has been observed to elucidate the role of chemical effects in the generation mechanism of fissionproduct aerosols. Primary aerosols generated from aqueous solution of sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate were passed through a fission-product chamber, and radioactive aerosols were generated by attaching fission products to the primary aerosol particles. Attachment ratios of the fission products on aerosols were estimated from activity measurements. It was found that the attachment ratio of the sodium chloride solution aerosol is larger than that of the ammonium sulfate solution aerosol. (author)

  12. Pengaruh price earning ratio, book to market ratio dan debt equity ratio terhadap return saham pada perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI)

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Aswin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of firm size, book-to-market ratio and momentum on the manufacturing companies that listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange period 2009 up to 2011. This study was also intended to know which performance measures have the most significant effect to the stock return. Data that used in this research is annual report from each company, publized through website www.idx.co.id. Analysis method that used in this research is quantitative method with m...

  13. Impacts of liquidity ratios on profitability (Case of oil and gas companies of Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Qasim Saleem; Ramiz Ur Rehman

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to reveal the relationship between liquidity and profitability so that every firm has to maintain this relationship while in conducting day to day operations. The results show that there is a significant impact of only liquid ratio on ROA while insignificant on ROE and ROI; the results also show that ROE is no significant effected by three ratios current ratio, quick ratio and liquid ratio while ROI is greatly affected by current ratios, quick ratios and liquid ratio. T...

  14. Two modes of mixing ratio lamina vertical distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter

    Berlín: European Meteorological Society, 2015. EMS2015-53. [EMS Annual Meeting /15./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /12./. 07.09.2015–11.09.2015, Sofia] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : mixing ratio lamina * ozonosonde stations * stratospheric ozone Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EMS2015/EMS2015-53.pdf

  15. Spectroscopic Measurement of Neutral Particle Influx Ratio on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of HeI (587.6 nm), Hα (656.28 nm) and Dα (656.1 nm) of the helium discharges as well as the normal deuterium discharges have been measured with two optical spectroscopic multi-channel analysis (OMA) systems on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The influx ratio of the sum of H and D to He spectral lines and the influx ratio of H to D are given. In this way the ratio of hydrogen/deuterium ion (S/XB)H/D to (S/XB)He as well as (S/XB)H/D is not very sensitive to the variation in the edge density and temperature. The low-density helium discharges are operated in order to reduce the recycling hydrogen fluxes; however, the effect is not obvious. The possible reason is that the number of helium discharges is not enough and the content of hydrogen in the wall is still very abundant, which is caused by frequent wall conditionings and the vacuum leakage. The H/(H+D) ratio decreases quickly after one lithium coating and reduces to less than 10% using several accumulated lithium wall conditioning. It is found that the deposited He atoms on the carbon wall will remain at a low level after several D2 discharges.

  16. Delays help German utilities maintain self-financing ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of electricity consumption have been substantially reduced and nuclear plant is now expected to be 22% of total generating capacity in 1985 instead of the earlier forecast of 36%. The decline in the ordering of new plant has benefited the financial position of the electricity utilities and the expected fall in self-financing ratios has not occurred. (U.K.)

  17. Feasibility of Isotopic Measurements: Graphite Isotopic Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Gerlach, David C.; Reid, Bruce D.; Morgan, W. C.

    2001-04-30

    This report addresses the feasibility of the laboratory measurements of isotopic ratios for selected trace constituents in irradiated nuclear-grade graphite, based on the results of a proof-of-principal experiment completed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 1994. The estimation of graphite fluence through measurement of isotopic ratio changes in the impurity elements in the nuclear-grade graphite is referred to as the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). Combined with reactor core and fuel information, GIRM measurements can be employed to estimate cumulative materials production in graphite moderated reactors. This report documents the laboratory procedures and results from the initial measurements of irradiated graphite samples. The irradiated graphite samples were obtained from the C Reactor (one of several production reactors at Hanford) and from the French G-2 Reactor located at Marcoule. Analysis of the irradiated graphite samples indicated that replicable measurements of isotope ratios could be obtained from the fluence sensitive elements of Ti, Ca, Sr, and Ba. While these impurity elements are present in the nuclear-grade graphite in very low concentrations, measurement precision was typically on the order of a few tenths of a percent to just over 1 percent. Replicability of the measurements was also very good with measured values differing by less than 0.5 percent. The overall results of this initial proof-of-principal experiment are sufficiently encouraging that a demonstration of GIRM on a reactor scale basis is planned for FY-95.

  18. Branching ratios for the decay of d{sup *}(2380)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashkanov, M. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Clement, H. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Skorodko, T. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Based on measurements, the branching ratios for the decay of the recently discovered dibaryon resonance d{sup *}(2380) into two-pion production channels and into the np channel are evaluated. Possibilities for a decay into the isoscalar single-pion channel are discussed. Finally, the electromagnetic decay of d{sup *}(2380) is considered. (orig.)

  19. Biodiesel/ULSD blend ratios by analysis of fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is made from vegetable oil or animal fat. Biodiesel is often blended with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD; 15 mg/kg maximum sulfur content) in volumetric ratios (VBD) of up to 20 vol% (B20). Government tax credits and other regulatory requirements may depend on ac...

  20. Magnesium Isotope Ratios in omega Centauri Red Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Da Costa, G S; Yong, David

    2013-01-01

    We have used high resolution observations obtained at the AAT with UHRF (R ~ 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R ~ 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven omega Centauri red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = --1.78 to --0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The omega Centauri stars sample both the "primordial" (i.e., O-rich, Na and Al-poor) and the "extreme" (O-depleted, Na and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both omega Centauri and M4 show (25Mg, 26Mg)/24 Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the omega Centauri extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the 26Mg/24Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < --1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values....

  1. Cyclic Changes of Dust-to-Gas Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, H

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the time variation of dust-to-gas mass ratio in spiral galaxies using the multi-phase model of interstellar medium. The typical timescale of the phase change of an interstellar gas is $\\sim 10^7$--$10^8$ yr in spiral galaxies. Since the phase transition changes the filling factor of the cold gas where the dust growth occurs, the dust growth rate varies on that timescale. In order to examine the response of the dust-to-gas ratio to the phase transition, we construct a model of the time evolution of the dust-to-gas ratio. We adopt the three phase model for the interstellar gas and the Ikeuchi-Tomita model for the mass exchange among the phases. According to the model, three types of solutions are possible: [1] all the gas is transformed to a hot gas; [2] a stable stationary state of three phases is realized; [3] the filling factor of each phase cyclically changes. For each of the three types of solutions, the dust-to-gas ratio behaves as follows: [1] almost all the dust is destroyed (the dust-to-gas ...

  2. Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and…

  3. Spatial age-length key modelling using continuation ratio logits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper W.; Kristensen, Kasper

    -called age-length key (ALK) is then used to obtain the age distribution. Regional differences in ALKs are not uncommon, but stratification is often problematic due to a small number of samples. Here, we combine generalized additive modelling with continuation ratio logits to model the probability of age...

  4. Financial-Ratio Analysis and Medical School Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)

  5. Tracing gas accretion in the Galactic center using isotopic ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Riquelme, D; Martin-Pintado, J; Mauersberger, R; Martin, S; Bronfman, L

    2010-01-01

    Ams: We study the 12C/13C isotopic ratio in the disk of the central molecular zone and in the halo to trace gas accretion toward the Galactic center region in the Milky Way. Methods: Using the IRAM 30m telescope, we observe the J=1-0 rotational transition of HCO+, HCN, HNC and their 13C isotopic substitutions in order to measure the 12C/13C isotopic ratio. We observe 9 positions selected throughout the Galactic center region, including clouds at high latitude; locations where the X1 and X2 orbits associated with the barred potential are expected to intersect; and typical Galactic center molecular clouds. Results: We find a systematically higher 12C/13C isotopic ratio (>40) toward the halo and the X1 orbits than for the Galactic center molecular clouds (20-25). Our results point out to molecular gas which has undergone a different degree of nuclear processing than that observed in the gas towards the inner Galactic center region. Conclusions: The high isotopic ratios are consistent with the accretion of the ga...

  6. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  7. Ratio of the hydrogen and manganese cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the results of measurements of hydrogen to manganese cross section ratios are tabulated using weighted fits to the experimental data. Comparison of results using volumetric, gravimetric, and densimetric concentration measurements with and without contaminant corrections indicates that the methods are capable of equal accuracy

  8. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  9. Bayesian Analysis of Loss Ratios Using the Reversible Jump Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Garfield; Brooks, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of model choice for a set of insurance loss ratios. We use a reversible jump algorithm for our model discrimination and show how the vanilla reversible jump algorithm can be improved on using recent methodological advances in reversible jump computation.

  10. Entropy Evolution Characteristics and Relationship With Hybrid Ratios for UHNTF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2012-01-01

    <正>Based on the Unifying Hybrid Network theory frameworks (UHNTF) proposed by CIAE network group, Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy (BGS) and Tsallis entropy evolution characteristics of complex networks with different hybrid ratios and their relations are revealed by theoretical and numerical research.

  11. The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); von Hippel, Matt [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); McLeod, Andrew J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-01-11

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q- differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi- Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We also study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. Furthermore, we provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.

  12. Three phase stratified sampling with ratio method of estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Bijoy Kumar Pradhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a three phase sampling is proposed to estimate the population mean of character by a three phase stratified ratio estimator and some numerical results are presented to illustrate efficiency of the proposed procedure against possible alternative ones and from the expected cost optimum sample sizes on first, second and third phases are also calculated.

  13. Peak signal-to-noise ratio revisited: Is simple beautiful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; You, Junyong

    2012-01-01

    Heavy criticism has been directed against using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as a full reference quality metric for digitally processed images and video, since many studies have shown a weak correlation between subjective quality scores and the respective PSNR values. In this paper, we show ...

  14. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... becomes final when no additional GST tax (including additional GST tax payable as a result of a cessation... the first GST tax return filed using that inclusion ratio (unless the trust is subject to an election... period of assessment of any additional GST tax due as a result of a cessation, etc. of qualified...

  15. StudyonMathematicalModeofQuantification Performance-to-Price Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴兰华; 史德战; 王冠

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, consumers often compare the same kind of commodities and decide what to pick out when they purchase merchandise including the service. The paper discusses the mathematical mode of quantification performance-to-price ratio according to which product can be made in order to increase the competitiveness in the market.

  16. The effect of financial ratios on systematic risk index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Faez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between financial ratios and indicator of systemic risk in the Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects 73 manufacturing companies of the Tehran Stock Exchange market over the period 2003-2010. The study first calculates the independent variables in the form of financial ratios and then the ratios affecting the systematic risk index are extracted using entropy method. The output of this stage is the introduction of five influential financial indicators as the independent variables of the study. Using t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient the rate of independent variables effect on the systematic risk index is evaluated and finally, using stepwise regression method, the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable is examined. According to results of our survey, the correlation coefficient of such indices as “the ratio of stock price to the profit of each share”, “Current ratio”, “each share profit ratio” and “the stockholders rights return ratio” have respectively the highest correlation with the systematic risk index.

  17. Uranium isotope ratio measurements using diode laser optogalvanic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional methods for measuring isotope ratios are seldom amenable to field use. In particular, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, while a very accurate and precise technique for measuring isotope ratios, requires instrumentation that is typically too cumbersome for field use. As an alternative to the use of conventional mass spectrometers, the authors have been pursuing glow discharge atomization coupled with high resolution optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) for quantification of uranium isotope ratios. This approach has been considered by others, but the authors have focussed on demountable discharge cells for practical ratio measurements. Further, the authors wish to make use of diode lasers for excitation. A field instrument does not require the accuracy and precision of a laboratory mass spectrometer, but must be sensitive to changes in sample isotopic composition, be free from interferences, and have sufficient precision for a decision to be made about the fate of the field sample; i.e., does the sample warrant further laboratory analysis? The technique ideally should require a minimum of sample preparation, and should at the same time be amenable to a variety of sample types. The glow discharge meets these requirements

  18. Isotope Ratios Reveal Trickery in the Produce Aisle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for the proper checking and banning of organic food items is proposed. The analysis of the nitrogen isotope ratio present in the food is found to be a perfect standard for the organic checking of the food products.

  19. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615.5335 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5335 Bank...

  20. The proton form factor ratio results from Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vina Punjabi

    2012-09-01

    The ratio of the proton form factors, GE p/GMp, has been measured extensively, from Q2 of 0.5 GeV2 to 8.5 GeV2, at the Jefferson Laboratory, using the polarization transfer method. This ratio is extracted directly from the measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the recoiling proton in elastic electron-proton scattering. The polarization transfer results are of unprecedented high precision and accuracy, due in large part to the small systematic uncertainties associated with the experimental technique. There is an approved experiment at JLab, GEP(5), to continue the ratio measurements to 12 GeV2. A dedicated experimental setup, the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS), will be built for this purpose. It will be equipped with a focal plane polarimeter to measure the polarization of the recoil protons. The scattered electrons will be detected in an electromagnetic calorimeter. In this presentation, I will review the status of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors and discuss a number of theoretical approaches to describe nucleon form factors.

  1. The solar hydrogen Lyman α to Lyman β line ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, P.; Vial, J.-C.; Curdt, W.; Schühle, U.; Woods, T. N.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the variation in the solar hydrogen Lyman α (Lyα) to Lyman β (Lyβ) line ratio as a function of the solar activity by taking into account new results obtained by SoHO/SUMER and TIMED/SEE. Methods: We reanalyze data of quiet and active regions previously collected with the LPSP multichannel instrument on OSO8. We then re-examine data obtained on the solar disk with SUMER and compare them with previous data. In a second step, we use the full Sun H i Lyβ profiles to determine the Lyβ contribution to the SEE profiles obtained with a 0.4 nm full width at half-maximum. The variation in the Lyα to Lyβ line ratio is then measured for part of the solar cycle 23 (2002-2008). Results: We determine the radiance line ratio of the solar H i Lyα to Lyβ line for a quiet Sun area and the relation between the ratio of the Lyα to Lyβ irradiance and the Lyα solar irradiance.

  2. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    In climate change science the term ‘Arctic amplification’ has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the ‘Ratio of Means’ and ‘Mean Ratio’ approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases.

  3. Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2012-01-01

    The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D) has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing) cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects) cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio. PMID:22393451

  4. The Proton Form Factor Ratio Measurements at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Punjabi, Vina

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of the proton form factors, GEp/GMp, has been measured from Q2 of 0.5 GeV2 to 8.5 GeV2, at the Jefferson Laboratory, using the polarization transfer method. This ratio is extracted directly from the measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the recoiling proton in elastic electron-proton scattering. The discovery that the proton form factor ratio measured in these experiments decreases approximately linearly with four-momentum transfer, Q2, for values above ? 1 GeV2, is one of the most significant results to come out of JLab. These results have had a large impact on progress in hadronic physics; and have required a significant rethinking of nucleon structure. The increasingly common use of the double-polarization technique to measure the nucleon form factors, in the last 15 years, has resulted in a dramatic improvement of the quality of all four nucleon electromagnetic form factors, GEp, GMp, GEn and GMn. There is an approved experiment at JLab, GEP(V), to continue...

  5. Transitions in Dynamo Modes Controlled by the Domain Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudard, L.; Dormy, E.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic fields of internal origin are observed on many planets in the solar system. The Sun itself acts as a dynamo. While these natural objects are very different in their composition, when it comes to dynamo modeling the governing equations are remarkably similar. One of the controlling parameters to distinguish between these objects is the aspect ratio of the convecting domain. Comparing the Sun to the Earth raises the issue of the nature of reversals. A challenging issue is to determine why the geomagnetic field reverses polarity on an irregular basis, whereas the Sun --which is a much larger object, governed by stronger nonlinearities-- reverses its magnetic polarity on a quasi-periodic timescale of 11 yrs. We use a three-dimensional Boussinesq model (the Parody code) to investigate the transition between these two types of behavior. We show that the aspect ratio of the convecting domain controls the nature of the dynamo field. We report a butterfly-like diagram at large aspect ratio, with magnetic activity near 30° of latitudes, which migrates with time toward the equator. We trace the existence of the dynamo wave solution at various aspect ratio and suggest possible consequences for the geomagnetic secular variation.

  6. Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air. This...

  7. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    Seemingly absent from the arsenal of currently available "nearly efficient" testing procedures for the unit root hypothesis, i.e. tests whose local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope, is a test admitting a (quasi-)likelihood ratio interpretation. We...

  8. Does Size Matter? The Impact of Student-Staff Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Student-staff ratios (SSRs) in higher education have a significant impact on teaching and learning and critical financial implications for organisations. While SSRs are often used as a currency for quality both externally for political reasons and internally within universities for resource allocations, there is a considerable amount of ambiguity…

  9. Cyclotron wave adsorption in large aspect ratio elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse dielectric susceptibility elements are derived for radio frequency waves in a large aspect ratio toroidal plasma with elliptic magnetic surfaces by solving the Vlasov equation for untrapped, t-trapped and d-trapped particles. These dielectric characteristics are suitable for estimating the wave absorption by the fundamental cyclotron resonance damping in the frequency range of ion-cyclotron and electron cyclotron resonances.

  10. A Measurement of the Tau Topological Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Bellunato, T F; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bilenky, S M; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bol, J L; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R A; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Chung, S H; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Croix, J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Davenport, M; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Geralis, T; Ghodbane, N; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hertz, O; Higón, E; Holmgren, Sven Olof; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kurowska, J; Lamsa, J; Laugier, J P; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Merle, E; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Morettini, P; Morton, G; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Nicolaidou, R; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Nygren, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp-Baudot, I; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwanda, C; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Sette, G; Shellard, R C; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tortosa, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Dam, P; Van den Boeck, W; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zoller, P; Zumerle, G; Zupan, M

    2001-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP-1, measurements of the inclusive tau branching ratios for decay modes containing one, three, or five charged particles have been performed, giving the following results: B_1 = B(\\tau^- -> (particle)^- \\geq 0pi^0 \\geq 0K^0 \

  11. Interference patterns and extinction ratio of the diatom Coscinodiscus granii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Ellegaard, M.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical verification of the nature and position of multiple interference points of visible light transmitted through the valve of the centric diatom species Coscinodiscus granii. Furthermore, by coupling the transmitted light into an optical fiber and moving the dia...... diatom valve between constructive and destructive interference points, an extinction ratio of 20 dB is shown...

  12. Scattering and extinction from high-aspect-ratio trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Beermann, Jonas; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a semi-analytical model describing the scattering, extinction and absorption properties of a high aspect-ratio trench in a metallic film. We find that these trenches act as highly efficient scatterers of free waves. In the perfect conductor limit, which for many metals is approached in...

  13. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  14. Evaluation of glass vitrification techniques on iron ratio determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level liquid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be processed into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Waste glass will be transported to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Control of the redox properties of the melter feed is necessary for smooth operation of the melter. The Fe(II)/total Fe ratio in glass is a measure of the redox conditions in the melter. To simulate final glass product conditions, melter feed samples will be vitrified at the DWPF laboratory. A colorimetric method was used to determine the Fe(II)/total Fe ratio on vitrified melter feed samples. Because the crucible vitrification technique can have a large effect on the Fe(II)/total Fe ratio, crucible sealing during vitrification of the waste feed sample, and the type of heating applied during vitrification, were the variables investigated for Fe(II)/total Fe ratio measurement effects. Various lid sealants were used for determining crucible sealing effects. Microwave and conventional heating were tested for glass vitrifications. Microwave heating and a nepheline gel sealant, to exclude oxygen from the alumina crucibles during vitrification, was adopted for use at the DWPF laboratory. This paper discusses microwave vitrification and crucible sealing techniques

  15. The Golden Ratio Optimizes Cardiomelic Form and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Yongsheng Chan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBoth cardiac structure and hand proportion have been linked with the Fibonacci Series and the associated Golden Ratio - the number 1.618 that has been postulated to be related to functional optimization. In this paper, evidence supporting the relation of the Golden Ratio to the hand and heart is presented. It is known that upper limb malformations are the commonest skeletal abnormalities in patients with congenital heart disease. Embryological studies on hand-heart syndromes have provided evidence for a cardiomelic developmental field, which is supported by candidate genes involved in patterning of the hand and heart.  Precise molecular interactions govern a certain optimal model of cardiomelic development, for which the underlying physical rule remains unknown. It is hypothesized that the Golden Ratio may represent the mathematical basis for hand-heart development so as to achieve optimal form and function. Deregulation of this underlying patterning law may manifest as variation in hand-heart structure away from that as would be determined by the Golden Ratio. Altered hand proportion in turn may be of predictive value for cardiovascular defects and dysfunction.

  16. Discrimination of periodontal diseases using diffuse reflectance spectral intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, Prasanth; Betsy, Joseph; Presanthila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan

    2012-02-01

    This clinical study was to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) intensity ratio R620/R575 in the quantification and discrimination of periodontitis and gingivitis from healthy gingiva. DR spectral measurements were carried out with white-light illumination from 70 healthy sites in 30 healthy volunteers, and 63 gingivitis- and 58 periodontitis-infected sites in 60 patients. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival index were recorded in patient population. Diagnostic accuracies for discrimination of gingivitis and periodontitis from healthy gingiva were determined by comparison of spectral signatures with clinical parameters. Divergence of average DR spectral intensity ratio between control and test groups was studied using analysis of variance. The mean DR spectrum on normalization at 620 nm showed marked differences between healthy tissue, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Hemoglobin concentration and apparent SO2 (oxygen saturation) were also calculated for healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites. DR spectral intensities at 545 and 575 nm showed a decreasing trend with progression of disease. Among the various DR intensity ratios studied, the R620/R575 ratio provided a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94% for discrimination of healthy tissues from gingivitis and a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 100% for discrimination of gingivitis from periodontitis.

  17. Color-mass-to-light-ratio relations for disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combine Spitzer 3.6 μm observations of a sample of disk galaxies spanning over 10 mag in luminosity with optical luminosities and colors to test population synthesis prescriptions for computing stellar mass. Many commonly employed models fail to provide self-consistent results: the stellar mass estimated from the luminosity in one band can differ grossly from that of another band for the same galaxy. Independent models agree closely in the optical (V band), but diverge at longer wavelengths. This effect is particularly pronounced in recent models with substantial contributions from TP-AGB stars. We provide revised color-mass-to-light ratio relations that yield self-consistent stellar masses when applied to real galaxies. The B – V color is a good indicator of the mass-to-light ratio. Some additional information is provided by V – I, but neither it nor J – Ks are particularly useful for constraining the mass-to-light ratio on their own. In the near-infrared, the mass-to-light ratio depends weakly on color, with typical values of 0.6 M ☉/L ☉ in the Ks band and 0.47 M ☉/L ☉ at 3.6 μm.

  18. On a Quaternionic Analogue of the Cross-Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Gwynne, Ewain

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study an exact analogue of the cross-ratio for the algebra of quaternions H and use it to derive several interesting properties of quaternionic fractional linear transformations. In particular, we show that there exists a fractional linear transformation T on H mapping four distinct quaternions q_1, q_2, q_3 and q_4 into q'_1, q'_2, q'_3 and q'_4 respectively if and only if the quadruples (q_1, q_2, q_3, q_4) and (q'_1, q'_2, q'_3, q'_4) have the same cross-ratio. If such a fractional linear transformation T exists it is never unique. However, we prove that a fractional linear transformation on H is uniquely determined by specifying its values at five points in general position. We also prove some properties of the cross-ratio including criteria for four quaternions to lie on a single circle (or a line) and for five quaternions to lie on a single 2-sphere (or a 2-plane). As an application of the cross-ratio, we prove that fractional linear transformations on H map spheres (or affine subspac...

  19. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  20. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.