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Sample records for anti-coincidence veto detector

  1. The ZEPLIN-III Anti-Coincidence Veto Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Akimov, D. Yu.; Araujo, H. M.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; B. Edwards; Francis, V.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A; M Horn; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The design, optimisation and construction of an anti-coincidence veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III direct dark matter search instrument is described. One tonne of plastic scintillator is arranged into 52 bars individually read out by photomultipliers and coupled to a gadolinium-loaded passive polypropylene shield. Particular attention has been paid to radiological content. The overall aim has been to achieve a veto detector of low threshold and high efficiency without the creation of...

  2. The ZEPLIN-III Anti-Coincidence Veto Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, D Yu; Barnes, E J; Belov, V A; Burenkov, A A; Chepel, V; Currie, A; Edwards, B; Francis, V; Ghag, C; Hollingsworth, A; Horn, M; Kalmus, G E; Kobyakin, A S; Kovalenko, A G; Lebedenko, V N; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Lyons, K; Majewski, P; Murphy, A St J; Neves, F; Paling, S M; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Reichhart, L; Scovell, P R; Solovov, V N; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Stekhanov, V N; Sumner, T J; Taylor, R; Thorne, C; Walker, R J

    2010-01-01

    The design, optimisation and construction of an anti-coincidence veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III direct dark matter search instrument is described. One tonne of plastic scintillator is arranged into 52 bars individually read out by photomultipliers and coupled to a gadolinium-loaded passive polypropylene shield. Particular attention has been paid to radiological content. The overall aim has been to achieve a veto detector of low threshold and high efficiency without the creation of additional background in ZEPLIN-III, all at a reasonable cost. Extensive experimental measurements of the components have been made, including radioactivity levels and performance characteristics. These have been used to inform a complete end-to-end Monte Carlo simulation that has then been used to calculate the expected performance of the new instrument, both operating alone and as an anti-coincidence detector for ZEPLIN-III. The veto device will be capable of rejecting over 65% of coincident nuclear recoil events from ...

  3. The Anti-Coincidence Detector for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, A.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Ormes, J.F.; Thompson, D.J.; Amato, M.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Segal, K.N.; Sheppard, D.A.

    2007-03-23

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LAT's first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3-5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and 4 sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of {approx}8.3 square meters. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wave-length shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.

  4. IXO-XMS LVSID Anti-Coincidence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Scott F.; Kilbourne, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This document describes a high-TRL backup implementation of the anti-coincidence detector for the IXO/XMS instrument. The backup detector, hereafter referred to as the low-voltage silicon ionization detector (LVSID), has been successfully flown on Astro-E2 (Suzaku)/XRS and is currently being implemented, without significant changes, on the Astro-H/SXS instrument. The LVSID anti-coincidence detector on Astro-E2/XRS operated successfully for almost 2 years, and was not affected by the loss of liquid helium in that instrument. The LVSID continues to operate after almost 5 years on-orbit (LEO, 550 km) but with slightly increased noise following the expected depletion of solid Neon after 22 months. The noise of the device is increased after the loss of sNe due to thermally induced bias and readout noise. No radiation damage, or off-nominal affects have been observed with the LVSID on-orbit during the Astro-E2/XRS program. A detector die from the same fabrication run will be used on the Astro-H/SXS mission. The LVSID technology and cryogenic JFET readout system is thus TRL 9. The technology is described in detail in section 2. The IXO/XMS "backup-up" anti-coincidence detector is a small array of LVSID detectors that are almost identical to those employed for Astro -E2/XRS as described in this document. The readout system is identical and, infact would use the same design as the Astro -E2/XRS JFET amplifier module (19 channels) essentially without changes except for its mechanical mount. The changes required for the IXO/XMS LVSID array are limited to the mounting of the LVSID detectors, and the mechanical mounting of the JFET amplifier sub-assembly. There is no technical development needed for the IXO/XMS implementation and the technology is ready for detailed design-work leading to PDR. The TRL level is thus at least 6, and possibly higher. Characteristics of an IXO/XMS LVSID anti-co detector are given in Table 1 and described in detail in section 3.

  5. Calibration Analyses and Efficiency Studies for the Anti Coincidence Detector on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachulis, Chris; /Yale U. /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    The Anti Coincidence Detector (ACD) on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope provides charged particle rejection for the Large Area Telescope (LAT). We use two calibrations used by the ACD to conduct three studies on the performance of the ACD. We examine the trending of the calibrations to search for damage and find a timescale over which the calibrations can be considered reliable. We also calculated the number of photoelectrons counted by a PMT on the ACD from a normal proton. Third, we calculated the veto efficiencies of the ACD for two different veto settings. The trends of the calibrations exhibited no signs of damage, and indicated timescales of reliability for the calibrations of one to two years. The number of photoelectrons calculated ranged from 5 to 25. Large errors in the effect of the energy spectrum of the charged particles caused these values to have very large errors of around 60 percent. Finally, the veto efficiencies were found to be very high at both veto values, both for charged particles and for the lower energy backsplash spectrum. The Anti Coincidence Detector (ACD) on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope is a detector system built around the silicon strip tracker on the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The purpose of the ACD is to provide charged particle rejection for the LAT. To do this, the ACD must be calibrated correctly in flight, and must be able to efficiently veto charged particle events while minimizing false vetoes due to 'backsplash' from photons in the calorimeter. There are eleven calibrations used by the ACD. In this paper, we discuss the use of two of these calibrations to preform three studies on the performance of the ACD. The first study examines trending of the calibrations to check for possible hardware degradation. The second study uses the calibrations to explore the efficiency of an on-board hardware veto. The third study uses the calibrations to calculate the number of photoelectrons seen by each PMT when a

  6. Optical optimization for anti-coincidence detectors of a Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Long; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Zhao; Fu, Min-Xue; Chen, Yi-Bao; Zhao, Dong-Hua; Deng, Jing-Kang; Shang, Ren-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The anti-coincidence detectors of Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) are designed to suppress the X-ray background induced by incident charged cosmic-ray particles. The main components of anti-coincidence detectors are thin flat plastic scintillators. In this work we apply the TracePro program to study the light transfer features in the scintillators, and we propose several optimized reflector configurations to significantly improve the light transfer efficiency. The simulation results are verified by measurements of the detector prototypes. We chose a particular optimized reflector configuration.

  7. Development of a TES-Based Anti-Coincidence Detector for Future X-ray Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Microcalorimeters onboard future x-ray observatories require an anti-coincidence detector to remove environmental backgrounds. In order to most effectively integrate this anticoincidence detector with the main microcalorimeter array, both instruments should use similar read-out technology. The detectors used in the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) use a phonon measurement technique that is well suited for an anti-coincidence detector with a microcalorimeter array using SQUID readout. This technique works by using a transition-edge sensor (TES) connected to superconducting collection fins to measure the athermal phonon signal produced when an event occurs in the substrate crystal. Energy from the event propagates through the crystal to the superconducting collection fins, creating quasiparticles, which are then trapped as they enter the TES where they produce a signal. We are currently developing a prototype anti-coincidence detector for future x-ray missions and have recently fabricated test devices with Mo/Au TESs and Al collection fins. We will present results from the first tests of these devices which indicate a proof of concept that quasiparticle trapping is occurring in these materials.

  8. Development of a TES-Based Anti-Coincidence Detector for Future X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Catherine N.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Sultana, M.

    2012-01-01

    Microcalorimeters onboard future x-ray observatories require an anticoincidence detector to remove environmental backgrounds. In order to most effectively integrate this anti-coincidence detector with the main microcalorimeter array, both instruments should use similar read-out technology. The detectors used in the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) use a phonon measurement technique that is well suited for an anti-coincidence detector with a microcalorimeter array using SQUID readout. This technique works by using a transition-edge sensor (TES) connected to superconducting collection fins to measure the athermal phonon signal produced when an event occurs in the substrate crystal. Energy from the event propagates through the crystal to the superconducting collection fins, creating quasiparticles, which are then trapped as they enter the TES where they produce a signal. We are currently developing a prototype anti-coincidence detector for future x-ray missions and have recently fabricated test devices with Mo/Au TESs and Al collection fins. We present results from the first tests of these devices which indicate a proof of concept that quasiparticle trapping is occurring in these materials.

  9. The GERDA muon veto Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is a new experiment designed to examine the neutrinoless double beta decay 0νββ of 76Ge which has a lifetime of at least 1026 years and a single energy deposition of 2039 keV. To reach the goal of 10-3 background events/(keVkgy), several background reduction techniques like anti-coincidence and pulse shape analysis will be used. Cosmic muons can produce background in form of particles and radioactivity. To reject them, two independent detector systems will be integrated in GERDA. One of these is a Cherenkov muon veto detector, that uses the water tank around the cryostat in which the crystals will be operated. It is equipped with 66 photomultipliers (PMTs) with 8 in. diameter. The PMT distribution was found via extensive Monte Carlo studies to reach the highest efficiencies for dangerous muons (these are muons that cause an energy deposition of around 2 MeV in the germanium detectors), even though the PMTs cover less than 0.1% of the water tank surface. High efficiencies depend strongly on the amount of detected photons. For this, as many surfaces as possible will be covered with 'VM2000', a highly reflective foil from 3 M. This foil has a high reflectivity in a wide range of wavelength and it also shifts photons from the UV into the optical range. It, more or less, doubles the amount of detectable photons, because the photomultipliers used, have an detection maximum between 370 and 400 nm. Thus, a detection efficiency of 98% should be easily achieved.

  10. Design and Performance of the Astro-E/XRS Microcalorimeter Array and Anti-Coincidence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, C. K.; Audley, M. D.; Boyce, K. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Fujimoto, R.; Gendreau, K. C.; Gygax, J. D.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; McClanahan, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    The XRS instrument has an array of 32 micro-calorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of 9 eV at 3 keV and 11 eV at 6 keV. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, operating temperature, thermistor size, absorber choice, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistor bearing element. We will present representative performance data, though a more detailed presentation of the results of the instrument calibration is presented elsewhere in these proceedings. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance in conjunction with the array.

  11. A Compton-vetoed germanium detector with increased sensitivity at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulty to directly detect plutonium in spent nuclear fuel due to the high Compton background of the fission products motivates the design of a gamma detector with improved sensitivity at low energies. We have built such a detector by operating a thin high-purity Ge detector with a large scintillator Compton veto directly behind it. The Ge detector is thin to absorb just the low-energy Pu radiation of interest while minimizing Compton scattering of high-energy radiation from the fission products. The subsequent scintillator is large so that forward-scattered photons from the Ge detector interact in it at least once to provide an anti-coincidence veto for the Ge detector. For highest sensitivity, additional material in the line of sight is minimized, the radioactive sample is kept thin, and its radiation is collimated. We will discuss the instrument design, and demonstrate the feasibility of the approach with a prototype that employs two large CsI scintillator vetoes. Initial spectra of a thin Cs-137 calibration source show a background suppression of a factor of ∼2.5 at ∼100 keV, limited by an unexpectedly thick 4 mm dead layer in the Ge detector. (author)

  12. A Compton-Vetoed Germanium Detector with Increased Sensitivity at Low Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulty to directly detect plutonium in spent nuclear fuel due to the high Compton background of the fission products motivates the design of a Gamma detector with improved sensitivity at low energies. We have built such a detector by operating a thin high-purity Ge detector with a large scintillator Compton veto directly behind it. The Ge detector is thin to absorb just the low-energy Pu radiation of interest while minimizing Compton scattering of high energy radiation from the fission products. The subsequent scintillator is large so that forward scattered photons from the Ge detector interact in it at least once to provide an anti-coincidence veto for the Ge detector. For highest sensitivity, additional material in the line-of-sight is minimized, the radioactive sample is kept thin, and its radiation is collimated. We will discuss the instrument design, and demonstrate the feasibility of the approach with a prototype that employs two large CsI scintillator vetoes. Initial spectra of a thin Cs-137 calibration source show a background suppression of a factor of ∼2.5 at ∼100 keV, limited by an unexpectedly thick 4 mm dead layer in the Ge detector.

  13. A Compton-Vetoed Germanium Detector with Increased Sensitivity at Low Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S; Bates, C; Drury, O B; Burks, M; DiPrete, D

    2012-03-29

    The difficulty to directly detect plutonium in spent nuclear fuel due to the high Compton background of the fission products motivates the design of a Gamma detector with improved sensitivity at low energies. We have built such a detector by operating a thin high-purity Ge detector with a large scintillator Compton veto directly behind it. The Ge detector is thin to absorb just the low-energy Pu radiation of interest while minimizing Compton scattering of high energy radiation from the fission products. The subsequent scintillator is large so that forward scattered photons from the Ge detector interact in it at least once to provide an anti-coincidence veto for the Ge detector. For highest sensitivity, additional material in the line-of-sight is minimized, the radioactive sample is kept thin, and its radiation is collimated. We will discuss the instrument design, and demonstrate the feasibility of the approach with a prototype that employs two large CsI scintillator vetoes. Initial spectra of a thin Cs-137 calibration source show a background suppression of a factor of {approx}2.5 at {approx}100 keV, limited by an unexpectedly thick 4 mm dead layer in the Ge detector.

  14. A Germanium Detector with Optimized Compton Veto for High Sensitivity at Low Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S

    2011-11-30

    We have built a prototype germanium detector with a Compton veto that is optimized for high sensitivity in the low-energy range around {approx}100 keV. It is specifically designed to address the problem to directly detect plutonium gamma emissions in spent nuclear fuel by non-destructive assay. This is not possible with current detectors due to the large low-energy background of Compton-scattered high-energy radiation from the fission products, whose gamma flux is at least 6 to 7 orders of magnitude higher than the Pu signal. Our instrument is designed to assess the feasibility to selectively suppress the background in the low-energy region around {approx}100 keV with the strongest Pu X-ray and gamma emissions lines. It employs a thin Ge detector with a large Compton veto directly behind it to suppress the background from forward-scattered radiation by anti-coincidence vetoing. This report summarizes the design considerations and the performance of the instrument.

  15. Characterization of a Prototype TES-Based Anti-coincidence Detector for Use with Future X-ray Calorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S. E.; Yoon, W. S.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lee, S.-J.; Porst, J.-P.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Sultana, M.

    2016-07-01

    For future X-ray observatories utilizing transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters, an anti-coincidence detector (anti-co) is required to discriminate X-ray (˜ 0.1-10 keV) signals from non-X-ray background events, such as ionizing particles. We have developed a prototype anti-co that utilizes TESs, which will be compatible with the TES focal-plane arrays planned for future X-ray observatories. This anti-co is based upon the cryogenic dark matter search II detector design. It is a silicon wafer covered with superconducting collection fins and TES microcalorimeters. Minimum ionizing particles deposit energy while passing through the silicon. The athermal phonons produced by these events are absorbed in the superconducting fins, breaking Cooper pairs. The resulting quasiparticles diffuse along the superconducting fin, producing a signal when they reach the TES. By determining a correlation between detections in the anti-co and the X-ray detector one can identify and flag these background events. We have fabricated and tested a single-channel prototype anti-co device on a 1.5 × 1.9 cm^2 chip. We have measured the signals in this device from photons of several energies between 1.5 and 60 keV, as well as laboratory background events, demonstrating a threshold ˜ 100 times lower than is needed to detect minimum ionizing particles.

  16. Characterization of a Prototype TES-Based Anti-coincidence Detector for Use with Future X-ray Calorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S. E.; Yoon, W. S.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lee, S.-J.; Porst, J.-P.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Sultana, M.

    2015-12-01

    For future X-ray observatories utilizing transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters, an anti-coincidence detector (anti-co) is required to discriminate X-ray (˜ 0.1-10 keV) signals from non-X-ray background events, such as ionizing particles. We have developed a prototype anti-co that utilizes TESs, which will be compatible with the TES focal-plane arrays planned for future X-ray observatories. This anti-co is based upon the cryogenic dark matter search II detector design. It is a silicon wafer covered with superconducting collection fins and TES microcalorimeters. Minimum ionizing particles deposit energy while passing through the silicon. The athermal phonons produced by these events are absorbed in the superconducting fins, breaking Cooper pairs. The resulting quasiparticles diffuse along the superconducting fin, producing a signal when they reach the TES. By determining a correlation between detections in the anti-co and the X-ray detector one can identify and flag these background events. We have fabricated and tested a single-channel prototype anti-co device on a 1.5 × 1.9 cm^2 chip. We have measured the signals in this device from photons of several energies between 1.5 and 60 keV, as well as laboratory background events, demonstrating a threshold ˜ 100 times lower than is needed to detect minimum ionizing particles.

  17. The Design, Implementation, and Performance of the Astro-H SXS Calorimeter Array and Anti-Coincidence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Galeazzi, Masimilliano; Grein, Christoph; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kelley, Richard L.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; Porter, F. Scott; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV, enabling essential plasma diagnostics. The SXS has a square array of 36 microcalorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of better than 4.5 eV at 6 keV when operated at a heat-sink temperature of 50 mK. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, resistance function, absorber details, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistor-bearing element. We will also present the thermal characterization of the whole array, including thermal conductance and crosstalk measurements and the results of pulsing the frame temperature via alpha particles, heat pulses, and the environmental background. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance.

  18. The GERDA Muon Veto Cherenkov Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERDA experiment is designed to examine 0νββ of 76Ge with a lifetime of 1026 years. To reach the goal of 10-3 background events/(keV*kg*year), several background reduction techniques will be used. Cosmic muons can produce background in form of particles and radioactivity. To reject them a muon veto system, using the water tank surrounding the GERDA cryostat as an active Cherenkov veto, is built up. The design, simulations and the construction of this veto are described in the poster. (author)

  19. A Prototype Neutron Veto for Dark Matter Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Westerdale, Shawn; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons are a particularly dangerous background for direct WIMP dark matter searches; their nuclear recoils with the target nucleus are often indistinguishable from nuclear recoils produced by WIMP-nuclear collisions. In this study, we explore the concept of a liquid scintillator neutron veto detector that would allow direct dark matter detectors to potentially reject neutrons with greater than 99% efficiency. Here we outline the construction and testing of a small prototype detector and the...

  20. Installation of NA62 Large Angle Veto detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    In May 2012, the NA62 collaboration has installed the first eight (out of 12) Large Angle Veto detectors for the accurate identification of photons. These subdetectors will re-use 3000 lead glass crystals with attached photomultipliers from the OPAL experiment at LEP – CERN’s former accelerator.

  1. A prototype neutron veto for dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, S.; Shields, E.; Calaprice, F.

    2016-06-01

    Neutrons are a particularly dangerous background for direct WIMP dark matter searches; their nuclear recoils with the target nuclei are often indistinguishable from nuclear recoils produced by WIMP-nuclear collisions. In this study, we explore the concept of a liquid scintillator neutron veto detector that would allow direct dark matter detectors to potentially reject neutrons with greater than 99% efficiency. Here we outline the construction and testing of a small prototype detector and the potential implications of this technology for future dark matter detectors.

  2. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence Detector for the ATHENA X-IFU: Design Aspects by Geant4 Simulation and Preliminary Characterization of the New Single Pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macculi, C.; Argan, A.; D'Andrea, M.; Lotti, S.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Orlando, A.; Torrioli, G.

    2016-01-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class ESA mission, in the context of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, scheduled to be launched on 2028 at L2 orbit. One of the two planned focal plane instruments is the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), which will be able to perform simultaneous high-grade energy spectroscopy and imaging over the 5 arcmin FoV by means of a kilo-pixel array of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters, coupled to a high-quality X-ray optics. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particle background, induced by primary protons of both solar and cosmic rays' origin and secondary electrons. A Cryogenic AntiCoincidence (CryoAC) TES-based detector, located < 1 mm below the TES array, will allow the mission to reach the background level that enables its scientific goals. The CryoAC is a 4-pixel detector made of Silicon absorbers sensed by Iridium TESs. We currently achieve a TRL = 3-4 at the single-pixel level. We have designed and developed two further prototypes in order to reach TRL = 4. The design of the CryoAC has been also optimized using the Geant4 simulation tool. Here we will describe some results from the Geant4 simulations performed to optimize the design and preliminary test results from the first of the two detectors, 1 cm2 area, made of 65 Ir TESs.

  3. The Electronics and Data Acquisition System for the DarkSide-50 Veto Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Agnes, P; Albuquerque, I F M; Alexander, T; Alton, A K; Arisaka, K; Back, H O; Baldin, B; Biery, K; Bonfini, G; Bossa, M; Bottino, B; Brigatti, A; Brodsky, J; Budano, F; Bussino, S; Cadeddu, M; Cadoni, M; Calaprice, F; Canci, N; Candela, A; Cao, H; Cariello, M; Carlini, M; Catalanotti, S; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; Cocco, A G; Covone, G; Crippa, L; D'Angelo, D; D'Incecco, M; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; De Deo, M; De Vincenzi, M; Derbin, A; Devoto, A; Di Eusanio, F; Di Pietro, G; Edkins, E; Empl, A; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Fomenko, K; Foster, G; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Giganti, C; Goretti, A M; Granato, F; Grandi, L; Gromov, M; Guan, M; Guardincerri, Y; Hackett, B R; Herner, K R; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I; Jollet, C; Keeter, K; Kendziora, C L; Kobychev, V; Koh, G; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kubankin, A; Li, X; Lissia, M; Lombardi, P; Luitz, S; Ma, Y; Machulin, I N; Mandarano, A; Mari, S M; Maricic, J; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Meyers, P D; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Montanari, D; Monte, A; Montuschi, M; Monzani, M E; Mosteiro, P; Mount, B J; Muratova, V N; Musico, P; Napolitano, J; Nelson, A; Odrowski, S; Orsini, M; Ortica, F; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Parmeggiano, S; Pelczar, K; Pelliccia, N; Pocar, A; Pordes, S; Pugachev, D A; Qian, H; Randle, K; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Reinhold, B; Renshaw, A L; Riffard, Q; Romani, A; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Rountree, S D; Sablone, D; Saggese, P; Saldanha, R; Sands, W; Sangiorgio, S; Savarese, C; Segreto, E; Semenov, D A; Shields, E; Singh, P N; Skorokhvatov, M D; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Stanford, C; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Tatarowicz, J; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Trinchese, P; Unzhakov, E V; Vishneva, A; Vogelaar, R B; Wada, M; Walker, S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Watson, A W; Westerdale, S; Wilhelmi, J; Wojcik, M M; Xiang, X; Xu, J; Yang, C; Yoo, J; Zavatarelli, S; Zec, A; Zhong, W; Zhu, C; Zuzel, G

    2016-01-01

    DarkSide-50 is a detector for dark matter candidates in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). It utilizes a liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr TPC) for the inner main detector. The TPC is surrounded by a liquid scintillator veto (LSV) and a water Cherenkov veto detector (WCV). The LSV and WCV, both instrumented with PMTs, act as the neutron and cosmogenic muon veto detectors for DarkSide-50. This paper describes the electronics and data acquisition system used for these two detectors.

  4. Monte Carlo aided design of the inner muon veto detectors for the Double Chooz experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, D.; Greiner, D.; Jochum, J.; Lachenmaier, T.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Röhling, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Double Chooz neutrino experiment aims to measure the last unknown neutrino mixing angle theta_13 using two identical detectors positioned at sites both near and far from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant. To suppress correlated background induced by cosmic muons in the detectors, they are protected by veto detector systems. One of these systems is the inner muon veto. It is an active liquid scintillator based detector and instrumented with encapsulated photomultiplier tub...

  5. The calibration system of the GERDA muon veto Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ). To achieve a sensitivity of 10-3counts/(keVkgy) or better within a specific region of interest (ROI), a good background identification is needed. Therefore GERDA is located in the LNGS (Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso) underground facility. In addition to the good rejection of cosmic muons due to the surrounding bedrocks, a dual muon veto system has to be used. For calibration and monitoring of the muon veto, two separate systems have been developed.

  6. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ∼2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles

  7. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, F.; Capussela, T.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Mirra, M.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Roscilli, L.; Vanzanella, A.; Corradi, G.; Tagnani, D.; Paglia, U.

    2016-03-01

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ~2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles.

  8. CHANTI: a Fast and Efficient Charged Particle Veto Detector for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Di Filippo, D; Massarotti, P; Mirra, M; Napolitano, M; Palladino, V; Saracino, G; Roscilli, L; Vanzanella, A; Corradi, G; Tagnani, D; Paglia, U

    2016-01-01

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ~2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles.

  9. Performance of the veto detector incorporated into the ZEPLIN-III experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, D Yu; Barnes, E J; Belov, V A; Burenkov, A A; Chepel, V; Currie, A; DeViveiros, L; Edwards, B; Francis, V; Ghag, C; Hollingsworth, A; Horn, M; Kalmus, G E; Kobyakin, A S; Kovalenko, A G; Lebedenko, V N; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Lyons, K; Majewski, P; St, A; Murphy, J; Neves, F; Paling, S M; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Reichhart, L; Scovell, P R; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Stekhanov, V N; Sumner, T J; Thorne, C; Walker, R J

    2011-01-01

    The ZEPLIN-III experiment is operating in its second phase at the Boulby Underground Laboratory in search of dark matter WIMPs. The major upgrades to the instrument over its first science run include lower background photomultiplier tubes and installation of a veto system. Performance results from the veto detector using calibration and science data in its first six months of operation in coincidence with ZEPLIN-III are presented. With fully automated operation and calibration, the veto system has maintained high stability and achieves near unity live time relative to ZEPLIN-III. Calibrations with a neutron source demonstrate a rejection of 60% of neutron-induced nuclear recoils in ZEPLIN-III that might otherwise be misidentified as WIMPs. This tagging efficiency reduces the expected untagged nuclear recoil background from neutrons during science data taking to a very low rate of ~0.2 events per year in the WIMP acceptance region. Additionally, the veto detector provides rejection of 28% of gamma-ray induced ...

  10. Extensive studies of MRS APDs for plastic scintillator muon veto detectors of cryogenic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low background experiments need active muon veto detectors to shield them from cosmic muons. Plastic scintillator panels with WLS fiber and multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes readout are widely used in such experiments due to their compactness and robustness. In this paper, results from the study of the basic MRS APD parameters, such as breakdown voltages, quenching resistors, internal gain and dark count rates are presented, as well as temperature dependencies of some of these parameters. In a small fraction of the MRS APDs, some strange dips in the I–V curves just preceding the breakdown voltage point have been observed.

  11. Development of an anti-Compton veto for HPGe detectors operated in liquid argon using Silicon Photo-Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Janicskó-Csáthy, József; Liu, Xiang; Majorovits, Béla; Caldwell, Allen

    2010-01-01

    A proof of concept detector is presented for scintillation light detection in liquid argon using Silicon Photo-Multipliers. The aim of the work is to build an anti-Compton veto for germanium detectors operated directly in liquid argon like in the GERDA experiment. Properties of the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) are studied at cryogenic temperatures. To increase the light collection efficiency of the MPPCs wavelength shifting fibers were used. A veto efficiency comparable to a similar setup with a Photo-Multiplier Tube was achieved.

  12. Development of an anti-compton veto for HPGe detectors operated in liquid argon using silicon photo-multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicsko Csathy, Jozsef [Max Planck Institute fuer Physik, Munchen (Germany); Technische Universitat Munchen, Garching (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Aghaei Khozani, Hossein; Caldwell, Allen; Majorovits, Bela [Max Planck Institute fuer Physik, Munchen (Germany); Liu, Xiang [Max Planck Institute fuer Physik, Munchen (Germany); Shanghai Jiaotong University (China); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    A proof of concept detector is presented for scintillation light detection in liquid argon using Silicon Photo-Multipliers. The aim of the work is to build an anti-Compton veto for germanium detectors operated directly in liquid argon like in the GERDA experiment. Properties of the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) are studied at cryogenic temperatures. To increase the light collection efficiency of the MPPCs wavelength shifting fibers were used. A veto efficiency comparable to a similar setup with a Photo-Multiplier Tube was achieved.

  13. Development of an anti-compton veto for HPGe detectors operated in liquid argon using silicon photo-multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proof of concept detector is presented for scintillation light detection in liquid argon using Silicon Photo-Multipliers. The aim of the work is to build an anti-Compton veto for germanium detectors operated directly in liquid argon like in the GERDA experiment. Properties of the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) are studied at cryogenic temperatures. To increase the light collection efficiency of the MPPCs wavelength shifting fibers were used. A veto efficiency comparable to a similar setup with a Photo-Multiplier Tube was achieved.

  14. Development of an anti-Compton veto for HPGe detectors operated in liquid argon using silicon photo-multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proof of concept detector is presented for scintillation light detection in liquid argon using silicon photo-multipliers. The aim of the work is to build an anti-Compton veto for germanium detectors operated directly in liquid argon as in the GERDA experiment. Wavelength shifting fibers are used to collect the scintillation light and to guide it to Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPC). Sufficient light yield was achieved to realize an effective anti-Compton veto. Properties of the MPPC were studied at cryogenic temperatures and are additionally reported.

  15. Development of an anti-Compton veto for HPGe detectors operated in liquid argon using silicon photo-multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicsko Csathy, J., E-mail: janicsko@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foeringer Ring 6, Muenchen 80805 (Germany); Aghaei Khozani, H.; Caldwell, A.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foeringer Ring 6, Muenchen 80805 (Germany)

    2011-10-21

    A proof of concept detector is presented for scintillation light detection in liquid argon using silicon photo-multipliers. The aim of the work is to build an anti-Compton veto for germanium detectors operated directly in liquid argon as in the GERDA experiment. Wavelength shifting fibers are used to collect the scintillation light and to guide it to Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPC). Sufficient light yield was achieved to realize an effective anti-Compton veto. Properties of the MPPC were studied at cryogenic temperatures and are additionally reported.

  16. Design of the MiniCLEAN dark matter search veto detector subsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Abruzzio, Robert; Buck, Benjamin; Jaditz, Stephen; Kelsey, James; Monroe, Jocelyn; Palladino, Kimberyl

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the active muon veto subsystem for the MiniCLEAN dark matter direct detection experiment at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The water-filled veto is instrumented with 48 PMTs which are read out by front end electronics to time multiplex 48 photomultiplier channels into 6 digitizer channels and provide an instantaneous hit sum across the subsystem (N-Hit) for the veto trigger. We describe the primary system components: the PMTs, the support structure, the...

  17. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  18. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-08-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples. PMID:18222698

  19. Design of the MiniCLEAN dark matter search veto detector subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of the active muon veto subsystem for the MiniCLEAN dark matter direct detection experiment at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The water-filled veto is instrumented with 48 PMTs which are read out by front-end electronics to time multiplex 48 photomultiplier channels into 6 digitizer channels and provide an instantaneous hit sum across the subsystem (N-Hit) for the veto trigger. We describe the primary system components: the PMTs, the support structure, the front-end electronics, and the data acquisition system

  20. Design of the MiniCLEAN dark matter search veto detector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzio, Robert [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Buck, Benjamin, E-mail: bbuck@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Jaditz, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelsey, James [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Monroe, Jocelyn [Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey (United Kingdom); Palladino, Kimberly [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the active muon veto subsystem for the MiniCLEAN dark matter direct detection experiment at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The water-filled veto is instrumented with 48 PMTs which are read out by front-end electronics to time multiplex 48 photomultiplier channels into 6 digitizer channels and provide an instantaneous hit sum across the subsystem (N-Hit) for the veto trigger. We describe the primary system components: the PMTs, the support structure, the front-end electronics, and the data acquisition system.

  1. Design of the MiniCLEAN dark matter search veto detector subsystem

    CERN Document Server

    Abruzzio, Robert; Jaditz, Stephen; Kelsey, James; Monroe, Jocelyn; Palladino, Kimberyl

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the active muon veto subsystem for the MiniCLEAN dark matter direct detection experiment at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The water-filled veto is instrumented with 48 PMTs which are read out by front end electronics to time multiplex 48 photomultiplier channels into 6 digitizer channels and provide an instantaneous hit sum across the subsystem (N-Hit) for the veto trigger. We describe the primary system components: the PMTs, the support structure, the front-end electronics, and the data acquisition system.

  2. The OPERA VETO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OPERA is an underground experiment to search for ντ appearance from a pure νμ beam produced at CERN. To flag the events due to the neutrino interactions with the rock surrounding the OPERA detector, a large VETO system, based on the use of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs) has been realized. We describe the VETO system, the GRPCs, the tests performed on the chambers before their installation. Presently, the VETO is in phase of commissioning. The first results of its underground operation are also presented.

  3. Performance of Wavelength-Shifting Fibers for the Mu2e Cosmic Ray Veto Detector

    CERN Document Server

    DeZoort, G; Kessenich, H; Oksuzian, Y; Rase, T; Shooltz, D

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment will search for a neutrino-less muon-to-electron conversion process with almost four orders of magnitude of sensitivity improvement relative to the current best limit. One important background is caused by cosmic ray muons, and particles produced by their decay or interactions, mimicking the conversion electron signature. In order to reach the design sensitivity, Mu2e needs to obtain a cosmic ray veto (CRV) efficiency of 99.99\\%. The CRV system consists of four layers of plastic scintillating counters read out by silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) through wavelength shifting fibers. The CRV counters must produce sufficient photo statistics in order to achieve the required veto efficiency. We study the light properties of several wavelength shifting fiber sizes in order to optimize the total light yield for the CRV system. The measurements are performed using a scanner designed to ensure fiber quality for the CRV.

  4. Absolute standardization of 106Ru by anti-coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of absolute standardization activity of radionuclide by anti-coincidence counting and live-time techniques was implemented at LNMRI in 2008 to reduce the impacts of some influence factors in the determination of the activity with coincidence counting technique used for decades in the lab, for example, the measurement time. With the anti-coincidence system, the variety of radionuclides that can be calibrated by LNMRI was increased, in relation to the type of decay. The objective of this work is the standardization of 106Ru by the method of counting anti-coincidence and estimate its measurement uncertainties. (author)

  5. The experiment 787 high efficiency photon veto detector in the 20 - 300 MEV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment E787 is searching for the rare decay K → πνν at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). To suppress the background from the dominant K → ππo branch, a fast lead scintillator sandwich veto assembly system was used. An inefficiency level of ∼ 1 x 10-6 has been achieved for detecting πo. The limitations are in part geometrical in part due to photonuclear interactions. Our present understanding of these limitations will be presented together with our upgrading plans using pure CSI crystals. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs

  6. Evaluation of the neutron background in a direct WIMP detector with neutron veto system based on Gd-doped liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle) detector with a neutron veto system is designed to better reject neutrons. Two experimental configurations are studied in the present paper: one is for an Xe detector enclosed in a Gd-loaded scintillator and the other one is for an Xe detector placed inside a reactor neutrino detector. The Gd-doped liquid scintillator (or the neutrino detector) is used as a neutron veto device. The neutron backgrounds for the two experimental designs have been estimated using Geant4 simulations. The results show that the neutron backgrounds can decrease to O(0.1) events per year per tonne of liquid Xenon. We calculate the sensitivities to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering. An exposure of one tonne × year could reach a cross-section of about 6 × 10−11 pb

  7. Evaluation of the neutron background in CsI target for WIMP direct detection when using a reactor neutrino detector as a neutron veto system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) detector with a neutron veto system is designed to better reject neutrons. An experimental configuration is studied in the present paper: a WIMP detectors with CsI(Na) target is placed inside a reactor neutrino detector. The neutrino detector is used as a neutron veto device. The neutron background for the experimental design has been estimated using the Geant4 simulation. The results show that the neutron background can decrease to O(0.01) events per year per tonne of CsI(Na). We calculate the sensitivity to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering. An exposure of 1 tonne x year could reach a cross-section of about 3 x 10-11 pb. (orig.)

  8. SuNSCREEN: A cosmic-ray veto detector for capture-reaction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Summing NaI(Tl) detector (SuN) is used in nuclear astrophysics experiments measuring (p,γ) and (α,γ) reactions. The main background in these experiments in the energy region of interest comes from cosmic rays. The Scintillating Cosmic Ray Eliminating Ensemble (SuNSCREEN) was developed to be combined with the SuN detector to increase the sensitivity of reaction cross-section measurements by reducing the cosmic-ray background. SuNSCREEN is a plastic scintillating array consisting of 9 bars, which are positioned in a roof-like configuration above SuN. A significant reduction of the background was observed in the energy region of interest

  9. Measurement of dijet production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Föhlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniel Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanère, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    A measurement of jet activity in the rapidity interval bounded by a dijet system is presented. Events are vetoed if a jet with transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV is found between the two boundary jets. The fraction of dijet events that survive the jet veto is presented for boundary jets that are separated by up to six units of rapidity and with mean transverse momentum 50 < pT(avg) < 500 GeV. The mean multiplicity of jets above the veto scale in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet system is also presented as an alternative method for quantifying perturbative QCD emission. The data are compared to a next-to-leading order plus parton shower prediction from the POWHEG-BOX, an all-order resummation using the HEJ calculation and the PYTHIA, HERWIG++ and ALPGEN event generators. The measurement was performed using pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV using data recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2010.

  10. An F-statistic based multi-detector veto for detector artifacts in continuous-wave gravitational wave data

    OpenAIRE

    Keitel, D.; Prix, R.; Papa, M.; Siddiqi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Continuous gravitational waves (CW) are expected from spinning neutron stars with non-axisymmetric deformations. A network of interferometric detectors (LIGO, Virgo and GEO600) is looking for these signals. They are predicted to be very weak and retrievable only by integration over long observation times. One of the standard methods of CW data analysis is the multi-detector F-statistic. In a typical search, the F-statistic is computed over a range in frequency, spin-down and sky position, and...

  11. The installation of the Gerda muon veto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gerda collaboration aims to determine the half-life of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of 76Ge. Due to the long half life of this decay (T1/2>1025y), the experimental background must be reduced at least to a level of 10-3 counts/(kg.y.keV) in the region around Qββ. Cosmic muons induce a part of this dangerous background and must be detected in order to generate a veto signal. Part of this veto system is a water Cherenkov detector surrounding the cryostat which contains the germanium crystals. The Cherenkov veto was simulated, designed and installed by the astroparticle group in Tuebingen. The veto consists of 66 photomultiplier (8 inch), a calibration and monitoring system, reflective VM2000 foil and the control electronics. In this talk the veto, its design and accomplished installation is presented.

  12. First results of the Gerda muon veto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gerda collaboration aims to determine the half life of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of 76Ge. Due to the long half life of this decay (T1/2>1025 y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10-2 cts/(keV .kg .a) or better in the region around Qββ. Cosmic muons induce a part of this dangerous background and must be vetoed. Part of this veto is a water Cherenkov detector surrounding the cryostat which contains the germanium crystals. This veto was designed and installed by the astroparticle group in Tuebingen. The veto consists of 66 photomultipliers (8 inch), a calibration and monitoring system, reflective VM2000 foil and a DAQ system. In this talk first results from the veto are presented and compared to MC simulations.

  13. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  14. The Veto system of the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OPERA is a neutrino oscillation experiment to search the ντ appearance in the future CNGS beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. A large VETO system, consisting of two 9.6 x 9.2 m2 planes made of glass RPCs, is foreseen to flag the events due to the neutrino interactions with the rock surrounding the OPERA detector. We describe the VETO system, its monitoring system, the glass RPC developed

  15. Measurement of tbar{t} production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at √{s}=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.

    2012-06-01

    A measurement of the jet activity in tbar{t} events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The tbar{t} events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space.

  16. Measurement of $t\\overline{t}$ production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Å kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Å sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Bø rge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jø rgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kennedy, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of the jet activity in ttbar events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The ttbar events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, POWHEG, ALPGEN and SHERPA. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the ...

  17. Determination iodine in biological materials using instrumental neutron activation and anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine is an element of interest in nutritional research. Its lower limit of safe and adequate daily dietary intake for adults varies between 150 and 200 micrograms per day. In the present study, an epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with anti-coincidence counting has been developed for the determination of ppb levels of iodine in individual food items. Typically 200-300 mg of a sample are irradiated for 10 or 20 minutes at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in an epithermal flux of 1x1011 n cm-2 s-1, followed by 1 min decay and then counting for 30 min. The 443-keV gamma-ray of 128I is used for measuring iodine content by anti-coincidence counting. The anti-coincidence spectrometer consists of a 25% HPGe detector surrounded by a 10''x10'' NaI(TI) annulus and a 3''x3'' NaI(TI) plug. This system has a peak-to-Compton ratio of about 650 to 1 for the 661.6-keV photopeak of 137Cs. The Compton background resulting from the scattering of many gamma-rays of energies higher than 443 keV can be reduced by a factor of about 4 using anti-coincidence counting compared to conventional counting. The detection limit for iodine can be improved by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the sample matrix, dead time, position of the annulus and counting geometry among several other factors.The lowest detection limit of 5 ppb can be achieved for low-salt foods. This limit is comparable to that obtained by a preconcentration NAA (PNAA) method. However, a detection limit of 20 ppb is more realistic for samples containing high amounts of Na, Cl and Al. The results obtained for many reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values and those reported by the PNAA method. Details of the methods and results will be reported

  18. Determination iodine in biological materials using instrumental neutron activation and anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.H.; Chatt, A. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Radiochemistry Research Laboratory

    1997-10-01

    Iodine is an element of interest in nutritional research. Its lower limit of safe and adequate daily dietary intake for adults varies between 150 and 200 micrograms per day. In the present study, an epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with anti-coincidence counting has been developed for the determination of ppb levels of iodine in individual food items. Typically 200-300 mg of a sample are irradiated for 10 or 20 minutes at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in an epithermal flux of 1x10{sup 11} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by 1 min decay and then counting for 30 min. The 443-keV gamma-ray of {sup 128}I is used for measuring iodine content by anti-coincidence counting. The anti-coincidence spectrometer consists of a 25% HPGe detector surrounded by a 10``x10`` NaI(TI) annulus and a 3``x3`` NaI(TI) plug. This system has a peak-to-Compton ratio of about 650 to 1 for the 661.6-keV photopeak of {sup 137}Cs. The Compton background resulting from the scattering of many gamma-rays of energies higher than 443 keV can be reduced by a factor of about 4 using anti-coincidence counting compared to conventional counting. The detection limit for iodine can be improved by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the sample matrix, dead time, position of the annulus and counting geometry among several other factors.The lowest detection limit of 5 ppb can be achieved for low-salt foods. This limit is comparable to that obtained by a preconcentration NAA (PNAA) method. However, a detection limit of 20 ppb is more realistic for samples containing high amounts of Na, Cl and Al. The results obtained for many reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values and those reported by the PNAA method. Details of the methods and results will be reported 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Measurements of jet vetoes and azimuthal decorrelations in dijet events produced in pp collisions at √(s) = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Abdallah, J. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (China). Inst. of Physics; Collaboration: The ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2014-11-15

    Additional jet activity in dijet events is measured using pp collisions at ATLAS at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, for jets reconstructed using the anti-k{sub t} algorithm with radius parameter R = 0.6. This is done using variables such as the fraction of dijet events without an additional jet in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet subsystem and correlations between the azimuthal angles of the dijets. They are presented, both with and without a veto on additional jet activity in the rapidity interval, as a function of the scalar average of the transverse momenta of the dijets and of the rapidity interval size. The double differential dijet cross section is also measured as a function of the interval size and the azimuthal angle between the dijets. These variables probe differences in the approach to resummation of large logarithms when performing QCD calculations. The data are compared to POWHEG, interfaced to the PYTHIA 8 and HERWIG parton shower generators, as well as to HEJ with and without interfacing it to the ARIADNE parton shower generator. None of the theoretical predictions agree with the data across the full phase-space considered; however, POWHEG+PYTHIA 8 and HEJ+ARIADNE are found to provide the best agreement with the data. These measurements use the full data sample collected with the ATLAS detector in 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC and correspond to integrated luminosities of 36.1 pb{sup -1} and 4.5 fb{sup -1} for data collected during 2010 and 2011, respectively. (orig.)

  20. Implementation of a veto processing hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the implementation of a piece of general purpose events veto processing hardware, in the form of a custom integrated circuit and a minimum of additional components, for use with pixel-type detectors, in particular those requiring the technique of time-walk correction and multi-trigger association. This work was carried out as a part of the design study for a gamma-ray imager experiment such as the one proposed for the integral spacecraft mission. The design can handle up to 3072 detector elements, grouped into 24 separate detector modules (consisting of up to 128 detector elements each) in addition to a veto shield detector module. The system will be capable of handling a maximum average detector trigger rate of 10 000 triggers/s and veto shield trigger rate of 70 000 triggers/s without saturating the system. Analysis of an operational model of the gamma-ray imager under study results in 1400 valid events s where on average there are 1.75 triggers per event. This will result in data reduction factor of 4. The IC can also perform triggers to events associations thus, further reducing the workload on the rest of the experiment's central data processing system. This study shows that a single ASIC solution is viable using for example a XILINX IC, three 8 k x 8 SRAMs and a single 512 k x 1 bit serial ROM. (orig.)

  1. MC benchmarks for GERDA LAr veto designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless beta decay in 76Ge and is able to directly test the present claim by parts of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration. The experiment started recently its first physics phase with eight enriched detectors, after a 17 month long commissioning period. GERDA operates an array of HPGe detectors in liquid argon (LAr), which acts both as a shield for external backgrounds and as a cryogenic cooling. Furthermore, LAr has the potential to be instrumented and therefore be used as an active veto for background events through the detection of the produced scintillation light. In this talk, Monte Carlo studies for benchmarking and optimizing different LAr veto designs will be presented. LAr scintillates at 128 nm which, combined with the cryogenic temperature in which the detector is operated and its optical properties, poses many challenges in the design of an efficient veto that would help the experiment to reduce the total background level by one order of magnitude, as it is the goal for the second physics phase of the experiment.

  2. Inner Shielding of the COMET Cosmic Veto System

    OpenAIRE

    Markin, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A simulation of neutrons traversing a shield beneath the COMET scintillator strip cosmic-veto counter is accomplished using the Geant4 toolkit. A Geant4 application is written with an appropriate detector construction and a possible spectrum of neutron's energy. The response of scintillator strips to neutrons is studied in detail. A design of the shield is optimized to ensure the time loss concerned with fake veto signals caused by neutrons from muon captures is tolerable. Materials of shield...

  3. Competing Sudakov Veto Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiss, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    We present a way to analyze the distribution produced by a Monte Carlo algorithm. We perform these analyses on several versions of the Sudakov veto algorithm, adding a cutoff, a second variable and competition between emission channels. The analysis allows us to prove that multiple, seemingly different competition algorithms, including those that are currently implemented in most parton showers, lead to the same result. Finally, we test their performance and show that there are significantly faster alternatives to the commonly used algorithms.

  4. The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2016-03-16

    Nuclear recoil events produced by neutron scatters form one of the most important classes of background in WIMP direct detection experiments, as they may produce nuclear recoils that look exactly like WIMP interactions. In DarkSide-50, we both actively suppress and measure the rate of neutron-induced background events using our neutron veto, composed of a boron-loaded liquid scintillator detector within a water Cherenkov detector. This paper is devoted to the description of the neutron veto system of DarkSide-50, including the detector structure, the fundamentals of event reconstruction and data analysis, and basic performance parameters.

  5. The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear recoil events produced by neutron scatters form one of the most important classes of background in WIMP direct detection experiments, as they may produce nuclear recoils that look exactly like WIMP interactions. In DarkSide-50, we both actively suppress and measure the rate of neutron-induced background events using our neutron veto, composed of a boron-loaded liquid scintillator detector within a water Cherenkov detector. This paper is devoted to the description of the neutron veto system of DarkSide-50, including the detector structure, the fundamentals of event reconstruction and data analysis, and basic performance parameters

  6. The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agnes, P; Albuquerque, I F M; Alexander, T; Alton, A K; Arisaka, K; Back, H O; Baldin, B; Biery, K; Bonfini, G; Bossa, M; Bottino, B; Brigatti, A; Brodsky, J; Budano, F; Bussino, S; Cadeddu, M; Cadonati, L; Cadoni, M; Calaprice, F; Canci, N; Candela, A; Cao, H; Cariello, M; Carlini, M; Catalanotti, S; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; Cocco, A G; Covone, G; Crippa, L; D'Angelo, D; D'Incecco, M; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; De Deo, M; De Vincenzi, M; Derbin, A; Devoto, A; Di Eusanio, F; Di Pietro, G; Edkins, E; Empl, A; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Fomenko, K; Foster, G; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Giganti, C; Goretti, A M; Granato, F; Grandi, L; Gromov, M; Guan, M; Guardincerri, Y; Hackett, B R; Herner, K R; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I; Johnson, T; Jollet, C; Keeter, K; Kendziora, C L; Kobychev, V; Koh, G; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kubankin, A; Li, X; Lissia, M; Lombardi, P; Luitz, S; Ma, Y; Machulin, I N; Mandarano, A; Mari, S M; Maricic, J; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Meyers, P D; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Montanari, D; Monte, A; Montuschi, M; Monzani, M E; Mosteiro, P; Mount, B J; Muratova, V N; Musico, P; Napolitano, J; Nelson, A; Odrowski, S; Orsini, M; Ortica, F; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Parmeggiano, S; Pelczar, K; Pelliccia, N; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Pordes, S; Pugachev, D A; Qian, H; Randle, K; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Reinhold, B; Renshaw, A L; Romani, A; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Rountree, S D; Sablone, D; Saggese, P; Saldanha, R; Sands, W; Sangiorgio, S; Savarese, C; Segreto, E; Semenov, D A; Shields, E; Singh, P N; Skorokhvatov, M D; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Stanford, C; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Tatarowicz, J; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Trinchese, P; Unzhakov, E V; Vishneva, A; Vogelaar, B; Wada, M; Walker, S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Watson, A W; Westerdale, S; Wilhelmi, J; Wojcik, M M; Xiang, X; Xu, J; Yang, C; Yoo, J; Zavatarelli, S; Zec, A; Zhong, W; Zhu, C; Zuzel, G

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear recoil events produced by neutron scatters form one of the most important classes of background in WIMP direct detection experiments, as they may produce nuclear recoils that look exactly like WIMP interactions. In DarkSide-50, we both actively suppress and measure the rate of neutron-induced background events using our neutron veto, composed of a boron-loaded liquid scintillator detector within a water Cherenkov detector. This paper is devoted to the description of the neutron veto system of DarkSide-50, including the detector structure, the fundamentals of event reconstruction and data analysis, and basic performance parameters.

  7. Performance and improvements of the double Chooz inner muon vetos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double Chooz is a reactor neutrino experiment, which aims to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ13 with high precision. Therefore a good knowledge of all background processes is mandatory. For this purpose the Double Chooz detectors are equipped with an active liquid scintillator based muon veto system, the Inner Veto. This veto was designed and installed by the University of Tuebingen. This thesis begins with a short introduction to the physical aspects of the neutrino oscillations. In the following chapter several reactor neutrino experiments are presented with the focus on the Double Chooz experiment. Results of Monte Carlo simulation testing possible improvements for the near detector are shown as well. The charge spectrum of the Inner Veto of the far detector is compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The total event is determined and contrasted with the estimation of dark noise of the used PMTs and radioactive impurities. The azimuth and polar angle distributions of muons reconstructed by two individual algorithms are compared to Monte Carlo simulation. The time distribution of muon classified events before neutrino candidates is analysed, and a new veto time window after muons is presented. The time stability of scintillators in the far detector is investigated, and possible influences to it are tested. At the end the reactor neutrino experiment JUNO is presented, and the results of a performed Monte Carlo simulation are shown, in which the dimensions of the JUNO-water shielding was varied to minimise the amount of muon induced neutron captures in the target region.

  8. Exploring the capabilities of the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the INTEGRAL spectrometer to study solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Gasén, Rosa; Tatischeff, Vincent; Vilmer, Nicole; Hamadache, Clarisse; Klein, Karl-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    INTEGRAL is a hard X-ray/gamma-ray observatory for astrophysics (ESA) covering photon energies from 15 keV to 10 MeV. It was launched in 2002 and since then the BGO detectors of the Anti-Coincidence shield (ACS) of the SPI spectrometer have detected many hard X-ray (HXR) bursts from the Sun, producing lightcurves at photon energies above ~ 100 keV. The spacecraft has a highly elliptical orbit, providing a long uninterrupted observing time (about 90% of the orbital period) with nearly constant background due to the reduction of the crossing time of the Earth's radiation belts. However, due to technical constraints, INTEGRAL cannot point to the Sun and high-energy solar photons are always detected in non-standard observation conditions. To make the data useful for solar studies, we have undertaken a major effort to specify the observing conditions through Monte-Carlo simulations of the response of ACS for several selected flares. We check the performance of the model employed for the Monte-Carlo simulations usi...

  9. Rapidity-Dependent Jet Vetoes

    CERN Document Server

    Gangal, Shireen; Tackmann, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Jet vetoes are a prominent part of the signal selection in various analyses at the LHC. We discuss jet vetoes for which the transverse momentum of a jet is weighted by a smooth function of the jet rapidity. With a suitable choice of the rapidity-weighting function, such jet-veto variables can be factorized and resummed allowing for precise theory predictions. They thus provide a complementary way to divide phase space into exclusive jet bins. In particular, they provide a natural and theoretically clean way to implement a tight veto on central jets with the veto constraint getting looser for jets at increasingly forward rapidities. We mainly focus our discussion on the 0-jet case in color-singlet processes, using Higgs production through gluon fusion as a concrete example. For one of our jet-veto variables we compare the resummed theory prediction at NLL'+NLO with the recent differential cross section measurement by the ATLAS experiment in the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ channel, finding good agreement. We also propos...

  10. Measurements of jet vetoes and azimuthal decorrelations in dijet events produced in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Additional jet activity in dijet events is measured using $pp$ collisions at ATLAS at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, for jets reconstructed using the anti-kt algorithm with radius parameter R=0.6. This is done using variables such as the fraction of dijet events without an additional jet in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet subsystem and correlations between the azimuthal angles of the dijets. They are presented, both with and without a veto on additional jet activity in the rapidity interval, as a function of the mean transverse momentum of the dijets and of the rapidity interval size. The double differential dijet cross section is also measured as a function of the interval size and the azimuthal angle between the dijets. These variables probe differences in the approach to resummation of large logarithms when performing QCD calculations. The data are compared to POWHEG, interfaced to the PYTHIA 8 and HERWIG parton shower generators, as well as to HEJ with and without interfacing it to the ARIAD...

  11. Optimizing Vetoes for Gravitational-wave Transient Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essick, R.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2014-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational-wave detectors like LIGO, GEO600 and Virgo record a surplus of information above and beyond possible gravitational-wave events. These auxiliary channels capture information about the state of the detector and its surroundings which can be used to infer potential terrestrial noise sources of some gravitational-wave-like events. We present an algorithm addressing the ordering (or equivalently optimizing) of such information from auxiliary systems in gravitational-wave detectors to establish veto conditions in searches for gravitational-wave transients. The procedure was used to identify vetoes for searches for unmodelled transients by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations during their science runs from 2005 through 2007. In this work we present the details of the algorithm; we also use a limited amount of data from LIGO's past runs in order to examine the method, compare it with other methods, and identify its potential to characterize the instruments themselves. We examine the dependence of Receiver Operating Characteristic curves on the various parameters of the veto method and the implementation on real data. We find that the method robustly determines important auxiliary channels, ordering them by the apparent strength of their correlations to the gravitational-wave channel. This list can substantially reduce the background of noise events in the gravitational-wave data. In this way it can identify the source of glitches in the detector as well as assist in establishing confidence in the detection of gravitational-wave transients.

  12. IceVeto. An extension of IceTop to veto air showers for neutrino astronomy with IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IceCube is the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the southern hemisphere. This motivates a significant extension of IceTop. First estimates indicate that such a veto detector will more than double the discovery potential of current point source analyses. Here, we present the motivation and capabilities of different technologies based on simulations and measurements.

  13. IceVeto. An extension of IceTop to veto air showers for neutrino astronomy with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Kemp, Julian; Raedel, Leif; Rongen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Hansmann, Bengt; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University, Physikalische Institut III b (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceCube is the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the southern hemisphere. This motivates a significant extension of IceTop. First estimates indicate that such a veto detector will more than double the discovery potential of current point source analyses. Here, we present the motivation and capabilities of different technologies based on simulations and measurements.

  14. Determination of trace elements in scallop and fish otolith by instrumental neutron activation analysis using anti-coincidence and coincidence counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element concentrations in scallop reference material and fish otolith certified reference materials prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Nine aliquots of scallop sample (ca. 252∼507 mg) and five aliquots of fish otolith sample (ca. 502 ∼ 988 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 1012 n cm-2s-1 (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 1012n cm-2s-1 (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional γ-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence γ-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI (Tl) detector to determine as many trace elements as possible with high sensitivity. The concentrations of 34 elements of the NIES No.15 scallop reference material and 16 elements of the NIES No.22 fish otolith CRM were determined. Using the coincidence counting method to determine Se, Ba and Hf, the lower limit of the determination was improved by 2 times compared with the conventional counting method. (author)

  15. Prototyping an Active Neutron Veto for SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Robert [Southern Methodist U.; Loer, Ben [Fermilab

    2015-08-17

    Neutrons, originating cosmogenically or from radioactive decays, can produce signals in dark matter detectors that are indistinguishable from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). To combat this background for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, we are investigating designs for an active neutron veto within the constrained space of the compact SuperCDMS passive shielding. The current design employs an organic liquid scintillator mixed with an agent to enhance thermal neutron captures, with the scintillation light collected using wavelength-shifting fibers and read out by silicon photo-multipliers. We will describe the proposed veto and its predicted efficiency in detail and give some recent results from our R&D and prototyping efforts.

  16. Prototyping an active neutron veto for SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Robert [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Loer, Ben [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Neutrons, originating cosmogenically or from radioactive decays, can produce signals in dark matter detectors that are indistinguishable from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). To combat this background for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, we are investigating designs for an active neutron veto within the constrained space of the compact SuperCDMS passive shielding. The current design employs an organic liquid scintillator mixed with an agent to enhance thermal neutron captures, with the scintillation light collected using wavelength-shifting fibers and read out by silicon photo-multipliers. We will describe the proposed veto and its predicted efficiency in detail and give some recent results from our R&D and prototyping efforts.

  17. Long sandwich modules for photon veto detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long lead-scintillator sandwich modules developed for the BNL experiment KOPIO are described. The individual 4 m long module consists of 15 layers of 7 mm thick extruded scintillator and 15 layers of 1 mm lead absorber. Readout is implemented via WLS fibers glued into grooves in a scintillator with 7 mm spacing and viewed from both ends by the phototubes. Time resolution of 300 ps for cosmic MIPs was obtained. Light output stability monitored for 2 years shows no degradation beyond the measurement errors. A 4 m long C-bent sandwich module was also manufactured and tested

  18. The Performance of the Muon Veto of the GERDA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, K; Grabmayr, P; Hegai, A; Jochum, J; Knapp, M; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Ritter, F; Schmitt, C; Schütz, A -K; Jitnikov, I; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Zinatulina, D

    2016-01-01

    Low background experiments need a suppression of cosmogenically induced events. The GERDA experiment located at LNGS is searching for the neutrinless double beta decay of $^{76}$Ge. It is equipped with an active muon veto the main part of which is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the watertank surrounding the GERDA cryostat. With this system 806 live days have been recorded, 491 days were combined muon-germanium data. A muon detection efficiency of $\\varepsilon_{\\mu d}=(99.935\\pm0.015)$ \\% was found in a Monte Carlo simulation for the muons depositing energy in the germanium detectors. By examining coincident muon-germanium events a rejection efficiency of $\\varepsilon_{\\mu r}=(99.2_{-0.4}^{+0.3})$ \\% was found. Without veto condition the muons by themselves would cause a background index of $\\textrm{BI}_{\\mu}=(3.16 \\pm 0.85)\\times10^{-3}$ cts/(keV$\\cdot$kg$\\cdot$yr) at $Q_{\\beta\\beta}$.

  19. Veto Violence - Violence Education Tools Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VetoViolence.cdc.gov has been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide grantees and partners with access to training and tools...

  20. Installation du détecteur NA62 Large Angle Veto

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    In May 2012, the NA62 collaboration has installed the first eight (out of 12) Large Angle Veto detectors for the accurate identification of photons. These subdetectors will re-use 3000 lead glass crystals with attached photomultipliers from the OPAL experiment at LEP – CERN’s former accelerator.

  1. Exploring the Capabilities of the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Spectrometer to Study Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gasén, R.; Kiener, J.; Tatischeff, V.; Vilmer, N.; Hamadache, C.; Klein, K.-L.

    2014-05-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is a European Space Agency hard X-ray/ γ-ray observatory for astrophysics, covering photon energies from 15 keV to 10 MeV. It was launched in 2002, and since then the Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors of the Anti-Coincidence Shield (ACS) of the Spectrometer on INTEGRAL (SPI) have detected many hard X-ray (HXR) bursts from the Sun, producing light curves at photon energies above ≈ 100 keV. The spacecraft has a highly elliptical orbit, providing long uninterrupted observing (about 90 % of the orbital period) with nearly constant background due to the shorter time needed to cross Earth's radiation belts. However, because of technical constraints, INTEGRAL cannot be pointed at the Sun, and high-energy solar photons are always detected in nonstandard observation conditions. To make the data useable for solar studies, we have undertaken a major effort to specify the observing conditions through Monte Carlo simulations of the response of ACS for several selected flares. We checked the performance of the model employed for the Monte Carlo simulations using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations for the same sample of solar flares. We conclude that although INTEGRAL was not designed to perform solar observations, ACS is a useful instrument for solar-flare research. In particular, its relatively large effective area allows determining good-quality HXR/ γ-ray light curves for X- and M-class solar flares and, in some cases, probably also for C-class flares.

  2. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m3 of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m3 (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 103 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10-2 cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural 42Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  3. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-04-13

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m{sup 3} of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m{sup 3} (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  4. Vetoes for inspiral triggers in LIGO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Nelson [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Shawhan, Peter [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gonzalez, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2004-10-21

    Presented is a summary of studies by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration's Inspiral Analysis Group on the development of possible vetoes to be used in the evaluation of data from the first two LIGO science data runs. Numerous environmental monitor signals and interferometer control channels have been analysed in order to characterize the interferometers' performance. The results of studies on selected data segments are provided in this paper. The vetoes used in the compact binary inspiral analyses of LIGO's S1 and S2 science data runs are presented and discussed.

  5. Design, simulation and construction of the GERDA-muon veto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) is a experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. This very rare weakly interacting process is predicted to occur if the neutrino exhibits a mass and is a Majorana particle; i.e. it is its own antiparticle. Although the double beta decay with emission of two neutrinos has been found in several nuclei, there is at this moment only a part of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration claiming to have observed the neutrinoless double beta decay. The best limit for the half life currently is T1/2 > 1.2.1025 y. Gerda will expose about 15 kg.y of enriched germanium detectors from the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX crystals in phase I. In this phase, it will be able to test the claim within one year, due to reduced background by a factor 10. In phase II about 100 kg.y of data will be accumulated, leading to T1/2 > 2.1026 y due to an additional reduction of the background by a factor of 10. For a high sensitivity at these half lives, it is necessary to detect the corresponding rare events. Therefore background reduction to a rate of 10-3 (counts)/(keV.kg.year) is of utmost importance. Therefore different background identification methods, like pulseshape analysis or a muon veto will be used. In this work, the development of the Cherenkov muon veto detectors is presented. First design studies will be shown, including extensive Monte-Carlo simulations. These simulations were also used to optimize the trigger conditions of the data acquisition, to detect all muons, that cause an energy deposition in the germanium detectors. Finally the on site construction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy will be described. (orig.)

  6. Determination of selenium in foods by pseudo-cyclic neutron activation and anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pseudo-cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis method in conjunction with anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry (PC-INAA-AC) has been developed for the determination of ppb levels of Se. The method consists of repetitions of the irradiation-decay-counting cycles of a sample using the rapid transfer cyclic system at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor facility. The 162-keV γ-ray of 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.4 s) has been found to be highly selective. The precision and detection limits are significantly improved and the total experimental time drastically reduced by this method. Detection limits are between 2 and 9 ng. The accuracy of the method has been evaluated by analyzing a number of nutritional reference materials. The PC-INAA-AC method has been applied for the routine determination of Se to the composites of 135 food samples with values ranging from as low as 1 ng g-1 for tea to 1,045 ng g-1 for organ meats on fresh weight basis. (author)

  7. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the Gerda experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium detectors are operated in a cryostat with 65 m{sup 3} of liquid argon (LAr). To reach the aspired background index of ≤10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). A light instrumentation of LAr installed in the LArGe test facility has demonstrated that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. Based on these results, Gerda pursues several options for the light instrumentation, which have to be compatible with the stringent radiopurity requirements of the experiment and should provide a significant suppression of the background in the region of interest around Q{sub ββ} at 2039 keV. This talk gives an account of the competing design options under investigation in the Gerda collaboration. The design options using photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are discussed, together with their expected performance from Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the progress of development is reported, along with the design criteria for light instrumentation in Gerda.

  8. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the Gerda experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. Bare germanium detectors are operated in a cryostat with 65 m3 of liquid argon (LAr). To reach the aspired background index of ≤10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). A light instrumentation of LAr installed in the LArGe test facility has demonstrated that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. Based on these results, Gerda pursues several options for the light instrumentation, which have to be compatible with the stringent radiopurity requirements of the experiment and should provide a significant suppression of the background in the region of interest around Qββ at 2039 keV. This talk gives an account of the competing design options under investigation in the Gerda collaboration. The design options using photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are discussed, together with their expected performance from Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the progress of development is reported, along with the design criteria for light instrumentation in Gerda.

  9. A $\\chi^2$ veto for continuous wave searches

    CERN Document Server

    de la Jordana, Llucia Sancho

    2008-01-01

    $\\chi^2$ vetoes are commonly used in searching for gravitational waves, in particular for broad-band signals, but they can also be applied to narrow-band continuous wave signals, such as those expected from rapidly rotating neutron stars. In this paper we present a $\\chi^2$ veto adapted to the Hough transform searches for continuous gravitational wave signals; we characterize the $\\chi^2$-significance plane for different frequency bands; and discuss the expected performance of this veto in LIGO analysis.

  10. A χ2 veto for continuous gravitational wave searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    χ2 vetoes are commonly used in searching for gravitational waves, in particular for broadband signals, but they can also be applied to narrowband continuous wave signals, such as those expected from rapidly rotating neutron stars. In this paper, we present a χ2 veto adapted to the Hough transform searches for continuous gravitational wave signals; we characterize the χ2 significance plane for different frequency bands and discuss the expected performance of this veto in LIGO analysis

  11. PMT series tests for the XENON1T water Cherenkov muon veto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, Christopher [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: XENON-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The XENON1T experiment will achieve a sensitivity for the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering cross section of 2 . 10{sup -47} cm{sup 2} for the direct detection of Dark Matter, requiring a background reduction of two orders of magnitude compared to its predecessor XENON100. Background consists of neutrons induced by cosmic ray muons penetrating the rock of the LNGS Underground laboratory, where the experiment will be located. Neutrons hitting the detector produce WIMP like signals. They can be vetoed during the passage of their parent muon through a 750 m{sup 3} Water Cherenkov Muon Veto surrounding the detector. To exploit the water as a Cherenkov medium the system will be equipped with R5912 high quantum efficiency 8'' Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) by Hamamatsu detecting the produced Cherenkov light. 84 PMTs will be arranged equally spaced in rings located at the top, bottom and lateral area of the water tank. To inspect the functionality of each PMT successive tests of their characteristics have to be performed, including estimation of basic parameters like dark rate and gain, as well as more in-depth properties like the number and position of afterpulses, caused by gaseous impurities in the PMTs evacuated glass bulb. We provide an overview of the Muon Veto system and the PMT performances.

  12. PMT series tests for the XENON1T water Cherenkov muon veto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The XENON1T experiment will achieve a sensitivity for the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering cross section of 2 . 10-47 cm2 for the direct detection of Dark Matter, requiring a background reduction of two orders of magnitude compared to its predecessor XENON100. Background consists of neutrons induced by cosmic ray muons penetrating the rock of the LNGS Underground laboratory, where the experiment will be located. Neutrons hitting the detector produce WIMP like signals. They can be vetoed during the passage of their parent muon through a 750 m3 Water Cherenkov Muon Veto surrounding the detector. To exploit the water as a Cherenkov medium the system will be equipped with R5912 high quantum efficiency 8'' Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) by Hamamatsu detecting the produced Cherenkov light. 84 PMTs will be arranged equally spaced in rings located at the top, bottom and lateral area of the water tank. To inspect the functionality of each PMT successive tests of their characteristics have to be performed, including estimation of basic parameters like dark rate and gain, as well as more in-depth properties like the number and position of afterpulses, caused by gaseous impurities in the PMTs evacuated glass bulb. We provide an overview of the Muon Veto system and the PMT performances.

  13. Characterization of an IceTop tank for the IceCube surface extension IceVeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Julian; Auffenberg, Jan; Hansmann, Bengt; Rongen, Martin; Stahlberg, Martin; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceTop is an air-shower detector located at the South Pole on the surface above the IceCube detector. It consists of 81 detector stations with two Cherenkov tanks each. The tanks are filled with clear ice and instrumented with two photomultipliers. IceTop detects cosmic-ray induced air-showers above an energy threshold of ∝300 TeV. Muons and neutrinos from these air-showers are the main background for astrophysical neutrino searches with IceCube. The usage of IceTop to veto air-showers largely reduces this background in the field of view. To enlarge the field of view an extension of the surface detector, IceVeto, is planned. Therefore, we investigate the properties of an original IceTop tank as a laboratory reference for the development of new detection module designs. First results of these measurements are presented.

  14. Veto cell suppression mechanisms in the prevention of allograft rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, I M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    -known graft tolerizing effect of pretransplant donor blood transfusions in kidney graft recipients. A prerequisite for a veto-active environment in vivo is the establishment of lymphoid microchimerism, in which veto-active donor and recipient cells mutually downregulate potential alloaggression....

  15. Jet veto clustering logarithms beyond leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many experimental analyses separate events into exclusive jet bins, using a jet algorithm to cluster the final state and then veto on jets. Jet clustering induces logarithmic dependence on the jet radius R in the cross section for exclusive jet bins, a dependence that is poorly controlled due to the non-global nature of the clustering. At jet radii of experimental interest, the leading order (LO) clustering effects are numerically significant, but the higher order effects are currently unknown. We rectify this situation by calculating the most important part of the next-to-leading order (NLO) clustering logarithms of R for any 0-jet process, which enter as O(αs3) corrections to the cross section. The calculation blends subtraction methods for NLO calculations with factorization properties of QCD and soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). We compare the size of the known LO and new NLO clustering logarithms and find that the impact of the NLO terms on the 0-jet cross section in Higgs production is small. This brings clustering effects under better control and may be used to improve uncertainty estimates on cross sections with a jet veto

  16. The performance of the Muon Veto of the G erda experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, K.; Falkenstein, R.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Knapp, M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Ritter, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schütz, A.-K.; Jitnikov, I.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Zinatulina, D.

    2016-05-01

    Low background experiments need a suppression of cosmogenically induced events. The Gerda experiment located at Lngs is searching for the 0ν β β decay of ^{76}Ge. It is equipped with an active muon veto the main part of which is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the Gerda cryostat. With this system 806 live days have been recorded, 491 days were combined muon-germanium data. A muon detection efficiency of \\varepsilon _\\upmu d=(99.935± 0.015) % was found in a Monte Carlo simulation for the muons depositing energy in the germanium detectors. By examining coincident muon-germanium events a rejection efficiency of \\varepsilon _{\\upmu r}=(99.2_{-0.4}^{+0.3}) % was found. Without veto condition the muons by themselves would cause a background index of {BI}_{μ }=(3.16 ± 0.85)× 10^{-3} cts/(keV\\cdot kg\\cdot year) at Q_{β β }.

  17. The Large Angle Photon Veto System for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, A; Constantini, F; D’Agostini, G; Di Filippo, D; Fantechi, R; Gallorini, S; Giudici, S; Leonardi, E; Mannelli, I; Massarotti, P; Moulson, M; Napolitano, M; Palladino, V; Raffaelli, F; Raggi, M; Saracino, G; Serra, M; Spadaro, T; Valente, P; Venditti, S

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims at measuring-100 events of the very rare decay K+ →π +ννˉ (BR∼8.5xlO∼10). It poses stringent requirements on PID capabilities to reject the overwhelming π+π0 (63%) and Kμ2(21%) backgrounds. The photon veto system must provide a rejection factor of 10∼8 on π0 decays. As a main γ veto detector, the NA48 liquid Kripton calorimeter will be used. To have full geometrical acceptance up to 50 mr, a set of 12 veto stations should be placed along the vacuum decay tank, with an inefficiency <10∼4 in a wide energy range (200 MeV-35 GeV). Good energy resolution (∼10% at 1 GeV) for threshold definition, good time resolution (∼1 ns) to be used at the trigger level, sensitivity to MIP for calibration with muons of the beam halo are needed. A moderate segmentation in the azimuthal angle is desirable, for reducing the counting rate and providing information on the γ direction. We performed an intense R&D program on three solutions: “spaghetti” calorimeter...

  18. Line-item veto may pass this month

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. House and Senate Republicans have cleared the way for legislation to give the President the power of a line-item-veto in time for the 1998 budget season.The line-item veto, as proposed, would allow the President to remove from appropriations bills selected appropriations items, new entitlement spending, or narrowly targeted tax breaks. Once a line item is cut from the budget, Congress would have to pass a separate appropriations bill for that individual item; that new, separate bill would then be subject to the traditional Presidential veto.

  19. A new type of RPC for the VETO of JUNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, B.; Wang, Y.; Guo, B.; Zhu, W.; Li, Y.; Cheng, J.

    2014-10-01

    The capability of covering very large areas at low cost, besides showing excellent performance in many aspects, motivated the application of RPCs to Neutrino physics research in experiments such as Daya Bay neutrino experiment. However, some of the traditional bakelite RPCs cannot work well in these hash underground environments. This paper mainly describes a new type of RPC for the VETO detector of JUNO. It is developed with thin float glass, and a special necklace spacer is designed to keep the gap uniformity. The RPC is sealed in a gas tight box, so it will not be affected directly by ambient environment and it can work well in humid condition underground. A one-dimensional and a two-dimensional readout RPC prototypes have been developed and tested in our lab. The results show that the detection efficiency can reach as high as 98% and the noise rate is less than 1 Hz/cm2 both in the avalanche mode and streamer mode. The dark current is much lower than the traditional Bakelite RPC. Some details of the structure and performance of the new type of RPC are all described in this paper.

  20. A new type of RPC for the VETO of JUNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of covering very large areas at low cost, besides showing excellent performance in many aspects, motivated the application of RPCs to Neutrino physics research in experiments such as Daya Bay neutrino experiment. However, some of the traditional bakelite RPCs cannot work well in these hash underground environments. This paper mainly describes a new type of RPC for the VETO detector of JUNO. It is developed with thin float glass, and a special necklace spacer is designed to keep the gap uniformity. The RPC is sealed in a gas tight box, so it will not be affected directly by ambient environment and it can work well in humid condition underground. A one-dimensional and a two-dimensional readout RPC prototypes have been developed and tested in our lab. The results show that the detection efficiency can reach as high as 98% and the noise rate is less than 1 Hz/cm2 both in the avalanche mode and streamer mode. The dark current is much lower than the traditional Bakelite RPC. Some details of the structure and performance of the new type of RPC are all described in this paper

  1. IceVeto: Extended PeV neutrino astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan [Physikalisches Institut IIIB RWTH Aachen D-52056, Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    IceCube, the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the South Pole, recently reported evidence of an astrophysical neutrino flux extending to PeV energies in the Southern Hemisphere. This observation raises the question of how the sensitivity in this energy range could be further increased. In the down-going sector, in IceCube's case the Southern Hemisphere, backgrounds from atmospheric muons and neutrinos pose a challenge to the identification of an astrophysical neutrino flux. The IceCube analysis, that led to the evidence for astrophysical neutrinos, is based on an in-ice veto strategy for background rejection. One possibility available to IceCube is the concept of an extended surface detector, IceVeto, which could allow the rejection of a large fraction of atmospheric backgrounds, primarily for muons from cosmic ray (CR) air showers as well as from neutrinos in the same air showers. Building on the experience of IceTop/IceCube, possibly the most cost-effective and sensitive way to build IceVeto is as an extension of the IceTop detector, with simple photomultiplier based detector modules for CR air shower detection. Initial simulations and estimates indicate that such a veto detector will significantly increase the sensitivity to an astrophysical flux of ν{sub μ} induced muon tracks in the Southern Hemisphere compared to current analyses. Here we present the motivation and capabilities based on initial simulations. Conceptual ideas for a simplified surface array will be discussed briefly.

  2. Jet veto systematics in the WW decay channel of the Higgs boson search with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The tt- production is contributing a large fraction of the background in the WW channel. It can be drastically reduced with a jet veto. Therefore detailed studies of the jet systematics of the tt- pair production and the impact on the Higgs search are needed and will be discussed. These studies have been carried out using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response. (author)

  3. Item Vetoes and Attempts to Override Them in Multiparty Legislatures Vetos parciales e intentos de insistencia en legislaturas multipartidistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Palanza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamics of vetoes and veto overrides in the context of a multiparty legislature using an original dataset from the period 1983–2007 in Argentina. We argue that the President can use an “item” or “partial” veto to selectively delete articles, while keeping enough distributive goods in the bill to break up the coalition responsible for its passage, thereby eliminating support for an override. Our research reveals that total vetoes – which affect all legislators equally – are more likely to be overridden than partial vetoes. Contradicting the received wisdom that in multiparty legislatures override attempts are more likely under a divided government, we find that override attempts are more likely in plurality governments. We use case analyses to illustrate the main arguments developed in this paper.El trabajo estudia las dinámicas desatadas por la práctica del veto presidencial e insistencias del congreso, en el contexto de legislaturas multipartidarias, a través del análisis de una base de datos original que abarca el período 1983-2007 en Argentina. El trabajo argumenta que el presidente puede usar el veto parcial para quitar del texto, en forma selectiva, artículos puntuales, dejando al mismo tiempo en el texto bienes distributivos suficientes como para romper la coalición responsable de la aprobación del proyecto, de manera tal de eliminar la posibilidad de una insistencia. La investigación revela que los vetos totales, que afectan por igual a todos los legisladores, son más factibles de ser insistidos que los vetos parciales. En contra de lo sostenido al momento acerca de que en legislaturas multipartidarias los intentos de insistencia son más factibles bajo gobierno dividido, este trabajo encuentra que son más factibles cuando el gobierno cuenta con al menos una pluralidad en una de las cámaras. Además del análisis cuantitativo, presentamos estudios de casos para ilustrar los argumentos

  4. Determination of iodine in biological materials by pseudo-cyclic epithermal INAA using anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry and estimation of expanded uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) technique in conjunction with anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry (AC) has been applied for the determination of ppm to ppb levels of iodine in biological materials containing high levels of Al, Br, Cl, K, Mn, and Na. Both conventional EINAA-AC and pseudo-cyclic EINAA-AC (PC-EINAA-AC) methods using a combination of Cd and B filters have been developed using Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) facility. The expanded uncertainties (EU), at about 95% confidence level, for iodine in biological materials by EINAA-AC varied between 6 and 10%. The advantages of the non-destructive PC-EINAA-AC method has been successfully demonstrated by analyzing the NIST Pine Needles (SRM 1575) containing a low amount of iodine in presence of high quantities of Mn and other interfering elements where an iodine content of 92.8 μg kg-1 with an EU of 6.1 μg kg-1 and a detection limit of 40 μg kg-1 has been obtained at the end of fourth cycle. (author)

  5. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deporzio, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and scintillating bolometer vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Modified Zinc Molybdate Bolometers are used to produce scintillation light when stimulated by alpha background. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. Results are used to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications on bolometer searches.

  6. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deporzio, Nicholas; Cuore Collaboration

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and Cherenkov radiation vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Quantum dot based liquid scintillator is similarly bombarded to produce a background induced scintillation light. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. These findings are extrapolated to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications to bolometer searches. Effects of these techniques on experiment duration and signal-background ratio are discussed.

  7. The DarkSide-50 outer detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D’Angelo, D.; D’Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Aldo, Ianni; Andrea, Ianni; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; DSkorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.; The DarkSide Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    DarkSide-50 is a dark matter detection experiment searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), in Gran Sasso National Laboratory. For experiments like DarkSide-50, neutrons are one of the primary backgrounds that can mimic WIMP signals. The experiment consists of three nested detectors: a liquid argon time projection chamber surrounded by two outer detectors. The outermost detector is a 10 m by 11 m cylindrical water Cherenkov detector with 80 PMTs, designed to provide shielding and muon vetoing. Inside the water Cherenkov detector is the 4 m diameter spherical boron-loaded liquid scintillator veto, with a cocktail of pseudocumene, trimethyl borate, and PPO wavelength shifter, designed to provide shielding, neutron vetoing, and in situ measurements of the TPC backgrounds. We present design and performance details of the DarkSide-50 outer detectors.

  8. To Control the Abuses of Government: The Veto and the Separation of Powers. A Guide for Discussion of Proposals to Institute Item and Legislative Veto Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Alice; Henze, Mary L.

    A discussion guide, one of a series on constitutional reform issues by The Jefferson Foundation as part of The Jefferson Meeting on the Constitution project, examines proposals to institute item and legislative veto power. The first section discusses the historical background surrounding the formative debate on veto legislation. The separation of…

  9. Transnational Veto Players and the Practice of Financial Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Policy processes in transnational settings are shaped by actors whose approval and consent are required for reform to take place. These ‘transnational veto players’ frame and delimit policy options. The concept of ‘transnational veto players’ is developed through an empirical analysis of global...... reforms in the regulatory treatment of large financial institutions deemed ‘too big to fail’. Actors debating and developing policy on ‘too big to fail’ may have formal defined constituencies, as regulators, academics or lobbying organisations, but in their transnational interactions they are also...... informed by a diffuse constituency of peers through their multiple associations within policy communities. These interactions determine which policy ideas are permissible and how they are adopted. The ‘too big to fail’ case shows how reform activity to curtail the risks posed by large financial...

  10. Transnational Veto Players and the Practice of Financial Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    Policy processes in transnational settings are shaped by actors whose approval and consent are required for reform to take place. These ‘transnational veto players’ frame and delimit policy options. The concept of ‘transnational veto players’ is developed through an empirical analysis of global...... reforms in the regulatory treatment of large financial institutions deemed ‘too big to fail’. Actors debating and developing policy on ‘too big to fail’ may have formal defined constituencies, as regulators, academics or lobbying organisations, but in their transnational interactions they are also...... informed by a diffuse constituency of peers through their multiple associations within policy communities. These interactions determine which policy ideas are permissible and how they are adopted. The ‘too big to fail’ case shows how reform activity to curtail the risks posed by large financial...

  11. Conceptual design and simulation of a water Cherenkov muon veto for the XENON1T experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Auger, M.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Behrens, A.; Beltrame, P.; Bokeloh, K.; Breskin, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Colijn, A. P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fulgione, W.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Le Calloch, M.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lung, K.; Lyashenko, A.; MacMullin, S.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani Paras, D.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Morana, G.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pantic, E.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Vitells, O.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-11-01

    XENON is a dark matter direct detection project, consisting of a time projection chamber (TPC) filled with liquid xenon as detection medium. The construction of the next generation detector, XENON1T, is presently taking place at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. It aims at a sensitivity to spin-independent cross sections of 2 · 10-47 c 2 for WIMP masses around 50 GeV2, which requires a background reduction by two orders of magnitude compared to XENON100, the current generation detector. An active system that is able to tag muons and muon-induced backgrounds is critical for this goal. A water Cherenkov detector of ~ 10 m height and diameter has been therefore developed, equipped with 8 inch photomultipliers and cladded by a reflective foil. We present the design and optimization study for this detector, which has been carried out with a series of Monte Carlo simulations. The muon veto will reach very high detection efficiencies for muons (>99.5%) and showers of secondary particles from muon interactions in the rock (>70%). Similar efficiencies will be obtained for XENONnT, the upgrade of XENON1T, which will later improve the WIMP sensitivity by another order of magnitude. With the Cherenkov water shield studied here, the background from muon-induced neutrons in XENON1T is negligible.

  12. Stable Coalition Structures in Simple Games with Veto Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ciftci, B.B.; Dimitrov, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study hedonic coalition formation games in which players' preferences over coalitions are induced by a semi-value of a monotonic simple game with veto control. We consider partitions of the player set in which the winning coalition contains the union of all minimal winning coalitions, and show that each of these partitions belongs to the strict core of the hedonic game. Exactly such coalition structures constitute the strict core when the simple game is symmetric. Provided th...

  13. Resummation Properties of Jet Vetoes at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tackmann, Frank J; Zuberi, Saba

    2012-01-01

    Jet vetoes play an important role at the LHC in the search for the Higgs and ultimately in precise measurements of its properties. Many Higgs analyses divide the cross section into exclusive jet bins to maximize the sensitivity in different production and decay channels. For a given jet category, the veto on additional jets introduces sensitivity to soft and collinear emissions, which causes logarithms in the perturbative expansion that need to be resummed to obtain precise predictions. We study the higher-order resummation properties of several conceptually distinct kinematic variables that can be used to veto jets in hadronic collisions. We consider two inclusive variables, the scalar sum over pT and beam thrust, and two corresponding exclusive variables based on jet algorithms, namely the largest pT and largest beam thrust of a jet. The inclusive variables can in principle be resummed to higher orders. We show that for the jet-based variables, there are dual effects due to clustering in the jet algorithm f...

  14. Resummation properties of jet vetoes at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.

    2012-06-15

    Jet vetoes play an important role at the LHC in the search for the Higgs and ultimately in precise measurements of its properties. Many Higgs analyses divide the cross section into exclusive jet bins to maximize the sensitivity in different production and decay channels. For a given jet category, the veto on additional jets introduces sensitivity to soft and collinear emissions, which causes logarithms in the perturbative expansion that need to be resummed to obtain precise predictions. We study the higher-order resummation properties of several conceptually distinct kinematic variables that can be used to veto jets in hadronic collisions. We consider two inclusive variables, the scalar sum over p{sub T} and beam thrust, and two corresponding exclusive variables based on jet algorithms, namely the largest p{sub T} and largest beam thrust of a jet. The inclusive variables can in principle be resummed to higher orders. We show that for the jet-based variables, there are dual effects due to clustering in the jet algorithm for both large and small jet radius R that inhibit a complete resummation at or beyond next-to-leading logarithmic order (NLL). For R{proportional_to}1, the clustering of soft and collinear emissions gives O(1) contributions starting at NNLL that are not reproduced by an all-order soft-collinear factorization formula and therefore cannot be resummed by it. For R<<1, clustering induces logarithms of R that contribute at NLL in the exponent of the cross section, which cannot be resummed with currently available methods. We explicitly compute the leading jet clustering effects at O({alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}) and comment on their numerical size.

  15. Design, simulation and construction of the GERDA-muon veto; Design, Simulation und Aufbau des GERDA-Myonvetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Markus Alexander

    2009-10-09

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) is a experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. This very rare weakly interacting process is predicted to occur if the neutrino exhibits a mass and is a Majorana particle; i.e. it is its own antiparticle. Although the double beta decay with emission of two neutrinos has been found in several nuclei, there is at this moment only a part of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration claiming to have observed the neutrinoless double beta decay. The best limit for the half life currently is T{sub 1/2} > 1.2.10{sup 25} y. Gerda will expose about 15 kg.y of enriched germanium detectors from the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX crystals in phase I. In this phase, it will be able to test the claim within one year, due to reduced background by a factor 10. In phase II about 100 kg.y of data will be accumulated, leading to T{sub 1/2} > 2.10{sup 26} y due to an additional reduction of the background by a factor of 10. For a high sensitivity at these half lives, it is necessary to detect the corresponding rare events. Therefore background reduction to a rate of 10{sup -3} (counts)/(keV.kg.year) is of utmost importance. Therefore different background identification methods, like pulseshape analysis or a muon veto will be used. In this work, the development of the Cherenkov muon veto detectors is presented. First design studies will be shown, including extensive Monte-Carlo simulations. These simulations were also used to optimize the trigger conditions of the data acquisition, to detect all muons, that cause an energy deposition in the germanium detectors. Finally the on site construction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy will be described. (orig.)

  16. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013. Currently Gerda is being upgraded to a second phase. To reach the aspired background index of ≤ 10-3 cts/(keV . kg . yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). It has been demonstrated by the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. This talk focusses on the light instrumentation which is being installed in GERDA. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are combined to maximize the photoelectron-yield with respect to various background sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to optimize the design for background suppression and low self-induced background. First results of the prototypes and the progress of installation are reported.

  17. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013. Currently Gerda is being upgraded to a second phase. To reach the aspired background index of ≤ 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). It has been demonstrated by the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. This talk focusses on the light instrumentation which is being installed in GERDA. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are combined to maximize the photoelectron-yield with respect to various background sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to optimize the design for background suppression and low self-induced background. First results of the prototypes and the progress of installation are reported.

  18. Despite majority support, prochoice riders' enactment clouded by veto threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Abortion-related votes are occurring with greater frequency than ever before in the US Congress. 2 bills that illustrate this point are the Department of Defense (DOD) authorization bill and the District of Columbia (DC) appropriations bill. The amendment to the DOD bill included a provision that would have allowed enlisted service-women stationed overseas to have abortions in military hospitals at their own expense. This is necessary because many women are stationed in countries that have criminalized abortion (Saudi Arabia, Germany, the Philippines) and would have no other access except at their base hospital. The amendment was withdrawn because several members did not want to jeopardize the entire DOD bill for the pro-choice amendment. The DC appropriations bill contained an amendment that deleted federal rules that prohibited the DC government from funding abortion with its own locally raised tax revenues. Currently all other states have this option. This amendment will be withdraw if the President will not sign the bill, because there are not enough votes to override the President's veto. In both cases the majority of both houses voted in favor of pro-choice provisions even though the President threatened to veto either if enacted. Demonstrating support for abortion rights is a necessary step in convincing the President that the majority is in favor of abortion rights. PMID:12317307

  19. Automated NNLL + NLO resummation for jet-veto cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Thomas; Rothen, Lorena [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Frederix, Rikkert [CERN, TH Unit, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Neubert, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg University, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institut for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); LEPP, Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In electroweak-boson production processes with a jet veto, higher-order corrections are enhanced by logarithms of the veto scale over the invariant mass of the boson system. In this paper, we resum these Sudakov logarithms at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy and match our predictions to next-to-leading-order (NLO) fixed-order results. We perform the calculation in an automated way, for arbitrary electroweak final states and in the presence of kinematic cuts on the leptons produced in the decays of the electroweak bosons. The resummation is based on a factorization theorem for the cross sections into hard functions, which encode the virtual corrections to the boson production process, and beam functions, which describe the low-p{sub T} emissions collinear to the beams. The one-loop hard functions for arbitrary processes are calculated using the MadGraph5{sub a}MC rate at NLO framework, while the beam functions are process independent. We perform the resummation for a variety of processes, in particular for W{sup +}W{sup -} pair production followed by leptonic decays of the W bosons. (orig.)

  20. Development of a cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiation contributes significantly towards the background radiation measured by a gamma-spectrometer. A novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed that provides a mean background reduction of 54.5%. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates operated in time-stamp mode to detect coincident muon interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer. The instrument is easily configurable and provides improved sensitivity for radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapons tests and reactor incidents, including 140Ba, 95Zr, 99Mo, 141Ce, 147Nd, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. This has been demonstrated for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty applications to obtain the required 140Ba MDA of 24 mBq within 2 days counting. Analysis of an air filter sample collected during the Fukushima incident indicates improved sensitivity compared to conventional gamma-spectrometers. (author)

  1. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level. It is...... concluded that the epithelial stromal cells of the thymus, by acting as veto cells, may be responsible for the negative intrathymic selection of self-reactive thymocytes leading to elimination of the vast majority of immature thymic lymphocytes....

  2. A {chi}{sup 2} veto for continuous gravitational wave searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho de la Jordana, Llucia; Sintes, Alicia M [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa Km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)], E-mail: llucia.sancho@uib.es, E-mail: sintes@aei.mpg.de

    2008-09-21

    {chi}{sup 2} vetoes are commonly used in searching for gravitational waves, in particular for broadband signals, but they can also be applied to narrowband continuous wave signals, such as those expected from rapidly rotating neutron stars. In this paper, we present a {chi}{sup 2} veto adapted to the Hough transform searches for continuous gravitational wave signals; we characterize the {chi}{sup 2} significance plane for different frequency bands and discuss the expected performance of this veto in LIGO analysis.

  3. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA and LArGe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. Bare germanium detectors are operated in a cryostat with 65 m3 of liquid argon (LAr). It has been demonstrated in the LArGe test facility, that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, that simultaneously deposit energy in LAr (LAr veto). Suppression factors up to 103 have been achieved for individual sources. Based on these results, Gerda pursues several options for the light instrumentation of LAr, which have to be compatible with the stringent radiopurity requirements of the experiment and should provide a significant suppression of the background in the region of interest around Qββ at 2039 keV. This talk gives an account of the competing design options under investigation in the Gerda collaboration. Our main design options using photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are discussed. Their expected performance and progress of development is reported. In addition, results of the LArGe test facility are presented, along with the design criteria that follow for light instrumentation in Gerda.

  4. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  5. Resummation prediction on Higgs and vector boson associated production with a jet veto at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the resummation effects for the SM Higgs and vector boson associated production at the LHC with a jet veto in soft-collinear effective theory using “collinear anomalous' formalism. We calculate the jet vetoed invariant mass distribution and the cross section for this process at Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Logarithmic level, which are matched to the QCD Next-to-Leading Order results, and compare the differences of the resummation effects with different jet veto pTveto and jet radius R. Our results show that both resummation enhancement effects and the scale uncertainties decrease with the increasing of jet veto pTveto and jet radius R, respectively. When pTveto=25 GeV and R=0.4 (0.5), the resummation effects reduce the scale uncertainties of the Next-to-Leading Order jet vetoed cross sections to about 7% (6%), which lead to increased confidence on the theoretical predictions. Besides, after including resummation effects, the PDF uncertainties of jet vetoed cross section are about 7%

  6. Vetoes, Ethnic Bidding, Decentralisation: Post-Conflict Education in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvete Koneska

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on political elites in post-conflict Macedonia and investigates how political elites interact - to accomodate or resist each other - across ethnic lines. Theoretically, the analysis draws upon institutionalist literature, in particular literature on power-sharing institutions and ethnic outbidding among ethnic political parties. Building on this framework, the article proceeds to develop three arguments relating to power-sharing and ethnic outbidding: one on the effects of ethnic outbidding on elite accomodation, and two on the impact of power-sharing structures (veto mechanisms and territoriality on ethnic elite accomodation. Although the main emphasis is placed on domestic factors, the article also briefly considers and examines the impact of external actors, the EU, and the OSCE, on the policy process in post-conflict Macedonia, and how political elites cooperate when external actors get involved in the policy process. This article focuses in greater detail upon education policy in Macedonia, which was one of the most controversial policy issues straining relations between the ethnic Albanian minority and the Macedonian state since independence. The article compares elite cooperation before and after the conflict in 2001 and demonstrates that the dynamics of political elites' interaction have changed to empower ethnic Albanian political elites thanks to the institutional and constitutional system adopted after 2001. However, despite increased accomodation at the central level, ethnic divisions remain at the local level.

  7. Further development of a cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a network of certified laboratories that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on global air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of measurements for treaty compliance. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates operated in time-stamp mode to detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer. This provides a mean background reduction of 75.2 % with MDA improvements of 45.6 %. The CTBT requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system does not require dedicated coincidence electronics, and remains easily configurable with dual acquisition of unsuppressed and suppressed spectra. Performance has been significantly improved by complete processing of the cosmic-ray spectrum (0-25 MeV) combined with the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident. (author)

  8. Two-Loop Beam and Soft Functions for Rapidity-Dependent Jet Vetoes

    CERN Document Server

    Gangal, Shireen; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Jet vetoes play an important role in many analyses at the LHC. Traditionally, jet vetoes have been imposed using a restriction on the transverse momentum $p_{Tj}$ of jets. Alternatively, one can also consider jet observables for which $p_{Tj}$ is weighted by a smooth function of the jet rapidity $y_j$ that vanishes as $|y_j| \\to \\infty$. Such observables are useful as they provide a natural way to impose a tight veto on central jets but a looser one at forward rapidities. We consider two such rapidity-dependent jet veto observables, $\\mathcal{T}_{Bj}$ and $\\mathcal{T}_{Cj}$, and compute the required beam and dijet soft functions for the jet-vetoed color-singlet production cross section at two loops. At this order, clustering effects from the jet algorithm become important. The dominant contributions are computed fully analytically while corrections that are subleading in the limit of small jet radii are expressed in terms of finite numerical integrals. Our results enable the full NNLL' resummation and are an ...

  9. Flux Modulations seen by the Muon Veto of the GERDA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Borowicz, D; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; D'Andrea, V; Demidova, E V; di Vacri, A; Domula, A; Doroshkevich, E; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Fedorova, O; Freund, K; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Ioannucci, L; Csáthy, J Janicskó; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kazalov, V; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knapp, M; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Medinaceli, E; Misiaszek, M; Moseev, P; Nemchenok, I; Palioselitis, D; Panas, K; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Ritter, F; Rumyantseva, N; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schneider, B; Schönert, S; Schreiner, J; Schütz, A -K; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Selivanenko, O; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Stepaniuk, M; Strecker, H; Vanhoefer, L; Vasenko, A A; Veresnikova, A; vonSturm, K; Wagner, V; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wilsenach, H; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2016-01-01

    The GERDA experiment at LNGS of INFN is equipped with an active muon veto. The main part of the system is a water Cherenkov veto with 66~PMTs in the water tank surrounding the GERDA cryostat. The muon flux recorded by this veto shows a seasonal modulation. Two effects have been identified which are caused by secondary muons from the CNGS neutrino beam (2.2 %) and a temperature modulation of the atmosphere (1.4 %). A mean cosmic muon rate of $I^0_{\\mu} = (3.477 \\pm 0.002_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 0.067_{\\textrm{sys}}) \\times 10^{-4}$/(s$\\cdot$m$^2$) was found in good agreement with other experiments at LNGS at a depth of 3500~meter water equivalent.

  10. 78 FR 41800 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “I VetoViolence Because . . .”: Teen Dating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... for ``I VetoViolence Because . . .'': Teen Dating Violence Prevention Public Service Announcement... Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) launches the ``I VetoViolence Because . . .'': Teen Dating... development of video public service announcements (PSA) that increase the understanding (1) that teen...

  11. Veto Power and Wealth: Analysis of the Development of the Swiss Old Age Security

    OpenAIRE

    Christina ZENKER

    2015-01-01

    Switzerland was one of the last OECD-coun­tries to introduce a program for old age security – the AHV. For many decades, expenditures both in absolute terms and as a portion of GDP remained low in OECD comparison. In the 1970ies however, expenditures exploded – within 10 years, the expenditures as a percentage of GDP doubled. This article explains this astonishing development by applying the veto player theory. Veto player theory is useful to determine changes in the policy stability. The hig...

  12. LArGe - A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    OpenAIRE

    Heisel, M.(Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany)

    2011-01-01

    LArGe is a Gerda low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the Gerda experiment. Gerda searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m3 of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m3 (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used...

  13. A large Cerenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several problems, e.g. a test of nucleon conservation and high-energy neutrino detection of interest to us at Case Institute, have led to the construction of a large Cerenkov detector. This device consists of a tank 2.4 m in diameter and 2.1 m high which is painted with a white reflecting coat. The 7400-l water-volume used as the filling at present is viewed from above by 52 type-6364 Dumont multiplier phototubes. Internal to the detector as it is being currently used is a 200-l liquid scintillation-counter enclosed in an 8000-kg Fe shield. In this paper we describe constructional details and the response of the detector using cosmic-ray muons as a probe. We also present results on the effectiveness of the detector as an anti-coincidence blanket and will discuss the relevance of these numbers to the question of detecting high-energy neutrinos-both cosmic and man-made. (author)

  14. The Brazilian electric power sector reformulation process: an analysis of the veto players; O processo de reforma do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise dos 'veto players'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxo, Leticia

    2007-07-01

    The electric power sector reformulation implemented in the Brazil makes evident the intrinsic difficulty to handle with complex set of veto players. The multiplicity of veto players characterized by distinct ideologies results in the multiplication of business rounds related to the elaboration and implementation of the new game rules, whose agreement involves conflicts on the presented proposal, resulting in the slowness pf reformulation process conclusion.

  15. Precision diboson measurements and the interplay of pT and jet-veto resummations

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, Prerit; Ramani, Harikrishnan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the agreement of jet-veto resummation and pT resummation for explaining the WW cross sections at Run 1 of the LHC, and in the future. These two resummation techniques resum different logarithms, however via reweighting methods they can be compared for various differential or exclusive cross sections. We find excellent agreement between the two resummation methods for predicting the zero-jet cross section, and propose a new reweighting method for jet-veto resummation that can be used to compare other differential distributions. We advocate a cross-channel comparison for the high-luminosity run of the LHC as both a test of QCD and new physics.

  16. Study Performance of Liquid Scintillation Fiber Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yongpeng; Lu, Haoqi; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Chengcai; Yang, Changgen

    2016-01-01

    Liquid scintillator (LS) with optical fiber detector (LSOF detector) is a new type of detector, which has been applied in large-scale particle physics experiments in recent years. We were proposing LSOF detector as one option of top veto detector in Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) experiment. The prototype detector was located in laboratory of the institute of high energy physics (IHEP). From prototype study, we found that the detector have a good performance and can satisfy JUNO requirement. The detection efficiency of cosmic ray muon is greater than 98% and can collect 58 photon electrons (p.e.) when muon is going through the detector. Further more, the relationship between p.e., material reflectivity and LS depth are studied. We also compared the data with Monte Carlo simulation, and they have a good agreement with each other.

  17. Simulation, realization and test of veto systems for the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Palladino, Vito

    Search Simple Search Advanced Search Latest Additions Browse Browse by Author Browse by Subject Browse by Year Browse by Type Browse by Full text availability Info Policy About FAQ Contact us Palladino, Vito (2010) Simulation, realization and test of veto systems for the NA62 experiment. [Tesi di dottorato] (Unpublished) [img] PDF palladino_vito_23.pdf Download (55MB) | Preview Item Type: Tesi di dottorato Language: English Title: Simulation, realization and test of veto systems for the NA62 experiment Creators: Creators\tEmail Palladino, Vito\tvitopalladino@gmail.com Date: 30 November 2010 Number of Pages: 146 Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II Department: Scienze fisiche Doctoral School: Scienze fisiche PHD name: Fisica fondamentale ed applicata PHD cycle: 23 PHD Coordinator: name\temail Marrucci, Lorenzo\tUNSPECIFIED Tutor: name\temail Ambrosino, Fabio\tUNSPECIFIED Date: 30 November 2010 Number of Pages: 146 Uncontrolled Keywords: Kaon NA62 Veto CHANTI LAV MIUR S.S.D...

  18. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0νββ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay, which can be investigated using 76Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0νββ decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) 76Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new 76Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of ≤10-2 events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of ≤10-3 events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in 76Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced 60Co is expected to be ∝2.5.10-3 events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV (λ=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for 60Co and a factor 17 for 232Th around Qββ = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for 232Th and 60Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength shifter/reflector combination for the light detection has been developed, leading to a photo electron (pe) yield of as much as 1.2 pe

  19. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  20. Endogenous Budget Institutions And Political Insulation: Why States Adopt The Item Veto

    OpenAIRE

    De Figueiredo, Rui J. P. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-three of the fifty states of the United States have granted item veto authority to their governors as part of state constitutions. In this paper, I test four explanations of why and when a legislature would cede institutional power. Using data from 1865 to 1994, I show that these measures are most likely proposed by fiscal conservatives who fear the loss of power in the future; in order to protect their interests for those periods when they will be in the minority, therefore, they seek...

  1. The Effect of a Rapidity Gap Veto on the Discrete BFKL Pomeron

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the discrete BFKL spectrum, which appears in the gluon Green function when the running coupling is considered, to a lower cut-off in the relative rapidities of the emitted particles. We find that the eigenvalues associated to each of the discrete eigenfunctions decrease with the size of the rapidity veto. The effect is stronger on the lowest eigenfunctions. The net result is a reduction of the growth with energy for the Green function together with a suppression in the regions with small transverse momentum.

  2. Advance commitment: an alternative approach to the family veto problem in organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wispelaere, Jurgen; Stirton, Lindsay

    2010-03-01

    This article tackles the current deficit in the supply of cadaveric organs by addressing the family veto in organ donation. The authors believe that the family veto matters-ethically as well as practically-and that policies that completely disregard the views of the family in this decision are likely to be counterproductive. Instead, this paper proposes to engage directly with the most important reasons why families often object to the removal of the organs of a loved one who has signed up to the donor registry-notably a failure to understand fully and deliberate on the information and a reluctance to deal with this sort of decision at an emotionally distressing time. To accommodate these concerns it is proposed to separate radically the process of information, deliberation and agreement about the harvesting of a potential donor's organs from the event of death and bereavement through a scheme of advance commitment. This paper briefly sets out the proposal and discusses in some detail its design as well as what is believed to be the main advantages compared with the leading alternatives. PMID:20212000

  3. Automated NNLL+NLO Resummation for Jet-Veto Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias; Rothen, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    In electroweak-boson production processes with a jet veto, higher-order corrections are enhanced by logarithms of the veto scale over the invariant mass of the boson system. In this paper, we resum these Sudakov logarithms at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) accuracy and match our predictions to next-to-leading order (NLO) fixed-order results. We perform the calculation in an automated way, for arbitrary electroweak final states and in the presence of kinematic cuts on the leptons produced in the decays of the electroweak bosons. The resummation is based on a factorization theorem for the cross sections into hard functions, which encode the virtual corrections to the boson production process, and beam functions, which describe the low-p_T emissions collinear to the beams. The one-loop hard functions for arbitrary processes are calculated using the MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework, while the beam functions are process independent. We perform the resummation for a variety of processes, in particular for W+...

  4. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    CERN Document Server

    Band, H R; Chu, M-C; Heeger, K M; Kwok, M W; Shih, K; Wise, T; Xiao, Q

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya...

  5. Muon Flux Measurements at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility with the {\\sc Majorana Demonstrator} Veto System

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Lopez, A M; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Schmitt, C; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2016-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the total MUON flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were done with the Majorana Demonstrator veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is (5.04+/-0.16) x 10^-9 muons/s/cm^2.

  6. [Olaf Asendorf. Das Veto des Deutschen Ordens gegen die Erhöhung des Nikolaikirchturmes in Reval] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Olaf Asendorf. Das Veto des Deutschen Ordens gegen die Erhöhung des Nikolaikirchturmes in Reval. In: Asendorf: Mittelalterliche Türme im deutschordensland Preussen. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, New York, Paris, Wien: Lang 1998. S. 105-109. Niguliste kiriku torni ehitusloost

  7. Factorization and N^3LL_p+NNLO Predictions for the Higgs Cross Section with a Jet Veto

    CERN Document Server

    Becher, Thomas; Rothen, Lorena

    2013-01-01

    We have recently derived a factorization formula for the Higgs-boson production cross section in the presence of a jet veto, which allows for a systematic resummation of large Sudakov logarithms of the form alpha_s^n ln^m(p_T^veto/m_H), along with the large virtual corrections known to affect also the total cross section. Here we determine the ingredients entering this formula at two-loop accuracy. Specifically, we compute the dependence on the jet-radius parameter R, which is encoded in the two-loop coefficient of the collinear anomaly, by means of a direct, fully analytic calculation in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory. We confirm the result obtained by Banfi et al. from a related calculation in QCD, and demonstrate that factorization-breaking, soft-collinear mixing effects do not arise at leading power in p_T^veto/m_H, even for R=O(1). In addition, we extract the two-loop collinear beam functions numerically. We present detailed numerical predictions for the jet-veto cross section with next...

  8. Data analysis of gravitational waves using a network of detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Linqing

    2008-01-01

    Several large-scale gravitational wave (GW) interferometers have achieved long term operation at design sensitivity. Questions arise on how to best combine all available data from detectors of different sensitivities for detection, consistency check or veto, localization and waveform extraction. We show that these problems can be formulated using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. We present techniques based on the SVD method for (1) detection statistic, (2) stable solutions to wa...

  9. Implementation of a anti-coincidence system of 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl and primary standardization of {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am; Implementacao de um sistema de anti-coincidencia 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl e padronizacao primaria do {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb e {sup 241}Am

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Jose da; Iwahara, Akira; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Prinzio, Maria Antonieta de, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory of the IRD-Brazil, implemented a primary standardization system which utilizes the anti-coincidence technique with live time keeping. For testing the performance of these system it was made the standardization of the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am. Encourages results were obtained not only the standardization of {sup 241}Am but also of the {sup 124}Sb whose reference value obtained by the LNMRI was utilized for the key comparison organized by the IAEA and EURAMET. The standard uncertainties were of 0.28%, 0.22% and 0.13% for the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am, respectively

  10. New fission-fragment detector for experiments at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusev, G.; Roman, A. R.; Daum, J. K.; Springs, R. K.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Favalli, A.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Iliev, M. L.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-10-01

    A fission-fragment detector based on thin scintillating films has been built to serve as a veto/trigger detector in neutron-induced fission measurements at DANCE. The fissile material is surrounded by scintillating films providing a 4 π detection of the fission fragments. The scintillation events caused by the fission fragment interactions in the films are registered with silicon photomultipliers. Design of the detector and test measurements are described. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Nuclear Physics under the Early Career Award No. LANL20135009.

  11. Simulation results of a veto counter for the ClearPEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC) has built a prototype of a novel positron emission tomograph dedicated to functional breast imaging, the ClearPEM. The ClearPEM uses the common radio pharmaceutical FDG for imaging cancer. As FDG is a rather non-specific radio tracer, it accumulates not only in cancer cells but in all cells with a high energy consumption, such as the heart and liver. This fact poses a problem especially in breast imaging, where the vicinity of the heart and other organs to the breast leads to a high background noise level in the scanner. In this work, a veto counter to reduce the background is described. Different configurations and their effectiveness were studied using the GATE simulation package.

  12. Simulation results of a veto counter for the ClearPEM

    CERN Document Server

    Trummer, J; Lecoq, P

    2009-01-01

    The Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC) has built a prototype of a novel positron emission tomograph dedicated to functional breast imaging, the ClearPEM. The ClearPEM uses the common radio pharmaceutical FDG for imaging cancer. As FDG is a rather non-specific radio tracer, it accumulates not only in cancer cells but in all cells with a high energy consumption, such as the heart and liver. This fact poses a problem especially in breast imaging, where the vicinity of the heart and other organs to the breast leads to a high background noise level in the scanner. In this work, a veto counter to reduce the background is described. Different configurations and their effectiveness were studied using the GATE simulation package.

  13. Fission-fragment detector for DANCE based on thin scintillating films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusev, G.; Roman, A. R.; Daum, J. K.; Springs, R. K.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Favalli, A.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Iliev, M. L.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    A fission-fragment detector based on thin scintillating films has been built to serve as a trigger/veto detector in neutron-induced fission measurements at DANCE. The fissile material is surrounded by scintillating films providing 4 π detection of the fission fragments. The scintillation photons were registered with silicon photomultipliers. A measurement of the 235U (n , f) reaction with this detector at DANCE revealed a correct time-of-flight spectrum and provided an estimate for the efficiency of the prototype detector of 11.6(7)%. Design and test measurements with the detector are described.

  14. Resummation of Jet Veto Logarithms at N$^3$LL$_a$ + NNLO for $W^+ W^-$ production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, S; Li, Ye; Ramani, H; Zeng, Mao

    2016-01-01

    We compute the resummed on-shell $W^+ W^-$ production cross section under a jet-veto at the LHC at the approximate N$^3$LL+NNLO order. Differential NNLO cross sections are obtained from an implementation of $q_T$ subtraction in Sherpa. The two-loop virtual corrections to the $q \\bar q \\rightarrow W^+ W^-$ amplitude, used in both fixed order and resummation predictions, are extracted from the public code qqvvamp. We perform resummation using soft collinear effective theory (SCET), with approximate beam functions where only the logarithmic terms are included at two-loop. In addition to scale uncertainties from the hard matching scale and the factorization scale, rapidity scale variations are obtained within the analytic regulator approach. Our resummation results show a decrease in jet-veto cross-section compared to NNLO fixed order predictions, with reduced scale uncertainties compared to NNLL+NLO resummation predictions.

  15. Jet-vetoed Higgs cross section in gluon fusion at N3LO+NNLL with small-R resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, Andrea; Dreyer, Frédéric A; Monni, Pier F; Salam, Gavin P; Zanderighi, Giulia; Dulat, Falko

    2015-01-01

    We present new results for the jet-veto efficiency and zero-jet cross section in Higgs production through gluon fusion. We incorporate the N$^3$LO corrections to the total cross section, the NNLO corrections to the 1-jet rate, NNLL resummation for the jet $p_t$ and LL resummation for the jet radius dependence. Our results include known finite-mass corrections and are obtained using the jet-veto efficiency method, updated relative to earlier work to take into account what has been learnt from the new precision calculations that we include. For 13 TeV collisions and using our default choice for the renormalisation and factorisation scales, $\\mu_0=m_H/2$, the matched prediction for the jet-veto efficiency increases the pure NNNLO prediction by about 2% and the two have comparable uncertainties. Relative to NNLO+NNLL results, the new prediction is 2% smaller and the uncertainty reduces from more than 10% to less than 5%. Results are also presented for the central scale $\\mu_0=m_H$.

  16. A metastable xenon isotope detector for treaty verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, J A M; Conde, C A N

    2003-01-01

    A system to selectively detect and quantify the xenon metastable isotopes sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 sup m Xe, sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 sup m Xe, sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 Xe, and sup 1 sup 3 sup 5 Xe has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The system combines high-resolution electron and gamma-ray spectrometry with coincidence/anti-coincidence timing for signal selectivity and background rejection. By utilizing X-ray-fluorescence gating, backgrounds from other sources are expected to be reduced to the sub-becquerel level. Coincidence and anti-coincidence triggers are formed from the several individual detectors that comprise the system and used to identify K-shell conversion electrons and fluorescence X-rays from a sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd test source with good efficiencies and energy resolutions (20 keV for the low-energy electrons, approx 1.2 keV for the fluorescence X-rays, respectively).

  17. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-03-24

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  18. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope 76Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  19. Front end ASIC for AGIPD, a high dynamic range fast detector for the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is a hybrid pixel X-ray detector for the European-XFEL. One of the detector's important parts is the radiation tolerant front end ASIC fulfilling the European-XFEL requirements: high dynamic range—from sensitivity to single 12.5keV-photons up to 104 photons. It is implemented using the dynamic gain switching technique with three possible gains of the charge sensitive preamplifier. Each pixel can store up to 352 images in memory operated in random-access mode at ≥4.5 MHz frame rate. An external vetoing may be applied to overwrite unwanted frames

  20. A neutrino detector: its efficiency and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experimental counter for the detection of reactor anti-νsub(e) by the reaction anti-νsub(e)+p→n+e+ has been studied in order to test the conservation law of separate leptonic numbers. Measurements were done with a prototype detector of smaller dimensions in order to identify the origin of background events among those of capture. The measurements of the internal activity in the part of the detector constituted by the 3He proportional counters permitted the selection of the less radioactive materials and thus to have a background as low as possible. As concerns the external backgrounds due to reactor and cosmic rays, measurements have shown that they can be reduced to an acceptable level by surrounding the detector with shields of lead and polyethylene and by the use of a 4π anti-coincidence system. An important work of neutronic simulation on a computer has permitted to foresee the detection efficiency and to estimate the neutronic properties of each part. An exploratory study has shown that with a modification of target material, it will be possible to measure neutral currents with the reactions anti-νsub(e)+d→n+p+anti-νsub(e)

  1. Pixellated CdZnTe detector for emission/transmission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small pixellated CdZnTe array is tested for suitability in a prototype SPECT system designed to acquire both emission and transmission data. Determining the optimum contact design and obtaining performance estimates of single photon acquisition are the primary focus. Flood field and collimated 57Co sources irradiated the 16 pixel array (5 mm thick and 1.5 mm pixels) to determine photopeak efficiencies and detector response with different event collection techniques. Intrinsic full energy peak efficiency averaged 72% for an 18 keV acceptance window. A small irradiation spot scanned an array region, revealing detector response from nearby pixels. Post processing spectra compare coincident and anti-coincident acquisition. Additionally, current mode tests compare linearity with a CdWO4/Si p-i-n detector

  2. Development of a thin scintillation films fission-fragment detector and a novel neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusev, G.; Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Daum, J. K.; Favalli, A.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Iliev, M. L.; Mosby, S.; Roman, A. R.; Springs, R. K.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    Investigation of prompt fission and neutron-capture Υ rays from fissile actinide samples at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) requires use of a fission-fragment detector to provide a trigger or a veto signal. A fission-fragment detector based on thin scintillating films and silicon photomultipliers has been built to serve as a trigger/veto detector in neutron-induced fission measurements at DANCE. The fissile material is surrounded by scintillating films providing a 4π detection of the fission fragments. The scintillations were registered with silicon photomultipliers. A measurement of the 235U(n,f) reaction with this detector at DANCE revealed a correct time-of-flight spectrum and provided an estimate for the efficiency of the prototype detector of 11.6(7)%. Design and test measurements with the detector are described. A neutron source with fast timing has been built to help with detector-response measurements. The source is based on the neutron emission from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf and the same type of scintillating films and silicon photomultipliers. Overall time resolution of the source is 0.3 ns. Design of the source and test measurements with it are described. An example application of the source for determining the neutron/gamma pulse-shape discrimination by a stilbene crystal is given.

  3. Study of response of 3He detectors to monoenergetic neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the search of a hybrid system (the coupling of the particle accelerator to an under-critical reactor) for radioactive waste transmutation the TARC (Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing) program has been developed. Due to experimental limitations, the time-energy relation at higher neutron energies, particularly, around 2 MeV, which is an important domain for TARC, cannot be applied. Consequently the responses of the 3He ionization neutron detector developed for TARC experiment have been studied using a fast monoenergetic neutron source. The neutrons were produced by the interaction of the proton delivered by Van de Graaff accelerator of CENBG. The originality of the detector consists in its structure of three series of electric conductors which are mounted around the anode: a grid ensuring the detector proportionality, a cylindrical suit of alternating positive voltage and grounded wires aiming at eliminating the radial end effects, serving as veto and two cylinders serving as end plugs to eliminate the perpendicular end effects. Examples of anode spectra conditioned (in anticoincidence) by the mentioned vetoes are given. One can see the contribution of the elastic scattering from H and 3He. By collimating the neutron beam through a borated polyethylene system it was possible to obtain a mapping of the detector allowing the study of its response as a function of the irradiated zones (anode and grid)

  4. Quality Assurance With Plan Veto: Reincarnation of a Record and Verify System and Its Potential Value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantify the potential impact of the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise–Radiation Oncology Quality Assurance with Plan Veto (QAPV) on patient safety of external beam radiation therapy (RT) operations. Methods and Materials: An institutional database of events (errors and near-misses) was used to evaluate the ability of QAPV to prevent clinically observed events. We analyzed reported events that were related to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine RT plan parameter inconsistencies between the intended treatment (on the treatment planning system) and the delivered treatment (on the treatment machine). Critical Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine RT plan parameters were identified. Each event was scored for importance using the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis methodology. Potential error occurrence (frequency) was derived according to the collected event data, along with the potential event severity, and the probability of detection with and without the theoretical implementation of the QAPV plan comparison check. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs) with and without QAPV were compared to quantify the potential benefit of clinical implementation of QAPV. Results: The implementation of QAPV could reduce the RPN values for 15 of 22 (71%) of evaluated parameters, with an overall average reduction in RPN of 68 (range, 0-216). For the 6 high-risk parameters (>200), the average reduction in RPN value was 163 (range, 108-216). The RPN value reduction for the intermediate-risk (200 > RPN > 100) parameters was (0-140). With QAPV, the largest RPN value for “Beam Meterset” was reduced from 324 to 108. The maximum reduction in RPN value was for Beam Meterset (216, 66.7%), whereas the maximum percentage reduction was for Cumulative Meterset Weight (80, 88.9%). Conclusion: This analysis quantifies the value of the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise–Radiation Oncology QAPV implementation in clinical workflow

  5. Finite top-mass effects in gluon-induced Higgs production with a jet-veto at NNLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Tobias [Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Wiesemann, Marius [Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Effects from a finite top quark mass on the H+n-jet cross section through gluon fusion are studied for n = 0/n ≥ 1 at NNLO/NLO QCD. For this purpose, sub-leading terms in 1/m{sub t} are calculated. We show that the asymptotic expansion of the jet-vetoed cross section at NNLO is very well behaved and that the heavy-top approximation is valid at the five permille level up to jet-veto cuts of 300 GeV. For the inclusive Higgs+jet rate, we introduce a matching procedure that allows for a reliable prediction of the top-mass effects using the expansion in 1/m{sub t}. The quality of the effective field theory to evaluate differential K-factors for the distribution of the hardest jet is found to be better than 1-2% as long as the transverse momentum of the jet is integrated out or remains below about 150 GeV.

  6. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H.; Bodine, L. I.; Bonn, J.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, T. H.; Chaoui, Z.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, P. J.; Dunmore, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F. M.; Furse, D.; Gemmeke, H.; Glück, F.; Harms, F.; Harper, G. C.; Hartmann, J.; Howe, M. A.; Kaboth, A.; Kelsey, J.; Knauer, M.; Kopmann, A.; Leber, M. L.; Martin, E. L.; Middleman, K. J.; Myers, A. W.; Oblath, N. S.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, D. A.; Petzold, L.; Phillips, D. G.; Renschler, P.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thümmler, T.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, B. A.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wüstling, S.

    2015-04-01

    The focal-plane detector system for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high-vacuum system, a high-vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system. It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  7. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focal-plane detector system for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high-vacuum system, a high-vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system. It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation

  8. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Amsbaugh, J F; Beglarian, A; Bergmann, T; Bichsel, H; Bodine, L I; Bonn, J; Boyd, N M; Burritt, T H; Chaoui, Z; Chilingaryan, S; Corona, T J; Doe, P J; Dunmore, J A; Enomoto, S; Fischer, J; Formaggio, J A; Fränkle, F M; Furse, D; Gemmeke, H; Glück, F; Harms, F; Harper, G C; Hartmann, J; Howe, M A; Kaboth, A; Kelsey, J; Knauer, M; Kopmann, A; Leber, M L; Martin, E L; Middleman, K J; Myers, A W; Oblath, N S; Parno, D S; Peterson, D A; Petzold, L; Phillips, D G; Renschler, P; Robertson, R G H; Schwarz, J; Steidl, M; Tcherniakhovski, D; Thümmler, T; Van Wechel, T D; VanDevender, B A; Vöcking, S; Wall, B L; Wierman, K L; Wilkerson, J F; Wüstling, S

    2014-01-01

    The focal-plane detector system for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an extreme high-vacuum system, a high-vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system. It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance, both before and after its final installation.

  9. Single-photoelectron noise reduction in scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1994--95 search at SLAC for mulicharged particles used four 21 x 21 x 130-cm3 Bicron 408 scintillation counters to detect a signal at the single-photoelectron level. The competing noise requiring minimization was due to a combination of PM tube (8-inch Thorne EMI 9353KA) afterpulsing and ambient radiation-induced scintillator luminescence. A very slow decay (> 30 μs) component was observed and received particular attention. Efforts to reduce the SPE noise included photomultiplier tube base modifications, detector shielding and cooling, signal amplification, and veto procedures

  10. PMT Dark Noise Monitoring System for Neutrino Detector Borexino Based on the Devicenet Protocol and WEB-Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of PMT dark noise in a neutrino detector BOREXINO is a procedure that indicates condition of the detector. Based on CAN industrial network, top level DeviceNet protocol and WEB visualization, the dark noise monitoring system having 256 channels for the internal detector and for the external muon veto was created. The system is composed as a set of controllers, converting the PMT signals to frequency and transmitting them over Can network. The software is the stack of the DeviceNet protocols, providing the data collecting and transporting. Server-side scripts build web pages of user interface and graphical visualization of data

  11. Monte-Carlo optimisation of a Compton suppression system for use with a broad-energy HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, R., E-mail: r.britton@surrey.ac.uk [University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H. [University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-21

    Monte-Carlo simulations are used to evaluate and optimise multiple components of a Compton Suppression System based upon a Broad-energy HPGe primary detector. Several materials for the secondary crystal are evaluated, including NaI(Tl), BGO and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce). BGO was found to be the most effective across the required energy range, with the sizes of the proposed veto detector then optimised to extract the maximum performance for a given volume of material. Suppression factors are calculated for a range of nuclides (both single and cascade emitters) with improvements of 2 for the Compton Suppression Factors, and 10 for the continuum reduction when compared to the Compton suppression system currently in use. This equates to a reduction in the continuum by up to a factor of ∼240 for radionuclides such as {sup 60}Co, which is crucial for the detection of low-energy, low-activity γ emitters typically swamped by such a continuum. -- Highlights: •Monte Carlo simulations utilised to design and optimise a Compton Suppression system. •NaI(Tl), LaBr(Ce), and BGO materials are evaluated for their effectiveness as veto. •Photon tracking routine is developed to identify where photons typically scatter. •A 3 component BGO based veto is optimised for use with a planar HPGe detector. •Continuum of Co-60 reduced by <240 times, a 10 fold improvement on existing design.

  12. Estabilidad política y jugadores de veto judicial: un modelo espacial aplicado a cortes constitucionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Basabe Serrano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo identifi ca las condiciones que facilitan la variación de la estabilidad política -statu quo- por parte de jueces que actúan como jugadores de veto. Teóricamente, se argumenta que la menor distancia ideológica entre quienes demandan la modifi cación del statu quo y la del juez mediano incrementan las probabilidades del cambio político. En el plano empírico, a través de un modelo de regresión LOGIT aplicado al caso del Tribunal Constitucional del Ecuador, los resultados arrojados no sólo verifi can la hipótesis planteada, sino también un corolario relacionado con la elección judicial: aun bajo condiciones de inestabilidad, los jueces pueden votar de acuerdo con sus propias preferencias ideológicas.

  13. Background reduction in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using segmented detectors-A Monte Carlo study for the GERDA setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of gamma radiation is essential for a new generation of double beta decay experiments. The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, located at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy, uses germanium, enriched in Ge76, as source and detector, and aims at a background level of less than 10-3counts/(kgkeVy) in the region of the Qββ-value. For the first time highly segmented detectors will be installed in a double beta decay experiment. A detailed GEANT4 Monte Carlo study was performed to evaluate the background reduction achievable by anti-coincidence cuts between crystals and segments. Within the overall geometry of GERDA, the segmentation scheme considered here provides around an order of magnitude of extra background reduction

  14. Environmental influences on the LIGO gravitational wave detectors during the 6th science run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effler, A.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Frolov, V. V.; González, G.; Kawabe, K.; Smith, J. R.; Birch, J.; McCarthy, R.

    2015-02-01

    We describe the influence of environmental noise on Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors in the sixth science run, from July 2009 to October 2010. We show results from experimental investigations testing the coupling level and mechanisms for acoustic, electromagnetic/magnetic and seismic noise to the instruments. We argue the sensors’ importance for vetoes of false positive detections, report estimates of the noise sources’ contributions to the detector background, and discuss the ways in which environmental coupling should be reduced in the LIGO upgrade, Advanced LIGO.

  15. Environmental influences on the LIGO gravitational wave detectors during the 6th science run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the influence of environmental noise on Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors in the sixth science run, from July 2009 to October 2010. We show results from experimental investigations testing the coupling level and mechanisms for acoustic, electromagnetic/magnetic and seismic noise to the instruments. We argue the sensors’ importance for vetoes of false positive detections, report estimates of the noise sources’ contributions to the detector background, and discuss the ways in which environmental coupling should be reduced in the LIGO upgrade, Advanced LIGO. (paper)

  16. Environmental Influences on the LIGO Gravitational Wave Detectors during the 6th Science Run

    CERN Document Server

    Effler, A; Frolov, V V; Gonzalez, G; Kawabe, K; Smith, J R; Birch, J; McCarthy, R

    2014-01-01

    We describe the influence of environmental noise on LIGO detectors in the sixth science run (S6), from July 2009 to October 2010. We show results from experimental investigations testing the coupling level and mechanisms for acoustic, electromagnetic/magnetic and seismic noise to the instruments. We argument the sensors' importance for vetoes of false positive detections, report estimates of the noise sources' contributions to the detector background, and discuss the ways in which environmental coupling should be reduced in the LIGO upgrade, Advanced LIGO.

  17. Construction and properties of acrylic vessels in the RENO detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is to measure the smallest neutrino mixing angle, θ13. The RENO detector consists of four concentric cylindrical layers: the target, γ-catcher, buffer and veto. Acrylic is used for the target and γ-catcher vessels, both of which contain liquid scintillator. Acrylic was chosen because it has good transmittance in the wavelength range of 400–430nm and also does not react with liquid-scintillating solvents. In order to reduce systematic uncertainties, the target volume should be identical to a level of less than 0.1% between the near and far detectors. Furthermore, the acrylic vessel should not have any leaks. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties, design and construction of the acrylic vessels used in the RENO detector.

  18. Conceptual design and simulation of a water Cherenkov muon veto for the XENON1T experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Alfonsi, M; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Auger, M; Balan, C; Barrow, P; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Behrens, A; Beltrame, P; Bokeloh, K; Breskin, A; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruenner, S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Cardoso, J M R; Colijn, A P; Contreras, H; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; Duchovni, E; Fattori, S; Ferella, A D; Fulgione, W; Garbini, M; Geis, C; Goetzke, L W; Grignon, C; Gross, E; Hampel, W; Itay, R; Kaether, F; Kessler, G; Kish, A; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Calloch, M Le; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Levy, C; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Lung, K; Lyashenko, A; MacMullin, S; Undagoitia, T Marrodán; Masbou, J; Massoli, F V; Paras, D Mayani; Fernandez, A J Melgarejo; Meng, Y; Messina, M; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Morana, G; Murra, M; Naganoma, J; Oberlack, U; Orrigo, S E A; Pantic, E; Persiani, R; Piastra, F; Pienaar, J; Plante, G; Priel, N; Reichard, S; Reuter, C; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Santos, J M F dos; Sartorelli, G; Schindler, S; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Lavina, L Scotto; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Simgen, H; Teymourian, A; Thers, D; Tiseni, A; Trinchero, G; Vitells, O; Wang, H; Weber, M; Weinheimer., C

    2014-01-01

    XENON is a direct detection dark matter project, consisting of a time projection chamber (TPC) that uses xenon in double phase as a sensitive detection medium. XENON100, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, is one of the most sensitive experiments of its field. During the operation of XENON100, the design and construction of the next generation detector (of ton-scale mass) of the XENON project, XENON1T, is taking place. XENON1T is being installed at LNGS as well. It has the goal to reduce the background by two orders of magnitude compared to XENON100, aiming at a sensitivity of $2 \\cdot 10^{-47} \\mathrm{cm}^{\\mathrm{2}}$ for a WIMP mass of 50 GeV/c$^{2}$. With this goal, an active system that is able to tag muons and their induced backgrounds is crucial. This active system will consist of a water Cherenkov detector realized with a water volume $\\sim$10 m high and $\\sim$10 m in diameter, equipped with photomultipliers of 8 inches diameter and a reflective foil. In this paper we p...

  19. Performance of GERDA phase II BEGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. GERDA uses HPGe detectors enriched in 76Ge as source and detection material. The experiment proceeds in two phases. In Phase I a background index of 10-2 cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached and a new lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set to 2.1.1025 yr (at 95% C.L.). In Phase II the background index will be lowered by an order of magnitude and a sensitivity of 1026 yr will be reached. In order to achieve this goal 30 new custom-made broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors and a liquid argon scintillation light veto will be deployed. Five BEGe detectors have been operated successfully in Phase I and demonstrated their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. Special designed electronics will further improve energy resolution and PSD performance. The first results from commissioning of the new BEGe detectors are presented in this talk.

  20. Performance of GERDA phase II BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. GERDA uses HPGe detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge as source and detection material. The experiment proceeds in two phases. In Phase I a background index of 10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached and a new lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge was set to 2.1.10{sup 25} yr (at 95% C.L.). In Phase II the background index will be lowered by an order of magnitude and a sensitivity of 10{sup 26} yr will be reached. In order to achieve this goal 30 new custom-made broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors and a liquid argon scintillation light veto will be deployed. Five BEGe detectors have been operated successfully in Phase I and demonstrated their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. Special designed electronics will further improve energy resolution and PSD performance. The first results from commissioning of the new BEGe detectors are presented in this talk.

  1. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  2. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in 60Co, 152Eu and 228Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  3. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  4. Techniques of coordinate reconstruction in gas detectors with cathode signal readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents a detailed analysis of techniques to reconstruct coordinates in gas detectors with cathode readout of information from charged particles passed through detector. One demonstrates the accuracy limits attainable when using techniques of space reconstruction of events. Application of the techniques is illustrated using as an example processing of data on tests conducted with charged particle veto-detector prototype beam for photon spectrometer in the course of the ALICE experiment at the large hadron collider in the CERN. Spatial resolution of detector based on multiwire proportional chamber with signal cathode-down-scale readout constituted as follows: along anode wires - σx ≅ 0.14 cm, across them σy ≅ 0.15 cm

  5. Techniques of coordinate reconstruction in gas detectors with cathode signal readout

    CERN Document Server

    Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Lobanov, M O; Minaev, N G; Sadovskij, S A; Kharlov, Yu V; Martinengo, P; Piuz, François

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents a detailed analysis of techniques to reconstruct coordinates in gas detectors with cathode readout of information from charged particles passed through detector. One demonstrates the accuracy limits attainable when using techniques of space reconstruction of events. Application of the techniques is illustrated using as an example processing of data on tests conducted with charged particle veto-detector prototype beam for photon spectrometer in the course of the ALICE experiment at the large hadron collider in the CERN. Spatial resolution of detector based on multiwire proportional chamber with signal cathode-down-scale readout constituted as follows: along anode wires - sigma sub x approx = 0.14 cm, across them sigma sub y approx = 0.15 cm

  6. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel ionization detector for use in X-ray tomography is described in detail. To achieve the ultimate resolution, the use of small detectors is necessary and, for ionization detectors, this implies using xenon gas at high pressure. Conventional small detectors can suffer from ''bowing'' but the present design overcomes their problems. (U.K.)

  7. Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) on Board Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, T; Endo, M; Endo, Y; Ezoe, Y; Fukazawa, Y; Hamaya, M; Hirakuri, S; Hong, S; Horii, M; Inoue, H; Isobe, N; Itoh, T; Iyomoto, N; Kamae, T; Kasama, D; Kataoka, J; Kato, H; Kawaharada, M; Kawano, N; Kawashima, K; Kawasoe, S; Kishishita, T; Kitaguchi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Kokubun, M; Kotoku, J; Kouda, M; Kubota, A; Kuroda, Y; Madejski, G; Makishima, K; Masukawa, K; Matsumoto, Y; Mitani, T; Miyawaki, R; Mizuno, T; Mori, K; Mori, M; Murashima, M; Murakami, T; Nakazawa, K; Niko, H; Nomachi, M; Okada, Y; Ohno, M; Oonuki, K; Ota, N; Ozawa, H; Sato, G; Shinoda, S; Sugiho, M; Suzuki, M; Taguchi, K; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, I; Takeda, S; Tamura, K; Tamura, T; Tanaka, T; Tanihata, C; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tominaga, S; Uchiyama, Y; Watanabe, S; Yamaoka, K; Yanagida, T; Yonetoku, D

    2006-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) on board Suzaku covers a wide energy range from 10 keV to 600 keV by combination of silicon PIN diodes and GSO scintillators. The HXD is designed to achieve an extremely low in-orbit back ground based on a combination of new techniques, including the concept of well-type active shield counter. With an effective area of 142 cm^2 at 20 keV and 273 cm2 at 150 keV, the background level at the sea level reached ~1x10^{-5} cts s^{-1} cm^{-2} keV^{-1} at 30 keV for the PI N diodes, and ~2x10^{-5} cts s^{-1} cm^{-2} keV^{-1} at 100 keV, and ~7x10^{-6} cts s^{-1} cm^{-2} keV^{-1} at 200 keV for the phoswich counter. Tight active shielding of the HXD results in a large array of guard counters surrounding the main detector parts. These anti-coincidence counters, made of ~4 cm thick BGO crystals, have a large effective area for sub-MeV to MeV gamma-rays. They work as an excellent gamma-ray burst monitor with limited angular resolution (~5 degree). The on-board signal-processing system and th...

  8. W-Tagging/B-Veto in SUSY search for squarks and gluinos in final states with missing transverse energy, jets, and one isolated lepton at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Reyer, Max

    2015-01-01

    This report recapitulates my stay at CERN as a Summer Student in a 13-week period from June 29 to September 25 in 2015. During that time, I was part of the CERN ATLAS Supersymmetry working group and working on a project exploiting W-tagging and B-veto techniques for the search for squarks and gluinos in final states with missing transverse energy, jets, and one isolated lepton. In this report, I will summarize my project and present results and conclusions. Apart from that, I will also write about my experience with the Summer Student lectures, the social aspects and the CERN Summer School in general.

  9. Taking a non-conflicting approach to the siting of a deep geological repository or Why introducing the right of 'veto' for the affected municipalities is not a good solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various communities, especially ecological initiatives, demand that municipalities affected by planned siting of a Czech deep geological repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes be given the right to veto such plans. It is shown that the legal tools available to municipalities for defending their legitimate interests within the current siting licensing procedure are sufficient and that the introduction of the right of veto into the Czech law would be a non-conceptual and unprecedented intervention into existing juridical and procedural institutes. (orig.)

  10. The plastic scintillator detector calibration circuit for DAMPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibo; Kong, Jie; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is being constructed as a scientific satellite to observe high energy cosmic rays in space. Plastic scintillator detector array (PSD), developed by Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMPCAS), is one of the most important parts in the payload of DAMPE which is mainly used for the study of dark matter. As an anti-coincidence detector, and a charged-particle identification detector, the PSD has a total of 360 electronic readout channels, which are distributed at four sides of PSD using four identical front end electronics (FEE). Each FEE reads out 90 charge signals output by the detector. A special calibration circuit is designed in FEE. FPGA is used for on-line control, enabling the calibration circuit to generate the pulse signal with known charge. The generated signal is then sent to the FEE for calibration and self-test. This circuit mainly consists of DAC, operation amplifier, analog switch, capacitance and resistance. By using controllable step pulse, the charge can be coupled to the charge measuring chip using the small capacitance. In order to fulfill the system's objective of large dynamic range, the FEE is required to have good linearity. Thus, the charge-controllable signal is needed to do sweep test on all channels in order to obtain the non-linear parameters for off-line correction. On the other hand, the FEE will run on the satellite for three years. The changes of the operational environment and the aging of devices will lead to parameter variation of the FEE, highlighting the need for regular calibration. The calibration signal generation circuit also has a compact structure and the ability to work normally, with the PSD system's voltage resolution being higher than 0.6%.

  11. Large area α-thermal phonon TES detector mediated by the quasi-particle diffusion signal for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low temperature detectors operated at about 0.1 K have achieved excellent spectral performances in the soft X-rays, becoming appealing for new challenging measurements with space missions in Astrophysics. In order to exploit their full sensitivity, it is necessary to minimize the background signals generated by the cosmic rays, i.e., high energy protons and light nuclei, that leave sizable amounts of energy in the same spectral window of the astrophysics signals. Detectors for GeV protons and nuclei operating few millimeters from the X-ray detector at 0.1 K can act as anti-coincidence to disentangle the fake signal of cosmic. Fast and large detectors are designed and fabricated. These operate by mixing the fast α-thermal phonon signal with the slow diffusive thermal ones. A greater uniformity in the response should be obtained using large shaped superconducting aluminium films that acts as phonon collectors: the quasi-particles created by high energy phonons diffuse along the film toward a small Ir TES sensor giving out to a fast rise time. Here we present the measurement of an operating prototype of a superconducting anticoincidence detector for the proposed space mission ATHENA+.

  12. A Preshower Photon Multiplicity Detector for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, M M; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Bharti, A; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Chattopadhyay, S; Dubey, A K; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Mazumdar, K; Ganti, M S; Ghosh, P; Sen-Gupta, A; Gupta, V K; Mahapatra, D P; Mangotra, L K; Mohanty, B; Nayak, T K; Phatak, S C; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Rao, N K; Sambyal, S S; Singaraju, R N; Sinha, B; Trivedi, M D; Viyogi, Y P

    1999-01-01

    A preshower Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) is proposed to be implemented in the ALICE experiment to study event shapes and isospin fluctuations. The PMD, to be mounted on the magnet door at 6m from the vertex, has fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 1.8veto (CPV) in front of the converter. The detector is based on a cellular honeycomb proportional chamber design for both the PMD and the CPV, and has a total of about 2 x 105 cels of 1 cm2 area. The honeycomb walls form a common cathode, operated at a high negative voltage. The signal is read out from the anode wires at ground potential using gassiplex electronics. The detector employs an inert gas mixture of Ar (70%) and CO2 (30%). Beam test results for a small prototype indicate that about 80% of the central volume of the detector has almost uniform efficiency (about 95%) for MIP detection. The average number of cells fired by a MIP is close to uni...

  13. Determination of the CKM-matrix element |V{sub ub}| from the electron energy spectrum measured in inclusive B→X{sub u}eν decay with the BABAR detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, Thomas

    2013-01-30

    This document presents a measurement of the CKM matrix-element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke in inclusive semileptonic B→X{sub u}eν events on a dataset of 471 million B anti B events recorded by the BABAR detector. Inclusive B→X{sub u}eν decays are selected by reconstructing a high energetic electron (positron). Background suppression is achieved by selecting events with electron (positron) energies near the kinematical allowed endpoint of B→X{sub u}eν decays. A B→D{sup *}eν veto is applied to further suppress background. This veto uses D{sup *} mesons which have been reconstructed with a partial reconstruction technique.

  14. Transmutation detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Kučera, Jan; Kůs, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 632, č. 1 (2011), s. 109-111. ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Transmutation detector * Activation method * Neutron detector * Neutron fluence Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  15. Gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Hans Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Detector physics and operational aspects of gaseous detectors will be discussed. Topics such as ionization processes, gas amplification and its limitations, pulse formation and decoupling, related electronics constraints, operational stability and ageing phenomena will be touched with the aim at some quantitative understanding.

  16. Metal Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  17. Laboratory tests on neutron shields for gamma-ray detectors in space

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, J; Hailey, C J

    2000-01-01

    Shields capable of suppressing neutron-induced background in new classes of gamma-ray detectors such as CdZnTe are becoming important for a variety of reasons. These include a high cross section for neutron interactions in new classes of detector materials as well as the inefficient vetoing of neutron-induced background in conventional active shields. We have previously demonstrated through Monte-Carlo simulations how our new approach, supershields, is superior to the monolithic, bi-atomic neutron shields which have been developed in the past. We report here on the first prototype models for supershields based on boron and hydrogen. We verify the performance of these supershields through laboratory experiments. These experimental results, as well as measurements of conventional monolithic neutron shields, are shown to be consistent with Monte-Carlo simulations. We discuss the implications of this experiment for designs of supershields in general and their application to future hard X-ray/gamma-ray experiments...

  18. Development of the detector system for β -decay spectroscopy at the KEK Isotope Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, S.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Jung, H. S.; Oyaizu, M.; Mukai, M.; Jeong, S. C.; Ozawa, A.

    2016-06-01

    The KEK Isotope Separation System has been developed to study the β -decay properties of the neutron-rich nuclei around the neutron magic number N = 126. These properties are essential for understanding the origin of the third peak in the r-process element abundance pattern. The detector system for β -decay spectroscopy at the KEK Isotope Separation System should have high detection efficiency for low-energy β -rays, and should be operated under a low-background environment. The detector system of the KEK Isotope Separation System consists of β -ray telescopes and a tape transport system. The solid angle covered by the β -ray telescopes is as large as 75% of 4 π in total. The Qβ -value dependence of the detection efficiency was estimated by Geant4 simulation. The background rate was 0.09 cps using a veto counter system and Pb shields. This background rate allows us to measure the lifetime of 202Os.

  19. Studies of jet cross-sections and production properties with the ATLAS and CMS detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, Nuno; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of jet production in pp collisions have been measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The jet production cross sections probe the dynamics of QCD and can constrain the parton proton structure. Double-differential cross sections for inclusive, di-, three- and four-jet final states are measured at different centre-of-mass energies of pp collisions with the ATLAS detector and are compared to expectations based on NLO QCD calculations. The distribution of the jet charge has been measured in dijet events using pp collision data at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector. Jet-jet energy correlations are sensitive to the strong coupling constant. Measurements of multi-jet systems with a veto on additional jets, probe QCD radiation effects. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime. Studies of large-radius jet properties including N-subjettines, splitting scales and other jet substructure related quantities will be presented.

  20. Signals induced by charge-trapping in EDELWEISS FID detectors: analytical modeling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, Q; Augier, C; Benoît, A; Bergé, L; Billard, J; Blümer, J; de Boissière, T; Broniatowski, A; Camus, P; Cazes, A; Chapellier, M; Charlieux, F; Dumoulin, L; Eitel, K; Foerster, N; Fourches, N; Gascon, J; Giuliani, A; Gros, M; Hehn, L; Heuermann, G; Juillard, A; De Jésus, M; Kleifges, M; Kozlov, V; Kraus, H; Kudryavtsev, V A; Kéfélian, C; Le-Sueur, H; Lin, J; Marnieros, S; Navick, X -F; Nones, C; Olivieri, E; Pari, P; Paul, B; Piro, M -C; Poda, D; Queguiner, E; Rozov, S; Sanglard, V; Schmidt, B; Scorza, S; Siebenborn, B; Tcherniakhovski, D; Vagneron, L; Weber, M; Yakushev, E

    2016-01-01

    The EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter search experiment uses cryogenic HP-Ge detectors Fully covered with Inter-Digitized electrodes (FID). They are operated at low fields ($<1\\;\\mathrm{V/cm}$), and as a consequence charge-carrier trapping significantly affects both the ionization and heat energy measurements. This paper describes an analytical model of the signals induced by trapped charges in FID detectors based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. It is used to demonstrate that veto electrodes, initially designed for the sole purpose of surface event rejection, can be used to provide a sensitivity to the depth of the energy deposits, characterize the trapping in the crystals, perform heat and ionization energy corrections and improve the ionization baseline resolutions. These procedures are applied successfully to actual data.

  1. Realization of the low background neutrino detector Double Chooz. From the development of a high-purity liquid and gas handling concept to first neutrino data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfahler, Patrick

    2012-12-17

    Neutrino physics is one of the most vivid fields in particle physics. Within this field, neutrino oscillations are of special interest as they allow to determine driving oscillation parameters, which are collected as mixing angles in the leptonic mixing matrix. The exact knowledge of these parameters is the main key for the investigation of new physics beyond the currently known Standard Model of particle physics. The Double Chooz experiment is one of three reactor disappearance experiments currently taking data, which recently succeeded to discover a non-zero value for the last neutrino mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13}. As successor of the CHOOZ experiment, Double Chooz will use two detectors with improved design, each of them now composed of four concentrically nested detector vessels each filled with different detector liquid. The integrity of this multi-layered structure and the quality of the used detector liquids are essential for the success of the experiment. Within this frame, the here presented work describes the production of two detector liquids, the filling and handling of the Double Chooz far detector and the installation of all necessary hardware components therefore. In order to meet the strict requirements existing for the detector liquids, all components were individually selected in an extensive material selection process at TUM, which compared samples from different companies for their key properties: density, transparency, light yield and radio purity. Based on these measurements, the composition of muon veto scintillator and buffer liquid were determined. For the production of the detector liquids, a simple surface building close to the far detector site was upgraded into a large-scale storage and mixing facility, which allowed to separately, mix, handle and store 90 m{sup 3} of muon veto scintillator and 110 m{sup 3} of buffer liquid. For the muon veto scintillator, a master-solution composed of 4800 l LAB, 180 kg PPO and 1.8 kg of bis/MSB was

  2. Realization of the low background neutrino detector Double Chooz. From the development of a high-purity liquid and gas handling concept to first neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrino physics is one of the most vivid fields in particle physics. Within this field, neutrino oscillations are of special interest as they allow to determine driving oscillation parameters, which are collected as mixing angles in the leptonic mixing matrix. The exact knowledge of these parameters is the main key for the investigation of new physics beyond the currently known Standard Model of particle physics. The Double Chooz experiment is one of three reactor disappearance experiments currently taking data, which recently succeeded to discover a non-zero value for the last neutrino mixing angle Θ13. As successor of the CHOOZ experiment, Double Chooz will use two detectors with improved design, each of them now composed of four concentrically nested detector vessels each filled with different detector liquid. The integrity of this multi-layered structure and the quality of the used detector liquids are essential for the success of the experiment. Within this frame, the here presented work describes the production of two detector liquids, the filling and handling of the Double Chooz far detector and the installation of all necessary hardware components therefore. In order to meet the strict requirements existing for the detector liquids, all components were individually selected in an extensive material selection process at TUM, which compared samples from different companies for their key properties: density, transparency, light yield and radio purity. Based on these measurements, the composition of muon veto scintillator and buffer liquid were determined. For the production of the detector liquids, a simple surface building close to the far detector site was upgraded into a large-scale storage and mixing facility, which allowed to separately, mix, handle and store 90 m3 of muon veto scintillator and 110 m3 of buffer liquid. For the muon veto scintillator, a master-solution composed of 4800 l LAB, 180 kg PPO and 1.8 kg of bis/MSB was produced and, together

  3. MS Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

    2005-11-01

    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

  4. Balloon Flight Background Measurement with Actively-Shielded Planar and Imaging CZT Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Jenkins, J A; Perrin, M; Murray, R; Grindlay, J E

    2001-01-01

    We present results from the flight of two prototype CZT detectors on a scientific balloon payload in September 2000. The first detector, referred to as ``CZT1,'' consisted of a 10 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm CZT crystal with a single gold planar electrode readout. This detector was shielded by a combination of a passive collimator surrounded by plastic scintillator and a thick BGO crystal in the rear. The second detector, ``CZT2,'' comprised two 10 mm x 10 mm x 5 mm CZT crystals, one made of eV Products high pressure Bridgman material and the other of IMARAD horizontal Bridgman material, each fashioned with a 4 x 4 array of gold pixels on a 2.5 mm pitch. The pixellated detectors were flip-chip-mounted side by side and read out by a 32-channel ASIC. This detector was also shielded by a passive/plastic collimator in the front, but used only additional passive/plastic shielding in the rear. Both experiments were flown from Ft. Sumner, NM on September 19, 2000 on a 24 hour balloon flight. CZT1 recorded a non-vetoed backgro...

  5. Photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission

  6. Photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  7. Simulation of background reduction and Compton depression in low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, ShunLi; Wu, ZhenZhong; Xie, YuGuang; Yu, BoXiang; Wang, ZhiGang; Fang, Jian; Sun, XiLei; Sun, LiJun; Liu, YingBiao; Gao, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Li; Lv, JunGuang; Hu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    High-purity germanium detectors are well suited to analysis the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside of the probe to shield gammas, outmost is a plastic scintillator to veto the cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector can improve the Peak-to-Compton ratio. Using the GEANT4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of the detectors to reach the design indexes. A group of experimental data from a HPGe spectrometer in using were used to compare with the simulation. As to new HPGe Detector simulation, considering the different thickness of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal thickness is 5.5cm, and the Peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. As the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0...

  8. Simulation of background reduction and Compton suppression in a low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shun-Li; Cai, Xiao; Wu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Fang, Jian; Sun, Xi-Lei; Sun, Li-Jun; Liu, Ying-Biao; Gao, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Li; Lü, Jun-Guang; Hu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are well suited to analyse the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background for an ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside the probe to shield from gamma radiation, with an outer plastic scintillator to veto cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector to improve the peak-to-Compton ratio. Using Geant4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of these detectors to reach the design requirements. A set of experimental data from an existing HPGe spectrometer was used to compare with the simulation. For the future low-background HPGe detector simulation, considering different thicknesses of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal BGO thickness is 5.5 cm, and the peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. In the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0024 cps/100 cm3 Ge (50 keV-2.8 MeV), which is about 10-5 of the environmental background.

  9. Calorimeter detectors

    CERN Document Server

    de Barbaro, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Although the instantaneous and integrated luminosity in HL-LHC will be far higher than the LHC detectors were originally designed for, the Barrel calorimeters of the four experiments are expected to continue to perform well  throughout the Phase II program. The conditions for the End-Cap calorimeters are far more challenging and whilst some detectors will require relatively modest changes, others require far more substantial upgrades. We present the results of longevity and performance studies for the calorimeter systems of the four main LHC experiments and outline the upgrade options under consideration. We include a discussion of the R&D required to make the final technology choices for the upgraded detectors.

  10. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  11. MAMA Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Work carried out under this grant led to fundamental discoveries and over one hundred publications in the scientific literature. Fundamental developments in instrumentation were made including all the instrumentation on the EUVE satellite, the invention of a whole new type of grazing instrument spectrometer and the development of fundamentally new photon counting detectors including the Wedge and Strip used on EUVE and many other missions and the Time Delay detector used on OREFUS and FUSE. The Wedge and Strip and Time Delay detectors were developed under this grant for less than two million dollars and have been used in numerous missions most recently for the FUSE mission. In addition, a fundamentally new type of diffuse spectrometer has been developed under this grant which has been used in instrumentation on the MMSAT spacecraft and the Lewis spacecraft. Plans are underway to use this instrumentation on several other missions as well.

  12. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objects of the invention are, first, to provide an ionization detector having a three chamber structure characterised by a built-in feedback path that regeneratively stabilizes the operating point of the detector. Secondly, to provide a specially designed chamber construction including electrodes shaped so as to enhance the efficiency of the chamber and reduce ion recombination. The ionization chamber described has a chamber structure with a first closed chamber and a second chamber able to receive gases from outside. These two chambers have a common boundary including a common electrode. One electrode associated with the second chamber, and one within the first chamber, define a third chamber within the first chamber allowing an ionization path between. A radioactive source provides ionizing radiation for all three chambers and establishes an ionization current. There is a detector coupled to the common electrode for detecting changes in this current. (U.K.)

  13. BES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e+e- annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

  14. Monte-Carlo optimisation of a Compton suppression system for use with a broad-energy HPGe detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, R.; Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.; Regan, P. H.

    2014-10-01

    Monte-Carlo simulations are used to evaluate and optimise multiple components of a Compton Suppression System based upon a Broad-energy HPGe primary detector. Several materials for the secondary crystal are evaluated, including NaI(Tl), BGO and LaBr3(Ce). BGO was found to be the most effective across the required energy range, with the sizes of the proposed veto detector then optimised to extract the maximum performance for a given volume of material. Suppression factors are calculated for a range of nuclides (both single and cascade emitters) with improvements of 2 for the Compton Suppression Factors, and 10 for the continuum reduction when compared to the Compton suppression system currently in use. This equates to a reduction in the continuum by up to a factor of ~240 for radionuclides such as 60Co, which is crucial for the detection of low-energy, low-activity γ emitters typically swamped by such a continuum.

  15. Observations on the Stanford 4800 kg gravity wave detector with a cosmic ray monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravitational radiation was first predicted in 1916 by A. Einstein as a consequence of the theory of general relativity. The resonant acoustic detector, invented in 1960 by J. Weber, promises the best change at present of direct observation of gravitational radiation. The group at Stanford University has constructed a 4800 kg cryogenic detector, which is the most sensitive detector successfully operated to date. In this dissertation, data are presented from the 1985 run of 36.8 days aggregate collection time. Over the full bandwidth of approximately 13 Hz, the optimum detector noise temperature was found to be 8 mK when the system was operated at 4.3 K. An actual filter was implemented over a 5 Hz bandwidth which yielded the filtered noise temperature of 15 mK. Filtering over the entire bandwidth and operation of a dilution refrigerator at 1 K should lower the noise temperature to below 3 mK. In the second half of this dissertation, the effect of cosmic rays on a gravity wave bar detector is considered. A one-dimensional thermoacoustic model is used to predict the size of the signal. Measurable effects are restricted to rarer events which may easily be vetoed as gravity wave candidates

  16. Detector recycling leads NA62 to new standards

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 collaboration has just installed the first eight (out of 12) Large Angle Veto detectors for the accurate identification of photons. These subdetectors will re-use 3000 lead glass crystals with attached photomultipliers from the OPAL experiment at LEP – CERN’s former accelerator. This will give a second life to the crystals and is a great opportunity for the collaboration to save money while ensuring the required performance.   One of the LAV stations is lowered into the NA62 decay volume. The accurate identification of photons is a vital requirement of the whole NA62 physics programme. A failure in the system could lead to signals that mimic the very rare processes that the experiment is looking for, jeopardising the whole measurement. While it has not compromised on the overall performance of its detector, the NA62 collaboration has welcomed the challenge of re-using some existing equipment rather than developing new, more expensive solutions.  The tho...

  17. A Study of Active Shielding Optimized for 1-80 keV Wide-Band X-ray Detector in Space

    CERN Document Server

    Furuta, Yoshihiro; Hiraga, Junko S; Sasano, Makoto; Murakami, Hiroaki; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Active shielding is an effective technique to reduce background signals in hard X-ray detectors and to enable observing darker sources with high sensitivity in space. Usually the main detector is covered with some shield detectors made of scintillator crystals such as BGO (Bi$_4$Ge$_3$O$_{12}$), and the background signals are filtered out using anti-coincidence among them. Japanese X-ray observing satellites "Suzaku" and "ASTRO-H" employed this technique in their hard X-ray instruments observing at > 10 keV. In the next generation X-ray satellites, such as the NGHXT proposal, a single hybrid detector is expected to cover both soft (1-10 keV) and hard (> 10 keV) X-rays for effectiveness. However, present active shielding is not optimized for the soft X-ray band, 1-10 keV. For example, Bi and Ge, which are contained in BGO, have their fluorescence emission lines around 10 keV. These lines appear in the background spectra obtained by ASTRO-H Hard X-ray Imager, which are non-negligible in its observation energy b...

  18. Development of a portable triple silicon detector telescope for beta spectroscopy and skin dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helt-Hansen, J

    2000-11-01

    It is now recognized that beta radiation can be a significant radiation problem for exposure of the skin. There is thus a need for a portable and rugged active beta dosemeter-spectrometer to carry out immediate measurements of doses and energies of beta particles even in the presence of photon radiation. The main objective of this report is to describe the development of such an instrument. A beta-spectrometer has been developed consisting of three silicon surface barrier detectors with the thickness: 50{mu}m/150{mu}m/7000{mu}m covered by a 2 {mu}m thick titanium window. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from 50 keV to 3.5 MeV. The spectrometer is characterized by a compact low weight design, achieved by digital signal processing beginning at an early stage in the signal chain. 255 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The spectrometer is controlled by a laptop computer, which also handles all subsequent data analysis. By use of coincidence/anti-coincidence considerations of the absorbed energy in the three detector elements, counts caused by electrons are separated from those originating from photons. The electron energy distribution is multiplied by a set of conversion coefficients to obtain the dose at 0.07 mm tissue. Monte Carlo calculations has been used to derive the conversion coefficients and to investigate the influence of noise and the design of detector assembly on the performance of the spectrometer. This report describes the development of the spectrometer and its mode of operation, followed by a description of the Monte Carlo calculations carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients. Finally is the capability of the telescope spectrometer to measure beta and photon spectra as well as beta dose rates in pure beta and mixed beta/photon radiation fields described. (au)

  19. Development of a portable triple silicon detector telescope for beta spectroscopy and skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now recognized that beta radiation can be a significant radiation problem for exposure of the skin. There is thus a need for a portable and rugged active beta dosemeter-spectrometer to carry out immediate measurements of doses and energies of beta particles even in the presence of photon radiation. The main objective of this report is to describe the development of such an instrument. A beta-spectrometer has been developed consisting of three silicon surface barrier detectors with the thickness: 50μm/150μm/7000μm covered by a 2 μm thick titanium window. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from 50 keV to 3.5 MeV. The spectrometer is characterized by a compact low weight design, achieved by digital signal processing beginning at an early stage in the signal chain. 255 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The spectrometer is controlled by a laptop computer, which also handles all subsequent data analysis. By use of coincidence/anti-coincidence considerations of the absorbed energy in the three detector elements, counts caused by electrons are separated from those originating from photons. The electron energy distribution is multiplied by a set of conversion coefficients to obtain the dose at 0.07 mm tissue. Monte Carlo calculations has been used to derive the conversion coefficients and to investigate the influence of noise and the design of detector assembly on the performance of the spectrometer. This report describes the development of the spectrometer and its mode of operation, followed by a description of the Monte Carlo calculations carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients. Finally is the capability of the telescope spectrometer to measure beta and photon spectra as well as beta dose rates in pure beta and mixed beta/photon radiation fields described. (au)

  20. Development of high performance Avalanche Photodiodes and dedicated analog systems for HXI/SGD detectors onboard the Astro-H mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector are being developed as onboard instruments for the Astro-H mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2014. In both detectors, BGO scintillators play key roles in achieving high sensitivity in low Earth orbit (LEO), by generating active veto signals to reject cosmic-ray events and gamma-ray backgrounds from radio-activated detector materials. In order to maximize background rejection power, it is also important to minimize the energy threshold of this shield. As a readout sensor of weak scintillation light from a number of BGO crystals in a complicated detector system, high performance, reverse-type Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs), with an effective area of 10×10mm2 are being employed, instead of bulky photomultiplier tubes (PMTs).Another advantage of using APDs is their low power consumption, although the relatively low gain of APDs (compared to conventional PMTs) requires dedicated analog circuits for noise suppression. In this paper, we report on the development and performance of APD detectors specifically designed for the Astro-H mission. In addition to APD performance, various environmental tests, including radiation hardness and qualification thermal cycling, will be described in detail. Moreover, a dedicated charge sensitive amplifier and analog filters are newly developed and tested here to optimize the performance of APDs to activate fast veto signals within a few μs from the BGO trigger. We will also report on overall performance testing of a prototype BGO detector system that mimics the data acquisition system onboard Astro-H.

  1. Development of self-TOF neutron detector and its application to concrete and iron shielding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type detector, called 'Self-TOF detector' has been developed for high energy neutron spectrometry behind a shield. The detector consists of a veto counter, a set of radiators with 20 thin detectors, a start counter, and a stop counter of nine segments, which are set on a plane perpendicular to the neutron beam. An in-coming neutron produces charged particles in the radiator, then the charged particles emitted in the forward direction reach the stop counter through the start counter. The energy of a charged particle is determined by using the time-of-flight method between the start and stop counters. In this detector, we selected only proton events from H(n,p) and C(n,p) reactions and the proton energy spectrum was converted into the neutron energy spectrum by unfolding with the detector response function. The measurement of the detector response function for high energy neutrons was done at the HIMAC (Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) of NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences), Japan. The neutrons were produced by bombarding 400 MeV/nucleon C ion and 800 MeV/nucleon Si ion on thick (stopping-length) carbon targets. The concrete and iron shielding experiments were also done at HIMAC. We get the neutron spectra by using the FERDO-U unfolding code with the measured response functions. Since in this Self-TOF detector the proton energy spectra data were used instead of the usual light output data, we could measure higher energy protons which were produced by higher energy neutrons beyond the uppermost energy coming from the finite detector length. The thus-obtained neutron spectra behind the shield were compared with the LAHET code. The agreement between experiment and calculation was rather good. (author)

  2. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C.; Jardret; Vincent D.

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  3. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian

    1998-01-01

    The lecture series will present and overview of the basic techniques and underlying physical principles of particle detectors, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, mainly from the field of collider experiments, will demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. After and introduction we shall concentrate on particle tracking. Wire chambers, drift chambers, micro gaseous tracking devices and solid state trackers will be discussed. It follows and overview of scintillators, photon detection, fiber tracking and nuclear emulsions. One lecture will deal with the various techniques of calorimetry. Finally we shall focus on methods developed for particle identification. These comprise specific energy loss, time of flight Cherenkov and transition radiation detectors.

  4. Vertex based missing mass calculator for 3-prong hadronically decaying tau leptons in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Maddocks, Harvey

    In this thesis my personal contributions to the ATLAS experiment are presented, these consist of studies and analyses relating to tau leptons. The first main section contains work on the identification of hadronically decaying tau leptons, and my specific contribution the electron veto. This work involved improving the choice of variables to discriminate against electrons that had been incorrectly identified as tau leptons. These variables were optimised to be robust against increasing pile-up, which is present in this data period. The resulting efficiencies are independent of this pile-up. The second main section contains an analysis of Z → τ τ decays, my specific contribution was the calculation of the detector acceptance factors and systematics. The third, and final section contains an analysis of the performance of a new vertex based missing mass calculator for 3-prong hadronically decaying tau leptons. It was found that in its current state it performs just as well as the existing methods. However it...

  5. Operation of CdZnTe Semiconductor Detectors in Liquid Scintillator for the COBRA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldorf, Christian

    2015-08-15

    COBRA, the Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride O-neutrino double-Beta Research Apparatus, is an experiment aiming for the measurement of the neutrinoless double beta decay with several isotopes, in particular {sup 116}Cd, {sup 106}Cd and {sup 130}Te. A highly granular large scale experiment with about 400 kg of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors is currently under development. To provide evidence for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 116}Cd, a background rate in the order of 10{sup -3} counts/keV/kg/a is needed to achieve the required half-life sensitivity of at least 2 . 10{sup 26} years. To reach this target, the detectors have to be operated in a highly pure environment, shielded from external radiation. Liquid scintillator is a promising candidate as a circum fluent replacement for the currently used lacquer. Next to the function as highly pure passivation material, liquid scintillator also acts as a neutron shield and active veto for external gammas. Within this thesis, the design, construction and assembly of a test set-up is described. The operation of four CdZnTe detectors after several years of storage in liquid scintillator is demonstrated. Next to extensive material compatibility tests prior to the assembly, the commissioning of the set-up and the characterization of the detectors are shown. Finally, results concerning the background reduction capability of liquid scintillator and the detection of cosmic muons are presented and compared to a Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. Commissioning and performance studies of a proton recoil detector at the COMPASS-II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerg, Philipp; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Schopferer, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The COMPASS-II experiment is a fixed target experiment situated at CERN. A tertiary myon beam from the SPS scattered of protons from a liquid hydrogen target is used to measure Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Hard Exclusive Meson Production (HEMP). These processes offer a unique way to determine Generalized Parton Distributions, which are related to the total angular momentum of quarks, antiquarks and gluons in the nucleon by Ji's Sum Rule. One of the major parts of the COMPASS-II upgrade is the CAMERA detector. CAMERA is a proton recoil detector surrounding the COMPASS-II liquid hydrogen target. Its purpose is to measure the recoiled target proton in DVCS and HEMP reactions and viz to act as a veto to ensure the exclusivity of the measurement. The talk gives an outline of the detector and its readout electronics. It is focused on the commissioning and performance of the CAMERA detector and gives a brief insight into the ongoing DVCS analysis.

  7. High photopeak efficiency gamma-ray detector for upcoming Laue Lens missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. J.; Dean, A. J.; Bird, A. J.

    2006-06-01

    We present the design for a new detector configuration, specifically tailored to suit the needs of prospective Laue Lens Gamma-ray astronomy missions in the 10keV to 1MeV energy range. A Laue Lens uses transmission diffraction through crystal planes to focus the incoming gamma-rays. Diffraction is highly energy dependant and in order to recreate high resolution images, very accurate measurements of the total energy of the incident photon are necessary, as well as good spatial resolution. The aim is to absorb all the Compton scattered products of the incoming photons. The design uses a cavity geometry with the main germanium pixilated imaging detector embedded position sensitive cavity. The germanium is then enclosed in a veto to reduce background and to clean the imaging of unwanted non-photopeak events. This allows the majority of backscattered photons to be captured producing a detector with a photopeak efficiency of ~90% at 511keV and millimetric spatial resolution. The detector system has the added advantage that it functions extremely efficiently as a gamma-ray polarimeter.

  8. Commissioning and performance studies of a proton recoil detector at the COMPASS-II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COMPASS-II experiment is a fixed target experiment situated at CERN. A tertiary myon beam from the SPS scattered of protons from a liquid hydrogen target is used to measure Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Hard Exclusive Meson Production (HEMP). These processes offer a unique way to determine Generalized Parton Distributions, which are related to the total angular momentum of quarks, antiquarks and gluons in the nucleon by Ji's Sum Rule. One of the major parts of the COMPASS-II upgrade is the CAMERA detector. CAMERA is a proton recoil detector surrounding the COMPASS-II liquid hydrogen target. Its purpose is to measure the recoiled target proton in DVCS and HEMP reactions and viz to act as a veto to ensure the exclusivity of the measurement. The talk gives an outline of the detector and its readout electronics. It is focused on the commissioning and performance of the CAMERA detector and gives a brief insight into the ongoing DVCS analysis.

  9. LArGe: active background suppression using argon scintillation for the GERDA 0νββ-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Budjas, D.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Barnabe-Heider, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Cattadori, C. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milan (Italy); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institut for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Joint Institut for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center Kurchatov Institut, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heisel, M.; Smolnikov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Junker, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Joint Institut for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pelczar, K. [Jagellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Zuzel, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Jagellonian University, Cracow (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the GERDA experiment. Similar to GERDA, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m{sup 3}, 1.4tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The scintillation signals are used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12 - 4.6) x 10{sup -2} cts/(keV kg year) (90 % C.L.), which is at the level of GERDA Phase I. Furthermore, for the first time we monitor the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (parallel to GERDA), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. These results show the effectivity of an active liquid argon veto in an ultra-low background environment. As a consequence, the implementation of a liquid argon veto in GERDA Phase II is pursued. (orig.)

  10. LArGe: active background suppression using argon scintillation for the Gerda 0ν β β -experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Barnabé-Heider, M.; Budjáš, D.; Cattadori, C.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Junker, M.; Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Pelczar, K.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-10-01

    LArGe is a Gerda low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the Gerda experiment. Similar to Gerda, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m^3, 1.4 tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The scintillation signals are used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to Gerda. Suppression factors of a few times 10^3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6)× 10^{-2} cts/(keV kg year) (90 % C.L.), which is at the level of Gerda Phase I. Furthermore, for the first time we monitor the natural ^{42}Ar abundance (parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2ν β β -decay in natural germanium. These results show the effectivity of an active liquid argon veto in an ultra-low background environment. As a consequence, the implementation of a liquid argon veto in Gerda Phase II is pursued.

  11. LArGe: active background suppression using argon scintillation for the GERDA 0νββ-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the GERDA experiment. Similar to GERDA, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m3, 1.4tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The scintillation signals are used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 103 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12 - 4.6) x 10-2 cts/(keV kg year) (90 % C.L.), which is at the level of GERDA Phase I. Furthermore, for the first time we monitor the natural 42Ar abundance (parallel to GERDA), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. These results show the effectivity of an active liquid argon veto in an ultra-low background environment. As a consequence, the implementation of a liquid argon veto in GERDA Phase II is pursued. (orig.)

  12. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  13. Low background germanium detector technology from Canberra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    require much lower detection limits and much longer counting times , are mainly hindered by artifacts that are created by the interaction of the counting system with cosmic particles. A solution that is used then is to place the shield and detector in a deep underground location or with a cosmic-veto shield on top of the lead shield. At these levels, other phenomena become visible that are otherwise obscured by the cosmic background: - trace-amount of radio-impurities in the construction materials, such as activity in the front-end electronic components, 210Pb activity coming from the solderings used, etc; - activation products of copper and germanium that have grown in during their stay above ground. The measures to overcome these 'contaminants' can go very far, including avoiding soldering, detector assembly in extreme clean room environments and hiding electronic components behind massive internal shielding or using very special materials like ultra-high purity endcaps and holders, very old steel and lead parts and using only fresh germanium and copper that is stored deep underground at all (practical) times. These solutions are engineering intensive, require the input and help from the user, and are obviously much more expensive that the standard ultralow-background solutions. Other papers on this conference show that using such extreme measures, detection limits as low as a few μBq per kg of material can be obtained. (author)

  14. Low background Germanium detector technology from Canberra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    detection limits and much longer counting times, are mainly hind ered by artefacts that are created by the interaction of the counting system with cosmic particles. A solution that is used then is to place the shield and detector in a deep underground location or with a cosmic-veto shield on top of the lead shield. At these levels, other phenomena become visible that are otherwise obscured by the cosmic background: - trace-amount of radio-impurities in the construction materials, such as activity in the front-end electronic components, 210Pb activity coming from the solderings used, etc.; - activation products of copper and germanium that have grown in during their stay above ground. The measures to overcome these 'contaminants' can go very far, including avoiding soldering, detector assembly in extreme clean room environments and hiding electronic components behind massive internal shielding or using very special materials like ultra-high purity endcaps and holders, very old steel and lead parts and using only fresh germanium and copper that is stored deep underground at all (practical) times. These solutions are engineering intensive, require the input and help from the user, and are obviously much more expensive that the standard ultralow-background solutions. Other papers on this conference show that using such extreme measures, detection limits as low as a few μBq per kg of material can be obtained. (author)

  15. Search for supersymmetry in multilepton events with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for Supersymmetry in events with three leptons (electrons or muons) and missing transverse momentum is presented. The observation of a significant excess of events with three leptons in the final state with respect to the prediction of the Standard Model would be a hint of New Physics. A sample with an integrated luminosity of L=2.06 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV delivered by the LHC and recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2011 is used. Special focus is placed on the composition of the Standard Model background and the measurement of misidentification rates of electrons and muons. The misidentification rates are determined from Monte Carlo simulated samples. The misidentification rates obtained for electrons yield values between ∝ 20% and ∝ 6%, depending on the transverse momentum and the pseudorapidity of the electrons, while for muons values between ∝ 42% and ∝ 10%, depending on the transverse momentum of the muons, are obtained. Two different selections are investigated, one selection vetoing events with the presence of Z bosons, the other selection requiring the presence of a Z boson. The observations of 32 events with an expectation of 26±5 events due to processes of the Standard Model and 95 events with an expectation of 72±15 events, respectively, are interpreted in a phenomenological Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and in simplified supersymmetric models. Limits are placed in the mass parameter space of these models.

  16. A high energy photon detector system in compact form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a high energy photon detector system in compact form for use in experiments of high energy physics is described, and the results of its characteristics calibrated using converted electron beams and a pair spectrometer are reported. This system consists of a total absorption lead glass Cerenkov counter, twenty hodoscope arrays for the vertical and the horizontal directions respectively, a lead plate for the conversion of γ-rays into electron-positron pairs, veto counters, photon hardener, and lead blocks for shieldings and collimation. The spatial resolution of the hodoscope is 15 mm for each direction, covering 301 x 301 mm2 area. The energy resolution of the total absorption lead glass Cerenkov counter, whose volume is 30 x 30 x 30 cm3, is typically 18 % (FWHM) for the incident electron energy of 500 MeV, and it can be expressed with a relation of ΔE/E = 3.94 Esup(-1/2). (E in MeV). (auth.)

  17. The HERMES Recoil Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Weilin [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The HERMES Collaboration at HERA constructed and installed a new Recoil Detector to upgrade the existed spectrometer. This detector is designed to measure recoil protons in hard exclusive processes which provide access to the orbital angular momentum of quarks. The Recoil Detector consists of a silicon detector surrounding the target cell inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and a photon detector. All three detectors are located inside a solenoidal magnet which provides a 1 T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector was installed in January 2006 and data taking lasted until the end of HERA operation in June 2007. Results on the detector performance will be presented here.

  18. Improved germanium well detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germanium well detectors with metal surface barrier contact are comparable for general use with conventional germanium coaxial detectors. They offer very high sensitivity, the highest presently available

  19. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  20. Monitoring Nuclear Reactors with Antineutrino Detectors: The ANGRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactors are intense source of antineutrinos and the thermal power released in the fission process is directly related to the emitted antineutrino flux. As antineutrinos interact very weekly with matter and escape the reactor containment without any significant change in their number, measuring the antineutrino flux can give quasi real time information on the reactor status (on/off) and thermal power. Furthermore as the amount of fissile elements change during the burn up of the nuclear fuel and each fissile isotope has a characteristic antineutrino energy spectrum, measuring the antineutrino energy spectrum escaping the reactor can give also information on the composition of the nuclear fuel. These unique features make antineutrino detectors good candidates to become in the near future a new safeguards tool for monitoring nuclear reactors through counting rates and spectral antineutrino measurements. We will present the status of the ANGRA Neutrinos project, aimed at developing an antineutrino detector for monitoring nuclear reactor activity. The Angra experiment will be deployed at the Brazilian nuclear power plant Angra II. A water Cherenkov detector of one ton target will be placed in a commercial container just outside the reactor containment, about 30 m of the reactor core. The 4 GW thermal power of the Angra II reactor will provide a few thousand antineutrino inverse beta decay interactions per day. The main challenge of the experiment will be to overcome the very high cosmic ray induced background at sea level, consisting mainly of muons, neutrons, gammas and electrons. We have estimated a muon flux of the order of 350 Hz and a neutron flux of about 4 Hz (left after the polyethylene shielding) in the target region. To overcome the background the detector will consist of three subsystems: 1) a muon veto 99% efficient placed in the outer most detector layer; 2) a neutron shield 30cm thick consisting of polyethylene sheets; 3) a central detector

  1. A new detector for delayed-neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the multi-detector for beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy TONNERRE is presented. Following a brief discussion of the motivations behind the project and the design of the array, the results of in-beam tests are provided and some perspectives concerning future physics directions are presented. The characteristics of the array were first determined experimentally via preliminary tests with sources. Of particular interest is the intrinsic detection efficiency of a module. The results obtained with a fission source (252 Cf) agreed reasonably well with simulations. It should be noted, however, that such sources exhibit a continuous spectrum. In order, to evaluate the performance of TONNERRE in its complete configuration and under beam conditions the GANIL Program Advisory Committee attributed 8 UT for tests.The Nuclei 15 B, 16 C and 17 N, witch exhibit a number of well established decay branches with relatively narrow widths, were selected for measuring the intrinsic detection efficiency in the range En=0.8-5 MeV. Moreover to evaluate the multi-neutron detection capability of the array, a beam of 11 Li(P2n = 4%) was also employed. In addition, shadowing, etc... of modules could also be explored. These tests were performed in October 1998 with of a high energy (77 MeV/nucleon) 18 O primary beam on the LISE3 separator. The identification of the incoming nuclei was performed using a thin silicon surface barrier detector and standard E-TOF techniques. A position sensitive Si detector and aluminium energy degrader were located just forward of the implantation plastic and allowed the focusing and implantation depths of the secondary beams to be optimised. A veto detector was placed after the implantation detector. In addition two high purity Ge detectors were used to measure X-ray transitions. Data were acquired for the four nuclei noted above. The energy resolution is about 90 keV at 1 MeV. It should be noted that the β efficiency (≅10%) to be compared to

  2. Development of signal processing system of avalanche photo diode for space observations by Astro-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, M., E-mail: ohno@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8516 (Japan); Goto, K.; Hanabata, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Fukazawa, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8516 (Japan); Yoshino, M.; Saito, T.; Nakamori, T.; Kataoka, J. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Sasano, M.; Torii, S.; Uchiyama, H.; Nakazawa, K. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Watanabe, S.; Kokubun, M.; Ohta, M.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautial Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5120 (Japan); Tajima, H. [Cosmic-ray Research Facility, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2013-01-21

    Astro-H is the sixth Japanese X-ray space observatory which will be launched in 2014. Two of onboard instruments of Astro-H, Hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector are surrounded by many number of large Bismuth Germanate (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}; BGO) scintillators. Optimum readout system of scintillation lights from these BGOs are essential to reduce the background signals and achieve high performance for main detectors because most of gamma-rays from out of field-of-view of main detectors or radio-isotopes produced inside them due to activation can be eliminated by anti-coincidence technique using BGO signals. We apply Avalanche Photo Diode (APD) for light sensor of these BGO detectors since their compactness and high quantum efficiency make it easy to design such large number of BGO detector system. For signal processing from APDs, digital filter and other trigger logics on the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used instead of discrete analog circuits due to limitation of circuit implementation area on spacecraft. For efficient observations, we have to achieve as low threshold of anti-coincidence signal as possible by utilizing the digital filtering. In addition, such anti-coincident signals should be sent to the main detector within 5μs to make it in time to veto the A–D conversion. Considering this requirement and constraint from logic size of FPGA, we adopt two types of filter, 8 delay taps filter with only 2 bit precision coefficient and 16 delay taps filter with 8 bit precision coefficient. The data after former simple filter provides anti-coincidence signal quickly in orbit, and the latter filter is used for detail analysis after the data is down-linked. -- Highlights: ► We develop digital signal processing system of APD for Astro-H. ► We apply two types of digital filter instead of discrete analog circuit. ► By optimization, comparable or better energy threshold to analog shaper is archived. ► Developed digital filter works

  3. Simulation results for light propagation in the central detector for the Angra anti-neutrinos experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An antineutrino detector to be installed in the surrounding area of the Angra II nuclear reactor in Angra dos Reis is currently under development. The related experiment is intended to create a new tool capable of measuring the antineutrino flux coming from the reactor, making use of detection system placed near the reactor dome, and correlate it to the nuclear fuel fission and burn-up. The proposed detector is a box- shaped volume filled with water doped with 0.2% Gadolinium. The photons generated by the passage of particles are collected by 40 photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Aiming to evaluate the importance of reflecting inner surfaces and to provide directives concerning the best positioning of the PMTs inside the detector, a simulation of light propagation in its active volume has been done. Photons are supposed to be point-like entities traveling in straight lines. In the simulation, we investigate the overall photon counting efficiency by analyzing the number of reflections and the length travelled by the photons before being collected or absorbed, as well as the distribution of these photons in different configurations of the PMTs. Different light reflecting structures around the PMTs are also simulated, in order to find those that reduce the probability for a photon to be bounced back to the direction from which it was emitted. We show that a configuration in which the photon emission direction is preserved may be used as VETO for cosmic events. (author)

  4. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

  5. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  6. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  7. The MINOS Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Grashorn, A H E W

    2005-01-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized iron/scintillator calorimeters. The Far Detector has been operational for cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from July of 2003, the Near Detector from September 2004, and the NuMI beam started in early 2005. This poster presents details of the two detectors.

  8. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  9. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  10. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Klaus Mönig

    2007-11-01

    Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations for the optimisation of low-background Ge detector designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakenmueller, Janina; Heusser, Gerd; Maneschg, Werner; Schreiner, Jochen; Simgen, Hardy; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Strecker, Herbert; Weber, Marc; Westernmann, Jonas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Via G. Acitelli 22, 67100 Assergi L' Aquila (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for the low-background Ge spectrometer Giove at the underground laboratory of MPI-K, Heidelberg, are presented. In order to reduce the cosmogenic background at the present shallow depth (15 m w.e.) the shielding of the spectrometer includes an active muon veto and a passive shielding (lead and borated PE layers). The achieved background suppression is comparable to Ge spectrometers operated in much greater depth. The geometry of the detector and the shielding were implemented using the Geant4-based toolkit MaGe. The simulations were successfully optimised by determining the correct diode position and active volume. With the help of the validated Monte Carlo simulation the contribution of the single components to the overall background can be examined. This includes a comparison between simulated results and measurements with different fillings of the sample chamber. Having reproduced the measured detector background in the simulation provides the possibility to improve the background by reverse engineering of the passive and active shield layers in the simulation.

  12. JADE muon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, J.; Armitage, J.C.M.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Bamford, G.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Glendinning, I.; Greenshaw, T.; Hassard, J.F.; Hill, P.; King, B.T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mercer, D.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Rowe, P.; Stephens, K.

    1985-08-01

    The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.).

  13. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Gamma ray detector optimization for mobile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Research and Development Administration supports a program enabling a rapid response to situations requiring a mobile, detection-at-a-distance capability for locating lost or stolen nuclear materials. For this application, man-portable, vehicular-borne, and airborne detection systems are used. For gamma ray detection, NaI detectors are usually used. Because weight is a serious constraint, many systems employ unshielded detectors. Results of optimization studies to determine a suitable thickness for 12.7 cm diameter NaI detectors that are commonly used in these applications are presented

  15. Search for Scalar-Charm Pair Production in pp Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smith, Matthew; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    The results of a dedicated search for pair production of scalar partners of charm quarks are reported. The search is based on an integrated luminosity of 20.3${\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The search is performed using events with large missing transverse momentum and at least two jets, where the two leading jets are each tagged as originating from c-quarks. Events containing isolated electrons or muons are vetoed. In an R-parity-conserving minimal supersymmetric scenario in which a single scalar-charm state is kinematically accessible, and where it decays exclusively into a charm quark and a neutralino, 95% confidence-level upper limits are obtained in the scalar-charm—neutralino mass plane such that, for neutralino masses below 200 GeV, scalar-charm masses up to 490 GeV are excluded.

  16. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  17. Background reduction at low energies with BEGe detector operated in liquid argon using the GERDA-LArGe facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LArGe is a low background test facility used for proving innovative approaches to background reduction in support of the neutrinoless double beta decay experiment Gerda. These approaches include an anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from liquid argon, as well as a novel pulse shape discrimination method exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for double beta decays) and efficiently reject multi-site events (typical for backgrounds from gamma-ray interactions), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. While the main focus of the LArGe facility is to assist with reaching the goal of Gerda - improving the sensitivity for 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay search, reducing the background at low energies and lowering the energy threshold is also of interest. In particular such efforts can be potentially relevant for search of dark matter or low energy neutrino interactions. In this talk I present the experimental measurement of the low energy region with a BEGe detector operated in LArGe with the application of powerful background suppression methods. The performance will be compared to that of some dedicated dark matter detection experiments.

  18. Background reduction at low energies with BEGe detector operated in liquid argon using the GERDA-LArGe facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    LArGe is a low background test facility used for proving innovative approaches to background reduction in support of the neutrinoless double beta decay experiment Gerda. These approaches include an anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from liquid argon, as well as a novel pulse shape discrimination method exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for double beta decays) and efficiently reject multi-site events (typical for backgrounds from gamma-ray interactions), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. While the main focus of the LArGe facility is to assist with reaching the goal of Gerda - improving the sensitivity for {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay search, reducing the background at low energies and lowering the energy threshold is also of interest. In particular such efforts can be potentially relevant for search of dark matter or low energy neutrino interactions. In this talk I present the experimental measurement of the low energy region with a BEGe detector operated in LArGe with the application of powerful background suppression methods. The performance will be compared to that of some dedicated dark matter detection experiments.

  19. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornyi, T.G., E-mail: tornyitom@atomki.hu [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A.C.; Siem, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Krasznahorkay, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Csige, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-21

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE−E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  20. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csige, L.

    2014-02-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE-E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  1. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE−E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy

  2. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Tornyi, Tamás Gábor; Guttormsen, Magne; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Siem, Sunniva; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Csige, Lóránt

    2013-01-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers $60\\%$ of 2$\\pi$. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ${\\Delta}E-E$ silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly...

  3. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  4. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph B.

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  5. Measurement of t(t)over-bar production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Hruška, I.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Valenta, J.; Vrba, Václav; Zeman, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 6 (2012), 1-27. ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * LHC * top pair production * top decay * dilepton final state * jet rapidity Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.247, year: 2012 http:// arxiv .org/abs/ arXiv :1203.5015

  6. Search for supersymmetry in multilepton events with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graat, Julien de

    2012-06-15

    A search for Supersymmetry in events with three leptons (electrons or muons) and missing transverse momentum is presented. The observation of a significant excess of events with three leptons in the final state with respect to the prediction of the Standard Model would be a hint of New Physics. A sample with an integrated luminosity of L=2.06 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV delivered by the LHC and recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2011 is used. Special focus is placed on the composition of the Standard Model background and the measurement of misidentification rates of electrons and muons. The misidentification rates are determined from Monte Carlo simulated samples. The misidentification rates obtained for electrons yield values between {proportional_to} 20% and {proportional_to} 6%, depending on the transverse momentum and the pseudorapidity of the electrons, while for muons values between {proportional_to} 42% and {proportional_to} 10%, depending on the transverse momentum of the muons, are obtained. Two different selections are investigated, one selection vetoing events with the presence of Z bosons, the other selection requiring the presence of a Z boson. The observations of 32 events with an expectation of 26{+-}5 events due to processes of the Standard Model and 95 events with an expectation of 72{+-}15 events, respectively, are interpreted in a phenomenological Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and in simplified supersymmetric models. Limits are placed in the mass parameter space of these models.

  7. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hulse, Charlotte, E-mail: charlotte@inwfsun1.UGent.b [Gent University Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2010-11-01

    In order to allow for the detection of low momentum particles, originating from the scattering of a 27.6 GeV lepton beam off a fixed gaseous target at the HERMES experiment at DESY in Hamburg (Germany), a dedicated recoil detector was installed. It consists of a silicon strip detector, located inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and a photon detector, around a 150 mm long target cell made out of a 75{mu}m thick aluminum tube. The full detector assembly is mounted inside a 1 T super-conducting solenoid and is able to detect protons and pions with momenta up to 1.40 GeV/c and photons in the region surrounding the target cell. The detector has been operational from February 2006 until June 2007. The commissioning and performance of the detector are presented in this paper.

  8. The HERMES Recoil Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, R.

    2006-07-01

    The HERMES Collaboration is installing a new Recoil Detector to upgrade the spectrometer for measurements of hard exclusive electron/positron scattering reactions, in particular deeply virtual Compton scattering. These measurements will provide access to generalised parton distributions and hence to the localisation of quarks inside hadrons and to their orbital angular momentum. The HERMES Recoil Detector consists of three active components: a silicon detector surrounding the target cell inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fibre tracker and a photon detector consisting of three layers of tungsten/scintillator. All three detectors are located inside a solenoidal magnetic field of 1 Tesla. The Recoil Detector was extensively tested with cosmic muons over the summer of 2005 and is being installed in the winter of 2005/6 for data taking until summer 2007.

  9. The HERMES Recoil Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HERMES Collaboration is installing a new Recoil Detector to upgrade the spectrometer for measurements of hard exclusive electron/positron scattering reactions, in particular deeply virtual Compton scattering. These measurements will provide access to generalised parton distributions and hence to the localisation of quarks inside hadrons and to their orbital angular momentum. The HERMES Recoil Detector consists of three active components: a silicon detector surrounding the target cell inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fibre tracker and a photon detector consisting of three layers of tungsten/scintillator. All three detectors are located inside a solenoidal magnetic field of 1 Tesla. The Recoil Detector was extensively tested with cosmic muons over the summer of 2005 and is being installed in the winter of 2005/6 for data taking until summer 2007

  10. Intelligent detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

  11. Intelligent Detector Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

  12. Neutrino factory near detector

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomilov, M.; Y. Karadzhov; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Laing, A.; F.J.P. Soler

    2013-01-01

    The neutrino factory is a facility for future precision studies of neutrino oscillations. A so-called near detector is essential for reaching the required precision for a neutrino oscillation analysis. The main task of the near detector is to measure the flux of the neutrino beam. Such a high intensity neutrino source like a neutrino factory provides also the opportunity for precision studies of various neutrino interaction processes in the near detector. We discuss the design concepts of suc...

  13. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm2), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  14. The atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

  15. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  16. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  17. Detector support head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support head of detectors for densitometric measurements of the regional function of lungs using gamma radiation consists of a group of detectors placed in a common rack. The detectors are placed on holders with adjustable height which allow side movement. The holders are slidably connected to the converging quide rail on the frame via arms. Between the holders and the rack is fitted the drive mechanism consisting of a screw. The design allows the stable adjustment of detectors on the lung field during examination and thereby allows the comparison of results of measurements carried out at different times. (J.B.). 2 figs

  18. Superconducting quantum interference detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detector is made of a lead foil whose surface is finished with mineral acids. Coiling the foil wh+ch is inductively bonded to a resonance oscillating circuit forms a system of Josephson tunnel contacts. The detector signal was experimentally shown to be many times higher than signals from niobium detectors with point contacts. The detector described is suitable for measuring voltages in the order of 10-14 to 10-15 V, currents of the same order, magnetic fields, etc. (J.B.)

  19. Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

  20. LHCb Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075808; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

  1. The ATLAS pixel detector

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinziani, M.

    2007-01-01

    After a ten years planning and construction phase, the ATLAS pixel detector is nearing its completion and is scheduled to be integrated into the ATLAS detector to take data with the first LHC collisions in 2007. An overview of the construction is presented with particular emphasis on some of the major and most recent problems encountered and solved.

  2. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  3. The TESLA Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Moenig, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    For the superconducting linear collider TESLA a multi purpose detector has been designed. This detector is optimised for the important physics processes expected at a next generation linear collider up to around 1 TeV and is designed for the specific environment of a superconducting collider.

  4. Alkali ionization detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrizo, John; Bauerle, James E.; Witkowski, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

  5. Borner Ball Neutron Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Bonner Ball Neutron Detector measures neutron radiation. Neutrons are uncharged atomic particles that have the ability to penetrate living tissues, harming human beings in space. The Bonner Ball Neutron Detector is one of three radiation experiments during Expedition Two. The others are the Phantom Torso and Dosimetric Mapping.

  6. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  7. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  8. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  9. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ties Behnke; LDC Concept Group

    2007-11-01

    In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force behind the LDC is the particle flow concept.

  10. LHCb detector performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinol, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Akiba, K. Carvalho; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A. C.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Maerki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Sanchez, A. Martin; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Martinez Vidal, F.; Tostes, D. Martins; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Moggi, N.; Rodriguez, J. Molina; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. -B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlandea, M.; Goicochea, J. M. Otalora; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Casasus, M. Plo; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Valls, P. Ruiz; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Guimaraes, V. Salustino; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazzquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilschut, H. W.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are descri

  11. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  12. Introduction to detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Walenta, Albert H

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for momentum measurements,particle identification and energy measurements (calorimeters) as well for imaging applications in medecine, biology and industry (non destructive testing) will be put into relation to the specific detection princip In particular the resolution for position, time, energy and intensity measurement and the efficiency will be discussed. Signal extraction,electronic signal processing and principles of information capture will close the logic circle to the input : the radiation properties.The lecture will provide some sources for data tables and small demonstration computer programs f The basic detector physics as interaction of radiation with matter, information transport via free charges,photons and phonons and the signal formation will be presented in some depth with emphasis on the influence on specific parameters for detector The lecture will cover the most popular detector principles, gas detectors (ion chambers,MPWC's and MSGC's), semiconductor detectors scintillators and ...

  13. Advanced far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > λ > 50 μm are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

  14. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

  15. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Pandola, L.; Zavarise, P.; Volynets, O.

    2011-08-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  16. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Zavarise, P; Volynets, O

    2011-01-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is pr...

  17. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pandola, L; Zavarise, P [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, SS 17-bis km 18-910, I-67100, Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O, E-mail: matteo.agostini@ph.tum.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  18. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  19. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  20. The HERMES recoil detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.

    2013-05-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  1. Advanced superconducting optical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated advanced superconducting optical and infrared detectors for their integration with superconductive active circuits. The detectors are based on ultra-thin NbN striplines. NbN is the material of choice for single photon optical and infrared detectors, as already demonstrated in the literature. The detectors so far proposed are based on conceptually simple, although difficult to realize, sub-micrometric meander type structures. Most applications of such detectors require some treatment of the signal generated, either as pulse shaping or signal amplification, to fully exploit the detection capabilities, such as sub-ns response time and proportional response. We have developed a room temperature process that, while preserving reasonable superconducting properties of NbN, allows a simple integration of the detectors in Nb-based circuits. Moreover we have developed a passivation technique, by using a protective AlN layer on top of the NbN one. The developed technology allows complex detector configurations, such as integrated RSFQ circuits or SQUID readout, to be relatively easily realized. The response of our NbN strip to photon irradiation will be presented

  2. Profile detectors of GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design phase of GANIL, which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beam lines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The profile detectors are unavoidable tools in displaying the GANIL beams for adaptation and adjustment of the beam line optics. The installed detector assembly (about 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beams extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beams (VHIB), secondary ion beams emitted by LISE and SPEG spectrometers targets, different lines of SPIRAL project (HE, BE, ME): This detector assembly must meet the following standard requirements: flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; identical analog electronics for all the detectors with networking; unique visualization system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (the beam profile and ion packet length allow an in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability

  3. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  4. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  5. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  6. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  7. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  8. Performance of GLD detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Yoshioka

    2007-12-01

    Most of the important physics processes to be studied in the international linear collider (ILC) experiment have multi-jets in the final state. In order to achieve better jet energy resolution, the so-called particle flow algorithm (PFA) will be employed and there is a general consensus that PFA derives overall ILC detector design. Four detector concepts for the ILC experiment have been proposed so far in the world; the GLD detector that has a large inner calorimeter radius, which is considered to have an advantage for a PFA, is one of them. In this paper, general scheme and performance of the GLD-PFA will be presented.

  9. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multicell X-ray or gamma detector is used in computer tomography. To achieve good spatial resolution, the electrode plates are narrowly spaced in each cell and are designed identical over the whole length of the detector group. The uniform spacing and precise check of the angles between the electrodes and accurate control of the dimensions of the whole detector structure are achieved by depositing, in the fabrication process, a viscous, resin type material (e.g., epoxy resin) or glue at selected points between the electrodes and insulators. (ORU)

  10. Lithium germanium detectors reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author)

  11. Nuclear radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a nuclear detector for neutrons and gamma rays. They are generally self quenching. They come back to initial state after the traversal of the particle which has triggered a detection. The detectors which deliver the higher charges are those which work in the regime of Geiger-Mueller. However, one does not know in the present state of the technique a gas detector which is sensitive to neutrons working in the Geiger-Mueller regime, self quenching and sensitive to neutrons and γ rays. The aim of the present invention is to overcome these difficulties

  12. The Silicon Cube detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experimental device, the Silicon Cube detector, consisting of six double-sided silicon strip detectors placed in a compact geometry was developed at CENBG. Having a very good angular coverage and high granularity, it allows simultaneous measurements of energy and angular distributions of charged particles emitted from unbound nuclear states. In addition, large-volume Germanium detectors can be placed close to the collection point of the radioactive species to be studied. The setup is ideally suited for isotope separation on-line (ISOL)-type experiments to study multi-particle emitters and was tested during an experiment at the low-energy beam line of SPIRAL at GANIL.

  13. Microwave Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

  14. Simplified phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    Tanlick sine-wave phase detector gives dc output voltage nearly proportional to phase difference between oscillator signal and reference signal. Device may be used for systems in which signal-to-noise ratio is high.

  15. Control rod position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention can save blowers for compulsory cooling. That is, the control rod position detector comprises (1) a control rod driving shaft made of a ferromagnetic material moving in a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor and (2) detector coils arranged to the outside of the pressure vessel each at an identical distance over the moving stroke of the driving shaft for detecting the position of the driving shaft by the change of inductance. In addition, heat insulation materials are disposed between the detector coils and the reactor pressure vessel. Then, heat from the reactor pressure vessel can be insulated. Accordingly, temperature of the detector coils can be reduced by natural cooling. As a result, since it is no more necessary to dispose compulsory cooling fans as required in a conventional case, the entire device can be constituted economically, and the reliability of the device is improved. (I.S.)

  16. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. PMID:26943904

  17. Infrared Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The end goal of this project is to develop proof-of-concept infrared detectors which can be integrated in future infrared instruments engaged in remote...

  18. Pendulum detector testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs

  19. Modular optical detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  20. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  1. The Advanced LIGO Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschel, Peter

    2016-03-01

    After decades of development, the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are now operating, and they completed their first observational run in early 2016. Advanced LIGO consists of two 4-km scale interferometric detectors located at separate sites in the US. The first year of detector commissioning that led to the first observation run produced instruments that have several times better sensitivity to gravitational-wave strain than previous instruments. At their final design sensitivity, the detectors will be another factor of 2-3x more sensitive than current performance. This talk will cover the design of Advanced LIGO, explain how the sensitivity improvements have been achieved, and lay out the path to reaching final design sensitivity.

  2. The pixelated detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Sutton, C

    1990-01-01

    "Collecting data as patterns of light or subatomic particles is vitally important in all the sciences. The new generation of solid-state detectors called pixel devices could transform experimental research at all levels" (4 pages).

  3. The LUX Prototype Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Cahn, S; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Clark, K; Classen, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, C E; Dazeley, S; deViveiros, L; Dragowsky, M; Druszkiewicz, E; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Hall, C; Faham, C; Holbrook, B; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Leonard, D; Malling, D; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D; Mock, J; Morii, M; Nikkel, J; Phelps, P; Shutt, T; Skulski, W; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Steigler, T; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01

    The LUX (Large Underground Xenon) detector is a two-phase xenon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) designed to search for WIMP-nucleon dark matter interactions. As with all noble element detectors, continuous purification of the detector medium is essential to produce a large ($>$1ms) electron lifetime; this is necessary for efficient measurement of the electron signal which in turn is essential for achieving robust discrimination of signal from background events. In this paper we describe the development of a novel purification system deployed in a prototype detector. The results from the operation of this prototype indicated heat exchange with an efficiency above 94% up to a flow rate of 42 slpm, allowing for an electron drift length greater than 1 meter to be achieved in approximately two days and sustained for the duration of the testing period.

  4. ATLAS Inner Detector developments

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector consists of three layers of silicon pixels, four double layers of silicon microstrips and a Transition Radiation Tracker (straw tubes). The good performance of the track and vertex reconstruction algorithms is a direct consequence of the small radius (4.3, 10.1 and 13.2 cm), fine pitch ($50 \\times 300~\\mu$m) and low occupancy ($<3 \\times 10^{-4}$ at design luminosity) of the pixel detectors, and of the good tracking capabilities of the SCT and the TRT. The full detector simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the detector and of the reconstruction algorithms. Results are presented on track and vertex reconstruction efficiencies and resolutions, and on the separation between $b$-jets and jets produced by light quarks.

  5. Recent ATLAS Detector Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    de Nooij, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    During the recent LHC shutdown period, ATLAS performed vital maintenance and improvements on the various sub-detectors. For the calorimeters, repairs were carried out on front-end electronics and power supplies to recover detector coverage that had been lost since the last maintenance period. The ALFA luminosity detector was installed along the beam line and is currently being commissioned. Smaller scale repairs were needed on the Inner Detector. Maintenance on the muon system included repairs on the readout as well as updates and leak checks in the gas systems. Six TGC chambers were also replaced. This poster summarizes the repairs and their expected improvement for physics performance and reliability of ATLAS for the upcoming LHC run.

  6. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Christensen, C

    2013-01-01

    The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

  7. Improved CO [lidar detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

    1999-07-18

    A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

  8. Novel Photo-Detectors and Photo-Detector Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Danilov, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in photo-detectors and photo-detector systems are reviewed. The main emphasis is made on Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) - novel and very attractive photo-detectors. Their main features are described. Properties of detectors manufactured by different producers are compared. Different applications are discussed including calorimeters, muon detection, tracking, Cherenkov light detection, and time of flight measurements.

  9. The HERMES Recoil Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E.C.; S. Belostotski(St. Petersburg, INP); Borissov, A; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J; Capitani, G.P.; V. Carassiti; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M; R.Leo

    2013-01-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct ...

  10. Silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main scope of this laboratory is to give the students an introduction of some special characteristics of silicon microstrip detectors. The students will perform some exercises using different instruments to appreciate the properties of these detectors, especially its great position resolution. An overview of different instruments such as an oscilloscope, wave function generator as others will be also given as important devices in any experimental laboratory

  11. FERMILAB: Collider detectors -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last month's edition (April, page 12) included a status report on data collection and preliminary physics results from the 'newcomer' DO detector at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. This time the spotlight falls in the Veteran' CDF detector, in action since 1985 and meanwhile significantly upgraded. Meanwhile the Tevatron collider continues to improve, with record collision rates

  12. Fiber optic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  13. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K

    2001-01-01

    expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

  14. Alkali metal ionization detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  15. Detectors for CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

  16. Protecting Detectors in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Mateusz Lechman, Mateusz; Chochula, Peter; Di Mauro, Antonio; Jirden, Lennart Stig; Schindler, Heinrich; Rosinsky, Peter; Moreno, Alberto; Kurepin, Alexander; Pinazza, Ombretta; De Cataldo, Giacinto

    2011-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related...

  17. The MiniBooNE detector technical design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Stancu et al.

    2003-04-18

    The MiniBooNE experiment [1] is motivated by the LSND observation, [2] which has been interpreted as {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations, and by the atmospheric neutrino deficit, [3,4,5] which may be ascribed to {nu}{sub {mu}} oscillations into another type of neutrino. MiniBooNE is a single-detector experiment designed to: obtain {approx} 1000 {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} events if the LSND signal is due to {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations, establishing the oscillation signal at the > 5{sigma} level as shown in Fig. 1.1; extend the search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations significantly beyond what has been studied previously if no signal is observed; search for {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance to address the atmospheric neutrino deficit with a signal that is a suppression of the rate of {nu}{sub {mu}}C {yields} {mu}N events from the expected 600,000 per year; measure the oscillation parameters as shown in Fig. 1.2 if oscillations are observed; and test CP conservation in the lepton sector if oscillations are observed by running with separate {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beams. The detector will consist of a spherical tank 6.1 m (20 feet) in radius, as shown in Fig. 1.3, that stands in a 45-foot diameter cylindrical vault. An inner tank structure at 5.75 m radius will support 1280 8-inch phototubes (10% coverage) pointed inward and optically isolated from the outer region of the tank. The tank will be filled with 807 t of mineral oil, resulting in a 445 t fiducial volume. The outer tank volume will serve as a veto shield for identifying particles both entering and leaving the detector with 240 phototubes mounted on the tank wall. Above the detector tank will be an electronics enclosure that houses the fast electronics and data acquisition system and a utilities enclosure that houses the plumbing, overflow tank, and calibration laser. The detector will be located {approx} 550 m from the Booster neutrino

  18. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

  19. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  20. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  1. LArGe R and D for active background suppression in Gerda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the GERDA experiment. Similar to GERDA, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m3, 1.4tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 103 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of the order 10−2 cts/(keV-kg-y), which is at the level of the GERDA phase I design goal. As a consequence of these results, the development of an active liquid argon veto in GERDA is pursued.

  2. LArGe R&D for active background suppression in Gerda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Barnabé-Heider, M.; Budjáš, D.; Cattadori, C.; D'Andragora, A.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Junker, M.; Klimenko, A.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-07-01

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the GERDA experiment. Similar to GERDA, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m3, 1.4tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 103 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of the order 10-2 cts/(keV-kg-y), which is at the level of the GERDA phase I design goal. As a consequence of these results, the development of an active liquid argon veto in GERDA is pursued.

  3. The CLIC Vertex Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannheim, D.

    2015-03-01

    The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a measurement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t → Wb will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit timing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC vertex detector. It comprises fast, low-power and small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) coupled to ultra-thin planar or active HV-CMOS sensors via low-mass interconnects. The power dissipation of the readout chips is reduced by means of power pulsing, allowing for a cooling system based on forced gas flow. This contribution reviews the requirements and design optimisation for the CLIC vertex detector and gives an overview of recent R&D achievements in the domains of sensors, readout and detector integration.

  4. The CLIC Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a measurement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t → Wb will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit timing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC vertex detector. It comprises fast, low-power and small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) coupled to ultra-thin planar or active HV-CMOS sensors via low-mass interconnects. The power dissipation of the readout chips is reduced by means of power pulsing, allowing for a cooling system based on forced gas flow. This contribution reviews the requirements and design optimisation for the CLIC vertex detector and gives an overview of recent R and D achievements in the domains of sensors, readout and detector integration

  5. Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

  6. The HERMES Recoil Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Belostotski, S; Borissov, A; Borisenko, A; Bowles, J; Brodski, I; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capitani, G P; Carassiti, V; Ciullo, G; Clarkson, A; Contalbrigo, M; De Leo, R; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Guler, H; Gregor, I M; Hartig, M; Hill, G; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Jo, H S; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kisselev, A; Krause, B; Krauss, B; Lagamba, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Lu, S; Lu, X -G; Lumsden, S; Mahon, D; de la Ossa, A Martinez; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nowak, W -D; Naryshkin, Y; Osborne, A; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Petrov, A; Pickert, N; Prahl, V; Protopopescu, D; Reinecke, M; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Schnell, G; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shutov, V; Statera, M; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Varanda, M; Veretennikov, D; Vilardi, I; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Yaschenko, S; Ye, Z; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B

    2013-01-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1 Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end...

  7. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors exploit the early stages of the energy down cascade which occur after the absorption of radiation. They operate on a short temporal scale ranging from few microseconds down to tens of picoseconds. In such a way they provide fast counting capability, high time discrimination and also, for some devices, energy sensitivity. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors are developed for their use both in basic science and in practical applications for detection of single photons or single ionized macromolecules. In this paper we consider two devices: distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs) based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), which are typically used for high-speed energy spectroscopy applications, and hot-electron superconductive detectors (HESDs), which are typically used as fast counters and time discriminators. Implementation of the DROID geometry to use a single superconductor is discussed. Progress in the fabrication technology of NbN nanostructured HESDs is presented. The two detectors share the high sensitivity that makes them able to efficiently detect even single photons down to infrared energy

  8. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  9. The Delphi outer detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design criteria, construction and performance of the Delphi outer detector are discussed. The detector is a 5-layer, 5 m long, 2 m inner radius, 2.1 m outer radius 'cylindrical' drift chamber consisting of 3480 individual 1.65x1.65 cm2 drift tubes operating in limited streamer mode. The drift time-distance relationship for a single tube has been measured using a pulsed laser as a function of both track angle and longitudinal magnetic field. These data have been used to reconstruct cosmic rays in a completed detector module and yield a transverse resolution of 80 μm per point over most of the cell, rising to 90 μm near the corners of the tubes. The detection efficiency per cell for minimum ionising particles is greater than 98.5%. (orig.)

  10. JSATS Detector Field Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eric Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flory, Adam E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lamarche, Brian L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) Detector is a software and hardware system that captures JSATS Acoustic Micro Transmitter (AMT) signals. The system uses hydrophones to capture acoustic signals in the water. This analog signal is then amplified and processed by the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) board in the computer. This board digitizes and processes the acoustic signal to determine if a possible JSATS tag is present. With this detection, the data will be saved to the computer for further analysis. This document details the features and functionality of the JSATS Detector software. The document covers how to install the software, setup and run the detector software. The document will also go over the raw binary waveform file format and CSV files containing RMS values

  11. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2012-01-01

    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  12. OPERA: Electronic Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jollet, C

    2010-01-01

    OPERA is an hybrid detector for the ni-tau appearance search in a direct way, and the Electronic Detectors (ED) have the crucial role of triggerring for the neutrino events and of localizing such an interaction inside the target. Another very important task of the ED is to identify the muon since only a correct matching of such a track with a track in the emulsion connected to the vertex of the event allows to reduce the charm background to the desired level. The ED, fully working since 2006, consist of a target tracker (scintillator strips) and a spectrometer (RPC and drift tubes). The different sub-detectors are de- scribed in the poster, as well as their performance both on Monte Carlo (MC) and real data.

  13. The H1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H1 detector presently operating at the HERA e-p collider is described. A general overview of the detector is given with particular emphasis on the calorimeters, the main element of which is a liquid Argon calorimeter enclosed within a large radius solenoid. Calorimetry in the proton direction, close to the beam-pipe is provided by a copper-silicon pad hadronic calorimeter. In the electron direction a lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter closes the solid angle between the rear part of the liquid Argon calorimeter and the beam-pipe. An iron limited streamer tube tail catcher using the return yoke of the solenoid as absorber completes the calorimetry of the detector. The hardware triggers derived from the calorimeters are also described and some performance details of the calorimeters are given

  14. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  15. A high-resolution, multi-parameter, β-γ coincidence, μ-γ anticoincidence system for radioxenon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-resolution β-γ coincidence measurement system has been developed by combining a high-purity broad energy germanium and a silicon surface barrier detector. The system is intended for calibration of reference spikes and re-measurement of CTBT samples, by detection of coincident β-γ or conversion electron and X-ray radiation of the four radioxenon isotopes 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe. The use of a high-resolution, list-mode, multi-parameter data acquisition system allows off-line setup and optimization of the (anti)coincidence. A 166mHo β-γ source has been produced and validated for energy calibration and system check. The β-γ coincidence has been further enhanced by a cosmic muon veto based on six plastic scintillation detectors. The μ-γ anticoincidence has been implemented using a 50 ns resolution real-time clock for time spectroscopy. This method has been verified by running conventional TAC-ADC (combined time-amplitude and analog-digital converter) based time spectroscopy in parallel. The whole measurement system has been characterized, by measuring various radioxenon spikes and backgrounds with and without (anti)coincidence. Peak efficiencies and minimum detectable activities (MDA) for the main radioxenon isotopes have been determined. Application of μ-γ anticoincidence reduced the MDA by about a factor of two for all four radioxenon isotopes. Complementary adoption of β-γ coincidence further reduced the MDA for the metastable isotopes by more than an order of magnitude. The MDA for 135Xe reaches about 6 mBq after 1 day of measurement. For 131mXe, 133Xe and 133mXe a MDA of about 2 mBq is obtained after one week measurement.

  16. Mossbauer spectrometer radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Mossbauer spectrometer with high efficiencies in both transmission and backscattering techniques is described. The device contains a sodium iodide crystal for detecting radiation caused by the Mossbauer effect, and two photomultipliers to collect the radiation detected by the crystal. When used in the transmission technique, the sample or scatterer is placed between the incident radiation source and the detector. When used in a backscattering technique, the detector is placed between the incident radiation source and the sample of scatterer such that the incident radiation will pass through a hole in the crystal and strike the sample. Diagrams of the instrument are provided.

  17. The MINOS calibration detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the MINOS calibration detector (CalDet) and the procedure used to calibrate it. The CalDet, a scaled-down but functionally equivalent model of the MINOS Far and Near detectors, was exposed to test beams in the CERN PS East Area during 2001-2003 to establish the response of the MINOS calorimeters to hadrons, electrons and muons in the range 0.2-10GeV/c. The CalDet measurements are used to fix the energy scale and constrain Monte Carlo simulations of MINOS

  18. High efficiency photoionization detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  19. Liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G

    2001-01-01

    The liquid argon imaging technique, as proposed for the ICARUS detector, offers the possibility to perform complementary and simultaneous measurements of neutrinos, as those of CERN to Gran Sasso beam (CNGS) and those from cosmic ray events. For the currently allowed values of the Super-Kamiokande results, the combination of both CNGS and atmospheric data will provide a precise determination of the oscillation parameters. Since one can observe and unambiguously identify nu /sub e/, nu /sub mu / and nu /sub tau / components, this technology allows to explore the full (3*3) mixing matrix. The same class of detector can be proposed for high precision measurements at a neutrino factory. (3 refs).

  20. The KEDR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anashin, V. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Baldin, E. M.; Barladyan, A. K.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Baru, S. E.; Basok, I. Yu.; Bedny, I. V.; Beloborodova, O. L.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrov, A. V.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bondar, A. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Gulevich, V. V.; Dneprovsky, L. V.; Zhilich, V. N.; Zhulanov, V. V.; Karpov, G. V.; Karpov, S. V.; Kononov, S. A.; Kotov, K. Yu.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Kulikov, V. F.; Kuper, E. A.; Levichev, E. B.; Maksimov, D. A.; Malyshev, V. M.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Medvedko, A. S.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nikitin, S. A.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Oreshkin, S. B.; Orlov, I. O.; Osipov, A. A.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pivovarov, S. G.; Poluektov, A. O.; Pospelov, G. E.; Prisekin, V. G.; Rodyakin, V. A.; Ruban, A. A.; Savinov, G. A.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Smalyuk, V. V.; Snopkov, R. G.; Sokolov, A. V.; Sukharev, A. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tayursky, V. A.; Telnov, V. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Usov, Yu. V.; Kharlamova, T. A.; Shamov, A. G.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shekhtman, L. I.; Shusharo, A. I.; Yushkov, A. N.

    2013-07-01

    The KEDR detector is a universal magnetic detector designed for studying the c- and b-quarks and two-photon physics, and is employed at the VEPP-4M e + e - collider. A specific feature of the experiment is the measurement of absolute beam energy using two methods: the resonant depolarization and the faster but less precise Compton backscattering of laser photons. This allowed a large series of measurements to be performed, in which the accuracy of determination of such fundamental parameters of particles as mass and total and leptonic widths was improved.

  1. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  2. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  3. Gallium arsenide pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R.; DaVia, C.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Heijne, E.M.; Middelkamp, P.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Snoeys, W. [CERN, ECP Div., CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); D`Auria, S.; Papa, C. del [Department of Physics, University of Udine and INFN Trieste, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); RD8 Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV {pi}{sup -} beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e{sup -}. (orig.) 10 refs.

  4. Report of the compact detector subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

  5. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  6. Particle detectors and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author recalls the elevator experiment which ultimately led Einstein to his formulation of General Relativity. In addition to the classical falling weights, flashlights, etc, the author suggests the experimenter also take along a particle detector. This detector will be a particularly simple detector consisting of a Schroedinger particle of mass m in a box with walls impermeable to the detector particle. From the equivalence principle, the detector particle in the accelerated elevator will be in an effective potential maz where z is the coordinate in the direction of the acceleration a, measured from let's say, the center of the detector. The author gives a derivation of the detection process. (Auth.)

  7. The Upgraded D0 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

    2005-01-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  8. Gaseous wire detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations

  9. Temperature stabilized phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The construction, tests, and performance of a temperature stabilized phase detector are discussed. It has a frequency stability of 5 parts in 10 to the 16th power at 100 MHz, with a temperature step of 20 C (15 to 35 C).

  10. Pixel detector insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  11. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

    The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

  12. The CLIC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, D

    2015-01-01

    The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a meas- urement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t → W b will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit tim- ing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC ver- tex det...

  13. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  14. Ionization chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

  15. Ionic smoke detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

  16. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  17. Diamond pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bognai, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Doroshenko, J; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foster, J; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Gobbi, B; Grim, G P; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lander, R; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rott, C; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles. (3 refs).

  18. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  19. Solid state parallel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss semiconductors phoso-sensitive arrays and channel plate electron multiplier detectors. Currents applications include light detection in the spectral range from visible to X-rays, with sensitivity threshold from 103 to a single photon, and single electron/ion detection. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. Solid state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a position sensitive, semi-conductor detector for use in a gamma camera system is discussed in detail. Explicit descriptions are also given of the electronic circuitry required to produce 2-dimensional position information and of the method of data processing. The problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  1. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of determining the energy-dependent detection probability with measurements using Ge (Li) and high-grade germanium detectors is described. The paper explains which standards are best for a given purpose and given requirements as to accuracy, and how to assess measuring geometry variations and summation corrections. (DG)

  2. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  3. Development of new radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works on the development of radiation detectors performed at Waseda University are described. As the fundamental studies on radiation detectors, measurement was made for the Z3 dependence of the power of metal targets to stop alpha particles or C-ions, the Fano factor in rare gas, the peak value of the energy given by fast charged particles to materials and its fluctuation, the W-value and the Fano factor of liquid rare gas, and the LET dependence of the luminescence efficiency of liquid rare gas by radiation. The development of liquid rare gas detectors has been made. The considered detector types were a pulse ionization chamber with grid (liquid Xe), a proportional luminescent counter (liquid Xe), an electromagnetic calorimeter (liquid Ar, liquid Xe), and a photo-ionization detector. The development of silicon detectors is also in progress. The silicon detectors under development are a silicon detector telescope for satellite experiment, a silicon shower detector for balloon experiment, and a micron strip silicon detector for synchrotron radiation or elementary particle experiment. The use of plastic track detectors for cosmic ray observation has been examined. The discrimination of isotopes by using a new plastic CR-39 was able to be done. The detectors for low level alpha and gamma spectroscopy have been investigated. For alpha particles, a pulse ionization chamber with a cylindrical grid has been used. For gamma-ray, a Compton-suppressed Ge(Li) detector has been used. (Kato, T.)

  4. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  5. OPAL detector end-cap

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    An end-cap of the OPAL detector with its electromagnetic calorimeter. The calorimeter consists of 566 Cherenkov lead glass counters and weighs 10 tonnes. The OPAL detector ran on the LEP accelerator between 1989 and 2000.

  6. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

  7. Fundamental principles of particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs

  8. Status of Development of Antineutrino Detector for Short Baseline Experiment at the HANARO Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    was developed and now under performance tests including evaluation of background noise characteristics arised from environmental and cosmic rays, muon veto performance, pulse shaping discrimination of the neutrinos signal from those by other interfering radiations. Along with them, intense and extensive simulation works were carried out using Monte Carlo technique mainly focusing on the optimization of the signal to noise ratio. So many liquid scintillation matters have been tested as candidate for a prototype and a main detector, and a frontend electronics and data acquisition software were under development

  9. Status of Development of Antineutrino Detector for Short Baseline Experiment at the HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gwangmin; Han, Boyoung; Kim, Hongjoo [KAERI, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-05-15

    was developed and now under performance tests including evaluation of background noise characteristics arised from environmental and cosmic rays, muon veto performance, pulse shaping discrimination of the neutrinos signal from those by other interfering radiations. Along with them, intense and extensive simulation works were carried out using Monte Carlo technique mainly focusing on the optimization of the signal to noise ratio. So many liquid scintillation matters have been tested as candidate for a prototype and a main detector, and a frontend electronics and data acquisition software were under development.

  10. Compton-suppression and add-back techniques for the highly segmented TIGRESS HPGe clover detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods to optimize the performance of the TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS), an array of 12 large-volume, 32-fold segmented HPGe clover detectors to be used at the ISAC-II radioactive ion beam facility, have been developed based on GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. These methods rely on the segmentation of the outer electrical contacts of the TIGRESS HPGe clovers, and on the 20-fold segmentation of the Compton-suppression shields. The clover segmentation is utilized to make event-by-event decisions as to whether the γ-ray energy depositions in neighbouring crystals and clovers will be summed. The Compton suppressor segmentation is used to veto events selectively, and to reduce false suppression in experiments with high γ-ray multiplicity. Procedures to determine the optimal techniques and configurations of the array for a particular experiment, dependent on the expected γ-ray energies and multiplicities, and the velocity of the recoil ions, are presented

  11. A Balloon-borne Measurement of High Latitude Atmospheric Neutrons Using a LiCAF Neutron Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kole, Merlin; Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishizu, Sumito; Jackson, Miranda; Kamae, Tune; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kawano, Takafumi; Kiss, Mózsi; Moretti, Elena; Salinas, Maria Fernanda Muñoz; Pearce, Mark; Rydström, Stefan; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    PoGOLino is a scintillator-based neutron detector. Its main purpose is to provide data on the neutron flux in the upper stratosphere at high latitudes at thermal and nonthermal energies for the PoGOLite instrument. PoGOLite is a balloon borne hard X-ray polarimeter for which the main source of background stems from high energy neutrons. No measurements of the neutron environment for the planned flight latitude and altitude exist. Furthermore this neutron environment changes with altitude, latitude and solar activity, three variables that will vary throughout the PoGOLite flight. PoGOLino was developed to study the neutron environment and the influences from these three variables upon it. PoGOLino consists of two Europium doped Lithium Calcium Aluminium Fluoride (Eu:LiCAF) scintillators, each of which is sandwiched between 2 Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) scintillating crystals, which serve to veto signals produced by gamma-rays and charged particles. This allows the neutron flux to be measured even in high rad...

  12. Homestake tracking spectrometer: a one-mile deep 1400-ton liquid-scintillation nucleon-decay detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, M.L.; Davidson, I.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Marshall, E.; Steinberg, R.I.; Cleveland, B.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lowenstein, D.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a proposed nucleon decay detector able to demonstrate the existence of nucleon decay for lifetimes up to 5 x 10/sup 32/ yr. The proposed instrument is a self-vetoed completely-active 1400-ton liquid scintillation Tracking Spectrometer to be located in the Homestake Mine at a depth of 4200 mwe, where the cosmic ray muon flux is only 1100/m/sup 2//yr, more than 10/sup 7/ times lower than the flux at the earth's surface. Based on computer simulations and laboratory measurements, the Tracking Spectrometer will have a spatial resolution of +- 15 cm (0.32 radiation lengths); energy resolution of +- 4.2%; and time resolution of +-1.3 ns. Because liquid scintillator responds to total ionization energy, all neutrinoless nucleon decay modes will produce a sharp (+- 4.2%) total energy peak at approximately 938 MeV, thereby allowing clear separation of nucleon decay events from atmospheric neutrino and other backgrounds. The instrument will be about equally sensitive to most nucleon decay modes. It will be able to identify most of the likely decay modes (including n ..-->.. ..nu.. + K/sub s//sup 0/ as suggested by supersymmetric grand unified theories), as well as determine the charge of lepton secondaries and the polarization of secondary muons.

  13. Radiation detectors laboratory; Laboratorio de detectores de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  14. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d' Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

  15. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications

  16. Characterizations of GEM detector prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Rajendra Nath; Rudra, Sharmili; Bhattacharya, P; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar; Biswas, S; Mohanty, B; Nayak, T K; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S

    2015-01-01

    At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

  17. The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Christian Holm; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4 < \\eta < 5.1$. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

  18. New electronically black neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two neutron detectors are described that can function in a continuous radiation background. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors

  19. Multisensor mine detector for peacekeeping: improved landmine detector concept (ILDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Carruthers, Al

    1996-05-01

    The Improved Landmine Detector Concept Project was initiated in Autumn 1994 to develop a prototype vehicle mounted mine detector for low metal content and nonmetallic mines for a peacekeeping role on roads. The system will consist of a teleoperated vehicle carrying a highly sensitive electromagnetic induction (EMI) detector, an infrared imager (IR), ground probing radar (GPR), and a thermal neutron activation (TNA) detector for confirmation. The IR, EMI and TNA detectors have been under test since 1995 and the GPR will be received in June 1996. Results of performance trials of the individual detectors are discussed. Various design configurations and their tradeoffs are discussed. Fusion of data from the detectors to reduce false alarm rate and increase probability of detection, a key element to the success of the system, is discussed. An advanced development model of the system is expected to be complete by Spring 1997.

  20. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2015-05-12

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  1. Portable Radiation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, General Pneumatics Corporation's Western Research Center satisfied a NASA need for a non-clogging Joule-Thomson cryostat to provide very low temperature cooling for various sensors. This NASA-supported cryostat development played a key part in the development of more portable high-purity geranium gamma-ray detectors. Such are necessary to discern between the radionuclides in medical, fuel, weapon, and waste materials. The outcome of the SBIR project is a cryostat that can cool gamma-ray detectors, without vibration, using compressed gas that can be stored compactly and indefinitely in a standby mode. General Pneumatics also produces custom J-T cryostats for other government, commercial and medical applications.

  2. GERmanium detector array, GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed to search for 'neutrinoless double beta decay' (0ν2β) in 76Ge. The high-purity segmented Ge detectors will be directly submerged and operated in liquid N2 or Ar. The measurement of the half-life time of 0ν2β decay will provide information about the absolute neutrino mass scale and indirectly, the hierarchy. The design goal of GERDA is to reach a sensitivity of 0.2 eV on the effective Majorana neutrino mass (mββ). The GERDA experiment is located in hall A of the Grand Sasso national lab (LNGS) and the construction will start in 2006

  3. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  4. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  5. Ultrafast neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1987-01-01

    The invention comprises a neutron detector (50) of very high temporal resolution that is particularly well suited for measuring the fusion reaction neutrons produced by laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets. The detector comprises a biased two-conductor traveling-wave transmission line (54, 56, 58, 68) having a uranium cathode (60) and a phosphor anode (62) as respective parts of the two conductors. A charge line and Auston switch assembly (70, 72, 74) launch an electric field pulse along the transmission line. Neutrons striking the uranium cathode at a location where the field pulse is passing, are enabled to strike the phosphor anode and produce light that is recorded on photographic film (64). The transmission line may be variously configured to achieve specific experimental goals.

  6. Memristive fuzzy edge detector

    CERN Document Server

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy inference systems always suffer from the lack of efficient structures or platforms for their hardware implementation. In this paper, we tried to overcome this problem by proposing new method for the implementation of those fuzzy inference systems which use fuzzy rule base to make inference. To achieve this goal, we have designed a multi-layer neuro-fuzzy computing system based on the memristor crossbar structure by introducing some new concepts like fuzzy minterms. Although many applications can be realized through the use of our proposed system, in this study we show how the fuzzy XOR function can be constructed and how it can be used to extract edges from grayscale images. Our memristive fuzzy edge detector (implemented in analog form) compared with other common edge detectors has this advantage that it can extract edges of any given image all at once in real-time.

  7. Aerogel for FARICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kuyanov, I.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lopatin, S.A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Ovtin, I.V.; Podgornov, N.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Porosev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Predein, A.Yu.; Protsenko, R.S. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-01

    We present our current experience in preparation of focusing aerogels for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detector. Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since 2004. We have obtained 2–3–4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30–45 mm. In 2012, the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process. The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype.

  8. UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

  9. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  10. The LUCID detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasagni Manghi, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Starting from 2015 LHC will perform a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely renewed, both on detector design and in the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics is presented, featuring a new read-out board (LUCROD), for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and the revisited LUMAT board for side A–side C combination. The contribution covers the new boards design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  11. The LUCID detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasagni Manghi, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Starting from 2015 LHC is performing a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely renewed, both on detector design and in the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics is presented, featuring a new read-out board (LUCROD), for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and the revisited LUMAT board for side-A-side-C combination. The contribution covers the new boards design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  12. Development of Portable Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the “Contractor”) and Sense Holdings, Inc. (the “Participant”) was for the development of hand-held detectors with high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of explosives, toxic industrial chemicals and materials, and other materials of interest for security applications. The two parties built a series of demonstration and prototype handheld sensors based upon micoelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with electronic readout.

  13. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  14. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  15. Polysiloxane based neutron detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Dalla Palma, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, neutron detection has been attracting the attention of the scientific community for different reasons. On one side, the increase in the price of 3He, employed in the most efficient and the most widely used neutron detectors. On the other side, the harmfulness of traditional xylene based liquid scintillators, used in extremely large volumes for the detection of fast neutrons. Finally, the demand for most compact and rough systems pushed by the increased popularity of neutro...

  16. Lasers, Spectrographs, and Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlant, Fred

    The introduction of Raman spectroscopy into new fields has been driven largely by advances in the underlying technology. While the spectrometer is still comprised of a light source, a wavelength selector, and a detector, the improvement in functionality of each of these components has had dramatic impacts on areas where Raman was once thought impractical, if not impossible. In addition, esoteric techniques once confined to academic spectroscopy labs are now finding wide application.

  17. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  18. High energy neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, C.

    1948-04-27

    It is the purpose of this paper to describe a neutron detector suitable for monitoring a flux of neutrons whose energy is greater than about 50 MeV. Detection of the neutrons is accomplished by their ability to induce fission in heavy elements. Kelly and Wiegand studied the neutron fission of Bi, Pb, Ti, Hg, Au, and Pt at various neutron energies and the presently described counter is an application of this work.

  19. Extruded Plastic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pla-Dalmau, A; Mellott, K L; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.

    1999-01-01

    As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light yield and transmittance measurements are presented.

  20. DEMON: Modular Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEMON is a liquid scintillator neutron multidetector devoted to study particular aspects of the dynamics of heavy-ion reactions. The problems of measuring neutron energy spectra, angular distributions and neutron multiplicities are described. Efficiency measurements, time-of-flight measurements and the experimental programme of the detector are presented. The document consists of transparencies presented at the workshop, text is missing. (K.A.) 12 figs

  1. Quantum Cascade Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Baumann, Esther; Graf, Marcel; Yang, Quankui; Manz, Christian; Köhler, Klaus; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.; Linfield, Edmund; Davies, Alexander G.; Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Jackel, Heinz; Fischer, Milan; Faist, Jérôme; Hofstetter, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on the design, fabrication, and characterization of quantum cascade detectors. They are tailorable infrared photodetectors based on intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells that do not require an external bias voltage due to their asymmetric conduction band profile. They thus profit from favorable noise behavior, reduced thermal load, and simpler readout circuits. This was demonstrated at wavelengths from the near infrared at 2 μm to THz radiation a...

  2. LHCb velo detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01 : L. to r.: D. Malinon, Summer Student, J. Libby, Fellow, J. Harvey, Head of CERN LHCb group, D. Schlatter, Head of the EP Division in front of the LHCb velo detector test beam (on the right). Photo 02 : L. to r.: J. Harvey, D. Schlatter, W. Riegler (staff), H.J. Hilke, LHCb Technical Coordinator in front of the muon chamber test beam

  3. The ZEUS central tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of ZEUS covers a wide angular range, whilst the Forward Detector - comprising the Forward Tracking Detector (FTD) and electron identification by transition radiation - concentrates on the important forward cone. The RTD (Rear Tracking Detector) provides accurate angle measurement of the recoil electron and the vertex detector (VXD) aims to find particles from heavy flavour decay. To measure momentum accurately the CTD sits in a high magnetic field (B=1,8 T) within the ZEUS calorimeter. (orig./HSI)

  4. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle.

    The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

  5. Optical ionization detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Craig R.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

  6. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

  7. Detector array and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  8. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

  9. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); CNR SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, n.132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Scherillo, A. [Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Facility Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Celentano, G. [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pietropaolo, A., E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@enea.it [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Mediterranean Institute of Fundamental Physics, Via Appia Nuova 31, 00040 Marino, Roma (Italy)

    2015-03-16

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B + n → α + {sup 7}Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  10. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, 10B + n → α + 7Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed

  11. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-03-01

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, 10B + n → α + 7Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  12. UA1 prototype detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

  13. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  14. The DELPHI Detector (DEtector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification)

    CERN Multimedia

    Crawley, B; Munich, K; Mckay, R; Matorras, F; Joram, C; Malychev, V; Behrmann, A; Van dam, P; Drees, J K; Stocchi, A; Adam, W; Booth, P; Bilenki, M; Rosenberg, E I; Morton, G; Rames, J; Hahn, S; Cosme, G; Ventura, L; Marco, J; Tortosa martinez, P; Monge silvestri, R; Moreno, S; Phillips, H; Alekseev, G; Boudinov, E; Martinez rivero, C; Gitarskiy, L; Davenport, M; De clercq, C; Firestone, A; Myagkov, A; Belous, K; Haider, S; Hamilton, K M; Lamsa, J; Rahmani, M H; Malek, A; Hughes, G J; Peralta, L; Carroll, L; Fuster verdu, J A; Cossutti, F; Gorn, L; Yi, J I; Bertrand, D; Myatt, G; Richard, F; Shapkin, M; Hahn, F; Ferrer soria, A; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Sekulin, R; Timmermans, J; Baillon, P

    2002-01-01

    % DELPHI The DELPHI Detector (Detector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification) \\\\ \\\\DELPHI is a general purpose detector for physics at LEP on and above the Z$^0$, offering three-dimensional information on curvature and energy deposition with fine spatial granularity as well as identification of leptons and hadrons over most of the solid angle. A superconducting coil provides a 1.2~T solenoidal field of high uniformity. Tracking relies on the silicon vertex detector, the inner detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the outer detector and forward drift chambers. Electromagnetic showers are measured in the barrel with high granularity by the High Density Projection Chamber (HPC) and in the endcaps by $ 1 ^0 $~x~$ 1 ^0 $ projective towers composed of lead glass as active material and phototriode read-out. Hadron identification is provided mainly by liquid and gas Ring Imaging Counters (RICH). The instrumented magnet yoke serves for hadron calorimetry and as filter for muons, which are identified in t...

  15. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivers, M. (UC)

    2011-09-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  16. SOIKID, SOI pixel detector combined with superconducting detector KID

    CERN Document Server

    Ishino, Hirokazu; Kida, Yosuke; Yamada, Yousuke

    2015-01-01

    We present the development status of the SOIKID, a detector combining the SOI pixel detector and the superconducting detector KID (Kinetic Inductance Detector). The aim of the SOIKID is to measure X-ray photon energy with the resolution better than that of the semiconductor detector. The silicon substrate is used as the X-ray photon absorber. The recoiled electron creates athermal phonons as well as the ionizing electron-hole pairs. The KID formed at one side of the substrate surface detects the phonons to measure the total energy deposited, while the SOI pixel detector formed on the other side of the substrate detects the ionized carries to measure the position. Combining the position and energy measurements, it is in principle possible to have the extremely high energy resolution.

  17. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-06-01

    The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  18. D0 Silicon Strip Detector Upgrade Project SVX Sequencer Controller Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sequencer Controller boards are 9U by 340mm circuit boards that will reside in slot 1 of each of eight Sequencer crates in the D0 detector platform. The primary purpose is to control the Sequencers during data acquisition based on trigger information from the D0 Trigger Framework. Functions and features are as follows: (1) Receives the Serial Command Link (SCL) from the D0 Trigger System and controls the operation of the Sequencers by forming a custom serial control link (NRZ/Clock) which is distributed individually to each Sequencer via the 11 Backplane; (2) Controllable delays adjust NRZ control link phasing to compensate for the various cable-length delays between the Sequencers and SVX chips, delay control is common for slots 2-11, and for slots 12-21 of the crate; (3) Each NRZ control link is phase controlled so that commands reach each Sequencer in a given half-crate simultaneously, i.e., the link is compensated for backplane propagation delays; (4) External communication via MIL-STD-1553; (5) Stand-alone operation via 1553 trigger commands in absence of an SCL link; (6) 1553-writeable register for triggering a laser, etc. followed by an acquisition cycle; (7) TTL front panel input to trigger an acquisition cycle, e.g. from a scintillator; (8) Synch Trig, Veto, Busy and Preamp Reset TTL outputs on front panel LEMOs; (9) On-board 53.104 MHz oscillator for stand-alone operation; (10) 1553 or SCL-triggerable Cal-inject cycle; (11) Front-panel inputs to accept NRZ/Clock link from the VRB Controller; (12) Front panel displays and LEDs show the board status at a glance; and (13) In-system programmable EPLDs are programmed via Altera's 'Byteblaster'.

  19. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author)

  20. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  1. Flexible composite radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  2. Hybrid Superconducting Neutron Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2014-01-01

    A new neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction 10B+n $\\rightarrow$ $\\alpha$+ 7Li , with $\\alpha$ and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection...

  3. Scintillating fiber detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vozak, Matous

    2016-01-01

    NA61 is one of the physics experiments at CERN dedicated to study hadron states coming from interactions of SPS beams with various targets. To determine the position of a secondary beam, three proportional chambers are placed along the beamline. However, these chambers tend to have slow response. In order to obtain more precise time information, use of another detector is being considered. Fast response and compact size is making scintillation fiber (SciFi) with silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) read out a good candidate. This report is focused on analysing data from SciFi collected in a test beam at the beginning of July 2016.

  4. The BABAR Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Boucham, A.; Boutigny, D.; Bonis, I.; Favier, J.; Gaillard, JM; Jeremie, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; T. Le Flour(LAPP, Annecy); Lees, JP; Lieunard, S; Petitpas, P.; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V.

    2001-01-01

    This is the pre-print version of the Article. The official published version can be accessed from the link below. Copyright @ 2002 Elsevier. BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e− B Factory operating at the (4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photon...

  5. Forward Wall Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Forward Wall Detector is designed to identify projectile like fragments from heavy ion reactions at CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala, Sweden. The FWD consist of 96 detection modules covering azimuthal angle from 3.9o to 11.7o with efficiency of 81%. The detection module can be either of phoswitch type (10 mm fast plastic + 80 mm CsI(Tl)) or standard ΔE-E telescope (750 μm Si + 88 mm CsI(Tl)). It is expected to have charge identification up to Z=18, mass resolution for H and He isotopes and energy resolution ∼ 8%. (author)

  6. Start-up of low-background test stand LArGe for GERDA at LNGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LArGe is a test facility for Phase II of the GERDA experiment. The goal of GERDA is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76 with a considerable reduction of background in comparison with predecessor experiments. GERDA will operate bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in Ge-76) submerged in high purity liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. LArGe puts into practice the novel concept to use LAr scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for further background suppression. In the pilot setup Mini-LArGe about 95% of the background Compton events in the Ge detector were vetoed using 19 kg of LAr as active volume. Pulse shape analysis methods were developed, which allow to perform gamma/alpha/neutron selection with a strong discrimination factor (>105) for diagnostics. LArGe intends to realize these powerful tools on a larger scale using 1.4 tons of LAr as active volume in a copper cryostat surrounded by a graded low-level shielding. This talk gives an account of the start-up phase of this setup, which is currently ongoing in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (Italy).

  7. Radiation damage of germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehl, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Energetic particles can produce interstitial-vacancy pairs in a crystal by knocking the atoms from their normal positions. Detectors are unique among semiconductor devices in depending on very low concentrations of electrically active impurities, and also on efficient transport of holes and electrons over relatively large distances. Because the dense regions of damage produced by energetic particles may result in donors and/or acceptors, and also provide trapping sites for holes and electrons, detectors are very sensitive to radiation damage. In addition to these effects occurring within the detector, radiation may also change the characteristics of the exposed surfaces causing unpredictable effects on the detector leakage current. Radiation-induced surface degradation has rarely, if ever, been observed for germanium detectors. The possibility of minimizing hole trapping in charge collection by the use of a high-purity germanium coaxial detector configured with the p (+) contact on the coaxial periphery is discussed.

  8. A detector for neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, C L; Wintenberg, A L; Warmack, R J; McKnight, T E; Frank, S S; Cooper, R G; Dudney, N J; Veith, G M; Stephan, A C

    2004-01-01

    A bright neutron source such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) places extreme requirements on detectors including excellent 2-D spatial imaging and high dynamic range. Present imaging detectors have either shown position resolutions that are less than acceptable or they exhibit excessive paralyzing dead times due to the brightness of the source. High neutron detection efficiency with good neutron- gamma discrimination is critical for applications in neutron scattering research where the usefulness of the data is highly dependent on the statistical uncertainty associated with each detector pixel.. A detector concept known as MicroMegas (MicroMEsh GAseous Structure) has been developed at CERN in Geneva for high- energy physics charged-particle tracking applications and has shown great promise for handling high data rates with a rather low-cost structure. We are attempting to optimize the MicroMegas detector concept for thermal neutrons and have designed a 1-D neutron strip detector which we have tested In ...

  9. Scalar top study: Detector optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Milsténe; A Sopczak

    2007-11-01

    A vertex detector concept of the linear collider flavour identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies pixel detectors for heavy quark flavour identification, has been implemented in simulations for -quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two -quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the international linear collider (ILC).

  10. Infrared detectors for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Wolfgang; Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Haiml, Markus; Hanna, Stefan; Hübner, Dominique; Höhnemann, Holger; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Thöt, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The motivation and intended benefits for the use of infrared (IR) detectors for space applications are highlighted. The actual status of state-of-the-art IR detectors for space applications is presented based on some of AIM's currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength IR (SWIR) to the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) and very long-wavelength IR (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength IR (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP and the IR detectors for the Sentinel 3 SLSTR will be elaborated. Additionally, dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC, will be addressed.

  11. Photon detectors with gaseous amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaseous photon detectors, including very large 4π-devices such as those incorporated in SLD and DELPHI, are finally delivering physics after many years of hard work. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photoelectrons. Among detector builders, there is hardly anybody who did not make mistakes in this area, and who does not have a healthy respect for the problems involved. This point is stressed in this paper, and it is suggested that only a very small operating phase space is available for running gaseous photon detectors in a very large system with good efficiency and few problems. In this paper the authors discuss what was done correctly or incorrectly in first generation photon detectors, and what would be their recommendations for second generation detectors. 56 refs., 11 figs

  12. Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2011-01-01

    Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors in 'Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Time of Flight Measurements 3.3.2.1 Scintillator hodoscopes 3.3.2.2 Parallel plate ToF detectors 3.3.3 Cherenkov Radiation 3.3.3.1 ...

  13. Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, R. W.; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

    1999-01-01

    We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. Th...

  14. The CMS detector before closure

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2006-01-01

    The CMS detector before testing using muon cosmic rays that are produced as high-energy particles from space crash into the Earth's atmosphere generating a cascade of energetic particles. After closing CMS, the magnets, calorimeters, trackers and muon chambers were tested on a small section of the detector as part of the magnet test and cosmic challenge. This test checked the alignment and functionality of the detector systems, as well as the magnets.

  15. The 4th concept detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John Hauptman

    2007-12-01

    The 4th concept detector consists of four detector subsystems, a small-pixel vertex detector, a high-resolution TPC, a new multiple-readout fiber calorimeter and a new dual-solenoid iron-free muon system. We discuss the design of a comprehensive facility that measures and identifies all partons of the standard model, including hadronic → and → decays, with high precision and high e±ciency. We emphasis here the calorimeter and muon systems.

  16. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2012-01-01

      Although the year 2012 is the third year without access to the chambers and the Front-End electronics, the fraction of good channels is still very high at 99.1% thanks also to the constant care provided by the on-site operation team. The downtime caused to CMS as a consequence of DT failures is to-date <2%. The intervention on the LV power supplies, which required a large number of CAEN modules (137 A3050, 13 A3100, and 3 MAO) to be removed from the detector, reworked and tested during this Year-End Technical Stop, can now, after a few months of stable operation of the LV, be declared to have solved once-and-for-all the persistent problem with the overheating LV Anderson connectors. Another piece of very good news is that measurements of the noise from single-hit rate outside the drift-time box as a function of the LHC luminosity show that the noise rate and distribution are consistent with expectations of the simulations in the Muon TDR, which have guided the detector design and constru...

  17. Barrier infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

  18. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

  19. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli

    During the last 3 months the RPC group has made impressive improvements in the refinement of the operation tools and understanding of the detector. The full barrel and part of the plus end cap participated systematically to global runs producing millions of trigger on cosmics. The main monitoring tools were robust and efficient in controlling the detector and in diagnosis of problems. After the refinement of the synchronization procedure, detailed studies of the chamber performances, as a function of high voltage and front-end threshold, were pursued. In parallel, new tools for the prompt analysis were developed which have enabled a fast check of the data at the CMS Centre. This effort has been very valuable since it has helped in discovering many minor bugs in the reconstruction software and database which are now being fixed. Unfortunately, a large part of the RE2 station has developed increasing operational current. Some preliminary investigation leads to the conclusion that the serial gas circulation e...

  20. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon

    Following the opening of the CMS detector, commissioning of the cathode strip chamber (CSC) system resumed in earnest. Some on-chamber electronics problems could be fixed on the positive endcap when each station became briefly accessible as the steel yokes were peeled off. There was no opportunity to work on the negative endcap chambers during opening; this had to wait instead until the yokes were again separated and the stations accessible during closing. In March, regular detector-operating shifts were resumed every weekday evening during which Local Runs were taken using cosmic rays to monitor and validate repairs and improvements that had taken place during the day. Since April, the CSC system has been collecting cosmic data under shift supervision 24 hours a day on weekdays, and 24/7 operation began in early June. The CSC system arranged shifts for continuous running in the entire first half of 2009. One reward of this effort is that every chamber of the CSC system is alive and recording events. There...

  1. PAU camera: detectors characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

  2. Advanced Radiation Detector Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size

  3. The DEMON detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DEMON neutron detector was first put into operation in the summer of 1994 and used in three experiments studying: the excitation energy partition between quasi-target and quasi-projectile, the existence limits of hot residues, and the study of the halo exotic nuclei like 19C. The first experiment was performed at Strasbourg, the other two were developed at Caen. In 1995, after stages by the VIVITRON and SARA experiments and after experiments concerning the fission (the neutrons from pre- and post-scission), the extra-push, fusion, etc, the DEMON was bound to Louvain. Afterwards, DEMON came back by the VIVITRON and then at GANIL for experiments of neutron-neutron interferometry and the continuation of the study of neutron halo nuclei (14B, 17C, 19B, 22C). From the spring of 1996 several DEMON detectors were used at Saclay for systematic measurements of angular distributions and energy of the neutrons produced in spallation reactions, conducted by IN2P3-CNRS to explore the possibility of processing the long-life nuclear wastes by neutron irradiation

  4. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Document Server

    C. Fernandez Bedoya and M. Dallavalle

    2010-01-01

    The DT system operation since the 2010 LHC start up is remarkably smooth.
 All parts of the system have behaved very satisfactorily in the last two months of operation with LHC pp collisions. Disconnected HV channels remain at the level of 0.1%, and the loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the readout and Trigger electronics is about 0.4%. The DT DCS-LHC handshake mechanism, which was strengthened after the short 2009 LHC run, operates without major problems. A problem arose with the opto-receivers of the trigger links connecting the detector to USC; the receivers would unlock from transmission for specific frequencies of the LHC lock, in particular during the LHC ramp. For relocking the TX and RX a “re-synch” command had to be issued. The source of the problem has been isolated and cured in the Opto-RX boards and now the system is stable. The Theta trigger chain also has been commissioned and put in operation. Several interventions on the system have been made, pro...

  5. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    The RPC muon detector and trigger are working very well, contributing positively to the high quality of CMS data. Most of 2011 has been used to improve the stability of our system and the monitoring tools used online and offline by the shifters and experts. The high-voltage working point is corrected, chamber-by-chamber, for pressure variation since July 2011. Corrections are applied at PVSS level during the stand-by mode (no collision) and are not changed until the next fill. The single detector calibration, HV scan, of February and the P-correction described before were very important steps towards fine-tuning the stability of the RPC performances. A very detailed analysis of the RPC performances is now ongoing and from preliminary results we observe an important improvements of the cluster size stability in time. The maximum oscillation of the cluster size run by run is now about 1%. At the same time we are not observing the same stability in the detection efficiency that shows an oscillation of about ...

  6. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli.

    Substantial progress has been made on the RPC system resulting in a high standard of operation. Impressive improvements have been made in the online software and DCS PVSS protocols that ensure robustness of the configuration phase and reliability of the detector monitoring tasks. In parallel, an important upgrade of CCU ring connectivity was pursued to avoid noise pick-up and consequent  data transmission errors during operation with magnetic field. While the barrel part is already well synchronized thanks to the long cosmics runs, some refinements are still required on the forward part. The "beam splashes" have been useful to cross check  the existing delay constants, but further efforts will be made as soon as a substantial sample of beam-halo events is available. Progress has been made on early detector performance studies. The RPC DQM tool is being extensively used and minor bugs have been found. More plots have been added and more people have been tr...

  7. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

  8. Chopper-stabilized phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Phase-detector circuit for binary-tracking loops and other binary-data acquisition systems minimizes effects of drift, gain imbalance, and voltage offset in detector circuitry. Input signal passes simultaneously through two channels where it is mixed with early and late codes that are alternately switched between channels. Code switching is synchronized with polarity switching of detector output of each channel so that each channel uses each detector for half time. Net result is that dc offset errors are canceled, and effect of gain imbalance is simply change in sensitivity.

  9. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  10. The controlled-drift detector

    CERN Document Server

    Castoldi, A; Guazzoni, C; Longoni, A; Rehak, P; Strüder, L

    2000-01-01

    A new position-sensing X-ray detector is presented. The novel device is called Controlled-Drift Detector (CDD). The detector is fully depleted and is operated by switching between integration and drift modes. The relevant details of the detector design are discussed. A complete experimental characterization of the fast readout of the integrated signal charges achievable with static drift fields in the range 100-400 V/cm has been carried out. Preliminary measurements to evaluate the charge-handling capacity are also shown. The CDD can provide unambiguous two-dimensional position measurement, high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and time resolution below 1 ms.

  11. Tomography of Spatial Mode Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, Ivan; Markov, Anton; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Transformation and detection of photons in higher-order spatial modes usually requires complicated holographic techniques. Detectors based on spatial holograms suffer from non-idealities and should be carefully calibrated. We report a novel method for analyzing the quality of projective measurements in spatial mode basis inspired by quantum detector tomography. It allows us to calibrate the detector response using only gaussian beams. We experimentally investigate the inherent inaccuracy of the existing methods of mode transformation and provide a full statistical reconstruction of the POVM (positive operator valued measure) elements for holographic spatial mode detectors.

  12. Detector developments at DESY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderer, Cornelia B; Allahgholi, Aschkan; Bayer, Matthias; Bianco, Laura; Correa, Jonathan; Delfs, Annette; Göttlicher, Peter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Jack, Stefanie; Klyuev, Alexander; Lange, Sabine; Marras, Alessandro; Niemann, Magdalena; Pithan, Florian; Reza, Salim; Sheviakov, Igor; Smoljanin, Sergej; Tennert, Maximilian; Trunk, Ulrich; Xia, Qingqing; Zhang, Jiaguo; Zimmer, Manfred; Das, Dipayan; Guerrini, Nicola; Marsh, Ben; Sedgwick, Iain; Turchetta, Renato; Cautero, Giuseppe; Giuressi, Dario; Menk, Ralf; Khromova, Anastasiya; Pinaroli, Giovanni; Stebel, Luigi; Marchal, Julien; Pedersen, Ulrik; Rees, Nick; Steadman, Paul; Sussmuth, Mark; Tartoni, Nicola; Yousef, Hazem; Hyun, HyoJung; Kim, KyungSook; Rah, Seungyu; Dinapoli, Roberto; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Mezza, Davide; Mozzanica, Aldo; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Krueger, Hans; Klanner, Robert; Schwandt, Joem; Graafsma, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    With the increased brilliance of state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation sources and the advent of free-electron lasers (FELs) enabling revolutionary science with EUV to X-ray photons comes an urgent need for suitable photon imaging detectors. Requirements include high frame rates, very large dynamic range, single-photon sensitivity with low probability of false positives and (multi)-megapixels. At DESY, one ongoing development project - in collaboration with RAL/STFC, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Diamond, and Pohang Accelerator Laboratory - is the CMOS-based soft X-ray imager PERCIVAL. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active-pixel sensor back-thinned to access its primary energy range of 250 eV to 1 keV with target efficiencies above 90%. According to preliminary specifications, the roughly 10 cm × 10 cm, 3.5k × 3.7k monolithic sensor will operate at frame rates up to 120 Hz (commensurate with most FELs) and use multiple gains within 27 µm pixels to measure 1 to ∼100000 (500 eV) simultaneously arriving photons. DESY is also leading the development of the AGIPD, a high-speed detector based on hybrid pixel technology intended for use at the European XFEL. This system is being developed in collaboration with PSI, University of Hamburg, and University of Bonn. The AGIPD allows single-pulse imaging at 4.5 MHz frame rate into a 352-frame buffer, with a dynamic range allowing single-photon detection and detection of more than 10000 photons at 12.4 keV in the same image. Modules of 65k pixels each are configured to make up (multi)megapixel cameras. This review describes the AGIPD and the PERCIVAL concepts and systems, including some recent results and a summary of their current status. It also gives a short overview over other FEL-relevant developments where the Photon Science Detector Group at DESY is involved. PMID:26698052

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  14. Imaging alpha particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.F.