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Sample records for anti-c antibodies diagnosed

  1. Severe hydrops in the infant of a Rhesus D-positive mother due to anti-c antibodies diagnosed antenatally: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Jai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rhesus haemolytic disease of the newborn is a prototype of maternal isoimmunisation and fetal haemolytic disease. There are other rare blood group antigens capable of causing alloimmunisation and haemolytic disease such as c, C, E, Kell and Duffy. In India, after the confirmation of a newborn's blood group, antibodies are screened only if the mother is Rehsus D-negative negative and the father is Rhesus D-positive. Hydrops in Rhesus positive women are investigated along the lines of non-immune hydrops. Case presentation We report the case of a patient from India where irregular antibodies were requested for an O-positive 26-year-old mother in order to investigate fetal hydrops. Anti-c antibody was revealed and the fetus was treated successfully with compatible O negative and c negative intrauterine blood transfusions. The baby was treated postnatally with double volume exchange transfusion with the same compatible blood, and was discharged 30 days after birth. Conclusion We highlight the importance of conducting irregular antibody screening for women with significant obstetric history and fetal hydrops. This could assist in diagnosing and successfully treating the fetus with appropriate antigen negative cross-matched compatible blood. We note, however, that anti-c immunoglobulin is not yet readily available.

  2. Anti Rh Hemolytic Disease due to Anti C Antibody: Is Testing for Anti D Antibodies Enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Negi, Gita; Singh, Gaur Dushyant

    2011-01-01

    Rh blood group system is a complex blood group system. Rh antibodies are produced in Rh negative individuals following exposure to foreign RBCs after transfusion or pregnancy. Anti C is a rare cause of hemolytic disease of newborn and is very scarcely reported in the literature. The aim of the present case report of Hemolytic disease caused by Anti C antibody is to bring out the fact that antibodies other than anti D should be considered in cases that give a suggestive history but no evidence...

  3. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L; Sturfelt, G;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multicenter study. METHODS: Information...... in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement was the strongest serological association with renal involvement. These data support the usefulness of anti-C1q in SLE, especially in lupus nephritis....

  4. Association between the presence of anti-c1q antibodies and active nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María De Los Ángeles Gargiulo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is a severe complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. A retrospective analysis was carried out on a group of 24 patients with SLE to evaluate whether the presence of anti-C1q antibodies (anti-C1q is related to renal involvement and to explore the behaviour of anti-C1q with respect to LN during a four-year follow-up period. A first serum sample stored at the serum bank, taken not more than three years after SLE diagnosis and one serum sample per year for the subsequent four years were used to detect anti-C1q. Lupus clinical manifestations and serological markers of activity corresponding to the date of each serum sample selected were collected from medical records. In the first serum sample, anti-C1q were found in 8 active SLE. LN was confirmed by histology in 5/8 patients who were positive for anti-C1q and in 1/16 patients who were negative for these autoantibodies (p = 0.0069. Three patients (3/8 had anti-C1q without renal involvement but with lupus skin manifestation. Anti-C1q levels decreased in 3/5 patients with LN who responded to treatment and remained higher in 2/5 patients who needed a new renal biopsy which showed severe renal disease. The 15 patients without severe kidney disease and anti-C1q negative at diagnosis did not develop LN and anti-C1q remained negative in the 4 years of follow up. Anti-C1q were found in SLE patients with active renal involvement or with lupus skin disease. The absence of anti-C1q seemed to be linked to low probabilities of renal involvement.

  5. Correlation of Serum Soluble Interleukin-7 Receptor and Anti-C1q Antibody in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum concentrations of soluble interleukin-7 receptor (sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibody have recently been identified as unique serological markers for lupus nephritis (LN in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of serum sIL-7R and anti-C1q in SLE patients. Methods. Sera from 134 patients with SLE and 84 healthy cohorts were tested for levels of sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies in terms of ELISA. Correlations of the sIL-7R and anti-C1q autoantibodies were evaluated. Results. The serum concentrations of sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies were significantly higher in SLE patients and LN patients in comparison with healthy individuals/controls and SLE patients with non-LN, respectively. In addition, both sIL-7R and anti-C1q concentrations were found to significantly correlate with the SLE disease activity as evaluated by SLEDAI scores. Interestingly, the serum sIL-7R concentration was strongly correlated with the level of anti-C1q antibodies (r=0.2871, p=0.0008 but not statistically correlated with other serological markers, including the anti-dsDNA and complements C3 and C4 concentrations in SLE patients. Conclusion. Both serum sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies were strongly associated with disease activity and LN in SLE patients, suggesting that they may be reliable serological markers for identification of SLE patients with active diseases and LN.

  6. Diagnostic value of serum anti-C1q antibodies in patients with lupus nephritis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y; Wu, X; Shan, G; Zhang, X

    2012-09-01

    The autoantibodies against C1q (anti-C1q) have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the past decade, though there were increasing studies suggesting it is relatively specific in lupus nephritis (LN), its overall diagnostic value in LN has not been evaluated. The meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of autoantibodies against C1q in patients with LN, and to provide more precise evidence of a correlation between anti-C1q antibodies and activity of LN. We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases and contacted authors if necessary. A total of 25 studies including 2,502 patients with SLE and 1,317 with LN met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Among all 25 studies, 22 studies were available for comparison between SLE with and without LN, and 9 studies compared anti-C1q between patients with active and inactive LN. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was used to summarize comprehensive test performance. The QUADAS tool was used to assess the quality of the studies. For the diagnosis of LN, the pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of anti-C1q were 0.58 (0.56-0.61, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]), 0.75 (0.72-0.77, 95% CI), 2.60 (2.06-3.28, 95% CI), 0.51 (0.41-0.63, 95% CI), and 6.08 (3.91-9.47, 95% CI) respectively. The area under the SROC curve (AUC) was 0.7941. For comparison between active and inactive LN, the weighted sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR and DOR were 0.74 (0.68-0.79, 95% CI), 0.77 (0.71-0.82, 95% CI), 2.91 (1.83-4.65, 95% CI), 0.33 (0.19-0.56, 95% CI), and 10.56 (4.56-24.46, 95% CI) respectively. The AUC was 0.8378. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that anti-C1q antibodies have relatively fair sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of LN, suggesting that the presence of anti-C1q antibodies may be a valuable adjunct for predicting

  7. Effects of anti-C23 (nucleolin) antibody on transcription of ribosomal DNA in Chironomus salivary gland cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egyhazi, E.; Pigon, A. (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)); Chang, Jinhong; Ghaffari, S.H.; Dreesen, T.D.; Wellman, S.E.; Case, S.T.; Olson, M.O.J. (Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Protein C23 (also called nucleolin or 100-kDa nucleolar protein) is a major nucleolar phosphoprotein involved in ribosome biogenesis. To determine the effects of protein C23 on preribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) synthesis anti-C23 antiserum was microinjected into nuclei of Chironomus tentans salivary glands. Transcription was measured by incubation of the glands with {sup 32}P-labeled RNA precursors followed by microdissection of nucleoli, RNA extraction, and electrophoretic analyses. Injection of the anti-C23 antibody caused a 2- to 3.5-fold stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation into 38 S pre-rRNA. No stimulation was observed in salivary glands injected with preimmune serum or antiserum preabsorbed with protein C23. The stimulatory effect was selective for pre-rRNA as indicated by the lack of stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation into extranucleolar RNA. Injection of the antiserum produced little or no effect on pre-RNA processing as measured by the relative amounts of {sup 32}P-labeled intermediate cleavage products of pre-rRNA in stimulated versus control glands. These results suggest that protein C23 not only is involved in ribosome assembly but also plays a role in regulating the transcription of the preribosomal RNA.

  8. C-kit-targeted imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumor using radiolabeled anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody in a mouse tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogawa, Chizuru [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Tsuji, Atsushi B. [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: a_tsuji@nirs.go.jp; Sudo, Hitomi [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Pathology and Oncology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sugyo, Aya [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Chisato [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Molecular Imaging and Radiotherapy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Odaka, Kenichi [Molecular Probe Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uehara, Tomoya; Arano, Yasushi [Department of Molecular Imaging and Radiotherapy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru; Saga, Tsuneo [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor arising from the gastrointestinal tract and highly expresses mutated c-kit. We aimed to develop a specific and sensitive method for detecting GISTs using radiolabeled anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody. Methods: A mutated c-kit-expressing cell clone was established by transfecting an expressing vector of mutated c-kit gene into HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. The tumors were developed by inoculating c-kit-expressing cells into nude mice. {sup 125}I- and {sup 111}In-labeled anti-c-kit antibodies (12A8 and 41A11) were evaluated in vitro by cell binding, competitive inhibition and cellular internalization assays, and in vivo by biodistribution and imaging studies in tumor-bearing mice. Results: Both {sup 125}I- and {sup 111}In-labeled antibodies showed specific binding with c-kit-expressing cells with high affinity (dissociation constants = 2.2-7.1x10{sup 9} M{sup -1}). Internalization assay showed that {sup 125}I-labeled antibodies were rapidly internalized and dehalogenated, with the release of {sup 125}I from the cells, resulting in reduction of cell-associated radioactivity with time. In contrast, {sup 111}In-labeled antibody was internalized but did not result in the reduced radioactivity associated with tumor cells. Reflecting this phenomenon, the in vivo tumor uptake of {sup 125}I-labeled antibody was low on Day 1, further decreasing with time, while tumor uptake of {sup 111}In-labeled antibody was high on Day 1, further increasing with time. The xenografted tumor was clearly visualized by scintigraphy after injection of {sup 111}In-labeled antibody. Conclusion: The anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody labeled with a metal radionuclide would be promising for c-kit-targeted imaging of GISTs.

  9. The binding affinity of a soluble TCR-Fc fusion protein is significantly improved by crosslinkage with an anti-C{beta} antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Horii, Masae; Kobayashi, Eiji [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Jin, Aishun [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150081 (China); Kishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: immkishi@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Muraguchi, Atsushi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel soluble TCR composed of TCR V and C regions with Ig Fc region is generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCR-Fc protein immobilized by an anti-C{beta} antibody bound to a p/MHC tetramer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding affinity of TCR-Fc was markedly increased by binding with anti-C{beta} antibody. -- Abstract: The identification and cloning of tumor antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) and the production of the soluble form of the TCR (sTCR) contributed to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for cancer. Recently, several groups have reported the development of technologies for the production of sTCRs. The native sTCR has a very low binding affinity for the antigenic peptide/MHC (p/MHC) complex. In this study, we established a technology to produce high affinity, functional sTCRs. We generated a novel sTCR-Fc fusion protein composed of the TCR V and C regions of the TCR linked to the immunoglobulin (Ig) Fc region. A Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the fusion protein was approximately 60 kDa under reducing conditions and approximately 100-200 kDa under non-reducing conditions. ELISAs using various antibodies showed that the structure of each domain of the TCR-Fc protein was intact. The TCR-Fc protein immobilized by an anti-C{beta} antibody effectively bound to a p/MHC tetramer. An SPR analysis showed that the TCR-Fc protein had a low binding affinity (KD; 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M) to the p/MHC monomer. Interestingly, when the TCR-Fc protein was pre-incubated with an anti-C{beta} antibody, its binding affinity for p/MHC increased by 5-fold (2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M). We demonstrated a novel method for constructing a functional soluble TCR using the Ig Fc region and showed that the binding affinity of the functional sTCR-Fc was markedly increased by an anti-C{beta} antibody, which is probably due to the stabilization of the V

  10. The role of anti-C1q antibodies in the evaluation of lupus nephritis activity%抗C1q抗体在评价狼疮性肾炎活动性中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖瑾岚; 熊祖应; 王青; 张悦; 侯霜; 梁伟; 张帆; 陈丽; 郑磊

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨抗C1q抗体在评价狼疮性肾炎(LN)疾病总体活动性和肾脏活动性中的作用.方法 选择2008年8月至2011年8月于北京大学深圳医院肾活检病理诊断为LN患者46例.ELISA方法检测血清抗C1q抗体滴度,比较该抗体与LN的活动性评分如SLEDAI评分、m-SLEDAI(modified SLEDAI)评分和肾脏活动性指数(RAS)等相关性.结果 抗Clq抗体滴度与SLEDAI、m-SLEDAI呈正相关.当肾脏活动指数RAS >11分时,抗C1q抗体(>20u/ml)、抗dsDNA抗体(>100u/ml)、补体C3<0.8mmol/L)、CRP(> 8mg/L)与对应的RAS值进行卡方检验,抗C1q抗体和抗dsDNA抗体差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),皮尔逊卡方值分别为17.043,8.696,其列联系数分别为0.807、0.633.结论 预测LN疾病整体活动性时,抗C1q抗体优于抗dsDNA抗体、补体C3;它与肾脏活动性指数有较好的对应关系.%Objectives To investigate the role of anti-C1 q antibodies in the evaluation of lupus nephritis activity including systemic activity and renal activity.Methods It was enrolled 46 lupus nephritis patients proved by renal biopsy in Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from August 2008 to August 2011.Serum titer of Anti-C1q antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following the manufacturer's instructions.We conducted statistical analysis on Anti-C1q antibody,which has correlation with SELENA-SLE Disease Activity Index and modified SELENA-SLE Disease Activity Index (m-SLEDAI) or Renal Activity Score.Results There was a strong positive correlation between the presence of anti-C1q antibody and SLEDAI and m-SLEDAI.As renal activity score (RAS) > 11 with anti-C1 q antibody > 20ug/ml,anti-dsDNA antibodies > 100u/ml,C3 <0.8mmoL/L,CRP > 8mg/L,Pearson chi-square test was accomplished between RAS and above parameters.Statistical significance was only found in anti-C1q antibody and anti-dsDNA antibody with RAS.Pearson chi-square values and Contingency coefficient of anti-C1q

  11. Anti-C1q autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2008-09-01

    Autoantibodies to complement components are associated with various diseases. Anti-C1q antibodies are present in all patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, but also, with varying prevalence, in other conditions. In SLE, these antibodies are neither sensitive nor specific for this condition. They occur, however, more frequently in (proliferative) lupus nephritis, particularly during active disease. Furthermore, levels of anti-C1q rise, in many cases, prior to a relapse of lupus nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic role for the autoantibodies. Indeed, experimental studies strongly support a pathogenic role for anti-C1q in immune complex-mediated renal disease. In addition, anti-C1q may interfere with the clearance of apoptotic cells, so influencing induction and expression of autoimmunity. PMID:18606253

  12. Anti-C1q autoantibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Autoantibodies to complement components are associated with various diseases. Anti-C1q antibodies are present in all patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, but also, with varying prevalence, in other conditions. In SLE, these antibodies are neither sensitive nor specific for this co

  13. Reduction in erythrocyte-bound complement activation products and titres of anti-C1q antibodies associate with clinical improvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyon, Jill; Furie, Richard; Putterman, Chaim; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Kalunian, Kenneth; Barken, Derren; Conklin, John; Dervieux, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs: EC4d, EC3d), anti-C1q, soluble complement C3/C4 and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was evaluated. Methods Per protocol, at baseline all SLE subjects enrolled in this longitudinal study presented with active disease and elevated CB-CAPs. At each monthly visit, the non-serological (ns) Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA-SLEDAI) and the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG)-2004 index scores were determined as was a random urinary protein to creatinine ratio (uPCR). Short-form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires were also collected. All soluble markers were determined using immunoassays, while EC4d and EC3d were determined using flow cytometry. Statistical analysis consisted of linear mixed models with random intercept and fixed slopes. Results A total of 36 SLE subjects (mean age 34 years; 94% female) were enrolled and evaluated monthly for an average 11 visits per subject. Clinical improvements were observed during the study, with significant decreases in ns-SELENA-SLEDAI scores, BILAG-2004 index scores and uPCR, and increases in all domains of SF-36 (p<0.01). The longitudinal decrease in ns-SELENA-SLEDAI and BILAG-2004 index scores was significantly associated with reduced EC4d and EC3d levels, reduced anti-C1q titres and increased serum complement C3/C4 (p<0.05). The changes in uPCR significantly correlated with C3, C4, anti-C1q and EC4d, with EC4d outperforming C3/C4 by a multivariate analysis. The reduced EC4d or EC3d was associated with improvements in at least six out of the eight domains of SF-36 and outperformed C3/C4. Anti-dsDNA titres did not correlate with changes in disease activity. Conclusions These data indicate that CB-CAPs and anti-C1q are helpful in monitoring patients with SLE. PMID:27752336

  14. 抗c-mpl抗体在系统性红斑狼疮并发血小板减少中的作用%Role of anti c-mpl antibody in systemic lupus erythematosus with thrombocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨拓; 黄慈波; 赖蓓; 赵丽珂; 陈颖娟; 赵籥陶; 张春媚; 曾小峰

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析抗血小板生成素( thrombopoietin,TPO)受体(c-mpl)抗体在系统性红斑狼疮(systemic lupus erythematosus,SLE)血小板减少中的作用,探讨该抗体的致病机制及临床价值.方法:应用间接ELISA法检测24例伴血小板减少SLE患者(A组)、27例曾有血小板减少现已恢复正常SLE患者(B组)、18例无血小板减少SLE患者(C组)及18例正常对照者血清中抗c-mpl抗体、TPO水平,分析其与临床表现及SLE疾病活动性指数(SLE disease activity index,SLEDAI)之间的关系.结果:血清抗c-mpl抗体在SLE总的阳性率为18.8%,抗c-mpl抗体在A组、B组和C组中的阳性率差异无统计学意义(P=0.600).抗c-mpl抗体阳性组血小板计数明显低于阴性组(P=0.025),血清TPO水平明显高于阴性组(P =0.038),抗c-mpl抗体阳性与阴性组补体C3和C4、红细胞沉降率(erytrocyte sedimentation rate,ESR)、C反应蛋白(C-reactive protein,CRP)及抗核抗体(anti-nuclear antibody,ANA)、抗双链DNA抗体(anti double-strained DNA,dsDNA)、抗中性粒细胞胞浆抗体(antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody,ANCA)阳性率、SLEDAI评分差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:抗c-mpl抗体可能通过与TPO竞争结合c-mpl,阻断TPO-c-mpl通路,引起巨核细胞分化、发育、成熟障碍,从而引起血小板减少.%Objective;To determine whether anti-thrompoietin receptor (TPO-R, c-mpl) antibody contributes to thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erytematosus (SLE) and explore the pathogenic role of this antibody. Methods; Sera from 24 SLE patients with thrombocytopenia, 27 SLE patients having normal platelet counts with a history of thrombocytopenia, 18 SLE patients with neither thrombocytopenia nor post thrombocytopenia and 18 healthy controls were collected. Anti c-mpl antibodies were detected by an indi-rected ELISA assay. The serum TPO levels were measured by an ELISA assay. Clinical findings, au-toantibody profiles, and SLEDAI were evaluated. Results; Serum anti c

  15. The diagnostic value of anti-dsDNA antibody, anti-nucleosome antibody and anti-C1q antibody for systemic lupus erythematosus%抗dsDNA抗体、抗核小体抗体及抗C1q抗体在系统性红斑狼疮诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路庆丽; 单新洁; 孟新艳

    2013-01-01

    目的了解抗dsDNA抗体、抗核小体抗体(AnuA)和抗C1q抗体诊断系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)的价值。方法检测111例SLE患者、54例非SLE风湿患者及43名正常对照者血清中抗dsDNA抗体、AnuA和抗C1q抗体,比较3种抗体单独或联合诊断SLE的敏感性和特异性。结果 SLE组抗C1q抗体阳性率和AnuA阳性率及平均浓度与非SLE风湿组、正常对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。3种抗体单独检测诊断SLE,AnuA敏感性最高(52.3%),抗dsDNA抗体特异性最高(97.9%),3种抗体联合检测以抗dsDNA抗体+AnuA敏感性和特异性最高(分别为29.7%、99.0%)。3种抗体在研究人群中的分布,抗dsDNA抗体与AnuA符合率为81.25%,Kappa值为0.515。结论采用串联试验,3种抗体联合检测可增强SLE诊断的特异性,但敏感性降低。诊断SLE,抗C1q抗体和AnuA的浓度水平是否也应作为参考的指标,有待于对其与病情进展的关系作进一步研究。%Objective To investigate the diagnostic signiifcance of anti-dsDNA antibody, anti-nucleosome antibody(AnuA) and anti-C1q antibody for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods anti-dsDNA antibody, AnuA and anti-C1q antibody were detected in serum samples including 111 from SLE, 54 from non-SLE diseases and 43 from healthy blood donors. Then the sensitivity and speciifcity of these parameters for SLE diagnosis were studied. Results Both the positive rate and average concentration of AnuA and the positive rate of anti-C1q antibody in SLE were higher than that in non-SLE diseases or in healthy controls (P<0.05). The most sensitive and speciifc parameter for SLE diagnosis was AnuA (52.3%) and anti-dsDNA antibody (97.9%) respectively. For the comboes of any two antibodies, the sensitivity and speciifcity of anti-dsDNA antibody combined with AnuA were highest (29.7%and 99.0%respectively). As to the distribution of the three antibodies in the studied groups, the

  16. Lyme myocarditis diagnosed by indium-111-antimyosin antibody scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a new case of Lyme disease with cardiac manifestations, which has been possible to follow during the long period of 12 years. We have detected the usual ECG abnormalities, and concentric hypertrophic myocardiopathy, by echocardiography. The acute myocarditis was demonstrated by 111In-antimyosin scintigraphy, which showed global myocardial uptake of the tracer, constituting the first report, to our knowledge, of Lyme myocarditis diagnosed by this method. (orig.)

  17. A novel antagonist anti-cMet antibody with antitumor activities targeting both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent c-Met receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alexandra; Broussas, Matthieu; Beau-Larvor, Charlotte; Haeuw, Jean-François; Boute, Nicolas; Robert, Alain; Champion, Thierry; Beck, Alain; Bailly, Christian; Corvaïa, Nathalie; Goetsch, Liliane

    2016-10-15

    c-Met is a prototypic member of a sub-family of RTKs. Inappropriate c-Met activation plays a crucial role in tumor formation, proliferation and metastasis. Using a key c-Met dimerization assay, a set of 12 murine whole IgG1 monoclonal antibodies was selected and a lead candidate, m224G11, was humanized by CDR-grafting and engineered to generate a divalent full antagonist humanized IgG1 antibody, hz224G11. Neither m224G11 nor hz224G11 bind to the murine c-Met receptor. Their antitumor activity was investigated in vitro in a set of experiments consistent with the reported pleiotropic effects mediated by c-Met and, in vivo, using several human tumor xenograft models. Both m224G11 and hz224G11 exhibited nanomolar affinities for the receptor and inhibited HGF binding, c-Met phosphorylation, and receptor dimerization in a similar fashion, resulting in a profound inhibition of all c-Met functions in vitro. These effects were presumably responsible for the inhibition of c-Met's major functions including cell proliferation, migration, invasion scattering, morphogenesis and angiogenesis. In addition to these in vitro properties, hz224G11 dramatically inhibits the growth of autocrine, partially autophosphorylated and c-Met amplified cell lines in vivo. Pharmacological studies performed on Hs746T gastric cancer xenografts demonstrate that hz224G11 strongly downregulates c-Met expression and phosphorylation. It also decreases the tumor mitotic index (Ki67) and induces apoptosis. Taken together, the in vitro and in vivo data suggest that hz224G11 is a promising candidate for the treatment of tumors. This antibody, now known as ABT-700 and currently in Phase I clinical trials, may provide a novel therapeutic approach to c-Met-expressing cancers.

  18. A novel antagonist anti-cMet antibody with antitumor activities targeting both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent c-Met receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alexandra; Broussas, Matthieu; Beau-Larvor, Charlotte; Haeuw, Jean-François; Boute, Nicolas; Robert, Alain; Champion, Thierry; Beck, Alain; Bailly, Christian; Corvaïa, Nathalie; Goetsch, Liliane

    2016-10-15

    c-Met is a prototypic member of a sub-family of RTKs. Inappropriate c-Met activation plays a crucial role in tumor formation, proliferation and metastasis. Using a key c-Met dimerization assay, a set of 12 murine whole IgG1 monoclonal antibodies was selected and a lead candidate, m224G11, was humanized by CDR-grafting and engineered to generate a divalent full antagonist humanized IgG1 antibody, hz224G11. Neither m224G11 nor hz224G11 bind to the murine c-Met receptor. Their antitumor activity was investigated in vitro in a set of experiments consistent with the reported pleiotropic effects mediated by c-Met and, in vivo, using several human tumor xenograft models. Both m224G11 and hz224G11 exhibited nanomolar affinities for the receptor and inhibited HGF binding, c-Met phosphorylation, and receptor dimerization in a similar fashion, resulting in a profound inhibition of all c-Met functions in vitro. These effects were presumably responsible for the inhibition of c-Met's major functions including cell proliferation, migration, invasion scattering, morphogenesis and angiogenesis. In addition to these in vitro properties, hz224G11 dramatically inhibits the growth of autocrine, partially autophosphorylated and c-Met amplified cell lines in vivo. Pharmacological studies performed on Hs746T gastric cancer xenografts demonstrate that hz224G11 strongly downregulates c-Met expression and phosphorylation. It also decreases the tumor mitotic index (Ki67) and induces apoptosis. Taken together, the in vitro and in vivo data suggest that hz224G11 is a promising candidate for the treatment of tumors. This antibody, now known as ABT-700 and currently in Phase I clinical trials, may provide a novel therapeutic approach to c-Met-expressing cancers. PMID:27144973

  19. 血清抗C1q抗体与狼疮肾炎病理分型及活动性的相关性%Correlation between Serum Anti-C1q Antibodies and Renal Pathohistology and Lupus Nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究血清抗C1q抗体水平与狼疮肾炎(lupus nephritis, LN)病理类型及活动性的相关性.方法 酶联免疫吸附法(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA)检测47例系统性红斑狼疮(system lupus erythematosus, SLE)患者(狼疮肾炎37例,非狼疮肾炎10例)血清抗C1q抗体水平,并与狼疮肾炎病理类型及活动性指标进行相关性分析.结果 SLE患者血清抗C1q抗体水平(92±55)U/ml,较正常对照组显著升高;LN患者(99±56) U/ml高于非LN患者(64±53)U/ml(t= 3.185,P<0.01).各肾脏病理类型的血清抗C1q抗体水平有统计学差异,IV型LN患者(126±48) U/ml,高于其他各LN病理分型(P<0.01).血清抗C1q抗体水平与肾脏病理病变活动指数呈正相关(r=0.750,P<0.01).肾炎复发组血清抗C1q抗体水平(131±54 )U/ml在各临床活动度分组中最高(P<0.01).结论 血清抗C1q抗体水平与SLE患者肾脏损害显著相关,监测其变化可为临床评估治疗提供重要依据.%Objective To analyze the correlation of serum anti-C1 q antibody level with renal pathological characteristic and nephritis activity in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Methods Serum anti-C1q antibodies were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) in 47 patients with system lupus erythematosus (SLE) including 37 LN patients and 10 non-LN patients. The correlation between anti-C1 q antibody level and renal pathohistology and lupus nephritis activity were analyzed. Results Serum level of anti-Clq antibody in SLE patients [(92 ± 55) U/ml] was significantly higher than that of control groups, and higher in LN patients [(99 ± 56) U/ml] than non-LN patients [(64 ± 53) U/ml](P<0.01 ). The serum levels of anti-C1q antibody of each renal pathohistology class were significantly different, and of class Ⅳ was the highest [( 126± 48) U/ml, P<0.01]. The serum level of anti-C1q antibody was positively correlated with activity index of renal pathohistology (r= 0.750,P<0.01 ). The serum

  20. Elimination of islet cell antibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies II in a patient with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, W O; Donner, M G; Schwandt, P

    1997-01-01

    Islet cell antibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase II (GAD II) antibodies have been discussed in the autoimmune pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Hence, immunosuppressants, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasmapheresis have been used in an effort to modulate autoimmune activity and thereby prevent the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. We describe the autoantibody (islet cell antibody and GAD II) kinetics and clinical course in a patient with newly diagnosed IDDM treated with a specific immunoglobulin apheresis technique. Five days after the initial diagnosis a 37-year-old patient with IDDM underwent a series of seven immunoglobulin aphereses. Immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM), islet cell antibody, GAD II, and C-peptide concentrations were monitored for a time course of 74 days. Daily insulin requirements were recorded. One single immunoglobulin apheresis decreased IgG by 66.2 +/- 9.1%, IgA by 66.8 +/- 8.7%, and IgM by 57.7 +/- 12.9%. GAD II antibodies were reduced by 61.9 +/- 12.4%. The islet cell antibody titer declined from 1:32 to 1:4 after the treatment series. There were no relevant changes in the safety parameters determined nor were there any clinical side effects. The efficient decrease in islet cell antibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase II antibodies in a patient with IDDM encourages further investigations into the impact of this treatment on the clinical course of this autoimmune disorder.

  1. Chlamydia antibody testing and diagnosing tubal pathology in subfertile women : an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, K. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Coppus, S. F. P. J.; Van Geloven, N.; Alves, M. F. C.; Anestad, G.; Bhattacharya, S.; Allan, J.; Guerra-Infante, M. F.; Den Hartog, J. E.; Land, J. A.; Idahl, A.; Van der Linden, P. J. Q.; Mouton, J. W.; Ng, E. H. Y.; Van der Steeg, J. W.; Steures, P.; Svenstrup, H. F.; Tiitinen, A.; Toye, B.; Van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Chlamydia IgG antibody test (CAT) shows considerable variations in reported estimates of test accuracy, partly because of the use of different assays and cut-off values. The aim of this study was to reassess the accuracy of CAT in diagnosing tubal pathology by individual patient data

  2. Chlamydia antibody testing and diagnosing tubal pathology in subfertile women: an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, K.A.; Opmeer, B.C.; Coppus, S.F.; Geloven, N. van; Alves, M.F.; Anestad, G.; Bhattacharya, S.; Allan, J.; Guerra-Infante, M.F.; Hartog, J.E. Den; Land, J.A.; Idahl, A.; Linden, P.J. van der; Mouton, J.W.; Ng, E.H.; Steeg, J.W. van der; Steures, P.; Svenstrup, H.F.; Tiitinen, A.; Toye, B.; Veen, F. van der; Mol, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Chlamydia IgG antibody test (CAT) shows considerable variations in reported estimates of test accuracy, partly because of the use of different assays and cut-off values. The aim of this study was to reassess the accuracy of CAT in diagnosing tubal pathology by individual patient data

  3. Importance of anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titration for diagnosing varicella-zoster virus infection in Bell's palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeta, S; Baba, M.; Ogata, M; Nozaki, H.; Okuaki, A; Nakamura, S.

    1986-01-01

    Anticomplement Immunofluorescence was used for antibody titration against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in 43 patients with peripheral facial palsy. Nine of 31 patients (29%) with Bell's palsy and eight of 12 patients (75%) with Ramsey-Hunt syndrome had anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres of greater than or equal to 1/10. On the other hand, none of 14 patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and 51 healthy adults showed anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres ...

  4. Importance of anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titration for diagnosing varicella-zoster virus infection in Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, S; Baba, M; Ogata, M; Nozaki, H; Okuaki, A; Nakamura, S

    1986-11-01

    Anticomplement Immunofluorescence was used for antibody titration against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in 43 patients with peripheral facial palsy. Nine of 31 patients (29%) with Bell's palsy and eight of 12 patients (75%) with Ramsey-Hunt syndrome had anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres of greater than or equal to 1/10. On the other hand, none of 14 patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and 51 healthy adults showed anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres of greater than or equal to 1/10. The anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titre in two patients with Ramsey-Hunt syndrome increased later and decreased sooner than the indirect immunofluorescence antibody titre, becoming undetectable at 66 and 104 days, respectively, after onset of the disease. There was no cross reaction between anti-VZV and anti-HSV antibodies in the patients who showed a positive antibody rise for VZV. As the acute stage of VZV infection is obscure in the patients with peripheral facial palsy without herpes the screening of anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody to VZV at titres greater than or equal to 1/10 may be useful for the diagnosis of VZV infection in patients with peripheral facial palsy.

  5. 抗C1q抗体与狼疮性肾炎肾脏的病理学关系%Relationship between anti-C1q antibody and renal pathology of lupus nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖瑾岚; 郑爱萍; 姜蕾; 张悦; 熊子波; 罗琼; 熊祖应

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨抗C1q抗体与狼疮性肾炎(lupus nephritis,LN)肾脏病理的关系.方法采用酶联免疫吸附法(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)对46例LN患者血清抗Clq抗体滴度进行检测,分析抗Clq抗体与病理表现(Austin肾脏病理评分和Banff肾小管病变TIL评分)间的关系.结果 抗C1q抗体在LN病理活动患者中阳性率为42.9%.抗Clq抗体与Austin肾脏病理评分CI呈负相关(r=-0.315,P<0.05);与Banff肾小管病变TIL病理评分的I值、L值呈负相关(r=-0.321,P=0.046;r=-0.397,P=0.012),抗Clq抗体与肾小球硬化率呈负相关(r=-0.335,P=0.023).抗C1q抗体在各病理类型中的分布,差异无统计学意义.结论 抗C1q抗体阳性率与LN肾脏间质损伤程度有关.%Purpose To investigate the relationship between anti-Clq antibodies and renal pathology of lupus nephritis( LN ). Methods A total of 46 LN patients were enrolled in this study, and the diagnosis was proved by renal biopsy in Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from August 2008 to August 2011. Stored serum samples from patients were obtained at the date of renal biopsy. Serum titer of anti-Clq antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) following the manufacturer' s instructions. Pathological parameters were used by Austin activity indices ( AI ) and chronicity indices ( CI ), TIL-score according to the Banff Classification. Results The prevalence of anti-Clq antibody in active LN patients with renal pathology was 42. 9% . Negative correlations were found between the presence of anti-Clq antibody and CI, I, L score, and glomerular sclerosis ( r =- 0. 315, P <0. 05, r =-0. 321, P < 0. 05 , r = - 0. 397, P < 0. 05, r = - 0. 335, P < 0. 05, respectively ). Conclusion The prevalence of anti-Cl q antibody is associated with the severe degree of tubulo-interstitial lesion.

  6. Relationship Between Ljungan Virus Antibodies, HLA-DQ8, and Insulin Autoantibodies in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna-lena; Vaziri Sani, Fariba; Andersson, Cecilia K.; Larsson, Karin; Carlsson, Annelie; Cedervall, Elisabeth; Jonsson, Bjorn; Neiderud, Jan; Elding Larsson, Helena; Ivarsson, Sten; Lernmark, Åke

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors, including viral infections, may explain an increasing and fluctuating incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D). Ljungan virus (LV) isolated from bank voles have been implicated, but it is unclear whether LV contributes to islet autoimmunity, progression to clinical onset, or both, of T1D. The aim was to test whether LV antibodies (LVAb) were related to HLA-DQ and islet autoantibodies in newly diagnosed T1D patients (n = 676) and controls (n = 309). Patients, 0-18 ye...

  7. In Vivo Molecular Imaging to Diagnose and Subtype Tumors through Receptor-Targeted Optically Labeled Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Koyama

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging of cell surface receptors can potentially diagnose tumors based on their distinct expression profiles. Using multifilter spectrally resolved optical imaging with three fluorescently labeled antibodies, we simultaneously imaged three different cell surface receptors to distinguish tumor types noninvasively. We selected tumors overexpressing different subtypes of EGFR receptor: HER-1 (A431 and HER-2 (NIH3T3/HER2+, or interleukin-2 receptor α-subunit receptor (IL-2Rα; SP2/Tac. After tumor establishment, a cocktail of three fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies was injected: cetuximab-Cy5 (targeting HER-1, trastuzumab-Cy7 (HER-2, daclizumab-AIexaFluor700 (IL-2Ra. Optical fluorescence imaging was performed after 24 hours with both a red filter set and three successive filter sets (yellow, red, deep red. Spectrally resolved imaging of 10 mice clearly distinguished A431, NIH3T3/HER2+, SP2-Tac tumors based on their distinct optical spectra. Three-filter sets significantly increased the signal-to-background ratio compared to a single-filter set by reducing the background signal, thus significantly improving the differentiation of each of the receptors targeted (P < .022. In conclusion, following multifilter spectrally resolved imaging, different tumor types can be simultaneously distinguished and diagnosed in vivo. Multiple filter sets increase the signal-to-noise ratio by substantially reducing the background signal, may allow more optical dyes to be resolved within the narrow limits of the near-infrared spectrum.

  8. Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin auto-antibodies in patients with newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.;

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Thyroid autoimmunity is a major cause for hypothyroidism. We describe thyroid auto-antibodies in patients with various nosological subtypes of hypothyroidism identified in a population study. Design: Population-based follow-up study identifying all new cases of hypothyroidism in an open...... cohort. Methods: We established a monitoring system, and identified all new cases with primary overt hypothyroidism (n = 685) in a 4 year period in a well-defined population cohort (2,027,208 person-years of observation). Patients were sub-classified into: spontaneous hypothyroidism, presumably...... of autoimmune origin ( n 578); non-spontaneous hypothyroidism ( associated with medication, delivery, neck-irradiation or subacute thyroiditis, n 97); and congenital hypothyroidism ( n 10). A total of 186 adult patients (61% of those invited) underwent thyroid ultrasonography and measurements of antibodies...

  9. Case report: Severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-C+G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernman, Riina; Stefanovic, Vedran; Korhonen, Anu; Haimila, Katri; Sareneva, Inna; Sulin, Kati; Kuosmanen, Malla; Sainio, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Anti-G is commonly present with anti-D and/or anti-C and can confuse serological investigations. in general, anti-G is not considered a likely cause of severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), but it is important to differentiate it from anti-D in women who should be administered anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis. We report one woman with three pregnancies severely affected by anti-C+G requiring intrauterine treatment and a review of the literature. In our case, the identification of the correct antibody was delayed because the differentiation of anti-C+G and anti-D+C was not considered important during pregnancy since the father was D-. In addition, anti-C+G and anti-G titer levels were not found to be reliable as is generally considered in Rh immunization. Severe HDFN occurred at a maternal anti-C+G antibody titer of S and anti-G titer of 1 in comparison with the critical titer level of 16 or more in our laboratory. close collaboration between the immunohematology laboratory and the obstetric unit is essential. In previously affected families, early assessment for fetal anemia is required even when titers are low. PMID:26829179

  10. Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions due to multiple alloantibodies including anti-E, anti-c and anti-Jkb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sung; Kim, Ki Uk; Jeong, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Chang, Chulhun L; Chung, Joo Seop; Cho, Goon Jae; Lee, Eun Yup; Son, Han Chul

    2003-12-01

    We report a case of two consecutive episodes of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) due to multiple alloantibodies in a 34-yr-old man who suffered from avascular necrosis of left femoral head. He received five units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) during surgery. Then the transfusion of packed RBCs was required nine days after the surgery because of the unexplained drop in hemoglobin level. The transfusion of the first two units resulted in fever and brown-colored urine, but he received the transfusion of another packed RBCs the next day. He experienced even more severe symptoms during the transfusion of the first unit. We performed antibody screening test, and it showed positive results. Multiple alloantibodies including anti-E, anti-c and anti-Jkb were detected by antibody identification study. Acute HTRs due to multiple alloantibodies were diagnosed, and the supportive cares were done for 6 days. We suggest the antibody screening test should be included in the panel of pretransfusion tests for safer transfusion, and it is particularly mandatory for the patients with multiple transfusions, pregnant women, and preoperative patients. PMID:14676451

  11. Human Papillomavirus 16 E6 Antibodies in Individuals Without Diagnosed Cancer: A Pooled Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Anantharaman, Devasena; Waterboer, Tim; Johansson, Mattias; Brennan, Paul; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Purdue, Mark P.; Holcátová, Ivana; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Lagiou, Pagona; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Merletti, Franco; Healy, Claire M.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Conway, David I.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Thomson, Peter; Castellsagué, Xavier; Znaor, Ariana; Black, Amanda; Huang, Wen-Yi; Krogh, Vittorio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B(as).; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ekström, Johanna; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Sánchez, María-José; Travis, Ruth C.; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in many developed countries has been attributed to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections. Recently, HPV16 E6 serology has been identified as a promising early marker for oropharyngeal cancer. Therefore, characterization of HPV16 E6 seropositivity among individuals without cancer is warranted. Methods 4,666 controls were pooled from several studies of cancer and HPV seropositivity, all tested within the same laboratory. HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were classified as having i) moderate (mean fluorescent intensity [MFI]≥484 & <1000) or ii) high seroreactivity (MFI≥1000). Associations of moderate and high HPV16 E6 seroreactivity with i) demographic risk factors; and seropositivity for ii) other HPV16 proteins (E1, E2, E4, E7 and L1) and iii) E6 proteins from non-HPV16 types (HPV6, 11, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 52) were evaluated. Results Thirty-two (0.7%) HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were identified; 17 (0.4%) with moderate and 15 (0.3%) with high seroreactivity. High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity was associated with former smoking (odds ratio [OR] 5.5 [95% confidence interval [CI]:1.2-51.8]), and seropositivity against HPV16 L1 (OR 4.8, 95%CI:1.3-15.4); E2 (OR 7.7, 95%CI:1.4-29.1); multiple HPV16 proteins (OR 25.3, 95%CI:2.6-119.6 for 3 HPV16 proteins beside E6) and HPV33 E6 (OR 17.7, 95%CI:1.9-81.8). No associations were observed with moderate HPV16 E6 seroreactivity. Conclusions High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity is rare among individuals without diagnosed cancer and was not explained by demographic factors. Impact Some HPV16 E6 seropositive individuals without diagnosed HPV-driven cancer, especially those with seropositivity against other HPV16 proteins, may harbor a biologically relevant HPV16 infection. PMID:25623733

  12. Reliability of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies level determination in diagnosing and prognosing of immunogenic hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Aleksandar Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves disease (GD is defined as hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter caused by immunogenic disturbances. Antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors of thyroid gland (TRAb have crucial pathogenetic importance in the development and maintenance of autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to identify sensitivity, specificity, positive an negative predictive value of TRAb level in sera of patients with GD as well as to estimate significance of TRAb level for remission and GD relapses occurrence. Methods. We studied prospectively and partly retrospectively 149 patients, 109 female and 40 male patients, 5-78 years old, in the period 1982-2007. There were 96 patients with GD. The control group consisted of 53 patients, 21 with hyperthyroidism of second etiology and 32 patients on amiodarone therapy, with or without thyroid dysfunction TRAb was measured by radioreceptor assay (TRAK Assay and DYNO Test TRAK Human Brahms Diagnostica GMBH. Results. According to the results the sensitivity (Sn of TRAb test was 80%, specificity (Sp 100%, positive predictive value (PP 100% and negative predictive value (NP 83%. Also, the Sn of hTRAb test was 94%, Sp 100%, PP 100% and NP 94%. Our results show that an increased level of TRAb/hTRAb at the beginning of the disease and the level at the end of medical therapy is associated with an increased number of GD relapses and a shorter remission duration. Conclusion. Detection and measurement of TRAb in serum is a very sensitive method for diagnosing GD and very highly specific in vitro method for differential diagnosis of various forms of hyperthyroidism. Clinical significance of differentiating various forms of hyperthyroidism, using this in vitro assay, lays in adequate therapeutic choice for these entities.

  13. 抗C1q抗体及抗ENA抗体与系统性红斑狼疮疾病活动和肾脏受累的关系%Relationship of anti-C1q antibodies and anti-ENA antibodies with disease activity and nephric impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凡瞿明; 刘秋月; 张子夏; 张国元; 汪光蓉; 王强; 何兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of serum anti-Clq antibodies and anti-extract-able nuclear antigen ( anti-ENA) antibodies with disease activity and nephric impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for clinical values of the 2 antibodies in diagnosis and evaluation of the disease. Methods A total of 123 cases of SLE patients who admitted in our hospital in recent 1 year were divided into 4 groups according to SLE activity and lupus nephritis ( LN) , that is, LN activity group ( n = 35 ) ; non-LN activity group (re =32) ; LN stable group (n = 18) and non-LN stable group (n =38.). Serum and urine specimens of SLE patients was collected within 24 h of first hospitalization. Anti-Clq antibodies were detected by ELJSA, and anti-ENA antibodies were assayed by dot blotting. Dry chemistry method was used to detect urinary protein. (β2 -microglobulin (β2-MG) and creatinine (CREA) was assayed using the automatic biochemical analyzer. Results β2-MG positive rate in LN activity group (88. 6% ) was significantly higher than non-LN activity group( 59.4% ) and LN stable group( 66. 1 % ) ( both P < 0. 05 ) , and was still significantly higher than non-LN stable group(47.4% ) (P <0. 01). The positive rate of CREA in stable group of LN (27. 8% ) was significantly higher than stable group of non-LN (0. 0% ) ( P < 0. 01). Urine protein characterized as " ++++ " positive rate in LN activity group (42. 9% ) was significantly higher than non-LN activity group (12. 5% ) and non-LN stable group(2.6% ) (P <0. 05 , 0. 01) . Anti-Clq antibody positive rate was significantly higher in LN activity group (68. 8% ) than in non-LN stable group (36. 8% ) (P <0. 05). Significant differences were found in urinary protein as a " ++++ " and " + " positive rate in anti-Clq antibody-negative group and the anti-Clq antibody positive group (26.2% vs 11.3%, 14. 8% vs 38. 7% ,P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion In SLE patients, nephric impairment occur when disease in activity. Presence of anti

  14. Perturbations in the Lipid Profile of Individuals with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Lipidomics Analysis of a Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program Sample Subset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Christina M.; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Qibin; Alquier, Thierry; Zhao, Rui; Mueller, Patricia W.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-08-01

    Objectives: To characterize the lipid profile of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus using LC-MS-based lipidomics and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. Design and methods: Lipids were extracted from plasma and sera of 10 subjects from the Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (years 2000-2005) and 10 non-diabetic subjects and analyzed by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid ion-trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Lipids were identified and quantified using the AMT tag approach. Results: Five hundred sixty lipid features differentiated (q < 0.05) diabetic from healthy individuals in a partial least-squares analysis, characterizing of individuals with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: A lipid profile associated with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes may aid in further characterization of biochemical pathways involved in lipid regulation or mobilization and lipotoxicity of pancreatic beta-cells.

  15. Standardization of natural mycolic acid antigen composition and production for use in biomarker antibody detection to diagnose active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlandla, F L; Ejoh, V; Stoltz, A C; Naicker, B; Cromarty, A D; van Wyngaardt, S; Khati, M; Rotherham, L S; Lemmer, Y; Niebuhr, J; Baumeister, C R; Al Dulayymi, J R; Swai, H; Baird, M S; Verschoor, J A

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is characterized by the abundance of species specific, antigenic cell wall lipids called mycolic acids. These wax-like molecules all share an identical, amphiphilic mycolic motif, but have different functional groups in a long hydrophobic hydrocarbon mero-chain that divide them into three main classes: alpha-, keto- and methoxy-mycolic acids. Whereas alpha-mycolic acids constitutively maintain an abundance of around 50%, the ratio of methoxy- to keto-mycolic acid types may vary depending on, among other things, the growth stage of M. tuberculosis. In human patients, antibodies to mycolic acids have shown potential as diagnostic serum biomarkers for active TB. Variations in mycolic acid composition affect the antigenic properties and can potentially compromise the precision of detection of anti-mycolic acids antibodies in patient sera to natural mixtures. We demonstrate this here with combinations of synthetic mycolic acid antigens, tested against TB patient and control sera. Combinations of methoxy- and α-mycolic acids are more antigenic than combinations of keto- and α-mycolic acids, showing the former to give a more sensitive test for TB biomarker antibodies. Natural mixtures of mycolic acids isolated from mature cultures of M. tuberculosis H37Rv give the same sensitivity as that with synthetic methoxy- and α-mycolic acids in combination, in a surface plasmon resonance inhibition biosensor test. To ensure that the antigenic activity of isolates of natural mycolic acids is reproducible, we cultured M. tuberculosis H37Rv on Middlebrook 7H10 solid agar plates to stationary growth phase in a standardized, optimal way. The proportions of mycolic acid classes in various batches of the isolates prepared from these cultures were compared to a commercially available natural mycolic acid isolate. LC-MS/MS and NMR data for quantitation of mycolic acids class compositions show that the variation in batches

  16. Comparison of Routine Method with Antibody and Antigen Ones for Diagnosing Giardia-Entamoeba Histolytica in Stool and Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharavi, MJ. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are the most prevalent human intestinal pathogenic protozoa, worldwide. The clinical features of Giardia infection are acute diarrhea, a chronic condition with continuous diarrhea and malabsorption. Entamoeba histolytica invade intestinal tract without any typical clinical indications, and it can involve liver and other organs too. Therefore, we aimed to study these protozoa by serological and parasitological methods. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, the stool and blood specimens were collected from 1025 patients selected via simple random sampling in three different laboratories located in Tehran and Karaj, Iran (2012. Formalin Detergent test was performed on all samples. Both serum and stool positive samples of this method were analyzed for antigen and antibodies related to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, respectively. Results: of 1025 stool specimens, 76 (4.7% were positive for Giardia lamblia and 19 (1.8% for Entamoeba histolytica using Formalin-detergent method. In ELISA, 81 (7.9% coproantibodies to Giardia lamblia and 24 (2.3% coproantibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, 78 (7.6% corproantigen for Giardia lamblia, and 5 (0.4% for Entamoeba histolytica were observed. circulatory antibodies to Entamoeba histlytica were detected in 22 cases (2.1% Conclusion: Sensitivity of microscopic method compared to serological methods is higher than 90%; therefore, Formalin-detergent method can be the best method for stool examination.

  17. Detection of antibodies directed at M. hyorhinis p37 in the serum of men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and molecular studies suggest infection and inflammation initiate certain cancers, including cancers of the prostate. Over the past several years, our group has been studying how mycoplasmas could possibly initiate and propagate cancers of the prostate. Specifically, Mycoplasma hyorhinis encoded protein p37 was found to promote invasion of prostate cancer cells and cause changes in growth, morphology and gene expression of these cells to a more aggressive phenotype. Moreover, we found that chronic exposure of benign human prostate cells to M. hyorhinis resulted in significant phenotypic and karyotypic changes that ultimately resulted in the malignant transformation of the benign cells. In this study, we set out to investigate another potential link between mycoplasma and human prostate cancer. We report the incidence of men with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) being seropositive for M. hyorhinis. Antibodies to M. hyorhinis were surveyed by a novel indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples collected from men presenting to an outpatient Urology clinic for BPH (N = 105) or prostate cancer (N = 114) from 2006-2009. A seropositive rate of 36% in men with BPH and 52% in men with prostate cancer was reported, thus leading us to speculate a possible connection between M. hyorhinis exposure with prostate cancer. These results further support a potential exacerbating role for mycoplasma in the development of prostate cancer

  18. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody imaging for the detection and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease newly diagnosed by colonoscopy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, M.; Hickeson, M.P. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania (HUP), Philadelphia (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Lorenzo, C. di; Kocoshis, S.A.; Orenstein, S.R.; Goyal, A.; Kahn, S.; Collins, L. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Objective: This prospective study evaluated a {sup 99m}Tc antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody Fab' imaging agent (Sulesomab) in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) newly diagnosed by colonoscopy. Materials and methods: Ten children (4 boys, 6 girls; mean age 14 years) with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease (n = 6) or ulcerative colitis (n = 4) were studied. Colonoscopy was performed in all of these patients. Within 24 h after colonoscopy, they underwent scintigraphy with {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-Sulesomab. Abdominal/pelvic images were acquired at 30 min (planar) and 2-4 h (planar and SPECT) after injection of Sulesomab. Eighty bowel segments were evaluated semi-quantitatively by the investigators, using these three sets of images. The Pediatric Disease Activity (PDA) was correlated with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell (WBC) count, albumin, Kirschner's score, the Sulesomab bowel segment with maximum uptake, and the sum of Sulesomab score in each segment. Results: The median PDA score was 26 (range 12.5-40). Three children had normal ESR and six normal WBC counts. All patients had at least one positive mucosal biopsy for IBD. While using the Kirschner's scale, the maximal severity of colonoscopy findings was graded as none (n = 2), mild (n = 4), moderate (n = 3), or severe (n = 1). Of the 59 segments evaluated with endoscopy, 35 were found to be endoscopically abnormal. The planar images identified 17 of these abnormal segments and the SPECT images 20. Nine of these ten children had abnormal bowel uptake by scintigraphy. Thus, the sensitivity of Sulesomab per patient was 90 % and per bowel segment 57 %. The correlation coefficient between the scintigraphic score for the segment with the Sulesomab maximum activity and the PDA was 0.3 (P = 0.41). Conclusion: In pediatric IBD assessment, planar imaging with Sulesomab did not prove very sensitive in detecting inflammation in each bowel segment. However, SPECT detected the

  19. Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

  20. Getting Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also for those with related disorders. How is Marfan syndrome diagnosed? getting_diagnosed.jpg A Marfan diagnosis ... spinal column). Is there a genetic test for Marfan syndrome? Genetic testing can provide helpful information in ...

  1. A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients diagnosed in conjunction with the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Alexander; Ramelius, Anita; Olsson, Tomas; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Lamb, Favelle; Khademi, Mohsen; Ambati, Aditya; Maeurer, Markus; Nilsson, Anna-Lena; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Fink, Katharina; Lernmark, Åke

    2014-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder related to hypocretin deficiency resulting from a specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area. The disease is thought to be autoimmune due to a strong association with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic (A/H1N1PDM09). In response to this, the Swedish vaccination campaign began in October of the same year, using the influenza vaccine Pandemrix(®). A few months later an excess of narcolepsy cases was observed. It is still unclear to what extent the vaccination campaign affected humoral autoimmunity associated with narcolepsy. We studied 47 patients with narcolepsy (6-69 years of age) and 80 healthy controls (3-61 years of age) selected after the Pandemrix vaccination campaign. The first aim was to determine antibodies against A/H1N1 and autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2), a narcolepsy autoantigen candidate as well as to GAD65 and IA-2 as disease specificity controls. The second aim was to test if levels and frequencies of these antibodies and autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In vitro transcribed and translated [(35)S]-methionine and -cysteine-labeled influenza A virus (A/California/04/2009/(H1N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin was used to detect antibodies in a radiobinding assay. Autoantibodies to TRIB2, GAD65 and IA-2 were similarly detected in standard radiobinding assays. The narcolepsy patients had higher median levels of A/H1N1 antibodies than the controls (p = 0.006). A/H1N1 antibody levels were higher among the H1N1 antibody levels in both patients and controls (p = 0.026). Serum autoantibody levels to TRIB2 were low overall and high binders did not differ between patients and controls. We observed an association between levels of A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibody levels particularly among the youngest narcolepsy patients (r = 0.819, p H1N1 antibody levels were associated with young age

  2. A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients diagnosed in conjunction with the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Alexander; Ramelius, Anita; Olsson, Tomas; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Lamb, Favelle; Khademi, Mohsen; Ambati, Aditya; Maeurer, Markus; Nilsson, Anna-Lena; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Fink, Katharina; Lernmark, Åke

    2014-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder related to hypocretin deficiency resulting from a specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area. The disease is thought to be autoimmune due to a strong association with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic (A/H1N1PDM09). In response to this, the Swedish vaccination campaign began in October of the same year, using the influenza vaccine Pandemrix(®). A few months later an excess of narcolepsy cases was observed. It is still unclear to what extent the vaccination campaign affected humoral autoimmunity associated with narcolepsy. We studied 47 patients with narcolepsy (6-69 years of age) and 80 healthy controls (3-61 years of age) selected after the Pandemrix vaccination campaign. The first aim was to determine antibodies against A/H1N1 and autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2), a narcolepsy autoantigen candidate as well as to GAD65 and IA-2 as disease specificity controls. The second aim was to test if levels and frequencies of these antibodies and autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In vitro transcribed and translated [(35)S]-methionine and -cysteine-labeled influenza A virus (A/California/04/2009/(H1N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin was used to detect antibodies in a radiobinding assay. Autoantibodies to TRIB2, GAD65 and IA-2 were similarly detected in standard radiobinding assays. The narcolepsy patients had higher median levels of A/H1N1 antibodies than the controls (p = 0.006). A/H1N1 antibody levels were higher among the <13 years old (n = 12) compared to patients who were older than 30 years (n = 12, p = 0.014). Being HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive was associated with higher A/H1N1 antibody levels in both patients and controls (p = 0.026). Serum autoantibody levels to TRIB2 were low overall and high binders did not differ between patients and controls. We observed an association between levels of A/H1N1

  3. The diagnostic value of monoclonal antibody scan (leucoscan) compared with 99mTc MDP bone scan and Ga 67 in diagnosing bone and joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nowadays different radiopharmaceuticals have been developed as 99mTc MDP, 67Ga citrate, 111In oxine- and 99mTc HMPAO labeled leucocytes for the accurate localization of bone/joint infection, but all of them have limitations that encouraged the search of new agents characterized from high and early uptake in infectious/inflammatory tissues, low toxicity and no accumulation in non inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic value of a 99mTc labeled antigranulocyte Fab' fragment (Leucoscan) with 99mTc MDP bone scan and 67 Ga. The monoclonal antibody, Leucoscan, is an IgG murine Fab' fragment directed against a NCA-90 epitope located on the surface of granulocytes. 45 patients with suspected bone and joint infection (18 total hip prosthesis, 4 knee prosthesis, 8 vertebral infection and 15 long bones) were included in this study. All patients underwent conventional Rx, bone scan, 67Ga scan and Leucoscan. Three phase 99mTc MDP bone scan and 67Ga scan were performed using standard procedures. For Leucoscan the antibody was labeled with 25 mCi of 99mTc and was infected intravenously over 30 seconds. Ten minutes planar images were taken 1 h and 2 hrs p.i using a GE Millennium γ camera provided with a LEGP collimator. Images were evaluated as score 1 (no abnormal uptake), score 2 (probably positive), score 3 (definitely infected) according the intensity of abnormally increased uptake. Results were compared with 99mTc MDP bone scan and 67Ga scans. The final diagnosis was given by the surgical verification with histopathology or culture. All 45 patients had pathologic proof of presence/absence of bone and joint infection. 36/45 were positive for bone or joint infection and 9/45 were negative.30/36 patients with surgically proven bone and joint infection had true positive Leucoscan, 26/36 had true positive MDP bone scan and 20/36 true positive 67Ga scan. Nine out of 9 patients with proven absence of inflammation had true negative

  4. Reliability of immunoassays for anti-HCV antibodies (ELISA and RIBA II) in patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia (EMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, A; Airoldi, G; Ballarè, M; Fortina, G; Quaglia, V; Pigatto, A; Manzini, P

    1993-01-01

    The recent reports of a very high frequency of signs of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients with essential mixed cryoglobulins (EMC) suggest new hypotheses for the pathogenesis of this disease. However, most of these studies have been seriously criticized. The serologic test designed for detection of anti-HCV antibodies (ELISA, RIBA I and II) may yield a significant rate of false-positive results when performed on cryoglobulinemic sera, and the detection of the HCV genome by PCR is still heavily conditioned by practical problems. Indirect, but possibly more reliable, evidence of HCV infection in cryoglobulinemic patients might come from the demonstration of anti-HCV antibodies by a conventional technique (ELISA or RIBA) in the purified polyclonal non-rheumatoid immunoglobulinemic fraction excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration. Fifty-two patients whose serum had tested positive for HCV antibodies (by ELISA and RIBA) on multiple occasions were enrolled in this study. They were diagnosed as having either EMC or HCV chronic hepatitis without cryoglobulinemia at least one year ago. The urine samples of these patients were tested for anti-HCV antibodies by ELISA and RIBA. In patients with chronic C hepatitis the antibodies most frequently found in the serum were anti-C33c and anti-C22-3. The results of the RIBA were substantially confirmed by ELISA, with a positive test in the urine of 30 of 32 seropositive patients. Similar results were obtained in patients with EMC II. We conclude that the specificity of the RIBA and ELISA tests for HCV antibodies in patients with EMC appears to be as high as in HCV+ patients without serum cryoglobulins. EMC patients have a high incidence of HCV infection and active chronic liver disease. PMID:7507807

  5. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the baby is Rh-positive and the mother's antibody status is negative for anti-D, the mother is given additional RhIG. This test also may be used to help diagnose autoimmune-related hemolytic anemia ... when a person produces antibodies against his or her own RBC antigens. This ...

  6. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  7. How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Asthma Diagnosed? Your primary care doctor will diagnose asthma ... other disease may be causing your symptoms. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  8. Transfusion management of patients with red blood cell antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujandrić Nevenka B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Red blood cell antibodies may cause a positive result of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing (crossmatch test. It can be a problem to provide suitable blood units for patients with clinically significant antibodies to high-frequency antigens as well as for those with multiple alloantibody specificities. This study was aimed at identifying transfused patients in the population of South-Backa who had developed clinically significant red blood cell alloantibodies. Material and methods. We analyzed the records of crossmatch results and antibody screening performed at the Blood Transfusion Institute of Vojvodina during 2012. Results. Antibodies were found in 103 patients: A 63 patients with single antibodies: 1 16 with antibodies of unknown specificity (3 autoantibodies, 13 alloantibodies; 2 39 with clinically significant antibodies (23 from Rh system (2 anti-C, 2 anti-D, 12 anti-E, 7 anti-c, 4 anti-K, 3 anti-Fya, 7 anti-Jka, 2 anti-S; 3 8 with usually not significant antibodies (6 anti-M, 1 anti-A1, 1 anti- Cw; B 40 patients developed multiple antibodies: 1 all patients had at least one clinically significant antibody from various blood group system (44 Rh, 13 Kell, 7 Kidd, 7 MNSs (S, s; 2 3 patients had usually not significant antibodies (1 Lewis, 2 Lutheran; 3 3 patients occasionally had clinically significant antibody (3 anti- Yta; 4 3 patients had antibodies of unknown specificity (2 autoantibodies, 1alloantibody. Antibodies detected in the majority of patients (65-63.1% had a specificity of Rh and/or the Kell system. Conclusions. The main goal of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing is to detect clinically significant antibodies. The provision of antigen negative blood units for those patients is a special challenge for blood establishments. Database with a sufficient number of typed blood donors can help to resolve this problem.

  9. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  10. How Is COPD Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is COPD Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose COPD based on ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is COPD? 05/22/2014 Describes how COPD, or chronic ...

  11. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Kaul, Anita; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Agrawal, Soma; Singh, Chanchal; Karna, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was identified on advanced immunohematological workup, in addition to other alloantibodies. PMID:26420948

  12. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Nath Makroo; Anita Kaul; Aakanksha Bhatia; Soma Agrawal; Chanchal Singh; Prashant Karna

    2015-01-01

    Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was iden...

  13. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Nath Makroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN, either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was identified on advanced immunohematological workup, in addition to other alloantibodies.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are antibodies having single specificity for a given antigen site (epitope). The development of hybridoma technology and the relative ease by which MAbs can be prepared has revolutionized many aspects of serological applications in diagnosis and differentiation of disease producing agents. The property of monospecificity offers advantages in diagnostic applications over polyclonal sera in that tests can be defined exactly with regard to the antigen detected and the affinity of reaction between the given antigenic site and the monoclonal reagent. In addition, MAbs offer better possibilities for test standardization, because the same reagent can be used in different laboratories. Such an MAb can be supplied by a central laboratory or 'grown' from hybridoma cells, ensuring that the resultant product is identical from laboratory to laboratory and that the part of the test involving the MAb reaction is the same. The methodologies for inoculation regimes, mice, cloning methods, selection of fusion partners, etc., have been validated extensively in developed country laboratories. The decision to establish a MAb production facility must be examined on a strict cost-benefit basis, since it is still expensive to produce a product. There are many MAbs available that should be sought to allow exploitation in developing tests. If a production facility is envisaged, it should produce reagents for national needs, i.e. there should be a clear problem oriented approach whereby exact needs are defined. In the field of veterinary applications, MAbs are the central reagent in many immunoassays based on the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The development of specific tests for diagnosing diseases is dominated by MAbs and has been fuelled by a strong research base, mainly in developed countries allied to developing countries through the study of related diseases. Thus, there are very many assays dependent on MAbs, some of which form the basis of

  15. Differential diagnoses to MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Henrik; Friis, Tina; Modvig, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    of 643 patients were included in the study. Apart from ON, the most frequent diagnoses were tumors (n = 15), ischemic or hypertensive neuropathies (n = 13), and retinal or choroid disorders (n = 9). Six patients were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica. Rarer causes of visual loss were infections (n = 5...

  16. Diagnosing Psoriatic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more! Email * Zipcode Diagnosing Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic arthritis can develop slowly with mild symptoms, or it ... severe. Early recognition, diagnosis and treatment of psoriatic arthritis can help prevent or limit extensive joint damage ...

  17. Diagnosing Delirium by Telephone

    OpenAIRE

    Marcantonio, Edward R.; Sm,; Michaels, Mary; Resnick, Neil M.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether delirium can be diagnosed by telephone, we interviewed 41 subjects aged 65 years or older 1 month after repair of hip fracture, first by telephone and then face-to-face. Interviews included the modified telephone Mini-Mental State Examination and the Delirium Symptom Interview. Delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method diagnostic algorithm, and the telephone results were compared with the face-to-face results (the “gold standard”). Of 41 subjects, 6 wer...

  18. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Disease Lookup > Acute Bronchitis Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis It is important to get your questions about ... Symptoms that last a few weeks How Is Acute Bronchitis Diagnosed? Healthcare providers diagnose acute bronchitis by asking ...

  19. How a Stroke Is Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... Diagnosis » How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed Lab ...

  20. Being publicly diagnosed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Lillebaek, Troels; Wilcke, Torgny;

    2014-01-01

    . METHOD: A grounded theory design with field studies and qualitative interviews, following the recommendations from Glaser and Strauss. RESULT: A process of being publicly diagnosed was identified, which developed during the patient's trajectory from being on the way to becoming a patient, becoming...

  1. Antibodies against C1q Are a Valuable Serological Marker for Identification of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients with Active Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. An early diagnosis of lupus nephritis (LN has an important clinical implication in guiding treatments of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in clinical settings. In this study, the diagnostic values of circulating autoantibodies to C1q alone or in combination with other markers for accessing active SLE and LN were evaluated. Methods. The diagnostic value of anti-C1q autoantibodies for identification of patients with active SLE disease and LN was evaluated by analyzing the level of anti-C1q antibodies in sera from 95 SLE patients, 40 non-SLE patients, and 34 healthy cohorts. Results. The prevalence of anti-C1q antibodies was significantly higher in patients with SLE (50/95, 52.6%, active SLE (40/51, 78.4%, and LN (30/35, 85.7% in comparison with non-SLE patient controls, patients with inactive SLE, and non-LN, respectively. A combination of anti-C1q with anti-dsDNA and/or levels of complements C3 and C4 exhibited an increased specificity but a decreased sensitivity for identification of patients with active SLE and LN diseases relative to each of these markers alone. Conclusion. Anti-C1q antibodies were strongly associated with disease activity and LN in SLE patients, suggesting that it may be a reliable serological marker for identification of SLE patients with active LN and active SLE disease.

  2. How Is Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in cool temperatures and can block blood vessels). Cold agglutinins Cold agglutinins are antibodies that attack and ... attach to cells only if they contain specific molecules. These antibodies cause color changes, which can be ...

  3. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosla Rahul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE is a common, treatable, highly lethal emergency, which despite advances in diagnostic testing, remains an under diagnosed killer. The mortality rate of diagnosed and treated pulmonary embolism ranges from 3-8%, but increases to about 30% in untreated pulmonary embolism. PE is a part of the spectrum of venousthromboembolic disease and most pulmonary emboli have their origin from clots in the iliac, deep femoral, or popliteal veins. Nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms with low sensitivity and specificity of routine tests such as arterial blood gas, chest roentgenogram and electrocardiogram make the diagnosis of PE very challenging for the clinician. Pulmonary angiography is the gold standard diagnostic test, but this technique is invasive, expensive, not readily available and labor intensive. Diagnostic strategies have revolved around establishing clinical probabilities based on predictive models, then ruling in or ruling out the diagnosis of PE with various tests. The aim of this article was to review the literature and present an evidence- based medicine approach to diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

  4. Sheared-type G(anti).C(syn) base-pair: a unique d(GXC) loop closure motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2003-05-30

    Stable DNA loop structures closed by a novel G.C base-pair have been determined for the single-residue d(GXC) loops (X=A, T, G or C) in low-salt solution by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The closing G.C base-pair in these loops is not of the canonical Watson-Crick type, but adopts instead a unique sheared-type (trans Watson-Crick/sugar-edge) pairing, like those occurring in the sheared mismatched G.A or A.C base-pair, to draw the two opposite strands together. The cytidine residue in the closing base-pair is transformed into the rare syn domain to form two H-bonds with the guanine base and to prevent the steric clash between the G 2NH(2) and the C H-5 protons. Besides, the sugar pucker of the syn cytidine is still located in the regular C2'-endo domain, unlike the C3'-endo domain adopted for the pyrimidines of the out-of-alternation left-handed Z-DNA structure. The facile formation of the compact d(GXC) loops closed by a unique sheared-type G(anti).C(syn) base-pair demonstrates the great potential of the single-stranded d(GXC) triplet repeats to fold into stable hairpins. PMID:12758081

  5. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  6. How Is Muscular Dystrophy Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is muscular dystrophy diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content The first step in diagnosing muscular dystrophy (MD) is a visit with a health care ...

  7. Diagnosing Dementia--Positive Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  8. How Is Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosed? Doctors diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) based on ... tested to see whether the baby has CF. Cystic Fibrosis Carrier Testing People who have one normal CFTR ...

  9. Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Not Diagnosed A A A | Print | Share Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed Long-term complications result from ... patients: Total ankle replacements--similar to hip and knee replacements--were once reserved for geriatric patients but ...

  10. Diagnoses and interventions in podiatry.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J

    1996-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of diagnoses and interventions in podiatry. Data are used from a survey on podiatry practice in The Netherlands. Data have been recorded by 36 podiatrists on 897 patients. Information was gathered on patient characteristics, the medical diagnoses, the podiatry diagnoses (impairments and disabilities), treatment goals derived from these diagnoses, and interventions. Impairments were recorded in nearly all patients. The interrelationship ...

  11. Monoclonal antibodies against complement 3 neoantigens for detection of immune complexes and complement activation. Relationship between immune complex levels, state of C3, and numbers of receptors for C3b.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado, M. T.; LAMBRIS, J. D.; Tsokos, G C; de Burger, R; Bitter-Suermann, D.; Tamerius, J D; Dixon, F J; Theofilopoulos, A N

    1985-01-01

    C3-bearing immune complexes and C3 activation products were detected by using two monoclonal antibodies, one specific for a neoantigenic determinant on C3c and the other for C3d. To quantitate immune complexes, the anti-C3c or anti-C3d antibodies were fixed to microtiter plates and reacted with test plasma. The binding of C3-bearing immune complexes in this plasma was then measured with radioisotope- or enzyme-labeled anti-human IgG. To test for C3 breakdown products, solid-phase monoclonal a...

  12. Diagnosing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy C; Harvey, Katie; Beck, Michael; Burin, Maira Graeff; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Church, Heather J; D'Almeida, Vânia; van Diggelen, Otto P; Fietz, Michael; Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Hawley, Sara M; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Ketteridge, David; Lukacs, Zoltan; Miller, Nicole; Pasquali, Marzia; Schenone, Andrea; Thompson, Jerry N; Tylee, Karen; Yu, Chunli; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) activity. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires agreement of clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings. A group of biochemical genetics laboratory directors and clinicians involved in the diagnosis of MPS IVA, convened by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., met to develop recommendations for diagnosis. The following conclusions were reached. Due to the wide variation and subtleties of radiographic findings, imaging of multiple body regions is recommended. Urinary glycosaminoglycan analysis is particularly problematic for MPS IVA and it is strongly recommended to proceed to enzyme activity testing even if urine appears normal when there is clinical suspicion of MPS IVA. Enzyme activity testing of GALNS is essential in diagnosing MPS IVA. Additional analyses to confirm sample integrity and rule out MPS IVB, multiple sulfatase deficiency, and mucolipidoses types II/III are critical as part of enzyme activity testing. Leukocytes or cultured dermal fibroblasts are strongly recommended for enzyme activity testing to confirm screening results. Molecular testing may also be used to confirm the diagnosis in many patients. However, two known or probable causative mutations may not be identified in all cases of MPS IVA. A diagnostic testing algorithm is presented which attempts to streamline this complex testing process.

  13. Application of bispecific antibody against antigen and hapten for immunodetection and immunopurification

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyori; Park, Sunyoung; Lee, Hwa Kyoung; Chung, Junho

    2013-01-01

    We present a bispecific antibody that recognizes an antigen and a hapten and can be applied to various biological assays, including immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. In immunoblot analysis of serum, an anti-C5 × anti-cotinine bispecific tandem single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-Fc fusion protein and cotinine-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) generated a clean signal without the high background that was observed in a parallel experiment using HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immu...

  14. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose aplastic anemia based on your medical and family histories, a ... your primary care doctor thinks you have aplastic anemia, he or she may refer you to a ...

  15. Monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The ability to produce and exploit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized many areas of biological sciences. The unique property of an mAb is that it is a single species of immunoglobulin (IG) molecule. This means that the specificity of the interaction of the paratopes on the IG, with the epitopes on an antigenic target, is the same on every molecule. This property can be used to great benefit in immunoassays to provide tests of defined specificity and sensitivity, which improve the possibilities of standardization. The performance of assays can often be determined relating the actual weight of antibody (hence the number of molecules) to the activity. Often the production of an mAb against a specific epitope is the only way that biological entities can be differentiated. This chapter outlines the areas involving the development of assays based on mAbs. The problems involved address include the physical aspects of mAbs and how they may affect assay design and also the implications of results based on monospecific reagents. Often these are not fully understood, leading to assays that are less than satisfactory, which does not justify the relatively high cost of preparing and screening of mAbs. There are many textbooks and reviews dealing with the preparation of mAbs, the principles involved, and various purification and manipulative methods for the preparation of fragments and conjugation. There has been little general information attempting to summarize the best approaches to assay design using mAbs. Much time can be wasted through bad planning, and this is particularly relevant to mAbs. A proper understanding of some basic principles is essential. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to discuss all aspects, but major areas are highlighted. PMID:19219589

  16. How Is Childhood Leukemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to see if the antibodies stuck to them (meaning they have these proteins), while for flow cytometry ... your child may be asked to drink a contrast solution and/or get an intravenous (IV) injection ...

  17. How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is lactose intolerance diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... based on symptoms alone whether a person has lactose intolerance or another condition. 2 Many common health problems ...

  18. How Is Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atrial Fibrillation » How Is Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosed? Explore Atrial Fibrillation What Is... Types Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia ...

  19. How Is Polycythemia Vera Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Polycythemia Vera Diagnosed? Polycythemia vera (PV) may not cause signs or symptoms for ... to find out whether you have primary polycythemia (polycythemia vera) or secondary polycythemia. Your medical history and physical ...

  20. [Antinuclear antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiedes, Javier; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are immunoglobulin directed against autologous cell nuclear and cytoplasmic components. Besides the autoimmune ANA there are other ANA that can be detected in circulation, like natural and infectious ANA. Because of its high sensibility, detection of the ANA must be done by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) as screening test and all of those positive samples are convenient to confirm its specificity by ELISA, western blot or other techniques. Positive ANA detected by IIF must be evaluated taking in to account the pattern and titer. The following recommended step is the specificity characterization (reactivity against extractable nuclear antigens [ENA], dsDNA, etc.) which is useful for the diagnosis and follow up of patients with autoimmune diseases, and by such reasoning, its detection must be performed in an orderly and reasonable way using guides or strategies focused to the good use and interpretation of the autoantibodies. The objective of this review is to present a compilation of the literature and our experience in the detection and study of the ANA.

  1. Serological antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Lani; De Cruz, Peter; Ng, Siew C; Kamm, Michael A

    2012-07-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally based on a combination of clinical, endoscopic, histological, and radiological criteria. However, further testing is needed in cases of diagnostic uncertainty and in predicting disease course. This systematic review focuses on the potential for 10 serological antibodies to fill these roles: pANCA, ASCA, anti-OmpC, anti-CBir1, anti-I2, ALCA, ACCA, AMCA, anti-L, and anti-C. We discuss their prevalence in IBD and health; their role in disease diagnosis and risk stratification; their stability over time; their presence in unaffected relatives; their association with genetic variants; and differences across ethnic groups. Serological antibodies have some role in primary diagnosis and in differentiating between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In indeterminate colitis, preoperative measurement of serological antibodies can help to predict the likelihood of complications among patients undergoing pouch surgery. The combined presence and magnitude of a large panel of antibodies appear to be of value in predicting disease progression. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the use of antibody testing to predict responses to treatment or surgery in patients with IBD.

  2. The High $E_T$ Drop of $J/\\psi$ to Drell-Yan Ratio from the Statistical c anti-c Coalescence Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kostyuk, A P; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of the J/psi yield on the transverse energy E_T in heavy ion collisions is considered within the statistical c anti-c coalescence model. The model fits the NA50 data for Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS even in the high-E_T region (E_T > 100 GeV). Here E_T-fluctuations and E_T-losses in the dimuon event sample naturally create the celebrated drop in the J/psi to Drell-Yan ratio.

  3. Nursing diagnoses in overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Santos do Nascimento Rodrigues

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify nursing diagnoses in overweight adolescents from public schools, according to the International Classification for Nursing Practice. A population-based cross-sectional study that investigated the socio-demographic, behavioural and psychological characteristics of adolescents aged from 10 to 14 years. 11 nursing diagnoses were identified: "Risk of overweight", "Risk of impaired adolescent development", "Risk of insecurity in parental role performance", "Risk of the family impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of lack of knowledge of dietary regime", "Risk of excess food intake", "Risk of negative self-image", "Risk of low self-esteem", "Risk of impaired social well-being" and "Impaired exercise pattern". These diagnoses reflect the multifactorial nature of obesity, highlighting the need for interdisciplinary and intersectoral articulation of nursing interventions for prevention and control of overweight.

  4. Diagnoses and interventions in podiatry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of diagnoses and interventions in podiatry. Data are used from a survey on podiatry practice in The Netherlands. Data have been recorded by 36 podiatrists on 897 patients. Information was gathered on patient characteristics, the medical diagno

  5. Advice for the Newly Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... De-Risking Successes PD Therapeutics Conference Sponsored Prizes Data Science Challenge Robert A. Pritzker Prize Bachmann-Strauss Prize ... need newly-diagnosed Parkinson’s patients.) In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a specialized imaging ...

  6. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed? People who have Fanconi anemia (FA) are born with the disorder. They may ... questions about: Any personal or family history of anemia Any surgeries you’ve had related to the ...

  7. Serum Antibody Repertoire Profiling Using In Silico Antigen Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Tallo, Luke J; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Schettine, Cassandra A; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Klyushnenkova, Elena N; Ionov, Yurij

    2013-01-01

    Serum antibodies are valuable source of information on the health state of an organism. The profiles of serum antibody reactivity can be generated by using a high throughput sequencing of peptide-coding DNA from combinatorial random peptide phage display libraries selected for binding to serum antibodies. Here we demonstrate that the targets of immune response, which are recognized by serum antibodies directed against sequential epitopes, can be identified using the serum antibody repertoire profiles generated by high throughput sequencing. We developed an algorithm to filter the results of the protein database BLAST search for selected peptides to distinguish real antigens recognized by serum antibodies from irrelevant proteins retrieved randomly. When we used this algorithm to analyze serum antibodies from mice immunized with human protein, we were able to identify the protein used for immunizations among the top candidate antigens. When we analyzed human serum sample from the metastatic melanoma patient, the recombinant protein, corresponding to the top candidate from the list generated using the algorithm, was recognized by antibodies from metastatic melanoma serum on the western blot, thus confirming that the method can identify autoantigens recognized by serum antibodies. We demonstrated also that our unbiased method of looking at the repertoire of serum antibodies reveals quantitative information on the epitope composition of the targets of immune response. A method for deciphering information contained in the serum antibody repertoire profiles may help to identify autoantibodies that can be used for diagnosing and monitoring autoimmune diseases or malignancies. PMID:23826227

  8. 狼疮肾炎患者血清自身抗体检测及意义%Clinical significance of autoimmune antibody in patients with lupus nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 王琳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance autoimmune antibody in patients with lupus nephritis(LN).Methods ELISA assay was performed to examine anti-C1q antibody and anti-nucleus antibody;immunoblot assay was performed to examine anti-dsDNA antibody,anti-nucleosome antibody and anti-Sm antibody in sera of 38 patients with LN and 22 patients of system lupus erythemalosus without renal damage.Standard methods were uaed for laboratory testing.Results The positive rate of anti-C1q antibody,anti-dsDNA antibody,anti-nucleosome antibody,anti-Sm antibody and anti-nucleus antibody were significantly higher in LN than in controls(P<0.01).AntiC1q antibody and anti-nucleus antibody were significantty higher in LN than in controls(P<0.01,P<0.05).Serum levels of anti-C1q antibody was positively correlated with SLEDAI score and the level of anti-nucleus antibody,but was negatively oorrelated with C3、 C4.Conclusion Anti-C1q antibody,anti-dsDNA antibody,anti-nucleosome antibody and anti-nucleus antibody are suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of LN and can be used as diagnostic tools and disease activity markers.%目的 探讨狼疮肾炎(LN)患者血清自身抗体检测的临床意义.方法 检测60例系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者血清抗Clq抗体、ANA抗体、抗dsDNA、核小体、抗-Sm抗体,并依据有无狼疮肾炎分为狼疮肾炎组(A组)38例和无狼疮肾炎的SLE对照组(B组)22例.结果 A组抗C1q、dsDNA、核小体、抗-Sm和ANA抗体阳性率显著高于B组(均P<0.01),血清中抗C1q抗体水平分别与SLEDAI评分、抗ANA水平呈显著正相关(均P<0.01);与补体C3、C4含量呈显著负相关(P<0.01).结论 抗C1q抗体、dsDNA、核小体和ANA是反映SLE患者并发肾脏损害的重要指标,在LN诊断和判定活动性方面有重要作用.

  9. Development of FET-type albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keun-Yong; Sohn, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Young-Seuk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2008-07-15

    An albumin biosensor based on a potentiometric measurement using Biofield-effect-transistor (BioFET) has been designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were investigated. The BioFET was fabricated using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. The gate surface of the BioFET was chemically modified by newly developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) synthesized by a thiazole benzo crown ether ethylamine (TBCEA)-thioctic acid to immobilize anti-albumin. SAM formation, antibody immobilization, and antigen-antibody interaction were verified using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The output voltage changes of the BioFET with respect to various albumin concentrations were obtained. Quasi-reference electrode (QRE) and reference FET (ReFET) has been integrated with the BioFET, and its output characteristic was investigated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the BioFET as the albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

  10. Development of FET-type albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keun-Yong; Sohn, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Young-Seuk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2008-07-15

    An albumin biosensor based on a potentiometric measurement using Biofield-effect-transistor (BioFET) has been designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were investigated. The BioFET was fabricated using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. The gate surface of the BioFET was chemically modified by newly developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) synthesized by a thiazole benzo crown ether ethylamine (TBCEA)-thioctic acid to immobilize anti-albumin. SAM formation, antibody immobilization, and antigen-antibody interaction were verified using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The output voltage changes of the BioFET with respect to various albumin concentrations were obtained. Quasi-reference electrode (QRE) and reference FET (ReFET) has been integrated with the BioFET, and its output characteristic was investigated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the BioFET as the albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis. PMID:18440216

  11. APPLICATION OF POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR DIAGNOSING AMEBIC LIVER ABSCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭增柱; 王正仪; 安亦军; 祝宏

    1996-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied in diagnosing amebic liver infection by detecting pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica DNA in liver aspirates. Oligonucleotide primers found to he specific for the gene encoding the 30 kDa molecule of this pathogenic ameba were used in the test. Liver aspirates obtained from 23 patients with amebic liver abscess substantiated by typical clinical rnanifastation or with very high titres of anti-E histtolytica antibodies by ELISA were found to he positive by PCR. Fourteen controlsamples (3 cases of bacterial liver abscess, I of liver cancer and 10 of other abscess) were all found to be negative to this reaction. The results suggested PCR to he a specific and sensitive tool for diagnosing amebic liver abscess infections.

  12. Diagnosing GORD in respiratory medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris James Timms

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease is increasing in prevalence and is associated with several lung diseases such as asthma and COPD. Current diagnostic methods are imperfect, being insensitive, nonspecific, expensive or invasive. An accurate diagnosis of GORD can aid effective treatment with a significant clinical impact. Novel methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and electronic nose technology have the potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosing GORD.

  13. Imaging spectrum of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Jeong Gon; Ki, Won Woo; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is recognized as one of the most important causes of hypercoagulability. It can be clinically diagnosed if patients have experienced unexplained recurrent venous or arterial thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, or thrombocytopenia in the presence of circulating autoantibodies to phospholipids, such as anticardiolipin antibody or lupus anticoagulant. Approximately half of all patients with this syndrome do not have associated systemic disease, and their condition is described as primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS). In the remainder, the syndrome is accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective tissue diseases, and is known as secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (1). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the systemic manifestation of PAPS, focusing on the radiological findings of CT, MR and angiography in clinically proven patients. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is an uncommon entity that is difficult to diagnose given the ambiquity of the clinical signs. Computerized tomography plays a major role in the diagnosis, disclosing enlarged adrenal glands presenting the hyperdense aspect that characterizes this disorders. We present a case of bilateral adrenal hemoorrhage in a patient diagnosed as having primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, which is a less common cause of adrenal hemorrhage than those classically reported, such as anticoagulant therapy, sepsis, shock and abdominal injury. (Author) 8 refs

  15. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and treatment of human (ovarian) cancer was investigated. A review of tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies is presented. Special attention is given to factors that influence the localization of the antibodies in tumors, isotope choice and methods of radiolabeling of the monoclonal antibodies. Two monoclonal antibodies, OC125 and OV-TL3, with high specificity for human epithelial ovarian cancer are characterized. A simple radio-iodination technique was developed for clinical application of the monoclonal antibodies. The behavior of monoclonal antibodies in human tumor xenograft systems and in man are described. Imaging of tumors is complicated because of high background levels of radioactivity in other sites than the tumor, especially in the bloodpool. A technique was developed to improve imaging of human tumor xenographs in nude mice, using subtraction of a specific and a non-specific antibody, radiolabeled with 111In, 67Ga and 131I. To investigate the capability of the two monoclonal antibodies, to specifically localize in human ovarian carcinomas, distribution studies in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts were performed. One of the antibodies, OC125, was used for distribution studies in ovarian cancer patients. OC125 was used because of availability and approval to use this antibody in patients. The same antibody was used to investigate the usefulness of radioimmunoimaging in ovarian cancer patients. The interaction of injected radiolabeled antibody OC125 with circulating antigen and an assay to measure the antibody response in ovarian cancer patients after injection of the antibody is described. 265 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  16. Diagnosability issues in multiprocessor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, V.

    1989-01-01

    In a seminal paper on fault diagnosis, Preparata, Metze, and Chien introduced a graph-theoretical model. Barsi, Grandoni, and Maestrini relaxed some constraints in this model to create a different model for fault diagnosis. Both these models have become the subject of intense research in the past two decades. A major open problem for these models is the question of sequential t-diagnosability-Given an arbitrary system of units and that there are no more than t faulty units in it, can we always identify at least one faulty unit The author shows that this problem is co-NP complete in both models. Recent research has shown that there are polynomial time algorithms to find the maximum number of faulty units a system can withstand and still identify all of them from a single collection of test results. He presents improved algorithms to solve this problem in both models. Using the letters n,m, and {tau} to denote the number of units, the number of tests, and the maximum number of faulty units respectively, our results can be summarized as follows: in the model of Barsi, Grandoni, and Maestrini, the algorithm has a time complexity of O(n{tau}{sup 2}/log{tau}) improving on the currently known O(n{tau}{sup 2}); in the model of Preparata, Metze, and Chien, the algorithm has a complexity of O(n{tau}{sup 2.5}) improving on the currently known O(mn{sup 1.5}). He also presents related results in the latter model, which suggest the possibility of reducing the complexity even further. Finally, he develops a general scheme for characterizing diagnosable systems. Using this scheme, he solves the open problem of characterizing t/s and sequentially t-diagnosable systems. The characterizations are then used to rederive some known results.

  17. DIAGNOSE AND MANAGEMENT TINEA FASCIALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Pt Agus Suryantara P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi disease  on skin is often occur at Indonesia because it is a tropic country that has hot climate and also correlate wit bad hygiene.  Dermatofitosis is fungi disease on the keratinizing tissue and differentiate as many class such as Tinea Corporis or TineaCruris. Tinea fascialis include in this form. The diagnose this disease from anamnesis,clinical manifetation, and also test result from the tissue. Management for thistineacomprise to topical and systemic. The important one in management this disease isprevention  management include in control of skin dryness.

  18. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  19. Utility of Shear Wave Elastography for Diagnosing Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Fukuhara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI for diagnosing chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT and to verify the effect of fibrotic thyroid tissue on shear wave velocity (SWV. The subjects were 229 patients with 253 normal thyroid lobes (controls and 150 CAT lobes. The SWV for CAT (2.47 ± 0.57 m/s was significantly higher than that for controls (1.59 ± 0.41 m/s (P<0.001. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve for CAT was 0.899, and the SWV cut-off value was 1.96 m/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 87.4%, 78.7%, and 85.1%, respectively. Levels of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies and thyroid isthmus thickness were correlated with tissue stiffness in CAT. However, there was no correlation between levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and tissue stiffness. Quantitative SWE is useful for diagnosing CAT, and it is possible that SWE can be used to evaluate the degree of fibrosis in patients with CAT.

  20. Serum Treponema IgM Antibody Test for Syphilis Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑占才; 张荣富; 溪茜

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical utility of testing serum anti-treponema pallidum IgM antibody in the diagnosis of syphilis patients. Methods: Seventy-two cases of syphilis were tested for specific IgM antibody with ELISA, and the results were compared with RPR and TPPA.Results: The sensitivity of IgM antibody was 73.3 %(11/15) in primary syphilis, 88.9% (16/18) in sec-ondary syphilis, and there was no significant differ-ence between these values (x2=1.6363, P>0.10). The sensitivity of IgM antibody in diagnosing latent syphi-lis was only 26.1% (6/23), much lower than the detec-tion rate in symptomatic earlv svDhilis (x2=17.6189. P<0.005). RPR and TPPA were both 100% sensitive in latent and early symptomatic syphilis. Two were posi,five for IgM in the 16 cases who had received regular treatments 2 to 24 months before enrolled.Conclusions: Specific IgM antibody detection doees not appear superior to RPR and TPPA in diagnosing primary syphilis. The diagnosis of latent syphilis should mainly rely on RPR and TPPA, since there are low titers of IgM antibody at that stage. IgM antibody testing alone should not be recommended for monitor-ing syphilis development or treatment efficacy. Fur-ther studies should be concerned.

  1. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  2. How Is Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnosis thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. If TTP is suspected or diagnosed, a hematologist will be ...

  3. How Are Obesity and Overweight Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are obesity & overweight diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... and Blood Institute. (2012). How are overweight and obesity diagnosed? Retrieved August 8, 2012, from http://www. ...

  4. Activation of human complement by immunoglobulin G antigranulocyte antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, P K; Currie, M S; Logue, G L

    1982-01-01

    The ability of antigranulocyte antibody to fix the third component of complement (C3) to the granulocyte surface was investigated by an assay that quantitates the binding of monoclonal anti-C3 antibody to paraformaldehyde-fixed cells preincubated with Felty's syndrome serum in the presence of human complement. The sera from 7 of 13 patients with Felty's syndrome bound two to three times as much C3 to granulocytes as sera from patients with uncomplicated rheumatoid arthritis. The complement-activating ability of Felty's syndrome serum seemed to reside in the monomeric IgG-containing serum fraction. For those sera capable of activating complement, the amount of C3 fixed to granulocytes was proportional to the amount of granulocyte-binding IgG present in the serum. Thus, complement fixation appeared to be a consequence of the binding of antigranulocyte antibody to the cell surface. These studies suggest a role for complement-mediated injury in the pathophysiology of immune granulocytopenia, as has been demonstrated for immune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:7174786

  5. The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-03-01

    Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

  6. Diagnosing dementia: No easy job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquay Louis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From both clinical experience and research we learned that in complex progressive disorders such as dementia, diagnosis includes multiple steps, each with their own clinical and research characteristics. Discussion Diagnosing starts with a trigger phase in which the GP gradually realizes that dementia may be emerging. This is followed by a disease-oriented diagnosis and subsequently a care -oriented diagnosis. In parallel the GP should consider the consequences of this process for the caregiver and the interaction between both. As soon as a comprehensive diagnosis and care plan are available, monitoring follows. Summary We propose to split the diagnostic process into four diagnostic steps, followed by a monitoring phase. We recommend to include these steps when designing studies on screening, diagnosis and monitoring of patients with dementia and their families.

  7. Transplantvaskulopathie - Pathophysiologie, Diagnose und Therapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pölzl G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Transplantvaskulopathie (CAV ist die häufigste Todesursache im Langzeitverlauf nach Herztransplantation. Sowohl immunologische als auch nicht-immunologische Faktoren sind für die Entwicklung der meist konzentrischen, diffusen, überwiegend fibrösen Intimahyperplasie verantwortlich. Die klinische Symptomatik ist unspezifisch, regelmäßige Kontrolluntersuchungen sind daher erforderlich. Im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Koronarangiographie ermöglicht der intravaskuläre Ultraschall die frühzeitige Diagnose und Quantifizierung der Erkrankung und damit einen raschen Therapiebeginn. Dabei spielen die konsequente Einstellung kardiovaskulärer Risikofaktoren, die immunsuppressive Therapie und die Zytomegalie-Prophylaxe eine wichtige Rolle. Bei schweren Verlaufsformen kommen die perkutane Koronarintervention, seltener die Bypassoperation und in ausgewählten Fällen die Retransplantation zum Einsatz.

  8. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer. © 2013 by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.......Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen......-binding fragments in cancer targeting and therapy. VHHs express low immunogenicity, are highly robust and easy to manufacture and have the ability to recognize hidden or uncommon epitopes. We highlight the utility of VHH in design of new molecular, multifunctional particulate and immune cell-based systems...

  9. Engineering antibody therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mark L; Gilliland, Gary L

    2016-06-01

    The successful introduction of antibody-based protein therapeutics into the arsenal of treatments for patients has within a few decades fostered intense innovation in the production and engineering of antibodies. Reviewed here are the methods currently used to produce antibodies along with how our knowledge of the structural and functional characterization of immunoglobulins has resulted in the engineering of antibodies to produce protein therapeutics with unique properties, both biological and biophysical, that are leading to novel therapeutic approaches. Antibody engineering includes the introduction of the antibody combining site (variable regions) into a host of architectures including bi and multi-specific formats that further impact the therapeutic properties leading to further advantages and successes in patient treatment. PMID:27525816

  10. Prevention of arthritis by locally synthesized recombinant antibody neutralizing complement component C5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Durigutto

    Full Text Available Treatment of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis with recombinant antibodies is time consuming and fairly expensive and can be associated with side effects due to generalized depletion of the target molecule. We have addressed these issues by developing an alternative approach consisting of the intraarticular injection of a DNA vector encoding for the anti-C5 neutralizing recombinant miniantibody MB12/22. This method allows local production of the antibody in sufficient amount to be effective in preventing joint inflammation in a rat model of antigen-induced arthritis. Injection of the DNA vector in a right knee of normal rats resulted in the production of the minibody detected in the synovial washes by western blot with a strong signal peaking at 3 days after administration. DNA encoding for the minibody was shown for 14 days in the synovial tissue and was undetectable in the controlateral knee and in other organs. The preventive effect of this approach was evaluated in rats receiving a single injection of the vector 3 days before the induction of antigen-induced arthritis and analyzed 3 days later. The treated rats exhibited a lower increase in swelling, associated with a lower number of PMN in the articular washes and reduced deposition of C9 in synovial tissue compared to control rats. These results suggest that treating the inflamed joints with a vector that induces a local production of a neutralizing anti-C5 antibody may represent a useful strategy to inhibit in situ complement activation and to treat patients with monoarthritis. Moreover, this approach may be adopted as a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent monoarthritis as an alternative to local treatment with antibodies commonly used in this form of arthritis, with the advantages of the lower cost and the longer persistence of antibody production.

  11. Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with adrenal hemorrhage in a child : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yoo, Han Wook; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a disease that is clinically diagnosed if a patient suffers recurrent thromboses, stroke, recurrent fetal loss, livedo reticularis, and thrombocytopenia, without evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective diseases. Adrenal hemorrhage in a patient with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a rarely recognized, but potentially catastrophic disorder. We recently encountered bilateral adrenal hemorrhaging in a child with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and casem as well as reviewing the literature.

  12. [Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in congenital heart block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Prieto, Ernesto; Martínez Ceccopieri, David Alejandro; Panduro Barón, J Guadalupe; Fajardo Dueñas, Sergio

    2012-06-01

    Describe a case of a female patient having anti-Ro/SSA antibodies without any other risk factor or collagen disease. In her first pregnancy a congenital heart block and hydrops in the fetus were diagnosed, and these caused stillbirth. In a second pregnancy an in utero treatment resulted in the succesful delivery of a normal child.

  13. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in Z→b anti b and Z→c anti c decays with leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sample of hadronic Z decays collected by the Aleph detector at Lep in the years 1991-1995 is analysed in order to measure the forward-backward asymmetry in Z→b anti b and Z→c anti c events and the B0- anti B0 average mixing parameter anti χ. Quark charges are tagged by the charges of electrons and muons produced in b and c semileptonic decays. Multivariate analyses are used to separate the event flavours and b→l/b→c→l processes. The b and c quark asymmetries are measured simultaneously; the average mixing parameter and the pole asymmetries are determined to be anti χ=0.1196± 0.0049(stat.)+0.0043-0.0050(syst.),A(0,b)FB=0.0998±0.0040(sta t.)±0.0017(syst.), A0,cFB=0.0732±0.0053(stat.)±0.0037(syst.). These asymmetries, combined with the Aleph measurements of the b asymmetry using inclusive b hadron decays and of the c asymmetry using reconstructed D mesons, correspond to a value of the effective electroweak mixing angle of sin2θeffW=0.23188±0.00046. (orig.)

  14. Acute infection by hepatitis E virus with a slight immunoglobulin M antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Yuki; Oshiro, Yukio; Imanishi, Mamiko; Ishige, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody response is generally regarded as a useful marker for diagnosing primary infection. However, in some cases, this antibody is not detected during the acute phase of infection. An 81-year-old man with stable membranous nephropathy who presented with asymptomatic acute liver dysfunction came to our hospital. HEV RNA of genotype 3 was detected in his serum, and he was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E. According to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, high-level positivity for anti-HEV IgG and IgA antibodies was observed, but the assay was negative for IgM antibody throughout the clinical course of infection. The patient was not immunosuppressed. We further investigated the presence of IgM antibody using two other polyclonal antibodies against human IgM as secondary antibodies and another recombinant ORF2 protein of genotype 3 as an immobilized antigen. IgM was weakly detected in the serum during the acute phase only by the test with the antigen of genotype 3. Multi-genotype antigens can detect a slight IgM antibody response; however, anti-HEV IgA is more useful in diagnosing primary HEV infection, particularly in cases with a low IgM antibody response. PMID:26215116

  15. Problems in diagnosing viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Colloredo Mels, G; Bellati, G; Ideo, G; Oliveri, F; Colombatto, P; Brunetto, M R

    1993-01-01

    The most reliable method of making a specific aetiological diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis would be to identify virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responsible for the killing of virus infected hepatocytes in each patient's liver. Unfortunately, this can not be proposed for routine diagnosis and surrogate tests are required. The detection of virus markers, and even of the virus itself, does not imply that liver damage is caused by virus infection. Indirect markers of the host's antiviral immunoresponse have to be used to confirm more specifically the diagnosis of viral hepatitis. IgM antibodies against viral antigens implicated in the elimination of the virus seem to be suitable alternative candidates. Significant changes in the serum values of viraemia and aminotransferases occur within a few days, while a significant variation in liver histology takes much longer. Only the kinetics of the highly variable parameters can be used for an appropriate study of the relationship between viraemia, antiviral immunoresponse, and liver cell necrosis. Quantitative and dynamic analyses of hepatitis virus markers seem the most suitable and reliable methods of monitoring the patients eligible for antiviral treatment and identifying the most appropriate time to start this. PMID:8314490

  16. Conventional versus single-ladder-splitting contributions to double parton scattering production of two quarkonia, two Higgs bosons and c anti cc anti c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The double parton distributions (dPDF), both conventional and those corresponding to parton splitting, are calculated and compared for different two-parton combinations. The conventional and splitting dPDFs have very similar shape in x1 and x2. We make a first quantitative evaluation of the single-ladder-splitting contribution to double parton scattering (DPS) production of two S- or P-wave quarkonia, two Higgs bosons and c anti cc anti c. The ratio of the single-ladder-splitting to conventional contributions is discussed as a function of centre-of-mass energy, mass of the produced system and other kinematical variables. Using a simple model for the dependence of the conventional two-parton distribution on transverse parton separation (Gaussian and independent of xi and scales), we find that the 2v1 contribution is as big as the 2v2 contribution discussed in recent years in the literature. This means that the phenomenological analyses of σeff including only the conventional DPS mechanism have to be revised including explicitly the single-ladder-splitting contributions discussed here. The differential distributions in rapidity and transverse momenta calculated for conventional and single-ladder-splitting DPS processes are however very similar which causes their experimental separation to be rather difficult, if not impossible. The direct consequence of the existence of the two components (conventional and splitting) is the energy and process dependence of the empirical parameter σeff. This is illustrated in our paper for the considered processes.

  17. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Selection of Recombinant Human Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomszak, Florian; Weber, Susanne; Zantow, Jonas; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Frenzel, André

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of therapeutic antibodies the demand of recombinant human antibodies is steadily increasing. Traditionally, therapeutic antibodies were generated by immunization of rat or mice, the generation of hybridoma clones, cloning of the antibody genes and subsequent humanization and engineering of the lead candidates. In the last few years, techniques were developed that use transgenic animals with a human antibody gene repertoire. Here, modern recombinant DNA technologies can be combined with well established immunization and hybridoma technologies to generate already affinity maturated human antibodies. An alternative are in vitro technologies which enabled the generation of fully human antibodies from antibody gene libraries that even exceed the human antibody repertoire. Specific antibodies can be isolated from these libraries in a very short time and therefore reduce the development time of an antibody drug at a very early stage.In this review, we describe different technologies that are currently used for the in vitro and in vivo generation of human antibodies. PMID:27236551

  19. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... You appear to have an allergic response to insulin Insulin no longer seems to control your diabetes

  20. Novel approaches in diagnosing tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Gibson, Tim; Anthony, Richard; Claassens, Mareli M.; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2011-06-01

    The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system.

  1. Pulmonale Hypertension, Pathophysiologie, Diagnose, Therapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang I

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die pulmonale Hypertension (PH ist ein Syndrom, bestehend aus Atemnot bei Belastung, Brustschmerzen und Synkopen und beruht auf einer Steigerung des pulmonal-arteriellen Druckes und Erhöhung des Lungengefäßwiderstandes. Durch einen progressiven Verlauf kommt es beim Unbehandelten innerhalb von zwei bis drei Jahren nach Diagnosestellung zu Rechtsherzversagen und Tod. Die Erkrankung ist eine Lungengefäßerkrankung. In allen Schichten der Gefäßwand finden sich pathologische Veränderungen. Das Lungengefäßendothel zeigt prokoagulatorische Eigenschaften, die glatte Gefäßmuskulatur ist depolarisiert und Kalzium-überladen, die Adventitia zeigt eine Überexpression von Metalloproteinasen und Elastasen als Ausdruck eines aktiven vaskulären Remodelings. Basierend auf dem Konzept, daß Vasokonstriktion und thrombotischer Verschluß der Widerstandsgefäße der Lunge den Krankheitsprozeß beschleunigen, werden derzeit Vasodilatation und Antikoagulierung als Therapie eingesetzt. Noch vor wenigen Jahren wurde die medikamentöse Therapie der PH nur als Überbrückung zur Lungen- oder Herz-Lungen-Transplantation betrachtet. Allerdings könnten Vasodilatatoren oder Vasodilatator-Kombinationstherapien in Zukunft eine Alternative zur Lungentransplantation darstellen. Vor Beginn einer Vasodilatatortherapie wird in einem standardisierten Austestungsverfahren die individuelle Gefäßreaktivität festgestellt. Schlüssel für die Diagnostik ist die Abgrenzung der chronisch thromboembolischen pulmonalen Hypertension (CTEPH von allen anderen Formen. Die CTEPH ist die einzige PH, die durch eine pulmonale Thromboendarterektomie geheilt werden kann. Dieser Artikel bietet eine kurze aktuelle Zusammenfassung über Klassifikation der verschiedenen Formen von PH, Pathologie und Pathobiologie, Risikofaktoren, Genetik, Diagnose und Therapien.

  2. [Two cases with SLE and MCTD developed after a long period of chronic arthritis that was initially diagnosed as JRA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, S; Maeno, N; Shigemori, M; Nakae, Y; Mori, H; Nerome, Y; Imanaka, H; Hokonohara, M; Miyata, K

    1997-10-01

    In order to discuss the diversity of clinical features and the difficulty in diagnosis of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), we present two cases who have documented the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) after a long period of disease characterized only by arthritis that was initially diagnosed as JRA. The first case was a girl diagnosed for her arthritic joints as polyarticular JRA at 15 years of age. At onset, she had Raynaud phenomenon but autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-DNA antibody, and rheumatoid factor were negative. Five years after onset, she became ANA positive and 3 years later she became pregnant. During her pregnancy, she became positive for anti-DNA antibody without any signs of nephritis. One month after the delivery, however, she developed butterfly rash, carditis, nephritis, and was diagnosed as SLE. No destructive changes were observed in her joints though arthritis continued for 8 years form onset to pregnancy. The second case was a 3 years old girl who was diagnosed as polyarticular JRA. Treatment by aspirin induced complate remission after one year from the onset. However, 10 years after that remission, she developed Raynaud phenomenon and arthralgia in her knees and hip joints. Her laboratory findings showed hypergammaglobulinemia, positive ANA, positive anti-DNA antibody, positive anti-RNP antibody. She was eventually diagnosed as MCTD when she was found to have polymyositis by EMG and serum CK. In the present paper, two cases imply the difficulty in diagnosing JRA and diversity of rheumatic diseases such as JRA, SLE and MCTD. Closer and longer period of observation is essential for the JRA patients with nondestructive arthritis.

  3. Enhancement of Antibody Titre and Development of Additional Red Cell Alloantibodies Following Intrauterine Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine blood transfusion is the mainstay of managing foetuses with severe anemia. It may however result in fetomaternal hemorrhage, which in cases of Rh isoimmunisation may increase the severity of the disease by enhancing the maternal immunological response to fetal antigens. This study was conducted to determine the frequency, specificity and origin of additional red cell antibodies which developed after IUT. The change in the titre of allo anti-D following IUT was also determined. Antibody detection and titration was done on the blood samples of all the patients before and after intrauterine blood transfusion to check for the development of additional antibody and change in the titre of existing anti-D. Severe anemia was found in 17 (58.6 %) fetuses who received a total of 42 ultrasound-guided IUTs. Development of antibodies additional to anti-D in maternal serum was seen in 5 (29.4 %) cases. The specificity of additional alloantibodies was anti-C in four cases whereas it was anti-E in one case. Four fold or greater increase in existing allo-anti D titre was seen in 6 (35.3 %) cases after IUT. Enhancement of maternal sensitisation leading to an increase in maternal antibody titre is particularly seen after the first IUT. Matching of the donor RBCs particularly for Rh antigens might prevent the induction of additional alloantibodies against these antigens. IUT as a treatment modality should be given judiciously and only when the need is inevitable. PMID:26855513

  4. Longitudinal study of interferon-gamma, serum antibody and milk antibody responses in cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huda, A.; Jungersen, Gregers; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    cattle of 2+ years of age. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses supported the assumption that the IFN-gamma test had a better performance than antibody tests of animals of 1+ and 2+ years of age. However, for animals of 3+ years all tests performed equally well. Application of single sampling......-blood lymphocytes (IFN-gamma test), and measurement of antibody responses against M. paratuberculosis in serum and milk by an in-house absorbed ELISA. The IFN-gamma test diagnosed higher proportions of infected and exposed animals than the antibody ELISAs. The highest sensitivity of IFN-gamma test was in infected...... compared with repeated samplings showed better performance of the IFN-gamma test by repeated samplings, and the milk antibody ELISA in animals of 3+ years of age performed significantly better with repeated sampling compared with single sampling. In conclusion, the IFN-gamma test may be applied...

  5. Breakdown of C3 after complement activation. Identification of a new fragment C3g, using monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The physiological breakdown of C3 has been studied using monoclonal anti-C3 antibodies, and it has been found that the later stages of this process--the breakdown of C3bi--is more complex than had previously been recognized. C3bi is the reaction product produced from C3b by the action of factor I which, in the presence of factor H, produces a double cleavage in the alpha chain of C3b. It is here reported that, both on cells and in the fluid phase, the breakdown of C3bi in serum gives rise to ...

  6. From experience: applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Jimme A.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael

    2002-01-01

    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and eva

  7. Therapy of Newly Diagnosed Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Westin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma is relatively common and can be effectively treated with several differing approaches. Although the disease is often considered incurable, it is highly responsive to therapy when indicated. This review discusses the indications for treatment, risk stratification systems, treatment options with supporting clinical trial data, and expected therapeutic outcomes in newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma.

  8. HIV Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; ...

  9. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood may be due to: Chronic liver disease Collagen vascular disease Drug-induced lupus erythematosus Myositis (inflammatory muscle disease) ... Saunders; 2011:chap 51. Read More Antibody Arthritis Collagen vascular disease Drug-induced lupus erythematosus Liver disease Scleroderma Systemic ...

  10. Anti-cartilage antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J

    1979-08-01

    Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change.

  11. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  12. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transg...

  13. Association of anti-phospholipid antibodies with connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA are directed against phospholipids and their binding proteins and are frequently found in association with connective tissue disorders. Systemic lupus erythematoses (SLE with APLA may cause a diagnostic dilemma as there are several manifestations like haemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurologic manifestations, leg ulcerations, serositis proteinuria which overlap in both these conditions. We conducted a study to find out the association of antiphospholipid antibodies with connective tissue diseases and compared the clinical and laboratory parameters between antiphoshpolipid antibody positive and antiphoshpolipid antibody negative group. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 102 patients diagnosed with connective tissue diseases. APLA testing was done at baseline and for those positive, the test was repeated after 12 weeks. Results: 14.7 % of patients with connective tissue diseases tissue had positive antiphoshpolipid antibodies. Positive antiphoshpolipid antibody was detected in 73.3% of patients with SLE group, 13.3% of patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD and 13.3% of patients with systemic sclerosis. APLA positivity was seen in SLE patients with leg ulcers (87.2%, neurologic manifestation (72.7%, hemolytic anemia (62.3%, thrombocytopenia (72.7%, serositis (27.8% and proteinuria(19.6%. Conclusions: Antiphoshpolipid antibodies should be tested in all patients with connective tissue disease.

  14. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi;

    2014-01-01

    for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  15. Engineering antibodies for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The advent of modern antibody engineering has led to numerous successes in the application of these proteins for cancer therapy in the 13 years since the first Food and Drug Administration approval, which has stimulated active interest in developing more and better drugs based on these molecules. A wide range of tools for discovering and engineering antibodies has been brought to bear on this challenge in the past two decades. Here, we summarize mechanisms of monoclonal antibody therapeutic activity, challenges to effective antibody-based treatment, existing technologies for antibody engineering, and current concepts for engineering new antibody formats and antibody alternatives as next generation biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment.

  16. Validation studies of nursing diagnoses in neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Rabasová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the review was the analysis of Czech and foreign literature sources and professional periodicals to obtain a relevant comprehensive overview of validation studies of nursing diagnoses in neonatology. Design: Review. Methods: The selection criterion was studies concerning the validation of nursing diagnoses in neonatology. To obtain data from relevant sources, the licensed professional databases EBSCO, Web of Science and Scopus were utilized. The search criteria were: date of publication - unlimited; academic periodicals - full text; peer-reviewed periodicals; search language - English, Czech and Slovak. Results: A total of 788 studies were found. Only 5 studies were eligible for content analysis, dealing specifically with validation of nursing diagnoses in neonatology. The analysis of the retrieved studies suggests that authors are most often concerned with identifying the defining characteristics of nursing diagnoses applicable to both the mother (parents and the newborn. The diagnoses were validated in the domains Role Relationship; Coping/Stress tolerance; Activity/Rest, and Elimination and Exchange. Diagnoses represented were from the field of dysfunctional physical needs as well as the field of psychosocial and spiritual needs. The diagnoses were as follows: Parental role conflict (00064; Impaired parenting (00056; Grieving (00136; Ineffective breathing pattern (00032; Impaired gas exchange (00030; and Impaired spontaneous ventilation (00033. Conclusion: Validation studies enable effective planning of interventions with measurable results and support clinical nursing practice.

  17. Prevalence of Diagnosed Cancer According to Duration of Diagnosed Diabetes and Current Insulin Use Among U.S. Adults With Diagnosed Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaoyang; Zhao, Guixiang; Okoro, Catherine A; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Ford, Earl S.; Balluz, Lina S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed cancer according to duration of diagnosed diabetes and current insulin use among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from 25,964 adults aged ≥18 years with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. RESULTS After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that the greater the duration of diagnosed diabetes, the higher the prevalence of diagnosed ...

  18. How Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this protein generally indicate a more advanced CLL. Bone marrow tests Blood tests are often enough to diagnose ... is called an incisional biopsy . Lumbar puncture (or spinal tap) This procedure is used to take samples ...

  19. How Is Breast Cancer in Men Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disturbing. Some places will give you headphones with music to block this noise out. MRIs are also expensive, but insurance plans generally pay for them in some situations, such as once cancer is diagnosed. MRI machines are quite common, but ...

  20. How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » How are lung carcinoid tumors diagnosed? Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  1. Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning about Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes There are several ways ... mg/dl – 199 mg/dl Preventing Type 2 Diabetes You will not develop type 2 diabetes automatically ...

  2. Diagnosing Asthma in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Diagnosing Asthma in Babies & Toddlers Page Content Article Body One ... family with recurrent bronchitis or sinus problems. When Asthma is Not the Cause Your pediatrician will listen ...

  3. Serological survey of normal humans for natural antibody to cell surface antigens of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, A N; Taormina, M C; Ikeda, H; Watanabe, T; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1980-01-01

    Sera of 106 normal adult men were tested for antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens of three established lines of cultured malignant melanoma. Positive reactions with a protein A assay for IgG antibodies were extremely rare (1-2%). The frequency of positive reactions with assays for IgM antibodies was higher: 5-15% in immune adherence assays and 55-82% in anti-C3 mixed hemadsorption assays. After low-titered sera and sera reacting with fetal calf serum components, conventional alloantigens, and widely distributed class 3 antigens were excluded, sera from seven individuals (one with IgG antibody and six with IgM antibodies) were selected for detailed analysis. The serum containing the IgG antibody came from a healthy 65-year-old Caucasian man; titers of antibody in his serum ranged from < 1/10 to 1/40,000 in tests with different melanoma cell lines. This IgG antibody identifies a differentiation antigen of melanocytes, provisionally designated Mel 1, that distinguishes two classes of melanomas: 22 melanoma cell lines typed Mel 1+ and 17 types Mel 1-. Mel 1 is expressed by fetal fibroblasts but not adult fibroblasts and can be found on a proportion of cultured epithelial cancer cell lines (5 out of 23) but not on glioma or B-cell lines. The melanoma antigens detected by the naturally occurring IgM antibodies are serologically unrelated to Mel 1 but, like Mel 1, appear to be differentiation antigens that distinguish subsets of melanoma. These IgM antibodies detect antigens that are identical or closely related to the AH antigen, a melanoma surface antigen that was initially defined by autologous antibody in a patient with melanoma. In view of the immunogenicity of both Mel 1 and the AH antigens in humans and their occurrence on more than 50% of melanomas, it remains to be seen whether antibody to these antigens can be elicited by specific vaccination of seronegative melanoma patients and whether this will have an influence on the clinical course of the disease

  4. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate......-2. Based on the presented data we suggest that affinity maturation of the model antibody proceeds through multiple incremental steps of subtle improvements. We moreover conclude that the best affinity improved candidates are likely to be obtained through optimization of both the antigen...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...

  5. Diagnosing patients with longstanding shoulder joint pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Krogsgaard, M R; Lorenzen, T;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the interobserver agreement of commonly used clinical tests and diagnoses in patients with shoulder pain, and the accuracy of these tests and ultrasonographic findings in comparison with arthroscopic findings. METHODS: Eighty six patients with longstanding shoulder joint pain...... lesion also showed poor agreement. Pain during muscle contraction showed moderate agreement. The agreement of clinical diagnoses was poor and the accuracy was low in comparison with arthroscopy. Ultrasonography was accurate in full thickness supraspinatus tendon tears, but inaccurate for partial tears...

  6. Challenges in diagnosing tuberculosis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Nadia; Pedersen, Karin Kæreby; Nielsen, Vibeke Rosenfeldt;

    2012-01-01

    Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country.......Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country....

  7. Anti-microbial antibodies in celiac disease: Trick or treat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Papp; Ildiko Foldi; Istvan Altorjay; Eszter Palyu; Miklos Udvardy; Judit Tumpek; Sandor Sipka; Ilma Rita Korponay-Szabo; Eva Nemes; Gabor Veres; Tamas Dinya; Attila Tordai; Hajnalka Andrikovics; Gary L Norman; Peter Laszlo Lakatos

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of a new set of anti-glycan and anti-outer membrane protein (anti- OMP) antibodies in a Hungarian cohort of adult Celiac disease (CD) patients. METHODS: 190 consecutive CD patients [M/F: 71/119, age:39.9 (SD:14.1) years], 100 healthy, and 48 gastrointestinal controls were tested for glycan anti- Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gASCA), anti-laminaribioside (ALCA), anti-chitobioside, anti-mannobioside, anti-OMP antibodies and major NOD2/CARD15 mutations. Thirty out of 82 CD patients enrolled at the time of diagnosis were re-evaluated for the same antibodies after longstanding gluten-free diet (GFD).RESULTS: 65.9% of the CD patients were positive for at least one of the tested antibodies at the time of the diagnosis. Except anti-OMP and ALCA, antimicrobial antibodies were exclusively seen in untreated CD; however, the overall sensitivity was low. Any glycan positivity (LR+: 3.13; 95% CI: 2.08-4.73)was associated with an increased likelihood ratio for diagnosing CD. Significant correlation was found between the levels of anti-glycan and anti-endomysial or anti-transglutaminase antibodies. Anti-glycan positivity was lost after longstanding GFD. Anti-glycan antibody titers were associated with symptoms at presentation, but not the presence of NOD2/CARD15 mutations. Patients with severe malabsorption more frequently had multiple antibodies at diagnosis ( P = 0.019).CONCLUSION: The presence of anti-glycan antibodies in CD seems to be secondary to the impaired small bowel mucosa which can lead to increased antigen presentation.Furthermore, anti-glycan positivity may be considered an additional marker of CD and dietary adherence.

  8. Serum IgG antibodies to C1q in hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, J J; Naff, G B

    1989-09-01

    Urticaria, angioedema, and arthritis are cardinal features of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS). Considered to be an immune complex-mediated disorder, HUVS has been differentiated from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on its clinical manifestations and the C1q precipitin (C1q-p) reaction, which is manifested as gel precipitation of C1q by a small percentage of HUVS IgG molecules. This phenomenon has been attributed to an Fc region abnormality, and the responsible IgG molecules are said to possess C1q-p activity. We purified IgG from 4 HUVS patients and confirmed that HUVS IgG contains C1q binding activity. F(ab')2 fragments from these patients also bound to C1q, as measured by 2 different C1q binding methods at physiologic ionic strength; HUVS IgG Fc fragments did not bind to C1q. Preincubation of HUVS F(ab')2 fragments with antibody to human F(ab')2 prevented subsequent binding to C1q. We conclude that IgG antibodies to C1q are present in HUVS serum, and it is likely that these antibodies are C1q-p. Because the clinical manifestations of HUVS and the presence of anti-C1q antibodies have been described in patients with SLE, our findings support the concept that HUVS is an autoimmune syndrome related to SLE. PMID:2528353

  9. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma M. Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Myeloma cells Sp2/0-Ag14 and spleen cells from BALB/c mouse immunized with sonicated Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 were fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG for the selection of clones producing antibodies. Clones were obtained by limiting dilution and screened for the production of specific antibodies to C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 by indirect ELISA and western blot against a panel of bacteria: C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354, C. fetus subsp fetus ADRI 1812, C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647, C. lari NCTC 11352, and Arcobacter skirrowii LMG 6621 for the ELISA and C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 and C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647 for the western blotting. Fifteen clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs anti-C. fetus subsp. venerealis of the IgM (1 and IgG (14 classes were further screened for species-specificity. Four clones of the 15 obtained were producers of species-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs: two were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and two were specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus. None of the clones were reactive against C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647. All clones recognized a protein with molecular mass of approximately 148 kDa from lysed C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354.

  10. Case analysis of incompatibility in blood crossmatching induced by anti-Dia and anti-E antibodies%抗Dia合并抗E抗体致交叉配血不合的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨交叉配血中抗 Dia 合并抗 E 抗体致配血不合的原因。方法对该院1例因抗 Dia 合并抗 E 抗体致多次配血不合的患者进行分析。通过血型鉴定、直接抗人球蛋白试验、不规则抗体筛查、吸收放散实验来确定患者的血型、可能的不规则抗体、细胞谱反应格局。结果患者血型正定型:抗 A 抗体(-)、抗 B 抗体(-);反定型:Ac(++++)、Bc(++++)、RBC (-)、Oc(-);Rh 血型定型:抗 c 抗体(-)、抗 C 抗体(++++)、抗 D 抗体(++++)、抗 e 抗体(++++)、抗 E 抗体(-)。直接抗人球蛋白试验(-)。患者血清中含有抗 E、抗 c 抗体。结论患者血清中的不规则抗体是导致交叉配血不合的重要原因。%Objective To investigate the reason of anti-Dia combined with anti-E antibodies inducing incompatibility in blood crossmatching.Methods Retrospectively analyse a case of patient treated in the hospital,whose blood crossmatching failed for sev-eral times.Through blood typing,direct Coombs test,irregular antibody screening,adsorption and elution experiments to determine the patient′s blood type,possible irregular antibodies,cell spectral response pattern.Results Forward blood typing:anti-A antibody (-),anti-B antibodies(-);Reverse blood typing:Ac (++++),Bc(++++),RBC(-),Oc(-);Rh blood grouping:anti-c an-tibody(-),anti-C antibody (+ + + +),anti-D antibody (+ + + +),anti-e antibody (+ + + +),anti-E antibody (-),direct Coombs test(-).Patient′s serum contained anti-E and anti-c antibodies.Conclusion Irregular antibodies in the serum of patients is an important cause of crossmatch discord.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.;

    2015-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  12. Prediction of Antibody Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    self-proteins. Given the sequence or the structure of a protein of interest, several methods exploit such features to predict the residues that are more likely to be recognized by an immunoglobulin.Here, we present two methods (BepiPred and DiscoTope) to predict linear and discontinuous antibody...

  13. Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Lupus Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodis, Ioannis; Arnaud, Laurent; Gerhardsson, Jakob; Zickert, Agneta; Sundelin, Birgitta; Malmström, Vivianne; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Gunnarsson, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a major manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It remains unclear whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) alter the course of LN. We thus investigated the impact of aPL on short-term and long-term renal outcomes in patients with LN. We assessed levels of aPL cross-sectionally in SLE patients diagnosed with (n = 204) or without (n = 294) LN, and prospectively in 64 patients with active biopsy-proven LN (52 proliferative, 12 membranous), before and after induction treatment (short-term outcomes). Long-term renal outcome in the prospective LN cohort was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage, after a median follow-up of 11.3 years (range: 3.3-18.8). Cross-sectional analysis revealed no association between LN and IgG/IgM anticardiolipin or anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, or lupus anticoagulant. Both aPL positivity and levels were similar in patients with active LN and non-renal SLE. Following induction treatment for LN, serum IgG/IgM aPL levels decreased in responders (p<0.005 for all), but not in non-responders. Both at active LN and post-treatment, patients with IgG, but not IgM, aPL had higher creatinine levels compared with patients without IgG aPL. Neither aPL positivity nor levels were associated with changes in eGFR from either baseline or post-treatment through long-term follow-up. Moreover, aPL positivity and levels both at baseline and post-treatment were similar in patients with a CKD stage ≥3 versus 1-2 at the last follow-up. In conclusion, neither aPL positivity nor levels were found to be associated with the occurrence of LN in SLE patients. However, IgG aPL positivity in LN patients was associated with a short-term impairment of the renal function while no effect on long-term renal outcome was observed. Furthermore, IgG and IgM aPL levels decreased following induction treatment only in responders, indicating that aPL levels are affected by

  14. Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Parodis

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is a major manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. It remains unclear whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL alter the course of LN. We thus investigated the impact of aPL on short-term and long-term renal outcomes in patients with LN. We assessed levels of aPL cross-sectionally in SLE patients diagnosed with (n = 204 or without (n = 294 LN, and prospectively in 64 patients with active biopsy-proven LN (52 proliferative, 12 membranous, before and after induction treatment (short-term outcomes. Long-term renal outcome in the prospective LN cohort was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD stage, after a median follow-up of 11.3 years (range: 3.3-18.8. Cross-sectional analysis revealed no association between LN and IgG/IgM anticardiolipin or anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, or lupus anticoagulant. Both aPL positivity and levels were similar in patients with active LN and non-renal SLE. Following induction treatment for LN, serum IgG/IgM aPL levels decreased in responders (p<0.005 for all, but not in non-responders. Both at active LN and post-treatment, patients with IgG, but not IgM, aPL had higher creatinine levels compared with patients without IgG aPL. Neither aPL positivity nor levels were associated with changes in eGFR from either baseline or post-treatment through long-term follow-up. Moreover, aPL positivity and levels both at baseline and post-treatment were similar in patients with a CKD stage ≥3 versus 1-2 at the last follow-up. In conclusion, neither aPL positivity nor levels were found to be associated with the occurrence of LN in SLE patients. However, IgG aPL positivity in LN patients was associated with a short-term impairment of the renal function while no effect on long-term renal outcome was observed. Furthermore, IgG and IgM aPL levels decreased following induction treatment only in responders, indicating that aPL levels are

  15. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000547.htm Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining ...

  16. Characterization of IgG4 anti-neurofascin 155 antibody-positive polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryo; Hiwatashi, Akio; Oka, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Matsuse, Dai; Kuwahara, Motoi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kusunoki, Susumu; Fujimoto, Yuichi; Ikezoe, Koji; Kishida, Hitaru; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Matsushita, Takuya; Murai, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate anti-neurofascin 155 (NF155) antibody-positive chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Methods Sera from 50 consecutive CIDP patients diagnosed in our clinic, 32 patients with multiple sclerosis, 40 patients with other neuropathies including 26 with Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS)/Fisher syndrome, and 30 healthy controls were measured for anti-NF antibodies by flow cytometry using HEK293 cell lines stably expressing human NF155 or NF186. Four additiona...

  17. Recombinant antibodies and tumor targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikholvaezin, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Different antibody derived constructs are rapidly advancing as putative tools for treatment of malignant diseases. Antibody engineering has added significant new technologies to modify size, affinities, solubility, stability and biodistribution properties for immunoconjugates. In the present thesis, the aim was to increase our knowledge on how new recombinant antibodies could be tailored to optimize localization to experimental tumors in mice. One hybridoma, producing the monoclonal antibody ...

  18. Pulmonary embolus diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M. Segraves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS imaging is commonly used to evaluate and aid in biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes. Pulmonary arteries are readily viewable with this type of imaging modality. We present a case report of a pulmonary embolism (PE diagnosed by EBUS. Our patient had no smoking history and presented with respiratory and constitutional symptoms, urinary retention, and leg weakness suspicious for malignancy with metastasis to spine. Chest computed tomography (CT was suggestive of lung carcinoma and specifically showed no PE. EBUS with TBNA was requested for tissue diagnosis. A mobile filling defect consistent with a PE was observed and reported to primary team. Follow-up chest CT showed an acute PE which confirmed the diagnosis originally made by EBUS. Bronchoscopists should be aware of potential to diagnose a PE while performing EBUS. Additionally, there may be a role in using EBUS specifically to diagnose a PE in the right patient population.

  19. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:25264572

  20. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a

  1. Antibodies to Placental Immunoregulatory Ferritin with Transfer of Polyclonal Lymphocytes Arrest MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Growth in a Nude Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Halpern

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently cloned human gene named “placental immunoregulatory ferritin” (PLIF is a pregnancyrelated immunomodulator. Recombinant PLIF and its bioactive domain C48 are immune-suppressive and induce pronounced IL-10 production by immune cells. PLIF is expressed in the placenta and breast cancer cells. Blocking PLIF in pregnant mice by anti-C48 antibodies inhibited placental and fetal growth and modulated the cytokine network. It has been revealed that anti-C48 treatment inhibited MCF-7 tumor growth in nude mice. However, this significant effect was observed only in those transfused with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blocking PLIF in tumor-engrafted human immune cell transfused mice resulted in massive infiltration of human CD45+ cells (mainly CD8+ T cells, both intratumorally and in the tumor periphery, and a significant number of caspase-3+ cells. In vitro, antiC48 treatment of MCF-7 tumor cells cocultured with human lymphocytes induced a significant increase in interferon-γ secretion. We conclude that blocking PLIF inhibits breast cancer growth, possibly by an effect on the cytokine network in immune cells and on breakdown of immunosuppression.

  2. A monoclonal antibody against leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Jafar; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Vojgani, Yasaman; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Hadavi, Reza; Zarei, Saeed

    2012-10-01

    Leptin is an important protein that regulates energy storage and homeostasis in humans and animals. Leptin deficiency results in various abnormalities such as diabetes, obesity, and infertility. Producing a high affinity monoclonal antibody against human leptin provides an important tool to monitor and trace leptin function in different biological fluids. In this study, recombinant human leptin was conjugated to KLH and injected into mice. After immunization, mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells were fused with murine splenocytes followed by selection of antibody-producing hybridoma cells. After screening of different hybridoma colonies by ELISA, a high affinity antibody was selected and purified by affinity chromatography. The affinity constant of the antibody was measured by ELISA. Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry experiments were used to characterize the antibody. The anti-leptin antibody had a high affinity (around 1.13 × 10(-9) M) for its antigen. The saturation of the antibody with leptin (20 moles leptin per 1 mole antibody) in Western blot analysis proved that the antibody had specific binding to its antigen. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry on JEG-3 (human placental choriocarcinoma cell) cells revealed that the anti-leptin antibody recognized intracellular leptin. In conclusion, we report here the production and characterization of a murine anti-leptin antibody with high affinity for human leptin. PMID:23098305

  3. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  4. Antiphospholipid Antibody and Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞生

    2008-01-01

    @@ Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) APA is a big category for all kinds of negative charge phospholipid or lecithin - a protein complex autoantibodies or the same antibody, through its recognition of antigen (target protein) different, and phospholipids or lecithin - protein complex combination of various rely on the interference Phospholipid clotting and anti-coagulation factor, and promote endothelial cells, platelets, complement activation and play a role. APA including lupus anticoagulant(LA) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA), In addition, there are anti-β2 glycoprotein-I (β2-GPI) antibody, anti-prothrombin (a- PT) antibody, anti-lysophosphatidic acid antibody and anti-phosphatidylserine antibody, and so on. APA as the main target of phospholipid-binding protein, including β2-GPI, prothrombin, annexin, protein C (PC) and protein S (PS), plasminogen, and so on.

  5. Heterophile Antibody Interference led to Unneeded Chemotherapy in a Testicular Cancer Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniele G; Millot, Françoise; Lacroix, Isabelle; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Human heterophile antibodies may develop after infection or contact with animal tissues or animal serum products. These antibodies have the capacity to bind to the animal immunoglobulins used in immunoassays leading to erroneous results. We here report a case of a testicular germ cell tumor patient who developed heterophile antibodies during the surveillance period of his disease. Following false-positive results of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) he received unneeded chemotherapy. This article also stresses the problem of using serum tumor markers without no major imaging abnormalities to diagnose a patients' relapse. PMID:27617210

  6. Bordetella pertussis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Heron, I; Skjødt, K

    1994-01-01

    The object of this work was to test the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for demonstration of Bordetella pertussis (BP) in nasopharyngeal secretions. The method was applied to patients with recently diagnosed pertussis, as verified by BP culture. In order to test the sensitivity and specificity...

  7. Diagnosing Functional Seizures in Children and Adolescent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichaidit, Bianca Taaning; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ostergaard, John R

    2014-01-01

    Functional seizures (FS) is a condition where the child experiences seizure-like events, without abnormal electrical discharge as measured by EEG, and with high risk of misdiagnosis. Diagnosing FS contains: 1) video-EEG, 2) anamnestic evaluation, focusing on the presence of psychosocial stressors...

  8. Fighting to be heard: contested diagnoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Trundle; I. Singh; C. Bröer

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores how diagnoses can become sites of contest, rather than of agreement. Conflict can arise when illness refuses to yield the level of proof that epidemiology, clinical medicine, and toxicology require, or its existence is doubted within mainstream medicine. Other forms of contest

  9. Diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Keizer, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new method of diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects is introduced in the paper. The method is an improvement on existing risk methods used on product-innovation projects, such as potential problem analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Technological, organizational and commercia

  10. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    of 100 subjects was assessed using the operational criteria OPCRIT checklist for psychotic and affective illness. The most recent principal and clinical ICD-10 diagnosis was compared with diagnoses generated by the OPCRIT instrument. Data documented very high sensitivity (93%) and positive predictive...

  11. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  12. Diagnosing and treating respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierkowski, Daria B

    2016-09-22

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of respiratory tract illness in children and can lead to significant infection and death. This article discusses the incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis, current treatment, and prevention options to successfully diagnose and treat infections caused by RSV. PMID:27552683

  13. Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis diagnosed during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Cid, P; Sendagorta Cudós, E; Noguera Morel, L; Beato Merino, M J

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare subtype of neurofibromatosis type 1 defined by lesions affecting a single segment of the body and crossing the midline, with no systemic involvement. We present a case diagnosed during pregnancy because of the characteristic increase in size of the lesions during this period. PMID:21635828

  14. Diagnosing Febrile Illness in a Returned Traveler

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-01

    This podcast will assist health care providers in diagnosing febrile illness in patients returning from a tropical or developing country.  Created: 3/1/2012 by National Center for Enteric, Zoonotic, and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/1/2012.

  15. Appendiceal endometriosis differentially diagnosed from acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gastón Astroza; Victor Faundes; René Nanjarí; Marcelo Fleiderman; Carlos Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis is a common disease in premenopausal women involving pelvic organs specially. However endometriosis that affects the appendix is rarely seen except appendiceal endometriosis that mimics acute appendicitis. In a patient with acute appendicitis we diagnosed and operated on, histopathological examination of the appendix revealed appendiceal endometriosis which caused symptoms.

  16. Medicinalindustrien har brug for diagnoser som ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Det er ikke første gang, at medicinalindustriens evne til at finde nye markeder har medført nye eller bredere diagnoser. I det forrige årti så vi et parallelt forløb mellem et boom i antallet af depressionsdiagnoser og forbruget af lykkepiller. Interview med sociolog Thomas Brante. Udgivelsesdato...

  17. Treatment with anti-C5aR mAb leads to early-onset clinical and mechanistic effects in the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Nansen, Anneline; Usher, Pernille A.;

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of the complement cascade at the C5a/C5a receptor (C5aR)-axis is believed to be an attractive treatment avenue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of such interventions during the early phases of arthritis remain to be clarified. In this study we use the murine delayed...... lymph node is also reduced following a single dose of anti-C5aR, suggesting that modulation of the C5a/C5aR axis results in effects on the T cell compartment in inflammatory arthritis. In summary, these data demonstrate that blockade of C5aR leads to rapid and significant effects on arthritic disease......-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model to study the very early effects of a blocking, non-depleting anti-C5aR mAb on joint inflammation with treatment synchronised with disease onset, an approach not previously described. The DTHA model is a single-paw inflammatory arthritis model characterised by synchronised...

  18. Two case reports indicating the dilemma in diagnosing lupus cerebritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dharitri; Chatterjee, Shuddhosatta; Ahmad, Bashar Imam; Das, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a connective-tissue disorder commonly affecting females of reproductive age group. Lupus Cerebritis is a serious neurological complication encountered in a good percentage of SLE cases. In this report, we discuss two Lupus Cerebritis patients, who were successfully diagnosed and treated. The first case, presented with generalized seizure, severe metabolic acidosis, and shock, with a history of fever of one-month duration. The second case manifested with an attack of generalized seizure after suffering from low-grade intermittent fever and joint pains for a duration of one-and-a-half months. Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement in SLE is caused by an inflammatory response of the autoimmune system, precipitated by an increased concentration of cytokines. Prompt identification of Lupus Cerebritis is extremely difficult, mainly because there is no single laboratory or radiological confirmatory test. Assessment of the clinical features and neurological signs, along with detection of antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid are necessary to arrive at a diagnosis. Lupus Cerebritis should be included in the provisional diagnosis of a female patient of reproductive age group, who presents with complicated neurological manifestations and with no clear-cut clinical, pathological, or image finding. PMID:24479062

  19. Thyroid antibody-negative euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshiya Tabasum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs are the pathological hallmark of Graves’ disease, present in nearly all patients with the disease. Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy (EGO is a well-recognized clinical entity, but its occurrence in patients with negative TRAbs is a potential source of diagnostic confusion. A 66-year-old female presented to our endocrinology clinic with right eye pain and diplopia in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. TRAbs were negative, as measured with a highly sensitive third-generation thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII ELISA assay. CT and MRI scans of the orbit showed asymmetrical thickening of the inferior rectus muscles but no other inflammatory or malignant orbital pathology. Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical and radiological features, and she underwent surgical recession of the inferior rectus muscle with complete resolution of the diplopia and orbital pain. She remained euthyroid over the course of follow-up but ultimately developed overt clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism, 24 months after the initial presentation. By this time, she had developed positive TRAb as well as thyroid peroxidase antibodies. She responded to treatment with thionamides and remains euthyroid. This case highlights the potential for negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies in the presentation of EGO and underscores the variable temporal relationship between the clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction and orbital disease in the natural evolution of Graves’ disease.

  20. 96例 Rh 血型抗体检测及分析%Detection and analysis on 96 cases of Rh blood group antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓蕾; 梅礼军; 刘锋; 张杰; 禹梅; 陈蕾

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the positive rate of specific distribution characteristics in Rh blood group antibody,analyze the clinical significance of Rh blood group antibody and rules.Methods The micro column gel anti globulin technique was used to screen and identify irregular red blood cell antibodies,for patients with Rh blood group antibody,monoclonal anti-D,anti-C,anti-c, anti-E,anti-e were used to identify Rh blood group antigen to confirm the accuracy of detection.The antibody titer,Ig-type and 37℃ reactive were used to determine its clinical significance.Through asking pregnancy history,history of blood transfusion,under-standing whether the same specificity of the antibody in maternal plasma if the patient was newborn,the causes of antibody were an-alyzed.Results In 109 000 patients,Rh blood group antibodies were detected in 96 cases,the positive rate was 0.088%,which has a history of pregnancy in 68 cases,5 cases had history of blood transfusion,both pregnancy history and history of blood transfusion in 6 cases,1 7 cases of neonatal maternally derived antibody.Antibody specificity:65 cases of anti-E(67.710%),12 cases of anti-cE (12.500%),8 cases of anti-D (8.330%),7 cases of anti-c(7.291%),2 cases of anti-C (2.083%),2 cases of anti-e(2.083%).96 cases of Rh blood group antibodies were IgG or IgG+IgM class,37 ℃ reaction could be with the corresponding antigen of red blood cell,antibody titer between 4-2 048.Conclusion Anti-D detection rate shows a trend of gradually decreasing.In Rh blood group antibody detection,anti-E and anti-cE account for an absolute majority.Alloimmune caused by pregnancies and blood transfusion is the main reason of Rh blood group antibody production from Rh blood group antibody.Neonatal maternal passive getisa Rh-HDN is the main pathogenic antibody.%目的:调查 Rh血型抗体的检出率及其特异性分布特点,分析 Rh血型抗体的临床意义及产生规律。方法采用微柱凝胶抗球蛋白技术筛查和鉴定红细

  1. The antibody Hijikata Tatsumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éden Peretta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considered one of the most influential modern dance representatives in Japan, Tatsumi Hijikata’s work was a milestone in the Japanese post-war experimental artistic scene. Heretic son of his time, he staged a fertile mix of artistic and cultural influences, overlapping subversive elements of European arts and philosophy with radical references from pre-modern Japanese culture. In this way he built the foundations of its unstable antibody, its political-artistic project of dissolution of a organism, both physical and social.

  2. Hospital-diagnosed dementia and suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Conwell, Yeates

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to examine the risk of suicide in persons diagnosed with dementia during a hospitalization and its relationship to mood disorders. DESIGN: Event-history analysis using time-varying covariates. SETTING: Population-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals...... aged 50+ living in Denmark (N=2,474,767) during January 1, 1990 through December 31, 2000. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome of interest is suicide. Relative risks are calculated based on person-days spent in each stratum. RESULTS: A total of 18,648,875 person-years were observed during the 11-year study period....... During this period, 136 persons who previously had been diagnosed with dementia died by suicide. Men and women aged 50-69 years with hospital presentations of dementia have a relative suicide risk of 8.5 (95% confidence interval: 6.3-11.3) and 10.8 (95% confidence interval: 7.4-15.7), respectively. Those...

  3. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saidi

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sera from children 1 - 6 years of age, representative of a large serum collection, were tested for the prevalence of antibodies against different viruses. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibodies were found in 68% for measles; 61 % for rubella; 75'% for influenza A2/Hong Kong/68, 16% for influenza B/Md./59, 0% for group A arboviruses, 10% for group B arboviruses, 3% for phlebotomus fever group and 4% for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (C-CHF group of arboviruses Poliomyelitis-neutralizing antibodies for type 1, 2 and 3 were 90%; 85% and 84%~ respectively. Antibody to EH virus was detected in 84% of the sera by immuno-fluorescence. None of the sera were positive for hepatitis-B antigen or antibody by immuno-precipitation test. The prevalence of some viral antibodies found in this survey are compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  4. Eosinophilic Pancreatitis Diagnosed With Endoscopic Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Kakodkar, Samir; Omar, Hina; Cabrera, Julio; Chi, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic pancreatitis (EP) is a rare clinical entity, and few cases have been reported. It usually presents on imaging as a pancreatic mass leading to common bile duct obstruction and jaundice. Since it can mimic a malignancy, eosinophilic pancreatitis is often diagnosed after “false positive” pancreatic resections. To our knowledge, we report the only known case of EP in which the diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration and core biopsy of the pancreas during EUS, sparing the patient...

  5. Innovative technologies in diagnosing acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Kate D; Campe, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    New guidelines for managing acute otitis media include stricter criteria for properly diagnosing the condition and ensuring an accurate diagnosis before clinicians make treatment decisions. This is key because of the increase in antibiotic-resistant pathogens. This article focuses on how clinicians can use ancillary techniques and technologies to improve diagnostic accuracy for acute otitis media. Techniques include proper cerumen removal, visualizing the tympanic membrane with the correct otoscope, pneumatic otoscopy, using a spectral gradient acoustic reflectometer, and tympanometry.

  6. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Luz; Bruno Machado Fontes; Bernardo Lopes; Isaac Ramos; Fernando Faria Correia; Paulo Schor; Renato Ambrósio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS) for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg)...

  7. Diagnosing dementia: do we get it right?

    OpenAIRE

    Homer, A. C.; Honavar, M; Lantos, P L; Hastie, I R; Kellett, J M; Millard, P H

    1988-01-01

    To find out whether the diagnosis of dementia agreed with findings at necropsy a detailed assessment of 27 elderly patients (mean age 82 (range 70-94] presenting with dementia was conducted at a combined department of geriatric medicine and psychiatry for the elderly. On the basis of the results the cause of the dementia was diagnosed clinically. Neuropathological examinations were performed after death. The clinical diagnosis made during life was not supported by the findings at necropsy in ...

  8. Measuring Money Mismanagement Among Dually Diagnosed Clients

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Ryan A.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Rosenheck, Robert A; Conrad, Kendon J.; Ball, Samuel A.; Rosen, Marc I.

    2008-01-01

    Clients dually diagnosed with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders may be adversely affected if they mismanage their Social Security or public support benefits. Assistance managing funds, including assignment of a representative payee, is available but there are no objective assessments of money mismanagement. In this study, a Structured Clinical Interview for Money Mismanagement was administered twice at one-week intervals to 46 clients receiving disability payments and was compared to ...

  9. Characterization of changes in serum anti-glycan antibodies in Crohn's disease--a longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rieder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anti-glycan antibodies are a promising tool for differential diagnosis and disease stratification of patients with Crohn's disease (CD. We longitudinally assessed level and status changes of anti-glycan antibodies over time in individual CD patients as well as determinants of this phenomenon. METHODS: 859 serum samples derived from a cohort of 253 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients (207 CD, 46 ulcerative colitis (UC were tested for the presence of anti-laminarin (Anti-L, anti-chitin (Anti-C, anti-chitobioside (ACCA, anti-laminaribioside (ALCA, anti-mannobioside (AMCA and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gASCA antibodies by ELISA. All patients had at least two and up to eleven serum samples taken during the disease course. RESULTS: Median follow-up time for CD was 17.4 months (Interquartile range (IQR 8.0, 31.6 months and for UC 10.9 months (IQR 4.9, 21.0 months. In a subgroup of CD subjects marked changes in the overall immune response (quartile sum score and levels of individual markers were observed over time. The marker status (positive versus negative remained widely stable. Neither clinical phenotype nor NOD2 genotype was associated with the observed fluctuations. In a longitudinal analysis neither changes in disease activity nor CD behavior led to alterations in the levels of the glycan markers. The ability of the panel to discriminate CD from UC or its association with CD phenotypes remained stable during follow-up. In the serum of UC patients neither significant level nor status changes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: While the levels of anti-glycan antibodies fluctuate in a subgroup of CD patients the antibody status is widely stable over time.

  10. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approv...

  11. Empowered Antibody Therapies - IBC conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Jens

    2010-10-01

    The Empowered Antibody Therapies conference, held in Burlingame, CA, USA, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of multispecific antibodies. This conference report highlights selected presentations on DVD-Igs from Abbott Laboratories, ImmTACs from Immunocore, 'Dock-and-Lock' technology from Immunomedics, the bispecific BiTE antibody blinatumomab from Micromet, and Triomabs from TRION Pharma and Fresenius Biotech. PMID:20878591

  12. Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references

  13. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Sebastiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA are predominantly IgG autoantibodies directed against constituents of primary granules of neutrophils and monocytes’ lysosomes. Although several antigenic targets have been identified, those ANCA directed to proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are clinically relevant, whereas the importance of other ANCA remains unknown. Both are strongly associated with small vessel vasculitides, the ANCA-associated vasculitides, which include Wegener’s granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome, and the localised forms of these diseases (eg, pauci-immune necrotising and crescentic glomerulonephritis. ANCA is a useful serological test to assist in diagnosis of small-vessel vasculitides. 85-95% of patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and pauci-immune necrotising and crescentic glomerulonephritis have serum ANCA. ANCA directed to either proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are clinically relevant, yet the relevance of other ANCA remains unknown. Besides their diagnostic potential, ANCA might be valuable in disease monitoring. In addition, data seem to confirm the long-disputed pathogenic role of these antibodies. There is increasing evidence that myeloperoxidase- ANCA are directly involved in the pathogenesis of necrotizing vasculitis. This is less clear for proteinase 3-ANCA, markers for Wegener’s granulomatosis. With respect to proteinase 3-ANCA, complementary proteinase 3, a peptide translated from the antisense DNA strand of proteinase 3 and homologous to several microbial peptides, may be involved in induction of proteinase 3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies.

  14. Diagnostic potential of monoclonal antibodies against the capsid protein of chikungunya virus for detection of recent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, R G; Jayaram, N; Kulkarni, S M; Nigade, K; Khutwad, K; Gosavi, S; Parashar, D

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is self-limiting. However, neurological and hemorrhagic complications have been seen in recent outbreaks. The clinical manifestations of this disease are similar to those of dengue virus infection, indicating the need for differential diagnosis in areas such as India, which are endemic for both viruses. The aim of the present study was to develop monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and assess their use in MAb-based IgM capture ELISA (MAC ELISA). The ELISA detects CHIKV-specific IgM antibodies, a marker of recent infection, in a patient's serum. One IgG1 and two IgM isotype hybrids were obtained. All of the subclones derived from the IgG1 hybrid recognized the C protein of CHIKV. The anti-C MAb ClVE4/D9 was the most promising as a detector antibody in MAC ELISA (C-MAb ELISA) yielding higher positive-to-negative (P/N) ratios. When compared with the CHIKV MAC ELISA kit developed by the National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune (NIV MAC ELISA), the sensitivity of the test was 87.01 % with 100 % specificity. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 100 % and 94.47 %, respectively. In precision testing, standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (% CV) values of the C-MAb ELISA were within acceptable limits. The C-MAb ELISA detected anti-CHIKV IgM in serum of patients up to five months after the onset of infection, indicating that anti-C MAbs have strong potential for use in MAC ELISA to detect recent CHIKV infection. PMID:27016930

  15. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized children diagnosed at acute stage by paired sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ling; WEI Ming; LIU Zhen-ye; WANG Gui-qiang; ZHANG Bo; XU Hua; HU Liang-ping; HE Xiao-feng; WANG Jun-hua; ZHANG Jun-hong; LIU Xiao-yu

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a frequent cause of respiratory tract infections. However,there is deficient knowledge about the clinical manifestations of M. pneumoniae infection. We described the clinical and laboratory findings of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized children who were all diagnosed by a ≥ fourfold increase in antibody titer.Methods M. pneumoniae antibodies were routinely detected in children admitted with acute respiratory infection during a one-year period. The medical history was re-collected from children whose M. pneumoniae antibody titer increased≥fourfold at the bedside by a single person, and their frozen paired serum samples were measured again for the M.pneumoniae antibody titer.Results Of the 635 children whose sera were detected for the M. pneumoniae antibody, paired sera were obtained from 82 and 29.3% (24/82) showed a ≥ fourfold increase in antibody titer. There were 24 cases, nine boys and 15 girls, aged from two to 14 years, whose second serum samples were taken on day 9 at the earliest after symptom onset; the shortest interval was three days. All children presented with a high fever (≥38.5℃) and coughing. Twenty-one had no nasal obstruction or a runny nose, and five had mild headaches which all were associated with the high fever. The disease was comparatively severe if the peak temperature was >39.5℃. All were diagnosed as having pneumonia through chest X-rays. Four had bilateral or multilobar involvement and their peak temperatures were all ≤ 39.5℃. None of the children had difficulty in breathing and all showed no signs of wheezing.Conclusions The second serum sample could be taken on day 9 at the earliest after symptom onset meant that paired sera could be used for the clinical diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children at the acute stage. M. pneumoniae is a lower respiratory tract pathogen. Extrapulmonary complications were rare and minor in our study. High peak temperature (

  16. How I diagnose and manage HIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Theodore E

    2011-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic drug reaction caused by platelet-activating IgG antibodies that recognize platelet factor 4 (PF4)/polyanion complexes. Platelet activation assays, such as the serotonin-release assay, are superior to PF4-dependent immunoassays in discerning which heparin-induced antibodies are clinically relevant. When HIT is strongly suspected, standard practice includes substituting heparin with an alternative anticoagulant; the 2 US-approved agents are the direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) lepirudin and argatroban, which are "niche" agents used only to manage HIT. However, only ~ 10% of patients who undergo serological investigation for HIT actually have this diagnosis. Indeed, depending on the clinical setting, only 10%-50% of patients with positive PF4-dependent immunoassays have platelet-activating antibodies. Therefore, overdiagnosis of HIT can be minimized by insisting that a positive platelet activation assay be required for definitive diagnosis of HIT. For these reasons, a management strategy that considers the real possibility of non-HIT thrombocytopenia is warranted. One approach that I suggest is to administer an indirect, antithrombin (AT)-dependent factor Xa inhibitor (danaparoid or fondaparinux) based upon the following rationale: (1) effectiveness in treating and preventing HIT-associated thrombosis; (2) effectiveness in treating and preventing thrombosis in diverse non-HIT situations; (3) both prophylactic- and therapeutic-dose protocols exist, permitting dosing appropriate for the clinical situation; (4) body weight-adjusted dosing protocols and availability of specific anti-factor Xa monitoring reduce risk of under- or overdosing (as can occur with partial thromboplastin time [PTT]-adjusted DTI therapy); (5) their long half-lives reduce risk of rebound hypercoagulability; (6) easy coumarin overlap; and (7) relatively low cost. PMID:22160026

  17. Diagnostic test accuracy of anti-glycopeptidolipid-core IgA antibodies for Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Shibata; Nobuyuki Horita; Masaki Yamamoto; Toshinori Tsukahara; Hideyuki Nagakura; Ken Tashiro; Hiroki Watanabe; Kenjiro Nagai; Kentaro Nakashima; Ryota Ushio; Misako Ikeda; Atsuya Narita; Akinori Kanai; Takashi Sato; Takeshi Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Currently, an anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody assay kit for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is commercially available. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to reveal the precise diagnostic accuracy of anti-GPL-core IgA antibodies for MAC pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). We systematically searched reports that could provide data for both sensitivity and specificity by anti-GPL-core IgA antibody for clinically diagnosed MAC-PD. Diagnostic test accuracy wa...

  18. Rational design and validation of an anti-protein kinase C active-state specific antibody based on conformational changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Andrade, Victor Piana de; Silva, Gabriela Ávila Fernandes; Neves, José Ivanildo; Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes de; Alves, Maria Julia Manso; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Schechtman, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a regulatory role in key pathways in cancer. However, since phosphorylation is a step for classical PKC (cPKC) maturation and does not correlate with activation, there is a lack of tools to detect active PKC in tissue samples. Here, a structure-based rational approach was used to select a peptide to generate an antibody that distinguishes active from inactive cPKC. A peptide conserved in all cPKCs, C2Cat, was chosen since modeling studies based on a crystal structure of PKCβ showed that it is localized at the interface between the C2 and catalytic domains of cPKCs in an inactive kinase. Anti-C2Cat recognizes active cPKCs at least two-fold better than inactive kinase in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays, and detects the temporal dynamics of cPKC activation upon receptor or phorbol stimulation. Furthermore, the antibody is able to detect active PKC in human tissue. Higher levels of active cPKC were observed in the more aggressive triple negative breast cancer tumors as compared to the less aggressive estrogen receptor positive tumors. Thus, this antibody represents a reliable, hitherto unavailable and a valuable tool to study PKC activation in cells and tissues. Similar structure-based rational design strategies can be broadly applied to obtain active-state specific antibodies for other signal transduction molecules. PMID:26911897

  19. Rational design and validation of an anti-protein kinase C active-state specific antibody based on conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Andrade, Victor Piana de; Silva, Gabriela Ávila Fernandes; Neves, José Ivanildo; Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes de; Alves, Maria Julia Manso; Devi, Lakshmi A; Schechtman, Deborah

    2016-02-25

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a regulatory role in key pathways in cancer. However, since phosphorylation is a step for classical PKC (cPKC) maturation and does not correlate with activation, there is a lack of tools to detect active PKC in tissue samples. Here, a structure-based rational approach was used to select a peptide to generate an antibody that distinguishes active from inactive cPKC. A peptide conserved in all cPKCs, C2Cat, was chosen since modeling studies based on a crystal structure of PKCβ showed that it is localized at the interface between the C2 and catalytic domains of cPKCs in an inactive kinase. Anti-C2Cat recognizes active cPKCs at least two-fold better than inactive kinase in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays, and detects the temporal dynamics of cPKC activation upon receptor or phorbol stimulation. Furthermore, the antibody is able to detect active PKC in human tissue. Higher levels of active cPKC were observed in the more aggressive triple negative breast cancer tumors as compared to the less aggressive estrogen receptor positive tumors. Thus, this antibody represents a reliable, hitherto unavailable and a valuable tool to study PKC activation in cells and tissues. Similar structure-based rational design strategies can be broadly applied to obtain active-state specific antibodies for other signal transduction molecules.

  20. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  1. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Missailidis, Sotiris

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  2. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptide...

  3. Pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J. E.; de Groot, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy in association with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. The pathogenic mechanisms in APS that lead to in vivo injury are incompletely understood. Recent evidence suggests that AP

  4. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  5. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Aix Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille (France); Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Chabrol, Brigitte [AP-HM Timone, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  6. Psychotherapy Techniques for Patients Diagnosed with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotterman, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes how standard psychotherapy techniques need to be modified to suit the specialized needs of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Patients with psychosis often have lost their ability to use words to describe their inner states. As a result, traditional forms of psychotherapy which depend so crucially on the use of language are compromised. The goal of treatment at the start is to help the patient recover his ability to use language to describe his inner life. Eventually, this enables the patient to make use of more traditional forms of psychodynamic treatment. PMID:27052606

  7. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample of ...... was seen between OPCRIT-derived ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses (kappa=0.87). Thus, this study demonstrates high reliability of the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia and even more so of the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....

  8. Diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects

    OpenAIRE

    Halman, JIM Joop; Keizer, JA Jimme

    1994-01-01

    A new method of diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects is introduced in the paper. The method is an improvement on existing risk methods used on product-innovation projects, such as potential problem analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Technological, organizational and commercial risks are identified and assessed on an individual basis. These risks are mapped in a risk topography which is used as an input for the drawing up of a risk-management plan. The method has been d...

  9. Benign intracranial hypertension diagnosed with bilateral papilloedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Phillips

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case of benign intracranial hypertension (BIH diagnosed from the presence of papilloedema. This potentially sight-threatening condition particularly affects younger obese females and can be idiopathic, caused by adverse reaction to certain prescription medications or by systemic disease. Prompt treatment is essentialto avoid optic atrophy and low energy diet and exercise forms part of long-term treatment to avoid relapse. Optometrists can play a critical primary health care role in the detection of papilloedema and referring appropriately.

  10. Modern immunological approaches to assess malaria transmission and immunity and to diagnose plasmodial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Daniel-Ribeiro

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews our recent data concerning the use of immunological methods employing monoclonal antibodies and synthetic peptides to study malaria transmission and immunity and to diagnose plasmodial infection. As concerns malaria transmission, we studied the main vectors of human malaria and the plasmodial species transmitted in endemic areas of Rondônia state, Brazil. The natural infection on anopheline was evaluated by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA using monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant sporozoite surface antigen (CS protein demonstrated to be species specific. Our results showed that among six species of Anopheles found infected, An. darlingi was the main vector transmitting Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in the immediate vicinity of houses. In order to assess the level of anti-CS antibodies we studied, by IRMA using the synthetic peptide corresponding to the repetitive epitope of the sporozoite CS protein, sera of individuals living in the same areas where the entomological survey has been performed. In this assay the prevalence of anti-CS antibodies was very low and did not reflect the malaria transmission rate in the studied areas. In relation to malaria diagnosis, a monoclonal antibody specific to an epitope of a 50 kDa exoantigen, the major component of supernatant collected at the time of schizont rupture, was used as a probe for the detection of P. falciparum antigens. This assay seemed to be more sensitive than parasitological examination for malaria diagnosis since it was able to detect plasmodial antigens in both symptomatic and asymtomatic individuals with negative thick blood smear at different intervals after a last parasitologically confirmed confirmed attack of malaria.

  11. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed. PMID:20930555

  12. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed.

  13. Diagnosing sepsis - The role of laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shu-Ling; Miller, Nancy S; Lee, John; Remick, Daniel G

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is the host response to microbial pathogens resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. An accurate and timely diagnosis of sepsis allows prompt and appropriate treatment. This review discusses laboratory testing for sepsis because differentiating systemic inflammation from infection is challenging. Procalcitonin (PCT) is currently an FDA approved test to aid in the diagnosis of sepsis but with questionable efficacy. However, studies support the use of PCT for antibiotic de-escalation. Serial lactate measurements have been recommended for monitoring treatment efficacy as part of sepsis bundles. The 2016 sepsis consensus definitions include lactate concentrations >2mmol/L (>18mg/dL) as part of the definition of septic shock. Also included in the 2016 definitions are measuring bilirubin and creatinine to determine progression of organ failure indicating worse prognosis. Hematologic parameters, including a simple white blood cell count and differential, are frequently part of the initial sepsis diagnostic protocols. Several new biomarkers have been proposed to diagnose sepsis or to predict mortality, but they currently lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be considered as stand-alone testing. If sepsis is suspected, new technologies and microbiologic assays allow rapid and specific identification of pathogens. In 2016 there is no single laboratory test that accurately diagnoses sepsis. PMID:27387712

  14. Development of Antibody-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles for Biomarker Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Chapa Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have great potential in biomedical applications because of their magnetic response offers the possibility to direct them to specific areas and target biological entities. Magnetic separation of biomolecules is one of the most important applications of MNPs because their versatility in detecting cancer biomarkers. However, the effectiveness of this method depends on many factors, including the type of functionalization onto MNPs. Therefore, in this study, magnetite nanoparticles have been developed in order to separate the 5′-nucleotidase enzyme (5eNT. The 5eNT is used as a bio-indicator for diagnosing diseases such as hepatic ischaemia, liver tumor, and hepatotoxic drugs damage. Magnetic nanoparticles were covered in a core/shell type with silica, aminosilane, and a double shell of silica-aminosilane. A ScFv (fragment antibody and anti-CD73 antibody were attached to the coated nanoparticles in order to separate the enzyme. The magnetic separation of this enzyme with fragment antibody was found to be 28% higher than anti-CD73 antibody and the enzyme adsorption was improved with the double shell due to the increased length of the polymeric chain. Magnetite nanoparticles with a double shell (silica-aminosilane were also found to be more sensitive than magnetite with a single shell in the detection of biomarkers.

  15. Anti-natrium/iodide symporter antibodies and other anti-thyroid antibodies in children with Turner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Anna M; Czarnocka, Barbara; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies against the Na/I symporter (anti-NIS ab) have been found in adult patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. As easily available for the immune system, NIS can play a role in the initial stage of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Children with Turner's syndrome (TS) being at high risk of autoimmune thyroid disease development seem a valuable group for the investigation of the early autoimmune process. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of anti-NIS ab and its potential clinical significance in TS children. Fifty four girls with TS were examined (age 11.9 ± 2.46 years), and 23 healthy girls with normal thyroid function, free of autoimmune diseases. Anti-NIS antibodies were measured by the in-house ELISA method and the Western blotting. Sera considered positive for anti-NIS ab were used for the iodide uptake bioassay using COS7 cells stably transfected with hNIS. In all patients the thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies presence and thyroid ultrasonography were evaluated. In 20% of the patients a subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed and 70.4% had antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO - 64.8% and Anti-Tg - 24%). Anti-NISab were present in 14.8% girls with TS and in none of the control group. Their presence was unrelated to other antithyroid antibodies titre or patients' age. A positive correlation between the anti-NIS ab presence and the hypothyroidism was found (p < 0.04). Anti-NIS ab-positive sera did not suppress iodine uptake. In conclusion, anti-NIS antibodies were present in 14.8% of children with TS and they were related to the presence of hypothyroidism. PMID:22836628

  16. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Spina Bifida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Publications How do health care providers diagnose spina bifida? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Doctors diagnose spina bifida before or after the infant is born. Spina ...

  17. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Turner Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Publications How do health care providers diagnose Turner syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... the X chromosomes is partially or completely missing. Turner syndrome also can be diagnosed during pregnancy by testing ...

  18. Diagnosing Sleep Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Diagnosing Sleep Disorders Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... tests when trying to diagnose a sleep disorder: Sleep history and sleep log If you believe you ...

  19. Time trend in diagnosing dementia in secondary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Kessing, Lars Vedel;

    2010-01-01

    To study the trend of diagnosing dementia in the secondary health care sector over time, we conducted a nationwide longitudinal study of the incidence and prevalence of registered dementia diagnoses in the Danish national hospital registers.......To study the trend of diagnosing dementia in the secondary health care sector over time, we conducted a nationwide longitudinal study of the incidence and prevalence of registered dementia diagnoses in the Danish national hospital registers....

  20. An Approach to Differential Diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Emmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a systemic, acquired, immune-mediated disorder characterized by episodes of venous, arterial, or microcirculation thrombosis and/or pregnancy abnormalities, associated with the persistent presence of autoantibodies, confirmed at least in two occasions 12 weeks apart, directed to molecular complexes consisting of phospholipids and proteins. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome should always be considered as a potential diagnosis especially for young patients presenting with a history of thrombotic events, in particular when they occur without any obvious external trigger or any inherited thrombophilic mutation (even if 2006 criteria do not exclude antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in patients with other inherited or acquired prothrombotic conditions, or for women with recurrent pregnancy losses or later fetal deaths. Many other disorders are able to mimic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, so a broad range of alternative diagnoses should be investigated and ruled out during clinical workup.

  1. High Grade Glioma Mimicking Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Complex Associated Antibody Limbic Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilan Athauda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE. This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  2. High grade glioma mimicking voltage gated potassium channel complex associated antibody limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athauda, Dilan; Delamont, R S; Pablo-Fernandez, E De

    2014-01-01

    Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE). This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  3. The schistosoma-specific antibody response after treatment in non-immune travellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Liv Marie; Christensen, Anders Vittrup; Navntoft, Dorte;

    2009-01-01

    ) and Membrane Bound Antigen (MBA) assays in assessment of treatment efficacy and number of treated non-immune individuals with signs of treatment failure. In a retrospective study, residents in Denmark diagnosed with positive Schistosoma antibodies in the period 1987 - 2004 were offered follow-up including...... analyses for GAA, MBA, IgE and eosinophil count. Among 98 patients with positive antibody at time of diagnosis, 73 were examined for eggs and 27% had detectable eggs. 15% still had detectable living eggs after 1 course of treatment. At follow-up it was demonstrated that antibodies continued to increase...... for up to 6 months after treatment and average duration of positive GAA antibody was approximately 10 y. The study confirms that the GAA- and MBA-IFAT are not suitable in monitoring results of therapy. Treatment failure in 15% of non-immune patients indicates that studies are needed to define the correct...

  4. Queer diagnoses revisited: The past and future of homosexuality and gender diagnoses in DSM and ICD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) recently completed a several year process of revising the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). During that time, there were objections raised to retaining DSM's gender identity disorder diagnoses and calls to remove them, just as homosexuality had been removed from DSM-II in 1973. At the conclusion of the DSM-5 revision process, the gender diagnoses were retained, albeit in altered form and bearing the new name of 'gender dysphoria'. The author of this paper was a member of the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and presently serves on the WHO Working Group on Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. Both groups faced similar tasks: reconciling patients' needs for access to care with the stigma of being given a psychiatric diagnosis. The differing nature of the two diagnostic manuals led to two different outcomes. As background, this paper updates the history of homosexuality and the gender diagnoses in the DSM and in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) as well as what is expected to happen to the homosexuality and gender diagnoses following the current ICD-11 revision process.

  5. Queer diagnoses revisited: The past and future of homosexuality and gender diagnoses in DSM and ICD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) recently completed a several year process of revising the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). During that time, there were objections raised to retaining DSM's gender identity disorder diagnoses and calls to remove them, just as homosexuality had been removed from DSM-II in 1973. At the conclusion of the DSM-5 revision process, the gender diagnoses were retained, albeit in altered form and bearing the new name of 'gender dysphoria'. The author of this paper was a member of the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and presently serves on the WHO Working Group on Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. Both groups faced similar tasks: reconciling patients' needs for access to care with the stigma of being given a psychiatric diagnosis. The differing nature of the two diagnostic manuals led to two different outcomes. As background, this paper updates the history of homosexuality and the gender diagnoses in the DSM and in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) as well as what is expected to happen to the homosexuality and gender diagnoses following the current ICD-11 revision process. PMID:26242413

  6. Editorial: Testing and Diagnosing Social Science Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Weber

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A year ago the Journal of Social Science Education 4/2010 invites to debate the foundation of social science literacy. What are the competences, and ‘what are’ the contents, and individual needs to understand the relations, systems and orders of society, economy and politics? What helps to make autonomously found decisions and responsible judgements in individual and social life? What kind of abilities are needed for autonomous action within ones own life in order to participate within the given frames of society, economy and politics, in shaping them or in creating new rules. Search and discussion of the relevant concepts and competences in the domain of social science education are going on. Nevertheless the research on testing and diagnosing social science literacy is carried as well – despite the absence of a consensus on content.

  7. Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Everett, Matthew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Otis, Linda L.; Nathel, Howard

    1997-05-01

    We have, in this preliminary study, investigated the use of optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of periodontal disease. We took in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues from a young pig and compared them to histological sections. These images distinguish tooth and soft tissue relationships that are important in diagnosing and assessing periodontal disease. We have imaged the attachment of gingiva to the tooth surface and located the cemento-enamel junction. This junction is an important reference point for defining attachment level in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. the boundary between enamel and dentin is also visible for most of the length of the anatomical crown, allowing quantitation of enamel thickness and character.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux diagnosed by occlusal splint tintion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián-Carretero, José Luis; López-Arcas-Calleja, José María

    2006-01-01

    The gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is a very frequent digestive disorder, mainly characterised by the reflux of the gastric acidic content to the esophage in abnormal quantities. There are different situations that favour this situation but almost in all of them rely an incompetence of the esophagic sphincter. The clinical consequences are many, including oral manifestations. Among all of them the most frequent is the esophagitis followed by symptoms at the pharynx or larynx and finally, the oral cavity. At this level fundamentally we will find enamel and oral mucosa erosions. We report the case of a patient who was indirectly diagnosed of her esophague disease by the observation of the alterations in the occlusal splint induced by the gastric reflux. We review the literature concerning the above topic and its possible association with the miofascial syndrome.

  9. Clinically and electrophysiologically diagnosed botulinum intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotan, Dilcan; Aygul, Recep; Ceylan, Mustafa; Yilikoglu, Yalcin

    2013-01-03

    In this case report, clinical and electrophysiological findings of 43-year-old female patient who developed Clostridium botulinum intoxication after consumption of home-made canned food are presented. Following the sudden onset of severe nausea and vomiting, diplopia, blurred vision, bilateral ptosis, weakness, speech and swallowing difficulties have developed and the patient declared that she has just tasted the canned beans after she had rinsed them several times. The case, where serological tests cannot be performed, was diagnosed clinically and treated with antitoxin immediately. During follow-up, consecutive nerve stimulation was performed and significant incremental response was observed. There was an improvement in symptoms within 2 weeks, and in 5 or 6 weeks the symptoms had disappeared completely. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed that the findings turned to normal. The case showed that immediate antitoxin treatment is life-saving even the diagnosis of botulinum intoxication is based on clinical findings.

  10. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis.

  11. Ultrasonic findings in diagnosing renal colic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Jin; Kim, Mee Hyun; Lee, Young Joong; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    To determine diagnostic values of ultrasonography in evaluation of renal colic, ultrasonographic study of 35 patients in whom renal colic was clinically suspected was undertaken. The sonographic criterion for a positive finding consisted of visualization of urinary tract calculus with posterior acoustic shadowing, with or without ureterectasis. Renal colic was correctly diagnosed by ultrasonography in 28 patients of 33 patients with proven ureteric stone, for an accuracy of 85%. Of the 33 patients with proven ureteric stone, there were 3 cases with ureteropelvic junction stone, 4 cases with abdominal ureter stone, 4 cases with iliac ureter stone, 4 cases with pelvic ureter stone and 18 cases with ureterovesical junction stone. The results show that ultrasonography in an effective initial screening test when renal colic is clinically suspected.

  12. Nichtinvasive Diagnose der Leberfibrose bei chronischen Hepatopathien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stauber R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Beurteilung der Leberfibrose ist bedeutsam für die Prognose, Therapieindikation und Verlaufskontrolle bei chronisch-progredienten Hepatopathien. Referenztest (Goldstandard ist derzeit die histologische Beurteilung von Leberbiopsaten. Da die Leberbiopsie jedoch ein gewisses Risiko birgt, sind zuverlässige nicht-invasive Fibrosetests sehr wünschenswert. Der vorliegende Artikel soll eine Übersicht über die wichtigsten nicht-invasiven Fibrosetests und deren diagnostische Aussagekraft hinsichtlich signifikanter Fibrose bzw. Zirrhose bei verschiedenen Lebererkrankungen bieten. Die meisten Studien wurden bei chronischer Hepatitis C durchgeführt, aber auch bei nicht-alkoholischer Fettlebererkrankung gewinnt diese Fragestellung an Bedeutung. Anhand der vorliegenden Daten ist die Aussagekraft einfacher (auf Routinelaborwerten basierender Fibrosetests hinsichtlich signifikanter Fibrose offenbar ähnlich wie diejenige der komplexeren Biomarker. Die Ultraschall-Elastographie (Fibroscan ™ erscheint jedoch als überlegene Methode zur Diagnose von Zirrhose bzw. eventuell auch von klinisch-signifikanter portaler Hypertonie.

  13. A case of thoracogastropagus diagnosed before delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Tomobe, K; Yaoi, Y

    1998-01-01

    The subject was a 29-year-old pregnant woman whose fetuses were a conjoined twin. We diagnosed the fetuses as a conjoined twin by ultrasonography at the 12th week of gestation. The patient and her family wanted living infants and hoped that they were separated surgically. We consulted with the doctors of pediatric surgery and cardiovascular surgery departments. At the 18th week of gestation, the fetuses died in utero and they were delivered transvaginally by labor induction. Both infants were female with 430 g in total body weight and both of them were 21 cm in length. Pathological findings were thoracogastro-pagus with a single heart, a single pair of liver and a single small intestine. PMID:9704294

  14. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  15. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis. PMID:26713828

  16. Excess mortality in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity, an association with increased mortality is still debated. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism influences mortality. Methods: In an observational cohort study from...... January 1, 1978 until December 31, 2008 using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers, 3587 singletons and 682 twins diagnosed with hypothyroidism were identified. Hypothyroid individuals were matched 1:4 with nonhypothyroid controls with respect to age and gender and followed over...... a mean period of 5.6 years (range 0-30 years). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Comorbidity was evaluated using the Charlson score (CS). Results: In singletons with hypothyroidism, the mortality risk was increased (HR 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  17. Comparison of radiological measures for diagnosing flatfoot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Huan-Chu (Department of Radiology, Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Diagnostic Radiology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)), Email: huanchu_lo@126.com; Chu, Wencheng; Wu, Weikai; Hsieh, Hsin; Chou, Chiehping; Sun, Shaoen; Chou, Pinya; Liao, Chenhui; Guan, Xiaoyun; Li, Shuchee (Department of Radiology, Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China))

    2012-03-15

    Background. In the Taiwanese military, flatfoot is indicated by a calcaneal-fifth metatarsal angle (arch angle) =165 deg . However, the arch angle is not always easily defined. Purpose. To assess correlations between the arch angle and other radiographic measures and thus identify an alternative radiographic measure for diagnosing flatfoot. Material and Methods Eighty-seven male Taiwanese military recruits were studied (median age 22 years, interquartile range 20-23 years). Lateral, weight-bearing radiographs were taken. Five radiographic measurements, including the calcaneal-fifth metatarsal angle (arch angle), medial arch angle (MAA), calcaneal pitch angle (CP), talus angle (TA), and talar-first metatarsal angle (TFM) were made. Correlations between the arch angle and all other measures were determined. A cut-off value for predicting flatfoot (arch angle >=165 deg ) was determined for each measure using the Youden index and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for each measure to assess diagnostic accuracy. Results. All measures were significantly correlated with arch angle (P < 0.05); however, the strongest correlation was for CP (rho = -0.905, P < 0.001). CP was associated with the highest area under the ROC (0.988 vs. 0.711-0.912 for the other measures). Further, CP (cut-off <12.3 deg ) had the highest sensitivity (92.0%), positive predictive value (76.7%), and negative predictive value (96.5%). TFM (>9.5 deg ) had the highest specificity (90.3% vs. 88.75 for CP <12.3 deg ). Conclusion. CP is inversely correlated with arch angle in Taiwanese male military recruits. CP < 12.3 deg is a significant predictor of flatfoot. Assessment of CP may be used as an alternative means of diagnosing flatfoot when the arch angle is not easily defined

  18. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: Under-diagnosed syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is an idiopathic, hereditary form of epilepsy. Although juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a well defined clinical syndrome, attempts at diagnosing it commonly fail. Etiopathogenesis. The exact cause of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy remains unknown. Clinical, morphological and metabolic data suggest a preferential role for frontal regions in this syndrome. Several major genes for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have been identified, but these genes account for only a small proportions of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy cases, suggesting multifactorial or complex inheritance in most. Clinical Manifestations. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is characterized by the triad of myoclonic jerks on awakening (all patients, generalized tonic-clonic seizures (>90% of patients and typical absences (about one third of patients. Seizures have an age-related onset, circadian distribution and are frequently precipitated by sleep deprivation, fatigue and alcohol intake. Intelligence is normal. Diagnosis. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy diagnosis is based upon clinical criteria and typical electroencephalographic findings (generalized pattern of spikes and/or polyspikes and waves. All other tests are normal. Treatment and Prognosis. Both medical treatment and counselling are important in the management of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Mono-therapy with valproate is the preferred treatment. Some of the newer antiepileptic drugs have been suggested as possible alternatives. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has a good prognosis. Lifelong treatment is usually considered necessary in vast majority of patients due to the increased risk of relapse if treatment is discontinued. Conclusion. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a common, although under-diagnosed epileptic syndrome. The clinician should study the occurrence of myoclonic jerks and should consider atypical presentations.

  19. Causes and outcome of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadzadeh Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S. Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or non-obstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm, moderate (10-14.9 mm and severe (> 15 mm hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO. Twenty two cases (32.8% had mild, 20 (29.9% had moderate, and 25 (37.3% had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydroneph-rosis were VUR (40.2%, UPJO (32.8%, posterior urethral valves (PUVs (13.4 %, and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %. The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2% infants. Totally, 33 (49.2% patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe subsequently developed com-plications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4% patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydro-nephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Diagnosing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadinnapola C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Charaka Hadinnapola, Deepa Gopalan, David P Jenkins Papworth Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridge, United Kingdom Abstract: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a rare and relatively poorly understood disease. It remains underdiagnosed and is often not recognized in primary and secondary care, as its symptoms are nonspecific and there are few clinical signs until late in the disease process. However, pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA offers a potential cure for patients with this type of pulmonary hypertension; therefore, it is important that they are identified and diagnosed in a timely manner. PEA is associated with a 2.2%–5% risk of significant morbidity and mortality, even in experienced PEA centers. Therefore, once chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is diagnosed, further assessment of operability and patient selection is crucial. Assessment of operability involves determining the distribution and burden of chronic thromboembolic disease, assessing pulmonary hemodynamics, and assessing the functional impairment of the patient. Ventilation perfusion scintigraphy is of value in screening for the presence of chronic thromboembolic disease. However, computer tomography pulmonary angiography and magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography are now increasingly used to image the vascular occlusions directly. This allows assessment of the surgically accessible disease burden. Some centers still advocate conventional selective pulmonary angiography for the latter. Right-heart catheterization remains the gold standard for assessing pulmonary hemodynamics. Higher pulmonary vascular resistances are associated with poorer outcomes as well as increased risks at the time of surgery. This is in part because of the presence of more distal chronic thromboembolic material and distal pulmonary artery remodeling. However, in experienced centers, these patients are being operated on safely and with good

  1. Potentiation of NK cytotoxicity by antibody-C3b/iC3b heteroconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefenof, E; Benizri, R; Reiter, Y; Klein, E; Fishelson, Z

    1990-02-15

    The interaction of two Burkitt lymphoma lines, Raji and Rael, with human C and NK cells was analyzed. Raji cells activate the alternative C pathway (ACP) and then bind C3 fragments. Consequently, the cells become more sensitive to lysis by CR3-bearing NK cells but not to C lysis. In contrast, Rael cells are poor ACP activators, do not bind C3 fragments, and are therefore resistant to C-dependent NK lysis. As suggested earlier, the difference between Raji and Rael could be attributed to the presence or absence of CR2, respectively, on their surface. To potentiate C- and NK-dependent lysis of target cells, we generated heteroconjugates composed of a murine antitransferrin receptor mAb and of human C C3b or iC3b. Antibody-C3b conjugates induced C3 deposition on Rael cells and elevated C3 deposition on Raji cells in human serum. Both Raji and Rael cells coated with antibody-C3b conjugates were efficiently lyzed by the cytolytic ACP in human serum. This conjugate had a small enhancing effect on target cell lysis by NK cells which could be markedly increased by combined treatment of the target cell with antibody-C3b conjugate and C5-depleted human serum. On the other hand, antibody-iC3b conjugates efficiently potentiated lysis of target cells by NK cells in the absence of serum. The iC3b-directed cytotoxicity was mediated by CR3-bearing NK effector cells. Anti-C3 but not anti-mouse Ig antibodies abrogated the activity of the antibody-iC3b conjugate. These results further demonstrate that NK cytotoxicity may be potentiated by opsonizing the target cells with C3 fragments and suggest that antibody-C3b/iC3b conjugates could be potent tools for targeting and potentiation of the lytic action of both C and NK cells against tumor cells. PMID:2303717

  2. Is raised helicobacter pylori antibody titre enough to decide retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should

  3. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in the context of positive anticardiolipin antibodies and clinically undiagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, M K; Mya, T

    2011-11-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an extremely uncommon condition that can lead to fatal acute myocardial infarction. There have been very few case reports of SCAD in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and even fewer in association with antiphospholipid antibodies - mainly postpartum. This is the first reported case of SCAD in a patient who was confirmed to have SLE and tested positive for anticardiolipin antibody and lupus anticoagulant. This case demonstrates the importance of carefully considering the differential diagnoses of SCAD at presentation. It also highlights the need for further research to explore the link between SLE, antiphospholipid antibodies and SCAD.

  4. The antineutrophil antibody in uveitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D W

    1991-01-01

    Ninety eight patients with uveitis of various types were tested for the presence of the antineutrophil antibody or ANCA by an indirect immunofluorescence method. This antibody is found in patients with diseases associated with small vessel vasculitis, including Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyarteritis. Eleven true positive cases were found. A positive test was not associated with the anatomical site of the uveitis but was related to the time course of the disease. In particular ...

  5. Functional effects of anticardiolipin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E N; Pierangeli, S S

    1996-10-01

    The 'lupus anticoagulant' phenomenon is the best documented functional effect of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies, occurring either by inhibition of the prothrombinase and/or Factor X activation reactions. Understanding the mechanism by which aPL antibodies inhibit phospholipid dependent coagulation reactions may yield important clues about their 'thrombogenic effects' in vivo. We conducted a series of studies to determine the specificity, diversity, and mechanism by which aPL antibodies inhibit phospholipid dependent reactions. Results showed that purified immunoglobulins with lupus anticoagulant and anti-cardiolipin activities were absorbed by negatively charged phospholipids and both activities were recovered from the phospholipid-antibody precipitate. Purified aPL antibodies inhibited the prothrombinase reaction in a plasma free system in which beta 2-glycoprotein 1 (beta 2-GP1) was absent. Affinity purified aPL antibodies had 25-50 times the inhibitory activity of immunoglobulin preparations. The phospholipid binding proteins, beta 2-GPI and placental anticoagulant protein I (PAP I), independently inhibited the prothrombinase reaction, and when these proteins were combined with aPL, inhibition of the prothrombinase reaction was additive. Antibodies of syphilis had no inhibitory effect, partially accounted for by lack of specificity for phosphotidylserine (PS). Although aPL antibodies inhibited the protein C activation reaction, there was no correlation of these activities with inhibition of the prothrombinase reaction. Together, these results show that aPL exert their effects by interaction with negatively charged phospholipids, in particular phosphotidylserine, but lack of correlation between inhibition of the prothrombinase and protein C activation reactions, suggests that the nature of the coagulation protein is also important. PMID:8902763

  6. Role of PGL-I antibody detection in the diagnosis of pure neural leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Marcia R; Antunes, Sergio L G; Simons, Brian; Wildenbeest, Joanne G; Nery, José Augusto C; Illarramendi, Ximena; Moraes, Milton O; Martinez, Alejandra N; Oskam, Linda; Faber, William R; Sarno, Euzenir N; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2005-09-01

    Pure neural leprosy (PNL) is difficult to diagnose because skin lesions and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in slit smears are absent. At present, the gold standard for PNL diagnosis is the histopathological examination of a peripheral nerve biopsy. Even so, detection of bacteria is difficult and histological findings may be non-specific. Furthermore, nerve biopsy is an invasive procedure that is only possible in specialized centres. Therefore, there is a need for additional diagnostic methods that may help to confirm the clinical diagnosis of PNL. In the present study, an additional laboratory test, the ELISA for anti-phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) IgM antibodies, was performed on 103 individuals with clinical and neurophysiological signs of peripheral neuropathy, of which 67 were diagnosed as PNL patients and 36 remained as 'not diagnosed as PNL', as well as on a control group of 34 patients with other neurological diseases. An antibody response was present in 14/67 (21%) of the patients diagnosed as PNL as compared with 3/34 (9%) of controls. Anti-PGL-I positivity was observed in 5/8 (63%) of the AFB positive cases. Patients whose diagnosis was confirmed solely by Mycobacterium leprae PCR on the nerve sample had 4/25 (16%) seropositivity. In addition, anti-PGL-I antibodies were detected in 9/40 (23%) of the PNL patients who were PCR negative for M. leprae DNA. Moreover, two patients who showed clinical and eletrophysiological manifestations suggestive of PNL were diagnosed with the help of their positive test results in the anti-PGL-I ELISA. In conclusion, detection of antibodies against PGL-I in patients with peripheral neuropathy is useful as an additional laboratory test to help PNL diagnosis.

  7. Antibodies to watch in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry's progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the "Antibodies to watch" series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration's Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed. PMID:24284914

  8. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the description by Kohler and Milstein 1975 of their technique for producing monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity, it has become a mainstay in most laboratories that utilize immunochemical techniques to study problems in basic, applied or clinical research. Paradoxically, the very success of monoclonal antibodies has generated a literature which is now so vast and scattered that it has become difficult to obtain a perspective. This brief review represents the distillation of many publications relating to the production and use of monoclonaal antibodies as radiopharmaceuticals. Significant advances were made possible in the last few years by combined developments in the fields of tumor-associated antigens and of monoclonal antibodies. In fact monoclonal antibodies against some well defined tumor-associated antigens, has led to significantly greater practical possibilities for producing highly specific radiolabeled antibodies as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy of human tumors. One of the main requirements of this methodology is the availability of stable radiopharmaceutical reagents which after labeling in vivo injection retain the capacity of specific interaction with the defined antigen and their molecular integrity. Since injection into human is the objetive of this kind of study all the specifications of radiopharmaceutical have to be fulfilled e.g. sterility, apirogenicity and absence of toxicity. (author)

  9. Radioimmunoguided surgery using monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential proficiency of radioimmunoguided surgery in the intraoperative detection of tumors was assessed using labeled monoclonal antibody B72.3 in 66 patients with tissue-proved tumor. Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was injected 5 to 42 days preoperatively, and the hand-held gamma-detecting probe was used intraoperatively to detect the presence of tumor. Intraoperative probe counts of less than 20 every 2 seconds, or tumor-to-adjacent normal tissue ratios less than 2:1 were considered negative (system failure). Positive probe counts were detected in 5 of 6 patients with primary colon cancer (83 percent), in 31 of 39 patients with recurrent colon cancer (79 percent), in 4 of 5 patients with gastric cancer (80 percent), in 3 of 8 patients with breast cancer (37.5 percent), and in 4 of 8 patients with ovarian cancer (50 percent) undergoing second-look procedures. Additional patients in each group were scored as borderline positive. Overall, radioimmunoguided surgery using B72.3 identified tumors in 47 patients (71.2 percent), bordered on positive in 6 patients (9.1 percent), and failed to identify tumor in 13 patients (19.7 percent). Improved selection of patients for antigen-positive tumors, the use of higher affinity second-generation antibodies, alternate routes of antibody administration, alternate radionuclides, and more sophisticatedly bioengineered antibodies and antibody combinations should all lead to improvements in radioimmunoguided surgery

  10. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo

    2014-10-09

    SUMMARY: Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity into a suitable human template. Unfortunately, this procedure may results in a partial or complete loss of affinity of the grafted molecule that can be restored by back-mutating some of the residues of human origin to the corresponding murine ones. This trial-and-error procedure is hard and involves expensive and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http://www.biocomputing.it/tabhu CONTACT: anna.tramontano@uniroma1.it, pierpaolo.olimpieri@uniroma1.it SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  12. Clinical characteristics of children with positive anti-SSA/SSB antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lin, Yu-Tsan; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Wang, Li-Chieh; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize the manifestations of clinical symptoms and signs, primary rheumatic diseases, and other autoantibodies in pediatric patients with positive anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies. Subjects under age 18 with positive anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies were screened and enrolled in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. Data were collected via medical records,including age, gender, onset of the primary rheumatic disease, clinical symptoms and signs, and the medication used. Schirmer test for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) screening was performed in all enrolled patients. Among twenty enrolled subjects, seventeen of them had systemic lupus erythematosus; four of them were diagnosed as SS with positive Schirmer test. In addition to antinuclear antibodies and anti-DNA antibodies, other common autoantibodies were anti-RNP antibodies (50 %) and anti-Sm antibodies(30 %). The most common symptoms were arthritis (60 %)followed by malar rash (40 %). In conclusion, we observed that a low proportion of childhood SS (4/20) exists in our patients with positive SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies. It is suggested that clinicians should focus more on the clinical symptoms in these patients, rather than undertaking invasive diagnostic interventions to rule out Sjögren's syndrome.

  13. Production and characterization of peptide antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Hansen, Paul Robert; Houen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are effective immunogens for generation of antibodies. However, occasionally the native protein is known but not available for antibody production. In such cases synthetic peptides derived from the native protein are good alternatives for antibody production. These peptide antibodies are...

  14. Computer Assisted Diagnoses for Red Eye (CADRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expert System (ES named as “CADRE-Computer Assisted Diagnoses for Red Eye. Mostly the remote areas of the population are deprived of the facilities of having experts in eye disease. So it is the need of the day to store the expertise of Eye specialists in computers through using ES technology. This ES is a rule-based Expert System that assists in red-eye diagnosis and treatment. The knowledge acquired from literature review and human experts of the specific domain was used as a base for analysis, diagnosis and recommendations. CADRE evaluates the risk factors of 20 eye diseases and works just like an ophthalmologist, which will be useful for students, doctors and researchers as well as to patients. This expert system (ES was developed through using ESTA, VISUAL BASIC, MS-EXCEL, Seagate Crystal Reports and Image Styler. This ES is not limited to the Red-eye diseases but can be extended to all types of eye-diseases.

  15. Vitamin C nutriture in newly diagnosed diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Eun; Paik, Hee Young; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between serum L-ascorbic acid, vitamin C intake, and diabetes in a nested case-control study. A cross-sectional survey of diet and health was conducted in 2,048 adults with an age of 30 y or older in Yonchon County, Korea. An oral glucose tolerance test was administered to all participants. One hundred cases of newly diagnosed diabetes were identified. Two healthy controls for each case matched with age, gender, drinking status, and smoking status were selected among the survey participants. L-Ascorbic acid levels were analyzed in fasting serum samples and one 24-h dietary recall was performed. Dietary vitamin C intake of persons with diabetes was 50.1±47.6 mg/d and that of controls was 55.1±41.1 mg/d. People with diabetes (22.3±16.8 µmol/L) have lower serum ascorbic acid levels than their controls (26.3±17.0 µmol/L) and the difference was significant by paired t-test (pnutritional status of vitamin C, further investigation of association between serum ascorbic acid level and diabetes and smoking by the level of vitamin C consumption is warranted. PMID:20924142

  16. Diagnosing Mitochondrial Disorder without Sophisticated Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs require biochemical or genetic investigations for being diagnosed. In some cases, however, the diagnosis can be suspected upon the syndromic phenotype or upon clinical presentation and family history, as in the following case. The patient was a 74-year-old male admitted for worsening of pre-existing left-sided ptosis and ophthalmoparesis after a birthday party. The history was positive for arterial hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with systolic dysfunction, diabetes-type 2, mild renal insufficiency, thyroiditis, and polyneuropathy. Instrumental investigations additionally revealed hepatopathy, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, bifascicular block, white matter lesions, and subacute stroke. Systolic dysfunction resolved upon adequate cardiac treatment. On hospital day 11 the patient suddenly developed asystole. He was successfully resuscitated but died a few hours later from acute myocardial infarction. Surprisingly, a more extensive family history was positive for myopathy (patient, brother, daughter, neuropathy (patient, hypoacusis (patient, Parkinson syndrome (mother, spasticity (son, diabetes (patient, son, renal failure (patient, and generalized atherosclerosis (patient. The individual and family history was strongly suggestive of an MID. In conclusion, individual and family history may strongly suggest MID. Phenotypic variability may be high between family members affected by an MID. MID may be associated with an increasing atherosclerotic risk lastly resulting in coronary heart disease and death.

  17. Fetal MRI clues to diagnose cloacal malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Patel, Manish N.; Kraus, Steven [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Levitt, Marc A.; Pena, Alberto [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Colorectal Center for Children, Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen; Crombleholme, Timothy M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Fetal Care Center of Cincinnati, Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Linam, Leann E. [Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Prenatal US detection of cloacal malformations is challenging and rarely confirms this diagnosis. To define the prenatal MRI findings in cloacal malformations. We performed a retrospective study of patients with cloacal malformations who had pre- and post-natal assessment at our institution. Fetal MRI was obtained in six singleton pregnancies between 26 and 32 weeks of gestation. Imaging analysis was focused on the distal bowel, the urinary system and the genital tract and compared with postnatal clinical, radiological and surgical diagnoses. The distal bowel was dilated and did not extend below the bladder in five fetuses. They had a long common cloacal channel (3.5-6 cm) and a rectum located over the bladder base. Only one fetus with a posterior cloacal variant had a normal rectum. Three fetuses had increased T2 signal in the bowel and two increased T1/decreased T2 signal bladder content. All had renal anomalies, four had abnormal bladders and two had hydrocolpos. Assessment of the anorectal signal and pelvic anatomy during the third trimester helps to detect cloacal malformations in the fetus. The specificity for this diagnosis was highly increased when bowel fluid or bladder meconium content was identified. (orig.)

  18. Diagnosing Beijing 2020: Mapping the Ungovernable City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Visser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beijing Municipality, characterised by the ‘off-ground’ architecture distinguishing neo-liberal privatisation, is attempting to mitigate the damaging effects of rampant development on the social fabric, cultural heritage, and the environment by adopting sustainable urban planning. I argue that the sustainability rhetoric in the Beijing Municipality 2020 Plans functions in part as strategic metaphors masking unnamed, imminent threats to governance. In this article I diagnose four Beijing plans (Beijing 2006-2015 ‘Rail Transit Plan’ for Compact City, Beijing 2005-2020 ‘Underground Space Plan’ for Alternative Space, Beijing 2006-2020 ‘Undeveloped Area Plan’ for Ecological Responsibility, and Beijing 2006-2010 ‘Low-income Housing Plan’ for Affordability and Liveability. A diagrammatics of the plans illuminates not so much a mapping of Beijing’s future as the forms of spontaneity preoccupying the nation at this historical juncture. The Beijing 2020 plan, as city mapping more generally, discloses the imminence of ungovernable city. The fact that citizens are demanding greater authority over Beijing governance suggests that radical alterations to its urban fabric and quality of life have incited the imminent sociability that is the city.

  19. Diagnosing young onset dementia can be challenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Although the risk of developing dementia increases with age, onset can be as early as the third or fourth decade of life. Genetic influences play a more important role in younger than in older people with dementia, so young onset dementia may cluster in families. Diagnosing young onset dementia is challenging. The range of possible presenting features is broad, encompassing behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric and neurological domains, and symptoms are often subtle initially. Frequently the complaints are misattributed to stress or depression, and the patient is falsely reassured that they are too young to have dementia. The most common causes of young onset dementia are early onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions and alcohol. Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of young onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Conventional vascular risk factors may be absent and diagnosis relies on imaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease. Obtaining a detailed history remains the most important part of the workup and usually requires corroboration by a third party. Undertaking a basic neurological examination is also important. Those with suspected young onset dementia should be referred to a neurology-led cognitive disorders clinic where available as the differenti diagnosis is considerably broader tha in older adults and requires specialist investigation. PMID:27382914

  20. Diagnosing young onset dementia can be challenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Although the risk of developing dementia increases with age, onset can be as early as the third or fourth decade of life. Genetic influences play a more important role in younger than in older people with dementia, so young onset dementia may cluster in families. Diagnosing young onset dementia is challenging. The range of possible presenting features is broad, encompassing behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric and neurological domains, and symptoms are often subtle initially. Frequently the complaints are misattributed to stress or depression, and the patient is falsely reassured that they are too young to have dementia. The most common causes of young onset dementia are early onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions and alcohol. Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of young onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Conventional vascular risk factors may be absent and diagnosis relies on imaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease. Obtaining a detailed history remains the most important part of the workup and usually requires corroboration by a third party. Undertaking a basic neurological examination is also important. Those with suspected young onset dementia should be referred to a neurology-led cognitive disorders clinic where available as the differenti diagnosis is considerably broader tha in older adults and requires specialist investigation.

  1. Diagnosing clostridial enteric disease in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kerry K; Songer, J Glenn; Uzal, Francisco A

    2013-05-01

    The world's poultry industry has grown into a multibillion-dollar business, the success of which hinges on healthy intestinal tracts, which result in effective feed conversion. Enteric disease in poultry can have devastating economic effects on producers, due to high mortality rates and poor feed efficiency. Clostridia are considered to be among the most important agents of enteric disease in poultry. Diagnosis of enteric diseases produced by clostridia is usually challenging, mainly because many clostridial species can be normal inhabitants of the gut, making it difficult to determine their role in virulence. The most common clostridial enteric disease in poultry is necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens, which typically occurs in broiler chickens but has also been diagnosed in various avian species including turkeys, waterfowl, and ostriches. Diagnosis is based on clinical and pathological findings. Negative culture and toxin detection results may be used to rule out this disease, but isolation of C. perfringens and/or detection of its alpha toxin are of little value to confirm the disease because both are often found in the intestine of healthy birds. Ulcerative enteritis, caused by Clostridium colinum, is the other major clostridial enteric disease of poultry. Diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis is by documentation of typical pathological findings, coupled with isolation of C. colinum from the intestine of affected birds. Other clostridial enteric diseases include infections produced by Clostridium difficile, Clostridium fallax, and Clostridium baratii.

  2. PET in diagnosing exocrine pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite dramatic improvements in diagnostic imaging (ultrasonography, in particular endoscopic ultrasound, CT, MRI) treatment results of pancreatic cancer are still poor. Due to the lack of early symptoms, most tumors are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease which excludes curative surgical treatment. FDG-PET has been shown to be effective in detecting pancreatic cancer as well as differentiating benign from malignant pancreatic tumors. Results might be further improved by applying quantitative analyses, in particular kinetic modelling of FDG metabolism. Nevertheless false negative as well as false positive findings may occur. Small lesions (lymphnode or liver metastases < 1 cm) might be missed, furthermore hyperglycemia often present in patients with pancreatic disease might reduce tumor uptake and subsequently tumor detectability by PET. False positive findings were reported in active pancreatitis and some benign tumors. Although PET proved to be superior to CT or ERCP in detecting cancer, clinical relevance of PET is limited due to the absence of therapeutic consequences to be derived from PET. As a consequence PET should only be used in patients with equivocal findings of morphological imaging (CT, ERCP) who are potential candidates for surgical treatment. (orig.)

  3. Peptidomic Identification of Serum Peptides Diagnosing Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaojun Wen

    Full Text Available We sought to identify serological markers capable of diagnosing preeclampsia (PE. We performed serum peptide analysis (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of 62 unique samples from 31 PE patients and 31 healthy pregnant controls, with two-thirds used as a training set and the other third as a testing set. Differential serum peptide profiling identified 52 significant serum peptides, and a 19-peptide panel collectively discriminating PE in training sets (n = 21 PE, n = 21 control; specificity = 85.7% and sensitivity = 100% and testing sets (n = 10 PE, n = 10 control; specificity = 80% and sensitivity = 100%. The panel peptides were derived from 6 different protein precursors: 13 from fibrinogen alpha (FGA, 1 from alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT, 1 from apolipoprotein L1 (APO-L1, 1 from inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4, 2 from kininogen-1 (KNG1, and 1 from thymosin beta-4 (TMSB4. We concluded that serum peptides can accurately discriminate active PE. Measurement of a 19-peptide panel could be performed quickly and in a quantitative mass spectrometric platform available in clinical laboratories. This serum peptide panel quantification could provide clinical utility in predicting PE or differential diagnosis of PE from confounding chronic hypertension.

  4. Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL; Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnec- tion networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; how- ever, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to under- stand anomalous network performance. Our tool, Confidence, instead uses an empirically derived probability distribution to characterize network performance. In this paper we describe several instances where the Confidence toolkit allowed us to understand and diagnose network performance anomalies that we could not adequately explore with the simple summary statis- tics provided by traditional measurement tools. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

  5. Diagnosing SWOT through Importance-performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagirisamy Kamatchi Subbiah Sukumaran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of the firms surveyed against the importance of the opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses applicable to those firms using Importance-Performance analysis. Firms optimize their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats with the help of SWOT analysis. Martilla and James (1977 popularized the Importance-Performance analysis through their study titled with the same name. Importance-Performance analysis can be used to evaluate the performance against the intention or plan formulated by business or non-business firms. This method is widely used in consumer satisfaction studies and competitor analysis. Quite often right decisions can be taken if the information is presented in a comprehensive and understandable manner and in these contexts, Importance-Performance measure scores well. To the best of the author’s knowledge, Importance-Performance Analysis is used for the first time in the study to diagnose the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats applicable to a firm.

  6. Production of recombinant antibodies using bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Shukra, A. M.; Sridevi, N. V.; Dev Chandran,; Kapil Maithal,

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant antibody fragments such as Fab, scFv, diabodies, triabodies, single domain antibodies and minibodies have recently emerged as potential alternatives to monoclonal antibodies, which can be engineered using phage display technology. These antibodies match the strengths of conventionally produced monoclonal antibodies and offer advantages for the development of immunodiagnostic kits and assays. These fragments not only retain the specificity of the whole monoclonal ...

  7. Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adil Butt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a clinically-approved but rather under-exploited treatment modality for cancer and pre-cancerous superficial lesions. It utilises a cold laser or LED to activate a photochemical reaction between a light activated drug (photosensitiser-drug and oxygen to generate cytotoxic oxygen species. These free radical species damage cellular components leading to cell death. Despite its benefits, the complexity, limited potency and side effects of PDT have led to poor general usage. However, the research area is very active with an increasing understanding of PDT-related cell biology, photophysics and significant progress in molecular targeting of disease. Monoclonal antibody therapy is maturing and the next wave of antibody therapies includes antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs, which promise to be more potent and curable. These developments could lift antibody-directed phototherapy (ADP to success. ADP promises to increase specificity and potency and improve drug pharmacokinetics, thus delivering better PDT drugs whilst retaining its other benefits. Whole antibody conjugates with first generation ADP-drugs displayed problems with aggregation, poor pharmacokinetics and loss of immuno-reactivity. However, these early ADP-drugs still showed improved selectivity and potency. Improved PS-drug chemistry and a variety of conjugation strategies have led to improved ADP-drugs with retained antibody and PS-drug function. More recently, recombinant antibody fragments have been used to deliver ADP-drugs with superior drug loading, more favourable pharmacokinetics, enhanced potency and target cell selectivity. These improvements offer a promise of better quality PDT drugs.

  8. Antibodies: an alternative for antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghman, L R; Abi-Ghanem, D; Waghela, S D; Ricke, S C

    2005-04-01

    In 1967, the success of vaccination programs, combined with the seemingly unstoppable triumph of antibiotics, prompted the US Surgeon General to declare that "it was time to close the books on infectious diseases." We now know that the prediction was overly optimistic and that the fight against infectious diseases is here to stay. During the last 20 yr, infectious diseases have indeed made a staggering comeback for a variety of reasons, including resistance against existing antibiotics. As a consequence, several alternatives to antibiotics are currently being considered or reconsidered. Passive immunization (i.e., the administration of more or less pathogen-specific antibodies to the patient) prior to or after exposure to the disease-causing agent is one of those alternative strategies that was almost entirely abandoned with the introduction of chemical antibiotics but that is now gaining interest again. This review will discuss the early successes and limitations of passive immunization, formerly referred to as "serum therapy," the current use of antibody administration for prophylaxis or treatment of infectious diseases in agriculture, and, finally, recent developments in the field of antibody engineering and "molecular farming" of antibodies in various expression systems. Especially the potential of producing therapeutic antibodies in crops that are routine dietary components of farm animals, such as corn and soy beans, seems to hold promise for future application in the fight against infectious diseases. PMID:15844826

  9. Antibodies to watch in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2016-01-01

    The number of novel antibody therapeutics that received first marketing approvals in 2015 met expectations, with 6 (alirocumab (Praluent®), evolocumab (Repatha®), daratumumab (Darzalex®), dinutuximab (Unituxin®), idarucizumab (Praxbind®), mepolizumab (Nucala®)) granted first approvals as of mid-November*. Seven novel antibody therapeutics (begelomab, brodalumab, elotuzumab, ixekizumab, necitumumab, obiltoxaximab, reslizumab) are in regulatory review, and thus a similar number, if not more, are projected to gain first approvals in 2016. Commercial late-stage antibody therapeutics development exceeded expectations by increasing from 39 candidates in Phase 3 studies as of late 2014 to 53 as of late 2015. Of the 53 candidates, transitions to regulatory review by the end of 2016 are projected for 8 (atezolizumab, benralizumab, bimagrumab, durvalumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, lebrikizumab, ocrelizumab, tremelimumab). Other "antibodies to watch" include 15 candidates (bavituximab, bococizumab, dupilumab, fasinumab, fulranumab, gevokizumab, guselkumab, ibalizumab, LY2951742, onartuzumab, REGN2222, roledumab, romosozumab, sirukumab, Xilonix) undergoing evaluation in Phase 3 studies that have estimated primary completion dates in 2016. As evidenced by the antibody therapeutics discussed in this perspective, the biopharmaceutical industry has a highly active late-stage clinical pipeline that may deliver numerous new products to the global market in the near future. *See Note added in proof for updates through December 31, 2015. PMID:26651519

  10. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies related to depression in early clinical course of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Karimifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric lupus is still a major challenge in clinical practice. We investigated the association between depression and anti-ribosomal P (anti-P antibodies in a sample of Iranian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on adult patients with SLE referring to a referral out-patient clinic of rheumatology. Demographic data and clinical data with regards to measuring disease activity with the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index were gathered. Anti-P antibodies were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Depression severity was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results: One hundred patients (80% female and 20% male, age = 34.8 ± 10.9 years were included. Anti-P antibodies were present more frequently in depressed than non-depressed patients (30% vs. 10%, P = 0.015. Depression severity was correlated with anti-P antibodies level only in patients with disease duration of less than 2 years (r = 0.517, P = 0.019. There was no association between the depression severity and disease activity. Binary logistic regression analysis showed age (B = 0.953, CI 95%: 0.914-0.993 and positive anti-P antibodies (B = 4.30, CI 95%: 1.18-15.59 as factors that independently associated with depression. Conclusion: We found an association between depression and presence of anti-P antibodies, and also strong correlation between depression severity and anti-P antibodies level in newly diagnosed SLE patients. Depression severity in newly diagnosed SLE patients may reflect a neuropsychiatric involvement, and in later phases, it is more affected by the chronicity of the disease as well as other environmental factors.

  11. Effiziente Diagnose von verteilten Funktionen automobiler Steuergeräte

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In der Dissertation wird eine Methodik vorgestellt mit dem Ziel, die Effizienz der automobilen Diagnose zu erhöhen. Hierzu gehört die Beherrschung der zunehmenden Komplexität der Diagnose bei gleichzeitiger Senkung ihrer Kostenfaktoren. Somit wird der Zielkonflikt zwischen Kosten und Güte der Diagnose bewältigt. Grundlage für den Ansatz ist eine Analyse der gegenwärtigen Diagnose auf Kosten- und Qualitätspotentiale. Es handelt sich um einen formalen, modellbasierten Diagnoseansatz, der für al...

  12. Epigenetics of the antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guideng; Zan, Hong; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications and miRNAs, are induced in B cells by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response. They play major roles in regulating somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch DNA recombination (CSR), and differentiation to plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. Histone modifications target the CSR and, possibly, SHM machinery to the immunoglobulin locus; they together with DNA methylation and miRNAs modulate the expression of critical elements of that machinery, such as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as factors central to plasma cell differentiation, such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). These inducible B cell-intrinsic epigenetic marks instruct the maturation of antibody responses. Their dysregulation plays an important role in aberrant antibody responses to foreign antigens, such as those of microbial pathogens, and self-antigens, such as those targeted in autoimmunity, and B cell neoplasia.

  13. Molecular-specific urokinase antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, M. Zouhair (Inventor); Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have been developed against the different molecular forms of urokinase using synthetic peptides as immunogens. The peptides were synthesized specifically to represent those regions of the urokinase molecules which are exposed in the three-dimensional configuration of the molecule and are uniquely homologous to urokinase. Antibodies are directed against the lysine 158-isoleucine 159 peptide bond which is cleaved during activation from the single-chain (ScuPA) form to the bioactive double chain (54 KDa and 33 KDa) forms of urokinase and against the lysine 135 lysine 136 bond that is cleaved in the process of removing the alpha-chain from the 54 KDa form to produce the 33 KDa form of urokinase. These antibodies enable the direct measurement of the different molecular forms of urokinase from small samples of conditioned medium harvested from cell cultures.

  14. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    into a suitable human template. Unfortunately, this procedure may results in a partial or complete loss of affinity of the grafted molecule that can be restored by back-mutating some of the residues of human origin to the corresponding murine ones. This trial-and-error procedure is hard and involves expensive......Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can...... elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity...

  15. Autologous antibodies that bind neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujing; Sholler, Giselle S; Shukla, Girja S; Pero, Stephanie C; Carman, Chelsea L; Zhao, Ping; Krag, David N

    2015-11-01

    Antibody therapy of neuroblastoma is promising and our goal is to derive antibodies from patients with neuroblastoma for developing new therapeutic antibodies. The feasibility of using residual bone marrow obtained for clinical indications as a source of tumor cells and a source of antibodies was assessed. From marrow samples, neuroblastoma cells were recovered, grown in cell culture and also implanted into mice to create xenografts. Mononuclear cells from the marrow were used as a source to generate phage display antibody libraries and also hybridomas. Growth of neuroblastoma patient cells was possible both in vitro and as xenografts. Antibodies from the phage libraries and from the monoclonal hybridomas bound autologous neuroblastoma cells with some selectivity. It appears feasible to recover neuroblastoma cells from residual marrow specimens and to generate human antibodies that bind autologous neuroblastoma cells. Expansion of this approach is underway to collect more specimens, optimize methods to generate antibodies, and to evaluate the bioactivity of neuroblastoma-binding antibodies.

  16. Radioimmunotherapy with engineered antibody fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have developed and begun evaluating radiometal-chelated (213Bi) engineered antibody fragments as radioimmunotherapy agents that target the HER2/neu (c-erbB-2) antigen. The diabody format was found to have 40-fold greater affinity for HER2/neu and to be associated with significantly greater tumor localization than is achieved with scFv molecule. It is shown that short-lived isotopes like 213Bi would be most effective when used in conjunction with antibodies that targeted diffuse malignancies (leukemia or lymphoma) or when used for very rapid pretargeted radioimmunotherapy application in which the radioisotope is conjugated to a very small ligand

  17. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  18. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  19. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S

    2010-04-13

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  20. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  1. Do clinical diagnoses correlate with pathological diagnoses in cardiac transplant patients? The importance of endomyocardial biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luk, Adriana; Metawee, Mohammed; Ahn, Eric;

    2009-01-01

    of 296 surgically excised hearts over a 20-year period (January 1987 to July 2006) at one institution were examined. Patients were separated into groups based on year of heart transplantation. The tissue was examined to determine the underlying cardiac pathology leading to congestive heart failure...... amyloidosis. OBJECTIVE: To review the changes that have occurred over time in the etiology of heart disease in patients requiring heart transplantation, and to compare the clinical and histological diagnoses of explanted hearts from patients with progressive cardiac disease. METHODS: The pathological findings...

  2. Antigenisitas, Sensitivitas, dan Spesifisitas Protein Toxocara canis pada Pemeriksaan Antibodi Serum Mencit dengan Indirect-ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Subekti Bendryman; Kusnoto .; Tutik Juniastuti

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research were to determine antigenicity, sensitivity, and specificity of Toxocara canisprotein used as antigen in indirect-ELISA for the detection antibody against the worm in the infected hostin order to proper diagnose kit. The design used was true experimental, with Post-test Only ControlGroups Design. Mouse was immunized with various worm homogenates used to antigenicity, sensitivityand specificity tests of T. canis protein with indirect-ELISA technique. The independence v...

  3. The impact of bevacizumab treatment on survival and quality of life in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen HS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hans Skovgaard Poulsen,1,2,* Thomas Urup,1,2,* Signe Regner Michaelsen,1,2 Mikkel Staberg,1,2 Mette Villingshøj,1,2 Ulrik Lassen1–3 1Department of Radiation Biology, 2Department of Oncology, 3Phase I Unit, The Finsencenter, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains one of the most devastating tumors, and patients have a median survival of 15 months despite aggressive local and systemic therapy, including maximal surgical resection, radiation therapy, and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. The purpose of antineoplastic treatment is therefore to prolong life, with a maintenance or improvement of quality of life. GBM is a highly vascular tumor and overexpresses the vascular endothelial growth factor A, which promotes angiogenesis. Preclinical data have suggested that anti-angiogenic treatment efficiently inhibits tumor growth. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A, and treatment has shown impressive response rates in recurrent GBM. In addition, it has been shown that response is correlated to prolonged survival and improved quality of life. Several investigations in newly diagnosed GBM patients have been performed during recent years to test the hypothesis that newly diagnosed GBM patients should be treated with standard multimodality treatment, in combination with bevacizumab, in order to prolong life and maintain or improve quality of life. The results of these studies along with relevant preclinical data will be described, and pitfalls in clinical and paraclinical endpoints will be discussed. Keywords: primary treatment, VEGF, quality of life, monoclonal antibody, patient survival, vascular tumor

  4. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  5. Longitudinal monitoring of the development of antifilarial antibodies and acquisition of Wuchereria bancrofti in a highly endemic area of Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy L Hamlin

    Full Text Available Antifilarial antibody testing has been established as a sensitive and specific method of diagnosing lymphatic filariasis. However, the development of serological responses to specific filarial antigens and their relationship to acquisition of infection is poorly understood. In order to evaluate whether the development of antigen specific antifilarial antibodies precedes microfilaremia and antigenemia, we compared the antibody responses of serum samples collected between 1990 and 1999 from a cohort of 142 Haitian children followed longitudinally. Antigen status was determined using the Og4C3 ELISA and the presence of microfilaremia was detected using microscopy. Antibody responses to Wb123, a Wuchereria bancrofti L3 antigen, were measured using a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS assay. Antibody responses to Bm14 and Bm33, Brugia malayi antigens and to a major surface protein (WSP from Wolbachia were analyzed using a multiplex bead assay. Over follow-up, 80 (56% of the children became antigen-positive and 30 (21% developed microfilaremia. Detectable antibody responses to Bm14, Bm33, Wb123, and WSP developed in 95%, 100%, 92%, and 29% of children, respectively. With the exception of WSP, the development of antibody responses generally preceded detection of filarial antigen. Our results show that antifilarial antibody responses can serve as an important epidemiological indicator in a sentinel population of young children and thus, may be valuable as tool for surveillance in the context of lymphatic filariasis elimination programs.

  6. Immunodot blot assay to detect Helicobacter pylori using monoclonal antibodies against the 26 kDa protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini Najafabadi, Hossein; Paknejad, Maliheh; Farshad, Shohreh; Mohammadian, Taher; Seyyed Ebrahimi, Shadi Sadat; Amini Najafabadi, Azadeh

    2012-12-01

    Development of a specific immunoassay to detect Helicobacter pylori infection in stool samples requires monoclonal antibody against the specific antigen. The aims of this study were to establish monoclonal antibodies against the 26 kDa protein of H. pylori and develop an immunodot blot for their application to recognize H. pylori infection using stool samples. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally with homogenized gel containing the 26 kDa band of cell surface proteins of H. pylori in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The monoclonal antibodies were produced using the hybridoma technique. Reactivity of monoclonal antibodies was tested with the purified 26 kDa antigen and cell surface proteins from cultured H. pylori by ELISA. Furthermore reactivity of monoclonal antibodies was tested on negative and positive stool samples for H. pylori and suspensions of several major bacteria in stool by immunodot blot assay. Five stable hybridoma monoclones were obtained. The concordant reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies with H. pylori present in the stool samples, which had been tested previously using an ACON ELISA kit for H. pylori stool antigen testing, and unreactivity with several different major fecal bacteria in immunodot blotting indicates high specificity of the immunodot blot based on the reaction of produced monoclonal antibodies with the H. pylori antigen in stools. The findings indicate that the novel immunodot blot developed based on new monoclonal antibodies for stool antigens would be useful as a noninvasive method of diagnosing H. pylori infection. PMID:23244318

  7. Clinical analysis of thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid peroxidase antibody and their association with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the abnormal presence of thyroglobulin antibody (TG-Ab and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab has been reported in vitiligo patients, but presence of TG-Ab and TPO-Ab in patients of different ages and gender, and its association with vitiligo and thyroid autoimmunity has rarely been reported. The aim of our research was to determine whether vitiligo was associated with thyroid autoimmunity and figure out its relationship with age and gender. Materials and Methods: We analyzed TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in age and gender matched 87 vitiligo patients and 90 healthy controls, the patients of vitiligo who were positive for the presence of TG-Ab and TPO-Ab were followed up to confirm autoimmune thyroid disease subsequently. Results: Results showed that the frequencies of TG-Ab (23.0%, 20/87 positivity and TPO-AB (24.1%, 21/87 in vitiligo patients were significantly higher than that in healthy controls (P < 0.05. Moreover, The positivity for of TG-Ab and TPO-Ab was higher in 11-20-year age group and 21-40-year age group than that in age matched healthy controls. We found female patients with vitiligo had higher positive frequencies of TG-Ab and TPO-Ab than healthy female controls. (34.1% vs. 8.8% and 34.1% vs. 11.1%, P = 0.000 and P = 0.011. When 20 patients with TG-Ab and TPO-Ab positivity were followed up for three monthes, 14 of them (70% were diagnosed as having autoimmune thyroid disease compared with age-matched healthy controls (16.7%, χ 2 = 5.4, P = 0.02. Conclusion: TG-Ab and TPO-Ab are likely to be found in female teenagers with vitiligo, and are relevant with respect to subsequent development autoimmune thyroid disease.

  8. Clinical analysis of 135 newly diagnosed patients with Hodgkin lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics,therapeutic effects,long-term survival and prognostic factors of the newly diagnosed patients with Hodgkin lymphoma(HL).Methods One hundred and thirty five newly diagnosed HL patients in West China hospital from January 1,2000 to December 31,2010 were analyzed retrospectively.Software SPSS18.0 was applied to deter-

  9. Collective Thomson scattering capabilities to diagnose fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran;

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) is a versatile technique for diagnosing fusion plasmas. In particular, experiments on diagnosing the ion temperature and fast ion velocity distribution have been executed on a number of fusion devices. In this article the main aim is to describe the technique...

  10. Pharmacokinetics interactions of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Nicola; Bellosta, Stefano; Baldessin, Ludovico; Boccia, Donatella; Racagni, Giorgi; Corsini, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    The clearance of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) typically does not involve cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-mediated metabolism or interaction with cell membrane transporters, therefore the pharmacokinetics interactions of mAbs and small molecule drugs are limited. However, a drug may affect the clearance of mAbs through the modulation of immune response (e.g., methotrexate reduces the clearance of infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab, possibly due to methotrexate's inhibitory effect on the formation of antibodies against the mAbs). In addition, mAbs that are cytokine modulators may modify the metabolism of drugs through their effects on P450 enzymes expression. For example, cytokine modulators such as tocilizumab (anti-IL-6 receptor antibody) may reverse the "inhibitory" effect of IL-6 on CYP substrates, resulting in a "normalization" of CYP activities. Finally, a drug may alter the clearance of mAbs by either increasing or reducing the levels of expression of targets of mAbs on the cell surface. For instance, statins and fibrates induce PCSK9 expression and therefore increase cellular uptake and clearance of alirocumab and evolocumab, anti-PCSK9 antibodies. In the present review, we will provide an overview on the pharmacokinetics properties of mAbs as related to the most relevant examples of mAbs-small molecule drug interaction.

  11. Nursing diagnoses identified in children with acute respiration infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Paula Magalhães Monteiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study developed with 78 children with until five years old, bearers of acute respiration infection interned in pediatric hospital of the periphery of a great city, with the purpose to identify the nursing diagnoses presented by these children. The number of nursing diagnoses, defining characteristics, related factors and risk factors identified and other numerical variables were analyzed based in theirs central tendency and dispersion measures. It was identified a total of 26 nursing diagnoses, 43 related factors, 14 risk factors e 67 defining characteristics. In average, It was found 5,32 nursing diagnoses; 4,10 related factors; 2,03 risk factors and 7,33 defining characteristics. The nursing diagnoses with the biggest proportion were: Ineffective Breathing Pattern, Risk for delayed growth, Ineffective protection and Altered oral mucous membrane. We concluded that children with acute respiration infection present a complex diagnostic frame including human responses of multiples domains.

  12. [Postoperatively Diagnosed Pulmonary Actinomycosis;Report of Three Cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hisao; Murasawa, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Masatoshi; Hoshino, Taiki; Hanawa, Takeshi; Kuwabara, Masayoshi

    2015-09-01

    Three cases of pulmonary actinomycosis have been postoperatively diagnosed in our hospital in the past 3 years. All the cases were preoperatively difficult to differentiate from lung cancer, and all were diagnosed in men. One of the patients was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, while the other 2 patients were diagnosed during the treatment and follow-up of other diseases. On radiological examination, 2 patients showed mass-like shadows, and the 3rd showed a cavitary lesion; fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) -positron emission tomography showed high FDG accumulation in all the patients. One of the patients was pathologically suspected with lung cancer on transbronchial lung biopsy. Right upper lobectomy was performed in 2 patients, and right lower lobectomy in 1. One of the patients who underwent right upper lobectomy, also received chest wall resection because of the perioperative finding of chest wall invasion of lung cancer. Clinically, all the cases were preoperatively diagnosed as lung cancer. PMID:26329633

  13. Nursing diagnoses in patients with chronic venous ulcer: observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glycia de Almeida Nogueira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze nursing diagnoses in people with chronic venous ulcer. An observational, descriptive, quantitative research conducted in an ambulatory specialized in wound treatment, with a non-probabilistic sample of 20 patients.  Data collection was performed in an institutional form denominated Assessment Protocol for Clients with Tissue Lesions. Diagnoses were established by consensus among four researchers with experience in nursing diagnoses and wound treatments. From data analysis, 16 diagnoses were identified, with 100% of participants presenting: Impaired tissue integrity, Ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion, Risk of infection, Impaired physical mobility and Ineffective health self-control. These diagnoses are found in Safety/Protection, Activity/Rest and Health promotion domains, which from the clinical practice stand point should be priority focuses in nursing intervention and assessment.

  14. Alternative affinity tools: more attractive than antibodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, V.J.B.; Levisson, M.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Smidt, H.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies are the most successful affinity tools used today, in both fundamental and applied research (diagnostics, purification and therapeutics). Nonetheless, antibodies do have their limitations, including high production costs and low stability. Alternative affinity tools based on nucleic acids

  15. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  16. [Neuroimmunological diseases associated with VGKC complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-05-01

    Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels(VGKC) were first identified by radioimmunoassay of radioisotope labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were found only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in Morvan's syndrome and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins(for example LGI-1, Caspr-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. Caspr-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability.

  17. Specificity and clinical features of erythrocytic allo-antibodies in hospitalized patients%住院患者红细胞血型同种不规则抗体特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴擘颋; 姚顶根; 戎瑞明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the occurrence and clinical significance of red blood cell (RBC) allo-antibodies among hospitalized patients in China. Methods The specificity and clinical features of RBC allo-antibodies of hospitalized patients at our hospital from August 2009 to January 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Sixty-four (0.17%) RBC allo-antibodies were episodes of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR). Their antibody frequencies were as follows: anti-E 53.1%(34/64),anti-D 10.9%(7/64),anti-cE 3.1%(2/64),anti-c 1.6%(1/64),anti-M 14.1%(9/64),anti-Mia 10.9%(7/64),anti-Lea 4.7%(3/64),anti-Dia 1.6%(1/64). Antibodies to Rh system were more frequent among transfused patients while antibodies to Lewis system had a male predominance (both P<0.05). Conclusion As the most common and clinically significant RBC allo-antibodies, the antibodies to Rh blood group system, especially anti-E, anti-cE and anti-c, are the main cause of DHTR.%目的 了解我国临床医疗机构住院患者中红细胞血型同种不规则抗体的发生特征与临床意义.方法 回顾性分析2009年8月至2011年1月在复旦大学附属中山医院住院患者中检出的红细胞血型同种抗体特异性及临床特征.结果 37 548例住院患者中检出64例(0.17%)同种不规则抗体,其中男∶女为0.6:1,有输血史∶无输血史为0.9:1,2例曾发生迟发性溶血性输血反应.按抗体特异性依次为抗-E 53.1%(34/64)、抗-D 10.9%(7/64)、抗-cE 3.1%(2/64)、抗-c 1.6%(1/64)、抗-M 14.1%(9/64)、抗-Mia 10.9%(7/64)、抗-Lea 4.7%(3/64)、抗-Dia 1.6%(1/64).Rh血型系统同种抗体多见于有输血史者(P<0.05),Lewis血型系统同种抗体多见于男性(P<0.05).结论 Rh血型系统抗体尤其是抗-E、抗-cE和抗-c仍然是目前我国临床最常见且最有意义的红细胞血型同种不规则抗体,也是引起迟发性溶血性输血反应的主要原因.

  18. Clinical Significance of Screening of Rh-negative Blood Group and Detection of Irregular Antibody%Rh阴性血型筛查及不规则抗体检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚; 伍昌林; 党鑫堂; 董洪强; 朱奕

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过Rh阴性血型筛查及不规则抗体的检测,对抗体阳性的Rh阴性患者选择相合的血液输注,并分析其临床意义.方法 采用微柱凝集法对363例RhD阴性输血患者进行抗体筛查及Rh血型鉴定,选择Rh因子相合的血液输注,对有抗-c和抗-e抗体Rh阴性患者在血源紧缺的情况下,选择O型ccdEE和CCdee表型红细胞输注,观察临床输血效果.结果 在363例RhD阴性患者中,不规则抗体阳性21例,其中抗-D抗体5例,抗-E抗体8例,抗-c抗体3例,抗-c、E抗体2例,抗-C抗体2例,抗-e抗体1例,对存在不规则抗体的患者选择Rh因子相合的血液输注,临床效果良好.结论 根据抗体筛查及Rh血型鉴定结果,选择Ph因子相合的血液输注,可避免不规则抗体的产生,提高临床输血的有效性,减少输血不良反应的发生.%Objective To choose the matching blood to Rh-negative patients who were positive for irregular antibody by the screening of Rh-negative blood group and the detection of irregular antibody, and analyze its clinical significance.Methods A total of 363 RhD-negative patients were subjected to antibody screening and Rh blood grouping by micro-column agglutination method,based on which the Rh factor-matched blood was selected for transfusion.For lack of matched blood source, the RhD-negative patients with anti-c and anti-e antibodies were transfused with erythrocytes group O of ccdEE and CCdee phenotypes.Results Of the 363 RhD-negative patients, 21 were positive for irregular antibody, including 5 for anti-D, 8 for anti-E, 3 for anti-c, 2 for anti-c and E,2 for anti-C and 1 for anti-e.The patients with irregular antibodies were transfused with selected Rh factor-matched blood, and sarisfactory clinical efficacy was observed.Conclusion By transfusion with Rh factor-matched blood selected based on antibody screening and Rh blood grouping, the production of irregular antibodies was avoided, the efficacy of clinical blood transfusion was

  19. Anti-CCP Antibodies Are Not Associated with Familial Mediterranean Fever in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Onur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP testing is useful in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA with high specificity. Arthritis is a very common clinical manifestation in children with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF. The aim of the study was to show the presence of anti-CCP antibodies in child individuals diagnosed with FMF. Material and Methods. The study groups comprised one hundred and twenty-six patients (126 diagnosed with FMF (female/male (n: 66/60 and 50 healthy controls (female/male (n: 25/25. Clinical and laboratory assessments of the FMF patients were performed during attack-free periods. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, and anti-CCP antibody levels were measured. Results. Anti-CCP was negative in healthy controls and also in all FMF patients. There was not a significant difference in anti-CCP between the patient and the control groups. Our study has shown that anti-CCP was correlated moderately with age (rs=0.271; P=0.0020, duration of illness (rs=0.331; P<0.0001, and colchicine therapy (rs=0.259; P=0.004. Conclusion. Our data show that anti-CCP antibodies are not associated with FMF. Anti-CCP does not have a priority for identifying FMF arthritis from the other inflammatory arthritis.

  20. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome showing elevated levels of antinuclear and anticentromere antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Seisuke; Kasahara, Akinori; Tada, Shoko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Umena, Sachio; Fukatsu, Haruka; Noguchi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 56-year-old female initially visited an otorhinolaryngologist because of an impaired sense of taste in September, 2010 and was referred to our facility in October, 2010. She was diagnosed with Basedow's disease for which she underwent subtotal thyroidectomy in 1984 and arthritis involving multiple joints, primarily affecting her hands. In addition, the anticentromere antibody (ACA) level was markedly high. On physical examination, alopecia as well as hyperpigmentation of the dorsum of the hands and back was observed. Dystrophic changes of the fingernails and a bilateral thumb abduction deformity were observed. Antinuclear antibodies were elevated. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed the mucosa carpeted with strawberry-like polypoid lesions. Histopathological examination of the biopsied specimen of the stomach revealed a corkscrew-like appearance. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS). She admitted to our hospital in November, 2010. Oral prednisolone was administered with success. In July, 2012, her antimitochondrial M2 antibody level was elevated. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first patient with CCS, a history of Basedow's disease, and elevated levels of ACA and antimitochondrial M2 antibody. We consider the present case suggests CCS could be caused by immunological abnormality. PMID:25518819

  1. Application of ELISA for diagnosing and investigating the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis in buffaloes in north Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An antigen-detection enzyme immunoassay (Ag-ELISA) based on a Trypanosoma evansi specific monoclonal antibody was used for the detection of circulating antigens in experimentally infected buffaloes and in buffaloes kept in different geographical regions of Vietnam. In experimental infections, circulating antigens were detected around 7 to 14 days after infection but the levels detected were considerably lower than those in sera collected from the field, suggesting that the parasite isolate used became highly adapted to mice thorough passage. In a study of field sera the agreement between the Ag-ELISA and parasitological methods for detecting infected cases was 80% and the apparent specificity of the test was 90%. In these and other studies the Ag-ELISA consistently detected many more infected cases than did the conventional parasitological methods. In most cases animals whose sera reacted in the Ag-ELISA also had trypanosome specific antibodies in their circulation. Treatment of infected animals with a trypanocidal drug in most cases resulted in a significant drop in trypanosome antigen levels but their status with respect to trypanosomal antibodies remained unchanged. Seroepidemiological surveys using Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA and base on an analysis of around 1000 sera collected from different regions of Vietnam demonstrated prevalence ranging between 17% and 50% with no apparent relationship to geographical region. However, prevalence of infection was generally higher in summer (rainy season), when fly activity is highest. It is concluded that serological methods based on Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA are valuable adjuncts to clinical and parasitological methods for diagnosing trypanosomiasis, studying the epidemiology of the disease and monitoring the effectiveness of control programmes. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Production and Screening of Monoclonal Peptide Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Mortensen, Anne; Schiolborg, Annette; Friis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Hybridoma technology is a remarkable and indispensable tool for generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies. Hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies not only serve as powerful research and diagnostic reagents, but have also emerged as the most rapidly expanding class of therapeutic biologicals. In this chapter, an overview of hybridoma technology and the laboratory procedures used routinely for hybridoma production and antibody screening are presented, including characterization of peptide antibodies.

  3. Virus Strain Discrimination Using Recombinant Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Boonham, N.; Barker, I.

    2002-01-01

    Most routine testing for plant viruses is currently carried out using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Traditional methods of antibody production however can be time consuming and require the use of expensive cell culture facilities. Recombinant antibody technology however is starting to make an impact in this area, enabling the selection of antibody fragments in a few weeks compared with the many months associated with traditional methods and requires only basic microbiological faciliti...

  4. Sequence and structural analysis of antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis focusses on the sequence and structural analysis of antibodies and has fallen into three main areas. First I developed a method to assess how typical an antibody sequence is of the expressed human antibody repertoire. My hypothesis was that the more \\humanlike" an antibody sequence is (in other words how typical it is of the expressed human repertoire), the less likely it is to elicit an immune response when used in vivo in humans. In practi...

  5. Association between the presence of anti-HLA antibodies with acute rejection and chronic allograft nephropathy in the first year after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresan, R; Manfro, R C; Proença, M C C; Veronese, F J V; Salim, P H; da Silva, D M; Ribeiro, A R; Edelweiss, M I A; Pegas, K L; Jobim, L F J

    2008-04-01

    The clinical relevance of anti-HLA antibodies following kidney transplantation has been a recent focus of research. Patients who present anti-HLA antibodies in the posttransplantation period have shown higher incidences of acute rejection episodes (ARE) and chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-HLA antibodies during the first year after kidney transplantation and their association with the occurrence of ARE and CAN. Eighty-eight kidney transplant recipients were evaluated for the presence of IgG anti-HLA antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LAT-M and LAT-1240, One Lambda Inc, Calif, United States). Protocol kidney biopsies were performed in consenting patients. ARE and CAN were diagnosed by clinical, laboratory, and histopathological criteria. Anti-HLA antibodies were observed in 20 (22.7%) patients. At 1 year follow-up, 26.1% presented ARE and 51.2% developed CAN. Nine patients (45%) with antibodies developed ARE as opposed to 20.6% without antibodies and 64.7% developed CAN as opposed to 47.8% of those without antibodies. In the histological analysis, the anti-HLA antibodies were associated with Banff IIA ARE (P = .001) and Banff grade II CAN (P = .012). Routine posttransplantation search for antibodies may identify cases at higher risk for acute and chronic rejection, and perhaps help to tailor the immunosuppressive regimen. PMID:18454996

  6. Immunoglobulin G4: an odd antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Aalberse; S.O. Stapel; J. Schuurman; T. Rispens

    2009-01-01

    Despite its well-known association with IgE-mediated allergy, IgG4 antibodies still have several poorly understood characteristics. IgG4 is a very dynamic antibody: the antibody is involved in a continuous process of half-molecules (i.e. a heavy and attached light-chain) exchange. This process, also

  7. Anti-DNA antibodies in SLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 8 chapters. Some of the titles are: Anti-DNA Antibodies in SLE: Historical Perspective; Specificity of Anti-DNA Antibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Monoclonial Autoimmune Anti-DNA Antibodies; and Structure--Function Analyses of Anti-DNA Autoantibodies.

  8. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL AND POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST RECOMBINANT OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies related to immunological and molecular methods for diagnosis of Vibrio cholera (V. cholerae. However, most assays dependent on enrichment of culture of bacteria, which need more time and involves the use of costly equipment and reagents. In this study Balb/c mice were immunized with recombinant Outer Membrane Protein (rOMPw of vibrio cholerae and splenocytes of hyper immunized mice were fused with murine myeloma Sp2/0 cells. Positive hybridomas were selected by ELISA using rOMPw as coating antigen. The monoclonal antibodies from ascitic fluids were purified and its reaction with rOMPw was assessed by ELISA. Polyclonal antibodies were also produced by immunization of rabbits with the above mentioned antigen. The rabbit sera was affinity purified using Hi-Trap protein G column. The result showed that monoclonal antibody specific to rOMPw has been successfully generated. The monoclonal antibody reacted with recombinant OMPw in ELISA and immunonoblat method. Rabbit polyclonal antibody was also bound to rOMPw by ELISA. The results of agglutination test with whole bacteria also showed that both mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies reacted with whole vibrio cholera but not other related bacteria. The purpose of this study was to check out if anti OMPw antibodies could use as diagnostic assay for detection of V. cholerae. Our results demonstrated that anti recombinant OMPw monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are able to diagnose whole bacteria in pure culture using agglutination test but not by home made immunochromatic strip test.

  9. Duodenal biopsy may be avoided when high transglutaminase antibody titers are present

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santiago Vivas; Jose G Ruiz de Morales; Sabino Riestra; Laura Arias; Dolores Fuentes; Noemi Alvarez; Sara Calleja; Mercedes Hernando; Blanca Herrero; Javier Casqueiro; Luis Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictive value of tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies for villous atrophy in adult and pediatric populations to determine if duodenal biopsy can be avoided. METHODS: A total of 324 patients with celiac disease(CD; 97 children and 227 adults) were recruited prospectively at two tertiary centers. Human IgA class anti-tTG antibody measurement and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were performed at diagnosis.A second biopsy was performed in 40 asymptomatic adults on a gluten-free diet (GFD) and with normal tTG levels.RESULTS: Adults showed less severe histopathology (26% vs 63%; P < 0.0001) and lower tTG antibody titers than children. Levels of tTG antibody correlated with Marsh type in both populations ( r = 0.661; P < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that only tTG antibody was an independent predictor for Marsh type 3 lesions, but clinical presentation type and age were not. A cut-off point of 30 U tTG antibody yielded the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.854). Based on the predictive value of this cut-off point, up to 95% of children and 53% of adults would be correctly diagnosed without biopsy. Despite GFDs and decreased tTG antibody levels, 25% of the adults did not recover from villous atrophy during the second year after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Strongly positive tTG antibody titers might be sufficient for CD diagnosis in children. However, duodenal biopsy cannot be avoided in adults because disease presentation and monitoring are different.

  10. Depression diagnoses following the identification of bipolar disorder: costly incongruent diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Jennifer F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has documented that the symptoms of bipolar disorder are often mistaken for unipolar depression prior to a patient's first bipolar diagnosis. The assumption has been that once a patient receives a bipolar diagnosis they will no longer be given a misdiagnosis of depression. The objectives of this study were 1 to assess the rate of subsequent unipolar depression diagnosis in individuals with a history of bipolar disorder and 2 to assess the increased cost associated with this potential misdiagnosis. Methods This study utilized a retrospective cohort design using administrative claims data from 2002 and 2003. Patient inclusion criteria for the study were 1 at least 2 bipolar diagnoses in 2002, 2 continuous enrollment during 2002 and 2003, 3 a pharmacy benefit, and 4 age 18 to 64. Patients with at least 2 unipolar depression diagnoses in 2003 were categorized as having an incongruent diagnosis of unipolar depression. We used propensity scoring to control for selection bias. Utilization was evaluated using negative binomial models. We evaluated cost differences between patient cohorts using generalized linear models. Results Of the 7981 patients who met all inclusion criteria for the analysis, 17.5% (1400 had an incongruent depression diagnosis (IDD. After controlling for background differences, individuals who received an IDD had higher rates of inpatient and outpatient psychiatric utilization and cost, on average, an additional $1641 per year compared to individuals without an IDD. Conclusions A strikingly high proportion of bipolar patients are given the differential diagnosis of unipolar depression after being identified as having bipolar disorder. Individuals with an IDD had increased acute psychiatric care services, suggesting higher levels of relapses, and were at risk for inappropriate treatment, as antidepressant therapy without a concomitant mood-stabilizing medication is contraindicated in bipolar

  11. Antinuclear antibody testing: discordance between commercial laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Aryeh M; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Abeles, Micha; Honiden, Shyoko

    2016-07-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test results frequently affect the course of patients' evaluations, diagnosis, and treatment, but different laboratory centers may yield conflicting results. This study investigated the degree of agreement between laboratory results in a group of subjects who had ANA testing performed at two commercial laboratories. This was a chart review study, in which all ANA tests ordered by the authors from one commercial laboratory over a 4-year period were queried. Corresponding patient charts were reviewed, and if ANA testing had also been performed at the second commercial laboratory, subjects were entered into the study. The primary measurement was agreement between paired ANA results, and we performed sensitivity analysis using varying criteria defining agreement (criteria A to criteria D [strictest to most lenient definition of agreement]). Other data captured included relevant data obtained through the course of evaluation (e.g., presenting complaints, exam findings, other laboratory data) and final diagnoses. Of 101 paired ANA tests, there was 18 % agreement according to the strictest criteria and 42 % according to the most lenient. Of the seven subjects with ANA-associated rheumatic disease, none of the paired tests were in agreement according to criteria A (two agreed according to criteria D). Our findings demonstrate poor agreement between paired ANA tests performed at two commercial laboratories. The low level of agreement may have far-reaching clinical implications. Specifically, this finding calls into question the reliability of ANA testing as it is currently performed and suggests that results may in part depend upon the laboratory center to which patients are referred. PMID:27044430

  12. CT-MPR invaluable in diagnosing odontogenic maxillary sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hideaki; Shimazu, Kaoru; Kamada, Morito; Shiroyama, Akihiro; Mouri, Daisuke; Yamashita, Masashi; Kawasaki, Yasunori; Koseki, Takakazu; Mouri, Manabu [Osaka Dental Univ. (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    In everyday examination, it is usual to encounter odontogenic maxillary sinusitis patients. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis is generally best diagnosed by dental X-ray imaging. Many medical facilities not having a dental X-ray unit use coronal computed tomography (CT) images to diagnose odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Coronal CT imaging causes artifacts, however due to dental prosthesises. Computed tomography-Multiplanar reformation (CT-MPR) imaging has proved useful in evaluating the paranasal sinus because it is not influenced by dental prosthesises. We evaluated the usefulness of CT-MPR for diagnosing odontogenic maxillary sinusitis by retrospectively analyzing 16 patients, with the following results. We couldn't diagnose all cases of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis in posteroanterior and Waters projection images. Panoramic radiography is needed to diagnose odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Dental X-ray imaging missed some cases, but all cases were diagnosed by CT-MPR imaging, giving a 100% diagnosestic rate. CT-MPR imaging is thus at least as valuable or better than dental X-ray imaging in diagnosing odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. (author)

  13. A novel trifunctional IgG-like bispecific antibody to inhibit HIV-1 infection and enhance lysis of HIV by targeting activation of complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomlinson Stephen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complement system is not only a key component of innate immunity but also provides a first line of defense against invading pathogens, especially for viral pathogens. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, however, possesses several mechanisms to evade complement-mediated lysis (CoML and exploit the complement system to enhance viral infectivity. Responsible for this intrinsic resistance against complement-mediated virolysis are complement regulatory membrane proteins derived from the host cell that inherently downregulates complement activation at several stages of the cascade. In addition, HIV is protected from complement-mediated lysis by binding soluble factor H (fH through the viral envelope proteins, gp120 and gp41. Whereas inhibition of complement activity is the desired outcome in the vast majority of therapeutic approaches, there is a broader potential for complement-mediated inhibition of HIV by complement local stimulation. Presentation of the hypothesis Our previous studies have proven that the complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infection is mediated by the association of complement receptor type 2 bound to the C3 fragment and deposited on the surface of HIV virions. Thus, we hypothesize that another new activator of complement, consisting of two dsFv (against gp120 and against C3d respectively linked to a complement-activating human IgG1 Fc domain ((anti-gp120 × anti-C3d-Fc, can not only target and amplify complement activation on HIV virions for enhancing the efficiency of HIV lysis, but also reduce the infectivity of HIV through blocking the gp120 and C3d on the surface of HIV. Testing the hypothesis Our hypothesis was tested using cell-free HIV-1 virions cultivated in vitro and assessment of virus opsonization was performed by incubating appropriate dilutions of virus with medium containing normal human serum and purified (anti-gp120 × anti-C3d-Fc proteins. As a control group, viruses

  14. An in situ method for diagnosing phase shifting interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, J.; Ma, D.; Zhang, H.; Xie, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Current diagnosing phase shifting interferometry is a time and funds consuming process. Hence a brief and effective method is necessary to satisfy the real-time testing. In this paper, mathematical solutions for errors were deduced from the difference of intensity patterns. Based on the diversity of error distributions, an effective method for distinguishing and diagnosing the error sources is proposed and verified by an elaborative designed simulation. In the actual comparison experiment, vibration, phase-shift error and intensity fluctuation were imposed to demonstrate this method. The results showed that this method can be applied into the real-time measurement and provide an in situ diagnosing technique.

  15. The role of antibodies in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baets, M; Stassen, M H W

    2002-10-15

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease associated with antibodies directed to the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. These antibodies reduce the number of receptors. Autoantibodies against AChR and other muscle antigens can be used for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis and related disorders. The origin and the role of these antibodies in the disease are discussed. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis, an experimental model closely mimicking the disease, has provided answers to many questions about the role of antibodies, complement macrophages and AChR anchor proteins. Genetically modified anti-AChR antibodies may also be used in the future to treat myasthenia. PMID:12220686

  16. Production of Monoclonal Antibody against Human Nestin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavi, Reza; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Ahmadvand, Negah; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Jafar; Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Tarahomi, Majid; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2010-04-01

    We have employed a peptide-based antibody generation protocol for producing antibody against human nestin. Using a 12-mer synthetic peptide from repetitive region of human nestin protein devoid of any N- or O-glyco-sylation sequences, we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody capable of recognizing human, mouse, bovine, and rat nestin. A wide variety of nestin proteins ranging from 140-250 kDa was detected by this antibody. This antibody is highly specific and functional in applications such as ELISA, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot assays. PMID:23407796

  17. Production of Monoclonal Antibody against Human Nestin

    OpenAIRE

    Hadavi, Reza; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Ahmadvand, Negah; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Jafar; Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad mehdi; Tarahomi, Majid; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2010-01-01

    We have employed a peptide-based antibody generation protocol for producing antibody against human nestin. Using a 12-mer synthetic peptide from repetitive region of human nestin protein devoid of any N- or O-glyco-sylation sequences, we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody capable of recognizing human, mouse, bovine, and rat nestin. A wide variety of nestin proteins ranging from 140–250 kDa was detected by this antibody. This antibody is highly specific and functional in applications such a...

  18. Monoclonal Antibody Therapies against Anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaochun Chen; Mahtab Moayeri; Robert Purcell

    2011-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It not only causes natural infection in humans but also poses a great threat as an emerging bioterror agent. The lethality of anthrax is primarily attributed to the two major virulence factors: toxins and capsule. An extensive effort has been made to generate therapeutically useful monoclonal antibodies to each of the virulence components: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and ede...

  19. Antibody Peptide Based Antifungal Immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Giovati, Laura; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Sperindè, Martina; Ciociola, Tecla; Polonelli, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections still represent relevant human illnesses worldwide and some are accompanied by unacceptably high mortality rates. The limited current availability of effective and safe antifungal agents makes the development of new drugs and approaches of antifungal vaccination/immunotherapy every day more needed. Among them, small antibody(Ab)-derived peptides are arousing great expectations as new potential antifungal agents. In this topic, the search path from the study of the yeast kill...

  20. Copper Cu 64 Anti-CEA Monoclonal Antibody M5A PET in Diagnosing Patients With CEA Positive Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Breast Cancer; Colon Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Liver and Intrahepatic Biliary Tract Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Rectal Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  1. Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in Veterinary Parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of hybridoma technology by Kohler and Milstein in 1975, heralded a new era in antibody research. Mouse hybridomas were the first reliable source of monoclonal antibodies. The generation of monoclonal antibodies from species other than rats and mice, has developed slowly over the last 30 years. The advent of antibody engineering and realization of the advantages of non murine antibodies has increased their relevance recently. However, in the area of veterinary parasitology, monoclonal antibodies are just beginning to fulfill the promises inherent in their great specificity for recognizing and selectively binding to antigens. This review describes the recent advances in the application of monoclonal antibodies for immunodiagnosis / prophylaxis and immunotherapy of parasitic diseases. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 183-188

  2. [An autopsy case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with prominent muscle cramps, fasciculation, and high titer of anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aki; Sakai, Naoko; Shinbo, Junsuke; Hashidate, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Yamazaki, Motoyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 55-year-old male who had prominent fasciculation and muscle cramps. Muscle weakness and atrophy of the trunk, respiratory system, and extremities gradually progressed. On the basis of these features, we diagnosed this patient as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), however, the upper motor neuron signs were not significant. Following the detection of the anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody at 907.5 pM (normal VGKC complex antibody in the development of cramp-fasciculation syndrome has been speculated. In this ALS patient, the antibodies might be associated with pathomechanisms underlying the characteristic symptoms.

  3. Hypothermia in VGKC antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S; Irani, S R; Rajabally, Y A; Grubneac, A; Walters, R J; Yazaki, M; Clover, L; Vincent, A

    2008-02-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody (VGKC-Ab)-associated limbic encephalitis (LE) is a recently described syndrome that broadens the spectrum of immunotherapy-responsive central nervous system disorders. Limbic encephalitis is typically characterised by a sub-acute onset of disorientation, amnesia and seizures, but the clinical spectrum is not yet fully defined and the syndrome could be under-diagnosed. We here describe the clinical profile of four patients with VGKC-Ab-associated LE who had intermittent, episodic hypothermia. One of the patients also described a prodrome of severe neuropathic pain preceding the development of limbic symptoms. Both of these novel symptoms responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, with concurrent amelioration of amnesia/seizures.

  4. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Rett Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Publications How do health care providers diagnose Rett syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... would rule out a Rett syndrome diagnosis. Atypical Rett Syndrome Genetic mutations causing some atypical variants of Rett ...

  5. An Event-based Approach to Hybrid Systems Diagnosability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnosability is an important issue in the design of diagnostic systems, because it helps identify whether sufficient information is available to distinguish all...

  6. Insurance Mandates Boost U.S. Autism Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159812.html Insurance Mandates Boost U.S. Autism Diagnoses Early treatment provides ... the Penn researchers analyzed inpatient and outpatient health insurance claims from 2008 through 2012 for more than ...

  7. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  8. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Fragile X Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Publications How do health care providers diagnose Fragile X syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... information helps families and providers to prepare for Fragile X syndrome and to intervene as early as possible. Possible ...

  9. Validity of stroke diagnoses in a National Register of Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Boysen, Gudrun; Janjua, Huma;

    2007-01-01

    Many registers containing routine medical information have been developed for research and surveillance purposes. In epidemiological research assessment of endpoints is often conducted via registers. In the present study we validated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnoses...

  10. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Pregnancy Loss or Miscarriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do health care providers diagnose pregnancy loss or miscarriage? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... pregnant woman experiences any of the symptoms of miscarriage, such as crampy abdominal or back pain, light ...

  11. Advances in monoclonal antibody application in myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-na HAN; Shuang HE; Yu-tang WANG; Li-ming YANG; Si-yu LIU; Ting ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become a part of daily preparation technologies in many laboratories.Attempts have been made to apply monoclonal antibodies to open a new train of thought for clinical treatments of autoimmune diseases,inflammatory diseases,cancer,and other immune-associated diseases.This paper is a prospective review to anticipate that monoclonal antibody application in the treatment of myocarditis,an inflammatory disease of the heart,could be a novel approach in the future.In order to better understand the current state of the art in monoclonal antibody techniques and advance applications in myocarditis,we,through a significant amount of literature research both domestic and abroad,developed a systematic elaboration of monoclonal antibodies,pathogenesis of myocarditis,and application of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis.This paper presents review of the literature of some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy to demonstrate the advance of monoclonal antibody application in myocarditis and a strong anticipation that monoclonal antibody application may supply an effective therapeutic approach to relieve the severity of myocarditis in the future.Under conventional therapy,myocarditis is typically associated with congestive heart failure as a progressive outcome,indicating the need for alternative therapeutic strategies to improve long-term results.Reviewing some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis,we recently found that monoclonal antibodies with high purity and strong specificity can accurately act on target and achieve definite progress in the treatment of viral myocarditis in rat model and may meet the need above.However,several issues remain.The technology on howto make a higher homologous and weak immunogenic humanized or human source antibody and the treatment mechanism of monoclonal antibodies may provide solutions for these open issues.If we are to further stimulate

  12. Circulating tumor cells in newly diagnosed inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mego, Michal; Giordano, Antonio; De Giorgi, Ugo; Masuda, Hiroko; Hsu, Limin; Giuliano, Mario; Fouad, Tamer M.; Dawood, Shaheenah; Ueno, Naoto T.; Valero, Vicente; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Alvarez, Ricardo H.; Wendy A Woodward; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. The prognostic value of a CTC count in newly diagnosed IBC has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of a baseline CTC count in patients with newly diagnosed IBC. Methods This retrosp...

  13. Follow-up of prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Lenz, K; Rabol, A;

    1996-01-01

    Based on previous experience with prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis, we found that the primary indications for surgical intervention should be symptoms or functional impairment of the hydronephrotic kidney. Nonoperative management of neonates without symptoms and with normal function...... of the affected kidney was proposed. However, the strategy of treatment after prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis is still controversial. We studied 28 consecutive children with suspected unilateral pelviureteral junction obstruction and a normal contralateral kidney. The overall follow-up period...

  14. The organisational diagnoses of a distribution organisation / Lourence Badenhorst Alblas

    OpenAIRE

    Alblas, Lourence Badenhorst

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades the economic performances of South Africa organisations were poor. This poor performance forced a lot of South African organisations to look at the way they do business. A method to analyse the way business is conducted through an Organisation Diagnose. Organisation Diagnose is the process of using concepts and methods from the social and behavioural sciences to assess the current state of an entire organisation and to find ways to improve th...

  15. A 65-year-old woman diagnosed with PHACE syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Ezra A; Garzon, Maria C; Parikh, Anuraag; Meyers, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    PHACE syndrome is characterized by the association between infantile hemangioma and varied but characteristic systemic manifestations, including cerebrovascular and cardiac abnormalities. The disorder has primarily been diagnosed in children, with little information available regarding long-term outcomes in affected individuals. We report the oldest known individual with PHACE syndrome in the medical literature, a 65-year-old woman who was diagnosed after a transient ischemic attack.

  16. Validity of stroke diagnoses in a National Register of Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Boysen, Gudrun; Janjua, Huma;

    2007-01-01

    Many registers containing routine medical information have been developed for research and surveillance purposes. In epidemiological research assessment of endpoints is often conducted via registers. In the present study we validated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnoses in the Dan......Many registers containing routine medical information have been developed for research and surveillance purposes. In epidemiological research assessment of endpoints is often conducted via registers. In the present study we validated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnoses...

  17. Frequency of nursing diagnoses in a surgical clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Andreza Cavalcanti Vasconcelos; Claudia Germania Alencar de Castro; Durcival Francisco da Silva; Vanessa Juvino de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to identify the frequency of Nursing Diagnoses of patients in a surgical clinic. Methods: cross-sectional study, performed with 99 patients in the postoperative of general surgery. Data were collected through a questionnaire validated according to domains of NANDA International, including physical and laboratory examination. Results: 17 nursing diagnoses were found; eight had a frequency higher than 50.0% (infection risk, impaired tissue integrity, constipation risk, anxiety, bleed...

  18. Circulating anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ho; Tu, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Shou-Cheng; Wei, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2014-07-01

    Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody is highly specific for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Cigarette smoking is a lifestyle and environmental factor associated with anti-CCP production and is strongly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study assessed levels of anti-CCP antibodies and rheumatoid factor (RF) among patients with RA and COPD. The study sample comprised 63 patients with RA and 70 patients with COPD, all of whom underwent assessment of anti-CCP antibody and RF levels. Testing revealed that 54.2% of RA patients and 0% of COPD patients were positive for anti-CCP antibodies. Additionally, 82.5% of RA patients and 42% of COPD patients were positive for RF. Among RA patients, levels of anti-CCP antibodies were higher among smokers than among nonsmokers (242.7 ± 128.3 vs. 68.1 ± 112.1, P < 0.001). COPD patients had low titers of RF but were negative for anti-CCP antibodies. The presence of anti-CCP antibodies was a reliable serologic marker in RA diagnosis and was associated with cigarette smoking.

  19. Detection of osteomyelitis using a Tc-99m labeled antigranulocyte antibody immunoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m labeled antigranulocyte antibody immunoscintigraphy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and compare with the results of triphasic bone scan. The study population was 39 patients (22 male, 17 female) who had uncertain diagnoses of osteomyelitis. Fifteen patients had history of orthopedic surgery, and 5 had previous fracture. One milligram of monoclonal antibody against NCA-95 was labeled with 370 MBq of Tc-99m, injected intravenously, and 4 hour images were obtained. Triphasic bone scan images were obtained in 30 patients. The final diagnosis was confirmed by bacteriologic culture, biopsy or long term clinical follow up. Twenty one patients were confirmed to have osteomyelitis (1 acute, 20 chronic). Eighteen patients were without osteomyelitis. Antigranulocyte antibody immunoscintigraphy had a sensitivity of 71% (15/21), and a specificity of 89% (16/18), while the sensitivity and specificity of triphasic bone scan was 93% (13/14) and 38% (6/16), respectively. Antigranulocyte antibody scan showed higher specificity of 100% (11/11) in comparison with 33% (3/9) of triphasic bone scan in patients with history of orthopedic surgery or fracture. Antigranulocyte antibody immunoscintigraphy is more specific than that of triphasic bone scan and may be helpful in patients with history of surgery or fracture. However, sensitivity is lower than triphasic bone scan in the detection of chronic osteomyelitis

  20. Expression characteristics and specific antibody reactivity of diverse cathepsin F members of Paragonimus westermani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chung, Dong-Ll; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Kim, Jin-Taek; Kong, Yoon

    2015-02-01

    Paragonimiasis, caused by the lung fluke Paragonimus, is a major food-borne helminthic disease. Differential diagnosis of paragonimiasis from tuberculosis and other infectious granulomas in the lung is a prerequisite to proper management of patients. Cysteine proteases of Paragonimus westermani (PwCPs) invoke specific antibody responses against patient sera, while antibody capturing activity of different PwCPs has not been comparatively analyzed. In this study, we observed the expressional regulation of 11 species of different PwCPs (PwCP1-11). We expressed recombinant PwCPs and assessed diagnostic reliability employing sera from patients with P. westermani (n=138), other trematodiases (n=80), cestodiases (n=60) and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=20), and those of normal controls (n=20). PwCPs formed a monophyletic clade into cathepsin F and showed differential expression patterns along with developmental stages of worm. Bacterially expressed recombinant PwCPs (rPwCPs) exhibited variable sensitivity of 38.4-84.5% and specificity of 87.2-100% in diagnosing homologous infection. rPwCPs recognized specific antibodies of experimental cat sera as early as 3 or 6weeks after infection. Patient sera of fascioliasis, Schistosomiasis japonicum and clonorchiasis demonstrated weak cross-reactions. Our results demonstrate that diverse PwCPs of the cathepsin F family participate in inducing specific antibody responses. Most P. westermani cathepsin F, except for PwCP2 (AAF21461), which showed negligible antibody responses, might be applicable for paragonimiasis serodiagnosis.

  1. Isolation and optimization of camelid single-domain antibodies:Dirk Saerens’work on nanobodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk; Saerens

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that all camelids have unique antibodies circulating in their blood.Unlike antibodies from all other species,these special antibodies are devoid of light chains,and are composed of a heavy chain homodimer.These so-called heavy-chain antibodies(HCAbs)are expressed after a V-D-J rearrangement and require dedicated constant gamma genes. An immune response is raised in these HCAbs following a classical immunization protocol.These HCAbs are easily purified from serum,and their antigen-binding fragment interacts with parts of the target that are less antigenic to conventional antibodies.The antigen binding site of the dromedary HCAb comprises one single domain,referred to as VHH or nanobody(Nb),therefore,a strategy was designed to clone the Nb repertoire of an immunized dromedary and to select the Nb with specificity for our target antigens.The monoclonal Nb is produced well in bacteria,is very stable and highly soluble,and it binds the antigen with high affinity and specificity.Currently,the recombinant Nb has been developed successfully for research purposes, as a probe in biosensors,to diagnose infections,or to treat diseases such as cancer or trypanosomiasis.

  2. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Kandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions. TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave′s disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto′s thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.

  3. Long-term falls in antibodies to dust mite and pollen allergens in patients with asthma or hay fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawle, F C; Burr, M L; Platts-Mills, T A

    1983-09-01

    'Spontaneous' improvement in, or alteration of, allergic symptoms is a common occurrence, and the immunological basis is of interest in attempts to develop effective specific therapy. In the present study we measured levels of serum antibodies to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in patients diagnosed as having house-dust-allergic asthma up to 40 years previously. The results show a progressive fall in both IgG and IgE antibodies to antigen P1 and RAST binding to crude D. pteronyssinus extract. By contrast changes in total serum IgE were not marked. Within each of the groups of patients diagnosed 20, 30 and 40 years previously, 70% no longer suffered severe symptoms. However, the absence of detectable IgE antibody in serum was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for loss of symptoms. A group of patients who had spontaneously recovered from hay fever had significantly lower IgG and IgE antibody for the major grass pollen allergen Rye I and also lower total IgE than current hay fever sufferers. In neither hay fever nor asthma was there evidence to link spontaneous improvement in symptoms with an increase in IgG antibodies.

  4. Antinuclear, Cytoskeletal, Antineuronal Antibodies in the Serum Samples of Children with Tic Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Görker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available streptococcus infections in the development of tic and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD is controversial. The autoimmune hypothesis states that during infection, formation of autoantibodies leads to an autoimmune disorder, which in turn results in movement disorders, tic disorders and/or OCD. In order to test this hypothesis, we assayed these antibodies in children and adolescents diagnosed with tic disorders and/or OCD.Material and Methods: Children and adolescents who were diagnosed with either tic disorders or OCD according to DSM-IV criteria (n=28, were compared with healthy controls (n=15 having similar age and gender characteristics. Regardless of a streptococcus infection history, serum samples of all patients and controls underwent antinuclear, cytoskeletal, and antineuronal antibody assay using indirect immunofluorescence.Results: The rates of antinuclear antibody positivity were 21% and 20% in the patient and control groups respectively (p>0.05. Antineuronal antibody was positive in 2 (7% of 28 patients versus in 1 (6% of 15 controls (p>0.05.Conclusion: These results suggest that such antibodies may not be involved in the pathogenesis of tic disorders/OCD.

  5. 不规则抗体筛查在预防溶血性输血反应中的作用%The role of irregular antibodies screening in preventing hemolytic transfusion reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the meaning of irregular antibodies screening in clinical transfusion. Methods By microcolumn agglutination technology,the irregular antibodies screening of 652 transfusion or pregnancies patients in our hospital were tested. Both the positive rates and the tiles of irregular antibodies were calculated,and the specifications were analyzed. Results Of 652 cases , 14 samples were found irregular antibodies positive including isoantibody 9 cases, anto-antibodies 3 cases and cold agglutination had 2 cases,and the positive rate was 2. 14%. The rate of Rh antibody 7 cases(anti-D antibody 2 cases,anti-E antibody 3 cases,anti-E+C antibody 1 case,anti-c antibody 1 case)was 77. 8% and that of other blood group system 2 cases(anti-M antibody 1 cases and anti-Lea antibody 1 cases) was 22. 2% in isoantibody 9 cases. Conclusion Irregular antibodies screening can prevent hemolytic transfusion reaction before clinical transfusion.%目的 探讨输血前不规则抗体筛查在临床安全输血中的意义.方法 对652例有输血和(或)妊娠史的输血患者血浆应用间接Coomb′s微柱凝胶法进行不规则抗体筛查,统计不规则抗体阳性率、鉴定抗体特异性及检测其抗体效价.结果 652例患者血浆中共筛检出14例不规则抗体阳性,阳性率2.14%.其中,同种抗体9例,自身抗体3例,高效价冷抗体2例.9例同种抗体中Rh系统7例(77.8%),抗D 2例,抗E 3例,抗E+C 1例,抗c 1例,其他血型系统2例(22.2%),抗M 1例,抗Lea 1例.结论 输血前不规则抗体筛查可有效预防溶血性输血反应的发生.

  6. Large Scale Generation and Characterization of Anti-Human IgA Monoclonal Antibody in Ascitic Fluid of Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ezzatifar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies are potentially powerful tools used in biomedical research, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases and cancers. The monoclonal antibody against Human IgA can be used as a diagnostic application to detect infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to improve an appropriate protocol for large-scale production of mAbs against IgA. Methods: For large-scale production of the monoclonal antibody, hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibodies against Human IgA were injected intraperitoneally into Balb/c mice that were previously primed with 0.5 ml Pristane. After ten days, ascitic fluid was harvested from the peritoneum of each mouse. The ELISA method was carried out for evaluation of the titration of produced mAbs. The ascitic fluid was investigated in terms of class and subclass by a mouse mAb isotyping kit. MAb was purified from the ascitic fluid by ion exchange chromatography. The purity of the monoclonal antibody was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and the purified monoclonal antibody was conjugated with HRP. Results: Monoclonal antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity against Human IgA were prepared by hybridoma technology. The subclass of antibody was IgG1 and its light chain was the kappa type. Conclusion: This conjugated monoclonal antibody could have applications in designing ELISA kits in order to diagnose different infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis and H. Pylori.

  7. Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: neuroradiologic findings in 11 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To describe the neuroradiologic findings of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS). During a recent two-year period, abnormally elevated antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in a total of 751 patients. In any cases in which risk factors for stroke were detected - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and the presence of SLE or other connective tissue diseases - PAPS was not diagnosed. Neuroradiologic studies were performed in 11 of 32 patients with PAPS. We retrospectively reviewed brain CT (n = 7), MR (n = 8), and cerebral angiography (n = 8) in 11 patients with special attention to the presence of brain parenchymal lesions and cerebral arterial or venous abnormalities. CT or MR findings of PAPS included nonspecific multiple hyper-intensity foci in deep white matter on T2-weighted images (5/11), a large infarct in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (4/11), diffuse cortical atrophy (2/11), focal hemorrhage (2/11), and dural sinus thrombosis (1/11). Angiographic findings were normal (5/8) or reflected either occlusion of a large cerebral artery (2/8) or dural sinus thrombosis (1/8). Neuroradiologic findings of PAPS are nonspecific but in young or middle- aged adults who show the above mentioned CT or MR findings, and in whom risk factors for stroke are not present, the condition should be suspected.

  8. Cuban Monoclonal Antibodies for Radioimmunodiagnosis and Radioimmunotherapy of Cancer Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    tumours. Nevertheless, the lack of a direct evidence of this antigenic display in human cancers has kept the subject controversial. For the first time, we described herein the 'in vivo' detection of GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside in human breast primary tumours using a radioimmunoscintigraphic technique with 14F7, a highly specific anti-GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside monoclonal antibody, labelled with 99mTc. In an open, prospective Phase I/II clinical trial, including women diagnosed in stage II breast cancer, the 14F7 monoclonal antibody accumulation in tumours at doses of 0.3 (n=5), 1 (n=5) and 3 mg (n=4) was evaluated. Noteworthy, the immunoscintigraphic study showed antibody accumulation in 100% of patients' tumours for the 1 mg dose group. In turn, the radioimmunoconjugate injected at doses of 0.3 mg or 3 mg of the antibody, was uptaken by 60 and 33.3% of breast tumours, respectively. 'In vivo' immune recognition of GM3(NeuGc) in breast tumours reinforces the value of this peculiar target for cancer immunotherapy. In two phase II Clinical Trials including women with metastatic breast cancer (n=14) and patients with colon cancer (n=19) in all stages, the 14F7 monoclonal antibody (3 mg) labelled with 99mTc (30-40 mCi) was also able to detect distant metastasis over expressing the GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside. (author)

  9. Ultrasound findings in fetal congenital heart block associated with maternal anti-Ro/SSA and Anti-La/SSB antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jasmine; Clark, Toshi J; Tan, Justin H; Delaney, Shani; Jolley, Jennifer A

    2015-03-01

    We present the sonographic features of a second-trimester fetus diagnosed with a bradyarrhythmia at 19 weeks' gestation. The mother carried a diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome, including the presence of SSA and SSB antibodies. Ultrasound M-mode and fetal echocardiogram revealed the etiology of the bradycardia to be a complete fetal congenital heart block, likely due to transplacental passage of autoimmune anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies. Consequential to the congenital heart block, the fetus developed hydrops fetalis at 21 weeks' gestational age. We discuss the 2 major etiologies of congenital heart block and the implications in subsequent pregnancies.

  10. Post-vaccination MDEM associated with MOG antibody in a subclinical Chlamydia infected boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azumagawa, Kohji; Nomura, Shohei; Shigeri, Yasushi; Jones, Leslie Sargent; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Takuya; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Nakajima, Hideto; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of post-vaccination acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been hypothesized as resulting from vaccination-injected antigens cross-reacting with myelin components, however, a precise etiology has been uncertain. In this report, we describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese boy who had multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), and was positive for both anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and Chlamydophila pneumoniae antibodies. After vaccinations that were the second one for measles and rubella, and the booster immunization for Japanese encephalitis, the patient presented with fever, headache, vomiting, and a change in personality. He was treated with a high-dose of intravenous methylprednisolone in the diagnosis of ADEM. However, these symptoms recurred with different magnetic resonance imaging lesion, and he was diagnosed as MDEM. Retrospective testing for pathogens revealed C. pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies, and it was considered that he was infected with C. pneumoniae subclinically. The patient's serum indicated a positive response for the anti-MOG antibody from the onset of the ADEM diagnosis and in all recurrent episodes. Chlamydia species infection has been known to play a role in demyelinating diseases. It is also known that the anti-MOG antibody may be present but not exhibit its pathogenesis in the absence of a cell-mediated inflammatory response; however, the precise mechanism of action of the anti-MOG antibodies is not yet determined. We propose the possibility that post-vaccination demyelinating disease may result from the synergistic effects of a preceding anti-MOG antibody, possibly produced in response to a subclinical Chlamydia species infection. PMID:26922251

  11. Controlled delivery of antibodies from injectable hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Nathan A; Babcock, Lyndsey R; Murray, Ellen A; Krebs, Melissa D

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are currently used for the treatment of various diseases, but large doses delivered systemically are typically required. Localized controlled delivery techniques would afford major benefits such as decreasing side effects and required doses. Injectable biopolymer systems are an attractive solution due to their minimally invasive potential for controlled release in a localized area. Here, alginate-chitosan hydrogels are demonstrated to provide controlled delivery of IgG model antibodies and also of Fab antibody fragments. Also, an alternate delivery system comprised of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with antibodies and encapsulated in alginate was shown to successfully provide another level of control over release. These biopolymer systems that offer controlled delivery for antibodies and antibody fragments will be promising for many applications in drug delivery and regenerative medicine.

  12. Factors determining antibody distribution in tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    The development of antibody therapies for cancer is increasing rapidly, primarily owing to their specificity. Antibody distribution in tumors is often extremely uneven, however, leading to some malignant cells being exposed to saturating concentrations of antibody, whereas others are completely untargeted. This is detrimental because large regions of cells escape therapy, whereas other regions might be exposed to suboptimal concentrations that promote a selection of resistant mutants. The distribution of antibody depends on a variety of factors, including dose, affinity, antigens per cell and molecular size. Because these parameters are often known or easily estimated, a quick calculation based on simple modeling considerations can predict the uniformity of targeting within a tumor. Such analyses should enable experimental researchers to identify in a straightforward way the limitations in achieving evenly distributed antibody, and design and test improved antibody therapeutics more rationally. PMID:18179828

  13. Stabilization of antibody fragments in adverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, H; Grant, S D; Harris, W J; Porter, A J

    1998-08-01

    Antibody fragments have the potential to be used as sensitive and specific binding agents in a broad range of industrial applications. Genetic manipulation has been used to design a series of antibody fragment configurations with a flexible linker and/or a disulphide bond between the heavy chain and light chain of an antibody fragment against the herbicide atrazine. The thermostability and stability to a range of denaturants, polar and non-polar solvents, surfactants and proteases have been compared. It has been found that a novel antibody fragment construct (STAB: stabilized antibody) containing both a flexible linker and a disulphide bond can be effectively produced and shows greatly improved stability in these diverse environments. These STABs should be useful in environmental diagnostics and remediation, and may provide a generic approach for stabilizing antibody fragments in formulations containing detergents and penetrants for topical application in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  14. 疑难配血中混合抗体鉴定1例%Identification of Mixed Antibodies in a Sample with Doubtful Cross-matching Result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玲; 罗广平; 赵阳; 骆宏; 姬艳丽; 莫春妍; 张润青

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨疑难配血过程中混合抗体的鉴定方法.方法 首先鉴定红细胞血型,并对血清进行抗体筛查及鉴定,再利用特定细胞对患者血清进行吸收放散实验分离抗体,最后分别对分离后的抗体进行鉴定.结果 患者血型为O型,Jka+b-,CCDee;用O型CCDee,Jkb+的细胞与患者血清进行吸收放散,分离抗体后鉴定结果为抗-cE、抗-Jkb的混合抗体.结论 选择合适的细胞进行吸收放散实验分离抗体,可以实现对混合抗体的鉴定,为患者选择相应抗原阴性的血液,保证临床输血安全.%Objective To identificate the mixed antibodies in a difficult-cross-matching sample. Methods RBC blood groups were identified, serum antibodies were screened and identified, special RBC was used in absorption and elu-tion test.the absorbed serum and the elution liquid were identified separately. Results The patient's blood groups were O. Jka+b- , CCDee. The RBC with O, CCDee, Jkb+was used in the absorption and elution test, the mixed antibodies were identified as anti-cE and anti-Jkb. 'Conclusion Suitable cells used in absorption and elution test can help to identify mixed antibodies. To ensure the safety of blood transfusion, irregular antibody related antigen negative blood can be used for the patient.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies as diagnostics; an appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the development of Hybridoma Technology in 1975 by Kohler and Milstein, our vision for antibodies as tools for research for prevention, detection and treatment of diseases, vaccine production, antigenic characterization of pathogens and in the study of genetic regulation of immune responses and disease susceptibility has been revolutionized. The monoclonal antibodies being directed against single epitopes are homogeneous, highly specific and can be produced in unlimited quantities. In animal disease diagnosis, they are very useful for identification and antigenic characterization of pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics, therapeutics and targeted drug delivery systems, not only for infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and protozoa but also for cancer, metabolic and hormonal disorders. They are also used in the diagnosis of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, tissue typing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radio immunoassay, serotyping of microorganisms, immunological intervention with passive antibody, antiidiotype inhibition, or magic bullet therapy with cytotoxic agents coupled with anti mouse specific antibody. Recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology through genetic engineering has successfully led to the possibility of reconstruction of monoclonal antibodies viz. chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies and complementarily determining region grafted antibodies and their enormous therapeutic use.

  16. Snake venom antibodies in Ecuadorian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, R D; Reid, H A; Larrick, J W; Kaplan, J; Yost, J A

    1981-10-01

    Serum samples from 223 Waorani Indians, a tribe in eastern Ecuador, were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to snake venom. Seventy-eight per cent were positive, confirming the highest incidence and mortality from snake bite poisoning yet recorded in the world. Most samples were positive for more than one venom antibody. Antibodies were found to venoms of Bothrops viper in 60% of positive cases, of Micrurus coral snake in 21%, and of the bushmaster, Lachesis muta, in 18%. Further studies are needed to determine whether high venom-antibody levels afford protection against further snake envenoming. PMID:7299877

  17. Sequence and structual analysis of antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on the sequence and structural analysis of antibodies and has fallen into three main areas. First I developed a method to assess how typical an antibody sequence is of the expressed human antibody repertoire. My hypothesis was that the more "human like" an antibody sequence is (in other words how typical it is of the expressed human repertoire), the less likely it is to elicit an immune response when used in vivo in humans. In practice, I found that, ...

  18. Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Systemic Scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awa Oumar Touré

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLs could be associated with an increased risk of vascular pathologies in systemic scleroderma. The aim of our study was to search for APLs in patients affected by systemic scleroderma and to evaluate their involvement in the clinical manifestations of this disease. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study, from January 2009 until August 2010, with patients received at the Department of Dermatology (Dakar, Senegal. Blood samples were taken at the hematology laboratory and were analyzed for the presence of APLs. Results: Forty patients were recruited. Various types of either isolated or associated APLs were found in 23 patients, i.e. 57.5% of the study population. The most frequently encountered antibody was IgG anti-β2 GPI (37.5% of the patients, followed by anticardiolipins (17.5% and lupus anticoagulants (5%. No statistically significant association of positive antiphospholipid-related tests to any of the scleroderma complications could be demonstrated. Conclusion: A high proportion of patients showing association of systemic scleroderma and APLs suggests the presence of a morbid correlation between these 2 pathologies. It would be useful to follow a cohort of patients affected by systemic scleroderma in order to monitor vascular complications following confirmation of the presence of antiphospholipid syndrome.

  19. Verification of Opacity and Diagnosability for Pushdown Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In control theory of discrete event systems (DESs, one of the challenging topics is the extension of theory of finite-state DESs to that of infinite-state DESs. In this paper, we discuss verification of opacity and diagnosability for infinite-state DESs modeled by pushdown automata (called here pushdown systems. First, we discuss opacity of pushdown systems and prove that opacity of pushdown systems is in general undecidable. In addition, a decidable class is clarified. Next, in diagnosability, we prove that under a certain assumption, which is different from the assumption in the existing result, diagnosability of pushdown systems is decidable. Furthermore, a necessary condition and a sufficient condition using finite-state approximations are derived. Finally, as one of the applications, we consider data integration using XML (Extensible Markup Language. The obtained result is useful for developing control theory of infinite-state DESs.

  20. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  1. Urinary incontinence nursing diagnoses in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Alteniza Leandro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying the prevalence of Stress urinary incontinence (SUI, Urge urinary incontinence (UUI, Functional urinary incontinence (FUI, Overflow urinary incontinence (OUI and Reflex urinary incontinence (RUI nursing diagnoses and their defining characteristics in stroke patients. METHOD A cross-sectional study with 156 patients treated in a neurological clinic. Data were collected through interviews and forwarded to nurses for diagnostic inference. RESULTS 92.3% of the patients had at least one of the studied diagnoses; OUI showed the highest prevalence (72.4%, followed by FUI (53.2%, RUI (50.0%, UUI (41.0% and SUI (37.8%. Overdistended bladder and reports of inability to reach the toilet in time to avoid urine loss were the most prevalent defining characteristics. A statistically significant association of the defining characteristics with the studied diagnosis was verified. CONCLUSION The five incontinence diagnoses were identified in the evaluated patients, with different prevalence.

  2. Antibodies to human fetal erythroid cells from a nonimmune phage antibody library

    OpenAIRE

    Huie, Michael A.; Cheung, Mei-Chi; Muench, Marcus O.; Becerril, Baltazar; Kan, Yuet W.; Marks, James D.

    2001-01-01

    The ability to isolate fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) from the maternal circulation makes possible prenatal genetic analysis without the need for diagnostic procedures that are invasive for the fetus. Such isolation requires antibodies specific to fetal NRBCs. To generate a panel of antibodies to antigens present on fetal NRBCs, a new type of nonimmune phage antibody library was generated in which multiple copies of antibody fragments are displayed on each pha...

  3. High level transient production of recombinant antibodies and antibody fusion proteins in HEK293 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Volker; Büssow, Konrad; Wagner, Andreas; Weber, Susanne; Hust, Michael; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand of monospecific high affinity binding reagents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, has been steadily increasing over the last years. Enhanced throughput of antibody generation has been addressed by optimizing in vitro selection using phage display which moved the major bottleneck to the production and purification of recombinant antibodies in an end-user friendly format. Single chain (sc)Fv antibody fragments require additional tags for detection and are not as suitable...

  4. Does the Maternal Serum IgG Level during Pregnancy in Primary Antibody Deficiency Influence the IgG Level in the Newborn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantha Nagendran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To find out if the serum IgG level in the newborn baby was affected by low maternal serum IgG during pregnancy in two newly diagnosed primary antibody deficient patients. Method. Infant cord blood IgG level was compared with maternal IgG level in 2 mothers with newly diagnosed primary antibody deficiency, who declined replacement IgG treatment during pregnancy. Results. Both mothers delivered healthy babies with normal IgG levels at birth. Conclusions. The normal IgG levels and sound health in these 2 babies in spite of low maternal IgG throughout pregnancy raise interesting discussion points about maternofoetal immunoglobulin transport mechanisms in primary antibody deficiency.

  5. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Lokman, C.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications

  6. Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Issaragrisil, Surapol;

    2010-01-01

    Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase.......Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase....

  7. Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula successfully diagnosed by CT esophagography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koichi Nagata; Yoshito Kamio; Tamaki Ichikawa; Mitsutaka Kadokura; Akihiko Kitami; Shungo Endo; Haruhiro Inoue; Shin-Ei Kudo

    2006-01-01

    Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) or bronchoesophageal fistula may be congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic,or secondary to trauma. Congenital TEF or bronchoesophageal fistula is usually associated with esophageal atresia and is readily diagnosed in infancy.But if it is not associated with esophageal atresia, it may persist until adulthood. Some theories have been proposed to explain this delay in diagnosis. We present a case of a 70-year-old man with congenital TEF. The TEF was successfully diagnosed by multidetector-row CT esophagography.

  8. Traumatic Lumbar Hernia Diagnosed by Ultrasonography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Lae; Yim, Yoon Myung; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok; Choi, Chung Hwan; Lee, Ju Kang [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Traumatic lumbar hernia describes the extrusion of intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal contents through a defect in the posterolateral abdominal wall caused by a trauma. This is a rare entity and usually diagnosed by computed tomography. A 64-year-old male received an injury on his cervical spinal cord after an accident in which he fell down. He complained of a mass on his left posterolateral back area. We diagnosed the mass as a traumatic lumbar hernia by ultrasonography and confirmed it by computed tomography. We conclude that the ultrasonography can be a useful diagnostic tool for traumatic lumbar hernia

  9. No Circadian Variation in Surgeons' Ability to Diagnose Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Bech; Amirian, Ilda; Watt, Sara Kehlet;

    2015-01-01

    patients were included. There were no age limitations or selection in sex. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the ability to diagnose appendicitis in day-evening hours vs night hours (p = 0.391), nor was any significant difference found on weekdays (Monday-Thursday) vs weekends (Friday...... of imaging had no effect on the ability to diagnose appendicitis. Male sex showed a higher probability of the diagnosis being appendicitis compared with other or no pathology (odds ratio: 3.094; p

  10. Characteristics of colorectal cancer diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; Fugo, Kazunori; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; Kishimoto, Takashi; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Patient records were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasound (US). Patients diagnosed with CRC using abdominal US [localized irregular wall thickening (W) or a hypoechoic mass with a hyperechoic mass (M)] were enrolled. The patients were subjected to colonoscopy and treated surgically between March, 2010 and January, 2015. A total of 5 men (aged 74.0±0.8 years) and 10 women (aged 73.0±12.0...

  11. Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosing Bone Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Results: A total of 36 cases were studied, of which diagnostic material was adequately obtained in 32 cases (88.88%. The sensitivity (92.85% and specificity (94.44% of FNAC were high, with an accuracy of 93.75%, which is similar to findings in other studies. Conclusion: FNAC plays a vital role in diagnosing bone tumors. It is a rapid, easy, cheap, and minimum invasive outpatient department procedure. However histopathology is still important in diagnosing bone tumors that are unclear or undiagnosed on FNAC since histopathology gives a complete architectural pattern of tissue.

  12. Different Pathophysiological Phenotypes among Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    autoimmune diabetes (LADA) (GAD antibody titer >= 20 IE/ml and not T1D), secondary diabetes (recent history of pancreatitis, pancreatectomy or pancreas amylase > 65U/l, and GAD negativity), steroid-induced diabetes (oral glucocorticoid-treated subjects), insulinopenic (f-P-C-peptide

  13. Sustained Remission of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Mediated Glomerulonephritis and Nephrotic Syndrome in Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Harris, Alexis A.; Barry, Marc; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H.

    2013-01-01

    A woman diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) developed an anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and nephrotic syndrome with normal serum creatinine. Percutaneous kidney biopsy showed pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with superimposed immune complex deposition. After treatment with cyclophophamide and prednisone, proteinuria decreased progressively to a level of 0.4 g/g creatinine, ANCA became undetectable, while serum creatinine remained normal ...

  14. Mucosal Antibodies Induced by Intranasal but Not Intramuscular Immunization Block Norovirus GII.4 Virus-Like Particle Receptor Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Kirsi; Malm, Maria; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) account for the majority of diagnosed cases of viral acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines against NoV are currently under development. Serum antibodies that block the binding of NoV VLPs to histo-blood group antigens, the putative receptors for NoV, correlate with protection against NoV infection. The role of functional mucosal antibodies in protection is largely unknown, even though the intestinal mucosa is the entry port for NoV. Balb/c mice were immunized intramuscularly (IM) or intranasally (IN) with NoV GII.4 VLPs, and systemic and mucosal blocking antibody responses were studied. IN immunization elicited NoV-specific serum and mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies, whereas IM immunized animals completely lacked IgA. Both immunization routes induced similar blocking activity in serum but only IN route generated blocking antibodies in mucosa. The level of IgA in the mucosal (nasal) lavages strongly correlated (r = 0.841) with the blocking activity, suggesting that IgA, but not IgG, is the major NoV blocking antibody on mucosal surfaces. The results indicate that only mucosal immunization route induces the development of functional anti-NoV IgA on mucosal surface. PMID:27135874

  15. Role of anti-nucleosome antibodies in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus and as a marker for lupus nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Gawad, Eman R; Mansour, Amira I; Abdel Aziz, Yasser A; Soliman, Aml F; Fawzy, Rasha M

    2014-01-01

    SLE is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by variation in clinical and serological manifestations. This study intended to verify the role of anti-nucleosome (anti-NCS) antibodies in diagnosis of SLE and lupus nephritis and to establish the correlation between antibody reactivity and disease activity. Study subjects included 35 patients diagnosed as SLE and two control groups. While the first is a group with other collagen diseases (n = 80), the second included 50 matched apparently healthy subjects. Serum IgG anti-NCS antibodies in all subjects were detected by ELISA. Serum anti-NCS were higher in SLE than in the two control groups (P antibodies showed a higher diagnostic sensitivity (74.7%) and specificity (96%) than anti-dsDNA. Combining data of anti-NCS and anti-dsDNA antibodies increased the diagnostic specificity to 97.3%. In conclusion, serum anti-NCS antibodies have diagnostic value and play role in the assessment of disease activity especially active renal disease and may predict disease outcome.

  16. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  17. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  18. "Unconventional" Neutralizing Activity of Antibodies Against HIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are recognized to be one of the essential elements of the adaptive immune response that must be induced by an effective vaccine against HIV. However, only a limited number of antibodies have been identified to neutralize a broad range of primary isolates of HIV-1 and attempts to induce such antibodies by immunization were unsuccessful. The difficulties to generate such antibodies are mainly due to intrinsic properties of HIV-1 envelope spikes, such as high sequence diversity, heavy glycosylation, and inducible and transient nature of certain epitopes. In vitro neutralizing antibodies are identified using "conventional" neutralization assay which uses phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human PBMCs as target cells. Thus, in essence the assay evaluates HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells. Recently, several laboratories including us demonstrated that some monoclonal antibodies and HIV-1-specific polyclonal IgG purified from patient sera, although they do not have neutralizing activity when tested by the "conventional" neutralization assay, do exhibit potent and broad neutralizing activity in "unconventional" ways. The neutralizing activity of these antibodies and IgG fractions is acquired through post-translational modifications, through opsonization of virus particles into macrophages and immature dendritic cells (iDCs), or through expression of antibodies on the surface of HIV-1-susceptible cells. This review will focus on recent findings of this area and point out their potential applications in the development of preventive strategies against HIV.

  19. Photonic crystal fiber based antibody detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, A; Lhoutellier, M; Jensen, J B;

    2004-01-01

    An original approach for detecting labeled antibodies based on strong penetration photonic crystal fibers is introduced. The target antibody is immobilized inside the air-holes of a photonic crystal fiber and the detection is realized by the means of evanescent-wave fluorescence spectroscopy...... and the use of a transversal illumination setup....

  20. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L; Shaw, A; Slupsky, J; Vos, H; Poppema, S

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia were developed to aid in the diagnosis of this subtype of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to gain better insight into the origin of hairy cells. Three antibodies were found to be of value in the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia. Antibod

  1. Synthetic Antibodies for Reversible Cell Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing Zhou

    2011-12-01

    Antibody-mediated cell recognition plays a critical role in various biological and biomedical applications. However, strong antibody-cell interactions can lead to the difficulty of separating antibodies from the bound cells in a simple and non-destructive manner, which is often necessary to numerous applications such as cell sorting or separation. Thus, this thesis research is aimed to create an antibody-like nanomaterial with the function of reversible cell recognition It was hypothesized that nucleic acid aptamer and dendrimer could be used as fundamental structural components to develop an antibody-like nanomaterial. The aptamer functions as the binding site of an antibody; the dendrimer is used as a robust, defined nano-scaffold to support the aptamer and to carry small molecules (e.g., fluorophores). To test this hypothesis, a novel method was first developed to discover the essential nucleotides of full-length aptamers to mimic the binding sites of antibodies. The essential nucleotides were further conjugated with a dendrimer to synthesize a monovalent aptamer-dendrimer nanomaterial. The results clearly showed that the essential nucleotides could maintain high affinity and specificity after tethered on dendrimer surface. To further test the hypothesis that antibody-like nanomaterials can be rationally designed to acquire the capability of reversible cell recognition, an aptamer that was selected at 0 °C was used as a model to synthesize a "Y-shaped" nanomaterial by conjugating two aptamers to the same dendrimer. The results showed that the nanomaterial-cell interaction could be affected by the distance between two binding aptamers. In addition, the "Y-shaped" antibody-like nanomaterial could bind target cells more strongly than its monovalent control. Importantly, the strong cell-nanomaterial interaction could be rapidly reversed when the temperature was shifted from 0 °C to 37 °C. In summary, we developed a synthetic antibody that can not only mimic the

  2. Syntax of Emotional Narratives of Persons Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of 60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with…

  3. Injury Patterns among Individuals Diagnosed with Infantile Autism during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend-Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, injury risk among people with infantile autism (IA) has been a relatively poorly researched issue.Objective:The purpose of our study was to compare the prevalence and types of injuries in a clinical sample of 118 patients diagnosed with IA during childhood with those of 336 age...

  4. DIFFERENT MULLERIAN DUCT ANOMALIES - DIAGNOSED INCIDENTALLY OR DURING EMERGENCY INTERVENTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runa; Kana; Mangal Prasad

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Mullerian duct fusion abnormalities result in different reproductive outcomes ranging from multiple uneventful childbirths to ruptures of rudimentary horn during pregnancy. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : We intended to show the range of reproductive outcomes in different Mullerian duct anomalies . MATERIAL AND METHODS : We included 15 cases with fusion abnormalities of Mullerian ducts diagnosed for the first time while they presented to us, eith...

  5. Weight history of patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, N de Fine; Richelsen, B; Siersma, V;

    2008-01-01

    newly diagnosed with diabetes aged > or = 40 years. Patients' weight at diagnosis was measured by the doctor, while patients recalled their weight approximately 1, 5 and 10 years prior to diagnosis and at age 20 years. RESULTS: Median weight gain from age 20 years to diabetes diagnosis at median age 65...

  6. Nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Euzeli da Silva; dos Santos, Iraci; Lanzillotti, Regina Serrão; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Gamba, Mônica Antar; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: identify nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis. Method: a quantitative and descriptive research, carried out in three institutions located in Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using the Client Assessment Protocol in Dermatology during a nursing consultation. Simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Results: 14 subjects participated in the study, nine with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus two and three of bullous pemphigoid. The age ranged between 27 and 82 years, predominantly females (11). 14 nursing diagnoses were discussed and identified from a clinical rationale in all study participants, representing the most common human responses in this sample. The application of the Assessment Protocol in Dermatology facilitated the comprehensive assessment, in addition to providing the identification of diagnostics according to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International. Conclusion: the nursing diagnoses presented confirm the necessity of interdisciplinary work during the care for this clientele. For better description of the phenomena related to the client in question, it is suggested the inclusion of two risk factors related in three diagnoses of this taxonomy. It is worth noting the contribution of the findings for the care, education and research in nursing in dermatology. PMID:27533274

  7. The Emotional Lexicon of Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…

  8. Diagnoses and visit length in complementary and mainstream medicine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Groot, J. de; Koster, D.; Dulmen, S. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for complementary medicine (CM) is growing worldwide and so is the supply. So far, there is not much insight in the activities in Dutch CM practices nor in how these activities differ from mainstream general practice. Comparisons on diagnoses and visit length can offer an impr

  9. Challenges in Diagnosing Narcolepsy without Cataplexy: A Consensus Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, C.R.; Mignot, E.; Lammers, G.J.; Overeem, S.; Arnulf, I.; Rye, D.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Honda, M.; Owens, J.A.; Plazzi, G.; Scammell, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnosing narcolepsy without cataplexy is often a challenge as the symptoms are nonspecific, current diagnostic tests are limited, and there are no useful biomarkers. In this report, we review the clinical and physiological aspects of narcolepsy without cataplexy, the limitations of ava

  10. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  11. Diagnosing Language Impairment in Bilinguals: Professional Experience and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Hickey, Tina M.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing specific language impairment (SLI) in monolingual children is a complex task, with some controversy regarding criteria. Diagnosis of SLI in bilinguals is made more complex by the lack of standardized assessments and poor understanding of clinical markers in languages other than English. There is an added complexity when one of the…

  12. Psychosocial and Moral Development of PTSD-Diagnosed Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John G.; Baker, Stanley B.

    2007-01-01

    Two related studies were conducted in order to investigate whether psychosocial and moral development appeared to have been disrupted and arrested in veterans diagnosed as having posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study 1 was devoted to developing a measure of late adolescence, early adulthood, and adulthood stages of psychosocial…

  13. Laparoscopy can be used to diagnose peritoneal tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferløv Schwensen, Jakob; Bulut, Mustafa; Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    and widespread pale nodules were found throughout the peritoneum. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed with peritoneal tuberculosis. This case demonstrates that atypical manifestations of tuberculosis exist in Denmark and that laparoscopy with biopsy can be performed to obtain the diagnosis when suspecting...... peritoneal tuberculosis....

  14. Eating Disordspan>er Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  15. Impaired Sertoli cell function in males diagnosed with Noonan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, K.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Burgt, I van der; Noordam, C.

    2008-01-01

    In order to study male gonadal function in Noonan syndrome, clinical and laboratory data, including inhibin B, were gathered in nine pubertal males diagnosed with Noonan syndrome. Bilateral testicular maldescent was observed in four, and unilateral cryptorchidism occurred in two. Puberty was delayed

  16. Laparoscopy can be used to diagnose peritoneal tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferløv Schwensen, Jakob; Bulut, Mustafa; Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    and widespread pale nodules were found throughout the peritoneum. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed with peritoneal tuberculosis. This case demonstrates that atypical manifestations of tuberculosis exist in Denmark and that laparoscopy with biopsy can be performed to obtain the diagnosis when...... suspecting peritoneal tuberculosis....

  17. [Intravesical active prostate bleeding diagnosed in B-mode ultrasound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgesner, T; Danse, E; Tombal, B

    2013-09-01

    Hematuria is one of the most frequent minor complications after prostatic biopsy. We would like to report the case of a 68-year-old patient with massive hematuria after prostatic biopsy and intravesical active prostate bleeding diagnosed in B-mode ultrasonography. PMID:24034804

  18. Asthma in elite athletes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Elite athletes have a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although respiratory symptoms can be suggestive of asthma, the diagnosis of asthma in elite athletes cannot be based solely on the presence or absence of symptoms; diagnosis should be based on objective meas...... athletes with asthma, anti-doping regulations, and differential diagnoses such as exercise-induced laryngomalacia are discussed....

  19. CLINICAL AND FAMILY PROFILE OF PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH KERATOCONUS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana; Rekha B.; Vidyadevi; De, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To screen the first degree relatives of patient diagnosed with keratoconus . MATERIALS AND METHODS : All the patients included in the study, patient details were taken which included - name, age, gender, hospital number, address and family history [pedigree tree] . All the patients underwent refraction, best corrected visual acuity, colour vision , keratometry, intraocular pressure measurement and cornea...

  20. Weight and Height in Children Newly Diagnosed With Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Sulkers, Esther; Hooimeijer, H. Louise; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; van Sonderen, Eric; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although weight loss and lack of linear growth occur in children with cancer, growth history is not included in research that aims to determine nutritional status in children newly diagnosed with cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to determine weight loss and lack of linear growth in th

  1. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma diagnosed by core-needle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamaru, Satoru; Haba, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of chondrosarcoma of the larynx, diagnosed by a percutaneous core-needle biopsy (CNB). Cartilaginous tumors of the larynx are usually diagnosed by biopsy with direct laryngomicroscopy under general anesthesia. However, patients find it difficult to undergo a biopsy under general anesthesia, for physical, economic, and social reasons. Instead, we can readily detect and sample tumors of the larynx using ultrasound under local anesthesia with reduced stress. Concerning needle-puncture biopsies, including fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and CNB, some studies have reported needle track dissemination, a possible complication in patients with malignant tumors. Thus, in the head and neck region, we generally use FNAC for biopsies, not CNB. However, it can be difficult to diagnose bone tumors by cytology alone. Regarding primary bone tumors, only one study has reported needle track dissemination by CNB, in osteosarcoma of the femur. Additionally, this complication has not been reported before with chondrosarcoma anywhere in the body. To our knowledge, this is the first report concerning chondrosarcoma of the larynx diagnosed by percutaneous CNB. We recommend CNB as a useful and safe diagnostic technique for primary bone tumors in the head and neck region.

  2. Is one diagnosis the whole story? patients with double diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurolap, Alina; Orenstein, Naama; Kedar, Inbal; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Tiosano, Dov; Mory, Adi; Levi, Zohar; Marom, Daphna; Cohen, Lior; Ekhilevich, Nina; Douglas, Jessica; Nowak, Catherine Bearce; Tan, Wen-Hann; Baris, Hagit N

    2016-09-01

    One of the goals of evaluating a patient in the genetics clinic is to find the diagnosis that would explain his or her clinical presentation. Sometimes the patient's diagnosis remains undefined or does not explain all of the clinical findings. As clinicians are often guided by a "single disorder" paradigm, diagnosing multiple genetic conditions in the same patient requires a heightened sense of awareness. Over the last few years, we evaluated several patients (n = 14) who were found to have more than one genetic diagnosis. In this paper, we will describe their natural history and diagnoses, and draw on the lessons learned from this phenomenon, which we expect to grow in this era of next-generation diagnostic technologies. To our knowledge, this is by far the largest series of patients with double diagnoses. Based on our findings, we strongly recommend that physicians question every diagnosis to determine whether it indeed explains all of the patients' symptoms, and consider whether they should continue the diagnostic evaluation to look for a more accurate and complete set of diagnoses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27271787

  3. Another case of prenatally diagnosed 48,XYY,+21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, J. [Children`s Hospital of Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1995-02-13

    We report on a 20-month-old boy with 48,XYY,+21, the third prenatally diagnosed patient with this rare double aneuploidy syndrome. A review of 14 literature cases suggests that the Down syndrome phenotype appears unaltered by the extra Y chromosome. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Trends in Malignant Glioma Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhonin, Ivan; Gurina, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Although new passive and active immunotherapy methods are emerging, unconjugated monoclonal antibodies remain the only kind of biological preparations approved for high-grade glioma therapy in clinical practice. In this review, we combine clinical and experimental data discussion. As antiangiogenic therapy is the standard of care for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we analyze major clinical trials and possible therapeutic combinations of bevacizumab, the most common monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Another humanized antibody to gain recognition in GBM is epidermal growth factor (EGFR) antagonist nimotuzumab. Other antigens (VEGF receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, hepatocyte growth factor and c-Met system) showed significance in gliomas and were used to create monoclonal antibodies applied in different malignant tumors. We assess the role of genetic markers (isocitrate dehydrogenase, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransnsferase) in GBM treatment outcome prediction. Besides antibodies studied in clinical trials, we focus on perspective targets and briefly list other means of passive immunotherapy.

  5. Antiphospholipid antibody: laboratory, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziglioli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL represent a heterogeneous group of antibodies that recognize various antigenic targets including beta2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI, prothrombin (PT, activated protein C, tissue plasminogen activator, plasmin and annexin A2. The most commonly used tests to detect aPL are: lupus anticoagulant (LAC, a functional coagulation assay, anticardiolipin antibody (aCL and anti-β2GPI antibody (anti-β2GPI, which are enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA. Clinically aPL are associated with thrombosis and/or with pregnancy morbidity. Apparently aPL alone are unable to induce thrombotic manifestations, but they increase the risk of vascular events that can occur in the presence of another thrombophilic condition; on the other hand obstetrical manifestations were shown to be associated not only to thrombosis but mainly to a direct antibody effect on the trophoblast.

  6. Diagnosing feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in FIV-vaccinated and FIV-unvaccinated cats using saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that two immunochromatography point-of-care FIV antibody test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) were able to correctly assign FIV infection status, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using whole blood as the diagnostic specimen. A third FIV antibody test kit, SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo (an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), was unable to differentiate antibodies produced in response to FIV vaccination from those incited by FIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine if saliva is a suitable diagnostic specimen using the same well characterized feline cohort. FIV infection status of these cats had been determined previously using a combination of serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and virus isolation. This final assignment was then compared to results obtained using saliva as the diagnostic specimen utilizing the same three point-of-care FIV antibody test kits and commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR). In a population of cats where one third (117/356; 33%) were FIV-vaccinated, both immunochromatography test kits accurately diagnosed FIV infection using saliva via a centrifugation method, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. For FIV diagnosis using saliva, the specificity of Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness FeLV/FIV was 100%, while the sensitivity of these kits was 96% and 92% respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo had a specificity of 98% and sensitivity of 44%, while FIV RealPCR testing had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 72% using saliva. A revised direct method of saliva testing was trialed on a subset of FIV-infected cats (n=14), resulting in 14, 7 and 0 FIV positive results using Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV, Witness FeLV/FIV and SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, respectively. These results demonstrate that saliva can be used to diagnose FIV infection, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using either a centrifugation method (Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness

  7. Vector-Mediated In Vivo Antibody Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepp, Bruce C; Johnson, Philip R

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on a novel vaccine strategy known as vector-mediated antibody gene transfer, with a particular focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This strategy provides a solution to the problem of current vaccines that fail to generate neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Antibody gene transfer allows for predetermination of antibody affinity and specificity prior to "immunization" and avoids the need for an active humoral immune response against the HIV envelope protein. This approach uses recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, which have been shown to transduce muscle with high efficiency and direct the long-term expression of a variety of transgenes, to deliver the gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into the muscle. Following rAAV vector gene delivery, the broadly neutralizing antibodies are endogenously synthesized in myofibers and passively distributed to the circulatory system. This is an improvement over classical passive immunization strategies that administer antibody proteins to the host to provide protection from infection. Vector-mediated gene transfer studies in mice and monkeys with anti-HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-neutralizing antibodies demonstrated long-lasting neutralizing activity in serum with complete protection against intravenous challenge with virulent HIV and SIV. These results indicate that existing potent anti-HIV antibodies can be rapidly moved into the clinic. However, this methodology need not be confined to HIV. The general strategy of vector-mediated antibody gene transfer can be applied to other difficult vaccine targets such as hepatitis C virus, malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. PMID:26104192

  8. Immobilization of antibodies and enzyme-labeled antibodies by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilization of antibodies and enzyme-labeled antibodies by radiation polymerization at low temperatures was studied. The antibody activity of antibody was not affected by irradiation at an irradiation dose of below 8 MR and low temperatures. Immobilization of peroxidase-labeled anti-rabbit IgG goat IgG, anti-peroxidase, peroxidase, and anti-alpha-fetoprotein was carried out with hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers. The activity of the immobilized enzyme-labeled antibody membranes varied with the thickness of the membranes and increased with decreasing membrane thickness. The activity of the immobilized antibody particles was varied by particle size. Immobilized anti-alpha-fetoprotein particles and membranes can be used for the assay of alpha-fetoprotein by the antigen-antibody reaction, such as a solid-phase sandwich method with high sensitivity

  9. Commentary: the problem of agreement on diagnoses in criminal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Raymond F

    2010-01-01

    The authors present an important two-part study as they strive to provide an empirical analysis of psychiatric diagnoses in criminal case reports in Australia. In the first part, they compare the level of agreement or correlation of diagnoses between pairs of experts who prepared reports for either the prosecution or defense with other reports prepared for the same and opposing sides and by profession (i.e., psychiatrists and/or psychologists). In the second part, they compare the level of agreement or correlation between experts retained by either the prosecution or defense and treating practitioners. Psychiatric diagnoses are fundamental requirements that may affect the adjudication of criminal and civil cases. Both parts of the study focus on criminal cases and are very exciting in that they review not only the correlation of agreements in these areas but also address indirectly the concept of the so-called hired gun. The development of specialized expertise in the evaluation and assessment of defendants by designated opinion or expert witnesses has progressed over time. The nexus between psychiatry and the law (i.e., forensic psychiatry) has included the presentation of psychiatric diagnosis to the courts and the necessity for the expert or treating practitioner to address legal questions raised by the court. This study makes important steps in the direction of examining and analyzing the role of psychiatric diagnosis according to the responsibilities of the evaluator (i.e., as independent examiner or treating practitioner), as well as the possible influence of professional training and experience on differences in diagnoses between two evaluators. It is anticipated that there will be further work in these areas to address not only diagnoses but forensic recommendations and opinions.

  10. Hypervariable antigenic region 1 of classical swine fever virus E2 protein impacts antibody neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xun; Wang, Zuohuan; Cao, Tong; Tong, Chao; Geng, Shichao; Gu, Yuanxing; Zhou, Yingshan; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2016-07-19

    Envelope glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against CSFV infection. There are three hypervariable antigenic regions (HAR1, HAR2 and HAR3) of E2 that are different between the group 1 vaccine C-strain and group 2 clinical isolates. This study was aimed to characterize the antigenic epitope region recognized by monoclonal antibody 4F4 (mAb-4F4) that is present in the group 2 field isolate HZ1-08, but not in the C-strain, and examine its impact on neutralization titers when antisera from different recombinant viruses were cross-examined. Indirect ELISA with C-strain E2-based chimeric proteins carrying the three HAR regions showed that the mAb-4F4 bound to HAR1 from HZ1-08 E2, but not to HAR2 or HAR3, indicating that the specific epitope is located in the HAR1 region. Of the 6 major residues differences between C-strain and field isolates, Glu713 in the HAR1 region of strain HZ1-08 is critical for mAb-4F4 binding either at the recombinant protein level or using intact recombinant viruses carrying single mutations. C-strain-based recombinant viruses carrying the most antigenic part of E2 or HAR1 from strain HZ1-08 remained non-pathogenic to pigs and induced good antibody responses. By cross-neutralization assay, we observed that the anti-C-strain serum lost most of its neutralization capacity to RecC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 (subgroup 2.1d field isolate in 2014), and vice versa. More importantly, the RecC-HAR1 virus remained competent in neutralizing ReC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 strains without compromising the neutralization capability to the recombinant C-strain. Thus, we propose that chimeric C-strain carrying the HAR1 region of field isolates is a good vaccine candidate for classical swine fever. PMID:27317266

  11. Radiohalogenated half-antibodies and maleimide intermediate therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, A.I.; Khawli, L.A.

    1991-02-19

    N-(m-radiohalophenyl) maleimide can be conjugated with a reduced antibody having a mercapto group to provide a radiolabeled half-antibody having immunological specific binding characteristics of whole antibody. No Drawings

  12. Antibodies to new beta cell antigen ICA12 in Latvian diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Hagopian, W; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    In Latvia diabetes mellitus is diagnosed using the WHO's clinical criteria, and assays for the detection of autoantibodies are not available. In consequence, slowly progressive autoimmune diabetes or LADA is likely to be missed. Antibodies to GAD65 and IA-2 are the major immunological markers in autoimmune diabetes. Recently, a new beta cell antigen, called ICA12, has been identified, which has a homology to the SOX family of transcription factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of ICA12 antibodies in diabetes mellitus patients and controls from Latvia and to see whether this antigen is important in revealing autoimmunity when antibodies against major antigens are not present. We studied 88 IDDM patients and 100 NIDDM patients as well as controls for the prevalence of GAD65, IA-2, and ICA12 antibodies by radioligand binding assay (RIA) using (35)S-labeled islet antigens. We found ICA12Abs in 26 of 88 IDDM patients (30%) vs. 4% in healthy controls (4/100) and in 9 of 100 NIDDM patients (9%) vs. 2% controls (2/100). ICA12Abs alone are present in only 3% (3/88) of the patients with IDDM and 1% (1/100) of the NIDDM patients. We conclude that ICA12 represents the minor antigens in autoimmune diabetes and that, as a minor antigen, ICA12 alone does not contribute significantly in revealing new cases of autoimmunity.

  13. Rimmed vacuoles and the added value of SMI-31 staining in diagnosing sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, M F; Hoogendijk, J E; Moons, K G; Veldman, H; Badrising, U A; Wokke, J H

    2001-07-01

    Problems in diagnosing sporadic inclusion body myositis may arise if all clinical features fit a diagnosis of polymyositis, but the muscle biopsy shows some rimmed vacuoles. Recently, immunohistochemistry with an antibody directed against phosphorylated neurofilament (SMI-31) has been advocated as a diagnostic test for sporadic inclusion body myositis. The aims of the present study were to define a quantitative criterion to differentiate sporadic inclusion body myositis from polymyositis based on the detection of rimmed vacuoles in the haematoxylin-eosin staining and to evaluate the additional diagnostic value of the SMI-31 staining. Based on clinical criteria and creatine kinase levels in patients with endomysial infiltrates, 18 patients complied with the diagnosis of sporadic inclusion body myositis, and 17 with the diagnosis of polymyositis. A blinded observer counted the abnormal fibres in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and in SMI-31-stained sections. The optimal cut-off in the haematoxylin-eosin test was 0.3% vacuolated fibres. Adding the SMI-31 staining significantly increased the positive predictive value from 87 to 100%, but increased the negative predictive value only to small extent. We conclude that (1) patients with clinical and laboratory features of polymyositis, including response to treatment, may show rimmed vacuoles in their muscle biopsy and that (2) adding the SMI-31 stain can be helpful in differentiating patients who respond to treatment from patients who do not.

  14. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 antibodies in women from São Paulo, Brazil: association with behavioral factors and Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterino-de-Araujo Adele

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the spread of AIDS, many HIV-infected women have been diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, especially in Africa. Since the discovery of a novel herpesvirus as the causative agent of KS (human herpesvirus 8 - HHV-8 several seroepidemiological studies have been conducted to identify groups at risk for KS. The risk for women in Brazil has not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched for HHV-8 antibodies in sera obtained from a bank made up of samples from 3 groups of individuals: Group I: 163 HIV-1-infected women attended at an ambulatory clinic in 1994; Group II: 108 children born to HIV-1-infected mothers from 1990 to 1992, their antibodies reflected maternal infection, and Group III: 630 HIV-1-seronegative, healthy women. In-house immunofluorescence and Western-Blot assays based on the BCBL-1 cell line were used to detect anti-latent and anti-lytic HHV-8 antibodies. RESULTS: Group I had an overall frequency of antibodies of 8.6%, with a 1.2% frequency of anti-latent antibodies and an 8.0% frequency of anti-lytic antibodies. Similar results were detected in Group II, i.e., no cases with anti-latent antibodies and a 7.4% frequency of anti-lytic antibodies. In contrast, prevalences of 1.1% anti-latent antibodies and 0.3% anti-lytic antibodies were observed in Group III. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiologic pattern of HHV-8 in women from São Paulo varies according to behavioral factors, with emphasis on the sexual and blood routes of virus transmission/acquisition. Although HHV-8 anti-lytic antibodies were found in HIV-1-infected women, no case of KS was detected. Protective factors against KS are probably related to gender and/or to antiretroviral therapies introduced in Brazil since 1994.

  15. Development of monoclonal antibodies to human microsomal epoxide hydrolase and analysis of “preneoplastic antigen”-like molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hongying [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Yoshimura, Kazunori [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Kobayashi, Nobuharu; Sugiyama, Kazuo [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Sawada, Jun-ichi; Saito, Yoshiro [Division of Biochemistry and Immunochemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1-18-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D. [Department of Entomology and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8584 (United States); Akatsuka, Toshitaka, E-mail: akatsuka@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a drug metabolizing enzyme which resides on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and catalyzes the hydration of reactive epoxide intermediates that are formed by cytochrome P450s. mEH is also thought to have a role in bile acid transport on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. It is speculated that efficient execution of such multiple functions is secured by its orientation and association with cytochrome P450 enzymes on the ER membrane and formation of a multiple transport system on the plasma membrane. In certain disease status, mEH loses its association with the membrane and can be detected as distinct antigens in the cytosol of preneoplastic foci of liver (preneoplastic antigen), in the serum in association with hepatitis C virus infection (AN antigen), or in some brain tumors. To analyze the antigenic structures of mEH in physiological and pathological conditions, we developed monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH. Five different kinds of antibodies were obtained: three, anti-N-terminal portions; one anti-C-terminal; and one, anti-conformational epitope. By combining these antibodies, we developed antigen detection methods which are specific to either the membrane-bound form or the linearized form of mEH. These methods detected mEH in the culture medium released from a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and a glioblastoma cell line, which was found to be a multimolecular complex with a unique antigenic structure different from that of the membrane-bound form of mEH. These antibodies and antigen detection methods may be useful to study pathological changes of mEH in various human diseases. -- Highlights: ► Monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH were developed. ► They discriminate between the membrane-bound and the linearized forms of mEH. ► We analyze the antigenic structure of the altered form of mEH in tumor cells. ► Preneoplastic antigen is a multimolecular complex of mEH with

  16. Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics, the annual meeting of The Antibody Society December 7-10, 2015, San Diego, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauthner, Matthias; Yeung, Jenny; Ullman, Chris; Bakker, Joost; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Carter, Paul J; Melis, Joost P M

    2016-01-01

    The 26th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting, the annual meeting of The Antibody Society united over 800 participants from all over the world in San Diego from 6-10 December 2015. The latest innovations and advances in antibody research and development were discussed, covering a myriad of antibody-related topics by more than 100 speakers, who were carefully selected by The Antibody Society. As a prelude, attendees could join the pre-conference training course focusing, among others, on the engineering and enhancement of antibodies and antibody-like scaffolds, bispecific antibody engineering and adaptation to generate chimeric antigen receptor constructs. The main event covered 4 d of scientific sessions that included antibody effector functions, reproducibility of research and diagnostic antibodies, new developments in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), preclinical and clinical ADC data, new technologies and applications for bispecific antibodies, antibody therapeutics for non-cancer and orphan indications, antibodies to harness the cellular immune system, building comprehensive IgVH-gene repertoires through discovering, confirming and cataloging new germline IgVH genes, and overcoming resistance to clinical immunotherapy. The Antibody Society's special session focused on "Antibodies to watch" in 2016. Another special session put the spotlight on the limitations of the new definitions for the assignment of antibody international nonproprietary names introduced by the World Health Organization. The convention concluded with workshops on computational antibody design and on the promise and challenges of using next-generation sequencing for antibody discovery and engineering from synthetic and in vivo libraries. PMID:26909869

  17. [Unexpected Diseases in Two Patients with False-Positive Dengue Immunoglobulin M Antibody Test Results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matono, Takashi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of 162 domestic dengue fever infections occurred in Tokyo, Japan; the first outbreak of its kind in 70 years. Nineteen of these cases were confirmed in our center. Advancements in diagnostic methods have enabled an earlier diagnosis of dengue fever; however, unfamiliarity with the clinical course and characteristics of diagnostic tests for dengue fever can lead to misdiagnosis. We herein describe 2 cases of Japanese patients with false-positive dengue immunoglobulin M antibody test results, who were finally diagnosed as having dermatomyositis and acute hepatitis A infection, respectively. PMID:27197439

  18. C. trachomatis pgp3 Antibody Prevalence in Young Women in England, 1993–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Paddy Horner; Kate Soldan; Vieira, Sueli M.; Gillian S Wills; Woodhall, Sarah C.; Richard Pebody; Anthony Nardone; Elaine Stanford; McClure, Myra O.

    2013-01-01

    Seroepidemiology of chlamydia can offer study opportunities and insights into cumulative risk of exposure that may contribute to monitoring the frequency of, and control of, genital chlamydia-the most commonly diagnosed STI in England. We undertook retrospective anonymous population-based cross-sectional surveys using an indirect IgG ELISA for chlamydia Pgp3 antibody. Sera from 4,732 women aged 17-24 years were tested. Samples were taken at 3-yearly intervals between 1993 and 2002, a period d...

  19. A Case of Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis Associated with Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akishi Momose

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first report of a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN associated with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM antibody. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for high fever and anuria. On the first hospital day, we initiated hemodialysis for renal dysfunction. Laboratory data revealed normocytic-normochromic anemia with schistocytes in the peripheral smear, thrombocytopenia, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, decreased serum haptoglobin, and negative results for both direct and indirect Coombs tests. Based on these results, we diagnosed TMA. Assays conducted several days later indicated a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin motif 13 (ADAMTS13 activity of 31.6%, and ADAMTS13 inhibitors were negative. We started plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma and steroid pulse therapy. Anti-GBM antibody was found to be positive. Renal biopsy showed FGN. Blood pressure rose on the 46th hospital day, and mild convulsions developed. Based on magnetic resonance imaging of the head, the patient was diagnosed with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension persisted despite administration of multiple antihypertensive agents, and the patient experienced a sudden generalized seizure. Computed tomography of the head showed multiple cerebral hemorrhages. However, his blood pressure subsequently decreased and the platelet count increased. TMA remitted following 36 plasma exchange sessions, but renal function was not restored, and maintenance hemodialysis was continued. The patient was discharged on the 119th day of hospitalization. In conclusion, it was shown that TMA, FGN and anti-GBM antibody were closely related.

  20. Utilisation of antibody microarrays for the selection of specific and informative antibodies from recombinant library binders of unknown quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibat, Janek; Schirrmann, Thomas; Knape, Matthias J;

    2016-01-01

    Many diagnostic and therapeutic concepts require antibodies of high specificity. Recombinant binder libraries and related selection approaches allow the efficient isolation of antibodies against almost every target of interest. Nevertheless, it cannot be guaranteed that selected antibodies perfor...

  1. The role of imaging in diagnosing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lucy A; Palace, Jacqueline A

    2014-05-01

    Early identification of neuromyelitis optica allows aggressive acute and prophylactic relapse management aimed at preventing disability. Since the discovery of pathogenic aquaporin-4 antibodies the neuromyelitis optica spectrum has widened significantly: brain lesions no longer preclude the diagnosis and there are reports of symptoms of cerebral origin presenting as the first manifestation of the condition, prior to optic nerve or spinal cord disease. Defining antibody negative neuromyelitis optica, and distinguishing it from other inflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis can therefore be a challenge. In this review we discuss the role of conventional imaging in the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica, and the scope of quantitative MRI modalities to identify more specific pathophysiological features to aid in the differentiation from other conditions and assess treatment response.

  2. Combinatorial antibody libraries: new advances, new immunological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Immunochemists have become quite proficient in engineering existing antibody molecules to control their pharmacological properties. However, in terms of generating new antibodies, the combinatorial antibody library has become a central feature of modern immunochemistry. These libraries are essentially an immune system in a test tube and enable the selection of antibodies without the constraints of whole animal or cell-based systems. This Review provides an overview of how antibody libraries are constructed and discusses what can be learnt from these synthetic systems. In particular, the Review focuses on new biological insights from antibody libraries - such as the concept of 'SOS antibodies' - and the growing use of intracellular antibodies to perturb cellular functions.

  3. Use of radio-immuno-assay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques to diagnose some tick-borne hemo-parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved serology is essential for the diagnosis of tick-borne diseases in epidemiological studies. Sero-diagnosis of hemo-protozoan diseases is an important adjust to the use of vaccines for the control of these infections. These tests must meet a number of criteria, including sensitivity, specificity and the ability to detect long term infections. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques were developed for the diagnosis of both Babesia bovis and B.bigemina antibodies. Whilst the RIA technique is more sensitive than the ELISA, the latter has the advantage of stability and relative safety of the detection system. Long term single infections can be diagnosed with these systems and they are ideal for detecting low levels of antibody. Further development of the B.bigemina ELISA is necessary, especially as the antigen is quite labile and must be freshly prepared. This is the one disadvantage in an otherwise highly sensitive and specific test system

  4. Diagnoses and visit length in complementary and mainstream medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Judith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demand for complementary medicine (CM is growing worldwide and so is the supply. So far, there is not much insight in the activities in Dutch CM practices nor in how these activities differ from mainstream general practice. Comparisons on diagnoses and visit length can offer an impression of how Dutch CM practices operate. Methods Three groups of regularly trained physicians specialized in CM participated in this study: 16 homeopathic physicians, 13 physician acupuncturists and 11 naturopathy physicians. Every CM physician was asked to include a maximum of 75 new patients within a period of six months. For each patient an inclusion registration form had to be completed and the activities during a maximum of five repeat visits were subsequently registered. Registrations included patient characteristics, diagnoses and visit length. These data could be compared with similar data from general practitioners (GPs participating in the second Dutch national study in general practice (DNSGP-2. Differences between CM practices and between CM and mainstream GP data were tested using multilevel regression analysis. Results The CM physicians registered activities in a total of 5919 visits in 1839 patients. In all types of CM practices general problems (as coded in the ICPC were diagnosed more often than in mainstream general practice, especially fatigue, allergic reactions and infections. Psychological problems and problems with the nervous system were also diagnosed more frequently. In addition, each type of CM physician encountered specific health problems: in acupuncture problems with the musculoskeletal system prevailed, in homeopathy skin problems and in naturopathy gastrointestinal problems. Comparisons in visit length revealed that CM physicians spent at least twice as much time with patients compared to mainstream GPs. Conclusions CM physicians differed from mainstream GPs in diagnoses, partly related to general and partly to

  5. Structure Based Antibody-Like Peptidomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Greene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biologics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb and soluble receptors represent new classes of therapeutic agents for treatment of several diseases. High affinity and high specificity biologics can be utilized for variety of clinical purposes. Monoclonal antibodies have been used as diagnostic agents when coupled with radionuclide, immune modulatory agents or in the treatment of cancers. Among other limitations of using large molecules for therapy the actual cost of biologics has become an issue. There is an effort among chemists and biologists to reduce the size of biologics which includes monoclonal antibodies and receptors without a reduction of biological efficacy. Single chain antibody, camel antibodies, Fv fragments are examples of this type of deconstructive process. Small high-affinity peptides have been identified using phage screening. Our laboratory used a structure-based approach to develop small-size peptidomimetics from the three-dimensional structure of proteins with immunoglobulin folds as exemplified by CD4 and antibodies. Peptides derived either from the receptor or their cognate ligand mimics the functions of the parental macromolecule. These constrained peptides not only provide a platform for developing small molecule drugs, but also provide insight into the atomic features of protein-protein interactions. A general overview of the reduction of monoclonal antibodies to small exocyclic peptide and its prospects as a useful diagnostic and as a drug in the treatment of cancer are discussed.

  6. Next generation of antibody therapy for cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenping Zhu; Li Yan

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a major class of therapeutic agents providing effective altematives to treating various human diseases. To date, 15 mAbs have been approved by regulatory agencies in the world for clinical use in oncology indications. The selectivity and specificity, the unique pharmacokinetics, and the ability to engage and activate the host immune system differentiate these biologics from traditional small molecule anticancer drugs. mAb-basod regimens have brought clinical benefits, including improvements in overall survival, to patients with a variety of cancers. Many challenges still remain, however, to fully realize the potential of these new medicines. With our further understanding of cancer biology, mechanism of antibody action, and advancement of antibody engineering technologies, many novel antibody formats or antibody-derived molecules are emerging as promising new generation therapeutics. Carefully designed and engineered, they retain the advantage of specificity and selectivity of original antibodies, but in the meantime acquire additional special features such as improved pharmacokinetics, increased selectivity, and enhanced anticancer efficacy. Promising clinical results are being generated with these newly improved antibody-based therapeutics.

  7. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  8. The Establishment of Immunochemistry Test Based on a Synthetic Peptide Antibody for the Detection of a Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin WEN; Aihua MAO; Junming ZHOU; Lixin LU; Jianping XIE; Fengzhi WANG; Kongwang HE; Yanxiu NI; Xuehan ZHANG; Rongli GUO; Bin LI; Xiaomin WANG; Zhengyu YU

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel porcine circovirus-like virus P1 with a circular DNA genome of 0.648 kb was identified. P1 antigen was detected both in vitro and in vivo by synthetic peptide-derived polyclonal antibody-based immunochemistry. The designed peptides were synthesized by solid-phase technique, purified by high per-formance liquid chromatography, coupled to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and injected into rabbits to prepare polyclonal antibody. The emergence of positive cells revealed that synthetic peptide could elicit antibodies against P1 and viral protein could be synthesized. The polyclonal peptide antibodies described here was successfully ap-plied to immunochemical staining and proved helpful in diagnosing P1.

  9. Clinical phenotype associations with various types of anti-dsDNA antibodies in patients with recent onset of rheumatic symptoms. Results from a multicentre observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compagno, Michele; Rekvig, Ole P; Bengtsson, Anders A;

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Despite anti-dsDNA antibodies constitute a wide range of specificities, they are considered as the hallmark for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical phenotypes associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, independently of any clinical diagnoses. METHODS......: Patients with recent onset of any rheumatic symptoms were screened for antinuclear antibodies (ANA). All ANA-positive and matching ANA-negative patients were examined, and their clinical phenotypes were registered, using a systematic chart formulated after consensus between the participating centres. All...... patients were tested for different anti-dsDNA antibody specificities with assays habitually used in each participating laboratory. Crithidia Luciliae Immuno Fluorescence Test (CLIFT) was performed three times (with two different commercial kits); solid and solution phase ELISA were performed four times...

  10. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial washing and vaginal mucus samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B W; Devenish, J; Lutze-Wallace, C L; Milnes, D; Robertson, R H; Berlie-Surujballi, G

    2004-10-01

    A monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was described and evaluated for use as a presumptive screening test for detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial washing and vaginal mucus samples. A total of 725 diagnostic samples collected in the field and submitted in Clark's transport enrichment medium (TEM) were analyzed. Cultural isolation of C. fetus was used as the standard for comparison. After incubation of the TEM vials for 4-5 days, fluid was removed for culture and ELISA testing. A sandwich ELISA format was used and the target antigen was C. fetus lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A rabbit anti-C. fetus polyclonal antiserum was used as the capture antibody. Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to C. fetus serotype A and B LPS core and O-polysaccharides and a goat anti-mouse horseradish peroxidase conjugate were used as detection antibodies. ELISA and culture results for the diagnostic samples were in complete agreement. Seven hundred and eight samples were negative by both tests. All 17 culture positive samples were positive by ELISA with a MAb to LPS core. The ELISA with MAbs to LPS O-polysaccharides detected all culture positive samples with the homologous C. fetus serotype. Sixty-six preputial wash samples from three known C. fetus culture positive bulls were also analyzed. Forty-nine of these samples were positive by both ELISA and culture, 16 were positive by ELISA only, and one was negative by both ELISA and culture. The results indicate that this ELISA is useful as a screening test for the detection of C. fetus in diagnostic samples. PMID:15381269

  11. Studies on Purification of Methamidophos Monoclonal Antibodies and Comoarative Immunoactivity of Purified Antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU-QING ZHAO; YUAN-MING SUN; CHUN-YAN ZHANG; XIAO-YU HUANG; HOU-RUI ZHANG; ZHEN-YU ZHU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To purify Methamidophos (Met) monoclonal antibodies with two methods andcompare immune activity of purified antibodies. Method Caprylic acid ammonium sulphateprecipition (CAASP) method and Sepharose protein-A (SPA) affinity chromatography method wereused to purify Met monoclonal antibodies, UV spectrum scanning was used to determine proteincontent and recovery of purified antibodies, sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to analyze the purity of purified antibodies, and enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine immune activity of purified antibodies.Results Antibody protein content and recovery rate with CAASP method were 7.62 mg/mL and8.05% respectively, antibody protein content and recovery rate with SPA method were 6.45 mg/mLand 5.52% respectively. Purity of antibodies purified by SPA method was higher than that by CAASPmethod. The half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) of antibodies purified by SPA to Met was181.26 μg/mL, and the linear working range and the limit of quantification (LOD) were 2.43-3896.01μg/mL and 1.03 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 of antibodies purified by CAASP to Met was 352.82μg/mL, and the linear working range and LOD were 10.91-11412.29 ug/mL and 3.42 μg/mL,respectively. Conclusion Antibodies purified by SPA method are better than those by CAASPmethod, and Met monoclonal antibodies purified by SPA method can be used to prepare gold-labelledtesting paper for analyzing Met residue in vegetable and drink water.

  12. Immunocytochemical and Immunohistochemical Staining with Peptide Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Tina; Pedersen, Klaus Boberg; Hougaard, David; Houen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Peptide antibodies are particularly useful for immunocytochemistry (ICC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), where antigens may denature due to fixation of tissues and cells. Peptide antibodies can be made to any defined sequence, including unknown putative proteins and posttranslationally modified sequences. Moreover, the availability of large amounts of the antigen (peptide) allows inhibition/adsorption controls, which are important in ICC/IHC, due to the many possibilities for false-positive reactions caused by immunoglobulin Fc receptors, nonspecific reactions, and cross-reactivity of primary and secondary antibodies with other antigens and endogenous immunoglobulins, respectively. Here, simple protocols for ICC and IHC are described together with recommendations for appropriate controls.

  13. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  14. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  15. Reshaping Human Antibodies: Grafting an Antilysozyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeyen, Martine; Milstein, Cesar; Winter, Greg

    1988-03-01

    The production of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology has proved difficult, and this has prompted the ``humanizing'' of mouse monoclonal antibodies by recombinant DNA techniques. It was shown previously that the binding site for a small hapten could be grafted from the heavy-chain variable domain of a mouse antibody to that of a human myeloma protein by transplanting the hypervariable loops. It is now shown that a large binding site for a protein antigen (lysozyme) can also be transplanted from mouse to human heavy chain. The success of such constructions may be facilitated by an induced-fit mechanism.

  16. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  17. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  18. Two Cases of True Uterine Artery Aneurysms Diagnosed during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Johansen, Gry; Helmig, Rikke Bek;

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of true uterine artery aneurysms diagnosed during pregnancy. Both cases presented with nonspecific symptoms such as urethral obstruction, minimal vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain in the 2nd trimester. Both aneurysms were diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound. In the first...... case labor was induced at 37 + 4 weeks of gestation. However, due to sudden fetal distress and maternal abdominal pain, an emergency Caesarean section was performed during labor, and 3 liters of intra-peritoneal blood were encountered upon laparotomy, secondary to a ruptured uterine artery aneurysm....... In the second case, an elective Caesarean section was scheduled at 38 + 3 weeks of gestation, and the delivery and postpartum period were uncomplicated. Albeit a rare condition, a uterine artery aneurysm should be among the differential diagnosis considered in pregnant women who present with pelvic and vaginal...

  19. Psychiatric diagnoses in a group of astronaut applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Faulk, Dean M.; Holland, Al W.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1987, the psychiatric evaluation of astronaut candidates evolved from a 30-h intensive examination evaluating applicants for psychopathology, and studying their performance under stress, to a 2-h clinical interview whose structure and contents were determined by the individual examiner. Evaluations done during these years applied both psychiatric (or, 'select-out') criteria and psychological (or, 'select-in') criteria. In an attempt to more rigorously define the psychiatric, 'select-out' component, a standardized, semistructured clinical interview was developed to identify the presence or history of psychiatric disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Ed. ('DSM-III'). A total of 117 astronaut applicants underwent this clinical interview as part of a comprehensive medical evaluation during a recent astronaut selection. Of the 117 applicants, 9 (7.7 percent) met DSM-III criteria for a variety of Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, including V-code diagnoses.

  20. Frequency of nursing diagnoses in a surgical clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Cavalcanti Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the frequency of Nursing Diagnoses of patients in a surgical clinic. Methods: cross-sectional study, performed with 99 patients in the postoperative of general surgery. Data were collected through a questionnaire validated according to domains of NANDA International, including physical and laboratory examination. Results: 17 nursing diagnoses were found; eight had a frequency higher than 50.0% (infection risk, impaired tissue integrity, constipation risk, anxiety, bleeding risk, acute pain, delayed surgical recovery, dysfunctional gastrointestinal motility. It was observed in all patients the Nursing Diagnostics: risk of infection, impaired tissue integrity and risk of constipation. Conclusion: the frequency of the most prevalent diagnosis is inserted in the domains safety/protection and nutrition, which determines the need to redirect nursing care, prioritizing the patient's clinic.

  1. Criteria for diagnosing distal radioulnar joint subluxation by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Ryogo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Horii, Emiko [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Imaeda, Toshihiko [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Nakao, Etsuhiro [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Bilateral wrist computed tomography (CT) was performed in 30 patients with suspected unilateral distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) subluxation to evaluate dynamic DRUJ CT scanning with a straight elbow. Five CT criteria for diagnosing dorsovolar subluxation were examined. Maximum active supination and pronation on a conventional scanning table yielded satisfactory rotation (mean{+-}SD, 119 {+-}29 ) at the DRUJ, thus permitting a dynamic diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation. The radioulnar line method and the congruity method frequently yielded false positive results compared with bilateral diagnosis and were unreliable. Modifications of these two methods achieved sensitivity and specificity comparable to the epicenter method. We recommend the modified radioulnar line method for diagnosing dorsovolar subluxation using unilateral CT because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity combined with ease of technique. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome diagnosed after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Min; Kim, Da Rae; Park, Ji Yoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Kim, Se Yun; Kim, Jin Sug; Lee, Yu Ho; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Moon, Ju-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Lee, Tae-Won

    2015-12-01

    We report the first case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) diagnosed after kidney transplantation in Korea. RHS is a disease caused by latent varicella-zoster characterized to involve geniculate ganglion of the seventh cranial nerve. Patients who have undergone kidney transplantation can be easily affected by viral infections because of their immune-compromised status. A 35-year-old man with hypertensive end-stage renal disease underwent kidney transplantation. Two months after surgery, the recipient was diagnosed with RHS and treated with antivirals and steroids. However, after using the antiviral agents for the recommended duration, facial paralysis occurred as a new presentation and he required further treatment. Otalgia and periauricular vesicles improved, but the facial palsy remained. PMID:26779429

  3. New method for diagnosing cast compactness based on laser ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swornowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologically advanced materials, such as alloys of aluminum, nickel or titanium are currently used increasingly often in significantly loaded components utilized in the aviation industry, among others in the construction of jet turbine engine blades. The article presents a method for diagnosing the condition of the inside of cast blades with the use of laser ultrasonography. The inspection is based on finding hidden flaws with a size of between 10 and 30μm. Laser ultrasonography offers a number of improvements over the non-destructive methods used so far, e.g. the possibility to diagnose the cast on a selected depth, high signal-to-noise ratio and good sensitivity. The article includes a brief overview of non-destructive inspection methods used in foundry engineering and sample results of inspecting the inner structure of a turbo jet engine blade using the method described in the article.

  4. Lung cancer in patients diagnosed with silicosis should be investigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngen, Adil Can; Aydemir, Yusuf; Çoban, Hikmet; Düzenli, Hasan; Tasdemir, Canantan

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is an interstitial lung disease developing as a result of inhalation of inorganic silica particles. In silicosis cases developing as a result of environmental and occupational exposure, an increase is observed in Turkey especially depending upon denim sandblasting. We present a 35-year-old female case who was applied to our hospital due to complaint of progressive dyspnea, had a history of working in denim sandblasting for 18 months, were diagnosed with silicosis as a result of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma as a result of transbronchial lung biopsy made due to clinical deterioration and radiological progression within three months. The purpose of this report was to point out that lung cancer can develop in patients followed up with diagnosis of silicosis or radiologic findings in silicosis can be confused with lung cancer. PMID:27330963

  5. Diagnosing, special education and ‘learnification’ in Danish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a discussion of diagnosing, special education, and ‘learnification’ in a Danish school context in which the increasing use of diagnosis is analysed as resulting from the ideas of normality that are associated with the construction of the pupil as a learner. I argue...... that diagnosis in schools can be seen as the shadow side of the articulation and management of learning through schools’ requirements for pupils. This article is based on my analysis of files produced by educational psychologists. Learning and diagnosis, I argue, constitute two different, but parallel, ways...... of looking at being a pupil in school, each of which represents conceptions of deviance and normality. The article’s methodological point of departure draws on a Foucauldian-influenced analysis of diagnosing and learning in education....

  6. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O;

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...... in QoL. Compared with the other age groups, those of a high age (80+ years) more often lived alone, used more home-help service and had a smaller social network. Factors associated with low QoL were 'no other incomes than retirement pension', 'low level of hope' and 'lung cancer'. In addition, 'being...... with low QoL. The sample consisted of 101 patients (75 women and 26 men) newly diagnosed with cancer. EORTC QLQ-C30, Nowotny's Hope Scale, Katz ADL and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) were used. The analysis was carried out in four age groups and revealed no significant differences...

  7. Fully diagnosing the spatial properties of X-ray lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 孙今人; 王韬; 范滇元; 王世绩

    2001-01-01

    Based on the moiré effect and the Fresnel diffraction theory, a novel technique for diagnosing the beam properties is presented and analyzed, which is especially suitable for X-ray lasers. The method makes it possible, in a one-shot experimental measurement, to determine the beam quality factor M2, the effective radius of curvature, the beam width, the far-field divergence, and the waist location and radius as well as the spatial coherence and its evolution. Numerical simulation proves the validity of the method. Note that the novel moiré technique opens an efficient road, for the first time, to fully diagnose the spatial properties of X-ray lasers.

  8. A new gauge-invariant method for diagnosing eddy diffusivities

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Julian; Marshall, David P

    2015-01-01

    Coarse resolution numerical ocean models must typically include a parameterisation for mesoscale turbulence. A common recipe for such parameterisations is to invoke down-gradient mixing, or diffusion, of some tracer quantity, such as potential vorticity or buoyancy. However, it is well known that eddy fluxes include large rotational components which necessarily do not lead to any mixing; eddy diffusivities diagnosed from unfiltered fluxes are thus contaminated by the presence of these rotational components. Here a new methodology is applied whereby eddy diffusivities are diagnosed directly from the eddy force function. The eddy force function depends only upon flux divergences, is independent of any rotational flux components, and is inherently non-local and smooth. A one-shot inversion procedure is applied, minimising the mis-match between parameterised force functions and force functions derived from eddy resolving calculations. This enables diffusivities associated with the eddy potential vorticity and buo...

  9. Two Case Reports Indicating the Dilemma in Diagnosing Lupus Cerebritis

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Dharitri; Chatterjee, Shuddhosatta; Ahmad, Bashar Imam; Das, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a connective-tissue disorder commonly affecting females of reproductive age group. Lupus Cerebritis is a serious neurological complication encountered in a good percentage of SLE cases. In this report, we discuss two Lupus Cerebritis patients, who were successfully diagnosed and treated. The first case, presented with generalized seizure, severe metabolic acidosis, and shock, with a history of fever of one-month duration. The second case manifested with a...

  10. Indicators of distress in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chirico, Andrea; Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Merluzzi, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of cancer can present individuals with a multitude of stressors at various points in that trajectory. Psychosocial distress may appear early in the diagnostic process and have negative effects on compliance with treatment and subsequent quality of life. Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine early-phase predictors of distress before any medical treatment. Method. Consistent with the goals of the study, 123 newly diagnosed ...

  11. Diagnosing language impairment in bilinguals : professional experience and perception

    OpenAIRE

    O'Toole, Ciara; Hickey, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing specific language impairment (SLI) in monolingual children is a complex task, with some controversy regarding criteria. Diagnosis of SLI in bilinguals is made more complex by the lack of standardized assessments and poor understanding of clinical markers in languages other than English. There is an added complexity when one of the languages being acquired is an endangered one, where the domains of use and input are restricted, and where input is affected by convergen...

  12. Challenges in diagnosing infection in the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaudemans, A W J M; Uçkay, I; Lipsky, B A

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosing the presence of infection in the foot of a patient with diabetes can sometimes be a difficult task. Because open wounds are always colonized with microorganisms, most agree that infection should be diagnosed by the presence of systemic or local signs of inflammation. Determining whether or not infection is present in bone can be especially difficult. Diagnosis begins with a history and physical examination in which both classic and 'secondary' findings suggesting invasion of microorganisms or a host response are sought. Serological tests may be helpful, especially measurement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in osteomyelitis, but all (including bone biomarkers and procalcitonin) are relatively non-specific. Cultures of properly obtained soft tissue and bone specimens can diagnose and define the causative pathogens in diabetic foot infections. Newer molecular microbial techniques, which may not only identify more organisms but also virulence factors and antibiotic resistance, look very promising. Imaging tests generally begin with plain X-rays; when these are inconclusive or when more detail of bone or soft tissue abnormalities is required, more advanced studies are needed. Among these, magnetic resonance imaging is generally superior to standard radionuclide studies, but newer hybrid imaging techniques (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) look to be useful techniques, and new radiopharmaceuticals are on the horizon. In some cases, ultrasonography, photographic and thermographic methods may also be diagnostically useful. Improved methods developed and tested over the past decade have clearly increased our accuracy in diagnosing diabetic foot infections.

  13. A tailgut cyst-cystic mass diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki Yeong; Lee, Na Mi; Choi, Eung Sang; Yoo, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Gwang Jun; Cha, Seong Jae; Kim, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-05-01

    Tailgut cysts are congenital lesions found in the presacral space. These have been mainly identified in adults and are rare in children, especially neonates. Here, we present the case of a neonate with a presacral cystic mass detected by prenatal ultrasonography that was diagnosed as a tailgut cyst after postnatal surgical removal. When a presacral cyst is encountered, tailgut cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:23943703

  14. A Tailgut Cyst—Cystic Mass Diagnosed by Prenatal Ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki Yeong; Lee, Na Mi; Choi, Eung Sang; Yoo, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Gwang Jun; Cha, Seong Jae; Kim, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Tailgut cysts are congenital lesions found in the presacral space. These have been mainly identified in adults and are rare in children, especially neonates. Here, we present the case of a neonate with a presacral cystic mass detected by prenatal ultrasonography that was diagnosed as a tailgut cyst after postnatal surgical removal. When a presacral cyst is encountered, tailgut cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:23943703

  15. A Tailgut Cyst—Cystic Mass Diagnosed by Prenatal Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Yeong Chung; Na Mi Lee; Eung Sang Choi; Byoung Hoon Yoo; Gwang Jun Kim; Seong Jae Cha; Gi Hyeon Kim; Mi Kyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Tailgut cysts are congenital lesions found in the presacral space. These have been mainly identified in adults and are rare in children, especially neonates. Here, we present the case of a neonate with a presacral cystic mass detected by prenatal ultrasonography that was diagnosed as a tailgut cyst after postnatal surgical removal. When a presacral cyst is encountered, tailgut cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  16. A Tailgut Cyst—Cystic Mass Diagnosed by Prenatal Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yeong Chung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tailgut cysts are congenital lesions found in the presacral space. These have been mainly identified in adults and are rare in children, especially neonates. Here, we present the case of a neonate with a presacral cystic mass detected by prenatal ultrasonography that was diagnosed as a tailgut cyst after postnatal surgical removal. When a presacral cyst is encountered, tailgut cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  17. Lung cancer in patients diagnosed with silicosis should be investigated

    OpenAIRE

    Güngen, Adil Can; Aydemir, Yusuf; Çoban, Hikmet; Düzenli, Hasan; Tasdemir, Canantan

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is an interstitial lung disease developing as a result of inhalation of inorganic silica particles. In silicosis cases developing as a result of environmental and occupational exposure, an increase is observed in Turkey especially depending upon denim sandblasting. We present a 35-year-old female case who was applied to our hospital due to complaint of progressive dyspnea, had a history of working in denim sandblasting for 18 months, were diagnosed with silicosis as a result of high...

  18. Chondroblastoma: Report of two cases diagnosed by cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasudha A Vasudevan; Nileena Nayak; Sindhu Nair, P.; Jayasree Kattoor

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon benign cartilage producing neoplasm with a characteristic epiphyseal location. This report documents the cytological features of two cases of chondroblastomas diagnosed by cytology. One of the two cases had an unusual location in the temporomandibular region and the other was located in the epi-metaphyseal region of the right humerus. Smears characteristically revealed chondroblasts and osteoclast-like giant cells. The cytologic diagnosis of chondroblastoma was ...

  19. Gastric ulcer penetrating to liver diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ertugrul Kayacetin; Serra Kayacetin

    2004-01-01

    Liver penetration is a rare but serious complication of peptic ulcer disease. Usually the diagnosis is made by operation or autopsy. Clinical and laboratory data were no specific. A 64-year-old man was admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Hepatic penetration was diagnosed as the cause of bleeding. Endoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with a pseudotumoral mass protruding from the ulcer bed. Definitive diagnosis was established by endoscopic biopsies of the ulcer base.

  20. Papillary lesions of the breast diagnosed using core needle biopsies

    OpenAIRE

    TOKINIWA, HIDEAKI; Horiguchi, Jun; TAKATA, DAISUKE; Kikuchi, Mami; ROKUTANDA, NANA; NAGAOKA, RIN; Sato, Ayako; Odawara, Hiroki; TOZUKA, KATSUNORI; Oyama, Tetsunari; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast include a broad spectrum of lesions, from benign papillomas to papillary carcinomas. It is difficult to determine whether a lesion is benign or malignant based on the fragmented material of a core needle biopsy (CNB). This study evaluated patients with papillary lesions examined using CNB. We retrospectively reviewed 31 papillary lesions diagnosed using CNB between 2004 and 2007. The clinical findings of benign and malignant papillary lesions were compared. The...

  1. DIAGNOSING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE THROUGH METAPHORS AND TASK AND RELATIONSHIP ORIENTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gerli Hämmal; Maaja Vadi

    2010-01-01

    Organizational culture is a system of meanings that are shared to various degrees inside the organization. Several surveys have been conducted to measure the different factors of organizational culture, but not many surveys have aimed to demonstrate the essence of organizational culture. Thus, the main contribution of the current paper is to diagnose organizational culture by highlighting connections between orientations (task and relationship) and metaphors. Task and relationship orientation...

  2. A hybrid KNN-MLP algorithm to diagnose bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Mohammad Ghasemi; Mehdi Khalili

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to the other corner of the power of neural networks. According to the neural network in the diagnosis of diseases, we use neural network models for diagnosing bipolar disorder; bipolar disorder is the common disorder of depression mood. We have used two neural network models: MLP & KNN. With different percentages of the implementation of neural network models is discussed. And the error was calculated for each model. We can by using the MLP model achieve...

  3. Clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis patients diagnosed in a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Abakay; Abdurrahman Abakay; Abdullah Çetin Tanrıkulu; Fatih Meteroğlu; Cengizhan Sezgi; Hadice Selimoğlu Şen; Ayşe Dallı; Mehmet Kabak

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical characteristics and treatment resultsof patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis was investigatedin Dicle University Medical Faculty Hospital.Materials and methods: A total of 39 patients were includeddiagnosed with sarcoidosis between 01 January2008 and31 December 2011.Demographic data, laboratoryfindings, spirometric test data, diagnostic methodsand treatment regimens for the study were recorded form.According to pulmonary function test results of patients,61.5% were nor...

  4. How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ouladsaiad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease (HD and how to avoid calibre discrepancy? Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with HD over 2 years in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Data were analysed for clinical presentations, investigations, surgical procedures and post-operative outcome. Results: Fifteen patients, operated by one single surgeon, were included in this study. The mean age was 6 years (2-16 years. Patients had an ultra-short segment type in 4 cases, rectosigmoid type in 9 cases and descending colonic aganglionosis in 2 cases. Rectal wash out was effective in 12 patients. A blowhole transverse colostomy was performed in 2 patients. Twelve patients underwent one single stage endorectal pull-through. Anastomosis incongruence was avoided by a plication procedure never described before. The assessment of post-operative outcomes by the paediatric incontinence and constipation scoring system revealed a normal continence function in all our patients, but 3 patients suffered from soiling secondary to constipation. Conclusion: One single stage pull-through can be safe and effective in children with late diagnosed HD. Routine rectal washout is a good way to prepare the colon. In some cases, blowhole colostomy can be an option. Anastomosis incongruence is a challenge; we describe a plication procedure to avoid it.

  5. Diagnosing Traffic Anomalies Using a Two-Phase Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhang; Jia-Hai Yang; Jian-Ping Wu; Ying-Wu Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Network traffic anomalies are unusual changes in a network,so diagnosing anomalies is important for network management.Feature-based anomaly detection models (ab)normal network traffic behavior by analyzing packet header features. PCA-subspace method (Principal Component Analysis) has been verified as an efficient feature-based way in network-wide anomaly detection.Despite the powerful ability of PCA-subspace method for network-wide traffic detection,it cannot be effectively used for detection on a single link.In this paper,different from most works focusing on detection on flow-level traffic,based on observations of six traffc features for packet-level traffic,we propose a new approach B6SVM to detect anomalies for packet-level traffic on a single link.The basic idea of B6-SVM is to diagnose anomalies in a multi-dimensional view of traffic features using Support Vector Machine (SVM).Through two-phase classification,B6-SVM can detect anomalies with high detection rate and low false alarm rate.The test results demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of our technique in diagnosing anomalies.Further,compared to previous feature-based anomaly detection approaches,B6-SVM provides a framework to automatically identify possible anomalous types.The framework of B6-SVM is generic and therefore,we expect the derived insights will be helpful for similar future research efforts.

  6. Diagnosing holographic dark energy models with statefinder hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply a series of null diagnostics based on the statefinder hierarchy to diagnose different holographic dark energy models including the original holographic dark energy, the new holographic dark energy, the new agegraphic dark energy, and the Ricci dark energy models. We plot the curves of statefinders S3(1) and S4(1) versus redshift z and the evolutionary trajectories of {S3(1), element of } and {S4(1), element of } for these models, where is the fractional growth parameter. Combining the evolution curves with the current values of S3(1), S4(1), and element of, we find that the statefinder S4(1) performs better than S3(1) for diagnosing the holographic dark energy models. In addition, the conjunction of the statefinder hierarchy and the fractional growth parameter is proven to be a useful method to diagnose the holographic dark energy models, especially for breaking the degeneracy of the newagegraphic dark energy model with different parameter values. (orig.)

  7. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized.

  8. Prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in the pediatric emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signorelli, Luiz Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fever and pain, which are very common in ear, nose, and throat pathologies, are among the most frequent complaints recorded during emergency room pediatric patient treatment. Most of time, the pediatricians are called on to evaluate otorhinolaryngology disorders that requires specialist assessment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in a pediatric population in a reference hospital in the city of Itatiba, São Paulo. Methods: We evaluated 2,054 pediatric patients (age range, 0-12 years, 11 months in this descriptive, transversal observational (survey study. Data collection was performed by a single observer during 103 night shifts (07:00 p.m. to 07:00 a.m. between January and December 2011, and included documentation of the main diagnosis, and patient age and sex. The ethics committee and research institution approved study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on diagnosis: Group A otorhinolaryngology disease and Group B included diagnoses not contained in Group A. Results: Of the total enrolled patients, 52.2% corresponded to Group A and 47.8% to Group B; 51.9% were male and 48.1% were female. The average age was 4.5 years (Group A, 3.93 years; Group B, 5.03 years. We compared the prevalence of the diagnostic hypotheses of the 2 groups. Conclusion: A large number of patients sought treatment at pediatric emergency rooms for otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses.

  9. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor originally diagnosed as astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cassol Dozza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT, described in 1988 and introduced in the WHO classification in 1993, affects predominantly children or young adults causing intractable complex partial seizures. Since it is benign and treated with surgical resection, its recognition is important. It has similarities with low-grade gliomas and gangliogliomas, which may recur and become malignant. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether DNT was previously diagnosed as astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or ganglioglioma and to determine its frequency in a series of low-grade glial/glio-neuronal tumors. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and histological aspects of 58 tumors operated from 1978 to 2008, classified as astrocytomas (32, including 8 pilocytic, oligodendrogliomas (12, gangliogliomas (7, and DNT (7, were reviewed. RESULTS: Four new DNT, one operated before 1993, previously classified as astrocytoma (3 and oligodendroglioma (1, were identified. One DNT diagnosed in 2002 was classified once more as angiocentric glioma. Therefore, 10 DNT (17.2% were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical-radiological and histopathological correlations have contributed to diagnose the DNT.

  10. Anatomical Findings in Patients with Infective Endocarditis Diagnosed at Autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Serra Valdés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis continues to challenge modern medicine despite its rare occurrence in the general population. Its incidence depends on risk groups. Correlation of anatomical and pathological findings with clinical and epidemiological elements may explain the current features of this condition. Objective: to describe the anatomical features of patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy. Methods: A descriptive study including cases of infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy between 1986 and 2008 was conducted in the Provincial Clinical-Surgical Hospital Celia Sanchez, Granma. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, previous anatomical lesions, location of vegetations, multi-organ embolic infarcts and embolic abscesses, complications, culture of lesions and direct causes of death. Results: frequency of infective endocarditis diagnosed at necropsy ranged annually from 0.4 to 1.5%. Native valve endocarditis without previous damage was the most frequent. The anatomical findings were more common in the left side of the heart. Right-sided nosocomial endocarditis accounted for almost a third of the deceased patients and risk factors were identified. Embolic lesions affecting various organs, systemic complications and direct causes of death showed acute infectious endocarditis. The most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: knowing the anatomical findings may contribute to the understanding of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this condition. Correlation between anatomical and clinical findings was low; therefore difficulties in establishing the diagnosis during life are inferred.

  11. Inverted Meckel's diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed using double-balloon enteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Kosuke; Osawa, Satoshi; Ito, Tatsuhiro; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Hamaya, Yasushi; Tsukui, Hiroe; Furuta, Takahisa; Wada, Hidetoshi; Baba, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken

    2016-05-01

    An inverted Meckel's diverticulum is a rare gastrointestinal congenital anomaly that is difficult to diagnose prior to surgery and presents with anemia, abdominal pain, or intussusception. Here, we report the case of 57-year-old men with an inverted Meckel's diverticulum, who was preoperatively diagnosed using double-balloon enteroscopy. He had repeatedly experienced epigastric pain for 2 mo. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed intestinal wall thickening in the pelvis. Double-balloon enteroscopy via the anal route was performed for further examination, which demonstrated an approximately 8-cm, sausage-shaped, submucosal tumor located approximately 80 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. A small depressed erosion was observed at the tip of this lesion. Forceps biopsy revealed heterotopic gastric mucosa. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with an inverted Meckel's diverticulum, and single-incision laparoscopic surgery was performed. This case suggests that an inverted Meckel's diverticulum should be considered as a differential diagnosis for a submucosal tumor in the ileum. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy with forceps biopsy facilitate a precise diagnosis of this condition. PMID:27158212

  12. Clinical spectrum of pulmonary hamartoma diagnosed by surgical resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed our institutional experience of pulmonary hamartomas. We analyzed the records of 23 patients with pulmonary hamartomas which were diagnosed by surgical resection. There were 12 males and 11 females. Their mean age was 53.5 years old (range: 28 to 71 years). Twenty patients were asymptomatic, 2 had chest pain and 1 had a cough. Twenty-two patients had solitary and only 1 patient had multiple lesions. The tumor sizes ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 cm (mean: 1.5 cm). Graphically, 6 patients had calcification which was not popcorn-like. We could not diagnose nodules by bronchoscopic biopsy, which was preoperatively performed in 17 patients. Surgery was performed because we could not rule out malignancy in all patients. Surgical procedures consisted of 6 enucleation, 16 wedge resection and 1 lobectomy. Video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed in 17 patients. To diagnose pulmonary nodule, whose malignancy is difficult to determine, surgical resection should be considered. (author)

  13. Concoradance of clinical and neurophysiologic diagnoses of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Clinical presentation and neurophysiological examination are crucial in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination for diagnosing of CTS in relation to neurophysiological evaluation. Methods. The sample included 181 patients referred to the neurologist for further diagnosis of pain and parestesias in the arm (81 women and 100 men mean age 42 ± 14 years and 52 ± 16 years, respectively. All the patients were neurophysiologicly tested. Results. Out of 181 patients, clinical findings were considered positive for CTS in 37 patients. The neurophysiological findings for CTS were positive in 60 patients. Both clinical and neurophysiological findings were positive in 31 patients and both findings were negative in 115 patients (sensitivity 0,51; specificity 0,95. Conclusion. Low sensitivity and high specificity suggest that it is easier to exclude rather than to accurately diagnose CTS based on clinical examination alone. Thus, there is the need for neurophysiological evaluation of patients with complains in the arm.

  14. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  15. High concentration of antimitochondrial antibodies predicts progressive primary biliary cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Flisiak; Maria Pelszynska; Danuta Prokopowicz; Magdalena Rogalska; Urszula Grygoruk

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the serum concentration of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) as a prognostic indicator of progressive primary biliary cirrhosis (pPBC).METHODS: Serum concentrations of AMA subtypes (anti-M2, anti-M4, and anti-M9), biochemical indices of liver function and Mayo risk factor (MRF) were determined in 30 women with diagnosed primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) selected among 348 females with elevated alkaline phosphatase but without signs of hepatic decompensation.They were followed up for 5 years for possible development of hepatic decompensation.RESULTS: Anti-M2 concentration was significantly correlated with bilirubin and albumin levels as well as MRF, whereas anti-M4 was significantly correlated with albumin level, prothrombin time and MRF. During the 5-year follow-up, progressive PBC (pPBC) was diagnosed in 3 among 23 patients available for evaluation. These 3patients were positive for both anti-M2 and anti-M4.Anti-M2 serum concentration exceeded 1 300 RU/mL in patients with pPBC and only in 1 among 20 non-progressive PBC persons (5%). Anti-M4 serum concentration exceeded 400 RU/mL in 2 of the progressive patients and none in the non-progressive group. In contrast, anti-M9 serum concentration was below 100 RU/mL in all patients with pPBC, and higher than 100 RU/mL in 11 women (55%)among the non-progressive group.CONCLUSION: Females with elevated alkaline phosphatase and high anti-M2 and anti-M4 concentrations are at a high risk for developing pPBC. Quantitative AMA detection should be considered as a method for early diagnosis of pPBC.

  16. Radioimmunological proof of thyroglobulin antibodies in humans by the use of a double antibody method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid antibodies, especially thyroglobulin antibodies, allow themselves to be proven with the double antibody method, in competitive radio binding assays and with the solid phase technique. These methods offer advantages relative to sensitivity and quantifiability. In this work a sensitive radioimmunoassay as a double antibody method was worked out whereby a 125 I-thyroglobulin/thyroglobulin antibody immune complex was precipitated out using anti-human immunoglobulin. The measured results from the radioimmunoassay show a good correlation with the results of the immune histological findings. A high to very high Tg antibody level occurs with autoimmune thyroiditis (80%), primary hypothyroidism (74%) and hyperthyroidism (70%). The control values with healthy people came to less than 5% specific binding. In correlation with the results of other authors this method is advantageous relative to test start and evaluation procedures. (orig.)

  17. 自身抗体联合检测在狼疮性肾炎诊断中的价值%The value of self-antibodies on diagnosis of lupus nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查芳芳; 朱迎春; 周福健

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of single or combined detection of anti-LPL, anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q antibodies on the diagnosis of lupus nephritis (LN).Methods 73 patients with SLE were divided into group A (LN group, N= 38) and group B (non-LN group, N-35).The correlations were compared between single or combined detection of three antibodies (anti-LPL, anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q) and lupus nephritis.Results The positive rate of single or combined detection of three antibodies in group A was higher than that in group B (P<0.05).The sensibility of combined detection of three antibodies was obviously higher than single detection, while the specificity was lower.Conclusion The combined detection of anti-LPL, anti-dsDNA and anti-Clq antibodies might be helpful for the early diagnosis of lupus nephritis.%目的 探讨抗双链DNA抗体(抗dsDNA)、抗脂蛋白酶抗体(抗LPL)和抗C1q抗体(抗C1q)单项检测和联合检测在狼疮性肾炎(LN)诊断中的价值.方法 将77例SLE患者分为A组(LN组,38例)和B组(非LN组,35例),比较抗dsDNA、抗LPL和抗C1q单项及联合检测与LN的关系.结果 在A组患者中抗dsDNA、抗LPL、抗C1q单项和联合检测阳性率均显著高于B组(P<0.05).3种自身抗体联合检测与单项检测比较,敏感性有所降低,但特异性明显提高.结论 抗dsDNA、抗LPL和抗C1q联合检测能很好的帮助早期诊断LN.

  18. Chemical biology: How to minimalize antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    The success of antibodies as pharmaceuticals has triggered interest in crafting much smaller mimics. A crucial step forward has been taken with the chemical synthesis of small molecules that recruit immune cells to attack cancer cells.

  19. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  20. Localization of tumors by radiolabelled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of utilizing radiolabelled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigens for determining the site of tumors which produce or are associated with carcinoembryonic antigen is disclosed. 3 claims, no drawings

  1. Quantitative Assessment of Antibody Internalization with Novel Monoclonal Antibodies against Alexa Fluorophores

    OpenAIRE

    Liao-Chan, Sindy; Daine-Matsuoka, Barbara; Heald, Nathan; Wong, Tiffany; Lin, Tracey; Cai, Allen G.; Lai, Michelle; D’Alessio, Joseph A.; Theunissen, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies against cell surface antigens may be internalized through their specific interactions with these proteins and in some cases may induce or perturb antigen internalization. The anti-cancer efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates is thought to rely on their uptake by cancer cells expressing the surface antigen. Numerous techniques, including microscopy and flow cytometry, have been used to identify antibodies with desired cellular uptake rates. To enable quantitative measurements of inte...

  2. Influenza-Specific Antibody-Dependent Phagocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Vanderven, Hillary; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Johnston, Angus; Rockman, Steven; Laurie, Karen; Barr, Ian; Reading, Patrick; Lichtfuss, Marit; Stephen J Kent

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunity to human influenza A virus (IAV) infection is only partially understood. Broadly non-neutralizing antibodies may assist in reducing disease but have not been well characterized. Methods We measured internalization of opsonized, influenza protein-coated fluorescent beads and live IAV into a monocytic cell line to study antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADP) against multiple influenza hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. We analyzed influenza HA-specific ADP in healthy human donors, ...

  3. Single-domain antibodies for brain targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Lalatsa, Katerina; Moreira Leite, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Smaller recombinant antibody fragments as single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) are emerging as credible alternatives because of their target specificity, high affinity, and cost-effective recombinant production. sdAbs have been forged into multivalent and multispecif ic therapeutics, or targeting moieties, that are able to shuttle their linked therapeutic cargo (i.e., drugs, nanoparticles, toxins, enzymes, and radionuclides) to the receptor of interest. Their ability to permeate across the blood ...

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C - a potent risk factor in children diagnosed with stadium 4 neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Miskowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF-C, CD34 and VEGFR-2 in cancer tissue of children diagnosed with stadium 4 neuroblastoma (NB and correlate their presence with the survival rate of children diagnosed with that stage of the disease. Eighteen children assigned to stadium 4 composed the study group. Fourteen patients (allocated to stadium 3 formed a control group. VEGF-C, CD34 and VEGFR-2 expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay. Consecutive slides incubated with anti-CD34 and anti-VEGFR-2 antibodies revealed that the two markers were colocalized within endothelial layer of the blood vessels. On the other hand, VEGF-C was expressed exclusively in tumour cells. As demonstrated by Fisher's exact test, the risk of NB treatment failure (progression or relapse as well as tumour related death, when all the patients were considered, was found to be significant in VEGF-C positive patients. VEGF-C expression in NB constitutes a potent risk factor and may direct future anti-angiogenic treatment strategy. The proximity of VEGF-C and CD34/VEGFR-2 of NB could be the equivalent of a potentially interesting VEGF-C fashion involving a tumour cell invasion into the blood vessels in an early phase of metastases promoting.

  5. Therapeutic monoclonal antibody for Sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eAlmeida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis that affects either humans or animals and occurs worldwide. This subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent, Sporothrix schenckii. S. schenckii exhibits a considerable genetic variability, where recently, was suggesting that this taxon consists of a complex of species. Sporotrichosis is caused by traumatic inoculation of the fungus, which is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte that can be isolated from soil and plant debris. The infection is limited to the cutaneous forms but, recently, occurrences of more severe clinical forms of this mycosis were described, especially among immunocompromized individuals. The immunological mechanisms involved in prevention and control of sporotrichosis are still not very well understood. Some works suggest that cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in protecting the host against S. schenckii. In contrast, the role of the humoral immune response in protection against this fungus have not been studied in detail. In a previous study, we showed that antigens secreted by S. schenckii induce a specific humoral response in infected animals, mainly against the 70-kDa molecules, indicating a possible participation of specific antibodies to this molecule in infection control. In an other work of the our group, we produced a mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein of S. schenckii in order to better understand the effect of passive immunization of mice infected with S. schenckii. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU in organs of mice when the mAb was injected before and during S. schenckii infection. Similar results were observed when T-cell deficient mice were used. Drugs of choice in the treatment of sporothrichosis require long periods and frequently relapses are observed, mainly in immunocompromized patients. The strong protection induced by mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein makes it a strong candidate for a

  6. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH HLA ANTIBODIES CLASS I AND II, AND MICA ANTIBODIES IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HLA and MICA antibodies in patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation and their influence on the course of post-transplant period. Determination of HLA antibodies class I and II, and MICA antibodies was performed on a platform of Luminex (xMAP-tech- nology using sets LABScreen ONE LAMBDA (U.S.. A total of 156 patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Revealed the presence of HLA and MICA antibodies in the serum of 31.4% of patients. Regraf- ted patients increased the content of antibodies to the antigens of HLA system was noted in 88.2% of cases, 47% met the combination of antibodies to the I, II classes and MICA. In patients awaiting first kidney transplantation, HLA and MICA antibodies were determined in 23.7% of cases. The presence of pretransplant HLA and MICA antibodies had a significant influence on the course of post-transplant period. Patients with the presence of HLA and MICA in 50% of cases delayed graft function. Sessions of plasmapheresis can reduce the concentration of HLA and MICA antibodies on average by 61.1%. 

  7. Antibody-Conjugated Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Arruebo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have found their way into the fields of Biotechnology and Medicine. Nanoparticles by themselves offer specific physicochemical properties that they do not exhibit in bulk form, where materials show constant physical properties regardless of size. Antibodies are nanosize biological products that are part of the specific immune system. In addition to their own properties as pathogens or toxin neutralizers, as well as in the recruitment of immune elements (complement, improving phagocytosis, cytotoxicity antibody dependent by natural killer cells, etc., they could carry several elements (toxins, drugs, fluorochroms, or even nanoparticles, etc. and be used in several diagnostic procedures, or even in therapy to destroy a specific target. The conjugation of antibodies to nanoparticles can generate a product that combines the properties of both. For example, they can combine the small size of nanoparticles and their special thermal, imaging, drug carrier, or magnetic characteristics with the abilities of antibodies, such as specific and selective recognition. The hybrid product will show versatility and specificity. In this review, we analyse both antibodies and nanoparticles, focusing especially on the recent developments for antibody-conjugated nanoparticles, offering the researcher an overview of the different applications and possibilities of these hybrid carriers.

  8. Standardization of anti-DNA antibody assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, David S

    2013-07-01

    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus and represent important biomarkers for clinical and research purposes. These antibodies are part of a family of antibodies to nucleosomes and bind to conserved sites widely present on DNA. While the value of anti-DNA as a biomarker is well established, the assay for these antibodies has involved a variety of DNA sources and systems to detect DNA-anti-DNA interactions. The influence of these variations on antibody detection has complicated assay standardization. As an antigen, DNA has unique features since it is a highly charged polymer that has structural heterogeneity. This heterogeneity can affect antigenicity which can vary on the basis of DNA origin, size, conformation and mobility. In addition, as a polymer, DNA can promote patterns of antibody binding based on monogamous or bivalent interaction which require an extended polynucleotide structure. Understanding the nature of DNA as an antigen can facilitate interpretation of serological tests and underpin efforts at better standardization.

  9. Quality control of antibodies for assay development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sarah; Seitz, Harald

    2016-09-25

    Antibodies are used as powerful tools in basic research, for example, in biomarker identification, and in various forms for diagnostics, for example, identification of allergies or autoimmune diseases. Due to their robustness and ease of handling, immunoassays are favourite methods for investigation of various biological or medical questions. Nevertheless in many cases, additional analyses such as mass spectrometry are used to validate or confirm the results of immunoassays. To minimize the workload and to increase confidence in immunoassays, there are urgent needs for antibodies which are both highly specific and well validated. Unfortunately many commercially available antibodies are neither well characterized nor fully tested for cross-reactivities. Adequate quality control and validation of an antibody is time-consuming and can be frustrating. Such validation needs to be performed for every assay/application. However, where an antibody validation is successful, a highly specific and stable reagent will be on hand. This article describes the validation processes of antibodies, including some often neglected factors, as well as unspecific binding to other sample compounds in a multiparameter diagnostic assay. The validation consists of different immunological methods, with important assay controls, and is performed in relation to the development of a diagnostic test. PMID:26873787

  10. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies to Viral Emerging Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Bradley

    2011-03-31

    During the current period the following key objectives were achieved: demonstration of high titer antibody production by geese following immunization with inactived H1N1 virus; completion of the epitope mapping of West Nile Virus-specific goose antibodies and initiation of epitope mapping of H1N1 flu-specific goose antibodies; advancement in scalable purification of goose antibodies.

  11. Relation of maternal anti-Ro/La antibodies to aortic dilation in patients with congenital complete heart block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Debra L; Bratton, Susan L; Bradley, David J; Yetman, Anji T

    2011-08-15

    An association between congenital complete atrioventricular block (cCAVB) and aortic dilation during childhood has recently been reported. We sought to further explore this relation with particular emphasis on the natural history of aortic abnormalities over time. The relation of maternal anti-Ro/La antibody status to the aortic size of children affected with cCAVB was also assessed. The patients were evaluated longitudinally with serial echocardiography. During a 15-year period, 62 patients at our institution were diagnosed with cCAVB, of whom 40% were exposed to maternal autoimmune antibodies and 35% were not. The antibody status in the remaining patients was unknown. The patients underwent 9.3 ± 6.5 echocardiograms during the follow-up period. Dilation of the ascending aorta, defined as a z score >2.0, was present on the initial echocardiogram in all patients exposed to maternal antibodies and persisted during long-term follow-up in 96% of these patients. In contrast, 5% and 10% of patients without exposure to maternal autoimmune antibodies had aortic dilation on the initial and follow-up studies, respectively (p <0.001 and p <0.001, respectively). In conclusion, patients with autoimmune-mediated cCAVB merit periodic echocardiographic monitoring into adulthood to assess persistent or progressive aortic dilation and its attendant complications.

  12. A Case Report of Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion with an Increased Level of Anti-ACh Receptor Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shigemi; Ozasa, Shiro; Nomura, Keiko; Kosuge, Hirofumi; Yoshioka, Kowasi

    2013-01-01

    Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is a form of congenital myopathy, which is defined by type 1 myofibers that are 12% smaller than type 2 myofibers, as well as a general predominance of type 1 myofibers. Conversely, myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired immune-mediated disease, in which the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of the neuromuscular junction is blocked by antibodies. Thus, the anti-AChR antibody is nearly specific to MG. Herein, we report on a case of CFTD with increased anti-AChR antibody levels. A 23-month-old boy exhibited muscle hypotonia and weakness. Although he could walk by himself, he easily fell down and could not control his head for a long time. His blood test was positive for the anti-AChR antibody, while a muscle biopsy revealed characteristics of CFTD. We could not explain the relationship between MG and CFTD. However, we considered different diagnoses aside from MG, even when the patient's blood is positive for the anti-AChR antibody. PMID:23762716

  13. A Case Report of Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion with an Increased Level of Anti-ACh Receptor Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemi Kimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD is a form of congenital myopathy, which is defined by type 1 myofibers that are 12% smaller than type 2 myofibers, as well as a general predominance of type 1 myofibers. Conversely, myasthenia gravis (MG is an acquired immune-mediated disease, in which the acetylcholine receptor (AChR of the neuromuscular junction is blocked by antibodies. Thus, the anti-AChR antibody is nearly specific to MG. Herein, we report on a case of CFTD with increased anti-AChR antibody levels. A 23-month-old boy exhibited muscle hypotonia and weakness. Although he could walk by himself, he easily fell down and could not control his head for a long time. His blood test was positive for the anti-AChR antibody, while a muscle biopsy revealed characteristics of CFTD. We could not explain the relationship between MG and CFTD. However, we considered different diagnoses aside from MG, even when the patient’s blood is positive for the anti-AChR antibody.

  14. Production, purification and characterization of polyclonal antibody against the truncated gK of the duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shunchuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Duck virus enteritis (DVE is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans, which has produced significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl. With the purpose of decreasing economic losses in the commercial duck industry, studying the unknown glycoprotein K (gK of DEV may be a new method for preferably preventing and curing this disease. So this is the first time to product and purify the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody. Through the western blot and ELISA assay, the truncated glycoprotein K (tgK has good antigenicity, also the antibody possesses high specificity and affinity. Meanwhile the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody has the potential to produce subunit vaccines and the functions of neutralizing DEV and anti-DEV infection because of its neutralization titer. Indirect immunofluorescent microscopy using the purified rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody as diagnostic antibody was susceptive to detect a small quantity of antigen in tissues or cells. This approach also provides effective experimental technology for epidemiological investigation and retrospective diagnose of the preservative paraffin blocks.

  15. PrP(Sc-specific antibodies with the ability to immunodetect prion oligomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Tayebi

    Full Text Available The development of antibodies with binding capacity towards soluble oligomeric forms of PrPSc recognised in the aggregation process in early stage of the disease would be of paramount importance in diagnosing prion diseases before extensive neuropathology has ensued. As blood transfusion appears to be efficient in the transmission of the infectious prion agent, there is an urgent need to develop reagents that would specifically recognize oligomeric forms of the abnormally folded prion protein, PrPSc.To that end, we show that anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies (called PRIOC mAbs derived from mice immunised with native PrP-coated microbeads are able to immunodetect oligomers/multimers of PrPSc. Oligomer-specific immunoreactivity displayed by these PRIOC mAbs was demonstrated as large aggregates of immunoreactive deposits in prion-permissive neuroblastoma cell lines but not in equivalent non-infected or prn-p(0/0 cell lines. In contrast, an anti-monomer PrP antibody displayed diffuse immunoreactivity restricted to the cell membrane. Furthermore, our PRIOC mAbs did not display any binding with monomeric recombinant and cellular prion proteins but strongly detected PrPSc oligomers as shown by a newly developed sensitive and specific ELISA. Finally, PrioC antibodies were also able to bind soluble oligomers formed of Aβ and α-synuclein. These findings demonstrate the potential use of anti-prion antibodies that bind PrPSc oligomers, recognised in early stage of the disease, for the diagnosis of prion diseases in blood and other body fluids.

  16. Antibody V(h repertoire differences between resolving and chronically evolving hepatitis C virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Racanelli

    Full Text Available Despite the production of neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV, many patients fail to clear the virus and instead develop chronic infection and long-term complications. To understand how HCV infection perturbs the antibody repertoire and to identify molecular features of antibody genes associated with either viral clearance or chronic infection, we sequenced the V(DJ region of naïve and memory B cells of 6 persons who spontaneously resolved an HCV infection (SR, 9 patients with a newly diagnosed chronically evolving infection (CE, and 7 healthy donors. In both naïve and memory B cells, the frequency of use of particular antibody gene subfamilies and segments varied among the three clinical groups, especially between SR and CE. Compared to CE, SR antibody genes used fewer VH, D and JH gene segments in naïve B cells and fewer VH segments in memory B cells. SR and CE groups significantly differed in the frequency of use of 7 gene segments in naïve B cell clones and 3 gene segments in memory clones. The nucleotide mutation rates were similar among groups, but the pattern of replacement and silent mutations in memory B cell clones indicated greater antigen selection in SR than CE. Greater clonal evolution of SR than CE memory B cells was revealed by analysis of phylogenetic trees and CDR3 lengths. Pauciclonality of the peripheral memory B cell population is a distinguishing feature of persons who spontaneously resolved an HCV infection. This finding, previously considered characteristic only of patients with HCV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, suggests that the B cell clones potentially involved in clearance of the virus may also be those susceptible to abnormal expansion.

  17. [An oropharyngeal tularemia case diagnosed by the isolation of Francisella tularensis on human blood agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Gönül; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Yeşilyurt, Murat; Celebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2010-10-01

    Tularemia which is a multisystem disease of humans and some animals, is endemic in North America, some parts of Europe and Asia. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is a fastidious gram-negative, intracellular bacterium which requires supplementation with sulphydryl compounds (cysteine, cystine, thiosulphate, isoVitaleX) for growth on common laboratory media. In this report, a case of oropharyngeal tularemia diagnosed by the isolation of the causative agent on non-selective-common microbiological agar, has been presented. The patient was from Yozgat located in central Anatolia where tularemia has not been reported so far. Forty-two years old male was admitted to the hospital with two weeks history of sudden onset fever, headache, generalized aches, sore throat, and cervical tender lump on the left. Physical examination revealed bilateral exudative tonsillitis and tender posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. He has been empirically treated with amoxicilin-clavulanic acid for 7 days with initial diagnosis of acute tonsillopharyngitis. However, he was admitted to the hospital since the symptoms persisted and swelling increased despite antibiotic therapy. Microscopical examination of the Gram and Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears prepared from the surgically drained lymph node revealed PMNL, with no evidence of bacteria. Routine cultures of the lymph node material yielded growth of gram-negative coccobacilli only on human blood agar and the cultures were negative for pyogenic bacteria, acid-fast organisms and fungi. Pathologic examination of the drainage material revealed suppurative inflammation. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples of the patient together with the isolated strain were sent to reference laboratory for further investigation in accordance to the clinical and laboratory findings compatible with tularemia. The isolate was confirmed as F.tularensis by slide agglutination and direct immunofluorescence antibody tests, and identified as F

  18. Analysis of screening results of irregular antibodies before blood transfusion%输血前不规则抗体筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文涛; 何子毅; 李俊杰; 刘仁强; 刘景春

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify serum or plasma irregular antibodies in patients, analyze their distribution characteristic, so as to prevent hemolytic transfusion reaction.Methods Microcolumn gel immunoassay was applied to screening and identifying irregular antibodies in clinical suspicious matching blood samples from June 2006 to December 2007, and then the types and distribution characteristic of irregular antibodies were analyzed.Results 54 cases were irregular antibody positive, in which 28 cases (51.85%) were homologous antibodies, 26 cases (48.15%) were autologous antibodies, 2 cases were unidentified antibodies. In homologous antibodies,Rh system antibody was predominant (53.57%) (in which anti-E was more than anti-D), followed by MNSs system antibody (19.23%). Anti-M (5, 9.26%) was the most in MNSs system. In autologous antibodies, anti-IgG was the most (53.84%), followed by anti-IgG+anti-C3d (30.77%) and cold autoantibody (15.38%). No hemolytic transfusion reaction occurred in patients with isoantibody after infusion of blood with corresponding antigen negative. The symptom of anaemia was alleviated in patients with autoantibody after quantitative washed red cells infusion.Conclusion Screening of irregular antibodies and infusion of suitable blood are conductive to decrease or avoidance of hemolytic transfusion reaction, and guarantee of blood safety.%目的 输血前对患者血清(浆)进行不规则抗体筛选和鉴定,分析不规则抗体的分布特征,预防溶血性输血反应的发生.方法 用微柱凝胶法对2006年6月到2007年12月间临床送检的疑难配血标本进行不规则抗体筛选和鉴定,分析不规则抗体的类型和分布特征.结果 不规则抗体筛选鉴定阳性54例,其中同种抗体26(51.85%)例,自身抗体26(48.15%)例,抗体特异性未确定2例,同种抗体中以Rh系统最多,占15/28(53.57%),其次为MNSs系统,占5/26(19.23%),Rh系统抗-E明显多于抗-D,与以往文献报道不同;MNSs系统主要是抗-M;

  19. A new gauge-invariant method for diagnosing eddy diffusivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, J.; Maddison, J. R.; Marshall, D. P.

    2016-08-01

    Coarse resolution numerical ocean models must typically include a parameterisation for mesoscale turbulence. A common recipe for such parameterisations is to invoke mixing of some tracer quantity, such as potential vorticity or buoyancy. However, it is well known that eddy fluxes include large rotational components which necessarily do not lead to any mixing; eddy diffusivities diagnosed from unfiltered fluxes are thus contaminated by the presence of these rotational components. Here a new methodology is applied whereby eddy diffusivities are diagnosed directly from the eddy force function. The eddy force function depends only upon flux divergences, is independent of any rotational flux components, and is inherently non-local and smooth. A one-shot inversion procedure is applied, minimising the mis-match between parameterised force functions and force functions derived from eddy resolving calculations. This enables diffusivities associated with the eddy potential vorticity and Gent-McWilliams coefficients associated with eddy buoyancy fluxes to be diagnosed. This methodology is applied to multi-layer quasi-geostrophic ocean gyre simulations. It is found that: (i) a strictly down-gradient scheme for mixing potential vorticity and quasi-geostrophic buoyancy has limited success in reducing the mis-match compared to one with no sign constraint on the eddy diffusivity or Gent--McWilliams coefficient, with prevalent negative signals around the time-mean jet; (ii) the diagnostic is successful away from the jet region and wind-forced top layer; (iii) the locations of closed mean stream lines correlate with signals of positive eddy potential vorticity diffusivity; (iv) there is indication that the magnitude of the eddy potential vorticity diffusivity correlates well with the eddy energy. Implications for parameterisation are discussed in light of these diagnostic results.

  20. Cochlear Implants in Children Diagnosed with CHARGE Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso, Carolina Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The CHARGE association (coloboma of the eyes; heart disease; atresia of the choanae; retarded growth and development; genital hypoplasia/genitourinary anomalies; ear anomalies and/or hearing loss was first described in 1979 by Hall, and among its main features is hearing loss. This study presents a case aiming to establish relationships between performance on Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS and Meaningful Use of Speech Scales (MUSS tests and the analysis of hearing and language categories of a patient diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome, before and after cochlear implant (CI surgery. Case Report: A 7-year-old girl was diagnosed with CHARGE. She had severe sensorineural hearing loss and was a prelingual unilateral CI user. We analyzed data from the patient's medical records regarding therapies and video recordings. Results: The patient showed positive results in all evaluations after CI. IT-MAIS rose from 5 to 90% following the use of CI. MUSS also rose, from 75 to 72.5%, after use of CI. Classification of Auditory Skills changed from category 1 before use of CI to category 6 after use of CI. Classification of Language Skills changed from category 1 before use of CI to category 3 after use of CI. The CI is an aid but there are many factors in the therapeutic process, and great heterogeneity in individuals diagnosed with CHARGE should be investigated. Conclusion: The development of listening and language skills after CI use was demonstrated by IT-MAIS and MUSS tests, and categorization of speech and hearing in this child with a diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome shows that CI can be an effective technological resource to provide information on hearing as one source for language construction.