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Sample records for anti-cytomegalovirus activity compared

  1. Anti-cytomegalovirus activity of the anthraquinone atanyl blue PRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Zohaib; Al-Mahdi, Zainab; Zhu, Yali; McKee, Zachary; Parris, Deborah S; Parikh, Hardik I; Kellogg, Glen E; Kuchta, Alison; McVoy, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes significant disease in immunocompromised patients and serious birth defects if acquired in utero. Available CMV antivirals target the viral DNA polymerase, have significant toxicities, and suffer from resistance. New drugs targeting different pathways would be beneficial. The anthraquinone emodin is proposed to inhibit herpes simplex virus by blocking the viral nuclease. Emodin and related anthraquinones are also reported to inhibit CMV. In the present study, emodin reduced CMV infectious yield with an EC50 of 4.9μM but was cytotoxic at concentrations only twofold higher. Related anthraquinones acid blue 40 and alizarin violet R inhibited CMV at only high concentrations (238-265μM) that were also cytotoxic. However, atanyl blue PRL inhibited infectious yield of CMV with an EC50 of 6.3μM, significantly below its 50% cytotoxic concentration of 216μM. Atanyl blue PRL reduced CMV infectivity and inhibited spread. When added up to 1h after infection, it dramatically reduced CMV immediate early protein expression and blocked viral DNA synthesis. However, it had no antiviral activity when added 24h after infection. Interestingly, atanyl blue PRL inhibited nuclease activities of purified CMV UL98 protein with IC50 of 4.5 and 9.3μM. These results indicate that atanyl blue PRL targets very early post-entry events in CMV replication and suggest it may act through inhibition of UL98, making it a novel CMV inhibitor. This compound may provide valuable insights into molecular events that occur at the earliest times post-infection and serve as a lead structure for antiviral development.

  2. An artemisinin-derived dimer has highly potent anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV and anti-cancer activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran He

    Full Text Available We recently reported that two artemisinin-derived dimers (dimer primary alcohol 606 and dimer sulfone 4-carbamate 832-4 are significantly more potent in inhibiting human cytomegalovirus (CMV replication than artemisinin-derived monomers. In our continued evaluation of the activities of artemisinins in CMV inhibition, twelve artemisinin-derived dimers and five artemisinin-derived monomers were used. Dimers as a group were found to be potent inhibitors of CMV replication. Comparison of CMV inhibition and the slope parameter of dimers and monomers suggest that dimers are distinct in their anti-CMV activities. A deoxy dimer (574, lacking the endoperoxide bridge, did not have any effect on CMV replication, suggesting a role for the endoperoxide bridge in CMV inhibition. Differences in anti-CMV activity were observed among three structural analogs of dimer sulfone 4-carbamate 832-4 indicating that the exact placement and oxidation state of the sulfur atom may contribute to its anti-CMV activity. Of all tested dimers, artemisinin-derived diphenyl phosphate dimer 838 proved to be the most potent inhibitor of CMV replication, with a selectivity index of approximately 1500, compared to our previously reported dimer sulfone 4-carbamate 832-4 with a selectivity index of about 900. Diphenyl phosphate dimer 838 was highly active against a Ganciclovir-resistant CMV strain and was also the most active dimer in inhibition of cancer cell growth. Thus, diphenyl phosphate dimer 838 may represent a lead for development of a highly potent and safe anti-CMV compound.

  3. Anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies and other atherosclerosis risk factors in patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies along with anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP)antibodies in comparison with inflammatory markers and other risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with selected cardiovascular diseases(CVD).Methods A total of 228 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and/or hypertension (HT), and those who underwent reconstructive vascular surgery (RVS) on carotids or abdominal aorta were tested for the presence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies as well as for anti-CP IgA antibodies, C-reactive protein (CRP),and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Other risk factors for atherosclerosis, namely age, gender,smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus were also analyzed. Results Anti-CMV IgG antibodies were found in 204 patients sera (89.5%),compared with 46 positive of 68 sera in the controls (67.6%), whereas anti-CMV IgM antibodies were detected in 4 of 54 sera of patients tested (7.4%), but not in the controls. The highest proportion of positive sera with not only anti-CMV IgG antibodies (95.6.7%),but also anti-CP IgA antibodies (78.3%), IL-6 (84.8%) and CRP (97.8%), was observed in patients with RVS. The results obtained corresponded to age, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Conclusions The presence of anti-CMV antibodies together with antibodies to CP and markers of inflammation (CRP and IL-6) in our study was associated with CVD, primarily in elderly patients who underwent RVS.

  4. Highly quantitative serological detection of anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV antibodies

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    Alter Harvey J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with a variety of pathological conditions including retinitis, pneumonia, hepatitis and encephalitis that may be transmitted congenitally, horizontally and parenterally and occurs both as a primary infection and as reactivation in immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is a need for improved quantitative serological tests to document seropositivity with high sensitivity and specificity. Methods Here we investigated whether luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS would provide a more quantitative and sensitive method for detecting anti-CMV antibodies. Four protein fragments of immunodominant regions of CMV antigens pp150 and pp65 were generated as Renilla luciferase (Ruc fusion proteins and used in LIPS with two cohorts of CMV positive and negative sera samples previously tested by ELISA. Results Analysis of the antibody responses to two of these antigen fragments, pp150-d1 and pp150-d2, revealed geometric mean antibody titers in the first cohort that were 100–1000 fold higher in the CMV positive sera compared to the CMV negative samples (p rs = 0.93, p Conclusion These results suggest that LIPS provides a highly robust and quantitative method for studying anti-CMV antibodies and has the potential to more accurately document CMV infection than standard ELISA.

  5. Physical activity changes during pregnancy in a comparative impact trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, physical activity, and other health behaviors of rural, Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to physical activity outcomes in the gestat...

  6. Comparing Theoretical Perspectives in Describing Mathematics Departments: Complexity and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Kim; Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2010-01-01

    We draw on two studies of mathematics departments in 11-18 comprehensive maintained schools in England to compare and contrast the insights provided by differing theoretical perspectives. In one study, activity theory was used to describe common features of the work of three departments. In the other, a mathematics department was viewed and…

  7. Comparative anthelmintic activity investigation of selected ethno-medicinal weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueblos, Kirstin Rhys S.; Bajalla, Mark; Pacheco, Dixie; Ganot, Sheila; Paig, Daisy; Tapales, Radyn; Lagare, Jeanne; Quimque, Mark Tristan J.

    2017-01-01

    Helminth infections are one of the seriously neglected potent diseases in many parts of the world. The problems of parasitic helminthes becoming resistant to currently available anthelmintic drugs pose a challenge for the search - relying on natural products - for new and better anthelmintics. In this paper, four abundant Philippine weeds: Chrysopogon aciculatus Trin. Cyperus brevifolius Rottb., Ruellia tuberosa Linn. and Saccharum spontaneum Linn. were investigated for their anthelmintic activities to establish basis of their folkloric claim. The hexane-soluble and chloroform-soluble extracts were obtained through sequential solvent partitioning of the crude ethanolic extract of the air-dried aerial part of each plant sample. Meanwhile, the decoction was obtained from fresh aerial part of the plant samples. All extracts were then subjected to in vitro anthelmintic screening at different concentration as per method of Ghosh, et al. against African nightcrawler earthworms (Eudrillus euginiae) in which the activity of the extracts was determined by correlation with time. The anthelmintic bioassay results revealed a dose-dependent toxicity relationship. It indicated relatively low anthelmintic activities of the decoction of the four plant samples as compared to their corresponding crude ethanol extracts. Among the crude ethanol extracts, C. brevifolius (CBE) gave fastest time to bring about paralysis and death to the test organisms at all concentrations tested. For the hexane extracts, R. tuberosa (RTH) gave better activity among other plant samples. Lastly, among the chloroform-soluble extracts, both that of C. brevifolius (CBC) and R. tuberosa (RTC) comparably showed strongest anthelmintic activities at all tested concentrations, thus, exhibited best anthelmintic activity that is remarkably comparable to the positive control, Mebendazole at the highest concentration tested. In fact, CBC and RTC showed highest anthelmintic potential compared to all extracts tested in

  8. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël Fournier; Thibault Cholez; Matthieu Latapy; Isabelle Chrisment; Clémence Magnien; Olivier Festor; Ivan Daniloff

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and ...

  9. Comparative activity of carbapenem testing (the COMPACT study in Turkey

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    Leblebicioglu Hakan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro activity of doripenem and comparator carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from COMParative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT study centres in Turkey. Methods Ten centres in Turkey were invited to submit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative isolates from intensive care unit (ICU/non-ICU patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections, bloodstream infections, or nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, between May and October 2008. Susceptibility was determined by each centre using E-test. A central laboratory performed species confirmation as well as limited susceptibility and quality-control testing. Results Five hundred and ninety six isolates were collected. MIC90 values for doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem, respectively, were 32, ≥ 64, and ≥ 64 mg/L against Pseudomonas spp.; 0.12, 0.12, and 0.5 mg/L against Enterobacteriaceae; and ≥ 64 mg/L for each against other Gram-negative isolates. In determining the susceptibility of hospital isolates of selected Gram-negative pathogens to doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem, we found that against all pathogens combined, the MIC90 for ICU compared with non-ICU isolates was higher. Conclusions Doripenem showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against the Gram-negative pathogens collected in Turkey.

  10. Synthesis and comparing the antibacterial activities of pyrimidine derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B ANDREWS; K KOMATHI; S MOHAN

    2017-03-01

    A series of 10 derivatives of 5-(5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl)-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-phenylpyrimidin-2(1H)-one and 10 derivatives of 3,4-dihydro-5-(5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-6-methyl-4-phenyl pyrimidin-2(1H)-one have been synthesized. Among the synthesized derivatives, triazole substitutedcompounds have shown higher antibacterial inhibition when compared to the thiadiazole derivatives. All the structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR, GC-MS and CHN analysis. Most of the compounds have shown promising antibacterial activity when compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin.

  11. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

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    Raphaël Fournier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and with different anonymity levels. We monitor two eDonkey servers and the KAD network during several days and record hundreds of thousands of keyword-based queries. We detect pedophile-related queries with a previously validated tool and we propose, for the first time, a large-scale comparison of pedophile activity in two different P2P systems. We conclude that there are significantly fewer pedophile queries in KAD than in eDonkey (approximately 0.09% vs. 0.25%.

  12. Comparing evaluation activities across multiple theories of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    This article compares and contrasts the evaluation activities described in Practical Participatory Evaluation (Cousins & Whitmore, 1998), Values-engaged Evaluation (Greene, 2005), and Emergent Realist Evaluation (Mark, Henry, & Julnes, 1998). Using the logic models developed to depict each of the three evaluation theories (Hansen, Alkin, & Wallace, 2013) as a starting point, both quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques are employed to discuss the similarities and differences across the practice prescriptions. The approaches are then described according to Miller's (2010) standards for empirical examinations of evaluation theory. Specifically, I offer speculation about their operational specificity and feasibility in practice. I argue that none of the models is completely specific, or wholly unique, and they all present challenges of adaptation into the field. However, the models each offer varying degrees of guidance and unique elements through their prescriptions.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BACTERIOSTATIC ACTIVITY OF SYNTHETIC HYDROXYLATED FLAVONOIDS

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    Olivella Mónica S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other properties, flavonoids present a notable bacteriostatic activity. In this paper, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (naringenin, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and 2',4',4- trihydroxychalcone (isoliquitirigenin against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25 923 were determined and compared to values obtained for other chalcones and flavanones previously investigated. Specific growth rates and MICs were determined by a turbidimetric kinetic method. The observed sequence MICflavanone (inactive >MIC7-hidroxyflavanone (197.6 µgml-1>MIC5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (120 µgml-1 showed that the introduction of an electron donating group (-OH causes an increase in bioactivity. On the other hand, the comparisons MIC5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (120 µgml-1 >>> MIC2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (29 µgml-1 and MIC5,7-dihydroxyflavone (105 µgml-1 >>> MIC2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (28.8 µgml-1 indicated that the chalcone structure is the most favourable for bacteriostatic activity within the flavonoid family.

  14. Proliferative activity in oral pyogenic granuloma: A comparative immunohistochemical study

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    Rezvani Gita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pyogenic granuloma (PG is one of the most common reactive vascular lesions in the oral mucosa, which has been divided into the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH and the non lobular type (non-LCH as two distinct entities, on the basis of some investigations. Aims: This study aims to compare the proliferative and angiogenic activity of two histological types of PG to determine whether they have two distinct types of biological behavior. Settings and Design: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, immunostaining was performed on 10 cases of each type of PG. Materials and Methods: About 4μm sections were cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks and each specimen was stained with both anti-CD31 and anti-Ki-67 antibodies simultaneously. Labeling index (LI was determined for both types by counting Ki-67 and CD31 positive cells separately and simultaneously in 1000 stromal and luminal cells. Micro vessel count (MVC, the mean number of micro vessels in five areas at Χ200 magnification, was also determined for both groups. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Ki-67 LI in LCH (5.4 ± 2.4 was higher than non-LCH (3.9 ± 3.9. The percentage of CD31 positive cells in LCH (28.5 ± 22 was lower than non-LCH (37.1 ± 20.8 and simultaneously immunostaining for both markers in LCH type (2.4 ± 2.1 was higher than non-LCH (1.2 ± 1. The MVC was approximately 77.35 ± 34.6 and 82.6 ± 42.7 in the lobular areas of LCH and central areas of non-LCH PG, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a higher proliferation activity in endothelial cells of LCH PG than in non-LCH.

  15. Comparative Study of Activity of Different Agings of Aluminum Nanopowders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zheng-Xin; DENG Jun; WANF Ya-Min; LIU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The structure and activity of aluminum nanopowders with a 3nm oxide layer on their surface (3-nm-OLA) and 30 nm oxide layers on their surface (30-nm-OLA) are investigated comparably under the same normal incident shock wave intensity. Their corresponding reaction products are characterized by x-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray pbotoelectron spectroscopy. The spectrum of x-ray diffraction shows that there are different phases of alumina in their products, which evidences directly the different reactingtemperature in the shock tube. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the oxide layer thickness is 30 nm on the product surface of 30-nm-OLA, while it is only 3nm on 3-nm-OLA. Images of transmissionelectron microscopy present additional evidence that the agglomeration mechanism is over sintering one in the containing-30-nm-OLA system, the reversed mechanism is observed in the containing-3-nm-OLA reaction system.

  16. Activity of histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women during exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of active cytomegalovirus infection on histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women at gestation weeks 20-22 and its involvement into hemoglobin oxygenation. Using the histochemical technique developed by us, we studied the distribution of products of specific reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women. The percentage of histidine-positive erythrocytes and their area were evaluated. The relationship between the distribution of the products of the reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women and the titer of anti-cytomegalovirus IgG was revealed. The histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with active cytomegalovirus infection was reduced, which impaired heme binding to globin and decreased the formation of oxyhemoglobin.

  17. Comparative study of hemolytic activity of Bordetella species

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    C N Khobragade

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Bordetella species colonize the respiratory tract of mammals and thereby cause the whooping cough. Most of the species produce adenylate cyclase - a toxin ( hemolysin responsible for increasing intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP levels in mammalian neutrophils and macrophages and as a consequence their phagocytic function get impaired . This study was carried out to isolate species of Bordetella and to study the hemolytic activity of each species on RBCs of sheep, human and poultry at varied culture conditions by altering the temperature, pH and cell age."nMaterials and Methods: Three pathogenic Bordetella species were isolated from fifty suspected whooping cough patients on Bordet-Gengou agar and identified by their biochemical profiles. The hemolytic activity of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica was investigated in terms of cell bound and cell free hemolysin on human, poultry and sheep RBCs at variable pH, temperature and cell age in Stainer Scholt broth. The hemolysin activity was also determined qualitatively on blood agar containing different blood samples."nResults: All the species revealed optimum hemolytic activity in pH range 7.5-8.0 (in slight alkaline condition, temperature 37°C and cell age up to 20-24 hrs. The cell bound hemolytic activity was found to be maximum than cell free activity and varied with blood samples of different species. B. pertussis showed maximum hemolytic activity on human red blood cells followed by poultry and sheep RBCs. B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica showed maximum hemolytic activity on sheep and poultry RBCs respectively."nConclusion: The findings of our study revealed that different determinants are involved in host interactions and virulence of Bordetella species.

  18. Comparative assessment of antioxidant activity of chicory products

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    Z. A. Badretdinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various methods for determining the antioxidant activity. They are differing by the source of oxidation, oxidized compounds and methods for the measurement of oxidized compounds. Methods for determination of antioxidant activity provide a wide range of results, so the evaluation of the antioxidant activity should be carried out in several ways, and the results should be interpreted with caution. In assessing antioxidant capacity is necessary to consider not only the nature and content of the reducing agent in the test facility, but also the possibility of their mutual influence. The objects of research in this research work were Instant chicory (Leroux, Fried chicory (Leroux, Instant chicory (LLC Favorit, Instant chicory (LLC SlavKofe, Instant chicory with hawthorn (Iceberg Ltd and K, Instant chicory (LLC Flagistom, Instant chicory (Ltd. Around the World, Instant chicory (LLC Beta +, Chicory flour (Leroux, Chicory flour. Antioxidant activity of the products of chicory determined by spectrophotometric (using adrenaline and 2,2 – diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl, and amperometric methods. These results indicate that chicory products possess antioxidant activity but not give fully correlated with each other results. The highest antioxidant activity have fried products from chicory – Instant chicory (LLC SlavKofe and Instant chicory with hawthorn (Iceberg Ltd and K. No fried products from chicory (Chicory flour (Leroux have lower antioxidant activity then fried products from chicory. Because during frying new compounds are formed – chikoreol, which comprises acetic and valeric acid, acrolein and furfural, furfuryl alcohol, diacetyl. Best convergence results provide spectrophotometric methods using epinephrine and 2,2 – diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.

  19. Extraction DNA from Activated Sludge-Comparing with Soil Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冰; 奚旦立; 陈季华

    2003-01-01

    DNA directly extraction from activated sludge and soil sample with enzyme lyses methods was investigated in this paper. DNA yield from activated sludge was 3.0 mg/g. VLSS, and 28.2-43.8 μg/g soil respectively. The resulting DNA is suitable for PCR.By studied methods, higher quality and quantity of sludge DNA could be obtained rapidly and inexpensively from large number of samples, and the PCR product obtained from this protocol was not affected by contaminated higher concentration of heavy metals.

  20. Comparative Activities of Cattle and Swine Platelet Microbicidal Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iuri B; Gritsenko, Viktor A

    2009-12-01

    The bactericidal activities of cattle and swine platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs) with their comparison with human PMP were studied. Activities of PMP were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Escherichia coli. B. subtilis and B. cereus were high susceptible to PMP at very low concentrations. Of the gram-positive cocci studied, M. lysodeikticus and S. aureus were the most, and S. epidermidis the least, susceptible. E. coli was found to be relatively resistant to the lethal action of all PMP. The findings of this study confirm that the existence of antimicrobial peptides is conserved among mammalian platelets.

  1. Piezoelectric ceramic fibers for active fiber composites: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornmann, Xavier; Huber, Christian; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf

    2003-08-01

    The morphology and the free strain performances of three different piezoelectric ceramic fibers used for the manufacture of active fiber composites (AFCs) have been investigated. The morphology of the fibers has a direct influence on the manufacture of the AFCs. Fibers with non-uniform diameters are more difficult to contact with the interdigitated electrodes and can be the cause of irreparable damages in AFCs. An indirect method requiring the use of a simple analytical model is proposed to evaluate the free strain of active fiber composites. This indirect method presents a relatively good agreement with direct free strain measurements performed with strain gages glued on both sides of an AFC. The results show a systematic difference of ca. 20 % between the indirect and the direct methods. However, the indirect method did not permit to see differences of piezoelectric performance between the types of fibers.

  2. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

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    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.

  3. Comparative efficacy of switching to natalizumab in active multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spelman, Timothy; Kalincik, Tomas; Zhang, Annie

    2015-01-01

    included were registered in MSBase or the TYSABRI Observational Program (TOP), had relapsed on IFNβ or GA within 12 months prior to switching to another therapy, and had initiated natalizumab or IFNβ/GA treatment ≤6 months after discontinuing prior therapy. Covariates were balanced across post switch...... treatment groups by propensity score matching at treatment initiation. Relapse, persistence, and disability measures were compared between matched treatment arms in the total population (n = 869/group) and in subgroups defined by prior treatment history (IFNβ only [n = 578/group], GA only [n = 165/group......], or both IFNβ and GA [n = 176/group]). RESULTS: Compared to switching between IFNβ and GA, switching to natalizumab reduced annualized relapse rate in year one by 65-75%, the risk of first relapse by 53-82% (mean follow-up 1.7-2.2 years) and treatment discontinuation events by 48-65% (all P ≤ 0...

  4. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The researc...

  5. Legal regime of lobby activities. A comparative view

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    Ovidiu-Horia MAICAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A very important aspect is that countries with specific rules and regulations regulating the activities of lobbyists and interest groups are more the exception than the rule. The interest groups are pursuing their goals in the political arena by lobbying, or attempting to influence policy-making, are consistent with the spirit of democracy. In practice, interest group influence can sometimes lead to political corruption, the inequality of representation, and the overcrowding of political institutions. As a consequence, some political systems find it appropriate to regulate interest representation.

  6. Active synthesis of multiaxial drive systems using a comparative method

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    T. Dzitkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is the problem of stability and vibration reduction in designed drive systems, in which the essential requirement is to meet the desired dynamic properties.Design/methodology/approach: : The method of stabilisation and reduction has been based on active synthesis, which makes it possible to obtain the desired mechanical effect through the proper selection of dynamic properties of the system, including the calculation of the active force as a function of the system force feedback.Findings: Presented approach simplifies the process of selecting the dynamical parameters of machine drive systems in view of their dynamical characteristics.Research limitations/implications: The scope of discussion is the synthesis of machine drive systems as discrete models of torsional vibrations. Such vibrations are more difficult to detect than flexural ones, which are accompanied by noise and vibrations of the adjacent elements (for example, shaft frames. Due to the absence of symptoms, torsional vibrations are particularly dangerous, as they may be unnoticeable until the destruction of subsystems occurs.Practical implications: High durability and reliability of drive systems is associated with proper setting of system parameters - inertial, elastical and damping. Proper setting of these parameters is made possible by applying synthesis techniques.Originality/value: We should emphasize that the considered problem varies from other issues met in classic mechanics or control theory. The research has been undertaken on the basis of topological methods, developed in scholar environment of Gliwice.

  7. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  8. Healing of complement activating Ti implants compared with non-activating Ti in rat tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmankaya, N; Igawa, K; Stenlund, P; Palmquist, A; Tengvall, P

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that ozone ultraviolet (UVO) illumination of titanium (Ti) implants improves bone-implant anchorage by altering the physico-chemical and immune activating properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) layer. In the present rat tibia model, the authors compared the early events of inflammation and bone formation around UVO-treated Ti and complement activating immunoglobin g (IgG)-coated Ti. Machined Ti and machined Ti coated with a physical vapour-deposited Ti layer were used as references. Screw-shaped test and reference implants were implanted into rat tibia and harvested after 1, 7 and 28 days. Messenger RNA expression of implant adhered cells and peri-implant tissue ~250 μm from the surface were subsequently analysed with regard to IL-1β, TNF-α, osteocalcin, cathepsin K, BMP-2 and PDGF. Separate implants were retrieved after 7 and 28 days for removal torque measurements, and histological staining and histomorphometric analysis of bone area and bone-to-implant contact. While enhanced expression of inflammatory markers, TNF-α and IL-1β, was observed on IgG-coated surfaces throughout the observation time, UVO-treated surfaces indicated a significantly lower early inflammatory response. In the early phases (1 and 7 days), the UVO-treated surfaces displayed a significantly higher expression of osteoblast markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin. In summary, complement activating Ti implants elicited a stronger inflammatory response than UVO-treated Ti, with low complement activation during the first week of healing. In spite of this, the UVO-treated Ti induced only marginally more bone growth outside the implants.

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ACTIVITY OF ALANIN-AMINOTRANSFERASE IN HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vasile

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a comparative study on the activity of one aminotransferase - alaninaminotransferase, in the digestive tube of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp and Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp. The enzymatic activity has been determined colorimetrically, with 2, 4 - dinitrophenyl hydrazine, the results obtained being expressed as UE / g / min. It was observed that, comparatively with the alanin-aminotransferase activity recorded in silver carp, in the case of bighead carp, the values recorded are much lower.

  10. How Do Sociodemographics and Activity Participations Affect Activity-Travel? Comparative Study between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-travel behaviors of women and men are different because they have different social and household responsibilities. However, studies concerning gender differences are mainly limited in developed countries. This paper concentrates on gender role-based differences in activity-travel behavior in a typical developing country, namely, China. Using data from 3656 cases collected through surveys conducted in Shangyu, data processing, method choice, and descriptive analysis were conducted. Binary and ordered logistic regression models segmented by gender were developed to evaluate the mechanism through which individual sociodemographics, household characteristics, and activity participations affect the number of trip chain types and activities for women and men. The results show that women aged 30 to 50 perform less subsistence activities. However, the difference between the different age groups of men is not as significant. In addition, men with bicycles and electric bicycles have more subsistence and maintenance activities, whereas women do not have these attributes. Moreover, women with children under schooling age make more maintenance trip chains but less leisure trip chains and activities, whereas men are free from this influence. Furthermore, both women and men perform more subsistence activities if the duration increases, and men have less influences than women do.

  11. Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds - a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated carbo

  12. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  13. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  14. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  15. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  16. Comparative Analysis of Probabilistic Models for Activity Recognition with an Instrumented Walker

    CERN Document Server

    Omar, Farheen; Truszkowski, Jakub; Poupart, Pascal; Tung, James; Caine, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Rollating walkers are popular mobility aids used by older adults to improve balance control. There is a need to automatically recognize the activities performed by walker users to better understand activity patterns, mobility issues and the context in which falls are more likely to happen. We design and compare several techniques to recognize walker related activities. A comprehensive evaluation with control subjects and walker users from a retirement community is presented.

  17. COMPARATIVE SUDY OF THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY AT PROFESSIONAL HANDBALL AND FENCERS PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    DENISA ENESCU BIERU; MIRELA LUCIA CĂLINA; ALICE GUSTI; VALENTINA DINU; GERMINA COSMA; MIHAI MARIAN DRAGOMIR; CĂTALIN FORłAN; CĂTĂLIN POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Our purpose was to study the electroencephalographic activity of professional handball and fencers players, to compare the obtained data and to identify a possible neurophysiologic pattern associate to practiced sportive activity. Material and method. The study was performed on a group of 22 male athletes, 11 handball players and 11 fencers (different stress degrees of the upper members), active for between 5 and 12 years exclusively in eitherhandball or fencing. Using Nihon-Kohden E...

  18. A comparative study of oxidant-antioxidant status in stable and active vitiligo patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines, Dammak; Sonia, Boudaya; Riadh, Ben Mansour; Amel, El Gaied; Slaheddine, Marrekchi; Hamida, Turki; Hamadi, Attia; Basma, Hentati

    2006-09-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms in vitiligo have not been completely clarified. One of the major hypotheses in the pathogenesis of vitiligo is the oxidative stress hypothesis. The active or stable phase of vitiligo is defined on the basis of the progression or appearance of new lesions in the last 3 months and the absence of new lesions or their progression in the last 6 months, respectively. Eighteen patients with active vitiligo, 18 patients with stable vitiligo, and 40 controls were included in this study. We examined serum levels of malondialdehyde, selenium, vitamin E and A, and the erythrocyte activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Our results revealed a significantly higher level of serum malondialdehyde, selenium in patients with active disease compared with the controls. Significant higher increase in erythrocytes superoxide dismutase activities was observed in active vitiligo group, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased significantly in active disease, whereas erythrocyte catalase activity and plasma vitamin E and A levels were not different in vitiligo patients as compared with controls. Our study shows that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of both active and stable vitiligo but increased imbalance of antioxidants was observed in the blood of active vitiligo patients.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NEWER MACROLIDES WITH ETORICOXIB

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    Gajendra Naidu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides and to compare with standard non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID etoricoxib. This study was conducted in male wistar albino rats by inducing edema with 1% carrageenan. Animals were divided into 5 groups with 6 in each and paw edema volume was measured by digital plethysmograph before and 3hrs after 1% carrageenan administration. Percentage of inhibition of paw edema was calculated. Results showed macrolides having significant anti-inflammatory activity & the anti-inflammatory activity of roxithromycin was almost equally comparable with etoricoxib

  20. Relationship between disease activity and hearing impairment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Adem; Surucu, Gulseren; Dogan, Sedat; Karabiber, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of hearing impairment (HI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are still poorly understood, and their association with disease activity is based on conflicting information. This study compared HI between RA patients and controls and between active and remission RA groups using multi-frequency audiometry. This study enrolled 88 RA patients and 50 controls. The pure-tone hearing thresholds at 500 to 4000 Hz for air (AC) and bone (BC) conduction were compared between RA and controls as well as between active and remission RA patients using DAS28-CRP scores. The pure-tone hearing thresholds for AC and BC were significantly higher at high frequencies (2000 and 4000 Hz) in the RA group for both ears compared with controls. In addition, the BC threshold at 1000 Hz for the right ear was higher in the RA group than controls. When active and remission RA patients were compared, the thresholds were higher only at 4000 Hz for both ears for AC and BC in patients with active RA. The air-bone gap differed significantly at 2000 and 4000 Hz in both ears. This study demonstrated that patients with RA have a heightened risk of HI, and disease activity increases this risk, particularly at high frequencies. Clinicians who manage RA should be aware of HI and consider performing audiological evaluations in RA patients with active disease in particular.

  1. Alkali activated fly ash binders. A comparative study between sodium and potassium activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado, M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the effect of the nature of some alkaline activators in the microstructural development of thermal-alkali activated f/y ash systems. The alkaline compounds employed in this investigation were: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, sodium silicate and potassium silicate. Results confirm that the main reaction product of the activation process (throughout the studied systems is the amorphous alkaline aluminosilicate gel with a three-dimensional structure already observed in earlier research. It has been proved that the type of anion and cation involved in the activation reaction of the ashes not only affects the microstructural development of the systems but the Si/Al ratio of that prezeolitic gel too. For example, in the presence of soluble silicate ions the content of Si in the final structure is notably increased (Si/Al =2.7-3.0, however carbonate ions play a different role since the formation of Sodium or Potassium carbonate/bicarbonate acidifies the system and consequently the reaction rate is considerably slowed. Finally it is evident that; when all experimental conditions are equal, sodium has a greater capacity than potassium to accelerate the setting and hardening reactions of fly ash and also to stimulate the growth of certain zeolitic crystals (reaction by-products. In general it can be affirmed that OH- ion acts as a reaction catalyst; and the alkaline metal (M+ acts as a structure-forming element.Este trabajo muestra el efecto de la naturaleza del activador alcalino en el desarrollo microestructural de sistemas de ceniza volante, activados térmica y alcalinamente. Los componentes alcalinos empleados en esta investigación fueron: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, silicato sódico y silicato potásico. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el principal producto de reacción del proceso de activación (a través de los sistemas estudiados es un gel de aluminosilicato alcalino amorfo con estructura tridimensional ya observada en trabajos

  2. Comparing trapezius muscle activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Ishida, Tomoya; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Hirokawa, Motoki; Ezawa, Yuya; Sugawara, Makoto; Tohyama, Harukazu; Yamanaka, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles' activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation. [Subjects] Twenty male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity for each of the three regions of the trapezius muscles in the three different planes of elevation were collected while the participants maintained 30, 60, and 90 degrees of elevation in each plane. The EMG data were normalized with maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and compared among the planes at each angle of elevation. [Results] There were significantly different muscle activities among the elevation planes at each angle. [Conclusion] This study found that the three regions of the trapezius muscles changed their activity depending on the planes of shoulder elevation. These changes in the trapezius muscles could induce appropriate scapular motion to face the glenoid cavity in the correct directions in different planes of shoulder elevation.

  3. To evaluate and compare antidepressant activity of Rosa damascena in mice by using forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemapriya Tirupathi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Antidepressant activity of R. damascena was studied by forced swimming test in mice in the doses of 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg .This test shows that R. damascena significantly decreased the immobility time in mice. The results suggest that R. damascena has dose dependent antidepressant activity comparable with imipramine. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1949-1952

  4. Comparative analysis of competitive activities of skilled players of different functions in women's and men's football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhurid S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of results of the pedagogical looking is conducted after individual and command competition activity of footballers of professional clubs. The most characteristic are exposed technical tactical receptions. Quantitative and high-quality competition performance of sportsmen indicators are certain. In descriptions of competition activity it is necessary to take into account quantitative and high-quality indexes. Also are terms: speed, limitations, is in time and space, presence of hammerings together factors and competitor.

  5. Comparative study of the recommended methodologies by CLSI and EUCAST for activity evaluation antifungal

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The international organizations CLSI and EUCAST developed reference methodologies for activity evaluation antifungal. The aim of this work was to compare the recommended methodologies by the CLSI and EUCAST in the antifungal activity evaluation of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica and green propolis. The results showed that the MIC values determined by the EUCAST methodology were smaller than that determined by the CLSI. Nevertheless, both methodologies were satisfactory to detect and eval...

  6. Comparative in vitro activity of ceftobiprole against Gram-positive cocci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betriu, Carmen; Culebras, Esther; Gómez, María; López-Fabal, Fátima; Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar; Picazo, Juan J

    2010-08-01

    The activity of ceftobiprole and comparator agents was evaluated against a collection of 880 isolates, comprising 200 meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 200 meticillin-resistant S. aureus, 180 coagulase-negative staphylococci blood isolates, 100 Streptococcuspneumoniae and 200 macrolide-resistant beta-haemolytic streptococci (100 Streptococcus pyogenes and 100 Streptococcus agalactiae). Ceftobiprole showed excellent activity against staphylococci (minimum inhibitory concentrations Ceftobiprole was also highly active against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and macrolide-resistant beta-haemolytic streptococci, inhibiting 99.6% of all streptococci tested at ceftobiprole appears to be a promising agent for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7. Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<.001. Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program.

  8. Category activation effects in judgment and behaviour: the moderating role of perceived comparability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Henk; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2002-03-01

    Previous research on category activation effects demonstrates that extreme exemplar priming can lead to contrast effects as well as assimilation effects in target judgments. Two experiments extended this line of research by investigating the moderating role of perceived comparability, that is, the extent to which the exemplar and target are believed to belong to the same category and thus can be compared. In both experiments, participants judged the speed of a person displayed on a picture following priming with animals exemplifying either extreme speed ('cheetah') or extreme slowness ('turtle'). In addition, in the second experiment a behavioural measure was included. In the first experiment individual differences concerning the perceived comparability between animals and humans were assessed. In the second experiment perceived comparability was experimentally varied. Results showed that the direction of category activation effects (i.e. assimilation versus contrast) depended on the extent to which the prime and target categories were seen as comparable. Contrast effects on both judgments and behaviour emerged when the prime and the target category were perceived as comparable. However, assimilation effects on judgment and behaviour ensued when the prime and target category were not perceived as comparable.

  9. Comparative study to predict dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity of β-amino amide scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study was performed on 34 β-amino amide derivatives as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors in order to determine their structural requirement to enhance the antidiabetic activities. Hologram quantitative structure activity relationships models utilized specialized fragment fingerprints (hologram length 353 which showed good predictivity with cross-validated q 2 and conventional r 2 values of 0.971 and 0.971, respectively. Models were validated and optimized by a test set of eight compounds and gave satisfactory predictive ability. Hologram quantitative structure activity relationships maps were helpful in prediction of the structural features of the ligands to account for the activity in terms of positively and negatively contributing towards activity. The information obtained from maps could be effectively use as a guiding tool for further structure modifications and synthesis of new potent antidiabetic agents.

  10. [The comparative investigation of antihypoxia activity of glutamic and N-acetylglutamic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L M; Pogorelyĭ, V E

    2013-01-01

    Comparative study of antihypoxic activity of glutamic and N-acetylglutamic acid in doses of 1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg was realized. It was experimentally ascertained that the most apparent antihypoxic action of study objects occurs in conditions of hypobaric hypoxia of acetylated derivative of glutamic acid considerably exceeds glutamic acid.

  11. Comparative in vitro activity of ceftobiprole against staphylococci displaying normal and small-colony variant phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eiff, Christof; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Becker, Karsten; Peters, Georg

    2005-01-01

    The antistaphylococcal activity of ceftobiprole was compared with those of cefuroxime, linezolid, and moxifloxacin by using the agar dilution method. Apart from three strains with small-colony variant phenotypes, all Staphylococcus aureus isolates tested were inhibited by < or =2 microg/ml of ceftob

  12. Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Groot, de Æ.; Evstatieva, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of pla

  13. Comparative study of the endocrine-disrupting activity of bisphenol A and 19 related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Tomoharu; Sanoh, Seigo; Kohta, Ryuki; Jinno, Norimasa; Sugihara, Kazumi; Yoshihara, Shin'ichi; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Ohta, Shigeru

    2005-04-01

    The endocrine-disrupting activities of bisphenol A (BPA) and 19 related compounds were comparatively examined by means of different in vitro and in vivo reporter assays. BPA and some related compounds exhibited estrogenic activity in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, but there were remarkable differences in activity. Tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) showed the highest activity, followed by bisphenol B, BPA, and tetramethylbisphenol A (TMBPA); 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 2,2-diphenylpropane showed little or no activity. Anti-estrogenic activity against 17beta-estradiol was observed with TMBPA and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). TCBPA, TBBPA, and BPA gave positive responses in the in vivo uterotrophic assay using ovariectomized mice. In contrast, BPA and some related compounds showed significant inhibitory effects on the androgenic activity of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3. TMBPA showed the highest antagonistic activity, followed by bisphenol AF, bisphenol AD, bisphenol B, and BPA. However, TBBPA, TCBPA, and 2,2-diphenylpropane were inactive. TBBPA, TCBPA, TMBPA, and 3,3'-dimethylbisphenol A exhibited significant thyroid hormonal activity towards rat pituitary cell line GH3, which releases growth hormone in a thyroid hormone-dependent manner. However, BPA and other derivatives did not show such activity. The results suggest that the 4-hydroxyl group of the A-phenyl ring and the B-phenyl ring of BPA derivatives are required for these hormonal activities, and substituents at the 3,5-positions of the phenyl rings and the bridging alkyl moiety markedly influence the activities.

  14. Comparing Levels of Depression in Healthy Active and Inactive Elders versus Those with Knee Osteoarthritis Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis can have negative effects on the physical and mental conditions, social and family relations, general health and positive feelings of elders. For example, severe limitation of motion and increased depression, which are results of this disease, can have negative impacts on elders. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of depression in healthy active and inactive elders versus those with knee osteoarthritis disease. Two hundred and twenty (220 elders with knee osteoarthritis disease (110 active and 110 inactive patients and 220 healthy elders (110 active and 110 inactive were voluntarily selected, and they filled the questionnaire about elders’ personal characteristics, physical activity and depression levels. Four groups had differences with respect to education, age and gender. The results of chi-square test revealed that women with knee osteoarthritis disease had increased levels of depression compared to men with the same condition (p<0.05. Older patients had increased levels of depression and educated elders reported lower levels of depression. The results of the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that there exist a significant difference in depression scores of healthy active and healthy inactive elders and those with knee osteoarthritis disease. The results of Tukey’s test revealed that healthy active elder had lower depression scores compared to inactive elders with knee osteoarthritis disease. Carrying out exercises and physical activities can help improve the health state of patients with knee osteoarthritis problem and can also improve the elders’ mental condition and thus decrease their pain and depression.

  15. [Comparative analysis of activity of different promoters for NIS gene expression in melanoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mich, A I; Kopantsev, E P; Vinogradova, T V; Sverdlov, E D

    2014-01-01

    Development of targeted drug delivery system is key problem of cancer gene therapy. To ensure specific delivery of these therapeutic compounds to the tumor it is preferable for therapeutic gene expression to occur predominantly in cancer cells. Therefore, when testing drug in vivo, it is necessary to study distribution of therapeutic gene expression products in different tissues of the organism. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is attractive reporter because its tissue level is easily quantitatively detected by noninvasive imaging methods. Different promoters are used to direct expression of therapeutic genes in tumor cells: strong nonspecific, moderate tissue-specific and tumor-specific. Tumor-specific promoters function in wide range of tumor cells, however they are relatively weak. Relationship between promoter and sodium iodide symporter activity is unclear to date. In this report we examined activity of different promoters in two melanoma cell lines, functional activity of NIS driven by these promoters, also we compared promoter strength and NIS activity. We demonstrated that in spite of strong differences in promoter activity functional activity of NIS directed by these promoters varies weakly. Relatively weak melanoma-specific promoter directs high NIS activity in melanoma cell, however weaker cancer-specific promoters drive high NIS activity only in certain melanoma cell line.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftriaxone Compared with Cefotaxime in the Presence of Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K Nath

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of serum albumin on the antimicrobial activity of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and a 1:1 ratio of cefotaxime and its desacetyl metabolite against nonpseudomonal Gram-negative bacilli was determined. Antimicrobial activity of drugs was evaluated by measuring minimum inhibitory (mic and bactericidal (mbc concentrations in broth with and without human serum albumin. The analysis of logarithmically transformed mean mics and mbcs showed that there was a highly significant interaction between drug and serum albumin (P<0.0001. The inhibitory and bactericidal activities were greatest for cefotaxime followed by cefotaxime/desacetylcefotaxime and ceftriaxone (P<0.01. Time-kill kinetics demonstrated that ceftriaxone was less bactericidal than cefotaxime in broth with albumin. On the basis of these results it was concluded that the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftriaxone compared with that of cefotaxime was significantly diminished in the presence of serum albumin.

  17. Comparing responses to horticultural-based and traditional activities in dementia care programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Shannon E; Gigliotti, Christina M

    2010-12-01

    Engaging persons with dementia in meaningful activities supports well-being; however, care staff are challenged to implement age- and ability-appropriate activities in a group setting. We compared a randomly assigned treatment group, who received horticultural therapy-based (HT-based) programming to a comparison group, who engaged in traditional activities (TA) programming, on engagement and affect. Horticultural therapy-based programming was implemented twice weekly at 4 treatment sites for 6 weeks, while regular TA were observed at comparison sites. Results revealed no differences between groups on affective domains. Levels of adaptive behavior differed between the groups, with the treatment group demonstrating higher levels of active, passive, and other engagement and the comparison group demonstrating higher levels of self-engagement. Our results highlight the value of HT-based programs and the importance of simultaneously capturing participants' affective and behavioral responses. Theoretical and practical considerations about the facilitation of and context in which the programming occurs are discussed.

  18. Enhanced adsorption of humic acids on ordered mesoporous carbon compared with microporous activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengling; Xu, Zhaoyi; Wan, Haiqin; Wan, Yuqiu; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-04-01

    Humic acids are ubiquitous in surface and underground waters and may pose potential risk to human health when present in drinking water sources. In this study, ordered mesoporous carbon was synthesized by means of a hard template method and further characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, transition electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and zeta-potential measurement. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate adsorption of two humic acids from coal and soil, respectively, on the synthesized carbon. For comparison, a commercial microporous activated carbon and nonporous graphite were included as additional adsorbents; moreover, phenol was adopted as a small probe adsorbate. Pore size distribution characterization showed that the synthesized carbon had ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the activated carbon was composed mainly of micropores with a much broader pore size distribution. Accordingly, adsorption of the two humic acids was substantially lower on the activated carbon than on the synthesized carbon, because of the size-exclusion effect. In contrast, the synthesized carbon and activated carbon showed comparable adsorption for phenol when the size-exclusion effect was not in operation. Additionally, we verified by size-exclusion chromatography studies that the synthesized carbon exhibited greater adsorption for the large humic acid fraction than the activated carbon. The pH dependence of adsorption on the three carbonaceous adsorbents was also compared between the two test humic acids. The findings highlight the potential of using ordered mesoporous carbon as a superior adsorbent for the removal of humic acids.

  19. Comparative studies on polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Schisandra chinensis leaves and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Andrei; Crișan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Raita, Oana; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Toiu, Anca; Oprean, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material), followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material). Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material), but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  20. Comparative Studies on Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Schisandra chinensis Leaves and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material, followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material. Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material, but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX, inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  1. [In vitro activity of roxithromycin compared to 5 other macrolides against staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Y; Coulet, M; Forey, F; Fleurette, J

    1988-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the bacteriostatic activity of roxithromycin (RU) to those of erythromycin (ERY), troleandomycin (TAO), spiramycin (SPI), josamycin (JOS) and midekamycin (MID) against staphylococci strains. 239 strains of hospital origin were analysed: S. aureus (139), coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (100). The MIC were determined by the agar dilution method. The modal MIC, the MIC 50 and 90 observed for the both groups of strains are given according to species and antibiotics. This study gives the opportunity to classify the 6 antibiotics in a decreasing order considering their antistaphylococcal activity: RU = ERY, TAO = SPI, JOS = MID. No difference was noticeable between S. aureus and CNS strains.

  2. The influence comparing of activated biochar and conventional biochar on the soil biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Mykajlo, Irina; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment we have used biochar. This material is the product of the pyrolysis that has shown a positive effect on numerous physical and chemical soil properties. However, its influence on the biological component of the soil is very variable. A number of toxic substances that inhibit the soil productivity may be produced during pyrolysis process. The experiment dealt with the hypothesis concerning biochar toxicity reduction by simulating natural processes in the soil. Biochar has been exposed to aeration in the aquatic environment, enriched with nutrients and a source of native soil microflora. It has been created 6 variants in total, each with four replications. The soils samples have been placed in a phytotron for 90 days. Variants consisted of the soil with fertilizers adding (compost, biochar, activated biochar) and have been prepared as well as variants containing compost and biochar and activated biochar optionally. The highest aboveground biomass production has been estimated in variants containing compost, while the lowest production - in the variants containing conventional biochar. During production comparing of the variants with the conventional biochar, activated biochar and control samples it has been evident that activated biochar promotes plant growth, and in contradiction conventional biochar inhibits it. We will approach to the same conclusions when comparing variants with a combination of conventional biochar + compost and activated biochar + compost. Mineral nitrogen leaching has been another investigated parameter. The highest leaching has occurred in the control variant, while the lowest - in the variant with activated biochar (the leaching of nitrate nitrogen has been negligeable). Our results suggest that activated biochar has the potential; however, it is necessary to carry out similar experiments in the field conditions.

  3. Comparative estrogenic activity of wine extracts and organochlorine pesticide residues in food.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaido, K.; Dohme, L; Wang, F.; Chen, I; Blankvoort, B; Ramamoorthy, K; Safe, S.

    1998-01-01

    The human diet contains industrial-derived, endocrine-active chemicals and higher levels of naturally occurring compounds that modulate multiple endocrine pathways. Hazard and risk assessment of these mixtures is complicated by noadditive interactions between different endocrine-mediated responses. This study focused on estrogenic chemicals in the diet and compared the relative potencies or estrogen equivalents (EQs) of the daily consumption of xenoestrogenic organochlorine pesticides in food...

  4. Comparative activation states of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages from mice bearing an induced fibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N; Meson, O E; Sirena, A; Perdigon, G

    1990-11-01

    Balb/c mice bearing a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma were used to compare the activation levels of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages. Two stages of tumor growth were examined, namely "small" and "large" tumors, with average diameters of 10 and 30 mm, respectively. The activation state, determined by measurement of both phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase content, was found to be markedly higher in tumor-associated macrophages than in their peritoneal counterparts and it was, in addition, independent of tumor progression. The percentage of tumor-associated macrophages, which were detected on the basis of Fc receptor expression, remained constant in the growing neoplasm, at approximately 23% of total cell population. None of these parameters were affected by inoculation with an immunopotentiating dose of heat-killed Candida albicans which, on the other hand, seemed not to alter the course of the tumor. These data suggest that within the tumor microenvironment macrophages would somehow be maintained at a constant proportion and at a highly activated state, while outside the tumor they would be at a lower activation level. Our results also suggest that TAM would not possess antitumor activity in vivo, although we have found this activity in vitro.

  5. Comparative pharmacological evaluation of adaptogenic activity of Holoptelea integrifolia and Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti Puri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work was planned to compare adaptogenic activity of ethanolic extracts of Holoptelea integrifolia (ETHEHI 250 mg/kg and ETHEHI 500 mg/kg with Withania somnifera (ETHEWS 100 mg/kg using forced swimming endurance test and Chronic cold restraint stress models. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg doses of ethanolic extract of Holoptelea integrifolia showed adaptogenic activity and this activity was closer to the activity of 100mg/kg of Withania somnifera. The adaptogenic activity was dose dependent in ethanolic extract of Holoptelea integrifolia. These effects may be due to the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids in the extract of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia as flavonoids, tannins and phenolics are mainly responsible for adaptogenic activity. Adaptogens have not only specific therapeutic effects in some stress induced and stress related disorders, but will also have an impact on the quality of life of patients.

  6. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de E-mail: mhosampa@ipen.br; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Las Casas, Alexandre; Nunes Mori, Manoel; Lopes Duarte, Celina

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study that compares the use of electron beam processing and activated carbon adsorption to clean up a standardized organic aqueous solution and a real industrial effluent. The electron beam treatment was performed in a batch system using the IPEN's Electron Beam Accelerators from Radiation Dynamics Inc., Dynamitron 37.5 kW. The granular activated carbon removal treatment was performed using charcoal made from wood 'pinus'. If the adequate irradiation dose is delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is similar to the activated carbon process in organic removal efficiency.

  7. [In vitro comparative activity of five macrolides against 190 Branhamella catarrhalis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, H; Bellon, O; Bourgeois, F; Lagier, E

    1989-05-01

    We compared the in vitro activity of 5 macrolides against 190 strains of Branhamella catarrhalis; 48 strains were isolated at Centre Hospitalier, Aix-en-Provence, the 142 others were isolated during 1987, in 15 different Centres-Hospitaliers-Généraux in France. 153 strains were betalactamase producing strains; no difference in susceptibility to erythromycin was observed on betalactamase producing and non producing strains. Three active macrolides against 100% of strains were: erythromycin (MIC 50 = 0.25 mg/l - MIC 90 = 0.50 mg/l), roxithromycin (MIC 50 = 0.50 mg/l - MIC 90 = 0.50 mg/l) and josamycin (MIC 50 = 0.50 mg/l - MIC 90 = 1 mg/l); A lower activity was noted on midecamycin (mic 50 = 2 mg/l - MIC 90 = 2 mg/l) and spiramycin (MIC 50 = 4 mg/l - MIC 90 = 8 mg/l).

  8. [Antitumor Activity of Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Mycelium: in vivo Comparative Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnopolskaya, L M; Yarina, M S; Avtonomova, A V; Usov, A I; Isakova, E B; Bukchman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of water soluble and alkali soluble polysaccharides, as well as fucogalactan, a water soluble polysaccharide, and xylomannan, an alkali soluble polysaccharide, were isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged mycelium. When administered orally, the polysaccharides showed antitumor activity in vivo on murine models of solid tumors. Xylomannan and fucogalactan showed the highest antitumor activity. Sensitivity to xylomannan was more pronounced in adenocarcinoma Ca755 as compared to the T-cell lymphocytic leukemia P388. The antitumor activity of the water soluble polysaccharides total fractions from the mycelium and fruiting bodies of the G. lucidum strain was almost identical. The maximum antitumor effect of the mycelium water soluble polysaccharides total fraction was observed with the use of the daily dose of 2 mg/kg.

  9. Comparative analysis of competitive activity parameters of amateur boxers high qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martsiv V.P.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : analyze competitive activity of boxers of high qualifications in different time periods in the development of boxing. Material : 142 analyzed boxing matches at the Olympic Games 2012. Results : present indicators of competitive activity of boxers. Shows the comparative characteristics of the battles that took place under different formulas of competitive activity in different periods of the development of amateur boxing. It is shown that increasing the skills of athletes appear to increase the density of hits in combat. As a result of innovations in the rules of the competition, boxing match was different higher intensity combat, attacking actions began to perform at a higher speed mode. Conclusions : As a result of the transition to the new formula of fighting to increase the density of the match. Also a 3-fold increase in the number of strikes indicator, surviving on target. Increased efficiency factor strikes, which leads to the expansion of effective technical and tactical actions.

  10. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  11. Effects of an occlusal splint compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment on sleep bruxism activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Schneider, Christine; Giraki, Maria; Schäfer, Ralf; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Raab, Wolfgang H-M

    2007-02-01

    The impact of an occlusal splint (OS) compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) on the management of sleep bruxism (SB) has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an OS with CBT in SB patients. Following a randomized assignment, the OS group consisted of 29, and the CBT group of 28, SB patients. The CBT comprised problem-solving, progressive muscle relaxation, nocturnal biofeedback, and training of recreation and enjoyment. The treatment took place over a period of 12 wk, and the OS group received an OS over the same time period. Both groups were examined pretreatment, post-treatment, and at 6 months of follow-up for SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity and associated symptoms, psychological impairment, and individual stress-coping strategies. The analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity, and psychological impairment, as well as an increase of positive stress-coping strategies in both groups. However, the effects were small and no group-specific differences were seen in any dependent variable. This is an initial attempt to compare CBT and OS in SB patients, and the data collected substantiate the need for further controlled evaluations, using a three-group randomized design with repeated measures to verify treatment effects.

  12. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Schineider Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS, were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated.

  13. Comparative antipyretic activity of methanolic extracts of some species of Amaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific validation for the antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.), Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) and Amaranthus spinosus (Linn.). Methods: The antipyretic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was investigated by yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Paracetamol (150 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug and control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all the rats were recorded and compared at 19 h, immediately before extract or vehicle or paracetamol administration, and again at 1 h interval up to 24 h by thermal probe Eliab themistor thermometer. Results: At 400 mg/kg dose all the three methanolic extracts showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in yeast provoked elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol, whereas 200 mg/kg dose is less effective when compared with higher dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results show that methanol extract of three plants of Amaranthus possesses a significant antipyretic effect in maintaining reducing yeast-induced elevated body temperature in rats and their effects were comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug paracetamol.

  14. Comparative Phytochemical and Pharmacological Evaluations of Two Varieties of Ocimum basilicum for Antiarthritic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Phadtare

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tulsi plants (family Lamiaceae are widely used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for bronchitis, bronchial asthma, skin diseases, arthritis, inflammation, fever etc. The study was carried out to corroborate the traditional claims for anti-arthritic activity of tulsi. A comparative study of two varieties of O.basilicum, basilicum and thyrsiflora was done for evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity. Carrageenan induced paw oedema for anti-inflammatory activity and Complete Freund’s Adjuvent induced arthritis for anti-arthritic activity were the two animal models used for the investigation. The present investigation suggests that O.basilicum var.basilicum (OSBB at a dose of 50,100 & 200mg/kg p.o. exhibits decrease in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema. OSBB possess potent anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner. In case of arthritis there was significant inhibition at the dose of 100 & 200 mg/kg (p less than 0.01 and 0.001 respectively. O.basilicum var.thyrsiflora (OSBT: p less than 0.05 was unable to show activity at lower dose. Thus higher dose of OSBT may be required to exhibit the same pattern of anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity in lab animals. The study was carried out to corroborate the traditional claims for anti-arthritic activity as well as quantification of three marker compounds ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and eugenol by HPTLC and HPLC and to check interspecies variation.

  15. Comparative characterization of the leukocidic and hemolytic activity of Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoien-Dalen, P S; Rosenbusch, R F; Roth, J A

    1990-02-01

    The cytotoxic effect of Moraxella bovis 118F on bovine neutrophils was evaluated and characterized by use of a 51Cr release assay. Neutrophils harvested from healthy adult cattle were labeled with 51Cr. The leukocidic activity produced by M bovis 118F, a hemolytic strain of M bovis, was heat-labile. A live culture of strain 118F, at a ratio of 100 bacteria/neutrophil, released 97.7% of the 51Cr from labeled neutrophils. Neither a heat-killed preparation of M bovis 118F nor a live or heat-killed preparation of M bovis IBH63 (a nonhemolytic and nonpathogenic strain) induced significant (P greater than 0.05) release of 51Cr. Moraxella bovis 118F broth culture filtrates prepared for evaluation of leukocidic activity also were evaluated for hemolytic activity. These 2 toxic activities had several characteristics in common. Both were filterable, heat-labile, produced by a hemolytic strain, and were released during early logarithmic phase growth from broth cultures. Leukocidic and hemolytic activities were protected from degradation by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, a serine protease inhibitor. Leukocidic and hemolytic activities were dependent on calcium ions. Filtrate resulted in 54.1% 51Cr release from labeled neutrophils and contained 646.7 hemolytic U/ml, respectively, when saline (0.85% NaCl) + 10 mM CaCl2 solution was used as diluent. Neither saline solution nor saline + 10 mM MgCl2 solution supported leukocidic or hemolytic activity. Serum, obtained from several calves 10 to 38 days after M bovis inoculation, substantially neutralized leukocidic and hemolytic activities, compared with paired preinoculation serum samples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. EMG-normalised kinase activation during exercise is higher in human gastrocnemius compared to soleus muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Jensen

    Full Text Available In mice, certain proteins show a highly confined expression in specific muscle groups. Also, resting and exercise/contraction-induced phosphorylation responses are higher in rat skeletal muscle with low mitochondrial content compared to muscles with high mitochondrial content, possibly related to differential reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging ability or resting glycogen content. To evaluate these parameters in humans, biopsies from soleus, gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles were taken before and after a 45 min inclined (15% walking exercise bout at 69% VO2(max aimed at simultaneously activating soleus and gastrocnemius in a comparable dynamic work-pattern. Hexokinase II and GLUT4 were 46-59% and 26-38% higher (p<0.05 in soleus compared to the two other muscles. The type I muscle fiber percentage was highest in soleus and lowest in vastus lateralis. No differences were found in protein expression of signalling proteins (AMPK subunits, eEF2, ERK1/2, TBC1D1 and 4, mitochondrial markers (F1 ATPase and COX1 or ROS-handling enzymes (SOD2 and catalase. Gastrocnemius was less active than soleus measured as EMG signal and glycogen use yet gastrocnemius displayed larger increases than soleus in phosphorylation of AMPK Thr172, eEF2 Thr56 and ERK 1/2 Thr202/Tyr204 when normalised to the mean relative EMG-signal. In conclusion, proteins with muscle-group restricted expression in mice do not show this pattern in human lower extremity muscle groups. Nonetheless the phosphorylation-response is greater for a number of kinase signalling pathways in human gastrocnemius than soleus at a given activation-intensity. This may be due to the combined subtle effects of a higher type I muscle fiber content and higher training status in soleus compared to gastrocnemius muscle.

  17. Comparing mirror neuron system activity between sporadic and familial cases of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sayantanava; Nizamie, S Haque; Goyal, Nishant; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Kavoor, Anjana Rao

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder, and has often been subtyped on the basis of family history of psychotic disorders. Compared to those without, a positive family history is associated with an earlier age of onset, greater structural brain abnormalities and poorer clinical course. Given recent emphasis on mirror neuron system (MNS) in attempting to explain psychopathology in schizophrenia; present analysis tried to tease out differences in MNS functioning between these two groups. With ethical approval, 10 consenting right-handed patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10-DCR; M=8; Drug-naïve=2) were recruited and divided into two groups of five each (M=4, F=1): those with (age 29.40±5.85 years, duration of illness 50.80±30.84 months) and without (age 29.60±5.77 years, duration of illness 43.20±43.76 months) family history of schizophrenic illness (group difference p>0.05). MNS activity was assessed using event-related desynchronization of EEG Mu waves in response to biological motion on 192-channel EEG Neurofax EEG-1100K. On comparison, while patients had significantly lower mu suppression compared to controls (pschizophrenia groups did not differ between themselves, neither on MNS activity nor on psychopathology (p>0.05). Present study replicates finding of a dysfunctional MNS in schizophrenia patients, and represents a preliminary attempt at comparing two groups of symptomatic schizophrenia patients. In both these groups, MNS dysfunctions were comparable, and commensurate with respect to psychopathology. Thus, MNS dysfunction in schizophrenia might either be inherited or acquired. However, this abnormality forms a common base, and ultimate vulnerability marker, for development of psychopathology during active disease states.

  18. Identification of contrastive and comparable school neighborhoods for childhood obesity and physical activity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel Katherine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neighborhood social and physical environments are considered significant factors contributing to children's inactive lifestyles, poor eating habits, and high levels of childhood obesity. Understanding of neighborhood environmental profiles is needed to facilitate community-based research and the development and implementation of community prevention and intervention programs. We sought to identify contrastive and comparable districts for childhood obesity and physical activity research studies. We have applied GIS technology to manipulate multiple data sources to generate objective and quantitative measures of school neighborhood-level characteristics for school-based studies. GIS technology integrated data from multiple sources (land use, traffic, crime, and census tract and available social and built environment indicators theorized to be associated with childhood obesity and physical activity. We used network analysis and geoprocessing tools within a GIS environment to integrate these data and to generate objective social and physical environment measures for school districts. We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to categorize school district groups according to their neighborhood characteristics. We tested the utility of the area characterizations by using them to select comparable and contrastive schools for two specific studies. Results We generated school neighborhood-level social and built environment indicators for all 412 Chicago public elementary school districts. The combination of GIS and cluster analysis allowed us to identify eight school neighborhoods that were contrastive and comparable on parameters of interest (land use and safety for a childhood obesity and physical activity study. Conclusion The combination of GIS and cluster analysis makes it possible to objectively characterize urban neighborhoods and to select comparable and/or contrasting neighborhoods for community-based health studies.

  19. Comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. Protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different pH values (pH 3.0, pH 7.5 and pH 10.5) using casein as a substrate. Ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10U/g. Pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. Additionally, high protease activities were detected in kiwifruit (28.8U/g), broccoli (16.9U/g), ginger (16.6U/g), leek (32.7U/g) and red pepper (15.8U/g) at different pH values. SDS-PAGE and zymograms confirmed that various types of proteases existed in the five plant extracts and might be explored. Furthermore, five plant extracts were treated by different protease inhibitors. These results show that there are still many plant resources unexplored, which may be promising candidates for plant-derived protease production.

  20. A comparative structure-function analysis of active-site inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae cholix toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Miguel R; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-09-01

    Cholix toxin from Vibrio cholerae is a novel mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) toxin that shares structural and functional properties with Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and Corynebacterium diphtheriae diphtheria toxin. Herein, we have used the high-resolution X-ray structure of full-length cholix toxin in the apo form, NAD(+) bound, and 10 structures of the cholix catalytic domain (C-domain) complexed with several strong inhibitors of toxin enzyme activity (NAP, PJ34, and the P-series) to study the binding mode of the ligands. A pharmacophore model based on the active pose of NAD(+) was compared with the active conformation of the inhibitors, which revealed a cationic feature in the side chain of the inhibitors that may determine the active pose. Moreover, a conformational search was conducted for the missing coordinates of one of the main active-site loops (R-loop). The resulting structural models were used to evaluate the interaction energies and for 3D-QSAR modeling. Implications for a rational drug design approach for mART toxins were derived.

  1. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos and its oxon derivatives to soil microbial activity by combined methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Chen, Huilun; Chen, Ke; Trebse, Polonca; Zaray, Gyula

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the pesticide Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its oxon derivative (CPO) on soil microbial activity were evaluated through the measurement of metabolic parameters and the microbial urease enzyme. The thermodynamic parameters related to microbial activity were measured and recorded as power-time curves. Microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q(T), metabolic enthalpy DeltaH(met), mass specific heat rate J(Q/S), microbial biomass C and inhibitory ratio I were calculated. They showed the linear relationship with doses of CPF and CPO. Thereinto, the linear correlations, k versus biomass C and DeltaH(met) versus biomass C, elucidated that k and DeltaH(met) were growth yield dependent. In this work, 20% inhibitory ratio IC(20) was obtained with 9.8 microg g(-1) for CPF and 0.37 microg g(-1) CPO, meaning that the acute toxicity of CPO was 26 times that of CPF, since the CPO had more potent toxicity to living organism due to its active functional group. Comparing the change tendency of DeltaH(met) and other parameter, the values almost kept constant when exposure to CPF (<5.0 microg g(-1)). It illustrates that individual reacted to stress resulted from environment change by shifting resources from other biological activities (such as reproduction or growth) toward survival to some extent. Urease activity responses in relation to the CPF and CPO exposure were observed and consistent with above thermodynamic parameters.

  2. Comparing effects of active and passive restoration on the Middle Fork John Day River, NE Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.; Goslin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, cattle grazing has been eliminated on over 14 km of the upper Middle Fork John Day. Starting in 2008, active restoration (log structures with dug pools, woody vegetation planting, and modifications to increase channel-floodplain hydrologic connectivity) was implemented on nearly 6 km within the cattle exclosure length. Implementation of active and passive restoration strategies in the same and adjacent reaches allows comparison of these two approaches. We have been monitoring these reaches since 2008. Unexpectedly in response to grazing exclosure, a native sedge, Carex nudata (torrent sedge), has exploded in population. C. nudata grows in the active channel, anchoring itself tightly to the gravel-cobble river bed with a dense root network. As a result, C. nudata has changed erosion and sedimentation patterns including bank erosion, channel bed scour, and island formation. We present data on fish cover increases due to C. nudata and log structures, and on channel complexity before and after restoration. Both active and passive restorations are increasing channel complexity and juvenile fish cover, although in different ways. Fish cover provided by active and passive restoration are similar in area but different in depth and position, with C. nudata fish cover generally shallower and partly mid-channel. Residual pool depth is larger in log structure pools than in C. nudata scour pools, but C. nudata pools are more numerous in some reaches. By producing frequent, small scour features and small islands, it can be argued that C. nudata is increasing hydraulic complexity more than the large, meander-bend pools at log structures, but this is hard to quantify. C. nudata has also stabilized active bars, perhaps changing the bedload sediment budget. Positive habitat benefits of active restoration appear to be greater in the short term, but over the long term (20 years or more) effects of C. nudata may be comparable or greater.

  3. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  4. Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Aerosolized Sodium Hypochlorite, Chlorine Dioxide, and Electrochemically Activated Solutions Evaluated Using a Novel Standardized Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, R. M. S.; Robinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard microbiological challenges were developed by surface-associating typed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores, or a clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain on stainless steel, polypropylene, or fabric. All test coupons were subjected to 20-min biocidal aerosols of chlorine-matched (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, or ECAS within a standard aerosolization chamber using a commercial humidifier under defined conditions. Biocidal treatment type and material surface had a significant effect on the number of microorganisms recovered from various material surfaces following treatment exposure. Under the conditions of the assay, the order of antimicrobial efficacy of biocidal aerosol treatment was as follows: ECAS > chlorine dioxide > sodium hypochlorite. For all biocides, greater antimicrobial reductions were seen when treating stainless steel and fabric than when treating plastic-associated microorganisms. The experimental fogging system and assay protocol designed within this study were shown capable of differentiating the comparative efficacies of multiple chlorine-matched biocidal aerosols against a spectrum of target organisms on a range of test surface materials and would be appropriate for testing other biocidal aerosol treatments or material surfaces. PMID:23459480

  5. Aspartic acid aminotransferase activity is increased in actively spiking compared with non-spiking human epileptic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, S J; Dixon, L M; Sherwin, A L

    1988-01-01

    Increased concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter aspartic acid in actively spiking human epileptic cerebral cortex was recently described. In order to further characterise changes in the aspartergic system in epileptic brain, the behaviour of aspartic acid aminotransferase (AAT), a key enzyme involved in aspartic acid metabolism has now been examined. Electrocorticography performed during surgery was employed to identify cortical epileptic spike foci in 16 patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for intractable seizures. Patients with spontaneously spiking lateral temporal cortex (n = 8) were compared with a non-spiking control group (n = 8) of patients in whom the epileptic lesions were confined to the hippocampus sparing the temporal convexity. Mean activity of AAT in spiking cortex was significantly elevated by 16-18%, with aspartic acid concentration increased by 28%. Possible explanations for the enhanced AAT activity include increased proliferation of cortical AAT-containing astrocytes at the spiking focus and/or a generalised increase in neuronal or extraneuronal metabolism consequent to the ongoing epileptic discharge. It is suggested that the data provide additional support for a disturbance of central excitatory aspartic acid mechanisms in human epileptic brain. PMID:2898010

  6. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Caporicci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  7. Comparative Study on Schizontocidal Activity of Recrystallized or Crude Daphnetin Against Malaria Parasites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN-MEI WANG; YI-CHANG NI; JIAN GUO; JIA-TONG WU; YING-JUN QIAN

    2004-01-01

    To compare the schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin against malaria parasites in vivo. Methods Schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin at various dosages was assessed in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA using a "4-day suppress assay". Results The comparison of the reduction rate of parasitemia caused by either recrystallized or crude dephnetin showed that ED50 of crude daphnetin was 18.36 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 5.96-56.54 mg/kg while ED50 of recrystallized daphnetin was 11.46 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 8.63-15.22 mg/kg. Conclution The results indicate that the efficacy of recrystallized daphnetin is 37.6% higher than that of crude daphnetin.

  8. Comparative Studies of the Adsorption of Direct Dye on Activated Carbon and Conducting Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raffiea Baseri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the feasibility of removing Direct Blue 71 from aqueous solution by different adsorbents such as activated carbon (TPAC and Poly pyrrole polymer composite (PPC prepared from Thevetia Peruviana. Batch mode adsorption was performed to investigate the adsorption capacities of these adsorbents by varying initial dye concentration, temperature, agitation time and pH. The performance of TPAC was compared with PPC. Among the adsorbents, PPC had more adsorption capacity (88.24% than TPAC (58.82% at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L and at 30°C. The experimental data best fitted with pseudo second order kinetic model. The adsorption data fitted well for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorbents were also evaluated. The carbon embedded in conducting polymers matrix show better adsorptive properties than activated carbon.

  9. A comparative study on immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from two official species of Ganoderma (Lingzhi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lan-Zhen; Xie, Jing; Lv, Guang-Ping; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Duan, Jin-Ao; Li, Shao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Two Ganoderma species, G. lucidum and G. sinense, are listed as Lingzhi in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and they are considered to have the same therapeutic effects. Polysaccharides were the main immunomodulatory and anticancer components in Ganoderma. In this study, the chemical characters and the effects of polysaccharides from G. lucidum (GLPS) and G. sinense (GSPS) on macrophage functions were investigated and compared. Chemical studies showed that GLPS and GSPS were different, displaying various molecular weight distribution and ratio of monosaccharide components. In vitro pharmacological studies showed that both GLPS and GSPS had potent effects on macrophage functions, such as promoting macrophage phagocytosis, increasing their release of nitric oxide and cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Generally, GLPS was more powerful than GSPS. This study is helpful to elucidate the active components and pharmacological variation between the 2 Ganoderma species. The structure-activity relationship of polysaccharides from Ganoderma needs further study.

  10. Nanoscale charge transport in cytochrome c3/DNA network: Comparative studies between redox-active molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Harumasa; Che, Dock-Chil; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Masayuki; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2015-09-01

    The redox-active molecule of a cytochrome c3/DNA network exhibits nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a threshold bias voltage at low temperature and zero-bias conductance at room temperature. I-V curves for the cytochrome c3/DNA network are well matched with the Coulomb blockade network model. Comparative studies of the Mn12 cluster, cytochrome c, and cytochrome c3, which have a wide variety of redox potentials, indicate no difference in charge transport, which suggests that the conduction mechanism is not directly related to the redox states. The charge transport mechanism has been discussed in terms of the newly-formed electronic energy states near the Fermi level, induced by the ionic interaction between redox-active molecules with the DNA network.

  11. Comparative metagenomics demonstrating different degradative capacity of activated biomass treating hydrocarbon contaminated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Trilok Chandra; Pal, Rajesh Ramavadh; Shastri, Sunita; Jadeja, Niti B; Kapley, Atya

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the diverse degradative capacity of activated biomass, when exposed to different levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) using a comparative metagenomics approach. The biomass was collected at two time points to examine seasonal variations. Four metagenomes were sequenced on Illumina Miseq platform and analysed using MG-RAST. STAMP tool was used to analyse statistically significant differences amongst different attributes of metagenomes. Metabolic pathways related to degradation of aromatics via the central and peripheral pathways were found to be dominant in low TDS metagenome, while pathways corresponding to central carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen, organic acids were predominant in high TDS sample. Seasonal variation was seen to affect catabolic gene abundance as well as diversity of the microbial community. Degradation of model compounds using activated sludge demonstrated efficient utilisation of single aromatic ring compounds in both samples but cyclic compounds were not efficiently utilised by biomass exposed to high TDS.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Different Antimicrobial Peptides against a Range of Pathogenic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbensgaard, Anna Elisabeth; Mordhorst, Hanne; Overgaard, Michael Toft

    2015-01-01

    The rapid emergence of resistance to classical antibiotics has increased the interest in novel antimicrobial compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an attractive alternative to classical antibiotics and a number of different studies have reported antimicrobial activity data of various...... AMPs, but there is only limited comparative data available. The mode of action for many AMPs is largely unknown even though several models have suggested that the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play a crucial role in the attraction and attachment of the AMP to the bacterial membrane in Gram......-negative bacteria. We compared the potency of Cap18, Cap11, Cap11-1-18m2, Cecropin P1, Cecropin B, Bac2A, Bac2A-NH2, Sub5-NH2, Indolicidin, Melittin, Myxinidin, Myxinidin-NH2, Pyrrhocoricin, Apidaecin and Metalnikowin I towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli...

  13. Novel Control Strategy for VSI and CSI Active Filters and Comparing These Two Types of Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Arab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently to eliminate the harmonics and improve the power factor of the power networks, much attention has been attracted to active filters. The advantages of these filters are lower volume and their better compensating characteristics than the passive filters. In conventional sliding mode controllers, the source current waveform is fluctuated in near to zero values. In this paper, using a new sliding technique, lower Total Harmonic Distortion (THD in source current is obtained and the current waveform is improved. As well as, two novel control strategies for two types of active filters, VSI and CSI is proposed and then these two types of filters are compared to reduce THD value of source current.The proposed controlled strategies are simulated by MATLAB/Simulink. The Simulation results confirm that the proposed strategies reduce the THD of source current more than other strategies, and active filter based on CSI has a better performance than active filter based on VSI with a dead time area (for avoiding short circuit of the source in high powers.

  14. Comparative study on the antioxidant and anti-Toxoplasma activities of vanillin and its resorcinarene derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudio B S; Meurer, Ywlliane S R; Oliveira, Marianne G; Medeiros, Wendy M T Q; Silva, Francisco O N; Brito, Ana C F; Pontes, Daniel de L; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2014-05-07

    A resorcinarene derivative of vanillin, resvan, was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques. We measured the cytotoxicity (in vivo and in vitro), antioxidant and anti-Toxoplasma activities of vanillin and the resorcinarene compound. Here we show that vanillin has a dose-dependent behavior with IC50 of 645 µg/mL through an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. However, we could not observe any cytotoxic response at higher concentrations of resvan (IC50 > 2,000 µg/mL). The in vivo acute toxicity assays of vanillin and resvan exhibited a significant safety margin indicated by a lack of systemic and behavioral toxicity up to 300 mg/kg during the first 30 min, 24 h or 14 days after administration. The obtained derivative showed greater antioxidative activity (84.9%) when comparing to vanillin (19.4%) at 1,000 μg/mL. In addition, vanillin presents anti-Toxoplasma activity, while resvan does not show that feature. Our findings suggest that this particular derivative has an efficient antioxidant activity and a negligible cytotoxic effect, making it a potential target for further biological investigations.

  15. COMPARATIVE SUDY OF THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY AT PROFESSIONAL HANDBALL AND FENCERS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENISA ENESCU BIERU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Our purpose was to study the electroencephalographic activity of professional handball and fencers players, to compare the obtained data and to identify a possible neurophysiologic pattern associate to practiced sportive activity. Material and method. The study was performed on a group of 22 male athletes, 11 handball players and 11 fencers (different stress degrees of the upper members, active for between 5 and 12 years exclusively in eitherhandball or fencing. Using Nihon-Kohden EEG-9200 device, was recorded EEG line during some activities (relaxation-contraction,which can emphasize possible characteristic cerebral patterns, EEG analyze was made by assessing the classic rhythms and synthetic indexes as edge frequency. To perform spectral analyze was used fast Fourier transformation and for wave values comparison was used Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. For both groups was remarked a slight increase of the theta wave values and for handball players a high degree of correlation for theta and beta indexes and also a correlation in the dominant hemisphere for alpha1 and 2.Conclusions. EEG complex testing of professional sportsmen, as well as the outlining of an EEG pattern specific to studied sportive discipline, represent an original aspect of this study

  16. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

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    Rasheda Arman Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2 to 30 cm(2, whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  17. Noninvasive activity-based control of an implantable rotary blood pump: comparative software simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantonis, Dean M; Lim, Einly; Mason, David G; Salamonsen, Robert F; Ayre, Peter J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-02-01

    A control algorithm for an implantable centrifugal rotary blood pump (RBP) based on a noninvasive indicator of the implant recipient's activity level has been proposed and evaluated in a software simulation environment. An activity level index (ALI)-derived from a noninvasive estimate of heart rate and the output of a triaxial accelerometer-forms the noninvasive indicator of metabolic energy expenditure. Pump speed is then varied linearly according to the ALI within a defined range. This ALI-based control module operates within a hierarchical multiobjective framework, which imposes several constraints on the operating region, such as minimum flow and minimum speed amplitude thresholds. Three class IV heart failure (HF) cases of varying severity were simulated under rest and exercise conditions, and a comparison with other popular RBP control strategies was performed. Pump flow increases of 2.54, 1.94, and 1.15 L/min were achieved for the three HF cases, from rest to exercise. Compared with constant speed control, this represents a relative flow change of 30.3, 19.8, and -15.4%, respectively. Simulations of the proposed control algorithm exhibited the effective intervention of each constraint, resulting in an improved flow response and the maintenance of a safe operating condition, compared with other control modes.

  18. Comparative hypoglycemic activity of different fractions of Thymus serpyllum L. in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgeer, -; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Bashir, Sajid; Ullah, Ikram; Karim, Sabeha; Rashid, Muhammad; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Rashid, Haroonur

    2016-09-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate and compare the hypoglycemic activity of different solvents extracts of Thymus serpyllum in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with single intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg). Glibenclamide and acarbose were used as standard drugs. The crude powder of Thymus serpyllum (500 mg/kg b.w) significantly reduced blood glucose level in both normal and diabetic rabbits. Various extracts of Thymus serpyllum were compared for their hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rabbits. Ether and aqueous extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level with maximum effect (p<0.001) produced by aqueous extract, which was selected for further study. Aqueous extract significantly inhibited the rise in glucose level in oral glucose tolerance test. The extract showed synergistic effect with different doses of insulin; however serum insulin level of the diabetic rabbits was not significantly increased by the extract. HbA1c level was significantly (p<0.05) reduced whereas hemoglobin level was significantly increased in three months study. Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpinoids, reducing sugar and cardiac glycosides. It is concluded that the aqueous extract might be used alone or in combination with insulin to manage diabetes and its associated complications.

  19. Comparative analyses of venoms from American and African Sicarius spiders that differ in sphingomyelinase D activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A; Bodner, Melissa R; Binford, Greta J

    2010-06-15

    Spider venoms are cocktails of toxic proteins and peptides, whose composition varies at many levels. Understanding patterns of variation in chemistry and bioactivity is fundamental for understanding factors influencing variation. The venom toxin sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) in sicariid spider venom (Loxosceles and Sicarius) causes dermonecrotic lesions in mammals. Multiple forms of venom-expressed genes with homology to SMase D are expressed in venoms of both genera. SMase D activity levels differ among major clades with American Sicarius vastly reduced relative to all Loxosceles and African Sicarius despite expression of SMase D homologs in venoms of American Sicarius. Here we report comparative analyses of protein composition and insecticidal activity of crude venoms from three Sicarius species, two from South Africa and one from Central America. Comparative 2-dimensional electrophoresis shows dense regions of proteins in the size range of SMase D in all three species, but there are differences in sizes and isoelectric points (pIs). Few proteins strictly co-migrate and there are clusters of proteins with similar pIs and molecular weights whose patterns of similarity do not necessarily reflect phylogenetic relatedness. In addition, PD(50) estimates on crickets indicate a small though significant decrease in potency of South American Sicarius venoms relative to African species.

  20. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation.

  1. Comparative in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of levofloxacin brands available in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Bashir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial susceptibility against marketed antibiotic products is dynamic and changes with development of resistance in microbes. Susceptibility status of antibiotics helps health care practitioners in refining their prescribing trends and selection of suitable antibiotic and its commercial brand. Objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity and susceptibility patterns of levofloxacin of different national and multinational brands in Pakistan. Levofloxacin is among the commonly mis-prescribed antibiotic in Pakistan and this study will give an insight of microbial resistance/susceptibility status against quinolones and help prescribing practice. Methods: In this study 29 different brands of levofloxacin from different cities of Pakistan are evaluated for their sensitivity against four microbial strains i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella Pneumonia. Evaluation was performed via disc diffusion method against standard drug discs. Result: Different brands exhibited different antimicrobial status regardless of their price and national or multinational status. In low price range, Levomerc while Tavanic in high price range showed significant antimicrobial activity. Different brands are evaluated and compared statistically with price and activity as variant. Conclusion: Antimicrobial activity of different brands of levofloxacin varied regardless of their national/multinational status and price factor. This study refined the suitability of different brands of levofloxacin against respective pathogens and disease indications.

  2. Comparative study of hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir; Shabbir Ahmad; Md. Sofi Mahamoud; Nishan Chakrabarty; Md.Akramul Hoque; Mohammed Munawar Hossain; Md.Nazim Uddin Chy; Mohammed Shoibe

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants. Methods:Anin vivo hypoglycemic effect on mice model was used to check the hypoglycemic effect of four Bangladeshi herbal organic extractsviz., roots ofCurculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata) (C. recurvata), leaf ofAmorphophallus bulbiferRoxb. (Olkachu) (A. bulbifer), whole plant ofThunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata) (T. grandiflora) and leaf ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (Yunnan) (S. colocasiifolia) using glibenclamide as a positive control and water as a negative control. They were also tested for antibacterial activity on three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method.C. recurvata,A. bulbifer andT. grandiflora were extracted with methanol andS. colocasiifolia was extracted with ethanol. Results:Among all the plant extract, only ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/kg dose significantly (P Conclusions: Through our study, it was found thatS. colocasiifolia could be considered as very promising and beneficial hypoglycemic agent. AlthoughC. recurvata andS. colocasiifolia showed comparable high antibacterial activity, further studies should be needed to develop new antibacterial agent from them.S. colocasiifolia may be a potential source for the development of new oral hypoglycemic agent.

  3. A qualitative phytochemical analysis and a comparative study of the antibactrial activity of Retama stalks (raetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Bensaci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed mainly to investigate and compare the antibacterial activities of methanolic, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts of retama on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureu using well difusion method.The results of study showed a significant effect on all bacterial species except Proteus mirabilis. The preliminary test of retama constituents revealed the presence of active material : Resins, Volatil oils, Coumarins, Terpenes, Phenols, Tannins, Alkaloids, Saponins, Cardiac glycosides, and Flavons. The highest Inhibition rate of Salmonella is 16 mm at the concentration 100 mg/ml, while the lowest inhibition rate was 8 mm for Escherichia coli at concentration 1 mg/ ml in methanolic extract. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the retama stalks (broom broom can be used in treating deseases caused by the tested organisms. Further chemical and pharmacological investigations may be carried out to isolate and identify the chemical constituents in the selected plants responsible for the antimicrobial activity.

  4. Comparative Assessment of DFT Performances in Ru- and Rh-Promoted σ-Bond Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Hu, Lianrui; Chen, Hui

    2015-04-14

    In this work, the performances of 19 density functional theory (DFT) methods are calibrated comparatively on Ru- and Rh-promoted σ-bond (C-H, O-H, and H-H) activations. DFT calibration reference is generated from explicitly correlated coupled cluster CCSD(T)-F12 calculations, and the 4s4p core-valence correlation effect of the two 4d platinum group transition metals is also included. Generally, the errors of DFT methods for calculating energetics of Ru-/Rh-mediated reactions appear to correlate more with the magnitude of energetics itself than other factors such as metal identity. For activation energy calculations, the best performing functionals for both Ru and Rh systems are MN12SX DFT empirical dispersion correction on the performance of the DFT methods is beneficial for most density functionals tested in this work, reducing their MUDs to different extents. After including empirical dispersion correction, ωB97XD, B3LYP-D3, and CAM-B3LYP-D3 (PBE0-D3, B3LYP-D3, and ωB97XD) are the three best performing DFs for activation energy (reaction energy) calculations, from which B3LYP-D3 and ωB97XD can notably be recommended uniformly for both the reaction energy and reaction barrier calculations. The good performance of B3LYP-D3 in quantitative description of the energetic trends further adds value to B3LYP-D3 and singles this functional out as a reasonable choice in the Ru/Rh-promoted σ-bond activation processes.

  5. Comparative study of hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants. Methods: An in vivo hypoglycemic effect on mice model was used to check the hypoglycemic effect of four Bangladeshi herbal organic extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata (C. recurvata, leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu (A. bulbifer, whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata (T. grandiflora and leaf of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (Yunnan (S. colocasiifolia using glibenclamide as a positive control and water as a negative control. They were also tested for antibacterial activity on three Grampositive and four Gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method. C. recurvata, A. bulbifer and T. grandiflora were extracted with methanol and S. colocasiifolia was extracted with ethanol. Results: Among all the plant extract, only ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose significantly (P < 0.01 reduced fasting glucose level in normal mice as compared to standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose decreased 20.28% of blood glucose level after 2 h of administration in normal mice, where glibenclamide decreased 39.63%. Methanol extract of T. grandiflra didn’t show any zone of inhibition against the tested bacteria, but other three extracts showed a wide range of zone of inhibition. However, none of the extract showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. Methanol extract of C. recurvata showed maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus [(10.50 ± 0.50 mm], Salmonella typhi [(16.20 ± 1.26 mm], Escherichia coli [(13.00 ± 1.00 mm] and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia showed maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus [(11.20 ± 1.26 (mm], Bacillus subtilis [(12.00 ± 0.50 (mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(10.80 ± 0.29 (mm

  6. Comparative Study of the Activity of Brain Behavioral Systems in Methamphetamine and Opiate Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemikhah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance dependency is a major problem for the general health of a society. Different approaches have investigated the substance dependency in order to explain it. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST is an advanced and important neuropsychological theory in this area. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare three systems of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory the behavioral activation system (r-BAS, the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS, and the revised fight/flight/freezing system (r-FFFS between patients dependent on methamphetamine and opiates, and a group of controls. Patients and Methods This research was a causal-comparative study that was conducted in the first six months of 2012. The population of the study was males of Mashhad city, who were dependent on methamphetamine or opiates, and ruling out psychotic disorders and prominent Axis II. Twenty-five people were selected by the convenient sampling method. Also, 25 non-dependent people from the patients’ relatives were selected and matched for the variables of age, gender, and education to participate in this study. Participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview (SCID for DSM-IV, demographic questionnaire information, and a Jackson-5 questionnaire (2009. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, K-S, and independent t-test. Results The methamphetamine dependent group had a higher sensitivity in the r-BAS, r-BIS, and the r-Fight and r-Freezing systems compared to the control group (P 0.05. “The scores of r-BIS were also significantly higher in the methamphetamine-dependent group than the opioid-dependent and control groups. For the r-Fight variable, the methamphetamine-dependent group was higher than the opioid-dependent group”. Conclusions The personality patterns of patients dependent on methamphetamines were different from the controls. These people have a high sensitivity to punishment cues, such as being compared in

  7. The Relationship between Activities of Daily Living and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly: Active Engagement as Compared to Passive Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzelli, Jena; England, Eileen M.

    Daily activities and social contact were studied as influences on the life satisfaction of elderly people. It was considered that all activities might not be equal and that individuals who participate in more active activities and who have more active social contacts would score higher in life satisfaction than those who engage in inactive…

  8. Comparative Study between Two Schemes of Active-Control-Based Mechatronic Inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lingduo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on force-current analogy and velocity-voltage analogy in the theory of electromechanical analogy, the inerter is a device that corresponded to the capacitor completely where conquers the nature restriction of mass, what’s more, it is significant to improve the ratio of the inerter’s inertance to its mass for mechanical networks synthesis. And according to the principle of active-control-based mechatronic inerter, we present two implementation schemes. One was based on linear motor, and the other was based on the ball screw and rotary motor. We introduced the implementation methods and established theoretical model of the two schemes, then compared the ratio of the inerter’s inertance to its mass for the two schemes. Finally, we consider the scheme is better which was based on the ball screw and rotary motor.

  9. Comparing zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases for gene targeting in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Kelly J; Trautman, Jonathan K; Christian, Michelle; Dahlem, Timothy J; Lake, Cathleen M; Hawley, R Scott; Grunwald, David J; Voytas, Daniel F; Carroll, Dana

    2013-10-03

    Zinc-finger nucleases have proven to be successful as reagents for targeted genome manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster and many other organisms. Their utility has been limited, however, by the significant failure rate of new designs, reflecting the complexity of DNA recognition by zinc fingers. Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA-binding domains depend on a simple, one-module-to-one-base-pair recognition code, and they have been very productively incorporated into nucleases (TALENs) for genome engineering. In this report we describe the design of TALENs for a number of different genes in Drosophila, and we explore several parameters of TALEN design. The rate of success with TALENs was substantially greater than for zinc-finger nucleases , and the frequency of mutagenesis was comparable. Knockout mutations were isolated in several genes in which such alleles were not previously available. TALENs are an effective tool for targeted genome manipulation in Drosophila.

  10. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears.

  11. Comparative economics, of advanced fine-coal cleaning in refuse pond recovery and active mine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, A.; Chugh, Y.P; Mohanty, M.K.; Sevim, H. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining & Mineral Resources

    2003-08-01

    The economics of 'conventional' and 'advanced fine-coal cleaning' (AFCC) circuits for refuse pond reclamation as well as active mine applications were evaluated. The benefit of an innovative tailings-management scheme on the profitability of mining enterprises was also evaluated. Analyses were conducted for two scenarios involving the generation of 5.81% product ash, a quality obtained during AFCC circuit operation at SIU, and a more typical 8% product ash. The inability of the conventional circuits to achieve profitability while producing the lower-ash product is revealed from this approach. On the other hand, the AFCC circuits achieve a return on investment in excess of 50% in the water-only mode as well as the dense-medium mode, both with and without tailings management. The comparison of water-only and dense-medium applications of the AFCC circuit indicates a better suitability for the dense-medium circuit for producing premium-quality products. As a result of reduced overhead costs and the use of existing material-handling facilities, the application of AFCC circuits in active mines provides for better economics when compared to applications in refuse pond recovery operations. Sensitivity analysis reveals the significance of capacity utilization on project economics.

  12. Comparative Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid Content of Persian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Gholam, Narges; Moridi, Tahereh

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Lythraceae, is mainly grown in Mediterranean region. It is one of the major cultivated productions of Iran, which have been used in folk medicine for many centuries. It has been proved that pomegranate has a high antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. This study compares the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of nine different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(+2) concentration, vitamin E, vitamin C, gallic acid and catechin were used for calibration. The results showed that Sour summer pulp cultivar had the most antioxidant effect with significant difference with the other cultivar (p < 0.05) which can be introduced as a potent source of natural antioxidants, and the peel of three cultivars (Sweet saveh malas, Sour summer and Black peel) as a suitable source for extraction and purification of phenolic and flavonoid compound. The antioxidant capacity of pomegranate peel extract is 10 times higher than the pulp extract.

  13. A Comparative Study on the Pozzolanic Activity between Nano-SiO2 and Silica Fume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; ZHANG Zenan; SHENG Li; CHEN Rongshen

    2006-01-01

    The pozzolanic activity of nano-SiO2 and silica fume was comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the compressive, bond and bending strengths of hardened paste and concrete were also measured. Results indicate that the compressive strength development of the paste made from Ca(OH)2 and nano-SiO2, the reaction rate of Ca(OH)2 with nano-SiO2 and the velocity of C-S-H gel formation from Ca(OH)2 with nano-SiO2 showed marked increases over those of Ca(OH)2 with silica fume. Furthermore, the bond strength at the interface between aggregate and hardened cement paste, and the bending strength of concrete incorporated with 3% NS increased more than those with SF, especially at early ages. To sum up, the pozzolanic activity of nano-SiO2 was much greater than that of silica fume. The results suggest that with a small amount of nano-SiO2,the Ca(OH)2 crystal at the interface between hardened cement paste and aggregate at early ages may be effectively absorbed in high performance concrete.

  14. Comparing graphene, carbon nanotubes, and superfine powdered activated carbon as adsorptive coating materials for microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerie, Jaclyn R; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2013-10-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), nano-graphene platelets (NGPs), and superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) were comparatively evaluated for their applicability as adsorptive coatings on microfiltration membranes. The objective was to determine which materials were capable of contaminant removal while causing minimal flux reduction. Methylene blue and atrazine were the model contaminants. When applied as membrane coatings, MWCNTs had minimal retention capabilities for the model contaminants, and S-PAC had the fastest removal. The membrane coating approach was also compared with a stirred vessel configuration, in which the adsorbent was added to a stirred flask preceding the membrane cell. Direct application of the adsorbent to the membrane constituted a greater initial reduction in permeate concentrations of the model contaminants than with the stirred flask setup. All adsorbents except S-PAC showed flux reductions less than 5% after application as thin-layer membrane coatings, and flux recovery after membrane backwashing was greater than 90% for all materials and masses tested.

  15. Comparative anticonvulsant activity and neurotoxicity of clobazam, diazepam, phenobarbital, and valproate in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, A K; Miyahara, J T; Swinyard, E A; Kupferberg, H J

    1982-08-01

    The 1.5-benzodiazepine (clobazam), the 1,4-benzodiazepine (diazepam), and two nonbenzodiazepine antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital and valproate) were evaluated in mice and rats with a battery of well-standardized anticonvulsant test procedures. The results obtained indicate that clobazam and valproate exhibit a wider range of experimental anticonvulsant activity than either diazepam or phenobarbital. Except for clobazam by the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in rats, clobazam and valproate are effective in nontoxic doses against MES and all four chemically induced seizures (Metrazol, bicuculline, picrotoxin, and strychnine). Clobazam is effective by the MES test in rats only in doses that exceed the median minimal toxic dose. Phenobarbital is effective against all of the above tests, but minimal toxic doses must be employed to prevent strychnine seizures. Diazepam, on the other hand, is effective in nontoxic doses against seizures induced by Metrazol, bicuculline, and picrotoxin, but protects animals from maximal electroshock and strychnine seizures only when given in toxic doses. When compared on the basis of protective indices (PI = TD50/ED50) calculated from intraperitoneal data, the PIs for clobazam were 1.6 to 13 times higher than those for diazepam. Overall, except for the MES test in rats, the PIs for clobazam were from 1.5 to 44 times higher than those for any of the other three substances. With respect to the MES test in rats, the PI for clobazam was 10.8 times higher than that for diazepam; however, the PIs for phenobarbital and valproate were 3.5 and 4.4 times higher, respectively, than that for clobazam. These data suggest that the spectrum of anticonvulsant activity for the 1,5-benzodiazepine (clobazam) is superior to that for the 1,4-benzodiazepine (diazepam). Also, the broad experimental profile of anticonvulsant activity of clobazam agrees well with its reported broad clinical efficacy.

  16. Evaluating the Safety Profile of Non-Active Implantable Medical Devices Compared with Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Josep; Coloma, Preciosa M; Verhamme, Katia M C; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Rebollo, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Recent safety issues involving non-active implantable medical devices (NAIMDs) have highlighted the need for better pre-market and post-market evaluation. Some stakeholders have argued that certain features of medicine safety evaluation should also be applied to medical devices. Our objectives were to compare the current processes and methodologies for the assessment of NAIMD safety profiles with those for medicines, identify potential gaps, and make recommendations for the adoption of new methodologies for the ongoing benefit-risk monitoring of these devices throughout their entire life cycle. A literature review served to examine the current tools for the safety evaluation of NAIMDs and those for medicines. We searched MEDLINE using these two categories. We supplemented this search with Google searches using the same key terms used in the MEDLINE search. Using a comparative approach, we summarized the new product design, development cycle (preclinical and clinical phases), and post-market phases for NAIMDs and drugs. We also evaluated and compared the respective processes to integrate and assess safety data during the life cycle of the products, including signal detection, signal management, and subsequent potential regulatory actions. The search identified a gap in NAIMD safety signal generation: no global program exists that collects and analyzes adverse events and product quality issues. Data sources in real-world settings, such as electronic health records, need to be effectively identified and explored as additional sources of safety information, particularly in some areas such as the EU and USA where there are plans to implement the unique device identifier (UDI). The UDI and other initiatives will enable more robust follow-up and assessment of long-term patient outcomes. The safety evaluation system for NAIMDs differs in many ways from those for drugs, but both systems face analogous challenges with respect to monitoring real-world usage. Certain features

  17. Comparative evaluation of alkylphenolic compounds on estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Soon Sun; Kim, So Hee; Sohn, Kyung Hee; Lee, Rhee Da; Park, Chul Hoon; Jeung, Eui Bae; An, Beum-Soo; Park, Kui Lea

    2002-03-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the sensitivity of screening test methods and to investigate the structure-activity relationships of the estrogenic activity of alkylphenolic compounds (APs) using in vitro and in vivo assays. Two in vitro systems, MCF-7 cell proliferation (E-screen assay) and competitive binding assay to estrogen receptor (ER), were selected to evaluate the estrogenic effects. Uterotrophic assay and Calbindin-D9K (CaBP9K) mRNA expression were also examined in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley female rats. A series of APs with various alkyl groups were examined, namely, 4-propylphenol, 4-butylphenol, 4-t-butylphenol, 4-pentylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-phenylphenol, and 17beta-estradiol (E2) was used as a positive control. In the E-screen assay, E2 was found to induce maximum proliferation of MCF-7 cells at 1 nM. Among the APs, 4-t-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol were found to be considerably more potent than any other compound and estrogenic effects were detectable at 1 and 10 microM, respectively. 4-t-Octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol inhibited the binding of E2 to the ER of MCF-7 cells in a competitive ER binding assay. The uterotrophic effects to APs (10, 50, 200, and 400 mg/kg/d) were compared to E2 (1 microg/kg) in ovariectomized rats after treatment for 3 d. 4-Nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-phenylphenol produced dose-dependent increases in the uterine weights of ovariectomized rats. In the CaBP-9K mRNA expression test, CaBP-9K mRNA levels were detected in the uteri of ovariectomized rats treated with 4-pentylphenol (400 mg/kg), 4-nonylphenol, 4-phenylphenol (200 and 400 mg/kg), and 4-t-octylphenol (50 mg/kg and above), respectively. In the dot blot assay, CaBP-9K mRNA levels were significantly increased in rats exposed to 4-t-octylphenol (200 and 400 mg/kg), 4-pentylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, and 4-phenylphenol (400 mg/kg), respectively. Among the APs, compounds with bulky alkyl groups or higher carbon numbers

  18. Comparative estrogenic activity of wine extracts and organochlorine pesticide residues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaido, K; Dohme, L; Wang, F; Chen, I; Blankvoort, B; Ramamoorthy, K; Safe, S

    1998-12-01

    The human diet contains industrial-derived, endocrine-active chemicals and higher levels of naturally occurring compounds that modulate multiple endocrine pathways. Hazard and risk assessment of these mixtures is complicated by noadditive interactions between different endocrine-mediated responses. This study focused on estrogenic chemicals in the diet and compared the relative potencies or estrogen equivalents (EQs) of the daily consumption of xenoestrogenic organochlorine pesticides in food (2.44 micrograms/day) with the EQs in a single 200-ml glass of red cabernet wine. The reconstituted organochlorine mixture contained 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, endosulfan-1, endosulfan-2, p,p'-methoxychlor, and toxaphene; the relative proportion of each chemical in the mixture resembled the composition reported in a recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration market basket survey. The following battery of in vitro 17 beta-estradiol (E2)-responsive bioassays were utilized in this study: competitive binding to mouse uterine estrogen receptor (ER); proliferation in T47D human breast cancer cells; luciferase (Luc) induction in human HepG2 cells transiently cotransfected with C3-Luc and the human ER, rat ER-alpha, or rat ER-beta; induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with E2-responsive cathepsin D-CAT or creatine kinase B-CAT plasmids. For these seven in vitro assays, the calculated EQs in extracts from 200 ml of red cabernet wine varied from 0.15 to 3.68 micrograms/day. In contrast, EQs for consumption of organochlorine pesticides (2.44 micrograms/day) varied from nondetectable to 1.24 ng/day. Based on results of the in vitro bioassays, organochlorine pesticides in food contribute minimally to dietary EQ intake.

  19. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  20. Comparative study of antibacterial activity of wood-decay fungi and antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    A. F. Md. Hassan Iftekhar; Zubaida Khatoon Choudhry; Md. Ismail Khan; Ahmed Abu Saleh

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of three mushrooms extract Ganoderma lucidum, Auricularia auricula, Pleurotus florida were studied against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. A. auricula showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus. P. florida showed some antibacterial activity while G. lucidum showed no antibacterial activity. None of the extracts showed any activity against E. coli.

  1. A comparative study: Homoeopathic medicine and a medicinal plant withania somnifera for antidiabetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navinder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy has a distinct air of science involves books of rules, complex procedures, a proprietary lingo. Secondly, the method of carefully listening to the patient, meticulously recording every symptom experienced, lots of details from the patient’s background, is bound to make practitioners feel important and a lot of patients feel good. Homoeopathy is widely used, but specific effects of homoeopathic remedies seem implausible. In the present work pre-clinical trials have been performed to show that the Homeopathic Formulations have some Pharmacological effect. In the present work, ethanol extract of withania somnifera shows significantly positive antidiabetic activity on rats when compared with Glibenclamide standard antidiabetic drug. Antidiabetic effect is thought to be due to increased hepatic metabolism, increased insulin release from pancreatic beta cells and/or insulin sparing effect. Homeopathic formulation of Potency Q, 30 and 200 shows significant pharmacological effect in animals (Rats and shows the Pre-clinical effects. It shows Homeopathic formulations is not mere Placebo but have some Pharmacological/Therapeutic effect.

  2. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  3. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

  4. Carbon dioxide captured by multi-walled carbon nanotube and activated charcoal: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available this study, the equilibrium adsorption of CO2 on activated charcoal (AC and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT were investigated. Experiments were performed at temperature range of 298-318 K and pressures up to 40 bars. The obtained results indicated that the equilibrium uptakes of CO2 by both adsorbents increased with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. In spite of lower specific surface area, the maximum amount of CO2 uptake achieved by MWCNT at 298K and 40 bars were twice of CO2 capture by AC (15 mmol.g-1 compared to 7.93 mmol.g-1. The higher CO2 captured by MWCNT can be attributed to its higher pore volume and specific structure of MWCN T such as hollowness and light mass which had greater influence than specific surface area. The experimental data were analyzed by means of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. Following a simple acidic treatment procedure increased marginally CO2 capture by MWCNT over entire range of pressure, while for AC this effect appeared at higher pressures. Small values of isosteric heat of adsorption were evaluated based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation showed the physical nature of adsorption mechanism. The high amount of CO2 capture by MWCNT renders it as a promising carrier for practical applications such as gas separation.

  5. Scaling laws of coronal loops compared to a 3D MHD model of an Active Region

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdin, Philippe-A; Peter, Hardi

    2016-01-01

    Context. The structure and heating of coronal loops are investigated since decades. Established scaling laws relate fundamental quantities like the loop apex temperature, pressure, length, and the coronal heating. Aims. We test such scaling laws against a large-scale 3D MHD model of the Solar corona, which became feasible with nowadays high-performance computing. Methods. We drive an active region simulation a with photospheric observations and found strong similarities to the observed coronal loops in X-rays and EUV wavelength. A 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic observations showed that our model loops have a realistic spatial structure. We compare scaling laws to our model data extracted along an ensemble of field lines. Finally, we fit a new scaling law that represents well hot loops and also cooler structures, which was not possible before only based on observations. Results. Our model data gives some support for scaling laws that were established for hot and EUV-emissive coronal loops. For the RTV scali...

  6. Improved Biofilm Antimicrobial Activity of Polyethylene Glycol Conjugated Tobramycin Compared to Tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ju; Bandara, H M H N; Du, Ping; Huang, Hui; Hoang, Khang; Nguyen, Dang; Mogarala, Sri Vasudha; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2015-05-04

    The objective of this study was to develop a functionally enhanced antibiotic that would improve the therapeutic activity against bacterial biofilms. Tobramycin was chemically conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) via site-specific conjugation to form PEGylated-tobramycin (Tob-PEG). The antibacterial efficacy of Tob-PEG, as compared to tobramycin, was assessed on the planktonic phase and biofilms phase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC80) of Tob-PEG was higher (13.9 μmol/L) than that of tobramycin (1.4 μmol/L) in the planktonic phases. In contrast, the Tob-PEG was approximately 3.2-fold more effective in eliminating bacterial biofilms than tobramycin. Specifically, Tob-PEG had a MIC80 lower than those exhibited by tobramycin (27.8 μmol/L vs 89.8 μmol/L). Both confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy further confirmed these data. Thus, modification of antimicrobials by PEGylation appears to be a promising approach for overcoming the bacterial resistance in the established biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  7. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Riffat I; Schellenberg, John; Henrissat, Bernard; Verbeke, Tobin J; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199) and carbohydrate binding modules (95) were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  8. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA.

  9. A comparative study of efficacy of misoprostol with methyl ergometrine and carboprost in active management of third stage of labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya A. Supe

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Misoprostol 800ug per rectally is an effective alternative in the active management of third stage of labor as compared to methyl ergometrine and carboprost. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1525-1531

  10. the comparation of skaletion osteoblastik activity spread between wrestling and sedanters between aged 17-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Ziylan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the difference in the ratios of bone invasion in wrestlers and sedantery persons has been investigated by using 99m Tc _ MDP scintigraph. By this aim, twenty elite level wrestlers were selected from the activity show wrestling clups in Konya city, whit at least five years in practice and they were 17-20 years old; this group wasconsidered as an experimental group. Ten sedantary persons whith same range of age who never exercised any form of sports were considered as a control group . totally 30 subjects were involved in this study.By using of 99m Tc – MDP scintigraph in both group, for all persons static images were taken in the palm of the hands, head and neck, thoracic cage and in the lumbar, pelvic and both kness and feet regions and in the anterior and posterior regions of bi-lateral shoulders.According to the result of the guantitative analysis of both wrestlers and sedantery persons, the ratios of the radioactive invasion were calculated in the palm of the hands, anterior and posterior regions of the sholdres, anterior and posterior  regions of the pelvic articulations of knees and feed regions and in the shafts of the humerus, tibia and femur.Obtaining data of both groups were statistically analyzed and compared whith Mann Whitney U- test. Result showed that radioactive invasion in the shafts of humeral, radial, and femoral bones in wrestlers was significantly higherthan in controls(p<0,05. İn the other regions no significant differences between group has been found(p>0,05.In case of wrestlers, it was seen that stres over the skaletal system had an excersive effect on the upper limbs namely the shafts of humerus and radius in both sides. However, in the lower limb a same effect was seen in the shafts of bi-lateral femurs and in the knees joint regions. In these regions, it was fount thatin bone scintigraph, increment in the osteoblasttic activity causes secondary increment in the radioactive invasion.According to the

  11. Comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of povidone iodine and homoeopathic mother tinctures as antiseptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mohsin Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms the antibacterial activity and more effectiveness of Thuja occidentalis and Rhus glabra mother tinctures than povidone iodine. The other tested mother tinctures also have antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, except Echinacea.

  12. Blunted HPA Axis Activity in Suicide Attempters Compared to those at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A

    2016-05-01

    Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  13. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  14. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining beta-Glucosidases : A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Codee, Jeroen D. C.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  15. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining β-Glucosidases : A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T.C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M.F.G.; Codée, Jeroen D.C.; Marel, Gijsbert A. van der; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PEROXYDISUCCINIC ACID, HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND THEIR MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazheyevskiy M.Ye.,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in vivo by cell aerobic metabolism cause multiple damage in different cell organelles and kill not only obligate anaerobes and microaerophilles, but also aerobes. ROS generated by phagocytes and representatives of normal microflora are an important component of macroorganism defense from most pathogens, which is explained by their ability to damage different biological structures. ROS have high reactivity and let us use them in vitro as effective biocides. Hydrogen peroxide is widely used in many industries, in particular, in medicine and veterinary as antiseptic and disinfectant agent due to its safety for environment and broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity including spore-forming bacteria. However, in the recent years certain decrease of background sensitivity of microorganisms to hydrogen peroxide and occurrence of resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms to this agent has been noted. The aim of this work is to carry out a comparative study of antimicrobial activity of hydrogen peroxide, peroxydisuccinic acid (PDSA, monoperoxysuccinic acid (MPSA, and mixture of PDSA and hydrogen peroxide (Н2О2. Materials and methods. The substances of peroxydisuccinic acid (PDSA and monoperoxysuccinic acid (MPSA were prepared by well known methods. The following test-strains were used to assess antimicrobial activity of the agents: Staphylococcus aureus АТСС 25923, Escherichia coli АТСС 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa АТСС 27853, Pseudomonas aeruginosa АТСС 9027, Basillus сereus АТСС 10702, Basillus сereus АТСС 96, Basillus subtilis АТСС 6633, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 4636, Candida albicans АТСС 885/653, and Candida albicans АТСС 10231. All disinfectant agents were diluted in distilled water at 40 ºС and stirred. The microbial burden was 2∙109 CFU/ml of the medium, and for kinetic studies 105 CFU/ml of the medium, it was standardizing

  17. Selective activation of beta3-adrenoceptors by octopamine: comparative studies in mammalian fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpéné, C; Galitzky, J; Fontana, E; Atgié, C; Lafontan, M; Berlan, M

    1999-04-01

    Numerous synthetic agonists selectively stimulate beta3-adrenoceptors (ARs). The endogenous catecholamines, noradrenaline and adrenaline, however, stimulate all the beta-AR subtypes, and no selective physiological agonist for beta3-ARs has been described so far. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any naturally occurring amine can stimulate selectively beta3-ARs. Since activation of lipolysis is a well-known beta-adrenergic function, the efficacy and potency of various biogenic amines were compared with those of noradrenaline, isoprenaline, and beta3-AR agonists 4-(-{[2-hydroxy-(3-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-amino} propyl)phenoxyacetate (BRL 37,344) and (R,R)-5-(2-{[2-(3-chlorophenyl )-2-hydroxyethyl]-amino} propyl)-1,3-benzo-dioxole-2,2-dicarboxylate (CL 316,243) by testing their lipolytic action in white fat cells. Five mammalian species were studied: rat, hamster and dog, in which selective beta-AR agonists act as full lipolytic agents, and guinea-pigs and humans, in which beta3-AR agonists are less potent activators of lipolysis. Several biogenic amines were inefficient (e.g. dopamine, tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine) while others (synephrine, phenylethanolamine, epinine) were partially active in stimulating lipolysis in all species studied. Their actions were inhibited by all the beta-AR antagonists tested, including those selective for beta1- or beta2-ARs. Octopamine was the only amine fully stimulating lipolysis in rat, hamster and dog fat cells, while inefficient in guinea-pig or human fat cells, like the beta3-AR agonists. In rat white fat cells, beta-AR antagonists inhibited the lipolytic effect of octopamine with a relative order of potency very similar to that observed against CL 316,243. Competitive antagonism of octopamine effect resulted in the following apparent pA2 [-log(IC50), where IC50 is the antagonist concentration eliciting half-maximal inhibition] values: 7.77 (bupranolol), 6.48 [3-(2-ethyl-phenoxy)-1[(1 S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-1

  18. Comparing wearable devices with wet and textile electrodes for activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokare, Namita; Gonzalez, Laura; Lobaton, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the idea of identifying activities from muscle activation which is captured by wearable ECG recording devices that use wet and textile electrodes. Most of the devices available today filter out the high frequency components to retain only the signal related to an ECG. We explain how the high frequency components that correspond to muscle activation can be extracted from the recorded signal and can be used to identify activities. We notice that is possible to obtain good performance for both the wet and dry electrodes. However, we observed that signals from the dry textile electrodes introduce less artifacts associated with muscle activation.

  19. A comparative study on the microbial activities in some caves from Padurea Craiului Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Dora SAMUEL

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms represent a heterogeneous group, widely spread in different environments. Our goal in this study was to determine whether microorganisms are present in four particular Transylvanian caves, which are: Ungurului Cave, Izvor Cave, Lesianei Cave, and Moanei Cave, all situated in the Pădurea Craiului Mountains. All of those caves are often visited by tourists. In order to conceive this study we have collected and analyzed different samples, using enzymatic and microbiological methods; the samples were taken from the floor deposits, wall deposits and sludge. Some enzymatic activities were studied, such as: catalase activity, phosphatase activity, actual and potential dehydrogenase activity, urease activity as well as the non-enzymatic catalytic activity. We have also computed the EISQ – which is the enzymatic indicator of soil or sludge quality – based on the results obtained by studying the enzymatic activities.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS USED ON THE ACTIVITY OF KINETIC ENDURANCE CHARAKTER APPLIED AS A CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    DIČE, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to compare food supplements used on the activity of endurance character and their influence on the cardiovascular system. The teoretical part is pursued to the basic food components and their metabolism and to kinetic activities splitting. The practical part gives information about splitting of sports supplements used on the activity of endurance character, their usage and effects. It deals with the question of human organism behaviour during the strain of endurance ...

  1. Proprioceptive control of extensor activity during fictive scratching and weight support compared to fictive locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, M C; Enriquez-Denton, M; Hultborn, H

    1999-12-15

    At rest, extensor group I afferents produce oligosynaptic inhibition of extensor motoneurons. During locomotor activity, however, such inhibition is replaced by oligosynaptic excitation. Oligosynaptic excitation from extensor group I afferents plays a crucial role in the regulation of extensor activity during walking. In this study we investigate the possibility that this mechanism also regulates extensor muscle activity during other motor tasks. We show that the reflex pathways responsible for extensor group I oligosynaptic excitation during fictive locomotion can be activated during both fictive scratching and fictive weight support (tonic motor activity induced by contralateral scratching). These observations suggest that the excitatory group I oligosynaptic reflex pathways are open for transmission during several forms of motor activities. We also show that extensor group I input during fictive scratching can affect the amplitude and the timing of extensor activity in a pattern similar to that observed during locomotion. Most likely these effects involve the activation of the excitatory group I oligosynaptic reflex pathways. Accordingly, it is suggested that extensor group I oligosynaptic excitation during motor activities other than locomotion is also used to regulate extensor muscle activity. Furthermore, the similarity of effects from extensor group I input on the rhythmicity during scratching and locomotion supports the hypothesis that both rhythms are generated by a common network.

  2. APPLICATION OF CASSAVA PEELS ACTIVATED CARBON IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL REFINERY WASTEWATER – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kigho Moses Oghenejoboh; Smith Orode Otuagoma; Evuensiri Onogwharitefe Ohimor

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the efficiency of activated carbon produced from fermented cassava peels (CPB), unfermented cassava peels (CPA) and commercial grade activated carbon (CAC) in the treatment of refinery wastewater was carried out. CPB was found to be 8% and 18% more efficient when compared to CPA and CAC in the removal of COD, and 14% and 3% better than CAC and CPA respectively in the removal of BOD5. The removal efficiency of Pb2+ by CPB was 100% compared to 95% and 57% by CPA and CA...

  3. Physical fitness and physical activity in adolescents with asperger syndrome: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A

    2010-10-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were done using the Eurofit physical fitness test and the Baecke Habitual Physical Activity questionnaire. A 2 x 2 MANOVA indicated that adolescents with AS scored significantly lower than the comparison group on all physical fitness subtests, including balance, coordination, flexibility, muscular strength, running speed, and cardio-respiratory endurance (p < .001). Adolescents with AS were also less physically active (p < .001). Engagement in physical activities is therefore recommended.

  4. Conscientiousness, extroversion, and action control: comparing moderate and vigorous physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; de Groot, Ruben; van den Putte, Bas; Rhodes, Ryan

    2009-12-01

    The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who completed measures of intention, cognitive and affective attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, extroversion, conscientiousness, and physical activity at T1. Four weeks later, physical activity was assessed again. Respondents were grouped into four profiles: nonintenders, successful nonintenders, unsuccessful intenders, and successful intenders. Logistic regression analyses revealed that successful enactment in moderate physical activity was associated with extroversion, subjective norm, and affective attitude, whereas successful enactment in vigorous physical activity was associated with conscientiousness. Findings illustrate the differential role played by personality dimensions and TPB concepts in the explanation of moderate and vigorous physical activity action control.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (car fleets in BKK, HCMC, and Yangon. Euro3 was generally the most advanced technology found in other fleets in these cities. Motorcycles (MC) was the most dominant fleet in all cities, except in Yangon, where they were not allowed. Low vehicle speeds, mainly below 25 km/h, were observed for all vehicle types, indicating traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0.9-23 for VOC, 2

  6. Comparative assessment of albendazole and triclabendazole ovicidal activity on Fasciola hepatica eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L; Moreno, G; Moreno, L; Ceballos, L; Shaw, L; Fairweather, I; Lanusse, C

    2009-10-14

    The benzimidazole compounds albendazole (ABZ) and triclabendazole (TCBZ) are both effective against Fasciola hepatica, although ABZ is only effective against adult flukes. Additionally, ABZ is a broad-spectrum nematodicidal compound with well-known ovicidal activity. However, no data on the ovicidal effect of TCBZ against F. hepatica eggs are available. The work reported here evaluated the comparative ovicidal effect of ABZ, TCBZ and their sulphoxide metabolites on F. hepatica eggs recovered from bile of sheep artificially infected with either a TCBZ-susceptible (Cullompton) or a TCBZ-resistant (Sligo) isolate of F. hepatica. Additionally, the effects of different non-flukicidal methylcarbamate benzimidazole compounds on the hatching of F. hepatica eggs were evaluated. Eggs (500 eggs/mL, n=4) were incubated for 12h either with TCBZ, TCBZ sulphoxide (TCBZ.SO), ABZ (5, 10 and 20 nmol/mL) or without drug (untreated control) (Experiment 1). Additionally, the effect of TCBZ and TCBZ.SO (5 nmol/mL) on egg hatchability was examined after a long (15 days) drug exposure (Experiment 2). Furthermore, the ovicidal effect of ABZ and ABZ.SO at different concentrations (5, 1, 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 nmol/mL) (Experiment 3), and the effect of fenbendazole (FBZ), oxfendazole (OFZ), mebendazole (MBZ), flubendazole (FLBZ) (5 nmol/mL) and reduced-FLBZ (R-FLBZ) (2 microg/mL) on fluke eggs, were evaluated after a 12-h exposure (Experiment 4). Egg hatch was assessed by direct microscopic observation after incubation at 25 degrees C for 15 days. TCBZ and TCBZ.SO did not affect egg hatch after a 12-h incubation. A similar result was obtained after a much longer drug exposure (15 days) (Experiment 1 and 2). However, a significant (P<0.05) inhibition of egg hatch was observed in ABZ- and ABZ.SO-incubated eggs (Experiments 1 and 3). Additionally, the non-flukicidal compounds (Experiment 4) affected egg hatchability, particularly FLBZ and R-FLBZ. In conclusion, ABZ and ABZ.SO had a clear inhibitory

  7. French Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire compared with an accelerometer cut point to classify physical activity among pregnant obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Chandonnet

    Full Text Available Given the high risk for inactivity during pregnancy in obese women, validated questionnaires for physical activity (PA assessment in this specific population is required before evaluating the effect of PA on perinatal outcomes. No questionnaire was validated in pregnant obese women. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ has been designed based on activities reported during pregnancy and validated in pregnant women. We translated the PPAQ to French and assessed reliability and accuracy of this French version among pregnant obese women. In this cross-sectional study, pregnant obese women were evenly recruited at the end of each trimester of pregnancy. They completed the PPAQ twice, with an interval of 7 days in-between, to recall PA of the last three months. Between PPAQ assessments, participants wore an accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M during 7 consecutive days. Fourty-nine (49 pregnant obese women (29.8±4.2 yrs, 34.7±5.1 kg x m(-2 participated to the study. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs between the two PPAQ assessments were 0.90 for total activity, 0.86 for light and for moderate intensity, and 0.81 for vigorous intensity activities. It ranged from 0.59 for "Transportation" to 0.89 for "Household and Caregiving" activities. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCCs between the PPAQ and the Matthews' cut point used to classify an activity of moderate and above intensity were 0.50 for total activity, 0.25 for vigorous intensity and 0.40 for moderate intensity. The correlations between the PPAQ and the accelerometer counts were 0.58 for total activity, 0.39 for vigorous intensity and 0.49 for moderate intensity. The highest SCCs were for "Occupation" and "Household and Caregiving" activities. Comparisons with other standard cutpoints were presented in files S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7. The PPAQ is reliable and moderately accurate for the measure of PA of various intensities and types among pregnant obese women.

  8. Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-03-05

    In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%) and β-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC₅₀) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations.

  9. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring phenolic and related compounds: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Fang, Shih-Hua; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2007-09-01

    The antioxidant (DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities), and cytotoxic (in tumor, Jurkat, PC-3, Colon 205, HepG2, and normal PBMCs cells) activities of 16 plant phenolic or related compounds were evaluated in vitro. Different categories compounds corresponding to 10 flavonoids, three lignans, two phenolic acids, and a catechin showed significant mean differences in antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Particularly, the flavonols, quercetin (3) and tiliroside (11) possess significant antioxidant activity, as well as cytotoxic activity against Jurkat; and Jurkat and HepG2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the flavanone, 5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavanone (7), and homoisoflavonoid, isobonducellin (10) shown to have no significant antioxidant activity, but exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in Jurkat and HepG2 cells, while moderate growth inhibition against Colon205 cells. Interestingly, none of these derivatives shown to have toxicity toward normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, over the concentration range tested (5-200 microM). Cytotoxic activities of some natural flavonoids identified in the medicinal plants were evaluated for the first time.

  10. Comparative evaluation of adsorption kinetics of diclofenac and isoproturon by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrellas, Silvia A; Rodriguez, Araceli R; Escudero, Gabriel O; Martín, José María G; Rodriguez, Juan G

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption mechanism of diclofenac and isoproturon onto activated carbon has been proposed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption capacity and optimum adsorption isotherms were predicted by nonlinear regression method. Different kinetic equations, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion model and Bangham kinetic model, were applied to study the adsorption kinetics of emerging contaminants on activated carbon in two aqueous matrices.

  11. A comparative study of the anti-listerial activity of smear bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Mortensen, Christina; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Cell-free supernatants from Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus warneri and Brevibacterium linens were found to possess anti-listerial activities. Anti-listerial activities were increased during exponential growth phase and reached a maximum during stationary growth phase. S. epidermidis (...... to bacteriocin production. The bacteriocins were found to be relatively heat stable and had a molecular mass higher than 30 kDa....

  12. Seizure precipitants in Dravet syndrome : What events and activities are specifically provocative compared with other epilepsies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Nienke E.; Wassenaar, Merel; van Campen, Jolien S.; Sonsma, Anja; Gunning, Boudewijn; Knoers, Nine; Lindhout, Dick; Jansen, Floor E.; Leijten, Frans; Brilstra, Eva H.; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to describe seizure precipitants in Dravet syndrome (DS) compared with other epilepsies. Methods: Seizure precipitants as reported in a Dutch cohort of patients with DS with pathogenic SCN1A mutations (n. =. 71) were compared with those of a cohort with childhood epileps

  13. Comparative evaluation of In-Vitro Antihelminthic activity of Bauhinia tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattewar Aditya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional systems of medicine have always been considered as priceless tank of new bio-active molecules with immense medicinal and pharmacological importance. Most of the traditional systems are based on use of plant as medicine, but now day’s use of different medicinal plant is neglected because of lack of scientific data and proofs committing their medicinal importance. Through this study we have proved the anthelmintic activity of one Indian medicinal plant Bauhinia tomentosa family Caesalpiniaceae. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by using common method of Ajaiyeoba with some minor modification against two worms Pheritema postuma, family Megascolecidae and Ascaris lumbricoides, family Ascarididae. Our in vitro study concludes that plant Bauhinia tomentosa possesses good anthelmintic activity, so it is recommended to consider Bauhinia tomentosa and other such plant of traditional systems seriously and must be tested for in-vivo activity so as to prove and promote their beneficial use in small ruminants.

  14. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Diane E. [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Program of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Hoover, Benjamin [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Cloud, Loretta Grey [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Liu, Shihui [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Molinolo, Alfredo A. [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Leppla, Stephen H. [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bugge, Thomas H., E-mail: thomas.bugge@nih.go [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti

  15. Comparative study on antioxidant activity of different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Sushama A; Rajalakshmi, V; Jamdar, Sahayog N; Sharma, Arun

    2011-09-01

    Legumes are rich source of proteins, dietary fiber, micronutrients and bioactive phytochemicals. Thirty different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India, were screened for phenolic content and antioxidant activity using, radical scavenging [(1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, (ABTS·⁺], Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and metal ion (Fe²⁺) chelation assays. Legumes varied largely in their antioxidant activity. Horse gram, common beans, cowpea (brown and red) and fenugreek showed high DPPH· radical scavenging activity (>400 units/g), while lablab bean (cream and white), chickpea (cream and green), butter bean and pea (white and green) showed low antioxidant activity (legumes having dark color seed coat did not always possessed high antioxidant activity (e.g. moth bean, black pea, black gram, lentils). Antioxidant activity showed positive correlation (r²>0.95) with phenolic contents, in DPPH·, ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays, whereas poor correlation (r²=0.297) was observed between Fe²⁺ chelating activity of the legumes and phenolic contents.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Click Chemistry Mediated Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Cell Lysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that covalently attach to active enzyme targets. Probes with conventional tags have disadvantages, such as limited cell permeability or steric hindrance around the reactive group. A tandem labeling strategy with click chemistry is now widely used to study enzyme targets in situ and in vivo. Herein, the probes are reacted in live cells, whereas the ensuing detection by click chemistry takes place in cell lysates. We here make a comparison of the efficiency of the activity-based tandem labeling strategy by using Cu(I-catalyzed and strain-promoted click chemistry, different ligands and different lysis conditions.

  17. Superior long-term activity for a Pt-Re alloy compared to Pt in methanol oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Audrey S.; Xie, Kangmin; Monnier, John R.; Chen, Donna A.

    2017-03-01

    Pt-Re bimetallic catalysts have shown enhanced activity compared to pure Pt for reactions involving oxidation, but the origins of this improved activity are not fully understood. Methanol oxidation on a Pt-Re alloy surface and pure Pt foil was studied in a microreactor coupled to an ultrahigh vacuum chamber. For reaction at 60 °C, the Pt-Re alloy surface exhibits superior long-term activity over a 24 h reaction period compared to pure Pt. The initial activity of Pt is 10-15% higher than on Pt-Re; however, the Pt surface gradually loses activity after 10 h online, whereas the activity of Pt-Re does not diminish. Post-reaction XPS shows that more carbon accumulates on the Pt than on Pt-Re, and the improved long-term activity is attributed to a greater ability of Pt-Re to oxidize the carbonaceous intermediates that eventually poison active sites. Both Pt and Pt-Re surfaces have almost no activity for methanol oxidation until a minimum coverage of oxygen is achieved from O2 dissociation. A comparison with methanol oxidation studies on Pt and Pt-Re in a pressure regime that is 150 times lower than in this work demonstrates that more carbon and less oxygen accumulate on the surfaces during reaction at the lower pressures.

  18. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  19. Does serotonin influence aggression? Comparing regional activity before and during social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Summers, C.H.; Korzan, W.J.; Lukkes, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin is widely believed to exert inhibitory control over aggressive behavior and intent. In addition, a number of studies of fish, reptiles, and mammals, including the lizard Anolis carolinensis, have demonstrated that serotonergic activity is stimulated by aggressive social interaction...

  20. Conceptualizing and comparing neighborhood and activity space measures for food environment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Thomas W; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-11-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers׳ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants׳ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies.

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF MURRAYA BY USING MOLECULAR MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Amit Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii is used as a stimulant, stomachic, febrifuge, analgesic and for treatment of diahrea, dysentery and insect bite. In present study, the antimicrobial activity of different part of Murraya kenigii(leaf, root and barkwas investigated by well diffusion method. As per result, plant extract showed a broad spectrum of very significant antibacterial activity of producing a clear zone of inhibition against, E. coli, Serratia, Klebsiella, Aspergillus niger, Fuesarrium, Penicilium, In this study Murraya is tested for antibacterial and antifungal activity by using Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi. In the present investigation, all the extract (methanol, ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether were found to be effective against tested pathogenic strains except aqueous extract. Methanol extract showed more pronounced antimicrobial activity than other extracts.

  2. Comparative ontogenetic changes in enzyme activity during embryonic development of calyptraeid gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Rachel; Starr, Matthew J

    2013-09-01

    A modification of a semi-quantitative color-based enzyme assay was used to quantify the activity of 19 enzymes (5 peptidases, 3 lipases, 3 phosphotases, and 8 carbohydrases) during five stages of development in eight species of calyptraeid gastropods. Sixteen of the 19 enzymes showed a significant effect of mode of development on the concentration of the reaction product after incubation of homogenates standardized for protein content. The overall pattern was that planktotrophs showed the highest activities, followed by adelphophages, and nonfeeding embryos, which had the lowest enzyme activities. Thirteen enzymes showed significant differences across developmental stages. Of these, eight showed a clear increase during development. Only one of the enzymes showed a sudden jump in activity between the unfed, pre-hatching stage and post-hatching stages that were fed Isochrysis galbana. In three cases, ANOVA identified two exclusive, significantly different groups of species. In naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, the measured absorbance of Crucibulum spinosum samples was significantly higher than in all of the other species. The activity of α-fucosidase in Crepipatella occulta was significantly greater than in the other seven species. Finally, the activity of β-galactosidase was significantly higher in C. occulta, Crucibulum spinosum, and Bostrycapulus calyptraeformis than in the four Crepidula species. This is the only enzyme for which there is an indication of a phylogenetic effect. Relative enzyme activities were similar to those reported for other herbivorous gastropods, with the three phosphohydrolases, four carbohydrases (β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, and α-fucosidase), and leucine arylamidase showing high activities.

  3. Comparative antitumor and anti-proliferative activities ofHippophae rhamnoidesL. leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javid Ali; Bashir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antitumor and anti-proliferative activities of methanol, aqueous, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, chloroform andn-hexane extracts ofHippophae rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Antitumor activities were evaluated by using the antitumor potato disc assay by using inoculums (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) with three different concentrations of test samples (10, 100 and 1 000 mg/L). Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by the given method of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The concentrations of the extract ranging from 0.039 to 10 mg/mL were tested against HeLa cells. Results: Highest tumors inhibition activity (60.9% and 55.8%) was shown by methanol and ethanol extracts, with EC50 values of 424.41 and 434.61 mg/L respectively. At 10 mg/mL, The highest cell inhibition 75.61% was observed in methanol extract and the lowest 36.59% were calculated inn-hexane extract. The difference in tumor and cell inhibition (%) may be due to the different concentration of active compounds responsible for antitumor and anti-proliferative activities. All extracts have considerable level of tumor and cell inhibitiory effect in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions:Our finding showed thatHippophae rhamnoidesleaves are a potent natural source of antitumor and antiproliferative agent.

  4. Comparative characterization of protease activity in cultured spotted rose snapper juveniles (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emyr Peña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial characterizations of digestive proteases were studied in three life stages of spotted rose snapper: early (EJ, middle (MJ and late juvenile (LJ with corresponding average weights of 21.3 ± 2.6 g (3 months after hatching, MAH, 190 ± 4.4 g (7 MAH, and 400 ± 11.5 g (12 MAH. At sampling points, the digestive tract was dissected into the stomach (St, pyloric caeca (PC, and the intestine in three sections (proximal (PI, middle (MI and distal intestine (DI. The effect of pH and temperature and specific inhibitors were evaluated for acid and alkaline proteases. Total acid and alkaline protease activity showed a tendency to increase with juvenile life stage of fish while trypsin activity decreased. Differences were found in acid and alkaline protease activities at different pH and temperatures during juvenile stages. Pepstatin A inhibited total activity in the stomach extract in all juvenile stages. Activity in total alkaline protease inhibition was significantly higher in EJ using TLCK, PMSF, SBTI, Phen and Ovo than in MJ and LJ, while no significant differences were found with TPCK inhibition. Therefore increases in protease activities with fish growth through juvenile stages in which a substitution or diversification in the type of alkaline enzymes exist. These results lead a better comprehension of changes in digestive potential of Lutjanidae fish.

  5. The power of the bubble: comparing ultrasonic and laser activated irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Roeland J. G.; Meire, Maarten A.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2014-01-01

    The major problem of irrigation is the fluid motion within the confined geometry of the root canal : efficient dispersion of the liquid is difficult, conventional irrigation is limited due to the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume, vapour lock may limit apical cleaning and disinfection, there is also a stagnation plane beyond the needle tip. The best way to improve irrigant penetration and biofilm removal is achieved by means of the agitation of the fluid. Today ultrasonic activation appears to be the best way to activate and potentiate irrigants among the present-day used means and marketed systems. Another way to activate irrigation solutions is the use of lasers: laser activated irrigation or photon-initiated acoustic streaming have been investigated. Based on present-day research it appears that the efficacy of laser activation (especially with Erbium lasers) can be more efficient thanks to the induction of specific cavitation phenomena and acoustic streaming. Other wavelengths are now explored to be used for laser activated irrigation.

  6. The comparative study of a laccase-natural clinoptilolite-based catalyst activity and free laccase activity on model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Enrica; Polcaro, Chiara M; Ciccioli, Piero; Galli, Emanuela

    2015-05-30

    For the first time a laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on a natural clinoptilolite with Si/Al=5 to obtain a biocatalyst for environmental applications. Immobilization procedures exploiting adsorption and covalent binding were both tested, and only the last provided enough activity for practical applications. The optimal conditions for the immobilization of the enzyme on the support and the kinetic parameters for the free and covalent bonded laccase were determined. The laccase bonded to the zeolitic support showed a lower activity than the free laccase, but the pH and thermal stability were greater. 20 mg of dry biocatalyst containing 1 U of laccase were able to remove in 50h 73-78% of 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol in relatively concentrated aqueous solutions (100 μmol L(-1)).

  7. Pozzolanic activity of clinoptilolite: A comparative study with silica fume, fly ash and a non-zeolitic natural pozzolan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Uzal; L. Turanli; H. Yucel; M.C. Goncuoglu; A. Culfaz [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2010-03-15

    Pozzolanic activity of clinoptilolite, the most common natural zeolite mineral, was studied in comparison to silica fume, fly ash and a non-zeolitic natural pozzolan. Chemical, mineralogical and physical characterizations of the materials were considered in comparative evaluations. Pozzolanic activity of the natural zeolite was evaluated with various test methods including electrical conductivity of lime-pozzolan suspensions; and free lime content, compressive strength and pore size distribution of hardened lime-pozzolan pastes. The results showed that the clinoptilolite possessed a high lime-pozzolan reactivity that was comparable to silica fume and was higher than fly ash and a non-zeolitic natural pozzolan. The high reactivity of the clinoptilolite is attributable to its specific surface area and reactive SiO{sub 2} content. Relatively poor strength contribution of clinoptilolite in spite of high pozzolanic activity can be attributable to larger pore size distribution of the hardened zeolite-lime product compared to the lime-fly ash system.

  8. Comparative catalytic activity of PET track-etched membranes with embedded silver and gold nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashentseva, Anastassiya; Borgekov, Daryn; Kislitsin, Sergey; Zdorovets, Maxim; Migunova, Anastassiya

    2015-12-01

    Irradiated by heavy ions nanoporous polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) after +15Kr84 ions bombardment (1.75 MeV/nucl with the ion fluency of 1 × 109 cm-2) and sequential etching was applied in this research as a template for development of composites with catalytically enriched properties. A highly ordered silver and gold nanotubes arrays were embedded in 100 nm pores of PET TeMs via electroless deposition technique at 4 °C during 1 h. All "as-prepared" composites were examined for catalytic activity using reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride as a common reaction to test metallic nanostructures catalysts. The effect of temperature on the catalytic activity was investigated in range of 292-313 K and activation energy were calculated. Kapp of Ag/PET composites linearly increase with an increase of the temperature thus normal Arrhenius behavior have been seen and the activation energy was calculated to be 42.13 kJ/mol. Au/PET composites exhibit not only more powerful catalytic activity but also non-linear dependence of rate constant from temperature. Kapp increased with increasing temperature throughout the 292-308 K temperature range; the reaction had an activation energy 65.32 kJ/mol. In range 311-313 K rate constant dramatically decreased and the apparent activation energy at this temperature rang was -91.44 kJ/mol due some structural changes, i.e. agglomeration of Au nanoparticles on the surface of composite.

  9. Comparative catalytic activity of PET track-etched membranes with embedded silver and gold nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashentseva, Anastassiya, E-mail: mashentseva.a@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibragimov St. 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpayev Str., 2, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan); Borgekov, Daryn [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibragimov St. 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpayev Str., 2, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan); Kislitsin, Sergey [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibragimov St. 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Zdorovets, Maxim [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibragimov St. 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpayev Str., 2, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan); Migunova, Anastassiya [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibragimov St. 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2015-12-15

    Irradiated by heavy ions nanoporous polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) after {sup +15}Kr{sup 84} ions bombardment (1.75 MeV/nucl with the ion fluency of 1 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}) and sequential etching was applied in this research as a template for development of composites with catalytically enriched properties. A highly ordered silver and gold nanotubes arrays were embedded in 100 nm pores of PET TeMs via electroless deposition technique at 4 °C during 1 h. All “as-prepared” composites were examined for catalytic activity using reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride as a common reaction to test metallic nanostructures catalysts. The effect of temperature on the catalytic activity was investigated in range of 292–313 K and activation energy were calculated. K{sub app} of Ag/PET composites linearly increase with an increase of the temperature thus normal Arrhenius behavior have been seen and the activation energy was calculated to be 42.13 kJ/mol. Au/PET composites exhibit not only more powerful catalytic activity but also non-linear dependence of rate constant from temperature. K{sub app} increased with increasing temperature throughout the 292–308 K temperature range; the reaction had an activation energy 65.32 kJ/mol. In range 311–313 K rate constant dramatically decreased and the apparent activation energy at this temperature rang was −91.44 kJ/mol due some structural changes, i.e. agglomeration of Au nanoparticles on the surface of composite.

  10. Pedalium murex Linn (Pedaliaceae) fruits:a comparative antioxidant activity of its different fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DK Patel; R Kumar; SK Prasad; S Hemalatha

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of different solvent fractions of Pedalium murex (P. murex) Linn fruits (Family: Pedaliaceae) as well as the correlation between the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. Methods: In the present study, the antioxidant activities of P. murex were evaluated using six in-vitro assays, namely total antioxidant assay, DPPH assay, reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and deoxyribose scavenging assays, and total phenol contents were also investigated.Results:The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction was found to have high levels of phenolic content (298.72±2.09 mg GAE/g). The EA fraction exhibit higher total antioxidant capacity, higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity (135.11±2.95μg/mL), nitric oxide (200.57±4.51μg/mL), hydrogen peroxide (217.91±6.12 μg/mL), deoxyribose (250.01±4.68μg/mL) and higher reducing power. Correlation coefficient (r 2=0.914) was found to be significant between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity. Conclusions: In general, the results indicate that the EA fractions are rich in phenolic antioxidants with potent free radical scavenging activity implying their importance to human health.

  11. Comparative azo reductase activity of red azo dyes through caecal and hepatic microsomal fraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Das, M; Khanna, S K

    1997-09-01

    In order to study the rate of formation of toxic aromatic amines, anaerobic reduction of four red azo dyes viz. amaranth, carmoisine, fast Red E and ponceau 4R was investigated by incubating caecal content and hepatic microsomal fraction of rats with 37.5 microM concentration of dyes in sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.4 using NADPH generating system, glucose oxidase system and nitrogen as the gaseous phase. Caecal suspension exhibited higher azo reductase activity than that of hepatic microsomal fraction using any of the 4 azo dyes. Caecal microbes showed maximal azo reductase activity when ponceau 4R was used as a substrate followed by fast Red E and carmoisine, while with amaranth the activity was minimum. Similarly ponceau 4 R exhibited maximum hepatic microsomal azo reductase activity followed by fast Red E and carmoisine whereas, amaranth had minimum activity. Caecal flora possessed almost 17 fold higher degradative capability of ponceau 4 R and fast Red E colourants than the hepatic microsomal fraction. The higher reductive ability through caecal flora for ponceau 4R and fast Red E signifies the formation of more aromatic amines which may be re-absorbed through the intestine to be either eliminated through urine as conjugates or retained in the target tissues to elicit toxic effects.

  12. Activation Policies under Conditions of Weak Governance: Czech and Slovak Cases Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sirovátka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the governance framework and implementation conditions influenced the profile and impact of activation policies realized in the Czech and Slovak Republics during 2003–2006. The findings are based on institutional analysis, a series of case studies of local Employment Offices in the Czech Republic and an evaluation study of activation policies carried out in the Slovak Republic.We argue that under conditions of inadequate governance framework, the activation strategy of enforced participation implemented in Slovakia and the Czech Republic did not bring the intended effect in terms of increasing employability nd reducing long-term unemployment. In the Czech Republic, the strategy is being implemented inconsistently, in dependence on local conditions, in a very limited scope, and with ambiguous outcomes. In recent years, activation has been ever more powerfully shaped by the bottom-up policy—influenced to a greater extent by the principles of inclusive participation. In Slovakia, the strategy was implemented more consistently, and registered unemployment decreased significantly.However, this was mainly due to the threat effect of the massively implemented activation measures. Labor force survey data indicate feeble subsequent placements of the ‘activated’ in the open labor market.

  13. Comparative effects of indole and aminoacetonitrile derivatives on dimethylnitrosamine-demethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, J C; Myers, S C; Neuburger, B J; Argus, M F

    1980-04-01

    The effect of in vivo administration of indole and five 3-indolyl derivatives including L-tryptophan, as well as of aminoacetonitrile and 3 of its derivatives, were studied on the carcinogen-metabolizing hepatic mixed-function oxidases dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-demethylase I and II and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH). Indole, 3-indolylmethanol, 3-indolyl-acetonitrile, 3-indolylacetone and L-tryptophan induce AHH activity from 3- to 6-fold of the control level, whereas beta-3-indolylethanol has no effect; the latter compound produces a 21% decrease of the endoplasmic reticulum content in the tissue. Only L-tryptophan induces DMN-demethylase I and only L-tryptophan and 3-indolylmethanol induce DMN-demethylase II, representing a doubling of enzyme activity in all 3 instances. Aminoacetonitrile is a potent repressor of DMN-demethylase I. Substitutions on the amino group bring about strong decrease or abolishment of mixed-function oxidase repressor activity; thus, iminodiacetonitrile has only about 1/5th the repressor activity of the parent compound, whereas nitrilotriacetonitrile and dimethylaminoacetonitrile appear to be inactive. Aminoacetonitrile and its derivatives studied have no effect on DMN-demethylase II and AHH activities. The mixed-function oxidase-modifying effects of the indole compounds and of aminoacetonitrile and its derivatives illustrate the potential complexity of effects of dietary constituents on the carcinogenic responses.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY BETWEEN ACETONE AND ETHANOLIC STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF SPONDIAS PINNATA (LINN.F KURZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda B.K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spondias Pinnata (Linn.F Kurz is found in tribal area of Mayurbhanj district and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people as Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Regulate menstruation, Anti-pyretic, Anti-tumor and Anti-bacterial activity1-6. The present study is attempted to explore the anthelmintic activity of acetone and ethanol extract of bark of plant Spondias Pinnata in a comparative study. The various doses of acetone and ethanol extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima postuma. All extracts of both the solvents were able to show anthelmintic activity at (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml concentration. The activities are well comparable with standard drugs, Piperazine citrate and Albendazole (10 mg/ml.All the doses of acetone and ethanol extract of Spondias Pinnata showed better anthelmintic activities than the standard drugs. When the dose of extract is increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity was observed. Ethanol extract showed better anthelmintic activity in comparison to the acetone extract of Spondias Pinnata. The data was verified as statistically significance by using ANOVA at 5% level of significance (P< 0.05.

  15. Comparing physical activity programs for managing osteoarthritis in overweight or obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Samannaaz S; Susko, Allyn M; Josbeno, Deborah A; Piva, Sara R; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a well-known modifiable risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) in weight-bearing joints, and is present in approximately 35% of individuals with OA. Obesity adds significant burden to individuals with OA and is associated with poorer functional status and greater disability. In addition to tackling OA-related impairments, such as pain and functional limitations, interventions in this population need to address bodyweight reduction, as well as promotion of active lifestyle behaviors. While exercise and regular physical activity participation are both recommended and beneficial for OA and obese populations, our current understanding of optimal strategies to improve function and health status in those who have both OA and obesity is limited. This review will summarize the current available evidence related to effectiveness of various physical activity interventions to reduce pain, improve function and overall health-related quality of life in overweight or obese individuals with OA.

  16. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial and proteolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Zlatar cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topisirović Ljubiša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional artisan Zlatar cheese belongs to the group of white, semi hard home-made cheeses, which are produced from no pasteurized cow's milk, without addition of any known bacterial starter culture. In total, 253 Gram-positive and catalase negative lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated. Results showed that 70 out of 253 analyzed isolates produced antimicrobial compounds known as bacteriocins. Most isolates from genera Lactococcus and Enterococcus, and isolates belonging to species Lactobacillus plantarum and Lb. brevis, do not synthesize extracellular proteinase. In contrast, isolates from subspecies Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei showed very good proteolytic activity. It was observed that good proteolytic activity of isolates was not in correlation with their good antimicrobial activity in the most of isolates.

  17. A comparative study of carbon dioxide adsorption on multi-walled carbon nanotubes versus activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, S.; Ghoreyshi, A. A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Davoodi, M.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the quilibrium adsorption of CO2 on activated charcoal and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were experimentally investigated at temperature range of 298-318 K and pressures up to 40 bars. The maximum storage capacity for both materials was obtained at lowest temperature and highest pressure under study. The amount of CO2 adsorbed on MWCNT is 2 times higher than that of activated Charcoal whereas the specific surface area of activated carbon is aboute 2 times higher than MWNT. The experimental data of CO2 adsorption have been analyzed using different model isotherms such as the Freundlich and Langmuir. Heat of adsorption evaluated from a set of isotherms based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation indicated physical nature of adsorption mechanism.

  18. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL AND SEWAGE SLUDGE BASED ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR THE REMOVAL OF TEXTILE DYES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sreedhar Reddy, B. Kotaiah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on to sludge-based activated carbon have been studied and compared with commercial activated carbon. Adsorption parameters for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined and the effects of effluent pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration were studied. A pseudo-second order kinetic model has been proposed to correlate the experimental data.

  19. Comparative effectiveness of manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument in treatment of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Peter; Gemmell Hugh

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Neck pain is a common problem and different forms of manual therapy are used in its treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the literature that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument for non-specific neck pain. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MANTIS and CINAHL) were searched from their inception to October 2005 for all English language randomised clinical trials that directly compared manipulatio...

  20. Comparative effectiveness of manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument in treatment of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gemmell, Hugh; Miller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a common problem and different forms of manual therapy are used in its treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the literature that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument for non-specific neck pain. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MANTIS and CINAHL) were searched from their inception to October 2005 for all English language randomised clinical trials that directly compared manipulation, mobili...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Immune Cells Activation and Cytotoxicity upon Exposure Pathogen and Glycoconjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb, Entsar; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) including macrophages are key players in the immune responses against pathogens. Any infection could be attenuated if PMNC would be activated and capable to kill pathogen on exposure. It was shown that glycoconjugates (GCs) play an important role in adhesion to, activation, and recognition of pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is a regulatory molecule released by immune cells against pathogens that include bacteria, protozoa, helminthes, and fungi. NO is a highly reactive and diffusible molecule that controls replication or intracellular killing of pathogens during infection and immune responses against infections caused by pathogens. Avirulent Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores were used as a model in our study. The purpose of this study was two-fold: A) to analyze PMNC activation through NO production and B) to determine the cytotoxicity effect based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) upon exposure to pathogen exerted by GCs. The latter were used "prior to," "during," and "following" PMNC exposure to pathogen in order to modulate immune responses to spores during phagocytosis. Post-phagocytosis study involved the assessment of NO and LDH release by macrophages upon exposure to spores. Results have shown that untreated PMNC released low levels of NO. However, in the presence of GCs, PMNC were activated and produced high levels of NO under all experimental conditions. In addition, the results showed that GC1, GC3 are capable of increasing PMNC activity as evidenced by higher NO levels under the "prior," "during" and "following" to pathogen exposure conditions. On the other hand, GCs were capable of controlling cytotoxicity and decreased LDH levels during phagocytosis of spores. Our findings suggest that GCs stimulate NO production by activating PMNC and decrease cytotoxicity caused by pathogens on PMNC.

  2. Adsorption of aromatic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: a comparative study on granular activated carbon, activated carbon fiber, and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Shao, Ting; Kose, H Selcen; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-08-15

    Adsorption of three aromatic organic compounds (AOCs) by four types of carbonaceous adsorbents [a granular activated carbon (HD4000), an activated carbon fiber (ACF10), two single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT, SWNT-HT), and a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)] with different structural characteristics but similar surface polarities was examined in aqueous solutions. Isotherm results demonstrated the importance of molecular sieving and micropore effects in the adsorption of AOCs by carbonaceous porous adsorbents. In the absence of the molecular sieving effect, a linear relationship was found between the adsorption capacities of AOCs and the surface areas of adsorbents, independent of the type of adsorbent. On the other hand, the pore volume occupancies of the adsorbents followed the order of ACF10 > HD4000 > SWNT > MWNT, indicating that the availability of adsorption site was related to the pore size distributions of the adsorbents. ACF10 and HD4000 with higher microporous volumes exhibited higher adsorption affinities to low molecular weight AOCs than SWNT and MWNT with higher mesopore and macropore volumes. Due to their larger pore sizes, SWNTs and MWNTs are expected to be more efficient in adsorption of large size molecules. Removal of surface oxygen-containing functional groups from the SWNT enhanced adsorption of AOCs.

  3. Conscientiousness, extroversion, and action control: Comparing moderate and vigorous physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; de Groot, R.; van den Putte, B.; Rhodes, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who comp

  4. Molecular mechanisms in the selective basal activation of pyrabactin receptor 1: Comparative analysis of mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosh, Lyudmyla; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Loewen, Michele C; Stepanova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Pyrabactin receptors (PYR) play a central role in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction; they are ABA receptors that inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C). Molecular aspects contributing to increased basal activity of PYR against PP2C are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An extensive series of MD simulations of the apo-form of mutagenized PYR1 as a homodimer and in complex with homology to ABA-insensitive 1 (HAB1) phosphatase are reported. In order to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms mediating PYR1 activity, the MD data was analyzed by essential collective dynamics (ECD), a novel approach that allows the identification, with atomic resolution, of persistent dynamic correlations based on relatively short MD trajectories. Employing the ECD method, the effects of select mutations on the structure and dynamics of the PYR1 complexes were investigated and considered in the context of experimentally determined constitutive activities against HAB1. Approaches to rationally design constitutively active PYR1 constructs to increase PP2C inhibition are discussed.

  5. Molecular mechanisms in the selective basal activation of pyrabactin receptor 1: Comparative analysis of mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla Dorosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrabactin receptors (PYR play a central role in abscisic acid (ABA signal transduction; they are ABA receptors that inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C. Molecular aspects contributing to increased basal activity of PYR against PP2C are studied by molecular dynamics (MD simulations. An extensive series of MD simulations of the apo-form of mutagenized PYR1 as a homodimer and in complex with homology to ABA-insensitive 1 (HAB1 phosphatase are reported. In order to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms mediating PYR1 activity, the MD data was analyzed by essential collective dynamics (ECD, a novel approach that allows the identification, with atomic resolution, of persistent dynamic correlations based on relatively short MD trajectories. Employing the ECD method, the effects of select mutations on the structure and dynamics of the PYR1 complexes were investigated and considered in the context of experimentally determined constitutive activities against HAB1. Approaches to rationally design constitutively active PYR1 constructs to increase PP2C inhibition are discussed.

  6. Evaluating the Safety Profile of Non-Active Implantable Medical Devices Compared with Medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pane, J. (Josep); P.M. Coloma (Preciosa); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); Rebollo, I. (Irene)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractRecent safety issues involving non-active implantable medical devices (NAIMDs) have highlighted the need for better pre-market and post-market evaluation. Some stakeholders have argued that certain features of medicine safety evaluation should also be applied to medical devices. Our obje

  7. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  8. Comparative study of phenol and cyanide containing wastewater in CSTR and SBR activated sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, C A; Samaras, P; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this work were the examination of the performance of two bench scale activated sludge systems, a conventional Continuous Stirring Tank Reactor (CSTR) and a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR), for the treatment of wastewaters containing phenol and cyanides and the assessment of the toxicity reduction potential by bioassays. The operation of the reactors was monitored by physicochemical analyses, while detoxification potential of the systems was monitored by two bioassays, the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The reactors influent was highly toxic to both organisms, while activated sludge treatment resulted in the reduction of toxicity of the influent. An increased toxicity removal was observed in the SBR; however CSTR system presented a lower ability for toxicity reduction of influent. The performance of both systems was enhanced by the addition of powdered activated carbon in the aeration tank; activated carbon upgraded the performance of the systems due to the simultaneous biological removal of pollutants and to carbon adsorption process; almost negligible values of phenol and cyanides were measured in the effluents, while further toxicity reduction was observed in both systems.

  9. Comparative estrogenic activity of wine extracts and organochlorine pesticide residues in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaido, K.; Dohme, L.; Wang, F.; Chen, I.; Blankvoort, B.; Ramamoorthy, K.; Safe, S.

    1998-01-01

    The human diet contains industrial-derived, endocrine-active chemicals and higher levels of naturally occurring compounds that modulate multiple endocrine pathways. Hazard and risk assessment of these mixtures is complicated by noadditive interactions between different endocrine-mediated responses.

  10. Comparative phytohormone profiles, lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities in barley aleurone, coleoptile, and root tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringer, Maria V; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities and determined endogenous phytohormone levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in root and coleoptile tissues following germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds. The enzymes showing highest activity in aleurone cells were diacylglycerol kinase (DAG-k, EC 2.7.1.107) and phosphatidate kinase (PA-k). The ratio of gibberellins (GAs) to abscisic acid (ABA) was 2-fold higher in aleurone than in coleoptile or root tissues. In coleoptiles, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4-k, EC 2.7.1.67) showed the highest enzyme activity, and jasmonic acid (JA) level was higher than in aleurone. In roots, activities of PI4-k, DAG-k, and PA-k were similar, and salicylic acid (SA) showed the highest concentration. In the assays to evaluate the hydrolysis of DGPP (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate) and PA (phosphatidic acid) we observed that PA hydrolysis by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) was not modified; however, the diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase (DGPPase) was strikingly higher in coleoptile and root tissues than to aleurone. Relevance of these findings in terms of signaling responses and seedling growth is discussed.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Edible and Ornamental Pomegranate Ethanolic Extracts against Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa A. Yones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of praziquantel (PZQ schistosomes resistant strains, the discovery of new antischistosomal agents is of high priority in research. This work reported the in vitro and in vivo effects of the edible and ornamental pomegranate extracts against Schistosoma mansoni. Leaves and stem bark ethanolic extracts of both dried pomegranates were prepared at 100, 300, and 500 μg/mL for in vitro and 600 and 800 mg/kg for in vivo. Adult worms Schistosoma mansoni in RPMI-1640 medium for in vitro and S. mansoni infected mice for in vivo tests were obtained from Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. In vitro activity was manifested by significant coupled worms separation, reduction of motor activity, lethality, and ultrastructural tegumental alterations in adult worms. In vivo activity was manifested revealed by significant reduction of hepatic granulomas number and diameter, decreased number of bilharzial eggs in liver tissues, lowered liver inflammatory infiltration, decreased hepatic fibrosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. Ethanolic stem bark extract of edible pomegranate exhibited highest antischistosomal activities both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, pomegranate showed a good potential to be used as a promising new candidate for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  12. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  13. Comparing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras-Rosell, Antoni; Johannsen, Sabrina Rostgaard; Dirscherl, Kai

    2016-01-01

    . The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales are investigated by comparing photocatalytic degradation of acetone and electrochemical experiments to Kelvin probe force microscopy. The good agreement between the macro- and microscopic experiments suggests that Kelvin probe force microscopy...

  14. Cross-border merger & acquisition activity and revealed comparative advantage in manufacturing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    We estimate an important implication of oligopolistic international trade modeling for the predicted pattern of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Our core argument is that cross-border M&As are, among other factors, driven by cross-country differences in comparative advantage. We find st

  15. Contextualizing Performances: Comparing Performances during TOEFL iBT™ and Real-Life Academic Speaking Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking tasks…

  16. A clinical trial comparing primary coronary angioplasty with tissue plasminogen activator for acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Simoons (Maarten); S.G. Ellis (Stephen)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Among physicians who treat patients with acute myocardial infarction, there is controversy about the magnitude of the clinical benefit of primary (i.e., immediate) coronary angioplasty as compared with thrombolytic therapy. METHODS: As part of the Global Use of Strategies to

  17. Comparing Demographic, Health Status and Psychosocial Strategies of Audience Segmentation to Promote Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Nicholson, Robert A.; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    The goal of audience segmentation is to identify population subgroups that are homogeneous with respect to certain variables associated with a given outcome or behavior. When such groups are identified and understood, targeted intervention strategies can be developed to address their unique characteristics and needs. This study compares the…

  18. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activities of valinomycin and cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaars, M.H.; Rodrigues, S.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cereulide and valinomycin are highly similar cyclic dodecadepsipeptides with potassium ionophoric properties. Cereulide, produced by members of the Bacillus cereus group, is known mostly as emetic toxin, and no ecological function has been assigned. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activi

  19. A comparative in vitro study on antifungal and antioxidant activities of Nervilia aragoana and Atlantia monophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Himakar; Sharma, P V G K; Reddy, O V S

    2010-05-01

    Ethyl acetate extract of the whole plant of Nervilia aragoana Gaud. (Orchidaceae) and ethanol extract of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla Linn. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for antifungal and antioxidant activities. At 5 mg/mL concentration of the extracts, the former exhibited more inhibitory activity than the latter against fungi. The order of MIC values for Nervilia aragoana were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1.4 mg/mL) > Aspergillus niger (1.2 mg/mL) > Aspergillus fumigatus (0.95 mg/mL) > Cryptococcus neoformans (0.75 mg/mL). In the case of Atlantia monophylla values were Cryptococcus neoformans (1 mg/mL) > Candida albicans (0.95 mg/mL) > Aspergillus niger (0.65 mg/mL). TLC-DPPH method assay was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Further DPPH radical, superoxide, nitric oxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, and reducing power activities were carried out. N. aragoana (85%) extract exhibited more scavenging activity than that of A. monophylla (66%) by DPPH free radical scavenging method. A. monophylla extract exhibited more superoxide, nitric oxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging activities than that of N. aragoana. The acute toxicity studies of both extracts have shown no mortality rate even up to 3 g/kg body weight in albino rats. Screening for secondary metabolites showed the presence of carbohydrates in both extracts. Flavonoids were found only in the ethyl acetate extract of N. aragoana. Tannins, alkaloids, triterpenoids and steroids were present in A. monophylla. Total phenols present in N. aragoana and A. monophylla were 340 and 560 mg/g extract of gallic acid equivalents, respectively.

  20. Latitudinal variations in seasonal activity of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV: a global comparative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Bloom-Feshbach

    Full Text Available There is limited information on influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV seasonal patterns in tropical areas, although there is renewed interest in understanding the seasonal drivers of respiratory viruses.We review geographic variations in seasonality of laboratory-confirmed influenza and RSV epidemics in 137 global locations based on literature review and electronic sources. We assessed peak timing and epidemic duration and explored their association with geography and study settings. We fitted time series model to weekly national data available from the WHO influenza surveillance system (FluNet to further characterize seasonal parameters.Influenza and RSV activity consistently peaked during winter months in temperate locales, while there was greater diversity in the tropics. Several temperate locations experienced semi-annual influenza activity with peaks occurring in winter and summer. Semi-annual activity was relatively common in tropical areas of Southeast Asia for both viruses. Biennial cycles of RSV activity were identified in Northern Europe. Both viruses exhibited weak latitudinal gradients in the timing of epidemics by hemisphere, with peak timing occurring later in the calendar year with increasing latitude (P<0.03. Time series model applied to influenza data from 85 countries confirmed the presence of latitudinal gradients in timing, duration, seasonal amplitude, and between-year variability of epidemics. Overall, 80% of tropical locations experienced distinct RSV seasons lasting 6 months or less, while the percentage was 50% for influenza.Our review combining literature and electronic data sources suggests that a large fraction of tropical locations experience focused seasons of respiratory virus activity in individual years. Information on seasonal patterns remains limited in large undersampled regions, included Africa and Central America. Future studies should attempt to link the observed latitudinal gradients in

  1. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  2. Comparative in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, and other quinolones against clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Lai, Jui-Fen; Chen, Hua-Chien; King, Chi-Hsin R

    2010-03-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, against 770 clinical isolates were investigated. Nemonoxacin (tested as its malate salt, TG-875649) showed better in vitro activity than ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against different species of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae. The in vitro activity of TG-875649 was also comparable to or better than that of moxifloxacin against these pathogens, which included ciprofloxacin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  3. A Comparative Evaluation of Dried Activated Sludge and Mixed Dried Activated Sudge with Rice Husk silica to Remove Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mehdinia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dried activated sludge (DAS and mixed dried activated sludge with rice husk silica (DAS & RHS for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S. Two laboratory-scale filter columns (packed one litter were operated. Both systems were operated under different conditions of two parameters, namely different inlet gas concentrations and different inlet flow rates. The DAS & RHS packed filter showed more than 99.96% removal efficiency (RE with empty bed residence time (EBRT of 45 to 90 s and 300 mg/L inlet concentration of H2S. However, the RE decreased to 96.87% with the EBRT of 30 s. In the same condition, the DAS packed filter showed 99.37% RE. Nonetheless, the RE was shown to have dropped to 82.09% with the EBRT of 30 s. The maximum elimination capacity (EC was obtained in the DAS & RHS packed filter up to 52.32 g/m3h, with the RE of 96.87% and H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. The maximum EC in the DAS packed filter was obtained up to 44.33 g/m3h with the RE of 82.09% and the H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. After 53 days of operating time and 54 g/m3h of loading rates, the maximum pressure drop reached to 3.0 and 8.0 (mm H2O for the DAS & RHS packed and DAS packed filters, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, the DAS & RHS could be considered as a more suitable packing material to remove H2S.

  4. Physical activity assessment in patients with axial spondyloarthritis compared to healthy controls: a technology-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs Willem Swinnen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, assessment in axial Spondyloarthritis (aSpA includes the evaluation of the capacity to execute tasks, conceptualized as physical function. The role of physical activity, defined as movement-related energy expenditure, is largely unknown and almost exclusively studied using patient-reported outcome measures. The aims of this observational cross-sectional study are to compare physical activity between patients with aSpA and healthy controls (HC and to evaluate the contribution of disease activity to physical activity differences between groups. METHODS: Forty patients with aSpA were matched by age, gender, period of data acquisition in terms of days and season to 40 HC. Physical activity was measured during five consecutive days (three weekdays and two weekend days using ambulatory monitoring (SenseWear Armband. Self-reported disease activity was measured by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI. Differences in physical activity between patients with aSpA and HC were examined with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and a mixed linear model. Difference scores between patients and HC were correlated with disease activity. RESULTS: Average weekly physical activity level (Med(IQR; HC:1.54(1.41-1.73; aSpA:1.45(1.31-1.67,MET and energy expenditure (HC:36.40(33.43-41.01; aSpA:34.55(31.08-39.41,MET.hrs/day were significantly lower in patients with aSpA. Analyses across intensity levels revealed no significant differences between groups for inactivity and time spent at light or moderate physical activities. In contrast, weekly averages of vigorous (HC:4.02(1.20-12.60; aSpA:0.00(0.00-1.20,min/d, very vigorous physical activities (HC0.00(0.00-1.08; aSpA:0.00(0.00-0.00,mind/d and moderate/(veryvigorous combined (HC2.41(1.62-3.48; aSpA:1.63(1.20-2.82,hrs/d were significantly lower in patients with aSpA. Disease activity did not interact with differences in physical activity between patients with aSpA and HC

  5. Comparative study of calcium alginate, activated carbon, and their composite beads on methylene blue adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A F; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Fouda, Moustafa M G

    2014-02-15

    Three adsorbents, calcium alginate beads (AB), sodium hydroxide activated carbon based coconut shells (C), and calcium alginate/activated carbon composite beads (ACB) were prepared. Their textural properties were characterized by N2-adsorption at -196°C and scanning electron microscopy. The porosity, surface area and total pore volume of C>ACB>AB, but AB adsorbent was more acidic function groups more than the other adsorbents. Adsorption experiments were conducted to examine the effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, time, temperature and initial concentration of methylene blue. Methylene blue adsorption on C, AB and ACB was observed at pH>6 to avoid the competition of H(+). The amount of dye adsorbed increases as the adsorbent dosage increase. Adsorption of dye follows pseudo-second order mechanism. Thermodynamic studies show spontaneous and endothermic nature of the overall adsorption process.

  6. "Active" and "Passive" Lava Resurfacing Processes on Io: A Comparative Study of Loki Patera and Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Matson, D. L.; Leone, G.; Wilson, L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data and ground based data of volcanism at Prometheus and Loki Patera on Io reveal very different mechanisms of lava emplacement at these two volcanoes. Data analyses show that the periodic nature of Loki Patera s volcanism from 1990 to 2001 is strong evidence that Loki s resurfacing over this period resulted from the foundering of a crust on a lava lake. This process is designated passive , as there is no reliance on sub-surface processes: the foundering of the crust is inevitable. Prometheus, on the other hand, displays an episodicity in its activity which we designate active . Like Kilauea, a close analog, Prometheus s effusive volcanism is dominated by pulses of magma through the nearsurface plumbing system. Each system affords views of lava resurfacing processes through modelling.

  7. Comparative biocidal activity of peracetic acid, benzalkonium chloride and ortho-phthalaldehyde on 77 bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridier, A; Briandet, R; Thomas, V; Dubois-Brissonnet, F

    2011-07-01

    Despite numerous reports on biocide activities, it is often difficult to have a reliable and relevant overview of bacterial resistance to disinfectants because each work challenges a limited number of strains and tested methods are often different. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of three different disinfectants commonly used in industrial or medical environments (peracetic acid, benzalkonium chloride and ortho-phthalaldehyde) against 77 bacterial strains from different origins using one standard test method (NF EN 1040). Results highlight the existence of high interspecific variability of resistance to disinfectants and, contrary to widespread belief, Gram-positive strains generally appeared more resistant than Gram-negative strains. Resistance was also variable among strains of the same species such as Bacillus subtilis to peracetic acid, Pseudomonas aeruginosa to benzalkonium chloride and Staphylococcus aureus to ortho-phthalaldehyde.

  8. Analyses comparing the antimicrobial activity and safety of current antiseptic agents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, John S

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the results and conclusions from four pivotal and two comparative clinical trials. The six randomized, controlled, single-blinded, parallel-group clinical trials were conducted to determine which antiseptic is best for use as a patient preoperative skin preparation. The objective of these studies was to compare the immediate, persistent (residual), and cumulative antimicrobial efficacy and safety of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) combined with 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (ChloraPrep); another combination CHG and IPA antiseptic (CHG+IPA) and 2% aqueous CHG alone; 4% CHG (Hibiclens) alone; 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) alone; and an iodine-containing solution, 10% povidone-iodine (Betadine) alone as preoperative skin topical antiseptics for potential prevention of nosocomial infections.

  9. A study of the comparability of Naval activity motor vehicle costs

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Gregory Scott.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis reports on a study conducted to determine the feasibility of using a sampling technique within the Department of the Navy to compare in- house motor vehicle costs with the costs that would be incurred were the General Services Administration or a civilian fleet management contractor employed to meet the Navy's motor vehicle needs. Such cost comparison studies are required by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation A...

  10. Comparative analysis of the sialic acid binding activity of four different IBV strains

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major pathogen in commercial poultry flocks. Recently we demonstrated, that sialic acid serves as a receptor determinant for IBV on the tracheal epithelium. Here we compared the IBV strains Beaudette, 4/91, Italy02, and QX for their sialic acid binding properties. We demonstrate that sialic acid binding is important for the infection of primary chicken kidney cells and the tracheal epithelium by all four strains. There were only...

  11. Comparative Solid-State Stability of Perindopril Active Substance vs. Pharmaceutical Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Valentina; Andor, Minodora; Ledeti, Adriana; Ledeti, Ionut; Vlase, Gabriela; Vlase, Titus; Cristescu, Carmen; Voicu, Mirela; Suciu, Liana; Tomescu, Mirela Cleopatra

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained after studying the thermal stability and decomposition kinetics of perindopril erbumine as a pure active pharmaceutical ingredient as well as a solid pharmaceutical formulation containing the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Since no data were found in the literature regarding the spectroscopic description, thermal behavior, or decomposition kinetics of perindopril, our goal was the evaluation of the compatibility of this antihypertensive agent with the excipients in the tablet under ambient conditions and to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of perindopril erbumine. ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy, thermal analysis (thermogravimetric mass curve (TG—thermogravimetry), derivative thermogravimetric mass curve (DTG), and heat flow (HF)) and model-free kinetics were chosen as investigational tools. Since thermal behavior is a simplistic approach in evaluating the thermal stability of pharmaceuticals, in-depth kinetic studies were carried out by classical kinetic methods (Kissinger and ASTM E698) and later with the isoconversional methods of Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa. It was shown that the main thermal degradation step of perindopril erbumine is characterized by activation energy between 59 and 69 kJ/mol (depending on the method used), while for the tablet, the values were around 170 kJ/mol. The used excipients (anhydrous colloidal silica, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and magnesium stearate) should be used in newly-developed generic solid pharmaceutical formulations, since they contribute to an increased thermal stability of perindopril erbumine. PMID:28098840

  12. Antimicrobial and antitumor activities of chitosan from shiitake stipes, compared to commercial chitosan from crab shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Yen, Ming-Tsung; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-03-15

    Chitosan was prepared by alkaline N-deacetylation of chitin obtained from shiitake stipes and crab shells and its antimicrobial and antitumor activities were studied. Chitosan from shiitake stipes and crab shells exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities against eight species of Gram positive and negative pathogenic bacteria with inhibition zones of 11.4-26.8mm at 0.5mg/ml. Among chitosan samples, shiitake chitosan C120 was the most effective with inhibition zones of 16.4-26.8mm at 0.5mg/ml. In addition, shiitake and crab chitosan showed a moderate anti-proliferative effect on IMR 32 and Hep G2 cells. At 5mg/ml, the viability of IMR 32 cells incubated with chitosan was 68.8-85.0% whereas that of Hep G2 cells with chitosan was 60.4-82.9%. Overall, shiitake chitosan showed slightly better antimicrobial and antitumor activities than crab chitosan. Based on the results obtained, shiitake and crab chitosan were strong antimicrobial agents and moderate antitumor agents.

  13. A comparative DFT study on the antioxidant activity of apigenin and scutellarein flavonoid compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, K.; Kumaresan, R.

    2011-03-01

    The potent antioxidant activity of flavonoids relevant to their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species is the most important function of flavonoids. Density functional theory calculations were explored to investigate the antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds such as apigenin and scutellarein. The biological characteristics are dependent on electronic parameters, describing the charge distribution on the rings of the flavonoid molecules. The computation of structural and various molecular descriptors such as polarizability, dipole moment, energy gap, homolytic O-H bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs), ionization potential (IP), electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity, electrophilic index and density plot of molecular orbital for neutral as well as radical species were carried out and studied. The B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) basis set was adopted for all the computations. This computation reveals that scutellarein exhibits higher degree of antioxidant activity than apigenin. Their dipole moment and polarizability analysis show that both the compounds are polar in nature and have the capacity to polarize other atoms.

  14. Intraphagocytic bactericidal activity of ofloxacin compared with that of aztreonam and ceftriaxone against Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W H; Spohr, M; Bauer, D

    1986-02-01

    Addition of phenylbutazone (2 mg/ml) to 55 vol % of fresh defibrinated human blood permitted leukocytic ingestion of serum-resistant Serratia marcescens bacteria, but blocked phagocytic killing activity. The group A (phage tail) bacteriocin bA+ 16 served to kill extraphagocytic test bacteria. At greater than or equal to 2 X MBC, the DNA gyrase inhibitor ofloxacin revealed potent intraphagocytic bactericidal activity against S. marcescens test bacteria (99% kill; 3 h observation period) which corresponded to that of the control drug rifampin (97% kill). The monobactam aztreonam (11% kill) and the third generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone (14% kill) corresponded to cefotaxime (26% kill) in terms of suboptimal intraphagocytic activity. Ofloxacin and aztreonam yielded additive effects following combination of supra-(2 X MIC) and inhibitory (MIC), but not sub-inhibitory (0.5 X MIC) concentrations with 55 vol % of defibrinated human blood against S. marcescens and Escherichia coli control strain ATCC 25922; sub- and inhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone yielded indifferent effects.

  15. ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF THREE VIBURNUM LINN. SPECIES – A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Prabhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus, Viburnum Linn., belonging to the family, Adoxaceae (formerly positioned under the family - Caprifoliaceae, has been surveyed to cover about 200 species, in the world, and about 17 of them in India, especially, at an altitude from 800 – 2500 ft, habitat such as Himalaya and Nilgiri hills. The stem parts of these species claim to contain an appreciable quantity of therapeutically valuable phenolic compounds like anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavones, flavonols and biflavone, and their glycosides. Based on the above facts on records, the present study has been under taken. With an objective of screening the antiulcer potentials 75% v/v aqueous ethanolic stem extracts of some three species of this genus, namely: V.punctatum, V.coriaceum and V.erubescens by aspirin plus pylorus ligation model in rats, using Ranitidine 50 mg/ kg b.w (p.o as the positive reference drug. From the findings of ulcer score, histo-pathological features and the status of biochemical parameters of gastric contents, it is concluded that extract of V.coriaceum at a dose level of 500 mg/kg.b.w possessed a significant antiulcer activity (p<0.01, p<0.001. However, the magnitude of antiulcer potential among the species was not far different. This study can be a referential tool for isolation of active constituents which are responsible for the above biological activity and to conduct an advanced scientific investigation on these species in that regard.

  16. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of non-transformed and transformed pineapple: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Minal; Tilak-Jain, Jai; De, Strayo; Devasagayam, T P A

    2009-11-01

    Pineapple has several beneficial properties including antioxidant activity. We investigated the antioxidant effect of different extracts of non-transformed (S) and transformed pineapple (with the magainin gene construct, [TS], for disease resistance). They were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and lipid peroxidation assays besides phenolic and flavonoid contents. HPLC analysis was carried out to identify the possible components responsible for the differences observed. The present study indicates that the ORAC values of extracts range from 9.5 to 26.4, similar to or higher than those for some fruits and vegetables. The HPLC analysis shows that the main compounds present are ascorbic acid, quercetin, flavone-3-ols, flavones, cinnamic acids. The TS core Et. extract exhibited slightly higher concentration of ascorbic acid and considerably higher concentration of flavon-3-ols. Our study, in general, indicates that the transformation event has caused only marginal difference in antioxidant activity. Moreover the TS samples showed more antioxidant activity in some aspects and also exhibit more flavonoid content. It appears that plant cell transformation has only caused minor and favourable changes in the overall chemical composition. Thus the TS pineapple variety may have potential applications in human health like its non-transformed counterpart.

  17. Comparative study of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag nanoparticles (NPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60-70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120-130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends--the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains.

  18. Comparing activated sludge and aerobic granules as microbial inocula for phenol biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, S.T.L.; Moy, B.Y.P.; Maszenan, A.M.; Tay, J.H. [Environmental Engineering Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    2005-06-01

    Activated sludge and acetate-fed granules were used as microbial inocula to start up two sequencing batch reactors (R1, R2) for phenol biodegradation. The reactors were operated in 4-h cycles at a phenol loading of 1.8 kg m{sup -3} day{sup -1}. The biomass in R1 failed to remove phenol and completely washed out after 4 days. R2 experienced initial difficulty in removing phenol, but the biomass acclimated quickly and effluent phenol concentrations declined to 0.3 mg l{sup -1} from day 3. The acetate-fed granules were covered with bacterial rods, but filamentous bacteria with sheaths, presumably to shield against toxicity, quickly emerged as the dominant morphotype upon phenol exposure. Bacterial adaptation to phenol also took the form of modifications in enzyme activity and increased production of extracellular polymers. 16S rRNA gene fingerprints revealed a slight decrease in bacterial diversity from day 0 to day 3 in R1, prior to process failure. In R2, a clear shift in community structure was observed as the seed evolved into phenol-degrading granules without losing species-richness. The results highlight the effectiveness of granules over activated sludge as seed for reactors treating toxic wastewaters. (orig.)

  19. Comparative Solid-State Stability of Perindopril Active Substance vs. Pharmaceutical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained after studying the thermal stability and decomposition kinetics of perindopril erbumine as a pure active pharmaceutical ingredient as well as a solid pharmaceutical formulation containing the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Since no data were found in the literature regarding the spectroscopic description, thermal behavior, or decomposition kinetics of perindopril, our goal was the evaluation of the compatibility of this antihypertensive agent with the excipients in the tablet under ambient conditions and to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of perindopril erbumine. ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis (thermogravimetric mass curve (TG—thermogravimetry, derivative thermogravimetric mass curve (DTG, and heat flow (HF and model-free kinetics were chosen as investigational tools. Since thermal behavior is a simplistic approach in evaluating the thermal stability of pharmaceuticals, in-depth kinetic studies were carried out by classical kinetic methods (Kissinger and ASTM E698 and later with the isoconversional methods of Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa. It was shown that the main thermal degradation step of perindopril erbumine is characterized by activation energy between 59 and 69 kJ/mol (depending on the method used, while for the tablet, the values were around 170 kJ/mol. The used excipients (anhydrous colloidal silica, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and magnesium stearate should be used in newly-developed generic solid pharmaceutical formulations, since they contribute to an increased thermal stability of perindopril erbumine.

  20. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Young Children in Full-Day Kindergarten: Comparing Traditional and Balanced Day Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare physical activity and sedentary time among young children whose schools adhere to traditional (i.e. three outdoor playtimes = 70 minutes) versus balanced day (i.e. two outdoor playtimes = ~55 minutes) schedules in Ontario full-day kindergarten classrooms. Design: The project was part of a larger, 2-year cross-sectional study.…

  1. Comparative Study of the Analgesic Activity of Two Iraqi Medicinal Plants, Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to compare the analgesic activity of different fractions of the extracts of Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla. Materials and Methods: The plant materials were extracted with 70% ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of each plant were evaporated to dryness and analyzed by HPLC. The analgesic activity of these extracts was evaluated using writhing reflex test and compared with that produced by a standard drug (Diclofenac sodium. Results: Flavonoids were found in all fractions of both plants (i.e ethyl acetate and n-butanol, while trace of alkaloids in were found in the ethyl acetate fraction of Ruta. The prepared extracts showed better analgesic activity than the standard drug; when compared with each other, Matricaria extracts showed better analgesic activity compared to Ruta extracts. Conclusion: There is similar efficacy of chamomile and common rue as analgesic agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 79-83

  2. Comparative Metagenomic Analysis Of Microbial Communities From Active Layer And Permafrost After Short-Term Thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chauhan, A.; Saarunya, G.; Murphy, J.; Williams, D.; Layton, A. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Sanders, R.; Lau, C. M.; myneni, S.; Phelps, T. J.; Fountain, A. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    .Permafrost areas occupy 20-25% of the Earth and extend of 1 km depths. The total number of prokaryotes and their biomass in cold regions are estimated to be 1 x 1030 cells and 140 x1015 g of C, respectively. Thus these environments serve as a reservoir of microbial and biogeochemical activity, which is likely to increase upon thawing. We are currently performing long-term thawing experiments at 4o C on 18, geochemically well-characterized, 1 meter long, intact cores consisting of active-layer (0-70 cm depth) and permafrost, collected from a 7 meter diameter ice-wedge polygon located at the McGill Arctic Research Station on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. The organic carbon content of these cores averages ~1% at depth but increases to 5.4% in the top 10 cm. The cores were subdivided into four treatment groups: saturated cores (thawed while receiving artificial rain), drained cores (being thawed under natural hydrological conditions), dark cores (thawed under natural hydrological conditions with no light input) and control cores (maintain permafrost table at 70 cm depth). Over the course of 10 weeks the cores were progressively thawed from -4oC to 4oC from the top down to simulate spring thaw conditions in the Arctic. The temperatures at 5 cm, 35 cm, 65 cm, and below the permafrost table in the core were recorded continuously. Pore water and gas samples from 4 depths in each core were collected every two weeks and analyzed for pH, anions, cations, H2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, CO2 and δ13C of CO2. Headspace gas samples were collected weekly and analyzed for the same gases as the pore gases. Sediment sub-samples from the 4 depths were collected and total community genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated using FastDNA SPIN kit followed by Qiagen column purification. The average yield of gDNA was ~3.5 μg/g of soil for the upper 5 cm active layers and decreased to ~1.5 μg/g of soil in the permafrost. The bacterial 16S copy numbers estimated by real-time quantitative PCR

  3. A comparative study of sulfidogenic and methanogenic activities during the treatment of landfill leachate: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdirencelebi, Dilek; Ozturk, Izzet

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive anaerobic leachate treatment in batch reactors was conducted for 9 months. Activities of two main bacterial groups, sulfidogens and methanogens were observed with monitoring parameters as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total gas production, pH, alkalinity, dissolved sulfide and volatile suspended solids/total suspended solids (VSS/TSS). Leachate contained high concentrations of volatile fatty acids. Some competition between microbial species was observed. COD was applied at a range of 1100-8200 mg/L at a slowly increasing rate over time. COD removal was mostly above 80%, dissolved sulfide was produced at a range of 100-450 mg/L in the first weeks, proving high sulfidogenic activity and making 40-50% of COD removal. Methanogenesis seemed under stress and improved after several weeks with increasing COD load whereas hydrogen sulfide (HS-) production leveled off around 100 mg/L, making 4-8% COD removal by sulfidogens. Then, 40-70% of overall COD removal was achieved by methanogens. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) except acetic acid (propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, caproic and heptanoic acids) were readily degraded and found near detection limit on gas chromatographic runs, accordingly VFA-oxidizing bacteria were assumed to be highly active and tolerant to sulfide levels encountered in our study, also with hydrogenotrophic groups providing favorable conditions for the process. pH was the key parameter to determine the degree of inhibition from sulfurous species. Alkalinity was produced proportionally with COD applied as a result of VFA degradation. Overall system performance was good and optimum pH was 7.8-8.2 at which inhibition due to unionized VFA was eliminated.

  4. Comparative active-site mutation study of human and Caenorhabditis elegans thymidine kinase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Tine; Uhlin, Ulla; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The first step for the intracellular retention of several anticancer or antiviral nucleoside analogues is the addition of a phosphate group catalysed by a deoxyribonucleoside kinase such as thymidine kinase 1 (TK1). Recently, human TK1 (HuTK1) has been crystallized and characterized using different...... surrounding the substrate base. In CeTK1, some of these mutations led to increased activity with deoxycytidine and deoxyguanosine, two unusual substrates for TK1-like kinases. In HuTK1, mutation of T163 to S resulted in a kinase with a 140-fold lower K(m) for the antiviral nucleoside analogue 3'-azido-3...

  5. Validity of PALMS GPS Scoring of Active and Passive Travel Compared to SenseCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Jankowska, Marta M.; Meseck, Kristin; Godbole, Suneeta; Natarajan, Loki; Raab, Fredric; Demchak, Barry; Patrick, Kevin; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess validity of the Personal Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS) for deriving time spent walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle, using SenseCam as the comparison. Methods 40 adult cyclists wore a Qstarz BT-Q1000XT GPS data logger and SenseCam (camera worn around neck capturing multiple images every minute) for a mean of 4 days. PALMS used distance and speed between GPS points to classify whether each minute was part of a trip (yes/no), and if so, the trip mode (walking/running, bicycling, in vehicle). SenseCam images were annotated to create the same classifications (i.e., trip yes/no and mode). 2×2 contingency tables and confusion matrices were calculated at the minute-level for PALMS vs. SenseCam classifications. Mixed-effects linear regression models estimated agreement (mean differences and intraclass correlations [ICCs]) between PALMS and SenseCam with regards to minutes/day in each mode. Results Minute-level sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were ≥88%, and positive predictive value was ≥75% for non mode-specific trip detection. 72–80% of outdoor walking/running minutes, 73% of bicycling minutes, and 74–76% of in-vehicle minutes were correctly classified by PALMS. For minutes/day, PALMS had a mean bias (i.e., amount of over or under estimation) of 2.4–3.1 minutes (11–15%) for walking/running, 2.3–2.9 minutes (7–9%) for bicycling, and 4.3–5 minutes (15–17%) for vehicle time. ICCs were ≥.80 for all modes. Conclusions PALMS has validity for processing GPS data to objectively measure time walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle in population studies. Assessing travel patterns is one of many valuable applications of GPS in physical activity research that can improve our understanding of the determinants and health outcomes of active transportation as well as its impact on physical activity. PMID:25010407

  6. Comparative characterisation of two nitroreductases from Giardia lamblia as potential activators of nitro compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Rout, Samuel; Leitsch, David; Vaithilingam, Jathana; Hehl, Adrian; Müller, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, a diarrhoeal disease affecting humans and various animal species. Nitro drugs such as the nitroimidazole metronidazole and the nitrothiazolide nitazoxanide are used for treatment of giardiasis. Nitroreductases such as GlNR1 and GlNR2 may play a role in activation or inactivation of these drugs. The aim of this work is to characterise these two enyzmes using functional assays. For respective analyses recombinant analogues from GlNR1 and GlNR2 were produced in Escherichia coli. E. coli expressing GlNR1 and GlNR2 alone or together were grown in the presence of nitro compounds. Furthermore, pull-down assays were performed using HA-tagged GlNR1 and GlNR2 as baits. As expected, E. coli expressing GlNR1 were more susceptible to metronidazole under aerobic and semi-aerobic and to nitazoxanide under semi-aerobic growth conditions whereas E. coli expressing GlNR2 were susceptible to neither drug. Interestingly, expression of both nitroreductases gave the same results as expression of GlNR2 alone. In functional assays, both nitroreductases had their strongest activities on the quinone menadione (vitamin K3) and FAD, but reduction of nitro compounds including the nitro drugs metronidazole and nitazoxanide was clearly detected. Full reduction of 7-nitrocoumarin to 7-aminocoumarin was preferentially achieved with GlNR2. Pull-down assays revealed that GlNR1 and GlNR2 interacted in vivo forming a multienzyme complex. These findings suggest that both nitroreductases are multifunctional. Their main biological role may reside in the reduction of vitamin K analogues and FAD. Activation by GlNR1 or inactivation by GlNR2 of nitro drugs may be the consequence of a secondary enzymatic activity either yielding (GlNR1) or eliminating (GlNR2) toxic intermediates after reduction of these compounds.

  7. Comparative ecophysiology of active zoobenthic filter feeding, essence of current knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Larsen, P. S.

    2000-12-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of current knowledge of a comprehensive and steadily growing research field. The first section deals with water pumping and particle retention mechanisms in ciliary and muscular filter feeders. The second section examines the biological filter pumps in order to assess adaptation to the environment. Filter-feeding benthic invertebrates have evolved filter pumps to solve common basic problems. This has led to a large degree of similarity between otherwise distant standing species, which makes comparative studies interesting and important. The present review of zoobenthic filter feeding aims at accentuating such recognition.

  8. Comparing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras-Rosell, Antoni; Johannsen, Sabrina Rostgaard; Dirscherl, Kai;

    2016-01-01

    . The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales are investigated by comparing photocatalytic degradation of acetone and electrochemical experiments to Kelvin probe force microscopy. The good agreement between the macro- and microscopic experiments suggests that Kelvin probe force microscopy......This study focuses on the characterization of photocatalytic TiO2 coatings using Kelvin probe force microscopy. While most photocatalytic experiments are carried out at a macroscopic scale, Kelvin probe force microscopy is a microscopic technique that is surface sensitive. In order to link...... can be a valuable tool towards the understanding, standardization and design of TiO2-based solutions in photocatalytic applications....

  9. Green Regions? Comparing Civil Society Activism in NAFTA and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Zito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the role of environmental civil society in two regional organizations, the European Union and nafta. It uses the Transnational Advocacy Network approach to assess how non-governmental organizations make use of opportunities to influence policy, and the effects of civil society engagement. Despite wide differences between the two organizations, there are important commonalities: both provide resources and important access points for NGOS, both have limits and frustrations, and both encourage coalition-building among NGOS. 

  10. Comparative analysis of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of bark and leaves of Acacia ferruginea DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samriti Faujdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of Acacia ferruginea DC. Hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves were evaluated for analgesic activity using hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema method. Hydroalcoholic extract of the bark at the dose of 50 mg/kg (6.10 ± 0.30 and leaves at a dose of 100 mg/kg (5.72 ± 0.39 after 45 min exhibited significant (P < 0.001 analgesic activity in hot plate test, which was comparable to Tramadol (6.11 ± 0.31 at a dose of 10 mg/kg. However, in acetic acid-induced writhing test, hydroalcoholic extract of both bark (90% and leaves (90.91% showed maximum protection from acetic acid at the dose of 100 mg/kg as compared to standard drug (50.91% at a dose of 5 mg/kg. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, hydroalcoholic extract of leaves at a dose of 400 mg/kg had significantly (74.68% inhibited the inflammation as comparable to indomethacin (82.8% after 3 h of induction of carrageenan. It is concluded that hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves have central analgesic and peripheral analgesic effects, respectively. Both hydroalcoholic extracts of the bark and leaves significantly reduced the paw oedema at a dose of 400 mg/kg and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Adam K; Lamberti, Francis V; Moulton, Julia N; Geilich, Benjamin M; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell) functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]). This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL]) are normal (ie, non-diseased) on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK) and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL) on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic analogs to natural bone to improve numerous orthopedic applications. It also provides the first data of healthy osteoclast and osteoblast functions on nanocrystalline calcium phosphates compared to natural bone.

  12. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi , Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mominur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ΁ 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and C. frutescens (26.66667 ΁ 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment.

  13. Comparing the effects of group and home-based physical activity on mental health in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Salehe Mortazavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study focuses on comparing the effects of home-based (HB and group-based (GB physical activity on mental health in a sample of older adults in Shahr-e-kord. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, a twice-weekly physical activity program for 2 months was provided either individually at home or in a group format for 181 people who were divided into two groups (HB and GB. The outcome, mental health, was measured with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results: Mental health status improved after participation in the physical activity program. The decrease in GHQ-28 total score in GB group, 3 months after intervention, was 3.61 ΁ 2.28 (P < 0.001. In HB group, this reduction was 1.20 ΁ 2.32 during the same period (P < 0.001. The difference of these "before-after differences" between the two groups in the GHQ-28 and all its subscales was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Also, the effects of GB physical activity on mental health compared with HB physical activity, adjusted for related baseline variables, were significant. Conclusions: These findings reveal the probable effects of GB rather than HB physical activity on mental health among the elderly.

  14. NO donors, part 8 [1]: synthesis and vasodilating activities of substituted benzylnitrates compared to cyclohexylmethylnitrate and GTN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Christoph; Homann, Alexander; Fricke, Uwe; Lehmann, Jochen

    2003-06-01

    A series of substituted benzylnitrates (1) and the formally but not chemically similar cyclohexylmethylnitrate (CHMN) have been synthesised. Vasodilating activities were measured on endothelium-intact and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA)-blocked porcine right coronary arteries, precontracted with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)). Glyceroltrinitrate (GTN) was used as reference. In intact coronary arteries the vasodilating activities of all benzylnitrates are lower compared with GTN, but higher compared with CHMN. However, blocking the function of the endothelium by L-NNA, the activity of all benzylnitrates increased, whereas that of CHMN and GTN remained nearly unaffected. Under these conditions, the mononitrates 4-nitro-benzylnitrate (1c) and 4-nitrooxymethyl-benzonitrile (1h) even showed higher vasodilator activities than the trinitrate GTN and in general, vasorelaxation by the benzylnitrates as defined by the concentrations for half maximal effects (EC(50) values) was found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that induced by CHMN. The study demonstrates that the in vitro activities of organic nitrates do not correlate with the number of nitrate groups within the molecule nor to the lipophilicity of the molecules. Instead, vasodilator activity is highly sensitive to the structure and the type of the substituents in the molecular carrier of the nitrate group.

  15. Beta activity in the premotor cortex is increased during stabilized as compared to normal walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Bruijn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking on two legs is inherently unstable. Still, we humans perform remarkable well at it, mostly without falling. To gain more understanding of the role of the brain in controlling gait stability we measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG during stabilized and normal walking.Subjects walked on a treadmill in two conditions, each lasting 10 minutes; normal, and while being laterally stabilized by elastic cords. Kinematics of trunk and feet, electro-myography (EMG of neck muscles, as well as 64-channel EEG were recorded. To assess gait stability the local divergence exponent, step width, and trunk range of motion were calculated from the kinematic data. We used independent component analysis to remove movement, EMG, and eyeblink artifacts from the EEG, after which dynamic imaging of coherent sources beamformers were determined to identify cortical sources that showed a significant difference between conditions. Stabilized walking led to a significant increase in gait stability, i.e. lower local divergence exponents. Beamforming analysis of the beta band activity revealed significant sources in bilateral pre-motor cortices. Projection of sensor data on these sources showed a significant difference only in the left premotor area, with higher beta power during stabilized walking, specifically around push-off, although only significant around contralateral push-off. It appears that even during steady gait the cortex is involved in the control of stability.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Nimesulide-Loaded Nanoparticles for Anticancer Activity Against Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengel-Turk, Ceyda Tuba; Hascicek, Canan; Bakar, Filiz; Simsek, Elif

    2017-02-01

    Recent clinical and epidemiological researches have declared that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents may display as antineoplastic agents and indicate pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. The major purpose of this research was to develop a novel poly(ethyleneglycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) nano-sized particles encapsulated with nimesulide (NMS), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and to evaluate its anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. NMS-encapsulated PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles were fabricated using three different production techniques: (i) by emulsion-solvent evaporation using a high shear homogenizer, (ii) by emulsion-solvent evaporation using an ultrasonicator, and (iii) by nanoprecipitation. Nanoparticles were evaluated with respect to the entrapment efficiency, size characteristics, drug release rates, thermal behavior, cell viability assays, and apoptosis. The resulting nanoparticles were found to be spherical shapes with negative surface charges. The average diameter of all nanoparticles ranged between 148.5 and 307.2 nm. In vitro release profiles showed that all nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic release pattern. NMS-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles demonstrated significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the effects of nanoparticles on cell proliferation were significantly affected by the preparation techniques. The nanoparticles developed in this work displayed higher potential for the NMS delivery against breast cancer treatment for the future.

  17. Comparative Study of Textural Characteristics on Methane Adsorption for Carbon Spheres Produced by CO2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resorcinol-formaldehyde resin polymer was used as raw material for preparation of carbon spheres. Samples were treated with CO2 flow at 850°C by varying activation times. The CO2 activation granted better pore development of pore structure. The experimental data of CH4 adsorption as a function of equilibrium pressure was fitted by Langmuir and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A models. It was concluded that the high surface area and micropore volume of carbon spheres did unequivocally determine methane capacities. In addition, a thermodynamic study of the heat of adsorption of CH4 on the carbon spheres was carried out. Adsorption of CH4 on carbon spheres showed a decrease in the adsorption heat with CH4 occupancy, and the heat of adsorption fell from 20.51 to 12.50 kJ/mol at 298 K and then increased to a little higher values at a very high loading (>0.70, indicating that CH4/CH4 interactions within the adsorption layer became significant.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the New Five-Pole and Three-Pole Active Magnet Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Vakili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been given to the active AMBs thanks to their low maintenance cost, suitability for clean environments, and high speed. One of the popular types of AMBs is the three-pole type with integrated and separate cores. Some deficiencies of this type of bearing are its high oscillation, low stability and low efficiency. This paper seeks to analyse the three-pole AMBs and describe their deficiencies and introduce and analyse a new five-pole AMB. The model thus proposed has lower oscillation as well as more stability and efficiency. The five-pole AMB has been simulated by a controller in the presence of disturbance. The results of simulation demonstrate lower vibration and oscillation in the five-pole AMB in comparison with the three-pole model.

  19. Comparative investigation on spindle behavior and MPF activity changes during oocyte maturation between gynogenetic and amphimictic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZHONGAN; QUNHUALI; 等

    1999-01-01

    The spindle behavior and MPF activity changes in the progression of oocyte maturation were investigated and compared with cytological observation and kinase assay between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and amphimictic colored crucian carp.MPF activity was measured by using histone H1 as phosphorylation substrate.There were two similar oscillatory MPF kinase activity changes during oocyte maturation in two kinds of fishes with different reproductive modes,but there existed some subtle difference between them.The subtle difference was that the first peak of MPF kinase activity was kept to a longerlasting time in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp than in the amphimictic colored crucian carp.It was suggested that the difference may be related to the spindle behavior changes,such as tripolar spindle formation and spindle rearrangement in the gynogenetic crucian carp.

  20. Comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological and chemical routes with pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina Alves Dos; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Ingle, Avinash P; Rai, Mahendra

    2016-08-01

    The authors report the comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological (using Fusarium oxysporum) and chemical routes in the presence and absence of pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent. The production of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by UV-visible spectra, with absorbance at about 420 nm in the case of both biological and chemical synthesis. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of face-centred cubic structure (FCC plane). The nanoparticles characterised by transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed spherical silver nanoparticles with size range of 5-40 and 10-70 nm in the case of biologically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles, respectively. Addition of pluronic F68 showed the stabilisation of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles demonstrated different inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall, biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles showed higher activity as compared with chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesised in the presence of pluronic F68 by the chemical route exhibited synergism in antibacterial activity as compared with those synthesised without pluronic F68. On the contrary, biogenic silver nanoparticles without pluronic F68 showed higher antibacterial potential.

  1. Comparative activities of p-nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol in noble rat mammary gland and uterotrophic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, J; Pyrah, I T; Foster, J R; Van Miller, J P; Joiner, R L; Ashby, J

    1999-04-01

    Colerangle and Roy (1996, Endocrine 4, 115-122) have described the apparent ability of both diethylstilbestrol (DES) and p-nonylphenol (NP) to cause extensive cell proliferation and lobular development in the mammary glands of young adult Noble rats. The chemicals were administered over 11 days via subcutaneously implanted minipumps. The dose level of DES used (0.076 mg/kg/day) was about 70 times higher than its minimum detection level in rodent uterotrophic and reproductive toxicology studies. In contrast, the lowest active dose level of NP (0.073 mg/kg/day) in the Noble rat mammary gland study was about 600 times lower than its minimum detection level in rat uterotrophic and multigeneration studies. The apparent enhanced sensitivity of the Noble rat mammary gland to the estrogenic activity of NP was considered worthy of further study. Ovariectomized Noble rat uterotrophic assays with NP (minimum detection level approximately 40 mg/kg/day, 3 or 11 days, oral gavage) revealed similar assay sensitivity to that observed for earlier immature and ovariectomized Alderley Park (AP) rat uterotrophic assays of this chemical. The response of the ovariectomized Noble rat uterotrophic assay to DES and estradiol was also as expected from earlier immature AP rat assays. It is concluded that the general sensitivity to estrogens of the Noble rat and the AP rat is similar. A repeat of the Noble rat mammary gland study with DES (11 x 0.076 mg/kg/day) and NP (11 x either 0.073 or 53.2 mg/kg/day), as originally reported by Colerangle and Roy (1996), revealed a strong positive response to DES and no response to NP. It is concluded that the minimum detection level of NP as a weakly estrogenic material in the rat should be based on the results of rat uterotrophic and multigeneration studies and therefore be set at approximately 40 mg/kg/day. It is also concluded that induced S-phase in the rodent mammary gland is best monitored using BRDU, as opposed to PCNA staining, and that use of

  2. Enzymatic Activity of the Mycelium Compared with Oospore Development During Infection of Pea Roots by Aphanomyces euteiches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren

    1998-01-01

    To describe the disease cycle of the root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, enzymatic activity in the mycelium was compared with the development of oospores in pea roots. Plants were inoculated with two zoospore concentrations to achieve different disease levels. Hyphae were stained for fungal alka....... In these plants, oospores were found in 90% of the root length, while the enzymatic activity of the mycelium was low. This suggests that the pathogen mycelium is only active on living plants and does not grow saprophytically on dead plant material.......To describe the disease cycle of the root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, enzymatic activity in the mycelium was compared with the development of oospores in pea roots. Plants were inoculated with two zoospore concentrations to achieve different disease levels. Hyphae were stained for fungal...... concentration, the enzymatic activity of the pathogen mycelium peaked 10 to 14 days after inoculation, when oospore formation was initiated. Oospore formation was associated with a gradual increase in disease symptoms. At the last harvest, plants inoculated with the higher zoospore concentration had died...

  3. Contrast-enhanced MRI compared with the physical examination in the evaluation of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario [Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veenendaal, Mira van; Kuijpers, Taco W. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Haematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Marion A.J. van; Berg, J.M. van den [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Haematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in discriminating between active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and to compare physical examination outcomes with MRI outcomes in the assessment of disease status in JIA patients. Consecutive JIA patients with knee involvement were prospectively studied using an open-bore MRI. Imaging findings from 146 JIA patients were analysed (59.6 % female; mean age, 12.9 years). Patients were classified as clinically active or inactive. MRI features were evaluated using the JAMRIS system, comprising validated scores for synovial hypertrophy, bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions and bone erosions. Inter-reader reliability was good for all MRI features (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.87-0.94). No differences were found between the two groups regarding MRI scores of bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions or bone erosions. Synovial hypertrophy scores differed significantly between groups (P = 0.016). Nonetheless, synovial hypertrophy was also present in 14 JIA patients (35.9 %) with clinically inactive disease. Of JIA patients considered clinically active, 48.6 % showed no signs of MRI-based synovitis. MRI can discriminate between clinically active and inactive JIA patients. However, physical examination is neither very sensitive nor specific in evaluating JIA disease activity compared with MRI. Subclinical synovitis was present in >35 % of presumed clinically inactive patients. (orig.)

  4. Comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in different species of cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Xinyan; Zhong, Fei; Tian, Rongrong; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Tianhong

    2011-05-01

    A new spectrometric method ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with high precision and rapid analysis was developed to separate 17 phenolic compounds. Different species of cherries, including 10 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, a tart cherry (P. cerasus L.) rootstock (CAB), and a hybrid rootstock 'Colt' (P. avium × P. pseudocerasus), were analyzed for phenolics contents by this method. The results showed that significant differences were observed among the phenolic compound contents in different cherry species. In 10 sweet cherry cultivars, the contents of neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3O-rutinoside were much higher in red-colored fruits (for example, 64.60 and 44.50 mg/100 g fresh weight in Burlat, respectively) than those in bicolored ones. Principal component analysis revealed that cyanidin-3O-rutinoside was an effective index for grouping the cultivars with similar species and fruit colors. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between phenolics content and antioxidant activity, which was higher in red-colored cherries.

  5. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activities of fourteen mentha essential oils and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzmann, Judith; Habegger, Ruth; Schnitzler, Wilfried H; Grassmann, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The essential oils of 14 species and hybrids, respectively, of the genus Mentha were examined for their antioxidant capacity in the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assay and in a lipid-peroxidation (LPO) assay. The ABTS(.+) -scavenging capacity of pure essential-oil components and mixtures of them was also tested. In both assays, Mentha×dumetorum (classification not fully confirmed), Mentha suaveolens, and Mentha×villosa (classification not fully confirmed) showed the highest antioxidant capacity, which was ascribed to the components germacrene D, piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide. The high antioxidant activity in the LPO assay of the two hybrids Mentha×gracilis and, to a lower degree, of Mentha×dalmatica (classification not fully confirmed) was ascribed to their high contents of cis-ocimene and β-caryophyllene. Of the pure components tested (germacrene D, piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide were not tested, as not commercially available), only cis-ocimene showed a distinct antioxidant effect, whereas dihydrocarvone and linalool had pro-oxidant effects in the ABTS assay.

  6. COMPARATIVE VALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOIDS IN COURSE ALCOHOLIZATION OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Sergeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is widespread and is a serious medical and social problem throughout the world especially in the USA and Europe countries including Russia. Alcohol influences negatively all organs. However liver is the most amenable to its action, because it is in liver where oxidation of ethanol takes place. In the experiments on white outbreed female rats hepatoprotective action of medical and preventive application of diosmin and flavicin in comparison with quercetine by the capacity of biological indices of functional liver state normalization on the model of course alcoholization. We have established that flavicin at a dose of 100 mg/kg has the most signified hepatoprotective action. This is probably connected with high bioaccessibility of this compound which is provided by carbohydrate component and С2-С3 linking in diosmin molecule in the form of which this compound exhibits activity in vivo

  7. Disinfectant and antibiotic activities: a comparative analysis in Brazilian hospital bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Márcia Aparecida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. It has been shown that appropriate environmental hygienic and disinfection practices can be very helpful to hospital infection control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of some disinfectants against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant hospital bacterial isolates. The susceptibility of 27 clinical isolates to disinfectants and antibiotics was determined by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist?s (AOAC Use-Dilution method and by the Kirby-Bauer method, respectively. All strains tested were susceptible to sodium hypochlorite, glutaraldehyde and to the association quaternary ammonium - formaldehyde - ethyl alcohol disinfectants. However, the susceptibility of strains to phenol and to one quaternary ammonium compound was variable. Among twenty-one antibiotic-multiresistant strains (methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli eleven (52% and eight (38% strains were resistant to the quaternary ammonium and phenol compounds, respectively. Among six isolates that demonstrated susceptibility to antibiotics (staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, P. mirabilis, E. cloacae and E. coli two strains (33% showed resistance to these disinfectants. The results demonstrated the lack of correlation between antibiotic-susceptibility and susceptibility to disinfectants in hospital strains.

  8. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

    2009-12-01

    The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage.

  9. The Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea active bioassay for water monitoring: evaluating and comparing methodological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Betânia Brizola Cassanego

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea cuttings with flower buds are utilized in bioassays to diagnose genotoxic effects of water. The literature describes different substances used to adapt and recover the cuttings before and after exposure to water samples and also describes the effects of different exposure times. This study evaluated and compared the micronuclei (MCN frequencies in T. pallida when cuttings with flower buds were submitted to different methodological conditions. The bioassay was then applied bimonthly during seven months to assess the genotoxic potential of a site located on the Sinos River in Campo Bom, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Micronuclei frequencies in buds of cuttings adapted and recovered in distilled water and in Hoagland solution were 3.0 and 2.9, respectively, for cuttings exposed to river water, and 1.19 and 1.23 in controls. No significant differences among MCN frequencies were observed when cuttings were exposed for 8, 24 or 32 hours to river water (from 3.07 to 4.73 and in controls (from 1.13 to 2.00 in all samplings during a year. Adaptation and recovery of cuttings in distilled water or Hoagland solution and exposure for different times did not influence the response of T. pallida, indicating that all the conditions tested are viable for biomonitoring of water genotoxicity. Water samples from the Sinos River presented genotoxicity during the period monitored, evidenced by the MCN frequencies recorded which were significantly higher than the frequencies of the controls.

  10. Comparative Study of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Manufactured Under Pulsed Microwave Curing and Thermal Oven Curing

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shi; Bai, Yun; Li, H.; Xu, D. L.; Basheer, P. A. Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) manufactured with thermal oven curing and pulsed microwave curing methods. Fly ash activated by 8M NaOH solution at a liquid to solid ratio of 0.3 was cured by thermal oven at 85°C and domestic microwave oven, respectively. Apart from compressive strength test, the temperature profiles of AAFA samples were captured by thermal camera. Reaction products of AAFA were characterised with XRD, FTIR and TG/DTG, while the microstructure of AAFA ...

  11. Anti-HIV-1 activity of anionic polymers: a comparative study of candidate microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yun-Yao

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP in soluble form blocks coreceptor binding sites on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 and elicits gp41 six-helix bundle formation, processes involved in virus inactivation. CAP is not soluble at pH Methods Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used to (1 study HIV-1 IIIB and BaL binding to micronized CAP; (2 detect virus disintegration; and (3 measure gp41 six-helix bundle formation. Cells containing integrated HIV-1 LTR linked to the β-gal gene and expressing CD4 and coreceptors CXCR4 or CCR5 were used to measure virus infectivity. Results 1 HIV-1 IIIB and BaL, respectively, effectively bound to micronized CAP. 2 The interaction between HIV-1 and micronized CAP led to: (a gp41 six-helix bundle formation; (b virus disintegration and shedding of envelope glycoproteins; and (c rapid loss of infectivity. Polymers other than CAP, except Carbomer 974P, elicited gp41 six-helix bundle formation in HIV-1 IIIB but only poly(napthalene sulfonate, in addition to CAP, had this effect on HIV-1 BaL. These polymers differed with respect to their virucidal activities, the differences being more pronounced for HIV-1 BaL. Conclusions Micronized CAP is the only candidate topical microbicide with the capacity to remove rapidly by adsorption from physiological fluids HIV-1 of both the X4 and R5 biotypes and is likely to prevent virus contact with target cells. The interaction between micronized CAP and HIV-1 leads to rapid virus inactivation. Among other anionic polymers, cellulose sulfate, BufferGel and aryl sulfonates appear most effective in this respect.

  12. Combining docking and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (COMSIA) to predict estrogen activity and probe molecular mechanisms of estrogen activity for estrogen compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XuShu; WANG XiaoDong; JI Li; LI Rong; SUN Cheng; WANG LianSheng

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen compounds are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking natural hormones,and such compounds may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. Close attention has been paid to the prediction and molecular mechanisms of estrogen activity for estrogen compounds. In this article, estrogen receptor a subtype (Era) -based comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (COMSIA) was performed on 44 estrogen compounds with structural diversity to find out the structural relationship with the activity and to predict the activity. The model with the significant correlation and the best predictive power (R2 = 0.965, (Q2LOO = 0.599, R2pred = 0.825) was achieved. The COMSIA and docking results revealed the structural features for estrogen activity and key amino acid residues in binding pocket, and provided an insight into the interaction between the ligands and these amino acid residues.

  13. Stellate Cell Activation in Tropical Calcific Pancreatitis Compared to Alcoholic Pancreatitis, Adenocarcinoma of Pancreas and Normal Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johny Cyriac

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ContextPancreatic stellate cell (PSC is known to be the source of fibrosis in pancreatic pathology of various etiologies. However, there is no published data on activation of PSCs in tropical calcific pancreatitis. ObjectivesThe present study was undertaken to estimate the proportion of activated stellate cells, in a semi-quantitative manner, in normal pancreas and pancreatic fibrosis due to, tropical calcific pancreatitis, alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PatientsSurgically resected specimen from patients with tropical calcific pancreatitis (n=22, alcoholic chronic pancreatitis(n=16, adenocarcinoma of pancreas (n=20 and normal pancreas (n=20 were included. Main outcome measuresExpression of CD34, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Morphometry was performed by a pointcounting procedure and CD34 positive areas were excluded from α-SMA positive areas for estimating activated PSCs. StatisticsThe one-way ANOVA and the Tukey multiple comparison test were used to compare the proportion ofactivated stellate cells among the four categories. ResultsIn all the disease conditions studied, namely, tropical calcific pancreatitis (16.7±14.5%, mean±SD, alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (13.6±12.4% and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (22.8±14.4%, there was highly significant (P<0.001 increased percentage of activated PSCs compared to normal pancreas (-0.9±6.4%. Proportion of activated PSCs in tropical calcific pancreatitis was similar to that in cases of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Such activation is documented for the first time in tropical calcific pancreatitis while it is known for the other causes. ConclusionsThe present study suggests that a final common pathway of PSC activation leads to fibrogenesis in tropical calcific pancreatitis just as in other pancreatic pathologies.

  14. Comparative effectiveness of manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument in treatment of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is a common problem and different forms of manual therapy are used in its treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the literature that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument for non-specific neck pain. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MANTIS and CINAHL were searched from their inception to October 2005 for all English language randomised clinical trials that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select the studies and these studies were then evaluated using validated criteria. Results Five such studies were identified. The methodological quality was mostly poor. Findings from the studies were mixed and no one therapy was shown to be more effective than the others. Conclusion Further high quality research has to be done before a recommendation can be made as to the most effective manual method for non-specific neck pain.

  15. Rapid end-point quantitation of prion seeding activity with sensitivity comparable to bioassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Wilham

    prion and amyloid seeding assays. End point dilution RT-QuIC provides a sensitive, rapid, quantitative, and high throughput assay of prion seeding activity.

  16. Elemental analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Choi, Kwang Soon; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Jong Myoung; Kim, Young Jin [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Quraishi, Shamshad Begum [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2003-05-01

    Elemental analyses for certified reference materials were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Five Certified Reference Materials (CRM) were selected for the study on comparative analysis of environmental samples. The CRM are Soil (NIST SRM 2709), Coal fly ash (NIST SRM 1633a), urban dust (NIST SRM 1649a) and air particulate on filter media (NIST SRM 2783 and human hair (GBW 09101)

  17. Comparing the functional components, SOD-like activities, antimutagenicity, and nutrient compositions of Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Many species of the genus Phellinus possess beneficial properties, including antioxidant, immune-enhancing, and antimutagenic effects. Phenolic compounds and polysaccharides are two kinds of bioactive compounds; however, few studies have compared the differences between Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus in their functional components, functional activities, and nutrient compositions. Herein, the proximate compositions and microelements of the fruiting body of P. igniarius and P. linte...

  18. A comparative study of graph-based, eikonal, and monodomain simulations for the estimation of cardiac activation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Mikael; Smith, Nicolas P; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2012-06-01

    The bidomain and monodomain equations are well established as the standard set of equations for the simulation of cardiac electrophysiological behavior. However, the computational cost of detailed bidomain/monodomain simulations limits their applicability in scenarios where a large number of simulations needs to be performed (e.g., parameter estimation). In this study, we present a graph-based method, which relies on point-to-point path finding to estimate activation times for single points in cardiac tissue with minimal computational costs. To validate our approach, activation times are compared to monodomain simulation results for an anatomically based rabbit ventricular model, incorporating realistic fiber orientation and conduction heterogeneities. Differences in activation times between the graph-based method and monodomain results are less than 10% of the total activation time, and computational performance is orders of magnitude faster with the proposed method when calculating activation times at single points. These results suggest that the graph-based method is well suited for estimating activation times when the need for fast performance justifies a limited loss of accuracy.

  19. Enzymatic Activity of the Mycelium Compared with Oospore Development During Infection of Pea Roots by Aphanomyces euteiches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøller, R; Rosendahl, S

    1998-09-01

    ABSTRACT To describe the disease cycle of the root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, enzymatic activity in the mycelium was compared with the development of oospores in pea roots. Plants were inoculated with two zoospore concentrations to achieve different disease levels. Hyphae were stained for fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in the roots. Additionally, enzyme activity was measured after electrophoresis of an A. euteiches-specific glucose-6-phosphate isozyme. Development of oospores in the roots was measured after staining the oospores with trypan blue. In plants inoculated with the higher zoospore concentration, the enzymatic activity of the pathogen mycelium peaked 10 to 14 days after inoculation, when oospore formation was initiated. Oospore formation was associated with a gradual increase in disease symptoms. At the last harvest, plants inoculated with the higher zoospore concentration had died. In these plants, oospores were found in 90% of the root length, while the enzymatic activity of the mycelium was low. This suggests that the pathogen mycelium is only active on living plants and does not grow saprophytically on dead plant material.

  20. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Anokwuru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g but not significantly different (p<0.05. Azadirachta indica stem bark extracted more flavonoid content (5.21g QE/100g than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (0.96g QE/100g. Azadirachta indica stem bark inhibited more free radicals (83% than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (65%. This study showed that Azadirachta indica stem bark had higher antioxidant activity compared to Telfairia occidentalis leaf.

  1. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of insecticides and plant growth regulators: comparative studies toward understanding the molecular mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, H; Nishimura, K; Fujita, T

    1985-01-01

    Emphasis was put on the comparative quantitative structure-activity approaches to the exploration of action mechanisms of structurally different classes of compounds showing the same type of activity as well as those of the same type of compounds having different actions. Examples were selected from studies performed on insecticides and plant growth regulators, i.e., neurotoxic carbamates, phosphates, pyrethroids and DDT analogs, insect juvenile hormone mimics, and cytokinin agonistic and antagonistic compounds. Similarities and dissimilarities in structures required to elicit activity between compounds classes were revealed in terms of physicochemical parameters, provoking further exploration and evoking insights into the molecular mechanisms of action which may lead to the development of new structures having better qualities. PMID:3905379

  2. Comparative study of the activity of nickel ferrites for solar hydrogen production by two-step thermochemical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresno, Fernando [Solar Concentrating Systems, CIEMAT-PSA. Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yoshida, Tomoaki; Gokon, Nobuyuki; Kodama, Tatsuya [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Fernandez-Saavedra, Rocio [Chemistry Division, CIEMAT. Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    In this work, we compare the activity of unsupported and monoclinic zirconia - supported nickel ferrites, calcined at two different temperatures, for solar hydrogen production by two-step water-splitting thermochemical cycles at low thermal reduction temperature. Commercial nickel ferrite, both as-received and calcined in the laboratory, as well as laboratory made supported NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, are employed for this purpose. The samples leading to higher hydrogen yields, averaged over three cycles, are those calcined at 700 C in each group (supported and unsupported) of materials. The comparison of the two groups shows that higher chemical yields are obtained with the supported ferrites due to better utilisation of the active material. Therefore, the highest activity is obtained with ZrO{sub 2}-supported NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} calcined at 700 C. (author)

  3. Processed tart cherry products--comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Boxin; Bosak, Kristen N; Brickner, Paula R; Iezzoni, Dominic G; Seymour, E Mitchell

    2012-05-01

    Processing of fruits and vegetables affects their phytochemical and nutrient content. Tart cherries are commercially promoted to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, processing affects their phytochemical content and may affect their related health benefits. The current study compares the in vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase activity of processed tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) products-cherry juice concentrate, individually quick-frozen cherries, canned cherries, and dried cherries. Cherry products were analyzed for total anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content and profile. On a per serving basis, total anthocyanins were highest in frozen cherries and total proanthocyanidins were highest in juice concentrate. Total phenolics were highest in juice concentrate. Juice concentrate had the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and peroxynitrite radical averting capacity (NORAC). Dried cherries had the highest hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) and superoxide radical averting capacity (SORAC). Processed tart cherry products compared very favorably to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-reported ORAC of other fresh and processed fruits. Inhibition of in vitro inflammatory COX-1 activity was greatest in juice concentrate. In summary, all processed tart cherry products possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but processing differentially affected phytochemical content and in vitro bioactivity. On a per serving basis, juice concentrate was superior to other tart cherry products.

  4. Activity of telavancin and comparator antimicrobial agents tested against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from hospitalised patients in Europe (2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-10-01

    The activity of telavancin was evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. collected from European hospitals as part of an international surveillance study (2007-2008). A total of 7534 staphylococcal clinical isolates [5726 Staphylococcus aureus and 1808 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)] were included. Isolates were tested for susceptibility according to reference methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010 and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) 2009 criteria. Telavancin breakpoints approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were applied. Telavancin activity was evaluated against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) displaying several antibiogram resistance patterns, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Telavancin was active against S. aureus [MIC(50/90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively)=0.12/0.25mg/L; 100.0% susceptible] and CoNS (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L), inhibiting all isolates at Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus xylosus (MIC(50)=0.12 mg/L) compared with Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus warneri (MIC(50)=0.25mg/L). Overall, telavancin exhibited MIC(90) results two- to eight-fold lower than comparators (daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin and linezolid). Based upon MIC(90) values, telavancin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a contemporary (2007-2008) collection of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from nearly 30 European medical centres.

  5. In vitro and comparative study on the extracellular enzyme activity of molds isolated from keratomycosis and soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arumugam; Mythili; Yendranbam; Randhir; Babu; Singh; Ravindran; Priya; Anamangadan; Shafeeq; Hassan; Palanisamy; Manikandan; Kanesan; Panneerselvam; Venkatapathy; Narendran; Coimbatore; Subramanian; Shobana

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To isolate and identify the molds involved in mycotic keratitis; to isolate corresponding species from soil samples; to compare the extracellular enzyme activity indices of the molds isolated from keratitis cases and the corresponding soil isolates.METHODS:The specimens were collected from the target patients attending the microbiology laboratory of tertiary eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state,India. The isolates were subjected for identification based on the growth on solid media, direct microscopy and lacto phenol cotton blue wet mount preparation.Extracellular enzymes such as lipase, deoxyribonuclease(DNase), α-amylase, protease, cellulase and pectinase produced by the fungal isolates were screened on solid media supplemented with the corresponding substrates.Based on growth and zone diameter, the enzyme activity indices were calculated and were compared with that of the soil fungal isolates.RESULTS:A total of 108 clinical samples were collected from a tertiary eye care hospital and out of which 60 fungal isolates were obtained. Among these,Fusarium spp.(n =30), non sporulating molds(n =9),Aspergillus flavus(n =6), Bipolaris spp.(n =6),Exserohilum spp.(n =4), Curvularia spp.(n =3),Alternaria spp.(n =1) and Exophiala spp.(n =1) were identified and designated as FS1-30, NSM1-9, AF1-6,BS1-6, ES1-4, CS1-3, AS1 and EX1, respectively. For comparative analysis, soil samples were also collected from which, one isolate of each Fusarium spp.,Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris spp., Exserohilum spp., and Curvularia spp., respectively were selected. Highest lipase activity was seen in corneal isolate NSM2(EAI= 2.14).The DNase activity was higher in NSM9(EAI =1.88). In case of protease, Fusarium spp.(FS9) had prominent enzyme activity index of 1.38; α-amylase activity was also superior in corneal isolate FS13 with EAI of 1.63 when compared to other isolates. The enzyme activity index for cellulase was also noted to be higher in corneal isolates i.e. NSM7 with EAI of

  6. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adam K MacMillan,1 Francis V Lamberti,1 Julia N Moulton,2 Benjamin M Geilich,2 Thomas J Webster2,3 1RTI Surgical, Alachua, FL, USA; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]. This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL] are normal (ie, non-diseased on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic

  7. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Di Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases.

  8. A comparative study on the relationship between acetylcholinesterase activity and acute toxicity in Daphnia magna exposed to anticholinesterase insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printes, Liane Biehl; Callaghan, Amanda

    2004-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was measured in Daphnia magna that had been exposed to four organophosphates (OPs; parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and acephate) and one carbamate (propoxur) for 48 h. These results were related to acute toxicity (median effective concentration [EC50] for immobility). For the four OPs, the EC50s were 7.03 pM, 3.17 pM, 10.56 pM, and 309.82 microM, respectively. The EC50 for propoxur was 449.90 pM. Reduction in AChE activity was directly related to an increase in immobility in all chemicals tested. However, the ratio between the EC50 and the AChE median inhibiting concentration ranged from 0.31 to 0.90. A 50% reduction in AChE activity generally was associated with detrimental effects on mobility. However, for acephate, high levels of AChE inhibition (70%) were observed in very low concentrations and were not associated with immobility. In addition, increasing the concentration of acephate further had a slight negative effect on AChE activity but a strong detrimental effect on mobility. Binding sites other than AChE possibly are involved in acephate toxicity to D. magna. Our findings demonstrate different associations between AChE inhibition and toxicity when different chemicals are compared. Therefore, the value of using AChE activity as a biomarker in D. magna will be dependent on the chemical tested.

  9. Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system.

  10. Maternal and neonatal anti-cytomegalovirus IgG level and risk of postnatal cytomegalovirus transmission in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Joppe; van Loon, Anton M.; Krediet, Tannette G.; Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A.

    2013-01-01

    Immunological mechanisms influencing the risk of mother-to-child cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission in preterm infants have not been studied sufficiently. In this study, the correlation between maternal and neonatal serum anti-CMV IgG levels and risk of postnatal CMV transmission in preterm infants

  11. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against gram-negative bacteria isolated from a tertiary hospital in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nelly M; Youssef, Alaa A F

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, has necessitated the search for alternative therapy by either introducing new agents or renewing interest in old agents. This study compares the in vitro activity of tigecycline (TIG), recently introduced to Egyptian market, to other potentially active antimicrobials as Colistin (COL), imipenem (IPM), levofloxacin (LEV), and piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ) against 67 Gram-negative clinical isolates obtained from El- Meery Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. El-Meery Hospital is a 1,500-bed tertiary teaching hospital where TIG has not been previously used. Based on MIC(90)s, TIG was found to be a comparator to IPM and COL (MIC(90)= 8 μg/ml). LEV and PIP/TAZ were less active than TIG exhibiting high MIC(90)s. TIG inhibited 100% of Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae and 60% of Ps. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates. In time-kill studies against IPM-resistant isolates, TIG showed bactericidal activity after 6 hours of contact against the Enterobacteriaceae isolates and after 3 hours for the tested Ps. aeruginosa isolates at 4× and 8× MIC. Against A. baumannii, TIG exerted a bacteriostatic effect. TIG demonstrated variable ability to suppress biofilm formation affecting mainly E. coli and A. baumannii isolates. These results point TIG to be a promising agent in treatment of infections caused by strains for which adequate therapy has been limited. As far as we know, this is the first report evaluating the in vitro activity of TIG against Egyptian clinical isolates.

  12. Lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) activity is greatest while viewing dance compared to visualization and movement: learning and expertise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nota, Paula M; Levkov, Gabriella; Bar, Rachel; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2016-07-01

    The lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) is comprised of subregions selectively activated by images of human bodies (extrastriate body area, EBA), objects (lateral occipital complex, LO), and motion (MT+). However, their role in motor imagery and movement processing is unclear, as are the influences of learning and expertise on its recruitment. The purpose of our study was to examine putative changes in LOTC activation during action processing following motor learning of novel choreography in professional ballet dancers. Subjects were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging up to four times over 34 weeks and performed four tasks: viewing and visualizing a newly learned ballet dance, visualizing a dance that was not being learned, and movement of the foot. EBA, LO, and MT+ were activated most while viewing dance compared to visualization and movement. Significant increases in activation were observed over time in left LO only during visualization of the unlearned dance, and all subregions were activated bilaterally during the viewing task after 34 weeks of performance, suggesting learning-induced plasticity. Finally, we provide novel evidence for modulation of EBA with dance experience during the motor task, with significant activation elicited in a comparison group of novice dancers only. These results provide a composite of LOTC activation during action processing of newly learned ballet choreography and movement of the foot. The role of these areas is confirmed as primarily subserving observation of complex sequences of whole-body movement, with new evidence for modification by experience and over the course of real world ballet learning.

  13. Comparing the Environmental Impacts of Alkali Activated Mortar and Traditional Portland Cement Mortar using Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheu, P. S.; Ellis, K.; Varela, B.

    2015-11-01

    Since the year 1908 there has been research into the use alkali activated materials (AAM) in order to develop cementitious materials with similar properties to Ordinary Portland Cement. AAMs are considered green materials since their production and synthesis is not energy intensive. Even though AAMs have a high compressive strength, the average cost of production among other issues limits its feasibility. Previous research by the authors yielded a low cost AAM that uses mine tailings, wollastonite and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This mortar has an average compressive strength of 50MPa after 28 days of curing. In this paper the software SimaPro was used to create a product base cradle to gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This compared the environmental impact of the AAM mortar to an Ordinary Portland Cement mortar (PCHM) with similar compressive strength. The main motivation for this research is the environmental impact of producing Ordinary Portland Cement as compared to alkali activated slag materials. The results of this LCA show that the Alkali Activated Material has a lower environmental impact than traditional Portland cement hydraulic mortar, in 10 out of 12 categories including Global Warming Potential, Ecotoxicity, and Smog. Areas of improvement and possible future work were also discovered with this analysis.

  14. Comparing the functional components, SOD-like activities, antimutagenicity, and nutrient compositions of Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nae-Cherng Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species of the genus Phellinus possess beneficial properties, including antioxidant, immune-enhancing, and antimutagenic effects. Phenolic compounds and polysaccharides are two kinds of bioactive compounds; however, few studies have compared the differences between Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus in their functional components, functional activities, and nutrient compositions. Herein, the proximate compositions and microelements of the fruiting body of P. igniarius and P. linteus were determined. The fruiting body of P. igniarius and P. linteus were extracted by boiling water [water extract of P. igniarius (WEPI and P. linteus (WEPL]. The contents of total phenolics and polysaccharides, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD-like and antimutagenic activities of WEPI and WEPL, were compared. We found that WEPI was rich in phenolics and polysaccharides and had higher SOD-like activity than WEPL. Nutrient compositions were mainly different in minerals, whereas anitmutagenicity was similar. All of these results suggested that P. igniarius has greater potential for the development of antioxidant and immunomodulating food products than P. linteus.

  15. Comparative epigenomics in distantly related teleost species identifies conserved cis-regulatory nodes active during the vertebrate phylotypic period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Juan J.; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; Vázquez-Marín, Javier; Parra-Acero, Helena; Cross, Joe W.; Rigby, Peter W.J.; Carvajal, Jaime J.; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Gómez-Skarmeta, José L.; Martínez-Morales, Juan R.

    2014-01-01

    The complex relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny has been the subject of attention and controversy since von Baer’s formulations in the 19th century. The classic concept that embryogenesis progresses from clade general features to species-specific characters has often been revisited. It has become accepted that embryos from a clade show maximum morphological similarity at the so-called phylotypic period (i.e., during mid-embryogenesis). According to the hourglass model, body plan conservation would depend on constrained molecular mechanisms operating at this period. More recently, comparative transcriptomic analyses have provided conclusive evidence that such molecular constraints exist. Examining cis-regulatory architecture during the phylotypic period is essential to understand the evolutionary source of body plan stability. Here we compare transcriptomes and key epigenetic marks (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac) from medaka (Oryzias latipes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), two distantly related teleosts separated by an evolutionary distance of 115–200 Myr. We show that comparison of transcriptome profiles correlates with anatomical similarities and heterochronies observed at the phylotypic stage. Through comparative epigenomics, we uncover a pool of conserved regulatory regions (≈700), which are active during the vertebrate phylotypic period in both species. Moreover, we show that their neighboring genes encode mainly transcription factors with fundamental roles in tissue specification. We postulate that these regulatory regions, active in both teleost genomes, represent key constrained nodes of the gene networks that sustain the vertebrate body plan. PMID:24709821

  16. APPLICATION OF CASSAVA PEELS ACTIVATED CARBON IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL REFINERY WASTEWATER – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigho Moses Oghenejoboh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the efficiency of activated carbon produced from fermented cassava peels (CPB, unfermented cassava peels (CPA and commercial grade activated carbon (CAC in the treatment of refinery wastewater was carried out. CPB was found to be 8% and 18% more efficient when compared to CPA and CAC in the removal of COD, and 14% and 3% better than CAC and CPA respectively in the removal of BOD5. The removal efficiency of Pb2+ by CPB was 100% compared to 95% and 57% by CPA and CAC while 96% of phenol was removed by CPB against 93% and 83% by CPA and CAC respectively. This better performance of CPB over CPA and CAC is not unconnected with its higher pH resulting from the removal of cyanide from the peels during the fermentation process. However, despite the high phenol removal efficiency by CPB, the concentration of phenol in the treated effluent does not meet the environmental guidelines for disposal. It is therefore, recommended that a two-stage CPB adsorption column arranged in series is necessary to treat refinery wastewater efficiently if it is desired to totally remove phenol from the effluent or reduce the concentration to 0.005mg/l allowed by the Federal environmental protection agency (FEPA. The equilibrium adsorption test conducted showed that the Freundlich isotherm is a better fit for the adsorption of phenol by the three activated carbons with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.9364, 0.9383 and 0.9541 for CAC, CPA and CPB respectively. CPB was found to be a better adsorbent as it has the highest adsorptive capacity as evidenced from its better Freundlich exponent.

  17. A comparative study of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of common anti-diabetic plants at Kharagpur 1 block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineshkumar B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the increase and needs to be addressed appropriately. In this study area, herbal remedies are considered convenient for management of Type 2 diabetes with postprandial hyperglycemia due to their traditional acceptability and availability, low costs, lesser side effects. Comparative evaluation of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of selected plants extracts. Kharagpur is situated in the Midnapur West district of West Bengal in India. In this district, diabetes prevalence is comparatively high. Ten common plants in IIT Kharagpur 1 Block namely, Acalypha indica, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Musa sapientum, Mangifera indica, Murraya, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus and Tinospora cordifolia were tested for their alpha amylase inhibitory activities to establish anti-diabetic potentials. The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous. The extracts obtained were subjected to in vitro alpha amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate and porcine pancreatic amylase as the enzyme. Statistical difference and linear regression analysis were performed by using Graphpad prism 5 statistical software. Ethanol extracts of Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and petroleum ether extract of Murraya koenigii (at a concentrations 10-100μg/ml showed maximum percentage inhibition on alpha amylase activity with an IC 50 value of 37.86 ± 0.32μg/ml, 62.99 ± 1.20μg/ml and 59.0 ± 0.51μg/ml respectively when compared with acarbose (IC 50 value 83.33 ± 0.75μg/ml. The results showing that Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and Murraya koenigii might be effective in lowering post prandial hyperglycemia.

  18. HbIDI, SlIDI and EcIDI: A comparative study of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase activity and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Estevez, Yannick; Quiliano, Miguel; Baldera-Aguayo, Pedro A; Zimic, Mirko; Pribat, Anne; Bakleh, Marc-Elias; Teyssier, Emeline; Gallusci, Philippe; Gardrat, Christian; Lecomte, Sophie; Peruch, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified the isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases (IDIs) from two plants, Hevea brasiliensis and Solanum lycopersicum, and compared them to the already well characterized Escherichia coli IDI. Phylogenetic analysis showed high homology between the three enzymes. Their catalytic activity was investigated in vitro with recombinant purified enzymes and in vivo by complementation colorimetric tests. The three enzymes displayed consistent activities both in vitro and in vivo. In term of structure, studied by ATR-FTIR and molecular modeling, it is clear that both plant enzymes are more related to their human homologue than to E. coli IDI. But it is assumed that EcIDI represent the minimalistic part of the catalytic core, as both plant enzymes present a supplementary sequence forming an extra α-helice surrounding the catalytic site that could facilitate the biocatalysis. New potential biotechnological applications may be envisaged.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FRESH AND DRY RHIZOMES OF CURCUMA ZEDOARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumathi*, G.T. Iswariya, B. Sivaprabha, B. Dharani, P. Radha, and P.R. Padma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Oxygen is an element obligatory for life. Biological combustion produces harmful intermediates called free radicals. Free radicals are continuously produced by the body’s aerobic life and our metabolism. Antioxidants are the substances, which act against oxidative compounds. Under normal conditions the body’s antioxidants convert ROS to prevent the over production of free radicals. Recently, natural foods and food derived antioxidants such as vitamins and phenolic phytochemicals, have received growing attention, because they are known to function as chemo preventive agents against oxidative damage and are considered beneficial for human health. The present study was conducted to compare the antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria. The methanol extract of both the rhizomes showed good radical scavenging activity.

  20. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    (100 g/m(2)). Each filter was weighed at the beginning of the soiling period and after 3 and 6 months of service. Additionally, up- and down-stream ozone concentrations and filter pressure drops were measured monthly. Following 6 months of service, the air downstream of each of the combination filters......As ventilation filters accumulate particles removed from the airstream, they become emitters of sensory pollutants that degrade indoor air quality. Previously we demonstrated that an F7 bag-type filter that incorporates activated carbon (a "combination filter") reduces this adverse effect compared...... to an equivalent filter without carbon. The aim of the present study was to examine how the amount of activated carbon (AC) used in combination filters affects their ability to remove both sensory offending pollutants and ozone. A panel evaluated the air downstream of four different filters after each had...

  1. Comparative study of the antioxidant activities of some lipase-catalyzed alkyl dihydrocaffeates synthesized in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Somayeh; Lasekan, Ola; Tan, Chin Ping; Abas, Faridah; Wei, Leong Sze

    2017-06-01

    The solubility limitations of phenolic acids in many lipidic environments are now greatly improved by their enzymatic esterification in ionic liquids (ILs). Herein, four different ILs were tested for the esterification of dihydrocaffeic acid with hexanol and the best IL was selected for the synthesis of four other n-alkyl esters with different chain-lengths. The effect of alkyl chain length on the anti-oxidative properties of the resulted purified esters was investigated using β-carotene bleaching (BCB) and free radical scavenging method DPPH and compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as reference compound. All four esters (methyl, hexyl, dodecyl and octadecyl dihydrocaffeates) exhibited relatively strong radical scavenging abilities. The scavenging activity of the test compounds was in the following order: methyl ester>hexyl ester⩾dodecyl ester>octadecyl ester>BHT while the order for the BCB anti-oxidative activity was; BHT>octadecyl ester>dodecyl ester>hexyl ester>methyl ester.

  2. A Comparing of Body Composition Components in Physically Active and Inactive Male Students of Sharoud University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bahrololoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a serious health problem that reduces life expectancy by increasing one's risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis and certain types of cancer. Moreover, body composition is divided into fat and fat free mass components. Research shows that physical activity is an important factor that affects body composition. This research aimed at estimating and comparing the body composition components of physically active and inactive male student of Shahroud University of technologyMethods: Participants of this study were 70 inactive male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years and 65 physically active male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years. The participants were randomly selected through stratified sampling procedure from various faculties and different admission years. Body composition was estimated with Body composition analyzer system that measured body composition components using bioelectrical impedance method.Results: Data analysis with SPSS-15 software revealed that: average of BF% in physically active sample was (13.43±3.15 and average of inactive samples was (16.73±6.16 which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.001 ; the LBM in physically active samples was (60.27±8.05 Kg and average of inactive samples was (56.43±7.6 Kg which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.005; the average of BMI in physically active sample was (22.62±2.8 kgm and average of inactive samples was (22.25±3.84 kgm which statistically did not show significant difference (P=0.519; the WHR average of physically active samples was (0.798±.03m and average of inactive samples was (0.81±.06m and there was not a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: These results revealed that body composition of physically active students were better than that of the inactive ones, so it can be concluded that there is a

  3. Comparative study on antiproliferation properties and cellular antioxidant activities of commonly consumed food legumes against nine human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2012-10-01

    The aims of this work were to compare health promoting effects of commonly consumed food legumes in terms of cancer cell proliferation inhibitory effects and cellular antioxidant activities (CAA). The CAA was evaluated by fluorescence microplate reader based on in vitro animal cell cultivation. Antiproliferative properties were assayed by MTT method using in vitro cell culture system. Phytochemicals (including total phenolic, procyanidin, saponin and phytic acid) and chemical antioxidant activities (including DPPH free radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PRSC)) were also determined for comparison purposes. The results showed that different types of legumes possessed considerable variations in their phytochemicals, as well as chemical and cellular antioxidant activities. Adzuki bean exhibited the strongest antiproliferative properties in a dose-dependent manner against all digestive system cancer cell lines (CAL27, AGS, HepG2, SW480 and Caco-2), ovary cancer cell SK-OV-3 and breast cancer cell MCF-7 among all legumes tested. Black soybean exhibited the highest saponin, phytic acid content, PRSC values, and the strongest CAA values. These results indicate that commonly consumed food legumes may serve as an excellent dietary source of natural antioxidants for health promotion and cancer prevention.

  4. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, T. J.; Beluk, N. H.; Elbin, R. J.; Henry, L. C.; French, J.; Dakan, S. M.; Collins, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/ patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18–45 years with a recent (15–45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X’s and O’s) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion. PMID:24477579

  5. Employee engagement factors that affect enrollment compared with retention in two coaching programs--the ACTIVATE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet B; Harvey, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    This article describes enrollment and retention results from a randomized controlled trial that tested differences between a traditional worksite health promotion program and an activated consumer program on health behaviors and health status. A control arm was included. Baseline survey and clinical data were collected from 631 of 1628 eligible employees (39% response rate) between March and June of 2005. Retention data were collected in March 2007-12 months into an 18-month program. At baseline, participants in the 6 groups (3 arms in each of 2 companies) were comparable in health status but not in patient activation status. Enrollment of high-risk employees into the 2 individualized coaching programs (one focused on traditional health promotion, the other focused on activated consumer navigation) varied significantly by industry type, smoking status, and patient activation. In contrast, retention in the coaching programs was related to sex, age, and industry type. Our findings suggest that one set of strategies may be needed to encourage program enrollment while a distinctly different set of strategies may be needed to sustain participation.

  6. The Activity of [60]Fullerene Derivatives Bearing Amine and Carboxylic Solubilizing Groups against Escherichia coli: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry G. Deryabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a comparative investigation of the antibacterial activity of two water-soluble fullerene derivatives bearing protonated amine (AF and deprotonated carboxylic (CF groups appended to the fullerene cage via organic linkers. The negatively charged fullerene derivative CF showed no tendency to bind to the bacterial cells and, consequently, no significant antibacterial activity. In contrast, the compound AF loaded with cationic groups showed strong and partially irreversible binding to the negatively charged Escherichia coli K12 TG1 cells and to human erythrocytes, also possessing negative zeta potential. Adsorption of AF on the bacterial surface was visualized by atomic force microscopy revealing the formation of specific clusters (AF aggregates surrounding the bacterial cell. Incubation of E. coli K12 TG1 with AF led to a dose-dependent bactericidal effect with LD50 = 79.1 µM. The presence of human erythrocytes in the test medium decreased the AF antibacterial activity. Thus we reveal that the water-soluble cationic fullerene derivative AF possesses promising antibacterial activity, which might be utilized in the development of novel types of chemical disinfectants.

  7. P2X7R activation drives distinct IL-1 responses in dendritic cells compared to macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Englezou, Pavlos C.; Rothwell, Simon W.; Ainscough, Joseph S.; Brough, David; Landsiedel, Robert; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    The P2X7R is a functionally distinct member of the P2X family of non-selective cation channels associated with rapid activation of the inflammasome complex and signalling interleukin (IL)-1β release in macrophages. The main focus of this investigation was to compare P2X7R-driven IL-1 production by primary murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and macrophages (BMM). P2X7R expression in murine BMDC and BMM at both transcriptional (P2X7A variant) and protein levels was demonstrated....

  8. Comparing the anti-arthritic activities of the plants Justicia gendarussa Burm F. and Withania somnifera Linn

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    Paval Jaijesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the anti-arthritic activities of the plants Justicia gendarussa and Withania somnifera. Arthritis is induced in male albino rats using Freund′s complete adjuvant and bovine type II collagen. Leaves of J. gendarussa and roots of W. somnifera were powdered and extracted with ethanol (95% using the soxhlet method. The effect of these plant extracts on arthritic rats were assessed by various blood parameters and also by taking the change in paw volume. The plants J. gendarussa and W. somnifera suppressed the anti-arthritic changes induced in rats and the results were statistically significant.

  9. Comparative study of the active cadmium efflux systems operating at the plasma membrane and tonoplast of cucumber root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migocka, Magdalena; Papierniak, Anna; Kosatka, Ewelina; Klobus, Grazyna

    2011-10-01

    The strategies developed by plants to avoid the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and other heavy metals involve active sequestration of metals into the apoplast and vacuoles. The protein systems excluding heavy metals from the cell cytosol localize to the plasma membrane and tonoplast and are energized either by ATP or by the electrochemical gradient generated by H(+)-ATPase or by V-ATPase and pyrophosphatase (PPase), respectively. In this work, a comparative study on the contribution of both the plasma membrane and tonoplast in the active detoxification of plant cells after treatment with Cd was performed. The studies using plants treated and untreated with Cd reveal that both, H(+)-coupled and MgATP-driven efflux of Cd across plasma membranes and tonoplast is markedly stimulated in the presence of Cd in the environment. Previous studies on plasma-membrane localized H(+)-coupled Cd efflux together with the present data demonstrating tonoplast H(+)/Cd(2+) antiport activity suggest that H(+)-coupled secondary transport of Cd displays a lower affinity for Cd when compared with Cd primary pumps driven by MgATP. In addition, it is shown that MgATP-energized Cd efflux across both membranes is significantly enhanced by cysteine, dithiothreitol, and glutathione. These results suggest that Cd is excluded from the cytosol through an energy-dependent system as a free ion as well as a complexed form. Although both membranes contribute in the active exclusion of ionized and complexed Cd from the cytosol, the overall calculation of Cd accumulation in the everted plasma membranes and vacuolar vesicles suggests that the tonoplast and vacuole have a major function in Cd efflux from the cytosol in the roots of cucumber subjected to Cd stress.

  10. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against carbapenem-susceptible and resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carattoli Alessandra

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recent multi-centre Italian survey (2003–2004, conducted in 45 laboratories throughout Italy with the aim of monitoring microorganisms responsible for severe infections and their antibiotic resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from various wards of 9 hospitals as one of the most frequent pathogens. One hundred and seven clinically significant strains of A. baumannii isolates were included in this study to determine the in vitro activity of tigecycline and comparator agents. Methods Tests for the susceptibility to antibiotics were performed by the broth microdilution method as recommended by CLSI guidelines. The following antibiotics were tested: aztreonam, piperacillin/tazobactam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem tetracycline, doxycycline, tigecycline, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, and trimethoprim/sulphametoxazole. The PCR assay was used to determine the presence of OXA, VIM, or IMP genes in the carbapenem resistant strains. Results A. baumannii showed widespread resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam in more than 90% of the strains; resistance to imipenem and meropenem was 50 and 59% respectively, amikacin and gentamicin were both active against about 30% of the strains and colistin about 99%, with only one strain resistant. By comparison with tetracyclines, tigecycline and doxycycline showed a higher activity. In particular, tigecycline showed a MIC90 value of 2 mg/L and our strains displayed a unimodal distribution of susceptibility being indistinctly active against carbapenem-susceptible and resistant strains, these latter possessed OXA-type variant enzymes. Conclusion In conclusion, tigecycline had a good activity against the MDR A. baumannii strains while maintaining the same MIC90 of 2 mg/L against the carbapenem-resistant strains.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v ethanol-water extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed among the different extraction techniques upon comparison of phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM, total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM, and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM, and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity. Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health.

  12. Comparative Assessment of the Anticoagulant Activity of Rivaroxaban and Dabigatran in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Noninterventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantes, Argirios E; Kyriakou, Elias; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Katogiannis, Konstantinos; Papadakis, Ioannis; Douramani, Panagiota; Kopterides, Petros; Kapsimali, Violetta; Lekakis, John; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2016-04-01

    There is a shortage of data in everyday clinical practice about the anticoagulant effects caused by the new oral anticoagulants (NOAs). Our aim was to estimate the intensity of anticoagulant activity induced by rivaroxaban 20 mg qd and dabigatran 110 mg bid among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NV-AF).We studied 20 patients with NV-AF treated with dabigatran, and 20 patients treated with rivaroxaban. We performed conventional coagulation tests, thrombin generation (TG) test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and epinephrine-induced light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in all 40 patients and 20 controls. Hemoclot Thrombin Inhibitors (HTI) and Factor Xa Direct Inhibitor (DiXaI) assay were used to measure dabigatran and rivaroxaban plasma levels, respectively.Measurements of all assays estimating anticoagulant activity across the 2 patient groups were similar, except for aPTT. Patients on dabigatran exhibited statistically significantly prolonged aPTT values (P dabigatran also showed decreased aggregation compared to those on rivaroxaban (P = 0.045). Regarding the TG test, there was no association between endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and rivaroxaban plasma levels (P = 0.33) as opposed to dabigatran levels (P dabigatran as compared to rivaroxaban.

  13. Physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults 60 years and older: New York City residents compared with a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Morland, Kimberly B; Wen, Fang; Scanlin, Kathleen

    2014-10-01

    This study describes moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior among New York City (NYC) residents 60 years and older and compared with national United States' estimates. Adults aged 60 or older living in NYC (n = 760) were compared with similar aged adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 2,451 adults). Both groups wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for one week. The NYC sample recorded 13.2, 23.8, and 37.8 mean min/day of MVPA and the NHANES sample recorded 10.6, 21.1, and 39.3, depending on the definition. Sedentary behavior averaged 9.6 hr/day for the NYC sample and 9.3 hr/day for the NHANES sample. The NYC sample spent a longer proportion of time in sedentary behavior and light activities, but more time in MVPA than the NHANES sample. Urbanicity may explain some of the differences between the two samples.

  14. Brain activity in goal-directed movements in a real compared to a virtual environment using the Nintendo Wii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Jochen; Reinecke, Kirsten; Cordes, Marjolijn; Lerch, Christiane; Weiss, Michael

    2010-08-30

    Low budget virtual environments like the Nintendo Wii increased in popularity and may play a role in motor learning related to sports and exercise. But nothing was known about the comparability of cortical activity of motor tasks in real and virtual environments. The aim of the study was to examine cortical differences between real and Wii based virtual sports performances using the golf putt as a model. Ten male golfers (26.0 +/- 0.7 years; 81.8 +/- 5.6 kg; 184.5 +/- 6.0 cm; handicap 30.0+/-10.0; 2.9+/-1.0 years of golf experience) were asked to putt for 3 min in random order in the real and the virtual Wii condition. A rest in sitting position (3 min) followed each performance. The score and cortical activity (EEG) were recorded continuously. The participants performed with a significant better score in the real condition (p memory where increased frontal Theta power indicated higher focused attention and higher Alpha-2 power was inversely related to the quantity of sensory information processing in the real putting compared to the virtual condition.

  15. The Comparative Effects of Sports Massage, Active Recovery, and Rest in Promoting Blood Lactate Clearance After Supramaximal Leg Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy A.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Robertson, Robert J.; Lephart, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the comparative effect of sports massage, active recovery, and rest on promoting blood lactate clearance after maximal anaerobic (supramaximal) leg exercise. Design and Setting: A counterbalanced experimental design with repeated measures was used. The repeated measures were the three treatment conditions. The order of the conditions was determined by random assignment to a counterbalanced test sequence. All data were collected in the Human Energy Research Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. Subjects: Ten male competitive cyclists volunteered for this investigation. Measurements: Serial venous blood samples were drawn and analyzed for blood lactate concentration for each test condition. Results: There were significant main effects for both absolute and relative values of blood lactate concentration between the three treatment groups and across time within groups. Conclusions: After supramaximal leg exercise, active recovery produced significant decreases in both absolute and relative measures of blood lactate concentration when compared with the sports massage and rest conditions. No significant difference was found between sports massage and rest for either absolute or relative changes in blood lactate concentration. PMID:16558481

  16. Comparative study on the rumen microbial populations, hydrolytic enzyme activities and dry matter degradability between different species of ruminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yea Hwang; Ok, Ji Un; Lee, Shin Ja; Ha, Jong Kyu; Lee, Sung Sill

    2010-12-01

    A comparative study among Korean native cow (Hanwoo), Holstein dairy cow, Korean native goat and crossbred sheep on the population and marker concentration of ruminal microbes, the activities of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), xylanase and amylase, and in situ dry matter (DM) degradability were conducted. Twelve ruminally cannulated animals, three of each species, were used. Animals were fed the same diet containing 40% formula feed and 60% rice straw at the level of 2.5% of body weight. Total viable microbial populations in the rumen fluid were significantly (P < 0.01) greater for bacteria and fungi in goat than those of Holstein. The protozoan population among ruminant species was the reverse from that of bacteria. The concentrations of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid and chitin as markers for bacteria and fungi in the rumen fluid, respectively, were highest in goat, which is in accordance with the above population data. The concentration of aminoethylphosphonic acid as marker of protozoa was highest in Hanwoo and lowest in sheep (P < 0.01). Goat had the highest (P < 0.01) activities of all the enzymes investigated among ruminants. In situ effective degradation of the DM of rice straw was approximately 19% higher in the rumen of goat compared with other animals.

  17. Comparative Study between Axial and Coronal Planes of CT Enterography in Evaluation of Disease Activity and Complications of Crohn Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Soung Kyung; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Hyo Jong [Dept. of Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    To retrospectively compare the accuracy of axial and coronal planes of CT enterography for detection of pathologic findings of Crohn disease. 168 patients who were suspected of having Crohn disease underwent CT enterography. 66 patients who were diagnosed Crohn disease were retrospectively evaluated (endoscopic biopsy of terminal ileum: 12 patients, segmental resection of small bowel: 6 patients, diagnosed based on a combination of clinical, histopathological and imaging findings: 48 patients). 2 radiologists reviewed axial planes of CT enterography and one month later reviewed coronal planes. CT enterography findings of active phase, chronic phase and complications of Crohn disease were evaluated and then compared with axial and coronal planes by using chi-square test. Mucosal hyperenhancement, wall thickening, and mesenteric fat stranding were more detected on axial planes, which were CT findings of active Crohn disease. Pseudosacculation, fibrotic strictures, fistulas, abscesses were more detected on coronal planes, which were CT findings of chronic Crohn disease or complications. In particular, pseudosacculation and fibrotic strictures were significantly more detected on coronal planes. When evaluating CT enterography in Crohn disease, coronal planes provide more useful diagnostic information of pseudosacculation and fibrotic strictures.

  18. Psychosocial effects of reverse-integrated basketball activity compared to separate and no physical activity in young people with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Chacham-Guber, Anat; Reiter, Shunit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life (QOL) and perceived social competence (PSC) in young people with physical disability. Ninety participants (33 females and 57 males) were monitored across four conditions: competitive separate physical activity (COSPA), recreational separate physical activity (RESPA), reverse-integrated basketball activity (RIBA), and no physical activity (NOPA). QOL and PSC questionnaires were administered at the beginning and the end of the study's duration of six months. ANCOVA corrected for functional independence and gender revealed significant group effects for pre to post change values of QOL and PSC, with greater positive change in the RIBA compared to all other groups. In addition, one-way ANOVA on pre to post change values with LSD post hoc revealed significant differences. RIBA change values for QOL with 8.77%, and for PSC with 9.98% change were significantly higher (p<.001) than in all other groups (ranges -0.18 through 1.36% for QOL, and -2.31 through 2.34% for PSC). These outcomes demonstrate a favorable outcome of the RIBA on participants. Low functional ability did not constrain the effects of sport participation.

  19. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. memory biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions.Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music. Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course.Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .02. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [(F(1, 56 = 3.0, p = .09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being [r = 0.31, p = .02] and decreased clinical symptoms [r = -0.29, p = .03].Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing.

  20. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF KINESIO VERSUS MCCONNELL TAPING ON PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME DURING FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Kumar. N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is a condition presenting with anterior knee pain or pain behind the patella (retro-patellar pain. The purpose of the study is to find the immediate effect of Kinesio taping versus McConnell taping in patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects during functional activities- stair ascent, stair descent and squat lift. Methods: An experimental study design with three groups, 45 subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome was randomized. 15 subjects into each Kinesiotaping group, McConnell group and Sham group. Kinesiotaping group received patellofemoral kinesio taping technique, McConnell group received McConnell taping technique and Sham group received sham taping technique. Outcome measure pain was measured using visual analogue scale during pre and post taping pain levels that were measured during three functional activities: stair ascent, stair descent and squat lift. Results: When analysed within the group using paired ‘t’ test and wilcoxon signed rank test, there is statistically significant improvement in post pain levels in KT, MT and Sham group during stair climbing, stair descent and squat lift. When compared measuring of pre and post pain levels between three groups, there is no significant change in pain level between Kinesio taping and McConnell taping as also compared to sham taping. Conclusion: The study concluded that Kinesio taping, McConnell taping and sham taping shown immediate effect on reducing pain during functional activities such as stair climbing, stair descent and squat lift with greater percentage of pain reduction was found following Kinesiotaping and McConnell taping.

  1. P2X7R activation drives distinct IL-1 responses in dendritic cells compared to macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englezou, Pavlos C; Rothwell, Simon W; Ainscough, Joseph S; Brough, David; Landsiedel, Robert; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    The P2X(7)R is a functionally distinct member of the P2X family of non-selective cation channels associated with rapid activation of the inflammasome complex and signalling interleukin (IL)-1β release in macrophages. The main focus of this investigation was to compare P2X(7)R-driven IL-1 production by primary murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and macrophages (BMM). P2X(7)R expression in murine BMDC and BMM at both transcriptional (P2X(7)A variant) and protein levels was demonstrated. Priming with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activation with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) resulted in markedly enhanced IL-1 (α and β) secretion in BMDC compared with BMM. In both cell types IL-1 production was profoundly inhibited with a P2X(7)R-specific inhibitor (A-740003) demonstrating that this release is predominantly a P2X(7)R-dependent process. These data also suggest that P2X(7)R and caspase-1 activation drive IL-1α release from BMDC. Both cell types expressed constitutively the gain-of-function P2X(7)K as well as the full P2X(7)A variant at equivalent levels. LPS priming reduced significantly levels of P2X(7)A but not P2X(7)K transcripts in both BMDC and BMM. P2X(7)R-induced pore formation, assessed by YO-PRO-1 dye uptake, was greater in BMDC, and these cells were protected from cell death. These data demonstrate that DC and macrophages display distinct patterns of cytokine regulation, particularly with respect to IL-1, as a consequence of cell-type specific differences in the physicochemical properties of the P2X(7)R. Understanding the cell-specific regulation of these cytokines is essential for manipulating such responses in health and disease.

  2. Comparative MD Simulations Indicate a Dual Role for Arg1323.50 in Dopamine-Dependent D2R Activation.

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    Ralf C Kling

    Full Text Available Residue Arg3.50 belongs to the highly conserved DRY-motif of class A GPCRs, which is located at the bottom of TM3. On the one hand, Arg3.50 has been reported to help stabilize the inactive state of GPCRs, but on the other hand has also been shown to be crucial for stabilizing active receptor conformations and mediating receptor-G protein coupling. The combined results of these studies suggest that the exact function of Arg3.50 is likely to be receptor-dependent and must be characterized independently for every GPCR. Consequently, we now present comparative molecular-dynamics simulations that use our recently described inactive-state and Gα-bound active-state homology models of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R, which are either bound to dopamine or ligand-free, performed to identify the function of Arg1323.50 in D2R. Our results are consistent with a dynamic model of D2R activation in which Arg1323.50 adopts a dual role, both by stabilizing the inactive-state receptor conformation and enhancing dopamine-dependent D2R-G protein coupling.

  3. Comparative Studies on Bioactive Constituents in Hawk Tea Infusions with Different Maturity Degree and Their Antioxidant Activities

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    Ming Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawk tea (Litsea coreana var. lanuginose is a very popular herbal tea in the southwest of China. According to the maturity degree of raw materials, Hawk tea can usually be divided into three types: Hawk bud tea (HB, Hawk primary leaf tea (HP, and Hawk mature leaf tea (HM. In this study, some of the bioactive constituents and antioxidant properties of the three kinds of Hawk tea infusions were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the contents of total flavonoids, vitamin C, and carbohydrates in Hawk bud tea infusion (HBI were higher than those in Hawk primary leaf tea infusion (HPI and Hawk mature leaf tea infusion (HMI. HPI had higher contents of total polyphenols and exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity power. HBI could provide more effective protection against erythrocyte hemolysis. As age is going from bud to mature leaf, the ability to inhibit the formation of low density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated diene and the loss of tryptophan fluorescence decreased. The bioactive constituents and antioxidant activities of Hawk tea infusions were significantly affected by the maturity degree of the raw material.

  4. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition and antimicrobal activities of some of Lamiaceae family species and Eucaliptus (Eucaliptus globules M

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    Pecarski Danijela M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of four essential oils that belong to Lamiaceae family (sage, oregano, thyme and eucalyptus oil. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS revealed that the highest percent of essential oils 98.93% include three classes of compounds - monoterpene hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and oxidized monoterpenes. The main components are oxidized monoterpenes: carvacrol (59.03%; thymol (36.12%, eucalyptol (20.66%, hydrocarbon monoterpenes: limonene (30.96% and α-pinene (12.21% and aromatic monoterpene, p-cymene (22.25% All essential oils showed great potential of antimicrobial activity against several bacteria and yeast C. albicans, using the agar diffusion method with wells. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the essential oils has been determined by the broth dilution method and valued in the range from 1 to 5 μL/m, depending on the essential oil and bacteria tested, and up to 100 μL/ml for C. albicans. The essential oils of Lamiaceae family exhibited a strong antibacterial activity for tested microorganisms, while the essential oils of thyme were especially recognized.

  5. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

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    *N. M. Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability. It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract in aqueous and ethanolic extract of rosemary and green tea leaves respectively. The ethanolic extract shows high content of phenolic compounds and in turn highly antioxidative activiy for both rosemary and green tea leaves as compared with aqueous extract.The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves show high reducing power ability comparing with their abilities as chelating agents. Although, the phenolic compounds of green tea leave almost about 3-fold as compared with rosemary leave in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts, their extracts show extremely the same mode of action in both methods of determination (the reducing power and chelating ability. Therefore, we are fully recommended the rosemary leave extracts as a potent food preservative.

  6. Free radical scavenging activity and comparative metabolic profiling of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Thirugnanasambantham, Pankajavalli; Oh, Taek Joo; Kim, So Hyun; Choi, Hyung Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) roots were investigated. Withanolides analysis and comprehensive metabolic profiling between 100% methanol extracts of in vitro and field grown root tissues was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Significantly higher levels of FRSA, TPC, and TFC were observed in in-vitro cultured roots compared with field grown samples. In addition, 30 day-cultured in vitro root samples (1 MIR) exhibited a significantly higher FRSA (IC50 81.01 μg/mL), TPC (118.91 mg GAE/g), and TFC (32.68 mg CE/g) compared with those in 45 day-cultured samples (1.5 MIR). Total of 29 metabolites were identified in in vitro cultured and field grown roots by GC-MS analysis. The metabolites included alcohols, organic acids, purine, pyrimidine, sugars, and putrescine. Vanillic acid was only observed in the in vitro cultured root samples, and higher level of the vanillic acid was observed in 1 MIR when compared to 1.5 MIR. Therefore, it is suggested that 1 MIR might serve as an alternative to field grown roots for the development of medicinal and functional food products.

  7. Comparative in vitro activity of oritavancin and other agents against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debora; Shinabarger, Dean L; Arhin, Francis F; Belley, Adam; Moeck, Greg; Pillar, Chris M

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections constitute a threat to the public health due to their prevalence and associated mortality and morbidity. Several agents have been recently approved to treat MRSA skin infections including lipoglycopeptides (dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin), ceftaroline, and tedizolid. This study compared the MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and time-kill of these agents alongside daptomycin, linezolid, and vancomycin against MRSA (n=15); meropenem, cefazolin, and nafcillin were also included against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA [n=12]). MIC and MBC testing was conducted in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, and time-kills were evaluated at multiples of the MIC and the free-drug maximum plasma concentration (fCmax) at both standard and high inoculum densities for a subset of MRSA (n=2) and MSSA (n=2). MRSA and MSSA were highly susceptible to all agents, with the lipoglycopeptides having the most potent activity by MIC50/90. All agents excluding tedizolid and linezolid were bactericidal by MBC for MRSA and MSSA, though dalbavancin and telavancin exhibited strain-specific bactericidal activity for MRSA. All agents excluding tedizolid and linezolid were bactericidal by time-kill at their respective fCmax against MRSA and MSSA at standard inoculum density, though oritavancin exhibited the most rapid bactericidal activity. Oritavancin and daptomycin at their respective fCmax maintained similar kill curves at high inoculum density. In contrast, the killing observed with other agents was typically reduced or slowed at high inoculum density. These data demonstrate the rapid bactericidal activity of oritavancin and daptomycin against S. aureus relative to other MRSA agents regardless of bacterial burden.

  8. Bioprospecting for anti-Streptococcus mutans:The activity of 10%Sesbania grandiflora flower extract comparable to erythromycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azis Saifudin; Alfian Mahardika Forentin; Arini Fadhilah; Kuswandi Tirtodiharjo; Witri Dyah Melani; Devita Widyasari; Tri Agus Saroso

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To search an herbal material, capable of inhibiting plaque producing bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Methods: Twenty materials comprising 10 flowers and 10 rhizomes were extracted with 70%ethanol. Their activity was then examined at a concentration of 10%(w/v) against Streptococcus mutans in vitro on Mueller–Hinton media. Erythromycin (Oxoid, 20 μg disc) was used as a positive control. Meanwhile, to establish a fingerprint guide for authentication or quality control, the most potent material was further analyzed regarding its chemical constituents by means of reversed phase-high performance liquid chroma-tography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Results: Of the tested samples, Sesbania grandiflora (S. grandiflora) flower and Costus speciosus rhizome extracts showed the most potent activity with inhibited zone diameters of 18.5 and 14.8 mm, respectively. On the other hand, other extract plants showed a diameter zone in the range of 0.5–10.6 mm or being inactive (diameter = 0 mm). The activity of S. grandiflora was comparable to that of erythromycin (diameter=18.0 mm). The best separation was achieved on HPLC system with acetonitrile-water with a ratio of 2:8, and a flow rate at 0.5 mL/min. TLC, meanwhile, was featured on chloroform–methanol (8.5:1.5) as a mobile system. Conclusions: S. grandiflora flower is a promising material to be developed as the active ingredient of anti-plaque toothpaste as well as mouthwash solution. The developed HPLC and TLC system can be used for a further standard in its material authentication as well as for a fingerprinting of quality control during the manufacturing process.

  9. Comparative analyses of the bactericidal activity of snake venoms%蛇毒抗菌的比较性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妲; 孙明忠; 郭春梅; 彭博雅; 刘淑清

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究蛇毒粗毒的抗菌作用,并比较不同蛇毒对不同细菌的抑制效果.方法 采用抑菌环法测定蛇岛蝮、江浙蝮和短尾蝮蛇毒粗毒对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌以及白色念珠菌的抗菌作用,比较不同蛇毒粗毒的抗菌效果;加入过氧化氢酶(catalase),考察蛇毒抗菌作用的变化.结果 (1)3种蛇毒粗毒对5种细菌均呈现不同程度的抑制作用.(2)3种蛇毒粗毒对5种细菌的抑制作用大小依次为:金黄色葡萄球菌>白色念珠菌>大肠埃希菌或铜绿假单胞菌>枯草芽孢杆菌.(3)加入catalase后,蛇毒的抗菌作用明显减弱.结论 (1)3种蛇毒粗毒均具有一定的抗菌作用,并具有明显抑菌选择性.(2)3种蛇毒的抗菌效果不同,蛇岛蝮蛇抗菌作用最强.(3) catalase能显著降低蛇毒的抗菌活性,表明L-氨基酸氧化酶是蛇毒起抗菌作用的主要成分.%Objective To measure and compare the anti-bacterial activity of crude snake venoms against different bacterium strains.Methods The bacteria-inhibiting ring method was applied to measure the anti-bacterial effects of the snake venoms of Gloydius shedaoensis,Agkistrodon halys Pallas and Gloydius brevicaudus on the growths of the bacterium strains of Staphyloccocus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans.The anti-bacterial activities of different crude snake venoms were then compared.The effect of the addition of catalase was also compared.Results (1) The three crude snake venoms showed varied inhibitory effects on the five types of bacterium tested in current work.(2) Basically,the snake venoms showed the strongest inhibitory effect against Staphyloccocus aureus,followed by Candida albicans,Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas acruginosa and Bacillus subtilis.(3) In the presence of catalase,the anti-bacterial effect of Gloydius shedaoensis vemon was significantly suppressed

  10. Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study

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    Azam A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ameer Azam,1,2 Arham S Ahmed,2 Mohammad Oves,3 Mohammad S Khan,3 Sami S Habib,1 Adnan Memic11Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials, 3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, IndiaBackground: Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Methods and results: Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteria.Conclusion: Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3

  11. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE LABORATORY SELECTED AND ACTIVE DRIED SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE YEAST CULTURE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE BRANDY PRODUCTION

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    Bayraktar V.N.

    2015-04-01

    C and low temperature (+6°C, growth at low pH 2.6–3.0 (acid resistance, growth in the presence of 5, 10, and 15% ethanol (ethanol resistance, and growth in the presence of high concentration potassium bisulfite (bisulfite resistance. Hydrosulfide synthesis (H2S gassing production was studied in addition. Parameters of cellular metabolism in yeast suspension, such as concentration of nitrogen, protein, triglicerides, enzymatic activity and total sugar (which include glucose, fructose, and galactose were determined. Macro- and micro-element concentrations in fermented grape must, which contained pure yeast culture was determined and included: potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, chlorides. In addition to identifying parameters of macro- and micro- element concentration in grape must during and following fermentation based on a principle of photometric analysis, carried out using a biochemical analyser Respons-920 (DiaSys Diagnostic Systems GmbH, Germany. Laboratory selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast showed high enzymatic activity with short lag phase. Since of fermentation started on third day concentration of Triglicerides, Protein (total, Potassium and Sodium increased and then level of Protein (total on the 5th day of fermentation twice decreased. Trigliceride concentration on the 5th day of fermentation continued to increase. Concentration of Iron on the 5th day of fermentation increase in geometrical progression, concentration increase in 4-5 times. Contrary Chloride concentration on the 5th day of fermentation decreased in 3-4 times. Enzymatic activity on 3rd day of fermentation maximal for Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase, Phosphatase. Since of 5th day of fermentation Enzymatic activity for Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase 3-4 times. Especially level of Phosphatase activity very decreased in 6-7 times. Comparative assessment between our Laboratory

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Antineoplastic Activity of C60 Fullerene with 5-Fluorouracil and Pyrrole Derivative In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynchak, O. V.; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; Rybalchenko, V. K.; Kyzyma, O. A.; Soloviov, D.; Kostjukov, V. V.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Ritter, U.; Scharff, P.

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor activity of pristine C60 fullerene aqueous solution (C60FAS) compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and pyrrole derivative 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2.5-dione (MI-1) cytostatic drugs was investigated and analyzed in detail using the model of colorectal cancer induced by 1.2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats. The number, size, and location of the tumors were measured, and the pathology was examined. It was found that the number of tumors and total lesion area decreased significantly under the action of C60FAS and MI-1. Because these drugs have different mechanisms of action, their simultaneous administration can potentially increase the effectiveness and significantly reduce the side effects of antitumor therapy.

  13. Comparative analysis of mitosis-specific antibodies for bulk purification of mitotic populations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Amy E; Hsiung, Chris C-S; Blobel, Gerd A

    2014-01-01

    Mitosis entails complex chromatin changes that have garnered increasing interest from biologists who study genome structure and regulation-fields that are being advanced by high-throughput sequencing (Seq) technologies. The application of these technologies to study the mitotic genome requires large numbers of highly pure mitotic cells, with minimal contamination from interphase cells, to ensure accurate measurement of phenomena specific to mitosis. Here, we optimized a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based method for isolating formaldehyde-fixed mitotic cells--at virtually 100% mitotic purity and in quantities sufficient for high-throughput genomic studies. We compared several commercially available antibodies that react with mitosis-specific epitopes over a range of concentrations and cell numbers, finding antibody MPM2 to be the most robust and cost-effective.

  14. Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Firefighters Compared with Police Officers and Sedentary Clerks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Leischik

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between the physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity levels and metabolic parameters among German civil servants. A main focus in this study was to examine the group differences rather than measuring the absolute values in an occupational group.We prospectively examined 198 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], 55 police officers [POs] and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]. For each parameter, the groups were compared using a linear regression adjusted for age.The 97 FFs showed a similar maximal aerobic power (VO2max l/min of 3.17±0.44 l/min compared with the POs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 3.13±0.62 l/min (estimated difference, POs vs. FFs: 0.05, CI: -0.12-0.23, p=0.553. The maximal aerobic power of the FFs was slightly higher than that of the SCs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 2.85±0.52 l/min (-0.21, CI: -0.39-0.04, p=0.018 vs. FFs. The average physical activity (in metabolic equivalents [METS]/week of the FFs was 3953±2688, whereas those of the POs was 2838±2872 (vs. FFs: -985, CI: -1941-30, p = 0.043 and of the SCs 2212±2293 (vs. FFs: -1598.8, CI: -2477-721, p = 0.000; vs. POs: -613.6, CI: -1617.4–390.3, p = 0.229, respectively [corrected]. For the FFs, the average body fat percentage was 17.7%±6.2, whereas it was 21.4%±5.6 for the POs (vs. FFs: 2.75, CI: 0.92-4.59, p=0.004 and 20.8%±6.5 for the SCs (vs. FFs: 1.98, CI: -0.28-4.25, p=0.086; vs. POs: -0.77, CI: 3.15-1.61, p=0.523. The average waist circumference was 89.8 cm±10.0 for the FFs, 97.8 cm±12.4 (5.63, CI: 2.10-9.15, p=0.002 for the POs, and 97.3±11.7 (vs. FFs: -4.89, CI: 1.24-8.55, p=0.009; vs. POs: -0.73, CI: -5.21-3.74, p=0.747 for the SCs.The FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. The PO group had the highest cardiovascular risk of all of the groups because it included more participants with metabolic syndrome; furthermore, the POs

  15. Alternative hand contamination technique to compare the activities of antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps under different test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D; Fischler, George E; Howard, Jeanne M; Patel, Monica; Weidner, Patrick L; Duran, Melani H

    2008-06-01

    Antimicrobial hand soaps provide a greater bacterial reduction than nonantimicrobial soaps. However, the link between greater bacterial reduction and a reduction of disease has not been definitively demonstrated. Confounding factors, such as compliance, soap volume, and wash time, may all influence the outcomes of studies. The aim of this work was to examine the effects of wash time and soap volume on the relative activities and the subsequent transfer of bacteria to inanimate objects for antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps. Increasing the wash time from 15 to 30 seconds increased reduction of Shigella flexneri from 2.90 to 3.33 log(10) counts (P = 0.086) for the antimicrobial soap, while nonantimicrobial soap achieved reductions of 1.72 and 1.67 log(10) counts (P > 0.6). Increasing soap volume increased bacterial reductions for both the antimicrobial and the nonantimicrobial soaps. When the soap volume was normalized based on weight (approximately 3 g), nonantimicrobial soap reduced Serratia marcescens by 1.08 log(10) counts, compared to the 3.83-log(10) reduction caused by the antimicrobial soap (P soap resulted in a bacterial recovery of 2.49 log(10) counts, compared to the 4.22-log(10) (P bacterial recovery on balls handled by hands washed with nonantimicrobial soap. This indicates that nonantimicrobial soap was less active and that the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps can be improved with longer wash time and greater soap volume. The transfer of bacteria to objects was significantly reduced due to greater reduction in bacteria following the use of antimicrobial soap.

  16. Silver nanoparticles in combination with acetic acid and zinc oxide quantum dots for antibacterial activities improvement—A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedira, Sofiane, E-mail: sofianebilel@gmail.com [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Ayachi, Ahmed Abdelhakim, E-mail: ayachi-med@hotmail.fr [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Lakehal, Sihem, E-mail: lakehal.lakehal@gmail.com [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Fateh, Merouane, E-mail: merouane.fateh@gmail.com [Microbiological Laboratory Engineering and Application, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Achour, Slimane, E-mail: achourslimane11@yahoo.fr [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method. • Ag NPs exert their bactericidal effect mainly by Ag{sup +} ions. • CH{sub 3}COOH addition to Ag NPs improves bactericidal effect more than ZnO Qds addition. • E. coli and P. aeruginosa are more sensitive to NPs than K. pneumonia and S. aureus. - Abstract: Due to their remarkable antibacterial/antivirus properties, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO Qds) have been widely used in the antimicrobial field. The mechanism of action of Ag NPs on bacteria was recently studied and it has been proven that Ag NPs exerts their antibacterial activities mainly by the released Ag{sup +}. In this work, Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method, respectively. It was demonstrated that Ag NPs can be oxidized easily in aqueous solution and the addition of acetic acid can increase the Ag{sup +} release which improves the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. A comparative study between bactericidal effect of Ag NPs/acetic acid and Ag NPs/ZnO Qds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus was undertaken using agar diffusion method. The obtained colloids were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  17. Comparative study on composition, structure, and adsorption behavior of activated carbons derived from different synthetic waste polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Xing, Baoshan; Zhu, Lingyan

    2011-08-15

    The composition, structure, and adsorption behavior of activated carbons (ACs) derived from three different types of waste polymers, i.e., tire rubber (TR), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), by KOH activation were compared. The AC derived from PET exhibited the largest surface area (2831 m(2)/g) and pore volume (1.68 cm(3)/g) due to the homogenous aromatic composition of PET. The AC derived from PVC exhibited relatively lower surface area (2666 m(2)/g) but more narrowed pore size distribution (2-3 nm). The complex composition and high ash content of tire particles resulted in AC product with significantly lower surface area (398.5 m(2)/g) and heterogeneous pore width. Adsorption data of methylene blue (MB) were fitted well by Langmuir equation, indicating monolayer coverage on the ACs. The high oxygen content of PET-derived AC heavily affected its adsorption to MB and iodine. Due to the remarkable surface area and highly mesoporous structures, ACs based on both PET and PVC exhibited much higher adsorption capacities than that of TR and commercial coal-based AC (F400). This study demonstrates that the properties of ACs are highly dependent on their starting polymers and the potential of converting synthetic polymer waste into effective adsorbents for environmental remediation and cleanup.

  18. A comparative adsorption study: 17β-estradiol onto aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-ying; He, Yu-jie; Chen, Wei; Wang, Ming-yang; Cao, Su-lan; Ni, Ming; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption plays a significant role in removing hydrophobic 17β-estradiol (E2) from wastewater. Batch experiments were conducted to compare the adsorption of E2 onto activated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and activated sludge (AS), and features evaluated included the adsorption kinetics, thermodynamics, and influence of other environmental factors. By using a non-chemical wet-heat technique, both AGS and AS were treated to inactivated status. Then, after loading E2, the adsorption equilibrium capacity of the AGS was found to be greater than that of the AS at the same initial concentration of E2. Moreover, both the adsorption processes corresponded to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model; the adsorption rate constant of AGS was found to be higher and the half-adsorption time was shorter than that of AS. Next, evaluations of adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics indicated that the adsorption process was mainly a physical process. Lower temperatures facilitated a higher equilibrium adsorption capacity. However, the adsorption binding sites of AGS were distributed more uniformly at higher temperature, in contrast to the distribution found for AS. Finally, acidic conditions and an appropriate ionic strength (0.4 mol/L) were found to be particularly conducive to the adsorption process. Overall, the results showed that AGS has the potential to adsorb E2 with significant efficiency, thereby offering a new and more efficient means of treating E2 and trace oestrogens in wastewater.

  19. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  20. Efficacy of Modified Cognitive Interviewing, Compared to Human Judgments in Detecting Deception Related to Bio-threat Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Charles A. Morgan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available National security professionals have few scientifically valid methods for detecting deception in people who deny being involved in illicit activities relevant to national security. Numerous detecting deception studies have demonstrated that the Modified Cognitive Interviewing (MCI method is one such method - yielding detecting deception rates (i.e. 80-85% that are significantly above those achieved by chance (i.e. 50% or by human judgments (i.e. 54-56%. To date, however, no MCI studies have involved dilemmas of ethological interest to national security professionals. This project begins to address this gap in the scientific literature. In it, we compared the efficacy of MCI to that of human judgments for detecting deception in scientists with expertise in biological materials. Sixty-four scientists were recruited for study; 12 met with a “terrorist” and were paid to make biological materials for illicit purposes. All 64 scientists were interviewed by investigators with law enforcement experience about the bio-threat issue. MCI elicited speech content differences in deceptive, compared to truthful scientists. This resulted in a classification accuracy of 84.4%; Accuracies for Human Judgments (interviewers/raters were 54% and 46%, respectively. MCI required little time and its efficacy suggests it is reasonable to recommend its use to national security experts.

  1. Comparative analysis of polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tunisian pome fruit pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattouch, S; Caboni, P; Coroneo, V; Tuberoso, C; Angioni, A; Dessi, S; Marzouki, N; Cabras, P

    2008-02-13

    Pome trees, apple, pear, and quince, are classified into the subfamily Pomoideae, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Their autumnal fruits are consumed worldwide in different forms, that is, fresh or transformed into jams, jelly, juices, etc. Their well-established beneficial properties to human health were found mainly related to their phenolic content. Pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts obtained from Tunisian fruits at commercial maturity were comparatively evaluated for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials. The phenolic compounds present in the extracts were identified and quantified using RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS techniques. Significant differences in the chromatographic profiles among these fruits, as well as between pulp and peel extracts of each fruit, were observed. Quince, followed by 'Red Delicious', peel extracts showed the highest phenolic content (160.33 and 110.90 mg/100 g of fresh weight). The stronger inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals corresponded to those obtained from peel materials. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial potential against a range of microorganism strains was also carried out. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus were the most sensitive to the active extracts. Among the examined phenolic extracts, 'Red Delicious' and quince peels showed the highest effects for inhibiting bacteria growth. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(4) microg of polyphenol/mL. Red skin apple and quince peels could be of great interest as important antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenol sources.

  2. Comparative study of proteasome inhibitory, synergistic antibacterial, synergistic anticandidal, and antioxidant activities of gold nanoparticles biosynthesized using fruit waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) generated using the aqueous extracts of outer oriental melon peel (OMP) and peach. The synthesized OMP-AuNPs and peach extract (PE)-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra were obtained at 545 nm and 540 nm for OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs, respectively. The estimated absolute crystallite size of the synthesized AuNPs was calculated to be 78.11 nm for OMP-AuNPs and 39.90 nm for PE-AuNPs based on the Scherer equation of the X-ray powder diffraction peaks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds present in OMP and peach extracts in the synthesis and stabilization of synthesized AuNPs. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs showed a strong antibacterial synergistic activity when combined with kanamycin (9.38–20.45 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (9.52–25.23 mm inhibition zones), and they also exerted a strong synergistic anticandidal activity (10.09–15.47 mm inhibition zones) when combined with amphotericin B against five pathogenic Candida species. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs exhibited a strong antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging, and a reducing power, along with a strong proteasome inhibitory potential that could be useful in cancer drug delivery and cancer treatments. The PE-AuNPs showed comparatively higher activity than OMP-AuNPs, which could be attributed to the presence of rich bioactive compounds in the PE that acted as reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of PE-AuNPs. Overall, the results of the current investigation

  3. Comparative study of proteasome inhibitory, synergistic antibacterial, synergistic anticandidal, and antioxidant activities of gold nanoparticles biosynthesized using fruit waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    The aim of this study was to compare the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) generated using the aqueous extracts of outer oriental melon peel (OMP) and peach. The synthesized OMP-AuNPs and peach extract (PE)-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra were obtained at 545 nm and 540 nm for OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs, respectively. The estimated absolute crystallite size of the synthesized AuNPs was calculated to be 78.11 nm for OMP-AuNPs and 39.90 nm for PE-AuNPs based on the Scherer equation of the X-ray powder diffraction peaks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds present in OMP and peach extracts in the synthesis and stabilization of synthesized AuNPs. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs showed a strong antibacterial synergistic activity when combined with kanamycin (9.38-20.45 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (9.52-25.23 mm inhibition zones), and they also exerted a strong synergistic anticandidal activity (10.09-15.47 mm inhibition zones) when combined with amphotericin B against five pathogenic Candida species. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs exhibited a strong antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging, and a reducing power, along with a strong proteasome inhibitory potential that could be useful in cancer drug delivery and cancer treatments. The PE-AuNPs showed comparatively higher activity than OMP-AuNPs, which could be attributed to the presence of rich bioactive compounds in the PE that acted as reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of PE-AuNPs. Overall, the results of the current investigation highlighted a

  4. HYOSCINE BUTYL BROMIDE VERSUS DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ACTIVE STAGE OF LABOUR-A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RATE OF CERVICAL DILATATION

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    Misha Pepsi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was conducted to compare the rate of cervical dilatation with hyoscine butyl bromide and drotaverine hydrochloride in active stage of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Inclusion Criteria: 1. All women with initial cervical dilatation of 3 cms. 2. When there is a slow rate of cervical dilatation of less than 1.5 cms per hour or decent of less than 1 cm per hour for nulliparous and if dilatation was less than 2cms per hour for a multigravida. 3. And all singleton and cephalic pregnancies were included in this study. Exclusion Criteria included complications like Antepartum haemorrhage, Breech, C.P.D. In this study 400 women were allocated into two groups to receive either Hyoscine butyl bromide or Drotaverine hydrochloride. Two hours after admission in the active stage of labour, progress of labour was reassessed. If the progress of labour was satisfactory, then the wait and watch policy was adopted. If there was no progress they were administered one of the two drugs. 200 patients were administered 10mg of hyoscine butyl bromide suppositories rectally, (GROUP-1 AND THE OTHER 200 WITH 40mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intravenously (GROUP-2. The progress of labour was monitored by the partogram. Not more than 3 doses of hyoscine butyl bromide were administered. RESULTS: The rate of cervical dilatation was 2 cms per hour in group 1 (Hyoscine butyl bromide as compared to 1cm per hour in group 2 (Drotaverine hydrochloride. The difference in rate of cervical dilatation in both the groups was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There was significant improvement in the rate of cervical dilatation with Hyoscine butyl bromide group of patients. There was a significant reduction in the duration of active stage of labour, and there was no significant second and third stage complication when these drugs were used. No untoward side effects were noted when

  5. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  6. A comparative study on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed Hassan; Nauman, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Hussain, Shahzad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2010-07-28

    Spices are the building blocks of flavor in foods. This research work was focused on two important spices, i.e., ginger and cumin. Ginger and cumin both are recognized for their antioxidant properties. So, this study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum). The highest yield for volatile oil was obtained by the cumin sample, which was 2.52 +/- 0.11%, while the fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.31 +/- 0.08%). The analysis of volatile oils of fresh and dried ginger showed camphene, p-cineole, alpha-terpineol, zingiberene and pentadecanoic acid as major components, while the major components in cumin volatile oil were cuminal, gamma-terpinene and pinocarveol. In nonvolatile extracts the highest yield was obtained by the methanol extract of cumin (4.08 +/- 0.17% w/w), while the n-hexane extract of fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.52 +/- 0.03% w/w). Maximum total phenolic contents were observed in the methanol extract of fresh ginger (95.2 mg/g dry extract) followed by the hexane extract of fresh ginger (87.5 mg/g dry extract). The hexane extract of cumin showed the lowest total phenolic content (10.6 mg/g dry extract). The DPPH method showed the highest antioxidant activity for cumin essential oil (85.44 +/- 0.50%) followed by dried ginger essential oil (83.87 +/- 0.50%) and fresh ginger essential oil (83.03 +/- 0.54%). The FRAP of essential oils showed almost comparative results with DPPH. Cumin essential oil was found best in reducing Fe(3+) ions, followed by dried and fresh ginger. Our results suggest that both ginger and cumin can be used as potential sources of natural antioxidants in foods.

  7. Polymer-cobalt(III) complexes: structural analysis of metal chelates on DNA interaction and comparative cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehru, Selvan; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam; Arun, Renganathan; Premkumar, Kumpati

    2014-01-01

    A new series of pendant-type polymer-cobalt(III) complexes, [Co(LL)2(BPEI)Cl](2+), (where BPEI = branched polyethyleneimine, LL = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c](6,7,8,9-tetrahydro)phenazine (dpqc), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq) and imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline (ip)) each with three different degrees of coordination have been synthesized and characterized. Studies to know the mode and strength of interaction between these polymer-metal complexes and calf thymus DNA have been performed by UV-Visible absorption and emission techniques. Among these series, each polymer metal complex having higher binding strength with DNA has been selected to test against human cancer/normal cell lines. On the basis of these spectral studies, it is proposed that our polymer-metal complexes bind with DNA mainly through intercalation along with some electrostatic binding. The order of binding strength for the complexes with ligand, dpqc > dpq > ip. The analysis of the results suggests that polymer-cobalt(III) complexes with higher degree of coordination effectively binds with DNA due to the presence of large number of positively charged cobalt(III) chelates in the polymer chain which cooperatively act to increase the overall binding strength. These polymer-cobalt(III) complexes with hydrophobic ligands around the cobalt(III) metal centre favour the base stacking interactions via intercalation. All the complexes show very good anticancer activities and increasing of binding strength results in higher inhibition value. The polymer-cobalt(III) complex with dpqc ligand possess two fold increased anticancer activity when compared to complexes with other ligands against MCF-7 cells. Besides, the complexes were insensitive towards the growth of normal cells (HEK-293) at the IC50 concentration.

  8. [Comparative Metagenomics of BIOLAK and A2O Activated Sludge Based on Next-generation Sequencing Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei; Liu, Han-hu; Shen, Xin

    2016-02-15

    This is the first report of comparative metagenomic analyses of BIOLAK sludge and anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) sludge. In the BIOLAK and A2O sludge metagenomes, 47 and 51 phyla were identified respectively, more than the numbers of phyla identified in Australia EBPR (enhanced biological phosphorus removal), USA EBPR and Bibby sludge. All phyla found in the BIOLAK sludge were detected in the A2O sludge, but four phyla were exclusively found in the A20 sludge. The proportion of the phylum Ignavibacteriae in the A2O sludge was 2.0440%, which was 3.2 times as much as that in the BIOLAK sludge (0.6376%). Meanwhile, the proportion of the bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes in the BIOLAK sludge was 2.4673%, which was >17 times as much as that in the A2O sludge (0.1404%). The proportion of the bacterial phylum Chlamydiae in the BIOLAK metagenome (0.2192%) was >6 times higher than that in the A2O (0.0360%). Furthermore, 167 genera found in the A20 sludge were not detected in the BIOLAK sludge. And 50 genera found in the BIOLAK sludge were not detected in the A20 sludge. From the analyses of both the phylum and genus levels, there were huge differences between the two biological communities of A2O and BIOLAK sludge. However, the proportions of each group of functional genes associated with metabolism of nitrogen, phosphor, sulfur and aromatic compounds in BIOLAK were very similar to those in A2O sludge. Moreover, the rankings of all six KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes) categories were identical in the two sludges. In addition, the analyses of functional classification and pathway related nitrogen metabolism showed that the abundant enzymes had identical ranking in the BIOLAK and A2O metagenomes. Therefore, comparative metagenomics of BIOLAK and A2O activated sludge indicated similar function assignments from the two different biological communities.

  9. Quantitation of eleven active compounds of Aidi injection in rat plasma and its application to comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Ma, Ran; Yu, Chunyu; Bi, Cathy Wenchuan; Yin, Yidi; Xu, Huarong; Shang, Hongwei; Bi, Kaishun; Li, Qing

    2016-07-15

    Aidi injection has been widely used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous quantitation of 11 main active ingredients in Aidi injection and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these ingredients in normal and colorectal model cancer rats after tail vein injection. After being extracted by isopropanol-ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), the plasma samples were analyzed with domperidone as internal standard. Then the analytes were separated on a Venusil MP C18 column with 0.15% formic acid and methanol. The detection was performed on HPLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The assay was shown to be linear over the range of 0.004-4.0μgmL(-1) of syringin B, astragaloside II and isofraxidin; 0.01-10.0μgmL(-1) of calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside and astragaloside IV; 0.02-20.0μgmL(-1) of ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rc and Rd; 0.04-40.0μgmL(-1) of syringin E; 0.06-60.0μgmL(-1) of ginsenoside Re. And the validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the 11 ingredients in plasma. The pharmacokinetic results showed here were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters for eight analytes between two groups after injection, while no significant differences for astragaloside II, astragaloside IV and ginsenoside Rc. The present study has the advantages of short analysis time and easy sample preparation, which could more comprehensively reflect the quality of Aidi injection in single run. The method proposed could be of great use for pharmacokinetics, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies of Aidi injection in biological samples.

  10. Students' Perceptions of Teaching in Context-based and Traditional Chemistry Classrooms: Comparing content, learning activities, and interpersonal perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2014-07-01

    Context-based curriculum reforms in chemistry education are thought to bring greater diversity to the ways in which chemistry teachers organize their teaching. First and foremost, students are expected to perceive this diversity. However, empirical research on how students perceive their teacher's teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms, and whether this teaching differs from traditional chemistry lessons, is scarce. This study aims to develop our understanding of what teaching looks like, according to students, in context-based chemistry classrooms compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. As such, it might also provide a better understanding of whether teachers implement and attain the intentions of curriculum developers. To study teacher behaviour we used three theoretical perspectives deemed to be important for student learning: a content perspective, a learning activities perspective, and an interpersonal perspective. Data were collected from 480 students in 24 secondary chemistry classes in the Netherlands. Our findings suggest that, according to the students, the changes in teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms imply a lessening of the emphasis on fundamental chemistry and the use of a teacher-centred approach, compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. However, teachers in context-based chemistry classrooms seem not to display more 'context-based' teaching behaviour, such as emphasizing the relation between chemistry, technology, and society and using a student-centred approach. Furthermore, students in context-based chemistry classrooms perceive their teachers as having less interpersonal control and showing less affiliation than teachers in traditional chemistry classrooms. Our findings should be interpreted in the context of former and daily experiences of both teachers and students. As only chemistry is reformed in the schools in which context-based chemistry is implemented, it is challenging for both students and teachers to

  11. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, G; Pellikaan, W F; Rutten, P G P; van der Poel, A F B; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2008-11-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta were collected from the distal ileum, proximal colon, transverse colon, and rectum of 3 adult dogs. Digesta per part of the GIT were pooled for 3 dogs, diluted (1:25, wt/vol), mixed, and filtered for the preparation of inoculum. A fructan, ground soy hulls, and native potato starch were used as substrates and incubated for cumulative gas production measurement as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. In addition, fermentation bottles with similar contents were incubated but were allowed to release their gas throughout incubation. Fermentation fluid was sampled at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of incubation, and short-chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. Results showed comparable maximal fermentation rates for rectal and proximal colonic inocula (P > 0.05). Production of short-chain fatty acids was least for the ileal and greatest for the rectal inoculum (P fiber, peanut hulls, soy fiber, sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pectin, sugar beet pulp, wheat fiber, and wheat middlings. Feces of 4 adult dogs were used as an inoculum source. Similar techniques were used as in Exp. 1 except for the dilution factor used (1:10, wt/vol). Among substrates, large variations in fermentation kinetics and end product profiles were noted. Sugar beet pectin, the fructans, and the gums were rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (R(max)) compared with all other substrates (P fiber were poorly fermentable, indicated by the least amount of gas produced (P fiber, sugar beet pulp, soy fiber, and wheat middlings were moderately fermentable with a low R(max). Citrus pectin and pea fiber showed a similar low R(max), but time at which

  12. How passive are your activities? An interdisciplinary comparative energy analysis of passive and conventional houses in Linkoeping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karresand, Helena; Molin, Andreas; Persson, Johannes; Aaberg, Magnus

    2009-09-15

    In this study a number of new built passive and conventional houses in the residential area of Lambohov, Linkoeping, are studied. The study compares how the heating system affects the thermal indoor climate for the tenants. Further on, the study also contains in-depth interviews on the expectations on the passive houses of the recently moved in tenants. Also the expectations from the housing company on the tenants and the factors that motivated the actual building of the passive houses are investigated, both out of the housing company's perspective and the perspective of the City of Linkoeping. A bottom-up approach is used to obtain a realistic picture of the household activities that contribute to the passive heating of the building. A transboundary systems approach is applied that is based on the idea of performing an energy system analysis of the passive houses in Lambohov that spans over several system level boundaries. The first system level where the study starts is the household level with the tenants and the thermal loads generated from ordinary household activities. From the household level the study moves further up to the building level where the properties of the building envelope and the heating and ventilation systems are analyzed in the context of the indoor climate and the energy balance of the building. Finally the study moves up to the local level in order to find out what the motives was for the municipality and the housing company to invest in passive houses from the start. Also the effects of an extensive adoption of passive houses would have on the local energy system have been studied in an optimisation study. The aim of the household level is to look at the households' experiences of the passive houses so far and to simulate household activities for comparing the thermal loads of the two types of apartments; The methods used have partly been interviews with the tenants and the housing company and partly field measurements in

  13. Comparing and modeling organic micro-pollutant adsorption onto powdered activated carbon in different drinking waters and WWTP effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietzschmann, Frederik; Aschermann, Geert; Jekel, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The adsorption of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was compared between regionally different waters within two groups, namely five drinking waters and seven wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In all waters, OMP were spiked to adjust similar ratios of the initial OMP and DOC concentrations (c0,OMP/c0,DOC). PAC was dosed specific to the respective DOC (e.g. 2 mg PAC/per mg DOC). Liquid chromatography with online carbon detection shows differences of the background organic matter (BOM) compositions. The OMP removals at given DOC-specific PAC doses vary by ±15% (drinking waters) and ±10% (WWTP effluents). Similar BOM-induced adsorption competition in the waters of the respective group results in overall relationships between the PAC loadings and the liquid phase concentrations of each OMP (in the case of strong adsorbates). Weaker adsorbates show no overall relationships because of the strong BOM-induced adsorption competition near the initial OMP concentration. Correlations between OMP removals and UV254 removals were independent of the water (within the respective group). The equivalent background compound (EBC) model was applied to the experimental data. Using global EBC Freundlich coefficients, the initial EBC concentration correlates with the DOC (both water groups separately) and the low molecular weight (LMW) organics concentrations (all waters combined). With these correlations, the EBC could be initialized by using the DOC or the LMW organics concentration of additional drinking water, WWTP effluent, and surface water samples.

  14. Comparative Study of the Molluscicidal Activity of Some Plant Extracts on the Snail Vector of Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria alexandrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hazmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is considered as one of the most important trematode disease of man. The most important goal of the present study is to use the natural plants as cheaper and available sources for snail control. The present investigation concerned with the evaluation of toxicological, biological and physiological effects of water suspension, cold water and boiled water extracts of Agave filifera whole plant, Ammi majus flowers and leaves and Canna indica flowers and leaves comparing with the effect of different sulphate compounds. The present work revealed that, copper sulphate as well as the water suspension of Ammi majus flowers and leaves disclosed the most potent effect on the cumulative mortality after 6 weeks exposure periods. Also, egg laying capacity and egg hatchability of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were affected with the exposure to CuSO4 and water suspension of Ammi majus flowers. The sublethal doses (LC10 of copper sulphate and water suspension of the tested plants reduced the total protein and total lipid contents of the hemolymph of B. alexandrina snails. The activity of transaminases enzymes as well as acetylcholinesterase had been affected by the exposure to the sublethal doses of copper sulphate and the water suspension of the tested plants. Also, histopathological changes were recorded in hermaphrodite gland of B. alexandrina snails post 6 weeks of exposure.

  15. A comparative study of the antioxidant scavenging activity of green tea, black tea and coffee extracts: a kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissi, Jaouad; El Hassouni, Mohammed; Ouardaoui, Abdelkrim; Sendide, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activities of three beverages, coffee, black tea and green tea, along with their major components, were investigated in terms of their reaction with the stable radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We used a kinetic approach in parallel with quantification methods based on a fixed end-point to determine the scavenging efficiency of compounds abundant in these beverages during their reaction with DPPH using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer-based method. Ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, tannic acid, and caffeic acid were selected as model antioxidants to study in coffee, black tea and green tea. We applied a second-order model to demonstrate similarities in the kinetics behavior of beverages and related compounds. Our findings showed the slopes k2(')((mol/L)(-1)s(-1)) and k2max(')((mol/L)(1)s(-1)) exhibited similar and correlated values; we suggest the variation in k2(') as a function of time is more informative about antioxidant properties than reaction with DPPH alone. We also used IC100 to test the reliability of the relative stoichiometry using a new comparative parameter "n", which was calculated as: n=c0DPPHIC100 (mol/L(mol/L)(-1), (mol/L)mlmg(-1) or molg(-1)).

  16. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Schokraie

    Full Text Available Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state.

  17. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokraie, Elham; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Grohme, Markus A; Hengherr, Steffen; Förster, Frank; Schill, Ralph O; Frohme, Marcus; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF HYDROLYSATE OF MEAT PROTEIN OF INDONESIAN LOCAL LIVESTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jamhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitoryactivity of hydrolysate in meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck. Themeats of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck were used in this study. The meatswere ground using food processor added with aquadest to obtain meat extract. The meat extracts werethen hydrolyzed using protease enzymes to obtain hydrolysate of meat protein. Protein concentration ofmeat extract and hydrolysate of meat protein were determined, and were confirmed by sodium dodecylsulfate - poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate ofmeat protein derived from Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck was also determined.The results showed that protein concentration of hydrolysate of meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat,native chicken, and local duck meat was significantly higher than their meat extracts. SDS-PAGEanalysis indicated that hydrolysate of meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and localduck had more peptides with lower molecular weight, compared to their meat extracts. Hydrolysate ofmeat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck had potencies in inhibiting ACEactivity, so it will potentially reduce blood pressure.

  19. Evaluation of the in vitro activities of ceftobiprole and comparators in staphylococcal colony or microtitre plate biofilm assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbanat, Darren; Shang, Wenchi; Amsler, Karen; Santoro, Colleen; Baum, Ellen; Crespo-Carbone, Steven; Lynch, A Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ceftobiprole and comparator antibiotics, either alone or in combination, in staphylococcal MBEC™ (minimum biofilm eradication concentration) and colony biofilm assays at dilutions of the maximum free-drug plasma concentration attained during clinical use (fCmax). Staphylococci tested included meticillin-susceptible and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=6) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=2). Relative to no-drug controls, after 7 days of exposure ceftobiprole concentrations from 1/4 fCmax to fCmax generally decreased CFUs in MBEC or colony biofilms of S. aureus isolates by ca. 1.5log10 to ≥2.5log10. Gentamicin reduced colony biofilm CFUs by ≥1.4log10 at these concentrations with gentamicin-susceptible isolates. Following 7 days of exposure, vancomycin and rifampicin were ineffective as single agents or in combination in the colony model, but yielded CFU decreases from 0 to 5log10 in the MBEC model. Treatment of biofilms with rifampicin for 7 days yielded rifampicin-resistant mutants, and the selection of rifampicin resistance was inhibited by co-treatment with ceftobiprole. Thus, ceftobiprole alone or in combination demonstrated promising activity against biofilms of meticillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci at clinically relevant concentrations. In contrast, vancomycin and rifampicin, two agents used clinically for the treatment of biofilm infections, tested separately or together gave inconsistent results and generally had little impact on cell viability.

  20. Comparative evaluation of antibacterial activity of total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems: An ex vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antibacterial activity of total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Actinomyces viscosus through disk diffusion method. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial effects of Single Bond (SB and Adper Prompt (AP and aqueous solution of chlorhexidine 0.2% (positive control were tested against standard strain of S. mutans, L. acidophilus, and A. viscosus using the disk diffusion method. The diameters of inhibition zones were measured in millimeters. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparison. Result: Of all the materials tested, AP showed the maximum inhibitory action against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Aqueous solution of chlorhexidine 0.2% showed the maximum inhibitory action against A. viscosus. Very minimal antibacterial effect was noted for SB. Conclusion: The antibacterial effects observed for the tested different dentin bonding systems may be related to the acidic nature of the materials.

  1. Effects of cognitive training with additional physical activity compared to pure cognitive training in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahe J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Julia Rahe,1 Annette Petrelli,1 Stephanie Kaesberg,2 Gereon R Fink,3 Josef Kessler,3 Elke Kalbe1 1Psychological Gerontology and Center for Neuropsychological Diagnostics and Interventions, Institute of Gerontology, University of Vechta, Vechta, Germany; 2Cognitive Neurology Section, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany Introduction: Cognitive training (CT has been reported to improve cognition in older adults. Its combination with protective factors such as physical activity (CPT has rarely been studied, but it has been suggested that CPT might show stronger effects than pure CT.Materials and methods: Healthy older adults (aged 50–85 years were trained with CPT (n=15 or CT (n=15. Interventions were conducted in 90-minute sessions twice weekly for 6.5 weeks. Cognitive functions were assessed before and immediately after the interventions, and at 1-year follow-up.Results: The main finding was an interaction effect on attention, with comparable gains from CPT and CT from pre- to post-test, but stronger effects of CPT to follow-up (P=0.02. Significant effects were found in subjects in terms of cognitive state (P=0.02, letter verbal fluency (P=0.00, and immediate (P=0.00 and delayed (P=0.01 verbal memory. Post hoc analyses indicated that these latter domains were affected differentially by CPT and CT. No significant between-subject effects were found.Conclusion: Our results suggest that CPT might lead to stronger long-term effects on attention. However, as the difference between CT and CPT was only evident at follow-up, these effects cannot be interpreted as a direct consequence of CPT; they may have been related to sustained physical activity after the training. Other domains were improved by both interventions, but no typical pattern could be identified. Possible underlying mechanisms are discussed, and directions for future

  2. Global Matrix 2.0: Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Barnes, Joel; Gonzales, Silvia;

    2016-01-01

    , understand underlying determinants, conceive innovative solutions, and mitigate the global childhood inactivity crisis. The paradox of higher physical activity and lower sedentary behavior in countries reporting poorer infrastructure, and lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior in countries...

  3. Global Matrix 2.0: Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Barnes, Joel; Gonzales, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Sedentary Behavior, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments), and all Report Cards were generated through a harmonized development process and a standardized grading framework (from A = excellent......, understand underlying determinants, conceive innovative solutions, and mitigate the global childhood inactivity crisis. The paradox of higher physical activity and lower sedentary behavior in countries reporting poorer infrastructure, and lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior in countries...

  4. Comparative analysis of RNA silencing suppression activities between viral suppressors and an endogenous plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Park, Han-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2012-06-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved system that functions as an antiviral mechanism in eukaryotes, including higher plants. To counteract this, several plant viruses express silencing suppressors that inhibit RNA silencing in host plants. Here, we show that both 2b protein from peanut stunt virus (PSV) and a hairpin construct (designated hp-RDR6) that silences endogenous RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) strongly suppress RNA silencing. The Agrobacterium infiltration system was used to demonstrate that both PSV 2b and hp-RDR6 suppressed local RNA silencing as strongly as helper component (HC-Pro) from potato virus Y (PVY) and P19 from tomato bush stunt virus (TBSV). The 2b protein from PSV eliminated the small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) associated with RNA silencing and prevented systemic silencing, similar to 2b protein from cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). On the other hand, hp-RDR6 suppressed RNA silencing by inhibiting the generation of secondary siRNAs. The small coat protein (SCP) of squash mosaic virus (SqMV) also displayed weak suppression activity of RNA silencing. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was used to investigate whether viral silencing suppressors or hp-RDR6 enhanced accumulations of green fluorescence protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as markers of expression in leaf tissues of Nicotina benthamiana. Expression of both GFP and GUS was significantly enhanced in the presence of PSV 2b or CMV 2b, compared to no suppression or the weak SqMV SCP suppressor. Co-expression with hp-RDR6 also significantly increased the expression of GFP and GUS to levels similar to those induced by PVY HC-Pro and TBSV P19.

  5. Pretreatment of furfural industrial wastewater by Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate processes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D; Tang, Q

    2014-01-01

    The Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) processes have been applied for the treatment of actual furfural industrial wastewater in this paper. Through the comparative study of the three processes, a suitable pretreatment technology for actual furfural wastewater treatment was obtained, and the mechanism and dynamics process of this technology is discussed. The experimental results show that Fenton technology has a good and stable effect without adjusting pH of furfural wastewater. At optimal conditions, which were 40 mmol/L H₂O₂ initial concentration and 10 mmol/L Fe²⁺ initial concentration, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate can reach 81.2% after 90 min reaction at 80 °C temperature. The PDS process also has a good performance. The COD removal rate could attain 80.3% when Na₂S₂O₈ initial concentration was 4.2 mmol/L, Fe²⁺ initial concentration was 0.1 mol/L, the temperature remained at 70 °C, and pH value remained at 2.0. The electro-Fenton process was not competent to deal with the high-temperature furfural industrial wastewater and only 10.2% COD was degraded at 80 °C temperature in the optimal conditions (2.25 mA/cm² current density, 4 mg/L Na₂SO₄, 0.3 m³/h aeration rate). For the Fenton, electro-Fenton and PDS processes in pretreatment of furfural wastewater, their kinetic processes follow the pseudo first order kinetics law. The pretreatment pathways of furfural wastewater degradation are also investigated in this study. The results show that furfural and furan formic acid in furfural wastewater were preferentially degraded by Fenton technology. Furfural can be degraded into low-toxicity or nontoxic compounds by Fenton pretreatment technology, which could make furfural wastewater harmless and even reusable.

  6. Comparative study on transcriptional activity of 17 parabens mediated by estrogen receptor α and β and androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoko; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Uramaru, Naoto; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2013-07-01

    The structure-activity relationships of parabens which are widely used as preservatives for transcriptional activities mediated by human estrogen receptor α (hERα), hERβ and androgen receptor (hAR) were investigated. Fourteen of 17 parabens exhibited hERα and/or hERβ agonistic activity at concentrations of ≤ 1 × 10(-5)M, whereas none of the 17 parabens showed AR agonistic or antagonistic activity. Among 12 parabens with linear alkyl chains ranging in length from C₁ to C₁₂, heptylparaben (C₇) and pentylparaben (C₅) showed the most potent ERα and ERβ agonistic activity in the order of 10(-7)M and 10(-8)M, respectively, and the activities decreased in a stepwise manner as the alkyl chain was shortened to C₁ or lengthened to C₁₂. Most parabens showing estrogenic activity exhibited ERβ-agonistic activity at lower concentrations than those inducing ERα-agonistic activity. The estrogenic activity of butylparaben was markedly decreased by incubation with rat liver microsomes, and the decrease of activity was blocked by a carboxylesterase inhibitor. These results indicate that parabens are selective agonists for ERβ over ERα; their interactions with ERα/β are dependent on the size and bulkiness of the alkyl groups; and they are metabolized by carboxylesterases, leading to attenuation of their estrogenic activity.

  7. Global Matrix 2.0 : Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Barnes, Joel D; González, Silvia A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Onywera, Vincent O; Reilly, John J; Tomkinson, Grant R; Takken, T

    2016-01-01

    The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world's population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Par

  8. Comparative in vitro activities of trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) against 445 gram-positive isolates from patients with endocarditis and those with other bloodstream infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Endtz (Hubert); J.W. Mouton (Johan); J.G. den Hollander (Jan); N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe in vitro activity of trovafloxacin (CP-99,219), a new fluoroquinolone, was compared with the in vitro activities of other commonly used quinolones and other antimicrobial agents against 445 gram-positive microorganisms isolated between 1986 and 1995 from

  9. The Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant and Biological Activity for the Dendropanax morbifera LEV. Leaves Extracted by Different Ethanol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaya; Ra, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The different concentrations of ethanol (20-100%) and distilled water extract for Dendropanax morbifera LEV. leaves were evaluated to induce antioxidant and biological activity employed by variety of assays. The 20%, 80%, and 100% ethanol extract demonstrated the relatively higher activity, whereas distilled water, 40%, and 60% ethanol extracts exhibited the lower antioxidant and biological activity. Especially, 80% ethanol extract showed the remarkably higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol and flavonoid content, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Also, 100% ethanol extract exhibited relatively greater activity, but there did not show significant radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, there were 50% and 30% promotion effect for ADH activity assay and 80% and 40% promotion effect for ALDH activity assay in 80% and 100% ethanol extract, respectively. In addition, in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all extracts except for distilled water extract inhibited Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Escherichia coli. For Pichia jadinii, whole extracts effectively inhibited yeast multiplication at concentration of 125 μg/mL for 100% ethanol extract and 250 μg/mL for the rest of extract. These result indicated that D. morbifera LEV. leaves extracted by 80% ethanol would be the ideal extracting solution to maximize inherent antioxidant and biological activity agent.

  10. How Does Brain Activation Differ in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Compared to Typically Developing Children, during Active and Passive Movements, and Tactile Stimulation? An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Winckel, Ann; Klingels, Katrijn; Bruyninckx, Frans; Wenderoth, Nici; Peeters, Ron; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Hecke, Wim; De Cock, Paul; Eyssen, Maria; De Weerdt, Willy; Feys, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate brain activation associated with active and passive movements, and tactile stimulation in 17 children with right-sided unilateral cerebral palsy (CP), compared to 19 typically developing children (TD). The active movements consisted of repetitive opening and…

  11. METHANOL REMOVAL FROM METHANOL-WATER MIXTURE USING ACTIVATED SLUDGE, AIR STRIPPING AND ADSORPTION PROCESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research has been carried out in order to examine the removal of methanol from methanol-water mixtures using three different methods; activated sludge; activated carbon and air stripping. The results showed that the methanol was totally consumed by the bacteria as quickly as the feed entered the activated sludge vessel. Air stripping process has a limited ability for removing of methanol due to strong intermolecular forces between methanol and water; however, the results showed that the percentage of methanol removed using air pressure at 0.5 bar was higher than that of using air pressure of 0.25 bar. Removal of methanol from the mixture with a methanol content of 5% using activated carbon was not successful due to the limited capacity of the of the activated carbon. Thus, the activated sludge process can be considered as the most suitable process for the treatment of methanol-water mixtures.

  12. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent models for accretion of terrestrial bodies involve metal-silicate equilibrium as the metallic core formed during growth. Most elements considered are either refractory or well studied elements for which effects of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metallic liquid composition are well known. There are a large number of elements that are both siderophile and volatile, whose fate in such models is unknown, largely due to a lack of data at comparable conditions and com-positions (FeNi core with light elements such as S, C, Si, and O). We have focused on Ge, In, As, Sb and determined the effect of Si and C on metal-silicate partitioning, and developed a thermo-dynamic model that allows application of these new data to a wide range of planetary bodies. New experiments: We have previously carried out experiments with FeSi metallic liquid at C-saturated conditions at 1600 and 1800 C [4]. In a new series of experiments we investigate the effect of Si in carbon-free systems at 1600 C for comparison. Experiments were carried out at 1 GPa in MgO capsules using the same basaltic starting composition as in previous studies. The MgO capsule reacts with the silicate melt to form more MgO-rich liquids that have 22-26 wt% MgO. Experimental met-als and silicates were analyzed using a combination of electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS. Results: The new results can be interpreted by considering Ge as an example, in the simple exchange equilibrium Fe + GeO = FeO + Ge, where the equilibrium constant Kd can be examined as a function of Si content of the metal. The slope of lnKd vs. (1-XSi) for this new series allows derivation of the epsilon interaction parameter for each of these four elements and Si (both C-saturated and C-free).All four elements have positive epsilon values, indicating that Si causes a decrease in the partition coefficients; values are 6.6, 6.5, 27.8 and 25.2 for In, Ge, As, and Sb, respectively, at 1 GPa and 1600 C. As an example of

  13. Role of Adhesion Molecules in Eosinophil Activation: A Comparative Study on the Effect of Adhesion Molecules on Eosinophil Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Yamaguchi

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions: The regulation of adhesion molecules, by not only preventing eosinophil adhesion but also eosinophil activation, may be a potential target in the treatment of allergic inflammatory disorders.

  14. Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Testing: A Comparative Effectiveness Study in a Million-Patient Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu N Capoor

    Full Text Available A substantial fraction of all American healthcare expenditures are potentially wasted, and practices that are not evidence-based could contribute to such waste. We sought to characterize whether Prothrombin Time (PT and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT tests of preoperative patients are used in a way unsupported by evidence and potentially wasteful.We evaluated prospectively-collected patient data from 19 major teaching hospitals and 8 hospital-affiliated surgical centers in 7 states (Delaware, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia. A total of 1,053,472 consecutive patients represented every patient admitted for elective surgery from 2009 to 2012 at all 27 settings. A subset of 682,049 patients (64.7% had one or both tests done and history and physical (H&P records available for analysis. Unnecessary tests for bleeding risk were defined as: PT tests done on patients with no history of abnormal bleeding, warfarin therapy, vitamin K-dependent clotting factor deficiency, or liver disease; or aPTT tests done on patients with no history of heparin treatment, hemophilia, lupus anticoagulant antibodies, or von Willebrand disease. We assessed the proportion of patients who received PT or aPTT tests who lacked evidence-based reasons for testing.This study sought to bring the availability of big data together with applied comparative effectiveness research. Among preoperative patients, 26.2% received PT tests, and 94.3% of tests were unnecessary, given the absence of findings on H&P. Similarly, 23.3% of preoperative patients received aPTT tests, of which 99.9% were unnecessary. Among patients with no H&P findings suggestive of bleeding risk, 6.6% of PT tests and 7.1% of aPTT tests were either a false positive or a true positive (i.e. indicative of a previously-undiagnosed potential bleeding risk. Both PT and aPTT, designed as diagnostic tests, are apparently used as screening tests

  15. Comparative activities of the triterpene saponin maesabalide III and liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) against Leishmania donovani in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Louis; Germonprez, Nils; Quirijnen, Ludo; Van Puyvelde, Luc; Cos, Paul; Vanden Berghe, Dirk

    2004-06-01

    Maesabalide III (MB-III), an oleane triterpene saponin isolated from the Vietnamese plant Maesa balansae, is a new antileishmanial lead compound whose activity against Leishmania donovani (MHOM/ET/67/L82) in groups of five golden hamsters was evaluated after administration of a single subcutaneous dose on either day 1 (prophylactic treatment) or day 28 (curative treatment) after infection. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome), administered intravenously at 5 mg/kg of body weight, was used as the reference drug. Amastigote burdens in liver, spleen, and bone marrow were determined either 7 days (early effects) or 56 days (late effects) after treatment. Prophylactic administration of MB-III at 0.2 mg/kg reduced liver amastigote burdens by 99.8 and 83% within 7 and 56 days after treatment, respectively. In the latter group, however, all animals became ill and some died. Both MB-III at 0.8 mg/kg and liposomal amphotericin B were 100% effective against liver stages, but clearance from the spleen and bone marrow was not achieved. Curative administration of MB-III at 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg was not protective, as no survivors were left at the termination of the experiment on day 84. Despite the high level of reduction of the liver amastigote burden after treatment with MB-III at 0.8 mg/kg (94.2%) or liposomal amphotericin B (99.4%), clinical protection could not be obtained in either group, with two deaths occurring and the residual liver burdens persisting. It is concluded that administration of a single dose of MB-III at 0.8 mg/kg has efficacy potential comparable to that of a single dose of liposomal amphotericin B at 5 mg/kg and is therefore considered a promising new antileishmanial lead compound. However, multiple-dose pharmacological, toxicological, and pharmacokinetic studies are still needed before it can become a valid drug candidate for development.

  16. [Comparative study of effects of Escherichia coli M-17 exometabolites and fructooligosaccharides on the growth and antagonistic activity of Lactobacilli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkhitov, T Ia; Dobrolezh, O V; Petrov, L N; Verbitskaia, N B; Zadaura, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    Facts concerning the evaluation of the influence of E. coli M17 exometabolites and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the growth and antagonistic activity of lactobacilli are presented. As revealed by these facts, preparation "Aktoflor" accelerates the growth of lactobacillary cultures, increases the final yield of biomass and antagonistic activity. E. coli M17 exometabolites contained in "Aktoflor" have been shown to be more active in comparison with FOS. The character of their influence on lactobacilli is discussed and the conclusion is made that the restoration and maintenance of eubiosis is greatly determined by the pool of metabolites excreted by the bacteria.

  17. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Eff-Darwich, A; Rodriguez-Losada, J A; de la Nuez, J; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L E; Romero-Ruiz, M C

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity was found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, in the island of La Palma.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MUSA ACUMINATE COLLA AND CAJANUS CAJAN (LINN. LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Tejendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of leaf of Musa acuminate colla and seed of Cajanus cajan (Linn. were taken for the examination of anthelmintic activity on Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30 mg/ml of both plant extract were tested and results were expressed in terms of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Albendazole of same concentration as like as plant extracts was taken as reference standard and normal saline solution as control. Paralysis time can be determined by vigorous shaking when no movement was observed. When whitish substances were secreted from the body that one was termed as death time. Both the extracts show significant anthelmintic activity but among these two Musa acuminate colla showed more anthelmintic activity than Cajanus cajan (Linn.. Future scope involves isolation of active constituents responsible for this action.

  19. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these c...

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. THOTAPURI AND MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. NEELAM ROOT CRUDE EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pet ether, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Mangifera indica L. Var. Thotapuri and Mangifera indica L. Var. Neelam were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for evoked response, paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in both ...

  1. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    C.P. Anokwuru; O. Ajibaye; A. Adesuyi

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g) than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g) but ...

  2. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-04-28

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity.

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2): comparative modeling of the active site, specificity requirements, and chloride dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Jodie L; Jackson, Richard M; Acharya, K Ravi; Sturrock, Edward D; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2003-11-18

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homologue of ACE, represents a new and potentially important target in cardio-renal disease. A model of the active site of ACE2, based on the crystal structure of testicular ACE, has been developed and indicates that the catalytic mechanism of ACE2 resembles that of ACE. Structural differences exist between the active site of ACE (dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase) and ACE2 (carboxypeptidase) that are responsible for the differences in specificity. The main differences occur in the ligand-binding pockets, particularly at the S2' subsite and in the binding of the peptide carboxy-terminus. The model explains why the classical ACE inhibitor lisinopril is unable to bind to ACE2. On the basis of the ability of ACE2 to cleave a variety of biologically active peptides, a consensus sequence of Pro-X-Pro-hydrophobic/basic for the protease specificity of ACE2 has been defined that is supported by the ACE2 model. The dipeptide, Pro-Phe, completely inhibits ACE2 activity at 180 microM with angiotensin II as the substrate. As with ACE, the chloride dependence of ACE2 is substrate-specific such that the hydrolysis of angiotensin I and the synthetic peptide substrate, Mca-APK(Dnp), are activated in the presence of chloride ions, whereas the cleavage of angiotensin II is inhibited. The ACE2 model is also suggestive of a possible mechanism for chloride activation. The structural insights provided by these analyses for the differences in inhibition pattern and substrate specificity among ACE and its homologue ACE2 and for the chloride dependence of ACE/ACE2 activity are valuable in understanding the function and regulation of ACE2.

  4. Variance components models for physical activity with age as modifier: a comparative twin study in seven countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Medland, Sarah E;

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity is influenced by genetic factors whose expression may change with age. We employed an extension to the classical twin model that allows a modifier variable, age, to interact with the effects of the latent genetic and environmental factors. The model was applied to self-reported ......Physical activity is influenced by genetic factors whose expression may change with age. We employed an extension to the classical twin model that allows a modifier variable, age, to interact with the effects of the latent genetic and environmental factors. The model was applied to self......-reported data from twins aged 19 to 50 from seven countries that collaborated in the GenomEUtwin project: Australia, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom. Results confirmed the importance of genetic influences on physical activity in all countries and showed an age-related decrease...... into account when exploring the genetic and environmental contribution to physical activity. It also suggests that the power of genome-wide association studies to identify the genetic variants contributing to physical activity may be larger in young adult cohorts....

  5. INPRO Activities on Development of Advanced Tools to Support Judgment Aggregation for Comparative Evaluation of Nuclear Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents first results of the INPRO Collaborative Project on Key Indicators for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems, which has the objective to develop guidance and tools for comparative evaluation of the status, prospects, benefits, and risks associated with development of innovative nuclear technologies for a more distant future. Presented results illustrate expedience of application of the multicriteria decision analysis methods, which are able to provide the added value to comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems. First, the paper presents a short review of the multicriteria decision analysis methods appropriate to support judgment aggregation within comparative evaluations of nuclear energy systems based on key indicators and highlights the methodology to perform such assessments. Second, a set of key indicators elaborated in the INPRO Collaborative Project on Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle (GAINS were evaluated for comparative evaluation of nuclear energy system evolution scenarios. Third, a numerical example is presented of application of the selected key indicators, methods, and tools for judgment aggregation in comparative assessment of the GAINS nuclear energy systems.

  6. A comparative evaluation of biological activities and bioactive compounds of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera noltei from southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Luísa; Laukaityte, Simona; Engelen, Aschwin H; Rodrigues, Maria João; Pereira, Hugo; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Barreira, Luísa; Rodríguez, Hortensia; Alberício, Fernando; Varela, João

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the antioxidant potential, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and the in vitro cytotoxic activity of extracts of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera noltei collected from southern Portugal. The total phenolic contents (TPCs), the rosmarinic acid (RA) concentration (HPLC/DAD) and the fatty acid (FA) profile (GC/MS) are also described. Z. marina had the highest TPC, radical scavenging activity against DPPH radicals and copper chelating activity. Z. noltei had metal chelation capacity to copper and iron ions. None of the species was able to inhibit AChE. Both seagrasses had high levels of polyunsaturated FAs. Z. marina significantly and selectively reduced the viability of tumorous neuronal cells. Z. noltei was highly toxic for the three cell lines tested and was selective against hepatocarcinoma cells at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. RA was the main compound identified in Z. marina, but not in Z. noltei.

  7. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of two enzyme activities using infrared spectroscopy: A comparative evaluation of PARAFAC, TUCKER and N-PLS modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Hansen, Per Waaben; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes are used in many processes to release fermentable sugars for green production of biofuel, or the refinery of biomass for extraction of functional food ingredients such as pectin or prebiotic oligosaccharides. The complex biomasses may, however, require a multitude of specific enzymes which...... are active on specific substrates generating a multitude of products. In this paper we use the plant polymer, pectin, to present a method to quantify enzyme activity of two pectolytic enzymes by monitoring their superimposed spectral evolutions simultaneously. The data is analyzed by three chemometric...... multiway methods, namely PARAFAC, TUCKER3 and N-PLS, to establish simultaneous enzyme activity assays for pectin lyase and pectin methyl esterase. Correlation coefficients Rpred2 for prediction test sets are 0.48, 0.96 and 0.96 for pectin lyase and 0.70, 0.89 and 0.89 for pectin methyl esterase...

  9. Comparative Performances of Flubendazole and Albendazole in Cystic Echinococcosis: Ex Vivo Activity, Plasma/Cyst Disposition, and Efficacy in Infected Mice ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Laura; Elissondo,Celina; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Denegri, Guillermo; LANUSSE , Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The need to identify improved therapy against cystic echinococcosis (CE) has motivated pharmacology-based research. The comparative pharmacological performances of the benzimidazole compounds flubendazole (FLBZ) and albendazole (ABZ) were addressed here. The goals of the work were as follows: (i) to evaluate the ex vivo activities of FLBZ, ABZ, and their respective metabolites against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces, (ii) to compare the plasma and cyst disposition kinetics for the two d...

  10. [Comparative evaluation of in vitro activities of carbapenems against gram-negative pathogens: Turkish data of COMPACT study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Volkan; Söyletir, Güner; Yalçın, Ata Nevzat; Oğünç, Dilara; Dokuzoğuz, Başak; Esener, Harika; Ulusoy, Sercan; Tünger, Alper; Aygen, Bilgehan; Sümerkan, Bülent; Arman, Dilek; Dizbay, Murat; Akova, Murat; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Eraksoy, Haluk; Başaran, Seniha; Köksal, Iftihar; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Akalın, Halis; Sınırtaş, Melda

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro activities of doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem against clinical gram-negative isolates. A total of 596 clinical isolates were obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients in 10 centers over Turkey between September-December 2008. The origin of the isolates was patients with nosocomial pneumonia (42.4%), bloodstream infections (%40.4), and complicated intraabdominal infections (17.1%). Of the isolates, 51.8% were obtained from ICU patients. The study isolates consisted of Pseudomonas spp. in 49.8%, Enterobacteriaceae in 40.3%, and other gram-negative agents in 9.9%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for doripenem, imipenem and meropenem were determined for all isolates in each center using Etest® strips (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden). Of the isolates, 188 (31.5%) were resistant to at least one of the carbapenems. MIC50 of doripenem against Pseudomonas spp. Was 1 mg/L which was similar to that of meropenem and two-fold lower than imipenem. Susceptibility to carbapenems in P.aeruginosa was 64% for doripenem at an MIC level of 2 mg/L, 53.9% and 63% for imipenem and meropenem at an MIC level of 4 mg/L, respectively. Doripenem and meropenem showed similar activity with the MIC90 of 0.12 mg/L whereas imipenem was four-fold less active at 0.5 mg/L. Against other gramnegative pathogens, mostly Acinetobacter spp., MIC50 was 8 mg/L for doripenem and 32 mg/L for other two carbapenems. P.aeruginosa isolates were inhibited 84.2% with doripenem and 72.1% with meropenem at the MIC level of 8 mg/L. Doripenem generally showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against pathogens collected in this study. Against Pseudomonas spp., doripenem was the most active of the three carbapenems. Doripenem and meropenem were equally active against Enterobacteriaceae and at least four-fold more active than imipenem. It was concluded that doripenem seemed to be a promising

  11. A comparative study on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (Leguminosae root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian Gino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging effect of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG root in different antioxidant models and experimentally induced ischemic reperfusion in an isolated rat heart. The rats were divided into three groups namely control, reperfusion control, and drug treated. For in vivo study, ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI was induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion of Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 15 minutes or 30 minutes or 45 minutes. Oral administration of DG extract (50 and 100 mg/kg once daily for 30 days was performed in rats of drug group and an increase of enzymatic activity of SOD, catalase and GPx along with an inhibition of lipid per-oxidations were observed. However, a significant rise in lipid peroxidation and reduction in myocardial SOD, catalase, and GPx were observed during IRI. The inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 in DPPH, superoxide scavenging activity, hydroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation were found to be 51.3, 24.6, 52.7, 53.2 and 415 µg/mL respectively. The presence of cactine, an alkaloid used to treat irregular heartbeat, angina pectoris and cardiac neuralgia was reported in DG through GS-MS analysis. The above results suggest that the aqueous extract of DG root exhibit potential free radical scavenging effect that can reduce the oxidative stress exhibited by IRI.

  12. Bioprospecting for anti-Streptococcus mutans: The activity of 10% Sesbania grandiflora flower extract comparable to erythromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azis Saifudin

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: S. grandiflora flower is a promising material to be developed as the active ingredient of anti-plaque toothpaste as well as mouthwash solution. The developed HPLC and TLC system can be used for a further standard in its material authentication as well as for a fingerprinting of quality control during the manufacturing process.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DRYING ON PHENOLICS CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME EDIBLE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzeloo Moghadam et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have important role in prevention and treatment of disorders and plants are considered as rich sources of radical scavenging compounds. Nowadays, many herbs are used in dried form which is possible to affect their antioxidant activity. In the present investigation, the effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content of some culinary plant species have been studied. Leaves of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolense were dried in sun, shade, oven and microwave and extracted with methanol. Antioxidant activity of each extract was determined by DPPH free radicals and total phenolics content was measured by folin cio-calteus reagent. The results revealed that drying process reduced the antioxidant activity of Anethum graveolense whereas sun-drying and shade-drying increased the antioxidant activity of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae. During sun-drying and shade-drying, total phenolics content increased for the three plants of Lamiaceae while oven- and microwave-drying reduced the phenolics content. Drying also declined the phenolics content of Anethum graveolense which gives the conclusion that some kind of correlation could be established between total phenolics content and antioxidant behavior for the three Lamiaceae and Anethum graveolense. Our study brought the view that diversity in the methods of drying could lead to different phenolics content and antioxidant behavior, suggesting that each plant needs a special drying method.

  14. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Rutten, P.G.P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta

  15. ”EMG-Normalised Kinase Activation during Exercise Is Higher in Human Gastrocnemius Compared to Soleus Muscle”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutert, Robin; Elbenhardt Jensen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Søren Them;

    2012-01-01

    expression of signalling proteins (AMPK subunits, eEF2, ERK1/2, TBC1D1 and 4), mitochondrial markers (F1 ATPase and COX1) or ROS-handling enzymes (SOD2 and catalase). Gastrocnemius was less active than soleus measured as EMG signal and glycogen use yet gastrocnemius displayed larger increases than soleus...

  16. NifH expression by five groups of phototrophs compared with nitrogenase activity in coastal microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severin, I.; Stal, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Diazotrophic (nitrogen-fixing) Cyanobacteria are often structurally dominant in coastal microbial mats but diazotrophs from other bacterial lineages are also present and active. The expression of nifH by four nonheterocystous Cyanobacteria and one member of the Gammaproteobacteria was followed over

  17. Diverse Assessment and Active Student Engagement Sustain Deep Learning: A Comparative Study of Outcomes in Two Parallel Introductory Biochemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Samantha J.; Chan, Cecilia W. L.; Tanner, Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence for a relationship between courses that emphasize student engagement and achievement of student deep learning, there is a paucity of quantitative comparative studies in a biochemistry and molecular biology context. Here, we present a pedagogical study in two contrasting parallel biochemistry introductory…

  18. Comparative analysis of tertiary alcohol esterase activity in bacterial strains isolated from enrichment cultures and from screening strain libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Susanne; Nguyen, Giang-Son; Thompson, Mark L; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Schauer, Frieder; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Kourist, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The preparation of enantiopure tertiary alcohols is of great contemporary interest due to the application of these versatile building blocks in organic synthesis and as precursors towards high value pharmaceutical compounds. Herein, we describe two approaches taken towards the discovery of novel biocatalysts for the synthesis of these valuable compounds. The first approach was initiated with screening of 47 bacterial strains for hydrolytic activity towards the simple tertiary alcohol ester tert-butyl acetate. In conjunction, a second method focussed on the isolation of strains competent for growth on tert-butyl acetate as the sole source of carbon and energy. From functional screening, 10 Gram-positive Actinomycetes showed hydrolytic activity, whilst enrichment selection resulted in the identification of 14 active strains, of which five belong to the Gram-negative cell-wall type. Bacterial strains obtained from both approaches were viable for enantioselective hydrolysis of pyridine substituted tertiary alcohol esters in addition to bulky aliphatic and keto-derived substrates from the same class. Activity towards each of the test substrates was uncovered, with promising enantioselectivities of up to E = 71 in the hydrolysis of a para-substituted pyridine tertiary alcohol ester using a strain of Rhodococcus ruber. Interestingly strains of Microbacterium and Alcaligenes sp. gave opposite enantiopreference in the hydrolysis of a meta-substituted pyridine tertiary alcohol ester with E values of 17 and 54. These approaches show that via both possibilities, screening established strain collections and performing enrichment selection, it is possible to identify novel species which show activity towards sterically challenging substrates.

  19. Comparative antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of red and white pitayas and their correlation with flavonoid and polyphenol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyoenJi; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Moon, Jeong Yong; Kim, Young Suk; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi Kim

    2011-01-01

    Pitaya, commonly known as dragon fruit, has generated considerable consumer interest because of its attractive color and micronutrient content. The present study investigated the total polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity against various free radicals, and antiproliferative effect on several cancer cell lines of extracts of flesh and peel of white and red pitayas, collected from Jeju Island, Korea. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of 80% methanol extracts of red pitaya peel (RPP) and white pitaya peel (WPP) were approximately 3- and 5-fold higher than those of red pitaya flesh (RPF) and white pitaya flesh (WPF), respectively. Overall, the total flavonoid and polyphenol contents of these extracts were RPP>WPP>RPF>WPF and WPP>RPP>RPF>WPF, respectively. In addition, a study involving nontargeted high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) of different pitaya extracts indicated the presence of phenolic, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol glycosides, betacyanin, and its derivatives with a few unknown compounds. Separately, peel extracts of both red and white pitayas showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and alkyl radical-scavenging activity than did the corresponding flesh extracts. Both peel extracts also showed stronger antiproliferative activity against AGS and MCF-7 cancer cells than either flesh extract. There was a direct correlation between the phenolic content and antioxidant effect, but no correlation observed between antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity. These results suggest that the peel of white and red pitaya may be a valuable ingredient in foods and may also be useful in cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications.

  20. Metabolic activation of the olfactory toxicant, dichlobenil, in rat olfactory microsomes: comparative studies with p-nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C; Brittebo, E B

    1995-03-18

    The tissue-specific toxicity of the herbicide, dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile), in the olfactory mucosa is related to a cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent metabolism, depletion of glutathione and covalent binding of metabolites. Pretreatment of mice with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC) protected against the dichlobenil-induced necrosis. Addition of DEDTC abolished the covalent binding of [14C]-dichlobenil to rat olfactory microsomes, whereas P4502E1-substrates such as ethanol, acetone or p-nitrophenol (NP) had no effect. The NP-hydroxylation in olfactory microsomes was > 6 times higher than that in liver microsomes and was markedly decreased following addition of dichlobenil, DEDTC or metyrapone. In liver microsomes of acetone-treated rats the NP-hydroxylation was markedly decreased following addition of DEDTC, whereas metyrapone and dichlobenil had no effect. In acetone-treated rats, the NP-hydroxylation and the metabolic activation of [14C]-dichlobenil in olfactory microsomes were decreased to 50 and 73% of untreated controls, respectively, whereas in liver microsomes these activities increased > 6 and 3.5-fold, respectively. An antibody to P4502E1 had no effect on the NP-hydroxylation or metabolic activation of [14C]-dichlobenil in olfactory microsomes, whereas the NP-hydroxylation in liver microsomes of acetone-treated rats was markedly decreased. In conclusion, the results do not support a major role for P4502E1 in the metabolic activation of dichlobenil or hydroxylation of NP in rat olfactory microsomes and suggest that these catalytic activities in the olfactory mucosa may represent a common form of P450.

  1. Comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil and two different extract from Salvia urmiensis Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hossein Farjam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil, ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. urmiensis Bunge were screened against some species of bacteria and fungi. Also, the essential oil of the aerial part of S. urmiensis Bunge was examined by GC and GC-MS. Methods:The oils obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus from fresh and dried aerial parts of S. urmiensis Bunge were analyzed by GC and GC-MS to investigate the variations of oil components. Ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. urmiensis Bunge were obtained using powdered aerial part and appropriate amounts of each solvent (ethyl acetate, ether) by maceration method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and extracts against the bacteria and fungi was determined using broth microdilution method. Results: In the essential oil of S. urmiensis Bunge 27 Compounds have been identified. Benzyl benzoate (60.3 %), n-hexyl benzoate (16.7 %), Amyl benzoate (5.2 %) and 2- octyl benzoate (4.2 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity againstStaphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). Conclusions: we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. urmiensis may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

  2. Comparative study of genetic activity of chlorambucil's active metabolite steroidal esters: The role of steroidal skeleton on aneugenic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimiou, M.; Ouranou, D.; Stephanou, G. [Division of Genetics, Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, Rion, 26 500 Patras (Greece); Demopoulos, N.A., E-mail: ndemop@biology.upatras.gr [Division of Genetics, Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, Rion, 26 500 Patras (Greece); Nikolaropoulos, S.S. [Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, 26 500 Patras (Greece); Alevizos, Ph. [Department of Mathematics, University of Patras, 26 500 Patras (Greece)

    2010-07-07

    p-N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)aminophenylacetic acid (PHE), a nitrogen mustard analogue and chlorambucil's active metabolite used as chemotherapeutic agent, has been shown that, in addition to its clastogenic activity, induces chromosome delay. In the present study an efford has been made (a) to investigate if the steroidal analogues of PHE (EA-92, EA-97, AK-333, AK-409 and AK-433) exert the same genetic activity as the parent compound, (b) to further analyze the aneugenic activity of nitrogen mustard analogues, (c) to investigate the mechanism by which they exert aneugenic potential and (d) to correlate the genetic activity with chemical structure. For this purpose the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus (CBMN) assay was conducted in human lymphocytes in vitro and the micronucleus (MN) frequency was determined to investigate their genetic activity. The mechanism of micronucleation was determined in combination with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using pancentromeric DNA probe. Since one of the mechanisms that chemicals cause aneuploidy is through alterations in the mitotic spindle, we also investigated the effect of the above compounds on the integrity and morphology of the mitotic spindle using double immunofluorescence of {beta}- and {gamma}-tubulin in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} mouse cell line. We found that PHE and its steroidal analogues, EA-92, EA-97, AK-333, AK-409 and AK-433, affect cell proliferation in human lymphocytes and C{sub 2}C{sub 12} mouse cells. All studied compounds are capable of inducing chromosome breakage events, as indicated by the enhanced C{sup -}MN frequencies. The less lipophilic compounds are the most genetically active molecules. PHE and only two of the studied analogues, AK-409 and AK-433, the most hydrophilic ones, showed aneugenic potential, by increasing the frequencies of MN containing a whole chromosome. The aneugenic potential of the above referred analogues is associated with amplification of centrosome number, since they caused

  3. Low validity of the Sensewear Pro3 activity monitor compared to indirect calorimetry during simulated free living in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Andreas; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Jensen, Andreas Kryger;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate physical activity estimates by the Sensewear Pro3 activity monitor compared with indirect calorimetry during simulated free living in patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the hip pre or post total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty patients diagnosed with hip osteoarth......BACKGROUND: To validate physical activity estimates by the Sensewear Pro3 activity monitor compared with indirect calorimetry during simulated free living in patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the hip pre or post total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty patients diagnosed with hip...... osteoarthritis (10 pre- and 10 post total hip arthroplasty; 40% female; age: 63.3 ± 9.0; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.7). All patients completed a 2 hour protocol of simulated free living with 8 different typical physical activity types. Energy consumption (kcal/min) was estimated by the Sense Wear pro3 Armband activity...... monitor and validated against indirect calorimetry (criterion method) by means of a portable unit (Cosmed K4b2). Bias and variance was analyzed using functional ANOVA. RESULTS: Mean bias during all activities was 1.5 Kcal/min 95%CI [1.3; 1.8] corresponding to 72% (overestimation). Normal gait speed showed...

  4. A comparative analysis of the clotting and fibrinolytic activities of the snake venom (Bothrops atrox) from different geographical areas in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ana Maria; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis; Girón, Maria E; Aguilar, Irma; Guerrero, Belsy

    2007-01-01

    Venom constitution within the same snake species can present considerable geographical variations. Bothrops atrox venoms were obtained from adult snakes captured at different geographical locations: Parguasa (Bolívar state); Puerto Ayacucho 1, Serranía del Cuao and Puerto Ayacucho 2 (Amazon state). The coagulant and fibrinolytic activities of these venoms were compared. Amidolytic activity of crude snake venom was measured by a micromethod designed in our laboratory. Coagulant activity on plasma and fibrinogen due to thrombin-like activity in venoms was also determined. Crude snake venom fibrinolytic activity by the fibrin plate method was assayed. Chromatographic studies were developed on Protein-Pack 300 column. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out under reduced conditions. After SDS-PAGE of samples, the fibrin-zymography was tested on agarose-fibrin plates. The results demonstrated several differences among B. atrox venoms from different geographical areas. Chromatograms and SDS-PAGE profiles indicated that venoms from the same species presented differences in the molecular mass of their components. The procoagulant activity depended on the utilized method (amidolytic versus clotting). Parguasa and Puerto Ayacucho 2 venoms presented procoagulant activity for both methods. Furthermore, Parguasa venom had also the highest hemorrhagic activity and the lowest LD50. In relation to the fibrinolytic activity, Puerto Ayacucho 1 venom was the most active, equally for fibrin plates as for the amidolytic method (t-PA like). This venom had the lowest coagulant activity, which induced us to think that probably its procoagulant activity was interfered by its fibrinolytic activity.

  5. Antimicrobial activity and a comparative essential oil analysis of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahriman, N; Tosun, G; İskender, N Yılmaz; Alpay Karaoğlu, Ş; Yayli, N

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima (Asteraceae) were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and a microwave distillation (MD), than characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 58 and 57 compounds were identified, constituting over 93.7%, and 91.6% of volatile oil composition of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima, respectively. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents (HD: 42.4% versus MD: 51.5%). The major component of the oils of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima was germacrene D (HD, 17.8% versus MD, 23.2%). The antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils of the plant was also investigated, and they showed good antibacterial activity against to tested gram-positive bacteria, especially to M. smegmatis and a yeast-like fungus C. albicans.

  6. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singariya P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.

  7. Comparative proteomics and activity of a green sulfur bacterium across the water column of Lake Cadagno, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habicht, Kirsten S.; Miller, Mette; Cox, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    the bacteria survive in the dark. Although metagenomic data are not available for Lake Cadagno, proteome analysis was possible based on the completely sequenced genome of an isolated strain of Chl. clathratiforme. Using LC-MS/MS we identified 1321 Chl. clathratiforme proteins in Lake Cadagno and quantitatively...... compared 621 of these in the four samples. Our results showed that compared with cells obtained from the photic zone, cells collected from the dark part of the water column had the same expression level of key enzymes involved in carbon metabolism and photosynthetic light harvesting. However, most proteins...... in the dark. Instead we propose that Chl. clathratiforme cells in the dark part of the water column obtain energy for maintenance from the fermentation of polyglucose. Based on the observed protein compositions we have constructed possible pathways for C, N and S metabolism in Chl. clathratiforme...

  8. Alternative Hand Contamination Technique To Compare the Activities of Antimicrobial and Nonantimicrobial Soaps under Different Test Conditions▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fuls, Janice L.; Rodgers, Nancy D.; Fischler, George E.; Howard, Jeanne M.; Patel, Monica; Weidner, Patrick L.; Duran, Melani H.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial hand soaps provide a greater bacterial reduction than nonantimicrobial soaps. However, the link between greater bacterial reduction and a reduction of disease has not been definitively demonstrated. Confounding factors, such as compliance, soap volume, and wash time, may all influence the outcomes of studies. The aim of this work was to examine the effects of wash time and soap volume on the relative activities and the subsequent transfer of bacteria to inanimate objects for ant...

  9. Comparative analysis between the manager contract and the administrator contract in the activity of hotel services from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacșu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the activity of any hotel company, the manager or the administrator plays an important role; that is why the relationships of the hotel units with managers and administrators must be well defined and assumed by both sides by means of specific contracts. Between the manager contract and the administrator contract there are similarities, but also differences. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages that the two contracts present and also the situations in which they are recommended.

  10. A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and daily disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato

    2012-06-01

    Daily cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in daily practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were irradiated with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of irradiation, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in daily disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short irradiation, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden.

  11. Myrtus communis berry color morphs: a comparative analysis of essential oils, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Extracts of mature dark blue and white berries from two Tunisian Myrtus communis morphs growing at the same site were assessed for their essential-oil and fatty-acid compositions, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils allowed the identification of 33 constituents. The oils from the dark blue fruits showed high percentages of α-pinene (11.1%), linalool (11.6%), α-terpineol (15.7%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and geraniol (3.7%). Myrtenyl acetate (20.3%) was found to be the major compound in the oils from white berries. GC Analysis of the pericarp and seed fatty acids showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted the major fraction (54.3-78.1%). The highest percentages of linoleic acid (78.0%) and oleic acid (20.0%) were observed in the seeds and the pericarps of the white fruits, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents and the concentration of the eight anthocyanins, identified by HPLC analysis, were significantly higher in the dark blue fruits. All extracts showed a substantial antioxidant activity, assessed by the free radical-scavenging activity and the ferric reducing power, with the dark blue fruit extracts being more effective.

  12. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tuncay Agar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC, A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC, antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract and TAC (2.080 UAE, the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL, the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  13. Comparative Study of the Role of Institutions in Shaping Inventive Activity in Mid-Range Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervits Irina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of institutions on national rates of inventive activity. Invention, part of the innovation process, is acknowledged as one of the driving forces behind economic growth, and patent statistics are frequently used as a measurable indicator of inventive output. Thus this paper explores the relationship between national patent statistics and measures of institutional quality. As a result of our research, the effect of the “threshold of inventive activity” was observed. This effect demonstrates that when countries reach a certain level of institutional development and attain a general institutional climate conducive to inventive activity, the number of patent applications begins to sharply increase. The paper contributes to the body of evidence that confirms that a combination of fundamental institutions like the rule of law or freedom of expression, which are not necessarily aimed at boosting innovation, create an overall environment conducive to patenting. We demonstrate that “mid-range emerging economies”,2 including those in Central and Eastern Europe3 (CEE, where the quality of institutions is lagging behind more developed counterparts and/or their influence is weak or sporadic, have not yet reached the threshold of inventive activity yet. However, those CEE countries that have acceded to the European Union first have made visible progress with respect to institutional quality and invention.

  14. Comparative study of photocatalytic activities of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorod on Si(001) wafer and FTO glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee; Yang, Sena; Kim, Yeonwoo; Kim, Namdong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Baik, Jaeyoon; Kim, Hyun Sung; Lee, Hangil

    2015-09-01

    ZnO nanorods have been grown on Si(001) wafer and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates for 1 and 4 h with the hydrothermal methods. The morphologies and photocatalytic activities of the ZnO nanorods were found to depend on the substrates. We investigated their properties by using spectroscopic analysis and demonstrated that the shape of nanorod and the ratios of external defects can be controlled by varying the substrates. Our experiments revealed that the nanorods grown on Si(001) have a single-crystalline wurtzite structure with (002) facets and that the number of surface oxygen defects increases with their length as the growth time increases. The nanorods grown on Si(001) have different facets, in particular wider (002) facets, and a higher ratio of the oxygen defect than the nanorods on FTO glass substrate. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities with respect to 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) of these nanorods were investigated with high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (HRPES). We demonstrated that their photocatalytic activity is influenced by the ratios of surface oxygen defects, which varies with the substrate surface.

  15. Comparing physical activity and sedentary time among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers enrolled in early learning programs: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; Maltby, Alana M; Burke, Shauna M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2016-09-01

    Establishing appropriate physical activity and sedentary behaviours during early childhood is important to ensure children accrue the many associated health benefits. While physical activity levels have been reported as low within early learning programs, little research has explored the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian preschoolers classified as overweight within these facilities. The purpose of this study was to compare objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among preschoolers classified as overweight and nonoverweight in early learning programs. Direct assessment of physical activity and sedentary time of 216 preschool-aged children was collected via Actical accelerometers during early learning hours, while body mass index percentile was calculated based on preschoolers' objectively measured height and weight. Results of three 3-way ANOVAs suggest that rates of moderate to vigorous physical activity, total physical activity, and sedentary time (p > 0.05) did not significantly differ based on weight status, sex, and type of early learning facility. This study is one of few that has examined differences in overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers' sedentary time, and adds to the limited research exploring physical activity levels among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers during early learning hours. Given the high rates of sedentary time reported, programming within early learning facilities is necessary to support preschoolers, regardless of weight status, to achieve increased physical activity levels and decreased sedentary time.

  16. Cost-utility of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing compared to conventional total hip replacement in young active patients with osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heintzbergen, S.; Kulin, N.A.; IJzerman, M.J.; Steuten, L.M.G.; Werle, J.; Khong, H.; Marshall, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoM HRA) has emerged as an alternative to total hip arthroplasty (THA) for younger active patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Birmingham hip resurfacing is the most common MoM HRA in Alberta, and is therefore compared with conventional THA. Obj

  17. The effect of music therapy compared with general recreational activities in reducing agitation in people with dementia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, A. C.; Zuidersma, M.; Boersma, F.; de Jonge, P.; Zuidema, S. U.; Slaets, J. P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the effects of music therapy with general recreational day activities in reducing agitation in people with dementia, residing in nursing home facilities. Methods In a randomised controlled design, residents with dementia (n=94) were allocated to either music the

  18. Predicting long-term independency in activities of daily living after middle cerebral artery stroke: does information from MRI have added predictive value compared with clinical information?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemanck, S.K.; Kwakkel, G.; Post, M.W.; Kappelle, L.J.; Prevo, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate whether neuroimaging information has added predictive value compared with clinical information for independency in activities of daily living (ADL) 1 year after stroke. METHODS: Seventy-five first-ever middle cerebral artery stroke survivors were evaluated in l

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Composition and Active Property Evaluation of Certain Essential Oils to Assess their Potential Applications in Active Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Vasile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of four commercial essential oils (EOs (thyme, clove, rosemary, and tea tree from Romanian production were studied in order to assess them as bioactive compounds for active food packaging applications. The chemical composition of the oils was determined with the Folin–Ciocâlteu method and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detectors, and it was found that they respect the AFNOR/ISO standard limits. The EOs were tested against three food spoilage fungi—Fusarium graminearum, Penicillium corylophilum, and Aspergillus brasiliensis—and three potential pathogenic food bacteria—Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes—using the disc diffusion method. It was found that the EOs of thyme, clove, and tea tree can be used as antimicrobial agents against the tested fungi and bacteria, thyme having the highest inhibitory effect. Concerning antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2’-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods, it has been established that the clove oil exhibits the highest activity because of its high phenolic content. Promising results were obtained by their incorporation into chitosan emulsions and films, which show potential for food packaging. Therefore, these essential oils could be suitable alternatives to chemical additives, satisfying the consumer demand for naturally preserved food products ensuring its safety.

  20. Psychosocial Effects of Reverse-Integrated Basketball Activity Compared to Separate and No Physical Activity in Young People with Physical Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Chacham-Guber, Anat; Reiter, Shunit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life (QOL) and perceived social competence (PSC) in young people with physical disability. Ninety participants (33 females and 57 males) were monitored across four conditions: competitive separate physical activity (COSPA), recreational…

  1. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Golmohamadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Visan, A.; Socol, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Oprea, A.E.; Grumezescu, A.M. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, Bucharest, 011061 Romania (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest - ICUB, Bucharest, 77206 (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R.J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We successfully deposited composite quercetin dehydrate-, resveratrol- and silver nanoparticle-polyvinylpyrrolidone thin coatings with chemical structure close to that of the starting materials by MAPLE. • Thin film morphology studies revealed a uniform surface without aggregates or grains on the top of the surface. • MAPLE-deposited thin films exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. • We demonstrated the potential use of these hybrid systems and MAPLE deposition method for the development of new harmless, ecological antimicrobial strategies. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF{sup *} excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  3. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Alirahmi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  4. A comparative study of water distribution, free radical production and activation of antioxidative metabolism in germinating pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtyla, Łukasz; Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Tomasz; Bednarski, Waldemar; Ratajczak, Lech; Jurga, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between hydration of the embryo axes and cotyledons and the resumption of the oxidative metabolism in both organs of germinating seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Piast). Nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy and imaging were used to study temporal and spatial water uptake and distribution in pea seeds. The observations revealed that water penetrates into the seed through the hilum, micropyle and embryo axes, and cotyledons hydrate to different extents. Thus, inhomogeneous water distribution may influence the resumption of oxidative metabolism. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements showed that seed germination was accompanied by the generation of free radicals with g(1) and g(2) values of 2.0032 and 2.0052, respectively. The values of spectroscopic splitting coefficients suggest that they are quinone radicals. The highest content of free radicals was observed in embryo axes immediately after emergence of the radicle. Glutathione content decreased during the entire germination period in both embryo axes and cotyledons. A different profile was observed for ascorbate, with significant increases in embryo axes, coinciding with radicle protrusion. Electrophoretic analysis showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) were present in dry seeds and were activated later during germination, especially in embryo axes. The presence of all antioxidative enzymes as well as low molecular antioxidants in dry seeds allowed the antioxidative machinery to be active as soon as the enzymes were reactivated by seed imbibition. The observed changes in free radical levels, antioxidant contents and enzymatic activities in embryo axes and cotyledons appear to be more closely related to metabolic and developmental processes

  5. [Comparative study of the estrogenic activity of modified estrogens based on data of competitive binding analysis and biological assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskaia, E V; Ivanenko, T I

    1981-01-01

    A series of bromo- and silyl-derivatives was studied in experiments on immature female rats in vivo and in vitro. All the estrogens studied were conventionally divided into 4 groups according to their ability for concurrent binding with the rat uterus cytosol receptors and their specific bioeffect: equally concurrent and bioeffective compounds (estrone, ethynyl estradiol); slightly concurrent substances with a pronounced uterotropic action (4-silyl estrogens, mestranol); little effective compounds with 4 to 8% of estradiol concurrent activity (2- and 4-bromo-and silyl estradiols, estriol); compounds, not having concurrent and biological effects (2-silyl estrones, 4-bromoestradiol diacetate).

  6. Comparative study of the antihypertensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, Sanae; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Wibo, Maurice; Morel, Nicole

    2004-08-01

    Water extract of Marrubium vulgare is widely used as antihypertensive treatment in folk medicine. We have compared the effect of 10-week-long treatment with amlodipine or Marrubium water extract on systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiovascular remodeling and vascular relaxation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both treatments produced similar decrease in SBP. Amlodipine treatment reduced left ventricle, aortic and mesenteric artery weight. Marrubium treatment had a significant antihypertrophic effect in aorta only. Relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) of mesenteric artery was improved by Marrubium but not by amlodipine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in addition to its antihypertensive effect, Marrubium water extract improved the impaired endothelial function in SHR.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A. V.; Oprea, A. E.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  8. Comparing the standards of one metabolic equivalent of task in accurately estimating physical activity energy expenditure based on acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Lee, Jongshill; Park, Hoon Ki; Jang, Dong Pyo; Song, Soohwa; Cho, Baek Hwan; Jung, Yoo-Suk; Park, Rae-Woong; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, In Young

    2016-08-24

    The purpose of the study is to analyse how the standard of resting metabolic rate (RMR) affects estimation of the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) using an accelerometer. In order to investigate the effect on estimation according to intensity of activity, comparisons were conducted between the 3.5 ml O2 · kg(-1) · min(-1) and individually measured resting VO2 as the standard of 1 MET. MET was estimated by linear regression equations that were derived through five-fold cross-validation using 2 types of MET values and accelerations; the accuracy of estimation was analysed through cross-validation, Bland and Altman plot, and one-way ANOVA test. There were no significant differences in the RMS error after cross-validation. However, the individual RMR-based estimations had as many as 0.5 METs of mean difference in modified Bland and Altman plots than RMR of 3.5 ml O2 · kg(-1) · min(-1). Finally, the results of an ANOVA test indicated that the individual RMR-based estimations had less significant differences between the reference and estimated values at each intensity of activity. In conclusion, the RMR standard is a factor that affects accurate estimation of METs by acceleration; therefore, RMR requires individual specification when it is used for estimation of METs using an accelerometer.

  9. Silver and zinc oxide nanostructures loaded on activated carbon as new adsorbents for removal of methylene green: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Karimi, H; Yousefi, F

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the removal of methylene green (MG) from aqueous solution based on two new adsorbents including silver nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon (Ag-NP-AC and ZnO-NR-AC, respectively) has been carried out. The dependency of removal process to variables such as contact time, pH, amount of adsorbents, and initial MG concentration were examined and optimized. It was found that the maximum MG removal percentage was achieved at pH = 7.0 following stirring at 400 r min(-1) for 7 and 6 min for Ag-NP-AC and ZnO-NR-AC, respectively. Equilibrium data were well fitted with the Langmuir model having maximum adsorption capacity of 166.7 and 200 mg g(-1) for Ag-NP-AC and ZnO-NR-AC, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters of MG adsorption on Ag-NP-AC such as enthalpy and entropy changes, activation energy, sticking probability, and Gibbs free energy changes show the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the removal process. Among different conventional kinetic models, the pseudo second-order kinetics in addition to particle diffusion mechanism is the best and efficient model for the prediction and explanation of experimental data of MG adsorption onto both adsorbents.

  10. Metabolite profiling of red and white pitayas (Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus) for comparing betalain biosynthesis and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunmin; Heo, Do Yeon; Kim, Young-Suk; Cho, Somi Kim; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-08-27

    Metabolite profiling of red and white pitayas (Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus) was performed using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry with multivariate analysis. Different species and parts of pitayas (red peel, RP; white peel, WP; red flesh, RF; and white flesh, WF) were clearly separated by partial least-squares discriminate analysis. Furthermore, betalain-related metabolites, such as betacyanins and betaxanthins, or their precursors were described on the basis of their metabolites. The results of antioxidant activity tests [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)], total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and total betacyanin contents (TBC) showed the following: RP ≥ WP > RF > WF. TPC, TFC, TBC, and betalain-related metabolites were higher in the peel than in the flesh and suggested to be the main contributors to antioxidant activity in pitayas. Therefore, peels as well as pulp of pitaya could beneficially help in the food industry.

  11. An investigation of reduced western disturbance activity over Northwest India in November - December 2015 compared to 2014 - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Soumik; Bieniek, Peter A.; Deoras, Akshay

    2017-02-01

    In November-December of 2015, Northwestern India received very low precipitation due to anomalously low Western Disturbances (WDs) activity. The resulting lack of sufficient precipitation and soil moisture hampered the growth of winter crops leading to significant agricultural losses. Relatively stable weather in the absence of precipitation and WDs contributed to extremely high air pollution in New Delhi and also significantly degraded the air quality in many cities of Northwestern India leading to severe health issues. Despite the fact that WDs play a very important role in India's winter weather, limited research has been done to investigate the causes of their inter-annual variability. A case study using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, CMAP precipitation and NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature data is evaluated in this paper to better understand the atmospheric drivers of WDs in order to help fill the gap in knowledge. Results show that elevated Sea Surface Temperatures over the North Indian Ocean likely lead to atmospheric circulation anomalies that led to branching and weakening of the subtropical jet stream and weakening of vertical wind shear over Northwestern India. These conditions created an unfavorable environment for the propagation of WDs. However, there was an intensification of vertical wind shear over mid-latitude Eurasia along with increased storm activity. This weakened the Eurasian anticyclone resulting in warmer surface air temperatures over the midlatitudes that led to a redistribution of the meridional temperature gradient.

  12. Short-wavelength infrared laser activates the auditory neurons: comparing the effect of 980 vs. 810 nm wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lan; Wang, Jingxuan; Wei, Ying; Lu, Jianren; Xu, Anting; Xia, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Research on auditory neural triggering by optical stimulus has been developed as an emerging technique to elicit the auditory neural response, which may provide an alternative method to the cochlear implants. However, most previous studies have been focused on using longer-wavelength near-infrared (>1800 nm) laser. The effect comparison of different laser wavelengths in short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range on the auditory neural stimulation has not been previously explored. In this study, the pulsed 980- and 810-nm SWIR lasers were applied as optical stimuli to irradiate the auditory neurons in the cochlea of five deafened guinea pigs and the neural response under the two laser wavelengths was compared by recording the evoked optical auditory brainstem responses (OABRs). In addition, the effect of radiant exposure, laser pulse width, and threshold with the two laser wavelengths was further investigated and compared. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze those data. Results showed that the OABR amplitude with the 980-nm laser is higher than the amplitude with the 810-nm laser under the same radiant exposure from 10 to 102 mJ/cm(2). And the laser stimulation of 980 nm wavelength has lower threshold radiant exposure than the 810 nm wavelength at varied pulse duration in 20-500 μs range. Moreover, the 810-nm laser has a wider optimized pulse duration range than the 980-nm laser for the auditory neural stimulation.

  13. Diverse assessment and active student engagement sustain deep learning: A comparative study of outcomes in two parallel introductory biochemistry courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Samantha J; Chan, Cecilia W L; Tanner, Julian A

    2014-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence for a relationship between courses that emphasize student engagement and achievement of student deep learning, there is a paucity of quantitative comparative studies in a biochemistry and molecular biology context. Here, we present a pedagogical study in two contrasting parallel biochemistry introductory courses to compare student surface and deep learning. Surface and deep learning were measured quantitatively by a study process questionnaire at the start and end of the semester, and qualitatively by questionnaires and interviews with students. In the traditional lecture/examination based course, there was a dramatic shift to surface learning approaches through the semester. In the course that emphasized student engagement and adopted multiple forms of assessment, a preference for deep learning was sustained with only a small reduction through the semester. Such evidence for the benefits of implementing student engagement and more diverse non-examination based assessment has important implications for the design, delivery, and renewal of introductory courses in biochemistry and molecular biology.

  14. Comparative analysis of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activity on coniferous and deciduous wood using ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Goacher, Robyn E; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; Master, Emma R

    2016-09-01

    White-rot fungi are distinguished by their ability to efficiently degrade lignin via lignin-modifying type II peroxidases, including manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). In the present study, time-of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to evaluate lignin modification in three coniferous and three deciduous wood preparations following treatment with commercial preparations of LiP and MnP from two different white-rot fungi. Percent modification of lignin was calculated as a loss of intact methoxylated lignin over nonfunctionalized aromatic rings, which is consistent with oxidative cleavage of methoxy moieties within the lignin structure. Exposure to MnP resulted in greater modification of lignin in coniferous compared to deciduous wood (28 vs. 18 % modification of lignin); and greater modification of G-lignin compared to S-lignin within the deciduous wood samples (21 vs. 12 %). In contrast, exposure to LiP resulted in similar percent modification of lignin in all wood samples (21 vs 22 %), and of G- and S-lignin within the deciduous wood (22 vs. 23 %). These findings suggest that the selected MnP and LiP may particularly benefit delignification of coniferous and deciduous wood, respectively. Moreover, the current analysis further demonstrates the utility of ToF-SIMS for characterizing enzymatic modification of lignin in wood fibre along with potential advantages over UV and HPCL-MS detection of solubilized delignification products.

  15. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of seed extract of Coriandrum sativum compared to Niclosamid against Hymenolepis nana infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh; Ghalesefidi, Maryam Jamshidian; Azami, Mehdi; Mohaghegh, Mohammad Ali; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Ghomashlooyan, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in human and animals. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a medicinal plant which grown as a spice crop all over the world. The seeds of this plant have been used to treat parasitic disease, indigestion, diabetes, rheumatism and pain in the joints. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Niclosamid and alcoholic seed extract of C. sativum on Hymenolepis nana infection, in vivo and vitro. For in vivo study, Balb/c mice were used, to compare the efficacy of 50 mg/kg body weight (B.W) of Niclosamid with different doses of alcoholic extracts of C. sativum (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg B.W). It was found that the efficacy of Niclosamid had reached 100 % after 11 days post treatment, while the efficacy of 500 and 750 mg/kg B.W of C. sativum reached to 100 % after 15 days after treatment. For in vitro study, special nutrient broth media was used. It was found that the addition of 1000 mg/ml of Niclosamid had paralyzed and killed worms within 5 min, while C. sativum killed them within 30 min. Our results showed that extract of C. sativum has good effect against H. nana and could be use in traditional medicine for treatment of parasitic disease.

  16. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laizuman Nahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2 but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI. Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg. In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001, reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001 in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress.

  17. Efficacy and pharmacokinetic activity of frovatriptan compared to rizatriptan in patients with moderate-to-severe migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savi L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lidia Savi,1 Selene Mogavero,2 Colin Gerard Egan21Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 2Primula Multimedia SRL, Pisa, ItalyBackground: Migraine is a painful neurological disorder that affects over 10% of the general population. Frovatriptan and rizatriptan are antimigraine agents belonging to the triptan class. Although previous studies have independently compared the efficacy of these agents, contemporaneous data examining both pharmacokinetic (PK properties and efficacy in parallel have not previously been available.Materials and methods: In this single-center double-blind study, 18 subjects (ten female were treated for a single migraine attack with frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg. Plasma concentrations were measured predose and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration. The primary end point of this study was to evaluate the association between PK parameters and efficacy measures and recurrence rate. Secondary end points were pain-free and pain-relief episodes at 2 and 4 hours, recurrent episodes within 48 hours, and cumulative hazard of recurrence within 72 hours.Results: At baseline, approximately 17% of patients had mild migraine, while 83% had moderate–severe migraine. Although the time to maximum concentration was similar for both drugs (2.7 versus 2.3 hours, the terminal half-life for frovatriptan was longer than rizatriptan (29.3 versus 3.2 hours, P<0.0001. The proportion of patients who were pain-free at 4 hours without rescue medication was higher in the frovatriptan-treated group, (38.9 versus 5.6%, P=0.045. The cumulative hazard of recurrence over 72 h was reduced by frovatriptan compared to rizatriptan-treated patients (log-rank test, P=0.04. Pain-free and pain-relief episodes for the study period were positively correlated with the concentration:maximum concentration (Cmax ratio for frovatriptan (r=0.52, P=0.028, but not rizatriptan. Recurrence rate was negatively

  18. Comparative Evaluation of the Modulation of Antibiotic-Activity against Strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique D. M. Coutinho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Combining multiple drugs is an strategy used to combat the dissemination of pathogenic and drug resistant bacteria. However, the misuse of these drugs against bacteria have caused the selection of more resistant specimens called multidrug-resistant bacteria. Objective: In this work we evaluated the antibiotic activity of claritromicin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and imipenen, alone or associating one by one, against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Material and methods: The minimal inhibitory concentration (mic was performed us­ing the microdilution assay. Based in the mic values, the antibiotic effect of the drugs alone and in association were determined. Results: The association between the drugs demonstrated the synergism against the bacterial strains. Conclusion: The use of the combined antibiotic-therapy can be positively performed, but additional studies have to be conducted first for proving that its use is safe.

  19. Silver nanoparticles in hydrogels and microemulsions—a comparative account of their properties and bio-activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debajyoti; Chatterjee, Saptarshi; Sarkar, Keka; De, Swati

    2014-09-01

    Stable silver nanoparticles were prepared in sodium Aerosol OT (AOT) based microemulsions and hydrogels. The various gel and microemulsion compositions used for nanoparticle synthesis were obtained from the phase diagram of the AOT/n-heptane/H2O system. It was found that only in gels can AOT play a dual role of stabilizer as well as reducing agent. In microemulsions, AOT acts as a stabilizer only. In gels, the commonly used NaBH4 reduction results in spherical silver nanoparticles while the AOT based reduction yields highly facetted particles. In microemulsion however, larger particles of undefined shapes are formed in low yield while for the gels, a large number of particles are formed. The synthesized silver nanoparticles show strong antibacterial activity.

  20. Combination treatment with methotrexate, cyclosporine, and intraarticular betamethasone compared with methotrexate and intraarticular betamethasone in early active rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Junker, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether disease control can be achieved in early active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by treatment with methotrexate and intraarticular betamethasone, and whether the addition of cyclosporine to the regimen has any additional effect. METHODS: Patients (n = 160) were randomized...... to receive methotrexate 7.5 mg/week plus cyclosporine 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/day (combination therapy) or methotrexate plus placebo-cyclosporine (monotherapy). At weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 and every 4 weeks thereafter, betamethasone was injected into swollen joints (maximum 4 joints or 4 ml per visit......). Beginning at week 8, if synovitis was present, the methotrexate dosage was increased stepwise up to 20 mg/week, with a subsequent stepwise increase in the cyclosporine or placebo-cyclosporine dosage up to 4 mg/kg. RESULTS: At 52 weeks, 20% improvement according to the American College of Rheumatology...

  1. Combination treatment with metrotrexate, cyclosporine, and intraarticular betamethasone compared with methotrexate and intraarticular betamethasone in early active rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Junker, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether disease control can be achieved in early active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by treatment with methotrexate and intraarticular betamethasone, and whether the addition of cyclosporine to the regimen has any additional effect. METHODS: Patients (n = 160) were randomized...... to receive methotrexate 7.5 mg/week plus cyclosporine 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/day (combination therapy) or methotrexate plus placebo-cyclosporine (monotherapy). At weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 and every 4 weeks thereafter, betamethasone was injected into swollen joints (maximum 4 joints or 4 ml per visit......). Beginning at week 8, if synovitis was present, the methotrexate dosage was increased stepwise up to 20 mg/week, with a subsequent stepwise increase in the cyclosporine or placebo-cyclosporine dosage up to 4 mg/kg. RESULTS: At 52 weeks, 20% improvement according to the American College of Rheumatology...

  2. Comparative Bio-activity Guided Characterization of Biocide from Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communius L Seeds Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnake G. Ede

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of biocide from Jatropha (Jatropha curca and castor (Ricinus communius L seeds oil. The biocide potential of the seeds oil was evaluated against termite (Odontotermes obesus and cockroach (Blattela germanica. The bioassay study showed that Jatropha 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. Castor 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 60hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. The LD50 was determined to be 0.64% and 1.24% for termite and cockroach, respectively for jatropha oil after 72hrs exposure. It was determined to be 1.43% and 1.08% for termite and cockroach respectively for castor oil. The biocidal potential of the oil is statistically significant (p<0.05 when compared with blank and solvent controls at all concentration tested. Various physicochemical parameters were also evaluated in accordance with American standard testing method specifications.

  3. Comparing Open and Guided Inquiry Activities in an Informal Physics Program To Promote Agency, Communication, and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Rosemary Philomena

    In this thesis, we investigate an informal after-school science program. We examine two inquiry curricula used in this program; one more guided and the other more open. We have developed new methods to analyze middle school children's scientific notebooks, and we measure how the children exhibit agency, how the children communicate, and the mechanistic reasoning children use. We compare the two curricula and find that the children exhibit more agency in the open curriculum, write and draw more in the open curriculum, demonstrate a wide variety of scientific communication, and use more varied types of mechanistic reasoning in the open curriculum. These aspects can be linked to science identity, and we conclude that the more open curriculum supports the development of positive science identity.

  4. Humoral and cellular immunity to hepatitis B virus-derived antigens: comparative activity of Freund complete adjuvant alum, and liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Y; Ionescu-Matiu, I; Dreesman, G R; Kramp, W; Six, H R; Hollinger, F B; Melnick, J L

    1980-01-01

    Complete Freud adjuvant, aluminum gel, and liposomes were compared for their ability to enhance the immunogenicity of an intact 22-nm HBsAg particle vaccine and an HBsAg-derived polypeptide vaccine in guinea pigs. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated. The greatest immune response was obtained with complete Freund adjuvant, regardless of the antigen preparation. Aluminum gel appeared to be a better adjuvant for 22-nm HBsAg particles, but the liposomes rendered polypeptide preparations more immunogenic. The possibility that various proportions were entrapped in aqueous compartments instead of being inserted into the lipid bilayers of liposomes might account for this difference. The development of both humoral and cellular immunity was dependent upon the use of an adjuvant, because aqueous preparations had poor immunogenicity. PMID:7014445

  5. Comparative modeling and molecular dynamics suggest high carboxylase activity of the Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 RbcL protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; de Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, João Lídio; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14, and identify target sites to improve enzyme affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. A three-dimensional model was built using MODELLER 9.14, molecular dynamics was used to generate a 100 ns trajectory by AMBER12, and the binding free energy was calculated using MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and SIE methods with alanine scanning. The model obtained showed characteristics of form-I rubisco, with 15 beta sheets and 19 alpha helices, and maintained the highly conserved catalytic site encompassing residues Lys175, Lys177, Lys201, Asp203, and Glu204. The binding free energy of the enzyme-substrate complexation of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 showed values around -10 kcal mol(-1) using the SIE method. The most important residues for the interaction with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were Arg295 followed by Lys334. The generated model was successfully validated, remaining stable during the whole simulation, and demonstrated characteristics of enzymes with high carboxylase activity. The binding analysis revealed candidates for directed mutagenesis sites to improve rubisco's affinity.

  6. Increased presence of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in inflamed muscle of patients with active juvenile dermatomyositis compared to peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Vercoulen

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease affecting the microvasculature of skin and muscle. CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs are key regulators of immune homeostasis. A role for Tregs in JDM pathogenesis has not yet been established. Here, we explored Treg presence and function in peripheral blood and muscle of JDM patients. We analyzed number, phenotype and function of Tregs in blood from JDM patients by flow cytometry and in vitro suppression assays, in comparison to healthy controls and disease controls (Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy. Presence of Tregs in muscle was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Overall, Treg percentages in peripheral blood of JDM patients were similar compared to both control groups. Muscle biopsies of new onset JDM patients showed increased infiltration of numbers of T cells compared to Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Both in JDM and Duchenne's muscular dystrophy the proportion of FOXP3+ T cells in muscles were increased compared to JDM peripheral blood. Interestingly, JDM is not a self-remitting disease, suggesting that the high proportion of Tregs in inflamed muscle do not suppress inflammation. In line with this, peripheral blood Tregs of active JDM patients were less capable of suppressing effector T cell activation in vitro, compared to Tregs of JDM in clinical remission. These data show a functional impairment of Tregs in a proportion of patients with active disease, and suggest a regulatory role for Tregs in JDM inflammation.

  7. A comparative study of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of tea tree oils s.l. with special reference to the activity of beta-triketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, F; Kaulfers, P M; Stahl-Biskup, E

    2000-08-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Australian tea tree oil, cajuput oil, niaouli oil, kanuka oil and manuka oil as well as of a beta-triketone complex isolated from manuka oil were investigated in a constituent-oriented study. The compositions of the oils were analysed by capillary GLC and GLC-MS. The MICs for sixteen different microorganisms were determined applying the broth dilution method. Australian tea tree oil showed the best overall antimicrobial effect. The best inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria and dermatophytes were achieved with manuka oil due to its beta-triketone content.

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life Measures for Physically Active Elderly in Community Exercise Programs in Catalonia: Comparative Analysis with Sedentary People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Fortuño-Godes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL, medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185 who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS’06. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females than CHS’06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females. Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females and CHS’06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females. SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females were higher than for CHS’06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females.

  9. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: a comparative study of waste-polymer-based, coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Chang, Chun; Du, Yang; Zhu, Lingyan; Xing, Baoshan; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared. The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons, one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). The polymer-based activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR). Compared with F400 and MWNT, activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs, attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures. Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect. In contrast, due to the molecular sieving effect, their adsorption on HCH was lower. MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  10. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: A comparative study of waste-polymer-based,coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Lian; Chun Chang; Yang Du; Lingyan Zhu; Baoshan Xing; Chang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE),1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB),1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared.The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons,one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT).The polymerbased activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers:polyvinyl chloride (PVC),polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR).Compared with F400 and MWNT,activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs,attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures.Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect.In contrast,due to the molecular sieving effect,their adsorption on HCH was lower.MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  11. Effectiveness of behavioural graded activity compared with physiotherapy treatment in chronic neck pain: design of a randomised clinical trial [ISRCTN88733332

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos Cees J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neck pain is a common complaint in the Netherlands with a point prevalence of 14.3%. Patients with chronic neck pain are often referred to a physiotherapist and, although many treatments are available, it remains unclear which type of treatment is to be preferred. The objective of this article is to present the design of a randomised clinical trial, Ephysion, which examines the clinical and cost effectiveness of behavioural graded activity compared with a physiotherapy treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Methods Eligible patients with non-specific neck pain persisting longer than 3 months will be randomly allocated to either the behavioural graded activity programme or to the physiotherapy treatment. The graded activity programme is based on an operant approach, which uses a time-contingent method to increase the patient's activity level. This treatment is compared with physiotherapy treatment using a pain-contingent method. Primary treatment outcome is the patient's global perceived effect concerning recovery from the complaint. Global perceived effect on daily functioning is also explored as primary outcome to establish the impact of treatment on daily activity. Direct and indirect costs will also be assessed. Secondary outcomes include the patient's main complaints, pain intensity, medical consumption, functional status, quality of life, and psychological variables. Recruitment of patients will take place up to the end of the year 2004 and follow-up measurement will continue until end 2005.

  12. Comparable fMRI activity with differential behavioural performance on mental rotation and overt verbal fluency tasks in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halari, Rozmin; Sharma, Tonmoy; Hines, Melissa; Andrew, Chris; Simmons, Andy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-02-01

    To explicate the neural correlates of sex differences in visuospatial and verbal fluency tasks, we examined behavioural performance and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) regional brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during a three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation task and a compressed sequence overt verbal fluency task in a group of healthy men (n=9) and women (n=10; tested during the low-oestrogen phase of the menstrual cycle). Men outperformed women on the mental rotation task, and women outperformed men on the verbal fluency task. For the mental rotation task, men and women activated areas in the right superior parietal lobe and the bilateral middle occipital gyrus in association with the rotation condition. In addition, men activated the left middle temporal gyrus and the right angular gyrus. For verbal fluency, men activated areas in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, thalamus, left parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral lingual gyrus, and women activated areas in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and left caudate. Despite observing task related activation in the hypothesised areas in men and women, no areas significantly differentiated the two sexes. Our results demonstrate comparable brain activation in men and women in association with mental rotation and verbal fluency function with differential performance, and provide support for sex differences in brain-behaviour relationships.

  13. Comparative study on the sensitivity of turions and active fronds of giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden) to heavy metal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Viktor; Hepp, Anna; Mészáros, Ilona

    2015-08-01

    Standard ecotoxicological test procedures use only active forms of aquatic plants. The potential effects of toxicants on vegetative propagules, which play an important role in the survival of several aquatic plant species, is not well understood. Because turion-like resting propagules overwinter on the water bottom in temperate regions, they could be exposed to contaminants for longer periods than active plants. Due to its turion producing capability, giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) is widely used in studying morphogenesis, dormancy, and activation mechanisms in plants. It is also suitable for ecotoxicological purposes. The present work aims to compare the growth inhibition sensitivity of active (normal frond) and overwintering (turion) forms of S. polyrhiza to concentrations of nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and hexavalent chromium (Cr) ranging from 0 to 100mgL(-1). The results indicated that in general, resting turions have higher heavy metal tolerance than active fronds. Cd proved to be the most toxic heavy metal to S. polyrhiza active frond cultures because it induced rapid turion formation. In contrast, the toxicity of Ni and Cr were found to be similar but lower than the effects of Cd. Cr treatments up to 10mgL(-1) did not result in any future negative effects on turion activation. Turions did not survive heavy metal treatments at higher concentrations of Cr. Cd and Ni treatments affected both the floating-up and germination of turions but did not significantly affect the vigor of sprouts. Higher concentrations (of 100mgL(-1)) Cd completely inhibited germination.

  14. Mechanisms for strong adsorption of tetracycline to carbon nanotubes: a comparative study using activated carbon and graphite as adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liangliang; Chen, Wei; Duan, Lin; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2009-04-01

    Significant concerns have been raised over the presence of antibiotics including tetracyclines in aquatic environments. We herein studied single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as potential effective adsorbents for removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution. In comparison, a nonpolar adsorbate, naphthalene, and two other carbonaceous adsorbents, pulverized activated carbon (AC) and nonporous graphite, were used. The observed adsorbent-to-solution distribution coefficient (Kd, L/kg) of tetracycline was in the order of 10(4)-10(6) L/kg for SWNT, 10(3)-10(4) L/kg for MWNT, 10(3)-10(4) L/kg for AC, and 10(3)-10(5) L/kg for graphite. Upon normalization for adsorbent surface area, the adsorption affinity of tetracycline decreased in the order of graphite/ SWNT > MWNT > AC. The weaker adsorption of tetracycline to AC indicates that for bulky adsorbates adsorption affinity is greatly affected by the accessibility of available adsorption sites. The remarkably strong adsorption of tetracycline to the carbon nanotubes and to graphite can be attributed to the strong adsorptive interactions (van der Waals forces, pi-pi electron-donor-acceptor interactions, cation-pi bonding) with the graphene surface. Complexation between tetracycline and model graphene compounds (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene) in solution phase was verified by ring current-induced 1H NMR upfield chemical shifts of tetracycline moieties.

  15. A comparative study of the hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of activated sludge and membrane bioreactor wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jacque-Ann; Hofmann, Ron

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the hydroxyl radical scavenging characteristics of wastewater from five membrane bioreactor (MBR) and five activated sludge (AS) systems. The average values of the characteristics of both wastewater types was found to be significantly different at a 90% confidence interval in terms UV absorbance at 254 nm, alkalinity, and biopolymer concentration. Effluent organic matter (EfOM), with an average kOH,EfOM of (2.75 ± 1.04) × 10(8) M(-1)s(-1), was identified as the primary hydroxyl scavenger contributing to >70% of the background scavenging in all cases, except when nitrite exceeded 0.3 mg NO(2)(-)-N/L. The average scavenging capacity, EfOM scavenging capacity, and the EfOM reaction rate constant of the AS wastewaters exceeded that of the MBR. However, due to the small sample size (n = 5) and considerable variability in scavenging characteristics among the MBR wastewaters, the difference in EfOM reactivity between the two wastewaters was not statistically significant at a 90% confidence interval. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings suggest the possibility that MBR wastewaters may be more amenable to treatment by advanced oxidation. A plausible explanation is that MBRs were observed to reject biopolymers, and a strong correlation was observed between EfOM scavenging capacity and biopolymer concentration.

  16. Wear evaluation of a cross-linked medical grade polyethylene by ultra thin layer activation compared to gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroosnijder, Marinus F.; Hoffmann, Michael; Sauvage, Thierry; Blondiaux, Gilbert; Vincent, Laetitia

    2005-01-01

    Most of today's artificial joints rely on an articulating couple consisting of a CoCrMo alloy and a medical grade polyethylene. The wear of the polyethylene component is the major cause for long-term failure of these prostheses since the wear debris leads to adverse biological reactions. The polyethylene wear is usually measured by gravimetric methods, which are limited due to a low sensitivity and accuracy. To demonstrate the reliability of ultra thin layer activation (UTLA) as an alternative technique, wear tests on a cross-linked ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (XLPE) sliding against CoCrMo were performed on a wear tester featuring multi-directional sliding motion. The amount of polyethylene wear was evaluated by both UTLA and gravimetry. The particular TLA method used in this work employed the implantation of 7Be radioactive recoils into the polyethylene surface by means of a light mass particle beam. The results indicate that apart from its relatively high sensitivity, UTLA also offers the possibility for on-line measurements of polyethylene wear. This makes it a viable and complementary technique in wear test studies for medical implant purposes especially for those involving wear resistant materials and for rapid wear screening.

  17. Comparative investigation of 11 Achillea collina Becker accessions concerning phenological, morphological, productional features and active agent content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindlovits, Sára

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Achillea collina Becker accessions of different origin were tested in open field plots during three years for their phenological, morphological, productional features and active material content in Budapest, Hungary. Among the tested plant materials European selected cultivars, Hungarian cultivated stocks and populations from wild growing habitats were investigated. Concerning flowering time, two types (early and late were distinguished. Flowering time of the less abundant late type, represented by Hungarian variety ‘Azulenka’ and ‘Gb22’, started approximately 2 weeks later than that of the early flowering type. Plant height and length of flowering horizon varied only slightly among taxa, and increased after the first year of cultivation. The proportion of useful plant organs in the drug was stable. Biomass and drug production of the investigated genotypes was variable, late flowering types providing higher yields. Essential oil, proazulene, total phenolic and flavonoid content varied on a large scale among accessions and years. Results demonstrate the high intraspecific variability of A. collina and also the role of valuable genotypes in drug production. Selected cultivars may provide stable and good yields and drug quality under particular environmental conditions, while genotypes of wild origin may be valuable sources of future breeding programs.

  18. A Comparative Study on the Sorption Characteristics of Pb(II and Hg(II onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muthulakshmi Andal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption equilibrium and kinetics of Pb(II and Hg(II on coconut shell carbon (CSC were investigated by batch equilibration method. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of Pb(II and Hg(II on the activated carbon of coconut shell wastes were studied. Maximum adsorption of Pb(II occurred at pH 4.5 and Hg(II at pH 6. The sorptive mechanism followed the pseudo second order kinetics. The equilibrium data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The equilibration data fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The Langmuir adsorption capacity for Pb(II was greater than Hg(II. The mean free energy of adsorption calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm model indicated that the adsorption of metal ions was found to be by chemical ion exchange. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Pb(II onto SDC was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. A comparison was evaluated for the two metals.

  19. Comparative analysis of electroencephalographic tests of alpha activity attenuation in evaluation of involuntary falling asleep in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šundrić Zvonko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Decrease of daily alertness is a common cause of accidents in the work place, especially traffic accidents. Therefore, an increasing interest exists to determine reliable indicators of a tendency to fall asleep involuntarily. Objective. To determine an optimal electroencephalographic (EEG indicator of an involuntary tendency to fall asleep, we performed a study on neurologically healthy subjects, after one night of sleep deprivation. Total sleep deprivation was aimed at increasing daily sleepiness in healthy subjects, providing us with an opportunity to test different methods of evaluation. Methods. We applied a visual analogue scale for sleepiness (VASS, EEG registration with the specific test of alpha activity attenuation (TAA in 87 healthy subjects. The test was performed in a standard way (sTAA as well as in accordance with new modifications related to changes of EEG filter width in the range from 5 to 32 Hz (mTAA. Results. After sleep deprivation, we observed involuntary falling asleep in 54 subjects. The comparison of VASS results showed no differences, contrary to a more objective TAA. Between two variants of TAA, the modified test provided us with a better prediction for subjects who would fall asleep involuntarily. Conclusion. The application of a more objective EEG test in evaluation of daily alertness represents the optimal method of testing. Modified TAA attracts special attention, offering a simple solution for reliable testing of decreased daily alertness in medical services related to professional aircraft personnel.

  20. Essential oil composition of Senecio graciliflorus DC: comparative analysis of different parts and evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Shabir H; Bhat, Khursheed A; Bhat, Haroon M; Majeed, Rabiya; Anand, Rajneesh; Hamid, Abid; Khuroo, Mohd A

    2014-05-15

    The essential oil of different parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS for the first time. A total of 17, 20, 19 and 17 constituents were identified comprising 99.90, 95.50, 98.93 and 95.96% of the essential oil of flower, leaf, stem and root parts of Senecio graciliflorus respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in the essential oil with 85.28% in flower, 57.53% in leaf, 67.74% in stem and 64.98% in root oil. α-pinene, cis-ocimene, 1,2,3-trimethylcyclohexane and β-pinene were the major constituents of the essential oil. The flower essential oil exhibited a strong antioxidant potential displaying IC50 values of 21.6±0.6 and 26.0±1.0μg/ml in DPPH and hydroxyl radical assays respectively. On the other hand the essential oil of flower and root displayed highest cytotoxicity against lung (A-549) cancer cell lines (IC50=19.1±0.9 and 21.3±1.1μg/ml respectively. This study which represents the first report of the essential oil composition and bioevaluation of Senecio graciliflorus, can serve as a new source of cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.

  1. Comparative study of adsorptive role of carbonaceous materials in removal of UV-active impurities of paclitaxel extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Nasiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphite oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanosheets were synthesized with a low-cost manufacturing method. The morphology and structures of the synthesized samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The efficiencies of GO and rGO as novel candidate adsorbents in the pre-purification of paclitaxel were compared and contrasted with those of commercial graphite (Gt, graphene (G and multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT. According to UV–vis and HPLC analyses, rGO was evaluated as the best absorbent for the removal of impurities in pre-purification of paclitaxel from plant cell cultures. In contrast, the GO had the poorest proficiency for paclitaxel pre-purification in comparison with the other carbonaceous adsorbents. This is attributed to the existence of many localized defects in the π-structure of GO that is related to weakness of π–π stacking interactions between crude extract impurities and GO.

  2. Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2010-04-01

    The phytoconstituents of essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) were analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents were aromatic-turmerone (24.4%), alpha-turmerone (20.5%) and beta-turmerone (11.1%) in fresh rhizome and aromatic-turmerone (21.4%), alpha-santalene (7.2%) and aromatic-curcumene (6.6%) in dry rhizome oil. Whereas, in oleoresins, the major components were alpha-turmerone (53.4%), beta-turmerone (18.1%) and aromatic-turmerone (6.2%) in fresh and aromatic-turmerone (9.6%), alpha-santalene (7.8%) and alpha-turmerone (6.5%) in dry rhizome. Results showed that alpha-turmerone, a major component in fresh rhizomes is only minor one in dry rhizomes. Also, the content of beta-turmerone in dry rhizomes is less than a half amount found in fresh rhizomes. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by various lipid peroxidation assays as well as DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating methods. The essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh rhizomes have higher antioxidant properties as compared dry ones.

  3. Comparative Study of the Photocatalytic Activity of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Their Hybrid Metal Nanocomposites on the Photodegradation of Malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mamdouh Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to synthesize different semiconductor nanoparticles and their metal-hybrid nanocomposites such as TiO2, Au/TiO2, ZnO, and Au/ZnO. The morphology and crystal structure of the prepared nanomaterials are characterized by the TEM and XRD, respectively. These materials are used as catalysts for the photodegradation of Malathion which is one of the most commonly used pesticides in the developing countries. The degradation of 10 ppm Malathion under ultraviolet (UV and visible light in the presence of the different synthesized nanocomposites was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and UV-Visible Spectra. A comprehensive study is carried out for the catalytic efficiency of the prepared nanoparticles. Different factors influencing the catalytic photodegradation are investigated, as different light source, surface coverage, and nature of the organic contaminants. The results indicate that hybrid nanocomposite of the semiconductor-metal hybrid serves as a better catalytic system compared with semiconductor nanoparticles themselves.

  4. Comparative study of adsorptive role of carbonaceous materials in removal of UV-active impurities of paclitaxel extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaber Nasiri; Elaheh Motamedi; Mohammad Reza Naghavi

    2015-01-01

    Graphite oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets were synthesized with a low-cost manufacturing method. The morphology and structures of the synthesized samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The efficiencies of GO and rGO as novel candidate adsorbents in the pre-purification of paclitaxel were compared and contrasted with those of commercial graphite (Gt), graphene (G) and multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). According to UV–vis and HPLC analyses, rGO was evaluated as the best absorbent for the removal of impurities in pre-purification of paclitaxel from plant cell cultures. In contrast, the GO had the poorest proficiency for paclitaxel pre-purification in comparison with the other carbonaceous adsorbents. This is attributed to the existence of many localized defects in the π-structure of GO that is related to weakness ofπ–πstacking interactions between crude extract impurities and GO.

  5. Comparative study on microbial removal in immersed membrane filtration (IMF) with and without powdered activated carbon (PAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Z; Au, Y L; Nagaoka, H

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation on the effect of microbial removal using IMF for high quality drinking water production. The comparison of IMF and IMF-PAC configuration was carried out in the study to highlight the importance of PAC in the system. The specific objective of this study was to study the effect of PAC adsorption in the IMF-PAC system particularly in removing microbial substances from contaminated raw water. A bench scale IMF-PAC configuration using a flat sheet microfiltration membrane was set up for experimental purposes. Experimentally, the result has shown high removal of microbial substances with the IMF-PAC system compared to IMF. The result of E. coli removal achieved was below the detectable level due to the microbial size, which is bigger than membrane pore size. The addition of PAC has shown a direct effect on total microbial removal. The adsorption of microbial onto PAC surfaces reduced the amount of smaller microbial present in permeate samples. As a conclusion, the configuration of IMF is a promising separation process in removing microbial substances, especially when the system is combined with PAC.

  6. Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2012-08-28

    Between November 2009 and September 2011, temporary seismographs deployed under the EarthScope USArray program were situated on a 70-km grid covering the Barnett Shale in Texas, recording data that allowed sensing and locating regional earthquakes with magnitudes 1.5 and larger. I analyzed these data and located 67 earthquakes, more than eight times as many as reported by the National Earthquake Information Center. All 24 of the most reliably located epicenters occurred in eight groups within 3.2 km of one or more injection wells. These included wells near Dallas-Fort Worth and Cleburne, Texas, where earthquakes near injection wells were reported by the media in 2008 and 2009, as well as wells in six other locations, including several where no earthquakes have been reported previously. This suggests injection-triggered earthquakes are more common than is generally recognized. All the wells nearest to the earthquake groups reported maximum monthly injection rates exceeding 150,000 barrels of water per month (24,000 m(3)/mo) since October 2006. However, while 9 of 27 such wells in Johnson County were near earthquakes, elsewhere no earthquakes occurred near wells with similar injection rates. A plausible hypothesis to explain these observations is that injection only triggers earthquakes if injected fluids reach and relieve friction on a suitably oriented, nearby fault that is experiencing regional tectonic stress. Testing this hypothesis would require identifying geographic regions where there is interpreted subsurface structure information available to determine whether there are faults near seismically active and seismically quiescent injection wells.

  7. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  8. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from blood in Europe (2004-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasevic, Arjana Tambic; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Here we report on the antimicrobial resistance amongst Gram-negative isolates (excluding Acinetobacter spp.) collected from blood culture sources at European study sites as part of the global Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) from the study start in 2004 until August 2009. All isolates were collected and tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Over the collection period, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production was recorded in 21.1% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2.6% of Klebsiella oxytoca and 11.3% of Escherichia coli, primarily in Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania and the Slovak Republic. ESBL rates stabilised amongst K. pneumoniae over 2006-2009, but doubled amongst E. coli in 2008-2009. The patterns of antimicrobial resistance changed accordingly for both organisms. Generally, Greece had the highest antimicrobial resistance for K. pneumoniae, Italy for E. coli, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter spp., and Croatia for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. High resistance rates amongst K. pneumoniae were also seen in Croatia and Italy. Imipenem resistance amongst K. pneumoniae was reported exclusively in Greece (13.8%); amongst other Enterobacteriaceae, imipenem resistance was absent or low. Similarly, meropenem resistance was low amongst the Enterobacteriaceae except K. pneumoniae from Greece (42.6%). Across Europe, the most active antimicrobial agents against the Enterobacteriaceae were tigecycline, amikacin and the carbapenems, each with <10% resistance each year. Against the other antimicrobials, significant increases in non-susceptibility were reported for K. pneumoniae and E. coli, both important causative pathogens of bacteraemia.

  9. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye--Acid Blue 113.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K; Gupta, Bina; Rastogi, Arshi; Agarwal, Shilpi; Nayak, Arunima

    2011-02-15

    A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  10. Comparative study of oral isotretinoin versus oral isotretinoin + 20% salicylic acid peel in the treatment of Active Acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Ranjan Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne is a self limiting condition that often results in scarring and disfigurement disproportionate to its clinical severity. Isotretinoin is considered the gold standard in the medical management of severe form of acne vulgaris. Salicyclic acid (SA peels, a β- hydroxy acid peel has got sebosuppressive effect and helps in faster resolution of acne with minimal scarring. It also decreases the post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Combining both the modalities is usually not advocated because of expected excessive dryness and irritation Aims: To compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin and oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels in patients with moderate to severe acne. Materials and Methods: 60 consecutive patients with moderate to severe facial acne attending the skin department were randomized in to 2 groups. 1 st group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily for 16 weeks and 2nd group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily along with 20% SA peels every two weeks for 16 weeks. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons Acne severity index (MASI.Right and left sides of the face were scored separately and total score was taken. Severity score was assessed monthly .Clinical photographs were obtained for evaluation every month. Patients were asked to follow up once every 2 weeks or earlier in case of any adverse events. Results: Patients in both the groups revealed a reduction in the number of lesions. The 1 st group showed a reduction of approximately 73.4% after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin for 16 weeks. The 2 nd group showed a reduction of approximately 92.5 % after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin along with 20% SA peel once every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Conclusion: Both oral isotretinoin and combination of oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels once every 2 weeks are effective in treating moderate to severe acne but the combination showed significantly better clearance of acne than monotherapy with isotretinoin.

  11. Comparative Study of the Catalytic Activities of Three Distinct Carbonaceous Materials through Photocatalytic Oxidation, CO Conversion, Dye Degradation, and Electrochemical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Kim, Yeonwoo; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Ki-jeong; Kim, Byung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the catalytic activities of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), graphene oxide (GO), and graphene, we conducted oxidation of 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) in their presence by using high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (HRPES). In addition, we determined conversion rates of CO to CO2 in the presence of these catalysts by performing a residual gas analyzer (RGA) under a UHV condition, Orange II and methylene blue degradations UV-vis spectrophotometry, and electrochemistry (EC) measurements in an aqueous solution, as well as by obtaining cyclic voltammograms and determining the change of the condition of electrodes before and after the oxidation of 2-ATP. We found that we can successively fabricate GO (oxidation) and graphene (reduction) from rGO by controlling the oxidation or reduction procedure time and then clearly comparing the critical properties among them as we perform various oxidation and reduction activities. PMID:27762289

  12. Comparative Study of the Catalytic Activities of Three Distinct Carbonaceous Materials through Photocatalytic Oxidation, CO Conversion, Dye Degradation, and Electrochemical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Kim, Yeonwoo; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Byung-Kwon

    2016-10-01

    In order to compare the catalytic activities of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), graphene oxide (GO), and graphene, we conducted oxidation of 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) in their presence by using high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (HRPES). In addition, we determined conversion rates of CO to CO2 in the presence of these catalysts by performing a residual gas analyzer (RGA) under a UHV condition, Orange II and methylene blue degradations UV-vis spectrophotometry, and electrochemistry (EC) measurements in an aqueous solution, as well as by obtaining cyclic voltammograms and determining the change of the condition of electrodes before and after the oxidation of 2-ATP. We found that we can successively fabricate GO (oxidation) and graphene (reduction) from rGO by controlling the oxidation or reduction procedure time and then clearly comparing the critical properties among them as we perform various oxidation and reduction activities.

  13. Obligate Biotroph Pathogens of the Genus Albugo Are Better Adapted to Active Host Defense Compared to Niche Competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Jonas; Agler, Matthew T; Placzek, Aleksandra; Kramer, Katharina; Finkemeier, Iris; Kemen, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    dominance. Adaptation to host immune responses while maintaining a partially active host immunity seems advantageous against competitors. We suggest a model for future research that considers not only host-microbe but in addition microbe-microbe and microbe-host environment factors.

  14. Effectiveness of behavioural graded activity compared with physiotherapy treatment in chronic neck pain: design of a randomised clinical trial [ISRCTN88733332

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic neck pain is a common complaint in the Netherlands with a point prevalence of 14.3%. Patients with chronic neck pain are often referred to a physiotherapist and, although many treatments are available, it remains unclear which type of treatment is to be preferred. The objective of this article is to present the design of a randomised clinical trial, Ephysion, which examines the clinical and cost effectiveness of behavioural graded activity compared with a physiothe...

  15. Comparative study of bactericidal activities, postantibiotic effects, and effects of bacterial virulence of penicillin G and six macrolides against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuursted, K.; Knudsen, J D; Petersen, M B; Poulsen, R L; Rehm, D

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we present MIC, bactericidal activity, postantibiotic effect (PAE), and in vivo infectivity data for postantibiotic-phase pneumococci. We compared and evaluated penicillin G and six macrolides, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, roxithromycin, and spiramycin, against 10 strains of pneumococci with various levels of susceptibility to penicillin. All of the agents, except azithromycin, exhibited a bactericidal effect (a > or = 3 log10 decrease in the numb...

  16. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye-Acid Blue 113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V.K., E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gupta, Bina [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Rastogi, Arshi [Chemistry Department, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G.) College, Roorkee (India); Agarwal, Shilpi [School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, MP (India); Nayak, Arunima [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The system is cheap, efficient and fast for the removal of dyes from waters. {yields} Higher adsorption capacity is due to higher mesoporous volume of the adsorbent. {yields} The rate determining step of the adsorption process is particle diffusion. - Abstract: A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Volatile Oils of Hawk Tea from Six Botanical Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bao; Zhang, Dan; Yan, Xue-Wei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Yao, Ling; Tan, Li-Hong; Zhao, Sheng-Ping; Li, Na; Cao, Wei-Guo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, volatile oils of six Hawk tea varieties were studied for their chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to screen the most suitable botanical origins of Hawk tea. A total of 72 components were separated and identified from the six oils. The major constituents of the volatile oils were: α-pinene, camphene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, cis-nerolidol, and germacrene B. Moreover, the volatile oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. The results showed that all volatile oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which suggested that these volatile oils may serve as natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants and preservatives to be applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. Principal component analysis results denoted that some major compounds may be closely related to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It also showed that the volatile oils from Litsea coreana var. lanuginosa and Litsea pungens Hemsl. were characterized by positive values of first two principal components, indicating higher active chemical compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with other species. Thus, they were temporarily considered as good sources of Hawk tea.

  18. Comparing of Cu/Zn SOD Gene Expression of Lymphocyte Cell and Malondialdehyde Level in Active Men and Women after Physical Training

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    Bakhtiar Tartibian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to compare Cu/Zn SOD mRNA and MDA level as a result of a session incremental exercise in active women and men. Materials and Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental study with repeated measurements in which 14 active female and 13 male subjects with age range 22-24 participated voluntarily. Then, blood was taken from brachial vein of the subjects in three stages before and after GXT (Graded exercise test and 3 hours after that and SYBER Green PCR Master mix reagent Kit and Real time-PCR were used to measure Cu/Zn SOD mRNA and spectrophotometer was used to measure MDA level.Results: MDA levels increased significantly in men during the recovery stage and after the exercise (p1=0.012 and p2 =0.014, but it did not increase significantly in active women. Also, MDA difference between the two genders was not reported significant in any of the exercise stages. Cu/Zn SOD gene expression did not increase significantly in either sex.Conclusion: The risk of injury from free radicals is more probable in active men than active women and vigorous physical activity does not significantly increase the Cu/Zn SOD gene expression.

  19. AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA: AMADA (MANGO - GINGER WITH CONVENTIONAL NSAID ASPIRIN IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Shanmukananda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma

  20. A Comparative Study of Antioxidant Enzymes Activity to Heat Shock in Amphipods Gmelinoides fasciatus of Littoral Community of Lake Baikal and Thermal Springs

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    Lubyaga Y.A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to comparative assessment of the antioxidant enzymes activity (peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase in endemic species Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebbing, 1899 inhabitants of the littoral community of the Lake Baikal and the thermal spring under short term thermal stress. It was shown, that the exposure of G. fasciatus from different areas to acute temperature stress didn’t lead to changes in the activities of three key enzymes of the antioxidant system. However, it was found that the activity of glutathione S-transferase in the control animals of thermal springs population is higher than in animals of Lake Baikal. This can be determined by peculiarities of environment of different populations.

  1. Comparative Study on Living Library Activities at Home and Abroad%国内外图书馆开展Living Library服务比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旻霞

    2011-01-01

    Living Library以“人”为书,是图书馆界一种崭新的读者服务活动.从活动举办者、活动主题和目的、活体图书等方面对国内外图书馆开展Living Library的现状进行比较分析,并对Living Library在中国的进一步开展策略进行了初步探讨.%Taking "person" as books, living library is a new service activity for reader in library. This paper compared and analyzed the current development situation of living library activities in library at home and abroad from organizers, titles, activity aims, books and so on. Moreover, some further development measures in China are explored preliminarily in this article.

  2. Frontopolar cortex and decision-making efficiency: comparing brain activity of experts with different professional background during an exploration-exploitation task

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    Daniella eLaureiro-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal balance between efficient exploitation of available resources and creative exploration of alternatives is critical for adaptation and survival. Previous studies associated these behavioral drives with, respectively, the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system and frontopolar-intraparietal networks. We study the activation of these systems in two age and gender-matched groups of experienced decision-makers differing in prior professional background, with the aim to understand the neural bases of individual differences in decision-making efficiency (performance divided by response time. We compare brain activity of entrepreneurs (who currently manage the organization they founded based on their venture idea and managers (who are constantly involved in making strategic decisions but have no venture experience engaged in a gambling-task assessing exploitative vs. explorative decision-making. Compared with managers, entrepreneurs showed higher decision-making efficiency, and a stronger activation in regions of frontopolar cortex previously associated with explorative choice. Moreover, activity across a network of regions previously linked to explore/exploit tradeoffs explained individual differences in choice efficiency. These results suggest new avenues for the study of individual differences in the neural antecedents of efficient decision-making.

  3. The long-term effectiveness of need-supportive physical activity counseling compared with a standard referral in sedentary older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoecke, Ann-Sophie; Delecluse, Christophe; Bogaerts, An; Boen, Filip

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the long-term effectiveness of three physical activity counseling strategies among sedentary older adults: a 1-contact referral (REFER), a 1-contact individualized walking program (WALK), and multiple-contact, individually tailored, and need-supportive coaching based on the self-determination theory (COACH). Participants (n = 442) completed measurements before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 1 yr after (follow-up test) a 10-wk intervention. Linear mixed models demonstrated significant time-by-condition interaction effects from pre- to posttest. More specifically, WALK and COACH yielded larger increases in daily steps and self-reported physical activity than REFER. Similarly, self-reported physical activity increased more from pre- to follow-up test in WALK and COACH compared with REFER. Autonomous motivation mediated the effect of perceived need-support on physical activity, irrespective of counseling strategy. These results demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of both a 1-contact individualized walking program and a more time-consuming, need-supportive coaching, especially in comparison with a standard referral to local opportunities.

  4. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2013-09-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) extracted by wet processing is popular among the scientific field and society nowadays. The present study was carried out to examine the comparative effect of VCO with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO) and sunflower oil (SFO) on endogenous antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with the synthetic diet. Results revealed that dietary VCO improved the antioxidant status compared to other three oil fed groups (P oil fed groups (P oil fed rats (P oil) and tocopherols (33.12 μg per 100 g oil) etc. compared to other oils (P < 0.05). From these observations, it is concluded that VCO has a beneficial role in improving antioxidant status and hence preventing lipid and protein oxidation.

  5. Comparative analysis of selected methods for the assessment of antimicrobial and membrane-permeabilizing activity: a case study for lactoferricin derived peptides

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    Lohner Karl

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing concerns about bacterial resistance to antibiotics have prompted the development of alternative therapies like those based on cationic antimicrobial peptides (APs. These compounds not only are bactericidal by themselves but also enhance the activity of antibiotics. Studies focused on the systematic characterization of APs are hampered by the lack of standard guidelines for testing these compounds. We investigated whether the information provided by methods commonly used for the biological characterization of APs is comparable, as it is often assumed. For this purpose, we determined the bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and permeability-increasing activity of synthetic peptides (n = 57; 9–13 amino acid residues in length analogous to the lipopolysaccharide-binding region of human lactoferricin by a number of the most frequently used methods and carried out a comparative analysis. Results While the minimum inhibitory concentration determined by an automated turbidimetry-based system (Bioscreen or by conventional broth microdilution methods did not differ significantly, bactericidal activity measured under static conditions in a low-ionic strength solvent resulted in a vast overestimation of antimicrobial activity. Under these conditions the degree of antagonism between the peptides and the divalent cations differed greatly depending on the bacterial strain tested. In contrast, the bioactivity of peptides was not affected by the type of plasticware (polypropylene vs. polystyrene. Susceptibility testing of APs using cation adjusted Mueller-Hinton was the most stringent screening method, although it may overlook potentially interesting peptides. Permeability assays based on sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics provided overall information analogous – though not quantitatively comparable- to that of tests based on the uptake of hydrophobic fluorescent probes. Conclusion We demonstrate that subtle changes in methods for

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS, HOTTUYNIA CORDATA, CURCUMA CAESIA AND SYZYGIUM JUMBOS

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    Ahmed Shagufa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to know and compare the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT, Hottuynia cordata (EEHC, Curcuma caesia (EECC and Syzygium jumbos (EESJ on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic plant extracts were prepared from the bark of Syzygium jumbos and leaves of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Hottuynia cordata and Curcuma caesia by percolation method. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College & Hospital. Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the standard Kirby Bauer method. The whatmann-1 filter paper discs of 6mm sizes impregnated with the plant extracts were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar plates seeded with bacterial cultures of 0.5 Mc Farland standards. Ciprofloxacin (5μg/disc was used as positive control. The antibacterial activities were assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones after incubating the plates at 370c for 24 hours. The ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT and Hottuynia cordata (EEHC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ethanolic extracts of Syzygium jumbos (EESJ showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli while ethanolic extracts of Curcuma caesia (EECC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Maximum zones of inhibition to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exhibited by Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Syzygium jumbos and Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus respectively.

  7. Nationwide German Multicenter Study on Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcal Bloodstream Isolates and Comparative In Vitro Activities of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eiff, Christof; Reinert, Ralf René; Kresken, Michael; Brauers, Johannes; Hafner, Dieter; Peters, Georg

    2000-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria have become an increasing problem in the last two decades. In order to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in staphylococcal bloodstream isolates in Germany, 2,042 staphylococci collected in 21 tertiary-care hospitals were investigated during a 3-year period (March 1996 to March 1999). Altogether, 1,448 S. aureus isolates and 594 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) that comprised 13 different species were included. Furthermore, the antistaphylococcal activities of quinupristin-dalfopristin were compared with those of eight other compounds by the broth microdilution method. The rates of oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, and other CoNS were 13.5, 69, 90, and 34%, respectively. In oxacillin-resistant strains high rates of resistance (up to 100%) to erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin were also observed. However, no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin or quinupristin-dalfopristin. The streptogramin combination exhibited excellent in vitro activity against all staphylococcal species tested, regardless of the patterns of resistance to other drug classes. In terms of MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited, quinupristin-dalfopristin was 2 times more active against S. aureus isolates, 4 to 16 times more active against S. haemolyticus, and 8 to 32 times more active against S. epidermidis than vancomycin or teicoplanin. PMID:10921933

  8. A comparative study of anti-inflammatory activity of lovastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on acute and chronic inflammation in animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santoshkumar R Jeevangi; S Manjunath; Sachidananda G Shetti; Chetan Manjunath; Prashant Dass

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory activity of Lovastatin, Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, and Rosuvastatin on acute and chronic models of inflammation, to compare with the effect of Diclofenac sodium and amongst themselves in rats. Methods: Carrageenin induce rat paw edema method in which 5 animals of each group (6 groups) received orally 4% gum acacia, Diclofenac and 4 statins respectively 1 h before Carrageenin injection in paw. The paw edema volume measured with plethysmograph after 3 h and percentage inhibition of edema in various groups calculated. Rexin pellet granuloma method in which 4 rexin pellets were implanted into dorsum of skin of each rat of 6 groups (n=5) including control, Diclofenac and 4 statin groups respectively. Rats were orally fed with drugs daily for 7 days and on 8th day rexin pellets were removed after sacrificing the rat and dried in incubator 60oC overnight. Pellets were then weighed and percentage inhibition of granulation tissue was calculated and sent for histopathological examination.Results:All the 4 statins showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the present study in both acute as well as chronic models of inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity of the 4 statins was significant on comparison with Diclofenac. Lovastatin and Simvastatin demonstrated 10-20% more anti-inflammatory activity than Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin. Conclusions: The present study revealed the anti-inflammatory effect of statins and thus suggests that the statins have a potential anti-atherosclerotic activity along with its lipid lowering property.

  9. Optimization and comparative characterization of neuraminidase activities from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Klebsiella pneumoniae,Hep-2 cell, sheep kidney and rat liver lysosome

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    N Hosseini Jazani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The properties of neuraminidase produced by P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 during growth in a defined medium (BHI was examined and compared with some neuraminidase features of K. pneumoniae in this investigation."nMaterials and Methods: The enzyme was isolated from concentrated culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa which was used in a sensitive fluorometric assay by using 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl α-D-N acetylneuraminic acid as substrate."nResults: Neuraminidase production in P. aeruginosa PAO1 paralleled bacterial growth in defined medium (BHI and was maximal in the late logarithmic phase of growth but decreased during the stationary phase, probably owing to protease production or thermal instability. Highest production of P. aeruginosa PAO1 neuraminidase was in BHI culture media. The neuraminidase of P. aeruginosa PAO1 possessed an optimum temperature of activity at 56 °C and the activity was maximal at pH 5. Heating the enzyme to 56 °C for 45 min., in the presence of bovine serum albumin destroyed 33.1% of it's activity and addition of Ca+2, EDTA and NANA also decreased activity markedly."nConclusion: The results revealed that the highest specific activity is for p. aeruginosa PAO1.

  10. Comparative analysis of immune activation markers of CD8+ T cells in lymph nodes of different origins in SIV-infected Chinese rhesus macaques

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    Jinbiao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Altered T-cell homeostasis, such as expansion of CD8+ T cells to the secondary lymphatic compartments has been suggested as a mechanism of HIV/SIV-pathogenesis. However, the role of immune activation of CD8+ T cells in the CD4/CD8 turnover and viral replication in these tissues is not completely understood. In the present study, we compared the expression of immune activation markers (CD69 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes (LNs of SIV-infected/uninfected Chinese rhesus macaques. SIV-infected macaques had significantly higher percentages of CD8+CD69+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells in all these anatomical compartments than uninfected macaques except for CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells in peripheral blood. LNs that located close to the gastrointestinal (GI tract (colon, mesenteric and iliac LNs of SIV-infected macaques had profoundly lower numbers of CD4+ T cells, but no significantly difference in expression of activation marker (CD8+CD69+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ as compared with the peripheral lymphatic tissues (axillary and inguinal LNs. The CD4/CD8 ratios were negatively correlated with the activation of CD8 T cells in the overall LNs, with further associations with CD8+HLA-DR+ in GI LNs while CD8+CD69+ in peripheral LNs. These observations demonstrate that the increase of CD8+ T cell activation is a contributing factor for the decline of CD4/CD8 ratios in GI system.

  11. Muscle activity during endotracheal intubation using 4 laryngoscopes (Macintosh laryngoscope, Intubrite, TruView Evo2 and King Vision – A comparative study

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    Tomasz Gaszyński

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endotracheal intubation requires mental activity and no less important physical activity from the anesthesiologist, so ergonomics of used devices is important. The aim of our study has been to compare 4 laryngoscopes regarding an operator’s activity of selected muscles of the upper limb, an operator’s satisfaction with used devices and an operator’s fatigue during intubation attempts. Material and Methods: The study included 13 anesthesiologists of similar seniority. To measure muscle activity MyoPlus 2 with 2-channel surface ElectroMyoGraphy (sEMG test device was used. Participant’s satisfaction with studied devices was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale. An operator’s fatigue during intubation efforts was evaluated by means of the modified Borg’s scale. Results: The highest activity of all the studied muscles was observed for the Intubrite laryngoscope, followed by the Mackintosh, TruView Evo2 and the lowest one – for the King Vision video laryngoscope. A significant statistical difference was observed for the King Vision and the rest of laryngoscopes (p 0.05. The shortest time of intubation was achieved using the standard Macintosh blade laryngoscope. The highest satisfaction was noted for the King Vision video laryngoscope, and the lowest for – the TruView Evo2. The Intubrite was the most demanding in terms of workload, in the opinion of the participants’, and the least demanding was the King Vision video laryngoscope. Conclusions: Muscle activity, namely the force used for intubation, is the smallest when the King Vision video laryngoscope is used with the highest satisfaction and lowest workload, and the highest muscle activity was proven for the Intubrite laryngoscope with the highest workload. Med Pr 2016;67(2:155–162

  12. Proteolytic activities of kiwifruit actinidin (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) on different fibrous and globular proteins: a comparative study of actinidin with papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabi, Maryam; Khademi, Fatemeh; Yarani, Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Actinidin, a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteases, is abundant in kiwifruit. To date, a few studies have been provided to investigate the proteolytic activity and substrate specificity of actinidin on native proteins. Herein, the proteolytic activity of actinidin was compared to papain on several different fibrous and globular proteins under neutral, acidic and basic conditions. The digested samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and densitometry to assess the proteolytic effect. Furthermore, the levels of free amino nitrogen (FAN) of the treated samples were determined using the ninhydrin colorimetric method. The findings showed that actinidin has no or limited proteolytic effect on globular proteins such as immunoglobulins including sheep IgG, rabbit IgG, chicken IgY and fish IgM, bovine serum albumin (BSA), lipid transfer protein (LTP), and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) compared to papain. In contrast to globular proteins, actinidin could hydrolyze collagen and fibrinogen perfectly at neutral and mild basic pHs. Moreover, this enzyme could digest pure α-casein and major subunits of micellar casein especially in acidic pHs. Taken together, the data indicated that actinidin has narrow substrate specificity with the highest enzymatic activity for the collagen and fibrinogen substrates. The results describe the actinidin as a mild plant protease useful for many special applications such as cell isolation from different tissues and some food industries as a mixture formula with other relevant proteases.

  13. Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevičius, Mantas; Akuņeca, Ieva; Jãkobsone, Ida; Maruška, Audrius

    2011-06-01

    Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants was carried out by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. Six spice plant samples, namely onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) roots and leaves, celery (Apium graveolens) roots and leaves and leaves of dill (Anethum graveolens) were analyzed. Total amount of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity (RSA) was the highest in celery leaves and dill extracts and was the lowest in celery roots. Comparing commonly used spectrophotometric analysis of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) RSA of extracts with the results obtained using reversed-phase chromatographic separation with on-line post-column radical scavenging reaction detection, good correlation was obtained (R(2)=0.848). Studies using HPLC system with electrochemical detector showed that bioactive phytochemicals can be separated and antioxidant activities of individual compounds evaluated without the need of a complex HPLC system with reaction detector. The results obtained using electrochemical detection correlate with the RSA assayed using spectrophotometric method (R(2)=0.893).

  14. A Comparative Study of Applying Active-Set and Interior Point Methods in MPC for Controlling Nonlinear pH Process

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    Syam Syafiie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of Model Predictive Control (MPC using active-set method and interior point methods is proposed as a control technique for highly non-linear pH process. The process is a strong acid-strong base system. A strong acid of hydrochloric acid (HCl and a strong base of sodium hydroxide (NaOH with the presence of buffer solution sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 are used in a neutralization process flowing into reactor. The non-linear pH neutralization model governed in this process is presented by multi-linear models. Performance of both controllers is studied by evaluating its ability of set-point tracking and disturbance-rejection. Besides, the optimization time is compared between these two methods; both MPC shows the similar performance with no overshoot, offset, and oscillation. However, the conventional active-set method gives a shorter control action time for small scale optimization problem compared to MPC using IPM method for pH control.

  15. Facile synthesis of polypyrrole functionalized nickel foam with catalytic activity comparable to Pt for the poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tiantian; Li, Kan; Shen, Zhemin; Sun, Tonghua; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole functionalized nickel foam is facilely prepared through the potentiostatic electrodeposition. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam functions as a hydrogen-evolution cathode in a rotating disk photocatalytic fuel cell, in which hydrogen energy and electric power are generated by consuming organic wastes. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam cathode exhibits stable catalytic activities after thirteen continuous runs. Compared with net or plate structure, the Ni foam with a unique three-dimensional reticulate structure is conducive to the electrodeposition of PPy. Compared with Pt-group electrode, PPy-coated Ni foam shows a satisfactory catalytic performance for the H2 evolution. The combination of PPy and Ni forms a synergistic effect for the rapid trapping and removal of proton from solution and the catalytic reduction of proton to hydrogen. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam could be applied in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical generation of H2. In all, we report a low cost, high efficient and earth abundant PPy-functionalized Ni foam with a satisfactory catalytic activities comparable to Pt for the practical application of poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity.

  16. Comparative study of the neuroprotective and nootropic activities of the carboxylate and amide forms of the HLDF-6 peptide in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachouk, Anna P; Storozheva, Zinaida I; Solovjeva, Olga A; Sherstnev, Vyacheslav V; Zolotarev, Yury A; Azev, Vyacheslav N; Rodionov, Igor L; Surina, Elena A; Lipkin, Valery M

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of the neuroprotective and nootropic activities of two pharmaceutical substances, the HLDF-6 peptide (HLDF-6-OH) and its amide form (HLDF-6-NH2), was conducted. The study was performed in male rats using two models of a neurodegenerative disorder. Cognitive deficit in rats was induced by injection of the beta-amyloid fragment 25-35 (βA 25-35) into the giant-cell nucleus basalis of Meynert or by coinjection of βA 25-35 and ibotenic acid into the hippocampus. To evaluate cognitive functions in animals, three tests were used: the novel object recognition test, the conditioned passive avoidance task and the Morris maze. Comparative analysis of the data demonstrated that the neuroprotective activity of HLDF-6-NH2, evaluated by improvement of cognitive functions in animals, surpassed that of the native HLDF-6-OH peptide. The greater cognitive/ behavioral effects can be attributed to improved kinetic properties of the amide form of the peptide, such as the character of biodegradation and the half-life time. The effects of HLDF-6-NH2 are comparable to, or exceed, those of the reference compounds. Importantly, HLDF-6-NH2 exerts its effects at much lower doses than the reference compounds.

  17. A large N400 but no BOLD effect--comparing source activations of semantic priming in simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

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    Sebastian Geukes

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neurophysiological effects of semantic priming in electroencephalography (EEG and in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Because of differing methodological constraints, the comparability of the observed effects remains unclear. To directly compare EEG and fMRI effects and neural sources of semantic priming, we conducted a semantic word-picture priming experiment while measuring EEG and fMRI simultaneously. The visually presented primes were pseudowords, words unrelated to the target, semantically related words and the identical names of the target. Distributed source analysis of the event-related potentials (ERPs successfully revealed a large effect of semantic prime-target relatedness (the N400 effect, which was driven by activations in a left-temporal source region. However, no significantly differing activations between priming conditions were found in the fMRI data. Our results support the notion that, for joint interpretations of existing EEG and fMRI studies of semantic priming, we need to fully appreciate the respective methodological limitations. Second, they show that simultaneous EEG-fMRI, including ERP source localization, is a feasible and promising methodological advancement for the investigation of higher-cognitive processes. Third, they substantiate the finding that, compared to fMRI, ERPs are often more sensitive to subtle cognitive effects.

  18. Preclinical activity of the type II CD20 antibody GA101 (obinutuzumab) compared with rituximab and ofatumumab in vitro and in xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Sylvia; Herting, Frank; Mundigl, Olaf; Waldhauer, Inja; Weinzierl, Tina; Fauti, Tanja; Muth, Gunter; Ziegler-Landesberger, Doris; Van Puijenbroek, Erwin; Lang, Sabine; Duong, Minh Ngoc; Reslan, Lina; Gerdes, Christian A; Friess, Thomas; Baer, Ute; Burtscher, Helmut; Weidner, Michael; Dumontet, Charles; Umana, Pablo; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Bacac, Marina; Klein, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We report the first preclinical in vitro and in vivo comparison of GA101 (obinutuzumab), a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 monoclonal antibody, with rituximab and ofatumumab, the two currently approved type I CD20 antibodies. The three antibodies were compared in assays measuring direct cell death (AnnexinV/PI staining and time-lapse microscopy), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), and internalization. The models used for the comparison of their activity in vivo were SU-DHL4 and RL xenografts. GA101 was found to be superior to rituximab and ofatumumab in the induction of direct cell death (independent of mechanical manipulation required for cell aggregate disruption formed by antibody treatment), whereas it was 10 to 1,000 times less potent in mediating CDC. GA101 showed superior activity to rituximab and ofatumumab in ADCC and whole-blood B-cell depletion assays, and was comparable with these two in ADCP. GA101 also showed slower internalization rate upon binding to CD20 than rituximab and ofatumumab. In vivo, GA101 induced a strong antitumor effect, including complete tumor remission in the SU-DHL4 model and overall superior efficacy compared with both rituximab and ofatumumab. When rituximab-pretreated animals were used, second-line treatment with GA101 was still able to control tumor progression, whereas tumors escaped rituximab treatment. Taken together, the preclinical data show that the glyoengineered type II CD20 antibody GA101 is differentiated from the two approved type I CD20 antibodies rituximab and ofatumumab by its overall preclinical activity, further supporting its clinical investigation.

  19. Zebrafish-based reporter gene assays reveal different estrogenic activities in river waters compared to a conventional human-derived assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonavane, Manoj; Creusot, Nicolas; Maillot-Maréchal, Emmanuelle; Péry, Alexandre; Brion, François; Aїt-Aïssa, Selim

    2016-04-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) act on the endocrine system through multiple mechanisms of action, among them interaction with estrogen receptors (ERs) is a well-identified key event in the initiation of adverse outcomes. As the most commonly used estrogen screening assays are either yeast- or human-cell based systems, the question of their (eco)toxicological relevance when assessing risks for aquatic species can be raised. The present study addresses the use of zebrafish (zf) derived reporter gene assays, both in vitro (i.e. zf liver cell lines stably expressing zfERα, zfERβ1 and zfERβ2 subtypes) and in vivo (i.e. transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zf embryos), to assess estrogenic contaminants in river waters. By investigating 20 French river sites using passive sampling, high frequencies of in vitro zfER-mediated activities in water extracts were measured. Among the different in vitro assays, zfERβ2 assay was the most sensitive and responsive one, enabling the detection of active compounds at all investigated sites. In addition, comparison with a conventional human-based in vitro assay highlighted sites that were able to active zfERs but not human ER, suggesting the occurrence of zf-specific ER ligands. Furthermore, a significant in vivo estrogenic activity was detected at the most active sites in vitro, with a good accordance between estradiol equivalent (E2-EQ) concentrations derived from both in vitro and in vivo assays. Overall, this study shows the relevance and usefulness of such novel zebrafish-based assays as screening tools to monitor estrogenic activities in complex mixtures such as water extracts. It also supports their preferred use compared to human-based assays to assess the potential risks caused by endocrine disruptive chemicals for aquatic species such as fish.

  20. Altered oscillation and synchronization of default-mode network activity in mild Alzheimer's disease compared to mild cognitive impairment: an electrophysiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jung Hsiao

    Full Text Available Some researchers have suggested that the default mode network (DMN plays an important role in the pathological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine whether the cortical activities in DMN regions show significant difference between mild AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI, electrophysiological responses were analyzed from 21 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 21 mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients during an eyes closed, resting-state condition. The spectral power and functional connectivity of the DMN were estimated using a minimum norm estimate (MNE combined with fast Fourier transform and imaginary coherence analysis. Our results indicated that source-based EEG maps of resting-state activity showed alterations of cortical spectral power in mild AD when compared to MCI. These alterations are characteristic of attenuated alpha or beta activities in the DMN, as are enhanced delta or theta activities in the medial temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. With regard to altered synchronization in AD, altered functional interconnections were observed as specific connectivity patterns of connection hubs in the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and medial temporal regions. Moreover, posterior theta and alpha power and altered connectivity in the medial temporal lobe correlated significantly with scores obtained on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. In conclusion, EEG is a useful tool for investigating the DMN in the brain and differentiating early stage AD and MCI patients. This is a promising finding; however, further large-scale studies are needed.

  1. Activity of ceftaroline and comparators against pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America - results of AWARE surveillance 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Hoban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As part of the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE surveillance program in 2012 the in vitro activity of ceftaroline and relevant comparator antimicrobials was evaluated in six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela against pathogens isolated from patients with hospital associated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. The study documented that ceftaroline was highly active (MIC90 0.25 mg/L/% susceptible 100% against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC90 2 mg/L/% susceptible 83.3% and ß-hemolytic streptococci (MIC90 0.008-0.015 mg/L/% susceptible 100%. The activity of ceftaroline against selected species of Enterobacteriaceae was dependent upon the presence or absence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs. Against ESBL screen-negativeEscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andKlebsiella oxytoca the MIC90 and percent susceptible for ceftaroline were (0.5 mg/L/94.1%, (0.5 mg/L/99.0% and (0.5 mg/L/91.5%, respectively. Ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against a recent collection of pathogens associated with SSTI in six Latin American countries in 2012.

  2. Comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file for the removal of triple antibiotic paste from root canal (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Ashoksingh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file (MAF for the removal of triple antibiotic paste (TAP from root canal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two single rooted teeth were instrumented with ProTaper up to the size number F2 and dressed with TAP. TAP was removed with Canal Brush technique (Group I, n: 6, sonic (EndoActivator (Group II, n: 6, and MAF (Group III, n: 6. Four teeth served as positive (n: 2 and negative (n: 2 controls. The roots were split in the buccolingual direction and prepared for SEM examination (×1000 at coronal, middle, and apical third. Three examiners evaluated the wall cleanliness. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal–Wallis test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Difference in cleanliness between three groups is statistically significant in cervical region only. Pairwise comparison in cervical region Canal Brush and sonic activation showed more removal of TAP than MAF. Conclusions: Canal Brush and sonic activation system showed better result than MAF in the cervical and middle third of canal. In the apical third, none of the techniques showed a better result. None of the techniques showed complete removal of TAP from the canal.

  3. Improving activities of daily living in danish centenarians--but only in women: A comparative study of two birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians has increased rapidly since the 1950s. In Denmark, 42% more of the 1905 birth cohort made it to 100 years of age compared to the 1895 cohort. We tested whether this increased survival proportion has resulted in an increased disability level in the more recent......) and Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADLs) were assessed in both cohorts. RESULTS: The 1905 cohort displayed better self-reported ADLs than the 1895 cohort did. Stratified by gender, this apparent cohort advantage was due to women in the 1905 cohort performing significantly better than their female...

  4. A Comparative Discussion of the Catalytic Activity and CO2-Selectivity of Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr (Intermetallic Compounds in Methanol Steam Reforming

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    Norbert Köpfle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The activation and catalytic performance of two representative Zr-containing intermetallic systems, namely Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr, have been comparatively studied operando using methanol steam reforming (MSR as test reaction. Using an inverse surface science and bulk model catalyst approach, we monitored the transition of the initial metal/intermetallic compound structures into the eventual active and CO2-selective states upon contact to the methanol steam reforming mixture. For Cu-Zr, selected nominal stoichiometries ranging from Cu:Zr = 9:2 over 2:1 to 1:2 have been prepared by mixing the respective amounts of metallic Cu and Zr to yield different Cu-Zr bulk phases as initial catalyst structures. In addition, the methanol steam reforming performance of two Pd-Zr systems, that is, a bulk system with a nominal Pd:Zr = 2:1 stoichiometry and an inverse model system consisting of CVD-grown ZrOxHy layers on a polycrystalline Pd foil, has been comparatively assessed. While the CO2-selectivity and the overall catalytic performance of the Cu-Zr system is promising due to operando formation of a catalytically beneficial Cu-ZrO2 interface, the case for Pd-Zr is different. For both Pd-Zr systems, the low-temperature coking tendency, the high water-activation temperature and the CO2-selectivity spoiling inverse WGS reaction limit the use of the Pd-Zr systems for selective MSR applications, although alloying of Pd with Zr opens water activation channels to