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Sample records for anti-bacterial agents

  1. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

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    Vermani Archa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated. Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used in anti-bacterial activity of the extracts at concentration of 200 mg/ml against dental pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of most effective extracts against the most susceptible bacteria were determined using a two-fold serial micro dilution method. Results: Methanolic extract showed maximum anti-bacterial activity against all the bacteria. The most susceptible bacteria were S. sanguis followed by S. aureus, S. mutans, S. salivarius and L. acidophilus. The MIC values showed that methanolic extract was more effective than water extract. Conclusion: The plant has the potential to generate herbal metabolites. The crude extracts demonstrating anti-dental caries activity could result in the discovery of new chemical classes of antibiotics. These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases.

  2. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Velvis, H; Zachow, C; Berg, G; Van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    2006-01-01

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4 lysozyme

  3. Novel Steroidal (6R)-Spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline Derivatives as Anti-bacterial Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan Salman A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Novel steroidal (6R)-spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline derivatives have been synthesized by the cyclization of steroidal thiosemiearbazones. Thiosemicarbazones have been synthesized by the reaction of steroidal ketones with thiosemi- carbazide. All the compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass and elemental analyses. The antibacterial activities of these compounds have been first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been determined with the reference of standard drug amoxicillin. The results showed that steroidal thiadiazoline de- rivatives exhibited better antibacterial activity than the steroidal thiosemicarbazone derivatives. Chloro and acetoxy substituents on the 3β-position of the steroidal thiadiazoline ring increased the anti-bacterial activity. Among all the compounds, compounds 7 and 8 were found better inhibitors as compared to the respective drug amoxicillin.

  4. Evidence for Clinical Use of Honey in Wound Healing as an Anti-bacterial, Anti-inflammatory Anti-oxidant and Anti-viral Agent: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Kazerouni, Afshin; kazerouni, Ory

    2013-01-01

    Context To provide an updated review of published literature on the anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of honey. Evidence Acquisition CINAHL, BioMed Central, Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase data bases and reference lists were used to find randomized controlled trials and review articles. Randomized controlled trials using honey with a comparator were reviewed, along with published review articles to determine the relative benefits of tropical honey. These metho...

  5. Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a `green chemistry' approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO- and NH2 + groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications.

  6. Anti-bacterial activity of the methanolic extract of leucas hyssopifolia (Benth.

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    Devendra Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Methanolic extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots was investigated for its anti-bacterial property. Aim: Evaluation of anti-bacterial activity of Leucas hyssopifolia Benth. Settings and Design: Roots of the plant were collected, extracted and finally evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity. Materials and Methods: Paper disc diffusion method and microdilution technique were employed for the determination of zone of inhibition and minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. Results: The extract showed anti-bacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains except Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Anti-bacterial activity of extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots may be due to the presence of secondary plant metabolites like terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids, which are present in the extract. The extract can be further studied for the isolation of chemical compounds and their biological activity.

  7. Investigation of Anti-bacterial Activity against Food-borne Pathogens among Korean Domestic Algae

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    Ki-hyo Jang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore algal species with anti-bacterial activity against six food-borne pathogens. Among 51 marine algae, Laurencia okamurae Yamada and Dictyopteris undulata Holmes was elucidated to have a potent anti-bacterial activity against food-borne pathogens. Laurencia okamurae Yamada showed the clear zone around agar well on B. cereus, S. aureusand L. monocytogenes-spreading agar plate. Dictyopteris undulata Holmes had the anti-bacterial activity against S. chorelaesuis, B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes on bacterial spreading agar plates. Antibacterial activity of L. okamurae Yamada and D. undulata Holmes had specifically susceptibility for B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and were superior to streptomycin, the authentic antibiotics. It is anticipated that new food preservatives can be explored and developed on the basis of this study.

  8. Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activities of ethanol extracts of selected traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; Zhang; Anjaneya; S.Ravipati; Sundar; R; Koyyalamudi; Sang; Chul; Jeong; Narsimha; Reddy; John; Bartlett; Paul; T.Smith; Mercedes; de; la; Cruz; Maria; Cndida; Monteiro; ngeles; Melguizo; Ester; Jimnez; Francisca; Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate in ritro antimicrobial activities of selected 58 ethno-medicinal plant extracts with a view to assess their therapeutic potential.Methods:A total of 58 traditional Chinese medicinal plants were carefully selected based on the literature review and their traditional use.The antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts of these medicinal plants were tested against fungi(Aspergillus funigaius),yeast(Candida albicans),gram-negative(Acirelobacter haumannii and Pseudornnruis aeruginosa)and gram-positive bacteria(Staphglococcus aureus).The activities were tested at three different concentrations of 1.00,0.10 and 0.01 mg/mL.The data was analysed using Gene data Screener program.Results:The measured antimicrobial activities indicated that out of the 58 plant extracts,15 extracts showed anti-fungal activity and 23 extracts exhibited anti-bacterial activity.Eight plant extracts have exhibited both anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities.For instance,Eucommia ulmoides,Pohgonum cuspidcrtum,Poria cocas and Uncaria rhineophylla showed activity against both bacterial and fungal strains,indicating their broad spectrum of activity.Conclusions:The results revealed that the ethanol extracts of 30 plants out of the selected 58 possess significant antimicrobial activities.It is interesting to note that the findings from the current study are consistent with the traditional use.A clear correlation has also been found between the antimicrobial activity and the flavonoid content of the plant extracts which is in agreement with the literature.Hence.the results presented here can be used to guide the selection of potential plant species for the isolation and structure elucidation of novel antimicrobial compounds in order to establish the structure-activity relationship.This in turn is expected to lead the way to the discovery of novel antimicrobial agents for therapeutic use.

  9. Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activities of ethanol extracts of selected traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhang; ngeles Melguizo; Ester Jimnez; Francisca Vicente; Anjaneya S Ravipati; Sundar R Koyyalamudi; Sang Chul Jeong; Narsimha Reddy; John Bartlett; Paul T Smith; Mercedes de la Cruz; Maria Cndida Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activities of selected 58 ethno-medicinal plant extracts with a view to assess their therapeutic potential. Methods:A total of 58 traditional Chinese medicinal plants were carefully selected based on the literature review and their traditional use. The antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts of these medicinal plants were tested against fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus), yeast (Candida albicans), gram-negative (Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The activities were tested at three different concentrations of 1.00, 0.10 and 0.01 mg/mL. The data was analysed using Gene data Screener program. Results: The measured antimicrobial activities indicated that out of the 58 plant extracts, 15 extracts showed anti-fungal activity and 23 extracts exhibited anti-bacterial activity. Eight plant extracts have exhibited both anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities. For instance, Eucommia ulmoides, Polygonum cuspidatum, Poria cocos and Uncaria rhyncophylla showed activity against both bacterial and fungal strains, indicating their broad spectrum of activity. Conclusions: The results revealed that the ethanol extracts of 30 plants out of the selected 58 possess significant antimicrobial activities. It is interesting to note that the findings from the current study are consistent with the traditional use. A clear correlation has also been found between the antimicrobial activity and the flavonoid content of the plant extracts which is in agreement with the literature. Hence, the results presented here can be used to guide the selection of potential plant species for the isolation and structure elucidation of novel antimicrobial compounds in order to establish the structure-activity relationship. This in turn is expected to lead the way to the discovery of novel antimicrobial agents for therapeutic use.

  10. Anti Bacterial and Anti Inflammatory efficacy of Zingiber officinale and Decalepis hamiltonii ? In Vitro Study

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    Arun kumar M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the in vitro anti bacterial and anti inflammatory potential of Zingiber Officinale and Decalepis Hamiltonii against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Zingiber and Decalepis was subjected to microbiological assay to determine its Maximum zone of inhibition using Agar disk diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration using serial broth dilution method and anti inflammatory potential using protein denaturation assay against E. faecalis. Results: Ethanolic extract of Zingiber and Decalepis showed: (a Maximum zone of inhibition of 20 mm and 24 mm respectively, (b MIC of 5% and 2.5%respectively, (C Protein denaturation assay value (IC50 of 115 and 80 respectively. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Zingiber and Decalepis was found to possess both anti bacterial and anti-inflammatory potential against E. faecalis.

  11. A synthetic approach to carbon-14 labeled anti-bacterial naphthyridine and quinolone carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekhato, I.V.; Huang, C.C. (Parke, Davis and Co., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Labeled versions of (S)-clinafloxacin (1) and two napththyridine carboxylic acid anti-bacterial compounds 2 and 3 which are currently in development were synthesized. Preparations started from hitherto unknown bromo compounds 22 and 10, from which the corresponding [sup 14]C-labeled aromatic carboxylic acids 23 and 12 were generated by metal-halogen exchange followed by carboxylation reaction. Details of these preparations are given. (author).

  12. Synthesis and Anti-Bacterial Activities of Some Novel Schiff Bases Derived from Aminophenazone

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    Salman A Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one-containing Schiff bases were synthesized, characterized and screened for their antibacterial activities. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established by spectroscopic (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The anti-bacterial activities (with MIC values of compounds were evaluated. The anti-bacterial screening results reveal that among the six compounds screened, four compounds showed moderate to good anti-bacterial activity. Among the tested compounds, the most effective compounds against four bacterial strains, viz. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pyogenes, are [(2-Chlorobenzylideneamino]-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-one (4 and [(1,5-Dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yliminomethyl]benzonitrile (5 with MIC values of 6.25 μg/mL.

  13. Current status of research on anti-bacterial stainless steels%抗菌不锈钢研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易蓉; 叶峰; 张果戈; 李文芳

    2015-01-01

    综述了近几年国内外各种抗菌不锈钢的研究进展。介绍了复合抗菌不锈钢、涂层抗菌不锈钢、表面改性抗菌不锈钢以及合金型抗菌不锈钢的抗菌原理、特点、制造工艺,并展望了其应用前景。%The recent development and research progress of native and foreign anti-bacterial stainless steels were reviewed. The anti-bacterium mechanism, characteristics, and manufacturing technologies of laminated anti-bacterial stainless steels, coated anti-bacterial stainless steels, surface-modified stainless steels, and alloy-bearing anti-bacterial stainless steels were introduced and their application prospects were discussed.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF SOME NOVEL OXADIAZOLE BASED CHALCONE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS

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    P.K. Arora*, A. Mittal, G. Kaur, and A. Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives were designed and out of which six compounds have been synthesized via four step synthetic scheme and evaluated for antibacterial activity using cup plate method. The compounds were previously characterized by IR, 1H-NMR spectral analysis. The compounds with hydroxyl and methoxy substituted phenyl rings showed higher activity than the chloro substituted derivatives and standard i.e vancomycin. The antibacterial study revealed that the most promising compounds are 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1-(5-(2-hydroxyphenyl-2-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H-yl prop-2-en-1-one 6.4(a, 3-(4-methoxyphenyl-1-(2,5-di phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H-ylprop-2-en-1-one 6.4(b, 3-(4-hydroxy phenyl-1-(2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H-ylprop-2-en-1- one 6.4(c, 3-(4-hydroxy phenyl-1-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H-ylprop-2-en-1-one 6.4(e, 1-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H-yl-3-(4-methoxy phen ylprop-2-en-1-one 6.4(f against the tested bacteria (S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aerugenosa, E. coli. This preliminary study revealed that these compounds may be used as potential leads for further studies.

  15. In vitro anti- bacterial activity of leaves extracts of Albizia lebbeck Benth against some selected pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Nazneen Bobby; Edward Gnanaraj Wesely; MarimuthuAntonisamy Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-bacterial activity of Albizia lebbeck (A. lebbeck) Benth leaves extract against the selected bacterial pathogens viz., Bacillus subtilis (MTCC441), Escherichia coli (MTCC443), Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC 109), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC742), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC741), Salmonella typhii (MTCC733) and Staphylococus aureus (MTCC96).Methods:The leaves extracts of A. lebbeck was tested against bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: Results of the present study indicated that different extracts of A. lebbeck showed inhibitory effects against the pathogens. The present study results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of A. lebbeck conferred the widest spectrum activities that inhibited the growth of all studied pathogens with the maximum zone of inhibition. The methanolic extracts ofA. lebbeck illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against the pathogens Bacillus subtilis (16 mm), Escherichia coli (22 mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (11 mm), Proteus vulgaris (18 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm), Salmonella typhii (23 mm) and Staphylococus aureus (17 mm). The ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (26 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm) and Klebsiella pneumonia (16 mm). Conclusions: It is expected that this study would direct to the establishment of some active compounds that could be used to formulate new and more potent anti-bacterial drugs of natural origin.

  16. In vitro anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea for its biomedical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Kumar; S Senthamil Selvi; M Govindaraju

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea (J. juncea) against biofilm forming pathogenic strains. Methods: Gorgonians were extracted with methanol and analysed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biofilm forming pathogens were identified by Congo red agar supplemented with sucrose. A quantitative spectrophotometric method was used to monitor in vitro biofilm reduction by microtitre plate assay. Anti-bacterial activity of methanolic gorgonian extract (MGE) was carried out by disc diffusion method followed by calculating the percentage of increase with crude methanol (CM). Results: The presence of active functional group was exemplified by FT-IR spectroscopy. Dry, black, crystalline colonies confirm the production of extracellular polymeric substances responsible for biofilm formation in Congo red agar. MGE exhibited potential anti-biofilm activity against all tested bacterial strains. The anti-bacterial activity of methanolic extract was comparably higher in Salmonella typhii followed by Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. The overall percentage of increase was higher by 50.2%to CM. Conclusions:To conclude, anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial efficacy of J. juncea is impressive over biofilm producing pathogens and are good source for novel anti-bacterial compounds.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Anti bacterial Activity of Ethanolic root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Oral microbes

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    Geetha R.V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti bacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra on selected oral microbes. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was screened against Streptococcus mutans, streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus using disc diffusion technique. The Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and Minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC] of the extracts were also determined. The results of this study showed that the extracts at different concentrations exhibited anti bacterial activity against the bacterial species tested.

  18. A crustin isoform from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon exhibits broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity

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    Debashis Banerjee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have a powerful non-specific immune mechanism that responds to pathogen invasion and together with cellular responses, generates powerful humoral factors such as antimicrobial peptides. Crustins are a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed by the circulating haemocytes of crustaceans. Several isoforms of this molecule are reported and in this study, one isoform from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli SG 13009. The purified recombinant crustin peptide had a molecular weight of 22 kDa and exhibited potent anti-bacterial activity in vitro against several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria that included pathogens of aquatic animals and humans. The recombinant crustin showed a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.5 μg ml−1 against the vibrio pathogens of shrimp, which suggests its promise for application in aquaculture.

  19. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).

  20. Depletion of dendritic cells enhances innate anti-bacterial host defense through modulation of phagocyte homeostasis.

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    Stella E Autenrieth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs as professional antigen-presenting cells play an important role in the initiation and modulation of the adaptive immune response. However, their role in the innate immune response against bacterial infections is not completely defined. Here we have analyzed the role of DCs and their impact on the innate anti-bacterial host defense in an experimental infection model of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye. We used CD11c-diphtheria toxin (DT mice to deplete DCs prior to severe infection with Ye. DC depletion significantly increased animal survival after Ye infection. The bacterial load in the spleen of DC-depleted mice was significantly lower than that of control mice throughout the infection. DC depletion was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of CXCL1, G-CSF, IL-1α, and CCL2 and an increase in the numbers of splenic phagocytes. Functionally, splenocytes from DC-depleted mice exhibited an increased bacterial killing capacity compared to splenocytes from control mice. Cellular studies further showed that this was due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by neutrophils. Adoptive transfer of neutrophils from DC-depleted mice into control mice prior to Ye infection reduced the bacterial load to the level of Ye-infected DC-depleted mice, suggesting that the increased number of phagocytes with additional ROS production account for the decreased bacterial load. Furthermore, after incubation with serum from DC-depleted mice splenocytes from control mice increased their bacterial killing capacity, most likely due to enhanced ROS production by neutrophils, indicating that serum factors from DC-depleted mice account for this effect. In summary, we could show that DC depletion triggers phagocyte accumulation in the spleen and enhances their anti-bacterial killing capacity upon bacterial infection.

  1. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, A.G., E-mail: nik@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G.Yu.; Oks, E.M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oztarhan, A. [Izmir University, Izmir 35140 (Turkey); Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E.S. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  2. Anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity of probiotic bacteria against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taheur, Fadia; Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Elabed, Hamouda; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2016-08-01

    In this study, three lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from barley, traditional dried meat and fermented olive were characterized and tested for their anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities against oral bacteria. Our results revealed that the tested LAB were γ-hemolytic and were susceptible to four antibiotics. All the strains were resistant to low pH, bile salt, pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, FB2 displayed a high aut-oaggregative phenotype (99.54%) while FF2 exhibited the best co-aggregation rate. Concerning the microbial adhesion to solvent, FB2 was the most hydrophobic strain (data obtained with chloroform and n-hexadecane). In addition Pediococcus pentosaceus FB2 and Lactobacillus brevis FF2 displayed a significant inhibitory effect against Streptococcus salivarius B468 (MIC = 10%). Moreover the selected strains were able to inhibit biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MBIC50 = 28.16%) and S. salivarius B468 (MBIC50 = 42.28%). The selected LAB could be considered as candidate probiotics for further application in functional food and mainly in the prevention of oral diseases. PMID:27317856

  3. Anti-bacterial effects of the essential oil of Teucrium polium L. on human pathogenic bacteria

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    Mohammad Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Results: The total oil content of Teucrium polium plant was 0.75%. Twenty eight compounds were identified in the essential oil that included 99.75% of the total oil. The major components were α-pinene (12.52%, Linalool (10.63% and Caryophyllene oxide (9.69%. For study of antimicrobial activity of the oil sample, the essential oil was tested against 9 bacteria by disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial effects of this essential oil was determined against three Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus areous (PTCC 1431, Staphylococcus epidermidis (PTCC 1436, Streptococcus faecalis (PTCC 1237; as well as six Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeroginosa (PTCC 11430, Shigella flexneri (PTCC 1716, Kellebsiella pneuomonae(PTCC=1053, Salmonella typhi (PTCC=1609, Serratia marcescens (PTCC 1187 and Escherichia coli (PTCC 1533. The antimicrobial effects of this essential oil on the Gram positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and on all the Gram negative bacteria tested was much higher than those observed by tetracycline. Conclusions: The results showed the essential oil of Teucrium polium had strong anti-bacterial effects. The relatively high contents of α-pinene and Linalool in the essential oil may be the cause of its potential medicinal effects

  4. Anti Bacterial and Anti Inflammatory efficacy of Zi ngiber officinale and Decalepis hamiltonii – In Vitro Study

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    Arun kumar M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the in vitro anti bacterial and anti inflammatory potential of Zingiber Officinaleand Decalepis Hamiltoniiagainst E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Zingiberand Decalepiswas subjected to microbiological assay to determine itsMaximum zone of inhibition using Agar disk diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration using serial broth dilution method and anti inflammatory potential using protein denaturation assay against E. faecalis. Results: Ethanolic extract of Zingiberand Decalepisshowed: (a Maximum zone of inhibition of 20 mm and 24 mm respectively,(b MIC of 5% and 2.5%respectively, (C Protein denaturation assay value (IC50 of 115 and 80 respectively. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Zingiberand Decalepiswas found to possess both anti bacterial and anti-inflammatory potential against E. faecalis.

  5. Anti-bacterial effect of Mentha spicata L. essential oil on eight standard species of gastrointestinal pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Zare Bidaki; Mina Arab; Mohtarame Khazaei; Ehsan Afkar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Nowadays resistance to antibiotics and their side effects has emerged as a worldwide problem. As a result, tend to use anti-bacterial compounds of plant origin has been increased. Mint plant scientifically called Mentha spicata L. is one of the plants which has many medicinal uses and its antibacterial effects is a matter of debate. We aimed to study antibacterial effects of Mentha spicata L essential oil on 8 standard bacterial species including Escherichia coli, Bacillus...

  6. Antifungal and Anti-bacterial Synergistic Effects of Mixture of Honey and Herbal Extracts

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    Kianoush Khosravi-Darani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: By increasing resistance of several bacterial and fungal species to many kinds of antibiotics, applications of natural base compounds e.g. honey and medicinal herbs have been more attractive. The aim of present research is evaluation of anti-bacterial and anticandida effects of three kinds of honey of Iran together with alcoholic extract of mint and zataria, as well as extract and starch of ginger on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aueoginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, as pathogens of human body. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum additive inhibitory concentration (MAIC were determined by the agar diffusion method by dilution method in Sabouraud agar. By inoculation of 10 μL from suspension and appearance of colorless vesicles, MIC was determined. Growth inhibition was calculated by ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U and t-student tests. All experiments were conducted three times. MIC for three variety of honey on Staphylococcus aureus (32, 30, 29% v/v, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, (70, 67, 71% v/v, Escherichia coli (40, 35, 39% v/v and Candida albicans (45, 48, 50% v/v are reported. While, the MAIC for the growth inhibition of honeys together with extract of mint and zataria, as well as extract and starch of ginger were reduced. Results: The results show that ginger extract has more significant impact on microorganism growth with respect to others. Pseudomonas aeroginosa was the most susceptible microorganisms to ginger extract. Growth inhibitory effect of ginger extract was more significant than ginger starch.Conclusion: Addition of herbal extract increases antibacterial and anticandida properties of honey thus letting hope for a honey benefit and would constitute an alternative way against the resistance to bacteria.

  7. Receptor interacting protein kinase-2 inhibition by CYLD impairs anti-bacterial immune responses in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eWex

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon infection with intracellular bacteria, nucleotide oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2 recognizes bacterial muramyl dipeptide and binds, subsequently, to receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2. RIPK2 mediates the activation of immune responses via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK pathways. Previously, it has been shown that RIPK2 activation dependens on its K63-ubiquitination by the E3 ligases pellino-3 and ITCH, whereas the deubiquitinating enzyme A20 counter-regulates RIPK2 activity by cleaving K63-polyubiquitin chains from RIPK2. Here, we newly identify the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD as a new interacting partner and inhibitor of RIPK2. We show that CYLD binds to and removes K63-polyubiquitin chains from RIPK2 in Listeria monocytogenes (Lm infected bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM. CYLD-mediated K63-deubiquitination of RIPK2 resulted in an impaired activation of both NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways, reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, anti-listerial ROS and NO, and, finally, impaired pathogen control. In turn, RIPK2 inhibition by siRNA prevented activation of NF-κB and ERK1/2 and completely abolished the protective effect of CYLD-deficiency with respect to the production of IL-6, NO, ROS and pathogen control. Noteworthy, CYLD also inhibited autophagy of Listeria in a RIPK2-ERK1/2 dependent manner.The protective function of CYLD-deficiency was dependent on IFN-γ pre-stimulation of infected macrophages. Interestingly, the reduced NF-κB activation in CYLD-expressing macrophages limited the protective effect of IFN-γ by reducing NF-κB-dependent STAT1 activation. Taken together, our study identifies CYLD as an important inhibitor of RIPK2-dependent anti-bacterial immune responses in macrophages.

  8. Comparative phytochemical and anti-bacterial studies of two indigenous medicinal plants Curcuma caesia Roxb. and Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweetymol Jose

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional medicinal plants could serve as a good supply of new dependable, biodegradable, renewable drugs and can be utilised for its anti-bacterial activity directly or indirectly. Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical and anti-bacterial properties of two morphologically similar indigenous medicinal plants Curcuma caesia and Curcuma aeruginosa belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of rhizome extracts using methanol was performed for the presence of active principles. Qualitative analysis was carried out for diverse phytoconstituents. Different concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/ml of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water serial extracts from the rhizome of C. caesia and C. aeruginosa were tested against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus haemolyticus and Bacillus cereus and Gram negative (Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogens, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens bacteria. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard (NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform anti-bacterial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Statistical Analysis: All the values of the results were expressed as means of two independent experiments ΁ standard deviation. Results: Phytochemical screening of these two plants confirmed the presence of various bioactive substances and thus validating its use in herbal remedies. Anti-bacterial studies showed varying degree of inhibitory action against all the tested bacteria. Among the Gram positive bacteria, acetone extract of C. caesia showed maximum activity against S. aureus and hexane extract of C. aeruginosa exhibited maximum activity against B. cereus. In Gram negative bacteria, chloroform extract of C. caesia showed maximum inhibitory action against S. marcescens, whereas the methanol extract of C. aeruginosa showed higher inhibitory action against S. typhi. Conclusions: The

  9. Anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis kill cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Massaguer, Anna; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    Key players in translational regulation such as ribosomes might represent powerful, but hitherto largely unexplored, targets to eliminate drug-refractory cancer stem cells (CSCs). A recent study by the Lisanti group has documented how puromycin, an old antibiotic derived from Streptomyces alboniger that inhibits ribosomal protein translation, can efficiently suppress CSC states in tumorspheres and monolayer cultures. We have used a closely related approach based on Biolog Phenotype Microarrays (PM), which contain tens of lyophilized antimicrobial drugs, to assess the chemosensitivity profiles of breast cancer cell lines enriched for stem cell-like properties. Antibiotics directly targeting active sites of the ribosome including emetine, puromycin and cycloheximide, inhibitors of ribosome biogenesis such as dactinomycin, ribotoxic stress agents such as daunorubicin, and indirect inhibitors of protein synthesis such as acriflavine, had the largest cytotoxic impact against claudin-low and basal-like breast cancer cells. Thus, biologically aggressive, treatment-resistant breast cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties exhibit exacerbated chemosensitivities to anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics targeting protein synthesis. These results suggest that old/existing microbicides might be repurposed not only as new cancer therapeutics, but also might provide the tools and molecular understanding needed to develop second-generation inhibitors of ribosomal translation to eradicate CSC traits in tumor tissues.

  10. Synthesis, structure analysis, anti-bacterial and in vitro anti-cancer activity of new Schiff base and its copper complex derived from sulfamethoxazole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Rama; R Selvameena

    2015-04-01

    A new bidentate Schiff base ligand (HL1), containing O,N donors was prepared by the reaction of sulfamethoxazole with 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The copper complex of this ligand was synthesised by treating DMF-ethanolic mixture solution of the ligand of two equivalents with one equivalent of copper acetate. The complex was characterized on the basis of UV, FT-IR, molar conductance, EPR, magnetic moment and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, the crystal structure of the octahedral complex showed two solvent molecules (DMF) as ligands at their axial positions. The molar conductance data revealed that the complex is a non-electrolyte. The Schiff base and its copper complex have been investigated as anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents against various microorganisms. The in vitro cytotoxicity tests of the ligand and its copper complex were carried out in two different human tumour cell lines, HCT-116 and MDA – MB - 231. The cytotoxicity studies showed that the complex exhibited higher activity than cisplatin and carboplatin towards MDA – MB – 231.

  11. Cleavage Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpP1P2 Protease and Identification of Novel Peptide Substrates and Boronate Inhibitors with Anti-bacterial Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, Tatos; Kandror, Olga; Tsu, Christopher; Lai, Jack H.; Wu, Wengen; Liu, Yuxin; Zhao, Peng; Park, Annie; Wolf, Lisa; Dick, Lawrence R.; Rubin, Eric J.; Bachovchin, William; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    The ClpP1P2 protease complex is essential for viability in Mycobacteria tuberculosis and is an attractive drug target. Using a fluorogenic tripeptide library (Ac-X3X2X1-aminomethylcoumarin) and by determining specificity constants (kcat/Km), we show that ClpP1P2 prefers Met ≫ Leu > Phe > Ala in the X1 position, basic residues or Trp in the X2 position, and Pro ≫ Ala > Trp in the X3 position. We identified peptide substrates that are hydrolyzed up to 1000 times faster than the standard ClpP substrate. These positional preferences were consistent with cleavage sites in the protein GFPssrA by ClpXP1P2. Studies of ClpP1P2 with inactive ClpP1 or ClpP2 indicated that ClpP1 was responsible for nearly all the peptidase activity, whereas both ClpP1 and ClpP2 contributed to protein degradation. Substrate-based peptide boronates were synthesized that inhibit ClpP1P2 peptidase activity in the submicromolar range. Some of them inhibited the growth of Mtb cells in the low micromolar range indicating that cleavage specificity of Mtb ClpP1P2 can be used to design novel anti-bacterial agents. PMID:25759383

  12. Anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis kill cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Massaguer, Anna; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    Key players in translational regulation such as ribosomes might represent powerful, but hitherto largely unexplored, targets to eliminate drug-refractory cancer stem cells (CSCs). A recent study by the Lisanti group has documented how puromycin, an old antibiotic derived from Streptomyces alboniger that inhibits ribosomal protein translation, can efficiently suppress CSC states in tumorspheres and monolayer cultures. We have used a closely related approach based on Biolog Phenotype Microarrays (PM), which contain tens of lyophilized antimicrobial drugs, to assess the chemosensitivity profiles of breast cancer cell lines enriched for stem cell-like properties. Antibiotics directly targeting active sites of the ribosome including emetine, puromycin and cycloheximide, inhibitors of ribosome biogenesis such as dactinomycin, ribotoxic stress agents such as daunorubicin, and indirect inhibitors of protein synthesis such as acriflavine, had the largest cytotoxic impact against claudin-low and basal-like breast cancer cells. Thus, biologically aggressive, treatment-resistant breast cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties exhibit exacerbated chemosensitivities to anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics targeting protein synthesis. These results suggest that old/existing microbicides might be repurposed not only as new cancer therapeutics, but also might provide the tools and molecular understanding needed to develop second-generation inhibitors of ribosomal translation to eradicate CSC traits in tumor tissues. PMID:25970790

  13. Evaluation of anti-bacterial effects of some novel thiazole and imidazole derivatives against some pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has motivated the researchers to evaluate the novel anti-bac- terial compounds such as some thiazole and imidazole derivatives. Thereby, in this work, we investigated the anti-bacterial effects of one new thiazole and two new imidazole derivatives on Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella dysenteriae.Materials and Methods: The thiazole and imidazole derivatives were dissolved in DMSO. The disk diffusion method was utilized to measure the growth inhibition zone diameter values, and the broth micro-dilution method was applied to deter- mine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values.Results: The synthesized imidazole derivatives lacked any inhibitory effect against the tested bacteria. On the other hand, although the synthesized thiazole derivative showed no inhibitory effect against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli, it inhibited the growth of Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenteriae, and Listeria monocytogenes with the MIC values of 1000, 125, and 1000 µg/ml, respectively, and the growth inhibition zone diameter values of 9.3 ± 0.1, 15.6 ± 0.2, and 8.1 ± 0.0 mm, respectively.Conclusion: The anti-bacterial effect of the synthesized thiazole derivative on Shigella dysenteriae, Proteus mirabilis and Listeria monocytogenes was proven. However, its inhibition effect against Shigella dysenteriae was more than that against the others. Many in-vitro and in-vivo experiments are required to evaluate the effects of this compound on the bacteria and the human body. Keywords: Anti-bacterial effects, Thiazole, Imidazole

  14. Synthesis and Anti-Bacterial Activities of a Bis-Chalcone Derived from Thiophene and Its Bis-Cyclized Products

    OpenAIRE

    Asiri, Abdullah M.; Khan, Salman A.

    2011-01-01

    A chalcone was prepared by the reaction of terephthalaldehyde with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. Treatment of this chalcone with thiosemicarbazide/phenyl hydrazine/guanidine hydrochloride/thiourea afforded the corresponding pyrazoline,  pyrazole, and pyrimidine in good yields. All the new compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, GC-MS and elemental analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of these compounds were first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gra...

  15. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Vermani Archa; Navneet; Prabhat

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated) and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated). Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used ...

  16. Anti-bacterial studies on Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) H.G. Hallier and Elephantopus scaber L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vimala Thankappan Anitha; Johnson MarimuthuAntonisamy; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the ethanol, aqueous, chloroform, benzene, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Hemigraphis colorata (H. colorata) leaves and stem and Elephantopus scaber (E. scaber) leaves, root and flower for the presence of phyto-constituents and screened the anti-bacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Methods:The fresh materials were shade dried and powdered using the tissue blender. The dried and powered materials (50 g) were extracted successively with 200 mL of aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether by using Soxhlet extractor for 8 h at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. Aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts were prepared from powdered materials were used for preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies using standard methods. Results:The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root and H. colorata leaves and stem demonstrated that out of (5×6×12 = 360) tests for the presence or absence of the above compounds, 188 tests gave positive results and the remaining 172 gave negative results. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenol (12/12), carbohydrates (9/12), steroids (8/12), saponins and coumarins (7/12), tannins (6/12), proteins (5/12), carboxylic acid and flavonoids (4/12), xanthoproteins (3/12) and alkaloids (2/12) presence in the crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of H. colorata leaves and stem. The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root displayed the presence of phenol (18/18), tannin (17/18), carbohydrates (16/18), steroids (14/18), carboxylic acid and coumarins (12/18), saponins (10/18), xanthoprotein (9/18), flavonoids (7/18), protein (4/18) and alkaloids (2/18). The root ethanolic extracts of E. scaber

  17. In vitro residual anti-bacterial activity of difloxacin, sarafloxacin and their photoproducts after photolysis in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusari, Souvik; Prabhakaran, Deivasigamani; Lamshoeft, Marc [Institut fuer Umweltforschung (INFU), Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 6, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Spiteller, Michael, E-mail: m.spiteller@infu.uni-dortmund.d [Institut fuer Umweltforschung (INFU), Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 6, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Fluoroquinolones like difloxacin (DIF) and sarafloxacin (SARA) are adsorbed in soil and enter the aquatic environment wherein they are subjected to photolytic degradation. To evaluate the fate of DIF and SARA, their photolysis was performed in water under stimulated natural sunlight conditions. DIF primarily degrades to SARA. On prolonged photodegradation, seven photoproducts were elucidated by HR-LC-MS/MS, three of which were entirely novel. The residual anti-bacterial activities of DIF, SARA and their photoproducts were studied against a group of pathogenic strains. DIF and SARA revealed potency against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The photoproducts also exhibited varying degrees of efficacies against the tested bacteria. Even without isolating the individual photoproducts, their impact on the aquatic environment could be assessed. Therefore, the present results call for prudence in estimating the fate of these compounds in water and in avoiding emergence of resistance in bacteria caused by the photoproducts of DIF and SARA. - Assessment of the residual anti-bacterial efficacies of difloxacin, sarafloxacin and their photoproducts in water, and estimating their impact on the aquatic environment in inducing resistance to microorganisms.

  18. Structure Elucidation of Procyanidins Isolated from Rhododendron formosanum and Their Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Bacterial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Min Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron formosanum is an endemic species distributed in the central mountains of Taiwan. In this study, the biological activities of major procyanidins isolated from the leaf extract of R. formosanum were investigated. Four compounds, including two procyanidin dimers, procyanidin A1 (1 and B3 (2, and two procyanidin trimmers, procyanidin C4 (4 and cinnamtannin D1 (5, were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. The structure of a new procyanidin dimer, rhodonidin A (3, was elucidated by 2D-NMR, CD spectrum and MS. The procyanidin trimmers and rhodonidin A are reported for the first time in Ericaceae. The biological activities of these procyanidins were evaluated using anti-bacterial and anti-oxidative assays. Only the new compound 3 demonstrated strong anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at an MIC value of 4 μg/mL. All compounds showed pronounced antioxidant activities and the activities are enhanced as the amount of OH groups in procyanidins increased. In conclusion, the pleiotropic effects of procyanidins isolated from the leaves of R. formosanum can be a source of promising compounds for the development of future pharmacological applications.

  19. Zinc-oxide-silica-silver nanocomposite: Unique one-pot synthesis and enhanced catalytic and anti-bacterial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokate, Mangesh; Garadkar, Kalyanrao; Gole, Anand

    2016-12-01

    We describe herein a unique approach to synthesize zinc oxide-silica-silver (ZnO-SiO2-Ag) nanocomposite, in a simple, one-pot process. The typical process for ZnO synthesis by alkaline precipitation of zinc salts has been tweaked to replace alkali by alkaline sodium silicate. The free acid from zinc salts helps in the synthesis of silica nanoparticles, whereas the alkalinity of sodium silicate precipitates the zinc salts. Addition of silver ions into the reaction pot prior to addition of sodium silicate, and subsequent reduction by borohydride, gives additional functionality of metallic centres for catalytic applications. The synthesis strategy is based on our recent work typically involving acid-base type of cross-reactions and demonstrates a novel strategy to synthesize nanocomposites in a one-pot approach. Each component in the composite offers a unique feature. ZnO besides displaying mild catalytic and anti-bacterial behaviour is an excellent and a cheap 3-D support for heterogeneous catalysis. Silver nanoparticles enhance the catalytic & anti-bacterial properties of ZnO. Silica is an important part of the composite; which not only "glues" the two nanoparticles thereby stabilizing the nanocomposite, but also significantly enhances the surface area of the composite; which is an attractive feature of any catalyst composite. The nanocomposite is found to show excellent catalytic performance with very high turnover frequencies (TOFs) when studied for catalytic reduction of Rhodamine B (RhB) and 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP). Additionally, the composite has been tested for its anti-bacterial properties on three different bacterial strains i.e. E. coli, B. Cereus and Bacillus firmus. The mechanism for enhancement of catalytic performance has been probed by understanding the role of silica in offering accessibility to the catalyst via its porous high surface area network. The nanocomposite has been characterized by a host of different analytical techniques. The uniqueness of

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTI-BACTERIAL, ANALGESIC, ANTI-DIARRHOEAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF POLYALTHIA SUBEROSA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Moazzem Hossen et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The MeOH extract of leaves of Polyalthia suberosa Roxb. (Annonaceae was screened for its antibacterial, analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities. The extract showed moderate anti-bacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Sheigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus saprophyticus. It also produced significant (P<0.01 writhing inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing in mice at dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, which was comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Moreover, when tested for its antidiarrhoeal effects on castor oil induced diarrhea in mice, it decreased the frequency of defecation and increased mean latent period significantly (P<0.01 at the dose of 500 mg/kg comparable to the standard drug loperamide. The extract also exhibited high level of cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay (LC50: 30 µg/ml. The overall results tend to suggest the antibacterial, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities of the extract.

  1. Loss of the DNA Damage Repair Kinase ATM Impairs Inflammasome-Dependent Anti-Bacterial Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erttmann, Saskia F; Härtlova, Anetta; Sloniecka, Marta; Raffi, Faizal A M; Hosseinzadeh, Ava; Edgren, Tomas; Rofougaran, Reza; Resch, Ulrike; Fällman, Maria; Ek, Torben; Gekara, Nelson O

    2016-07-19

    The ATM kinase is a central component of the DNA damage repair machinery and redox balance. ATM dysfunction results in the multisystem disease ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). A major cause of mortality in AT is respiratory bacterial infections. Whether ATM deficiency causes innate immune defects that might contribute to bacterial infections is not known. Here we have shown that loss of ATM impairs inflammasome-dependent anti-bacterial innate immunity. Cells from AT patients or Atm(-/-) mice exhibited diminished interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in response to bacteria. In vivo, Atm(-/-) mice were more susceptible to pulmonary S. pneumoniae infection in a manner consistent with inflammasome defects. Our data indicate that such defects were due to oxidative inhibition of inflammasome complex assembly. This study reveals an unanticipated function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in negative regulation of inflammasomes and proposes a theory for the notable susceptibility of AT patients to pulmonary bacterial infection. PMID:27421701

  2. Synthesis and Anti-Bacterial Activities of a Bis-Chalcone Derived from Thiophene and Its Bis-Cyclized Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chalcone was prepared by the reaction of terephthalaldehyde with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. Treatment of this chalcone with thiosemicarbazide/phenyl hydrazine/guanidine hydrochloride/thiourea afforded the corresponding pyrazoline,  pyrazole, and pyrimidine in good yields. All the new compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, GC-MS and elemental analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of these compounds were first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined with the reference of standard drug chloramphenicol. The results showed that the pyrazoline derivative is better at inhibiting growth of both types of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative compared to chloramphenicol.

  3. Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a ‘green chemistry’ approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round...

  4. Synthesis and study of anti-bacterial activity of complexes of diallyldisulphide from garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prabha Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of bacterial resistance to available antibiotics and increasing incidence of multiresistant bacterial infections in hospitals and in the community has necessitated the search for new antibacterial agents to treat the bacterial infection. It has long been known that metal ions are involved in biological processes of life through bonding to the heteroatoms of the heterocyclic residues of biological molecules i.e., proteins, enzymes and nucleic acids etc. The behavior of the disulfide group as a donor in transition metal complexes has not been subjected to such detailed study as a number of other donor groups. Aim: The Diallyldisulphide is one of the main constituents of Allium sativum (Garlic. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the Garlic is due to the presence of sulphur containing compounds. The aim of the present work was to synthesize metal complexes with Diallyldisulphide. Materials and Methods: Complexation reactions between the Diallyldisulphide and the metal ions were carried out at three different pH i.e. acidic (pH 3, neutral (pH 7 and alkaline (pH 10 using three different ratios of metal ligand namely 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, respectively. Complex formation with the ligand and all the metals took place at pH 10, indicating that complexes were stable at this pH. Studies with different metal: ligand ratio showed that in case of silver the complexation took place at 1:1 ratio. In case of divalent metals, the appropriate ratio of metal: ligand was 1:2. The structures of the new complexes obtained were determined by spectroscopic methods. Results and Discussion: Synthesized complexes were investigated for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and E.coli. Diallyldisulphide-silver complex exhibited significant antibacterial activity (MIC 100 μg/ mL, and was found to be effective against selected organisms. The results concluded that the metal complexes

  5. Anti-carcinogenic and Anti-bacterial Properties of Selected Spices: Implications in Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjre, Anjali; Kathariya, Rahul; Bagul, Neeta; Pawar, Vivek

    2015-10-01

    "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food", as said by the father of medicine, Hippocrates in 431 B.C. Nature has provided us with a variety of treatment modalities in the form of food. For the first 5,000 years of civilization, humans relied on herbs and foods for medicine. Only in the past 60 years have we forgotten our medicinal "roots" in favor of patented medicines. While pharmaceutical ingredients have their value, we should not overlook the well-documented, non-toxic and inexpensive healing properties of food. As an individual we consume food several times a day without a complete understanding of its innate qualities. As part of a daily diet, food plays a significant role in helping our bodies function at their best. There are hundreds of extremely nutritious foods, but the items in this article do more than providing healthy nutrients. Many of them consist of ingredients with hidden pharmaceutical qualities ranging from anti-inflammatory to anti-carcinogenic agent. They not only boost our innate immunity but also act as an adjunct to medicines for specific treatment. Prevention and management of symptoms can often be improved significantly through the foods we consume regularly. This paper overviews these beneficial traits of food ingredients, consumed on a daily basis, in various oral diseases. PMID:26566515

  6. Preparation and release study of Triclosan in polyethylene/Triclosan anti-bacterial blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalipour, Jamshid; Masoomi, Mahmood; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2016-09-01

    In this study, medium density polyethylene (MDPE) incorporated with Triclosan antibacterial substance has been prepared and Triclosan release rate was investigated. The crystallinity level and matrix polarity, as two significant parameters in antibacterial release control, were studied. Triclosan, a well-established widespread antibacterial agent, was incorporated into medium density polyethylene (MDPE) and Maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MA) was used to change the polarity of the MDPE matrix. A masterbatch of 10wt% Triclosan incorporated with the MDPE and various PE-g-MA concentrations were prepared using an internal mixer. Then the masterbatch was diluted in the MDPE matrix to produce compounds with 0.1, 0.5, and1wt% Triclosan via twin screw extruder. The compounds were molded by compression molding method and then were cooled in three different cooling rate methods: isothermal cooling (I), quenching (Q),and moderate 5-10°C/min cooling rate (M). Cooling rate effects on crystallinity level were investigated applying sample density measurement. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the release of Triclosan. Antibacterial properties of the compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were measured. The results showed that by addition of PE-g-MA, Triclosan release rate was increased. It was confirmed that the sample crystallinity was decreased by the cooling rate enhancement. The results also showed that quenched samples indicated higher release of Triclosan. Cooling rate reduction and raising the polarity increased the release of Triclosan and improved the antibacterial properties of the compounds.

  7. Preparation and release study of Triclosan in polyethylene/Triclosan anti-bacterial blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalipour, Jamshid; Masoomi, Mahmood; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2016-09-01

    In this study, medium density polyethylene (MDPE) incorporated with Triclosan antibacterial substance has been prepared and Triclosan release rate was investigated. The crystallinity level and matrix polarity, as two significant parameters in antibacterial release control, were studied. Triclosan, a well-established widespread antibacterial agent, was incorporated into medium density polyethylene (MDPE) and Maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MA) was used to change the polarity of the MDPE matrix. A masterbatch of 10wt% Triclosan incorporated with the MDPE and various PE-g-MA concentrations were prepared using an internal mixer. Then the masterbatch was diluted in the MDPE matrix to produce compounds with 0.1, 0.5, and1wt% Triclosan via twin screw extruder. The compounds were molded by compression molding method and then were cooled in three different cooling rate methods: isothermal cooling (I), quenching (Q),and moderate 5-10°C/min cooling rate (M). Cooling rate effects on crystallinity level were investigated applying sample density measurement. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the release of Triclosan. Antibacterial properties of the compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were measured. The results showed that by addition of PE-g-MA, Triclosan release rate was increased. It was confirmed that the sample crystallinity was decreased by the cooling rate enhancement. The results also showed that quenched samples indicated higher release of Triclosan. Cooling rate reduction and raising the polarity increased the release of Triclosan and improved the antibacterial properties of the compounds. PMID:27337565

  8. A novel biliary stent coated with silver nanoparticles prolongs the unobstructed period and survival via anti-bacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuchun; Ren, Zhigang; Chai, Qinming; Cui, Guangying; Jiang, Li; Chen, Hanjian; Feng, Zhiying; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Jian; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Weilin; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Symptomatic biliary stricture causes life-threatening complications, such as jaundice, recurrent cholangitis and secondary biliary cirrhosis. Fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs) are gaining acceptance for treatments of benign biliary stricture and palliative management of malignant biliary obstructions. However, the high rate of FCSEMS obstruction limits their clinic use. In this study, we developed a novel biliary stent coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and investigated its efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. We first identified properties of the AgNP complex using ultraviolet detection. The AgNP complex was stable without AgNP agglomeration, and Ag abundance was correspondingly increased with an increased bilayer number. The AgNP biliary stent demonstrated good performance in the spin-assembly method based on topographic observation. The AgNP biliary stent also exhibited a long-term anti-coagulation effect and a slow process of Ag(+) release. In vitro anti-bacteria experiments indicated that the AgNP biliary stent exhibited high-efficiency anti-bacterial activity for both short- and long-term periods. Importantly, application of the AgNP biliary stent significantly prolonged the unobstructed period of the biliary system and improved survival in preclinical studies as a result of its anti-microbial activity and decreased granular tissue formation on the surface of the anastomotic biliary, providing a novel and effective treatment strategy for symptomatic biliary strictures. PMID:26883081

  9. Synthesis, characterization, solubility and stability studies of hydrate cocrystal of antitubercular Isoniazid with antioxidant and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Syed Muddassir Ali; Yunus, Uzma; Bhatti, Moazzam Hussain; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Isoniazid is an important component used in "triple therapy" to combat tuberculosis. It has reduced Tabletting formulations stability. Anti-oxidants are obligatory to counter oxidative stress, pulmonary inflammation, and free radical burst from macrophages caused in tuberculosis and other diseases. In the present study a hydrate cocrystal of Isoniazid with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) in 1:1 is reported. This Cocrystal may have improved tabletting stability and anti-oxidant properties. Cocrystal structure analysis confirmed the existence of pyridine-carboxylic acid synthon in the Cocrystal. Other synthons of different graph sets involving Nsbnd H···O and Osbnd H···N bonds are formed between hydrazide group of isoniazid and coformer. Solubility studies revealed that cocrystal is less soluble as compared to isoniazid in buffer at pH 7.4 at 22 °C while stability studies at 80 °C for 24 h period disclosed the fact that cocrystal has higher stability than that of isoniazid.

  10. Role of berberine in anti-bacterial as a high-affinity LPS antagonist binding to TLR4/MD-2 receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Ming; Ding, Ran; Chu, Zheng-yun; Zhang, Ming-bo; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Shao-Hua; Zhai, Yan-jun; Wang, Yue-dan

    2014-01-01

    Background Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid mainly extracted from Rhizoma Coptidis and has been shown to possess a potent inhibitory activity against bacterial. However, the role of berberine in anti-bacterial action has not been extensively studied. Methods The animal model was established to investigate the effects of berberine on bacterial and LPS infection. Docking analysis, Molecular dynamics simulations and Real-time RT-PCR analysis was adopted to investigate the molecular mechanis...

  11. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Arifullah; Nima Dandu Namsa; Manabendra Mandal; Kishore Kumar Chiruvella; Paritala Vikrama; Ghanta Rama Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods:In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results: AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacteriumsmegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion:This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines.

  12. Porous rod-like MgO complex membrane with good anti-bacterial activity directed by conjugated linolenic acid polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hua-Jie, E-mail: wanghuajie972001@163.com; Chen, Meng [Henan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Mi, Li-Wei, E-mail: mlwzzu@163.com [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Center for Advanced Materials Research (China); Shi, Li-Hua [Anyang 101 Education Center (China); Cao, Ying, E-mail: caoying1130@sina.com [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Center for Advanced Materials Research (China)

    2016-02-15

    The problem of infection in the tissue engineering substitutes is driving us to seek new coating materials. We previously found that conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) has well biocompatibility and excellent membrane-forming property. The objective of this study is to endow the anti-bacterial activity to CLnA membra ne by linking with MgO. The results showed that the CLnA polymer membrane can be loaded with porous rod-like MgO and such complex membrane showed anti-bacterial sensitivity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) even at the low concentration (0.15 μg/mm{sup 2}). In the present study, the best zone of inhibition got to 18.2 ± 0.8 mm when the amount of MgO reach 2.42 ± 0.58 μg/mm{sup 2}. It was deduced that the porous rod-like structure of MgO was directed by CLnA in its polymerization process. Such CLnA/MgO complex membrane can be helpful in the tissue engineering, medicine, food engineering, food preservation, etc. on the basis of its good anti-bacterial activity.

  13. Anti-bacterial effect of essential oil from Xanthium strumarium against shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Soufi, L; Ayatollahi, S A M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Varoni, E M; Shahri, F; Esposito, S; Kuhestani, K; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 is one of the most important human pathogenic microorganisms, which can cause life-threatening infections. Xanthium strumarium L. is a plant with anti-bacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This study aims to demonstrate in vitro efficacy of the essential oil (EO) extracted from Xanthium strumarium L. against E. coli O157:H7. Using the agar test diffusion, the effect of Xanthium strumarium L. EO (5, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/mL) was verified at each of the four different growth phases of E. coli O157:H7. Cell counts of viable cells and colony forming unit (CFU) were determined at regular time points using Breed's method and colony counting method, respectively. No viable cell was detectable after the 1 hour-exposure to X. strumarium EO at 30, 60, and 120 mg/mL concentrations. No bacterial colony was formed after 1 h until the end of the incubation period at 24 h. At lower concentrations, the number of bacteria cells decreased and colonies could be observed only after incubation. At the exponential phase, the EO at 15 mg/mL was only bacteriostatic, while from 30 mg/mL started to be bactericidal. X. strumarium EO antibacterial activity against Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 is dependent on EO concentration and physiological state of the microorganisms tested. The best inhibitory activity was achieved during the late exponential and the stationary phases. PMID:27650979

  14. 驱蚊抑菌绿色蚊香工艺研制及其效果评价%Processing Technology of Anti-bacterial and Mosquito-repellent Green Incense and Its Effect Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓蓉; 陈功锡; 陈良; 潘涛; 雷玉茸; 徐定华

    2011-01-01

    基于绿色无毒蚊香应用的重要性,本文以药用植物黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.)为主要原料研究了驱蚊抑菌绿色蚊香工艺.考察了蚊香产品的驱蚊和抑菌效果,采用CC-MS分析了蚊香中黄花蒿挥发油的驱蚊成分,并对蚊香产品性状进行了评价.实验结果表明,添加黄花蒿植物、木炭、榆木粉及苍术等组分为最优化的原料组成;室内药效试验表明最优化原料组分研制的蚊香产品具有较好驱蚊效果,其KT50为4 min;抑菌实验表明制备的蚊香对供试5种微生物均具有抑制作用,具广谱抑菌性;GC-MS分析表明蚊香工艺处理后的黄花蒿挥发油存在11个相对含量大于2.0%的活性组分;性状评价结果表明蚊香产品在外观与感官、水分、抗折力及连续燃烧时间等性状均达到国家标准;燃烧试验发现蚊香燃烧时间与蚊香横切面积有关.%Based on the important application of the nontoxic and mosquito-repellent green incense,the processing technology of green incense using Chinese medicinal plant of Artemisia annua L. as the major materials was developed. And the anti-bacterial and mosquito-repellent functions of incense were studied. The volatile oil of A. annua was analyzed by CC-MS method. The production properties of incense were evaluated based on the national standard. The results suggested that the optimal material compositions of incense process were A. annua, wood charcoal,elm powder and Atractylodes lancea. The laboratory efficacy test showed that the anti-bacterial mosquito-repellent green incense had strong mosquito-repellent effect. The KTjq was 4 min. The antimicrobial tests implied that the anti-bacterial mosquito-repellent green incense was the broad-spectrum anti-bacteria agent,which could effectively inhibit the growth of five experimental bacteri-a. The volatile oil of A annua by CC-MS method included eleven compositions with relative content more than 2.0%. The effect

  15. Study on Syntheses and Anti-bacterial Activities of Some New Transition Metal Complexes with Schiff Base Ligand Containing Pyridine and Amide Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Mei-Ying(李美英); HU, Pei-Zhi(胡培植); ZHU, Jun-Cheng(朱军成); LIU, Yi(刘义); XU,Kuo-Xi(徐括喜)

    2004-01-01

    Several new transition metal complexes using Schiff base containing pyridine and amide moieties (N, N'-bis(β- salicylaliminoethyl)-2, 6-pyridinedicarboxylic amide, H4L) as the ligand have been prepared. Their compositions and structures are corroborated by elemental analysis, IR, UV, 1H NMR, DTA-TG and molar conductivity data. Their anti-bacterial activities have been studied by microcalorimetry. The result shows that the ligand and all complexes are potential anti-bacteria reagent and their inhibitory capacities are concentration-depended. The Mn complex has the strongest inhibitory capacity.

  16. Anti-bacterial activity of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: comparative in vitro study of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, mefloquine, and azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mombo-Ngoma Ghyslain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing drug resistance necessitates the urgent evaluation of alternative drugs. Currently, the most promising candidates in clinical development are mefloquine and azithromycin. Besides the anti-malarial activity, SP is also a potent antibiotic and incurs significant anti-microbial activity when given as IPTp - though systematic clinical evaluation of this action is still lacking. Methods In this study, the intrinsic anti-bacterial activity of mefloquine and azithromycin was assessed in comparison to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against bacterial pathogens with clinical importance in pregnancy in a standard microdilution assay. Results SP was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. All tested Gram-positive bacteria, except Enterococcus faecalis, were sensitive to azithromycin. Additionally, azithromycin was active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mefloquine showed good activity against pneumococci but lower in vitro action against all other tested pathogens. Conclusion These data indicate important differences in the spectrum of anti-bacterial activity for the evaluated anti-malarial drugs. Given the large scale use of IPTp in Africa, the need for prospective clinical trials evaluating the impact of antibiotic activity of anti-malarials on maternal and foetal health and on the risk of promoting specific drug resistance of bacterial pathogens is discussed.

  17. In vitro anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial potential and induction of DNA strand break of partially purified Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Bhagat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta reflexa is an important medicinal plant, mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine. The plant is selected to evaluate the possibility for novel pharmaceuticals for anticancer and antibiotics drugs. Since most of these drugs had developed resisitance against currently used chemotherapeutics. This study describes the in vitro anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial and single stand DNA break of the holoprasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa. Bioassay-guided fractionation and partial purification of the plant were done and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines by SRB assay and single strand DNA break by comet assay. Further antibacterial activity was also performed by agar well diffusion assay. The alcoholic extract, chloroform fraction and partially purified ethylacetate-methanol (1:1 sub-fraction of C. reflexa showed anti-proliferative potential against IMR-32 and 502713 human cancer cell lines. Alcoholic extract exhibited anti-proliferative activity of 74% and 72%, chloroform fraction demonstrated 91% and 95% against neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and colon (502713 cancer cell lines at 100 μg/ml. Single strand DNA break of the chloroform fraction was also demonstrated using comet assay, indicating that possible mode of cell death may be apoptosis. Anti-microbial properties were evaluated against eight species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and maximum zone of inhibition for anti-bacterial activity was found against Staphylococcus aureus (22 mm by alcoholic extract, 21 mm by chloroform fraction and 12 mm by ethylacetate-methanol (1:1 sub-fraction. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the chloroform fraction was 1500 μg/ml for S. aureus. The plant was found to be equally effective against gram-positive and negative bacteria. Studies are well underway to isolate and identify active compounds from chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate:methanol (1:1 sub-fraction, which can be used as

  18. Regenerative potential and anti-bacterial activity of tetracycline loaded apatitic nanocarriers for the treatment of periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current treatment of periodontal infections includes mechanical debridement, administration of antibiotics and bone grafting. Oral administration of antibiotics results in undesirable side effects, while current modes of local administration are affected by problems concerning allergic response to the polymeric carrier agents. We have developed an osteoconductive drug delivery system composed of apatitic nanocarriers capable of providing sustained delivery of drugs in the periodontium. Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) nanocarriers of different Ca/P ratios were synthesized and characterized using the x-ray diffraction method, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the BET gas isotherm method. Loading and release studies performed with tetracycline showed a sustained release of up to 88% in phosphate buffered saline over a period of five days. Antibacterial activity studies showed that the tetracycline loaded CDHA (TC-CDHA) nanocarriers were effective against S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. The biocompatibility of the TC-CDHA nanocarriers was demonstrated using an alamar blue assay and further characterized by cell uptake studies. Interestingly, cell uptake of drug loaded CDHA also increased the cellular proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells. Hence, it can be concluded that the CDHA nanocarriers are ideal drug delivery agents and have bone regenerative potential for local periodontal applications. (paper)

  19. Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MObayedUllah; MahmudaHaque; KanizFatimaUrmi; AbuHasanatMdZulfiker; ElicheaSynthiAnita; MomtajBegum; KaiserHamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods: The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme”. Results: All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents.

  20. Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Obayed; Ullah; Mahmuda; Haque; Kaniz; Fatima; Urmi; Abu; Hasanat; Md.Zulfiker; Elichea; Synthi; Anita; Momtaj; Begum; Kaiser; Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh.Methods:The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria(both gram positive and gram negative).The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations(LC50)were determined at confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with"Finney Programme??Results:All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains(zone of inhibition=5-28 mm).The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis(zone of inhibition=6-21 mm).All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps.The LC50value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323μg/mL with respect to the positive control(vincristine sulphate)which was 0.91μg/mL.Among all studied extracts,Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50value of 8.447μg/mL.Conclusions:The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents.

  1. Chlamydia psittaci: new insights into genomic diversity, clinical pathology, host-pathogen interaction and anti-bacterial immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittler, Michael R; Berndt, Angela; Böcker, Selina; Dutow, Pavel; Hänel, Frank; Heuer, Dagmar; Kägebein, Danny; Klos, Andreas; Koch, Sophia; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Ostermann, Carola; Reinhold, Petra; Saluz, Hans Peter; Schöfl, Gerhard; Sehnert, Philipp; Sachse, Konrad

    2014-10-01

    The distinctive and unique features of the avian and mammalian zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia (C.) psittaci include the fulminant course of clinical disease, the remarkably wide host range and the high proportion of latent infections that are not leading to overt disease. Current knowledge on associated diseases is rather poor, even in comparison to other chlamydial agents. In the present paper, we explain and summarize the major findings of a national research network that focused on the elucidation of host-pathogen interactions in vitro and in animal models of C. psittaci infection, with the objective of improving our understanding of genomics, pathology, pathophysiology, molecular pathogenesis and immunology, and conceiving new approaches to therapy. We discuss new findings on comparative genome analysis, the complexity of pathophysiological interactions and systemic consequences, local immune response, the role of the complement system and antigen presentation pathways in the general context of state-of-the-art knowledge on chlamydial infections in humans and animals and single out relevant research topics to fill remaining knowledge gaps on this important yet somewhat neglected pathogen.

  2. Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized at room temperature using Morus alba (mulberry) leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The development of plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, low cost, non-toxicity, eco-friendliness, long term stability and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au-NPs. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Au-NPs formation was screened by UV-Vis spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasmon resonance band at 538 nm for Au-NPs. DLS studies revealed that the average size of Au-NPs was 50 nm. TEM studies showed the particles to be nearly spherical with few irregular shapes and particle size ranges 15−53 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed Au-NPs with less than 50 nm. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face-centered cubic structure of Au-NPs. The FT-IR results indicate the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. Further, biosynthesized Au-NPs show strong zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) whereas, chemically synthesized Au-NPs and mulberry leaf extract exhibit a fair zone of inhibition. (papers)

  3. Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Bacterial Studies of the Ethanolic Extract of Citrus Senensis (Linn. Peel against some Clinical Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus senensis peel has many medicinal properties and is widely used against various ailments, such as colic, upset stomach, cancer, diuretic, cormunative, immuno – enhancing, stomachic, tonic to digestive system, immune system and skin. It is also used to treat and prevent vitamin deficiencies, colds, flu, and scurvy and helping to fight viral and bacterial infections. The aim of the study is to verify the ethnomedicinal use of the peel as anti-bacterial. The peels were air-dried and ground to powder using mortar and pestle, extracted with 95% ethanol. The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Agar diffusion method was employed to test the antibacterial activity of the extract and the MIC and MBC of the extract were determined by broth dilution technique. The results of the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, phytosterols and steroids. The results of the antibacterial activity showed that the isolates were sensitive to the extract, with MIC of 0.25-2.5mg/ml and MBC of 0.5-5.0mg/ml. The antibacterial effects of the extracts suggest their possible use for the treatment of infections caused by the test bacteria. The chemotherapeutic potential of the fruit peel could be due to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, phytosterols and steroids. The success of this study could lead to the development of cheap, easily available and relatively safe bactericides from a tropical plant.

  4. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces.

  5. Electrostatic Potential as a Descriptor of Anti-Bacterial Activities of Some Anacardic Acid Derivatives: A Study Using Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    Structures and minimum molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) distributions in anacardic acid and some of its derivatives have been studied by full geometry optimization at the M06-2X/6-31G(d,p), WB97XD/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) levels of density functional theory (DFT) in gas phase as well as in DMSO and aqueous solutions. Solvent effect was treated employing the integral equation formalism of the polarizable continuum model. Effects of modifications of the C1-side chain on the minimum MEP values in various regions were studied. Minimum MEP values near the oxygen atoms of the C2-OH group, oxygen or sulfur atoms of the C1-attached urea or thiourea groups and above or below the ring plane considered to be involved in interaction with the receptor were used to perform multiple linear regression. Experimentally observed anti-bacterial activities of these molecules against S. aureus are thus shown to be related to minimum MEP values in the above mentioned regions. Among the three DFT functionals used in th...

  6. Formulation and Evaluation of Neomycin Sulphate Ointment containing Natural Wound Healing Agent Curcuma longa

    OpenAIRE

    Akanksha D; Vikas G; Neetesh K. J; Shailendra S; Neelam B; Dinesh K. J

    2014-01-01

    Present investigation was to develop novel ointment formulation in combination of natural wound healing agent curcuma longa, which is reported to possess wound healing and anti-bacterial activities. Combination of neomycin sulphate and curcuma longa is good rational, where curcuma longa produces synergistic wound healing effect with neomycin sulphate. Formulations containing fixed concentration (0.5 %) of neomycin sulphate and 3 %, 4 % and 5 % of curcuma longa were prepared. To assess the eff...

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-bacterial activity of some copper(I) complexes with N,N'-disubstituted thioureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, M Khawar; Imtiaz-ud-Din; Badshah, Amin; Gielen, Marcel; Ebihara, Masahiro; Vos, Dick de; Ahmed, Safeer

    2009-08-01

    A series of copper(I) complexes of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas, [C(6)H(5)CONHCSNHR]Cu(I)Cl where R=C(6)H(5) (1a), 2-ClC(6)H(4) (2a), 3-ClC(6)H(4) (3a), 4-ClC(6)H(4) (4a), 2,3-Cl(2)C(6)H(3) (5a), 2,4-Cl(2)C(6)H(3) (6a), 2,5-Cl(2)C(6)H(3) (7a), 2,6-Cl(2)C(6)H(3) (8a), 3,4-Cl(2)C(6)H(3) (9a) and 3,5-Cl(2)C(6)H(3) (10a) have been synthesized. These complexes (1a-10a) have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and single crystal XRD for 1a and 8a, and for ligand 7. The X-ray crystal structures reveal that the complexes 1a and 8a are mononuclear in the solid state in which the copper atoms adopt a distorted tetrahedral geometry. In both the cases, the neutral N,N'-disubstituted thiourea ligands have been coordinated to the Cu(I) through the sulphur atom in a terminal mode. The complexes have been screened for their in vitro cytotoxic activity in human cell lines carcinomas A498 (Renal), EVSA-T (Breast), H226 (Lung), IGROV (Ovarian), M19 (Melanoma-Skin), MCF-7 (Breast) and WIDR (Colon). They show a moderate cytotoxicity against these seven human cancer cell lines comparable to that of the less active standard chemotherapeutic drugs used for comparison. They were also screened for their anti-bacterial activity and were found less active than the standard drug Imipenem. PMID:19570580

  8. 聚天冬氨酸与十四烷基二甲基苄基氯化铵等复配物的缓蚀阻垢杀菌性能%Scale, Corrosion Inhibitions and Anti-Bacterial Performances of the Combinations of Polyaspartic Acid and Tetradecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 常新; 董文文; 姜慧超; 张玉娇

    2013-01-01

    采用旋转挂片法、碳酸钙沉积法和平板计数法,分别考察了十四烷基二甲基苄基氯化铵(1427)、聚天冬氨酸(PASP)和氨基三亚甲基膦酸(ATMP)水处理剂在循环冷却水中的缓蚀、阻垢和杀菌性能,并将它们与锌盐复配使用,通过正交实验筛选出具有良好缓蚀、阻垢和杀菌性能的复合配方.结果表明,当循环冷却水中ATMP、PASP、1427和锌盐的质量浓度分别为40、20、80、2 mg/L时,该复配剂可获得最佳性能,对碳钢的缓蚀率和相应的阻垢率均高于91%,杀菌率可达98%以上,实现了缓蚀、阻垢和杀菌3种功效.%The corrosion, scale inhibitions and anti-bacterial performances of tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride(1427) , polyaspartic acid (PASP) , amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) water treatment chemicals in circulating cooling water were investigated by using rotary coupon corrosion test, carbonate precipitation process and flat colony counting method. A combination formula composed of 1427, PASP, ATMP and zinc salt with high performances of corrosion, scale inhibitions and anti-bacterial was screened by orthogonal experiment. The results showed that when the combination water treatment agent composed of 40 mg/L ATMP, 20 mg/L PASP, 80 mg/L 1427 and 2 mg/L zinc salt was used in circulating cooling water, the corrosion inhibition rate for carbon steel exceeded 91%, the corresponding scale inhibition rate exceeded 91% , and the bactericidal rate reached above 98%. The multi-function of corrosion inhibition, scale inhibition and sterilization was achieved.

  9. Is Minocycline an Antiviral Agent? A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarakanti, Sandhya; Bishburg, Eliahu

    2016-01-01

    Minocycline is a second-generation semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline and has well-known anti-bacterial effects. The drug possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory effects. The drug is widely used in bacterial infections and non-infectious conditions such as acne, dermatitis, periodontitis and neurodegenerative conditions. Minocycline was shown to have antiviral activity in vitro and also against different viruses in some animal models. Some studies have been done on human patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. We have review the available data regarding minocycline activity as an antiviral agent. PMID:26177421

  10. Dendritic nanocomposite for delivery of antibacterial agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pureti Madhu Kumar; PSrinivasa Babu; Shaik Rasheed; Ramadoss Karthikeyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and explore the use of PEGylated poly (propylene imine) dendritic architecture for the delivery of an anti bacterial bioactive, Trimethoprim. Methods: For this study, PEGylated poly(propylene imine) dendritic architecture was synthesized and loaded with Trimethoprim and targeted to the resistant producing strains of both gram positive and gram negative. The antibacterial activity was carried out by agar well-diffusion method to compare zone of inhibition with standard drug and plain PPI dendrimer. Results: The study showed that the Trimethoprim loaded dendrimer has significant antibacterial activity than the plain PPI dendrimer, but standard drug was not shown zone of inhibition upon both microorganisms butKlebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) the pure drug showed activity. Conclusions: In this study antibacterial activity of synthesized system is also relatively safer and holds potential to deliver any other antibacterial agent to the resistant producing strains.

  11. 银纳米颗粒及载银抗菌涂层的研究与进展%Silver nanoparticles and anti-bacterial silver coating:research and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐连春; 尚剑; 孙晔; 韩昕光; 刘振

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current numerous studies have confirmed that silver nanoparticles have been extensively applied due to their good anti-bacterial performances. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the overseas and domestic research and development of anti-bacterial silver coating based on the anti-bacterial mechanism and bio-safety of silver nanoparticles as wel as progression of anti-bacterial silver coating. METHODS: The first author retrieved the databases of Web of Science, PubMed and CNKI for relative articles published from January 1976 to January 2015. The keywords were “silver nanoparticles, titanium al oy, implant, antibacterial properties, biosecurity, coating” in English and Chinese, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Because of their smal dimension and quantum effects, as wel as great specific surface area, silver nanoparticles can be in close contact with pathogenic microorganisms to exert biological effects. Additional y, silver nanoparticles exhibit the excellent resistance to bacteria, fungi, viruses and cancer cel s. However, most of their mechanisms of biological effects remain unclear, and there are unresolved problems about the slow-release time of silver nanoparticles in vivo and how to control the slow-release silver ions. Besides, there are fewer long-term animal experiments. Therefore, a large number of laboratory and clinical studies are needed to ensure that silver nanoparticles cannot cause adverse reactions during long-term administration and how to reduce their toxicity.%背景:目前大量研究证明银纳米颗粒具有良好的抗菌性能,现已得到广泛应用。目的:从银纳米颗粒的抗菌机制、生物安全性及银纳米抗菌涂层进展等几个方面进行阐述,归纳国内外载银抗菌涂层的研究和发展方向。方法:由第一作者检索1976年1月至2015年1月 Web of Science 数据库、Pubmed 数据库、中国科技期刊数据库(中国知网)中的相关文

  12. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Hansen, Marie B.;

    2016-01-01

    -weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85...... and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might...

  13. Green synthesis of ZnO NPs from various parts of Azhadirachta indica (neem) plant as biotemplates for anti-bacterial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Oudhia, Anjali

    2016-05-01

    A green and cost effective method of production of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was developed using extracts from different parts of Neem plant (e.g. leaf, seed, and stem) as bio templates. ZnO NPs obtained through these bio-templates exhibit different structures, morphologies and optical properties, showing potential of the present method in preparing NPs with desired properties, FTIR and XRD techniques were used for characterization. A comparison of antibacterial activities of ZnO NPs show decreasing zone of inhibition with increasing particle sizes. The as prepared ZnO NPs functionalized with various materials to make them bio compatible. It was observed that natural tri-peptide GSH was most effective capping agents for controlling the toxicity of ZnO NPs. A mechanism is proposed to explain the variation in growth patterns and properties of ZnO NPs obtained from the aforementioned bio-templates.

  14. Study on Thin-layer Chromatography Separation and Anti-bacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Linn Essential Oil%留兰香挥发油的薄层分离及抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓伟; 李青雨; 王德国; 石倩倩; 王佳华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对留兰香挥发油的组分及抗菌活性进行研究.[方法]采用薄层色谱法对留兰香挥发油的组分进行初步分离,采用扩散法及紫外可见分光光度法对留兰香挥发油的抗菌活性进行测定.[结果]以石油醚:乙酸乙酯(V:V=6:1)为层析液时,留兰香挥发油的分离效果最好,分离出4种主要物质;留兰香精油对3种试验菌株的抑菌性为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtdis)>金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)>大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli);对枯草芽孢杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)分别为:0.50,1.00,3.50μl/ml.[结论]留兰香挥发油具有抑菌作用,这为综合开发留兰香提供了理论基础.%[ Objective ] To study the composition and the anti-bacterial activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata Linn. [ Method ] Using thin-layer chromatography ( TLC ), the compositions of essential oil from Mentha spicata Linn were separated. The inhibitory activity was determined by diffusion method combining with UV spectrophotometry. [ Result] Using petroleum ether- ethyl acetate ( V: V =6:1 ) as chromatography liquid, the essential oil from Mentha spicata Linn was best in separation and four components were obtained. The inhibitory effect of volatile oil from Mentha spicata Linn to three test strains was determined to be Bacillus subtilis > Staphylococcus aureus > Escherichia coli with MIC value of 0.50, 1.00 and 3.50 ul/ml, respectively. [ Conclusion ] The volatile oil from Mentha spicata Linn had anti-bacterial effect, which provided theoretical basis for comprehensive development of Mentha spicata Linn.

  15. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Strube, Mikael L; Hansen, Marie B; Lindved, Bodil K; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known. PMID:26824607

  16. Anti-bacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Theivasanthi, T

    2011-01-01

    We discuss about the antibacterial activities of Silver nanoparticles and compare them on both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in this investigation. The activities of Silver nanoparticles synthesized by electrolysis method are more in Gram (-) than Gram (+) bacteria. First time, we increase its antibacterial activities by using electrical power while on electrolysis synthesis and it is confirmed from its more antibacterial activities (For Escherichia coli bacteria). We investigate the changes of inner unit cell Lattice constant of Silver nanoparticles prepared in two different methods and its effects on antibacterial activities. We note that slight change of the lattice constant results in the enhancement of its antibacterial activities.

  17. 静电喷涂制备抗菌夹心净化材料及其抗菌性能%Preparation and Antibacterial Property of Anti-Bacterial Sandwich Structure Nanofiberous Cleaning Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操彬彬; 刘太奇; 刘瑞雪

    2012-01-01

    为解决净化过滤用静电纺纤维在使用过程中容易受到微生物和残留有机物二次污染的问题,将电纺尼龙6(PA6)纤维、玻璃纤维与涂覆硅凝胶的工业滤布热压成型,采用静电喷涂技术将纳米TiO2沉积于净化材料的表面,制备出具有良好抗菌性能的夹心净化材料。扫描电镜(SEM)测试表明,喷涂的TiO2负载于纳米纤维的表面;X射线衍射(XRD)测试表明,喷涂后的纳米TiO2的晶型(锐钛型)未发生改变;抗菌测试结果表明,材料整体的杀菌率可达98.74%。%Electrospun fibers are a good kind of material for the preparation of cleaning material,however,they are easily polluted by organo-chemicals and bacteria.In this paper,an anti-bacterial sandwich structure nanofiberous cleaning material was prepared as follows:the electrospun nylon-6(PA6) nanofibers and glass fibers were molded with filter cloth fibers coated silica gel in hot press process,then titanium dioxide(TiO2) was deposited on the cleaning material by the electrospraying process.Scanning electron microscopy photos demonstrate TiO2 nanoparticles can be directly electrosprayed onto the nanofibers.X-ray diffraction patterns show no change in the phase composition(anatase) after coating.TiO2-coated filters show excellent antibacterial activity.The antibacterial test results show that the material's overall antibacterial efficiency can reach 98.74%.

  18. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  19. 辅助微波法制备纳米银胶及对几种常见食品的抗菌性能%Preparation and anti-bacterial effect on nano-silver colloids by microwave-assisted synthesis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪玲; 谢莹; 刘发现

    2012-01-01

    利用简单而快捷的试验方法制备纳米银胶,并对几种常见的食品进行抗茵研究;采用微波加热法,硝酸银和柠檬酸三钠作为反应物制备纳米银胶,并选择反应时间为8、15、20min的纳米银胶作为抗茵试剂,豆浆、馒头、西瓜作为抗菌对象,研究所制备纳米银胶的抗茵性能。根据肉眼和电子显微镜的观察结果发现,制备的纳米银胶对于这3种物质变坏后所产生的微生物都具有一定的抗茵作用。几种常见食品的抗茵结果,为纳米银胶应用于食物保鲜、抗菌提供了一定理论基础。%Simple and quick method to the preparation of nano-silver colloids, and several common food antibacterial research. Silver nitrate and sodium citrate as reactants with Microwave-assisted synthesis method used to prepare the nano-silver colloids respectively to choose the response of 8, 15, 20 minutes the nano-silver as anti-bacterial reagents, choose soyabean milk, bread and watermelon as anti-bacterial targets studied in this paper, to study the anti-bacterial properties of nano-silver colloids. According to visual observations and electron microscopy found that these three nano-silver colloid have a certain degree of antibacterial activity of deterioration for these substances produced by micro-organisms. The antibacterial results of several common foods, nano-silver colloids used in food preservation and antibacterial provides some theoretical basis.

  20. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  1. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  2. “超级细菌”的耐药性及抗菌新药研发%Antibiotic-resistant "Superbug" and Research of New Anti-bacterial Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东升; 王菊华; 黄黄; 丁建南

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, new antibiotic-resistant " superbugs" frequently appeared because of the misuse of antibiotics so that scientists and medical workers in all countries worried. Bacterial drug-re- sistance mechanisms included produce inactivated enzyme, change targets, active Sinotrans, biofilm barrier, decreased outer membrane permeability and so on. At present ,researchers screen new antibi- otics and antibacterial agents mainly from microorganisms, animals and Chinese herbal medicine. In addition, synthetic antimicrobial agents are increasingly emerging.%近几年,耐药性新型“超级细菌”的屡屡出现,主要是滥用抗生素的结果,这引起了各国科学家和医药工作者的广泛关注。已知细菌的耐药机制主要包括产生灭活酶、改变靶位、主动外运、生物被膜屏障、外膜通透性降低等。目前,生物医药研究人员主要从微生物、动物和中草药q-筛选和开发新型抗生素和抗菌药。此外,人工合成抗茵药也日渐兴起。

  3. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  4. Advances in the progress of anti-bacterial biofilms properties of acetic acid%乙酸抗细菌生物膜作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高欣欣; 金正花; 陈欣欣; 于家傲

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are considered to be the hindrance in the treatment of chronic wound,because of their tolerance toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.They also have strong ability to escape from the host immune attack.Acetic acid,as a kind of organic weak acid,can disturb the biofilms by freely diffusing through the bacterial biofilms and bacterial cell membrane structure.Then the acid dissociates to release the hydrogen ions,leading to the disorder of the acid-base imbalance,change of protein conformation,and the degradation of the DNA within the membranes.This paper reviews the literature on the characteristics and treatment strategies of the bacterial biofilms and the acetic acid intervention on them,so as to demonstrate the roles acetic acid may play in the treatment of chronic wound,and thus provide a convincing treatment strategy for this kind of disease.

  5. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  6. Ag/PVP/PVA抗菌水凝胶的制备及性能%The Preparation and Properties of Ag/PVP/PVA Hydrogels with Anti-Bacterial Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范士军; 唐群委; 吴季怀; 胡德; 林建明

    2009-01-01

    Nanometer silver colloid were synthesized from AgNO_3 by chemical reduction in the liquid phase with hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone(PVP) as the protective agents, and physically cross-linked nanometer silver/polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVP/PVA) hydrogels were synthesized by freezing at - 20℃ and thawing at 20 ℃. The product was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer(UV-vis), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the antimicrobial mechanism and property were investigated by escherichia coli as a model in this work. And the results show that nanosilver particles are about 50 nm in size, the hydrogels held antibacterial properties for the presence of silver nanocomposites, is a prospective biology material.%采用液相还原法,以聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP)为保护剂,水合肼直接还原硝酸银溶液得到稳定分散的纳米银溶胶,并通过冷冻(-20℃)、解冻(20℃)法合成了物理交联的Ag/PVP/PVA水凝胶.利用透射电子显微镜(TEM)、紫外可见光谱(UV-vis)、X射线衍射(XRD)以及红外分析(FT-IR)对制备的复合材料进行了表征,以大肠杆茵为细茵模型测试了样品的抗茵性能并分析了抗茵原理.结果表明,所得银溶胶中纳米银平均粒径约为50nm,由于纳米银的引入,该新型水凝胶具有抗茵性能,是一种具有开发前景的复合材料.

  7. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  8. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  9. Diameter of titanium nanotubes influences anti-bacterial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercan, Batur; Taylor, Erik; Webster, Thomas J [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02917 (United States); Alpaslan, Ece, E-mail: thomas_webster@brown.edu [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-07-22

    Bacterial infection of in-dwelling medical devices is a growing problem that cannot be treated by traditional antibiotics due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Here, due to changes in surface parameters, it is proposed that bacterial adhesion can be prevented through nanosurface modifications of the medical device alone. Toward this goal, titanium was created to possess nanotubular surface topographies of highly controlled diameters of 20, 40, 60, or 80 nm, sometimes followed by heat treatment to control chemistry and crystallinity, through a novel anodization process. For the first time it was found that through the control of Ti surface parameters including chemistry, crystallinity, nanotube size, and hydrophilicity, significantly changed responses of both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (pathogens relevant for orthopaedic and other medical device related infections) were measured. Specifically, heat treatment of 80 nm diameter titanium tubes produced the most robust antimicrobial effect of all surface treatment parameters tested. This study provides the first step toward understanding the surface properties of nano-structured titanium that improve tissue growth (as has been previously observed with nanotubular titanium), while simultaneously reducing infection without the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

  10. Exploring Anti-Bacterial Compounds against Intracellular Legionella

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher F Harrison; Sébastien Kicka; Valentin Trofimov; Kathrin Berschl; Hajer Ouertatani-Sakouhi; Nikolaus Ackermann; Christian Hedberg; Pierre Cosson; Thierry Soldati; Hubert Hilbi

    2013-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous fresh-water bacterium which reproduces within its erstwhile predators, environmental amoeba, by subverting the normal pathway of phagocytosis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms which confer resistance to amoeba are apparently conserved and also allow replication within macrophages. Thus, L. pneumophila can act as an ‘accidental’ human pathogen and cause a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires’ disease. The intracellular localisation of L. pneumop...

  11. Doctor’s Group Questions Anti--Bacterial Soaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季章楠

    2000-01-01

    有一种肥皂称Antibacterial(抗菌的)soaps,此外,还有其他声称能够抗菌的日常用品,如:lotions(洗液)and mouthwashes(漱口水)。本文对其广告宣传的作用(advertise themselves as fighting bacteria or microbes)表示了质疑。主要 原因在于:personal-care products may cause antibiotic resistance.本文提出一个重要的概念:excessive use of antibiotics。这使我们想起了中国的一句老话:过犹不及。

  12. Diameter of titanium nanotubes influences anti-bacterial efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Batur; Taylor, Erik; Alpaslan, Ece; Webster, Thomas J.

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial infection of in-dwelling medical devices is a growing problem that cannot be treated by traditional antibiotics due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Here, due to changes in surface parameters, it is proposed that bacterial adhesion can be prevented through nanosurface modifications of the medical device alone. Toward this goal, titanium was created to possess nanotubular surface topographies of highly controlled diameters of 20, 40, 60, or 80 nm, sometimes followed by heat treatment to control chemistry and crystallinity, through a novel anodization process. For the first time it was found that through the control of Ti surface parameters including chemistry, crystallinity, nanotube size, and hydrophilicity, significantly changed responses of both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (pathogens relevant for orthopaedic and other medical device related infections) were measured. Specifically, heat treatment of 80 nm diameter titanium tubes produced the most robust antimicrobial effect of all surface treatment parameters tested. This study provides the first step toward understanding the surface properties of nano-structured titanium that improve tissue growth (as has been previously observed with nanotubular titanium), while simultaneously reducing infection without the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

  13. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  14. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  15. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  16. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  17. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  18. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  19. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  20. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  1. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  2. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  3. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  4. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  5. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  6. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  7. Research status of modification methods for some silver-carrying antibacterial agents%几种常用载银抗菌材料改性方式的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨里娜; 吕俏; 郭巍; 李庆艳; 郑新颖; 高宁

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Silver-carrying antibacterial agent has become a research hotspot in inorganic antibacterial agents for oral cavity, because of high biosafety, super antibacterial activity and no drug toletance.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the structure and silver-carrying principle of some common anti-bacterial agent as well as their modification way (silver-carrying approach, silver-carrying environment) on the anti-bacterial effect, improving the defects of raw materials.METHODS: A computer-based online search of CNKI and OVID database from 2000 to 2010 was performed for articles about the silver-carrying anti-bacterial agents and their carriers.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: No matter traditional zeolite, phosphate and other carriers, or new nano-silver, people are continuously modifying the self characteristics and silver-carrying of the materials so as to obtain a silver-carrying antibacterial agent, through the modification, we hope that the dosage can be reduced and the antibacterial activity can be increased beside their shortage. The expectant silver-carrying antibacterial agent can not only depend on the nanotechnology, but also the combine material, sustained-release and becoming an accessory.%背景:银系抗菌剂具有生物安全性高,抗菌谱广,不产生耐药性等特点,是口腔无机抗菌剂中研究的热点.目的:围绕几种常用银系无机抗菌剂载体结构、载银原理及对其载银方式、载银环境等改性增强其抗菌效果和改善原材料缺陷的研究现状作以综述.方法:应用计算机检索CNKI数据库、OVID数据库2000/2010有关银系抗菌剂及其载体的相关文章.结果与结论:无论是传统的沸石、磷酸盐等载体,还是新型的纳米载银方式,人们都从材料本身特征及其载银特质方面不断改性,以期得到用量更少,抑菌性能更优及克服了变色等性能缺陷的优质载银抗菌剂.以后载银无机抗菌材料的开发,除了可以更进一步地利用纳米载银以

  8. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  9. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  10. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  11. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  12. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise......Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... that have to be avoided in the endeavor. This chapter presents some of the pitfalls for enculturating interactive systems and presents strategies on how to avoid these pitfalls in relation to the standard development process of Embodied Conversational Agents....

  13. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  14. El agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  15. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  16. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  17. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David

    2002-01-01

    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  18. Agents of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    at large, it emphasises universities as key change agents and providers in new learning, including tools such as project based and problem oriented learning (PBL) as well as information and communication technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society...

  19. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  20. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  1. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  2. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  3. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  4. SAM : Semantic Agent Model for SWRL rule-based agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience SemanticWeb technologies are part of multi-agent engineering, especially regarding knowledge base support. Recent advances in the field of logic for the semantic web enable a new range of applications. Among them, programming agents based on semantic rules is a promising field. In this paper we present a semantic agent model that allows SWRL programming of agents. Our approach, based on the extended finite state machine concept, results in a three layers architecture...

  5. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; REDDY, P; Flath, C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  6. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  7. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  8. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  9. Mediating Performance Through Virtual Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Giannachi, Gabriella; Gillies, Marco; Kaye, Nick; Swapp, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the process of creation of virtual agents used in a virtual reality performance. The performance aimed to investigate how drama and performance could inform the creation of virtual agents and also how virtual reality could raise questions for drama and performance. The virtual agents were based on the performance of 2 actors. This paper describes the process of preparing the actors, capturing their performances and transferring them to the virtual agents. A second set of a...

  10. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  11. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  12. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning agents to slots on a line, where only one agent can be served at a slot and each agent prefers to be served as close as possible to his target. Our focus is on aggregate gap minimizing methods, i.e., those that minimize the total gap between targets and assigned...

  13. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  14. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  15. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  16. Lipid-lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented.

  17. Advances in antithrombotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Ranjan; Das, Saibal Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Thrombosis is the condition where an imbalance in the homeostatic mechanism results in unwanted intravascular thrombus formation. Imbalances in this highly regulated process of coagulation and anticoagulation can lead to a variety of pathophysiological conditions leading to stroke, pulmonary heart attack and other serious conditions. In the western world, thromboembolic diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Remarkable progress has occurred over the last decade in the development of antithrombotic drugs, which can be classified into 3 major categories - Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets and thrombolytics. Increased understanding of the pathobiology of thrombotic and vascular disorders has helped researchers to target novel pathways involving the coagulation, thrombolytic, fibrinolytic and integrin systems. Traditionally aspirin and unfractionated heparin was used for myocardial infarction. Newer antiplatelet agents such as, clopidogrel, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, low molecular weight heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors and several improved thrombolytic agents have been introduced for clinical use. This review will discuss different important drugs, which have been launched in recent years and also some new targets pursued by different companies. PMID:17630943

  18. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  19. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  20. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  1. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence......, our critical examination offers understandings about how mathematics teachers are part of the larger cultural politics of schooling and education....

  2. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Rathee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values and used as medicines and tonics by humans for ages. In modern terms, they can be considered as functional foods which can provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients. There are monographs that cover the medicinal and healing properties of some individual traditional mushrooms. There has been a recent upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a health food which is rich in protein but also as a source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value which include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunopotentiating and hypocholesterolemic agents. However the mechanisms of the various health benefits of mushrooms to humans still require intensive investigation, especially given the emergence of new evidence of their health benefits. In the present paper the medicinal potential of mushrooms is being discussed.

  3. Newer Hemostatic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The mainstay of treatment of inherited coagulation disorders is based on the infusion of the deficient clotting factor, when available. Significant advances have been made over the past two decades in the production and availability of factor replacement products. In spite of such progression, several issue are still unsolved, the most important being the need for frequent factor concentrate infusions and the development of inhibitory alloantibodies. To overcome these important limitations, several newer hemostatic agents with an extended half-life are at an advanced stage of clinical development. After a brief overview of hemostasis, this narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on the most promising novel products for hemostasis. The current status of gene therapy for hemophilia, the only therapeutic option to definitively cure this inherited bleeding disorder, is also concisely discussed. PMID:25893779

  4. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  5. Hepatocytes as Immunological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological agents in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314

  6. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  7. Stability of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2007-01-01

    Stability is perhaps the most desired feature in the systems that we design. It is important for us to be able to predict the response of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to various environmental conditions prior to its actual deployment. The Chli-DeWilde agent stability measure views a MAS as a discrete time Markov chain with a potentially unknown transition probabilities. A MAS is considered to be stable when its state, a stochastic process, has converged to an equilibrium distribution. We investigate an extension of their agent stability definition to include MASs with evolutionary dynamics, focusing on evolving agent populations. Additionally, using our extended agent stability measure, we construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability. An example system, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail to investigate the stability of an evolving agent population through simulations. The results are consistent with the original Chli-DeWilde measure.

  8. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  9. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  10. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  11. Mobile Agents for Digital Signage

    OpenAIRE

    SATOH, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an agent-based framework for building and operating context-aware multimedia content on digital signage in public/private spaces. It enables active and multimedia content to be composed from mobile agents, which can travel from computer to computer and provide multimedia content for advertising or user-assistant services to users. The framework automatically deploys their agents at computers near to their current positions to provide advertising o...

  12. An agent for ecological deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    2010-01-01

    An agent architecture supports the two forms of deliberation used by human agents. Cartesian, constructivist rationalism leads to game theory, decision theory and logical models. Ecological rationalism leads to deliberative actions that are derived from agents’ prior interactions and are not designed; i.e., they are strictly emergent. This paper aims to address the scant attention paid by the agent community to the predominant form of deliberation used by mankind.

  13. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  14. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  15. Agent factory: towards social robots

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, G. M. P.; Duffy, Brian R.; Collier, Rem; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Donoghue, Ruadhan

    1999-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present the Social Robot Architecture, which integrates the key elements of agent-hood and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. This architecture seamlessly integrates, real world robots, multi-agent development tools, and VRML visualisation tools into a coherent whole. Using these elements, we deliver a development environment, which facilitates rapid prototyping of soci...

  16. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  17. Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce: Designing Trading Agents and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Poutré, J.A.; Sadeh, N.M.; Janson, S.

    2006-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce, AMEC VII 2005, held in Utrecht, Netherlands in July 2005, as part of AAMAS 2005, and the third Workshop on Trading Agent Design and Analysis, TADA 2005, held in Edi

  18. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  19. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  20. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  1. Agent Roles in Human Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M.; Sycara, K.; Payne, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe results of a series of experiments investigating the effects of agent aiding on human teams. The role an agent played, its task, and the ease with which it communicated with its human teammates all influenced team behavior. Team supporting tasks such as relaying and reminding seemed particularly effective.

  2. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  3. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  4. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  5. 2012 Survey of clothing agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Clothing agents take part in China International Clothing and Accessories Fairs ( CHIC ) year by year. In order to attracting investment, they compared with each other at improving their originality and service levels. At the exhibition brands manufacturers and agents had a face-to-face communication,

  6. Dialogue Games for Agent Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    The rise of the Internet and the growth of distributed computing have led to a major paradigm shift in software engineering and computer science. Until recently, the notion of computation has been variously construed as numerical calculation, as information processing, or as intelligent symbol analysis, but increasingly, it is now viewed as distributed cognition and interaction between intelligent entities [60]. This new view has major implications for the conceptualization, design, engineering and control of software systems, most profoundly expressed in the concept of systems of intelligent software agents, or multi-agent systems [99]. Agents are software entities with control over their own execution; the design of such agents, and of multi-agent systems of them, presents major research and software engineering challenges to computer scientists.

  7. Silver Nanoparticles as Potential Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Franci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs, but unfortunately infectious diseases continue to be a major health burden worldwide. Since ancient times, silver was known for its anti-bacterial effects and for centuries it has been used for prevention and control of disparate infections. Currently nanotechnology and nanomaterials are fully integrated in common applications and objects that we use every day. In addition, the silver nanoparticles are attracting much interest because of their potent antibacterial activity. Many studies have also shown an important activity of silver nanoparticles against bacterial biofilms. This review aims to summarize the emerging efforts to address current challenges and solutions in the treatment of infectious diseases, particularly the use of nanosilver antimicrobials.

  8. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  9. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  10. Intelligent Farmer Agent for Multi-Agent Ecological Simulations Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Cruz; António Pereira; Pedro Valente; Pedro Duarte; Luis Paulo Reis

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bivalve farmer agent interacting with a realistic ecological simulation system. The purpose of the farmer agent is to determine the best combinations of bivalve seeding areas in a large region, maximizing the production without exceeding the total allowed seeding area. A system based on simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning, was developed to minimize the number of iterations required to unravel a semi-optimum s...

  11. MDE and Mobile Agents : another reflexion on the agent migration

    OpenAIRE

    Gherbi, Tahar; Borne, Isabelle; Meslati, Djamel

    2009-01-01

    International audience Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is a software development approach family based on the use of models in the software construction. It allows the exploitation of models to simulate, estimate, understand, communicate and produce code. Mobile agents are a very interesting technology to develop applications for mobile and distributed environments. A mobile agent is essentially a computer program that acts autonomously on behalf of a user and travels through a network of h...

  12. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  13. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  14. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingCheng; XuGuan; BaoLiu

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to designing and building complex systems. Yet, to date, little effort had been devoted to discussing the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstream software engineering paradiam.Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agentoriented will be argued.We describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing a auction system.

  15. Design, synthesis, in vitro evaluation of tetrahydropyrimidine-isatin hybrids as potential antibacterial, antifungal and anti-tubercular agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarunkumar Nanjibhai Akhaja; Jignesh Priyakant Raval

    2012-01-01

    A series of 5-substitued-3-(5-(4-(furan-2-yl)-6-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylimino)indolin-2-one derivatives were synthesized,characterized and were screened for anti-bacterial,anti-fungal and anti-tubercular activity.

  16. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. The agent architecture is based on an existing

  17. Optimistic Agents are Asymptotically Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Sunehag, Peter; Hutter, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We use optimism to introduce generic asymptotically optimal reinforcement learning agents. They achieve, with an arbitrary finite or compact class of environments, asymptotically optimal behavior. Furthermore, in the finite deterministic case we provide finite error bounds.

  18. Agents containing chlorhexidine in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Zemlyanichenko М.К.

    2011-01-01

    Aclinical definition of the efficacy of chlorhexidine-containing means for reducing the risk of dental caries and gingivitis with plastic caps. Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent for the formation of individual programs for the prevention of dental caries

  19. Computational Environment of Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomášek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented process calculus for software agent communication and mobility canbe used to express distributed computational environment and mobile code applications ingeneral. Agents are abstraction of the functional part of the system architecture and theyare modeled as process terms. Agent actions model interactions within the distributedenvironment: local/remote communication and mobility. Places are abstraction of thesingle computational environment where the agents are evaluated and where interactionstake place. Distributed environment is modeled as a parallel composition of places whereeach place is evolving asynchronously. Operational semantics defines rules to describebehavior within the distributed environment and provides a guideline for implementations.Via a series of examples we show that mobile code applications can be naturally modeled.

  20. Epidemic Spreading with External Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gopalan, Aditya; Das, Abhik Kumar; Shakkottai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    We study epidemic spreading processes in large networks, when the spread is assisted by a small number of external agents: infection sources with bounded spreading power, but whose movement is unrestricted vis-\\`a-vis the underlying network topology. For networks which are `spatially constrained', we show that the spread of infection can be significantly speeded up even by a few such external agents infecting randomly. Moreover, for general networks, we derive upper-bounds on the order of the...

  1. Locating Agents in RFID Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The use of software agents can create an “intelligent” interface between users’ preferences and the back‐end systems. Agents are now able to interact and communicate with each other, forming a virtual community and feeding back the user with suggestions. Innovative systems related to Asset Tracking, Inventory and Shelving architectures are more often involving advanced communication techniques (e.g., RFID); these systems are responsible for user authentication and objects verification. RFID s...

  2. Agents in E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mencke; Dumke, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  3. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, R S; Virden, J E

    1980-01-01

    Although the clinical toxicity of antineoplastic drugs has been well documented there is little or no information on the problems that may arise on the handling and mishandling of such agents. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of taking precautions to prevent adverse effects resulting from contact with cytotoxic drugs during handling and to suggest a practical guide for the handling of such agents.

  4. PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT OF MEDICINAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ganesh N.; Sanadya Jyotsana; Kaushik Avinash; Dwivedi Abha

    2012-01-01

    Many current therapeutic agents like antibiotics, ionizable and peptide drugs are impermeable or do not possess the requisite physicochemical properties for efficient transport through outer tissue barrier to attain therapeutic blood level. For this reason the delivery of such drugs through barriers is currently one of the major interests in pharmaceutical research. Penetration enhancers or promoters are agents that have no therapeutic properties of their own but can transport the sorption of...

  5. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  6. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  7. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhraj eKaur; Sumanpreet eKaur

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  8. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  9. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  10. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  11. Geo-Agents: Design and Implement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geo-Agents, a multi-agent system that processes distr ib utedgeospatial information and geospatial service was presented. Firstly, the requirement for distributed geographical information process was discussed, and the architecture of Geo-Agents was introduced. Then in-depth discussions were r aised on agent system implementation, such as the basic agent, agent advertising , message passing, and collaborating. An example was also given to explain the p roblem solving process.

  12. Special issue about advances in Physical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Matellán Olivera, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of Spanish groups which are doing research in areas related with physical agents: they use agent-based technologies concepts, especially industrial applications, robotics and domotics (physical agents) and applications related to the information society, (software agents) highlighting the similarities and synergies among physical and software agents. In this special issue we will show several works from those groups, focusing on the recent advances in Physical Agents.

  13. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  14. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  15. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  16. Multi-Agent Software Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed an alarm-monitoring system for people based on multi-agent using maps. The system monitors the users physical context using their mobile phone. The agents on the mobile phones are responsible for collecting, processing and sending data to the server. They can determine the parameters of their environment by sensors. The data are processed and sent to the server. On the other side, a set of agents on server can store this data and check the preconditions of the restrictions associated with the user, in order to trigger the appropriate alarms. These alarms are sent not only to the user who is alarmed to avoid the appeared restriction, but also to his supervisor. The proposed system is a general purpose alarm system that can be used in different critical application areas. It has been applied for monitoring the workers of radiation sites. However, these workers can do their activity tasks in the radiation environments safely

  17. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the beginning...

  18. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  19. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  20. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  1. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  2. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  3. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  4. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  5. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  6. Antibacterial activities of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodet, C A; Jorgensen, J H; Drutz, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen antineoplastic agents were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 101 aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates representing indigenous human microflora and selected opportunistic pathogens. Only 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and etoposide demonstrated inhibitory effects at achievable plasma concentrations, while the remaining drugs lacked appreciable antibacterial activities.

  7. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  8. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  9. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between people who meet in virtual worlds are common and these relationships can be long term, in some cases lasting a life-time. Although relationships formed in virtual worlds have invited a lot of recent interest, surprisingly little work has been done on developing computer agents...

  10. Direct Vasodilators and Sympatholytic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Meghan N; Chao, James Y; Ng, Tien M H

    2016-01-01

    Direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents were some of the first antihypertensive medications discovered and utilized in the past century. However, side effect profiles and the advent of newer antihypertensive drug classes have reduced the use of these agents in recent decades. Outcome data and large randomized trials supporting the efficacy of these medications are limited; however, in general the blood pressure-lowering effect of these agents has repeatedly been shown to be comparable to other more contemporary drug classes. Nevertheless, a landmark hypertension trial found a negative outcome with a doxazosin-based regimen compared to a chlorthalidone-based regimen, leading to the removal of α-1 adrenergic receptor blockers as first-line monotherapy from the hypertension guidelines. In contemporary practice, direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents, particularly hydralazine and clonidine, are often utilized in refractory hypertension. Hydralazine and minoxidil may also be useful alternatives for patients with renal dysfunction, and both hydralazine and methyldopa are considered first line for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Hydralazine has also found widespread use for the treatment of systolic heart failure in combination with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). The data to support use of this combination in African Americans with heart failure are particularly robust. Hydralazine with ISDN may also serve as an alternative for patients with an intolerance to angiotensin antagonists. Given these niche indications, vasodilators and sympatholytics are still useful in clinical practice; therefore, it is prudent to understand the existing data regarding efficacy and the safe use of these medications. PMID:26033778

  11. Identity Management in Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Groot, de D.R.A.

    2006-01-01

    If agent-based applications are to be used in large scale, open environments, security is a main issue; digital identity management (DIDM) an essential element. DIDM is needed to be able to determine the rights and obligations of the four main

  12. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  13. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  14. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  16. Multi-Agent Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; Witteveen, C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a distributed transport planning problem with competitive autonomous actors that carry out time-constrained pick-up delivery orders from customers. The agents have to find conflict-free routes to execute a series of orders they have accepted. Hatzack and Nebel [2] were the first to sugges

  17. Using Agent to Coordinate Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C H; Chen, Jason J Y

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, agent and web service are two separate research areas. We figure that, through agent communication, agent is suitable to coordinate web services. However, there exist agent communication problems due to the lack of uniform, cross-platform vocabulary. Fortunately, ontology defines a vocabulary. We thus propose a new agent communication layer and present the web ontology language (OWL)-based operational ontologies that provides a declarative description. It can be accessed by various engines to facilitate agent communication. Further, in our operational ontologies, we define the mental attitudes of agents that can be shared among other agents. Our architecture enhanced the 3APL agent platform, and it is implemented as an agent communication framework. Finally, we extended the framework to be compatible with the web ontology language for service (OWL-S), and then develop a movie recommendation system with four OWL-S semantic web services on the framework. The benefits of this work are: 1) dynamic ...

  18. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    2008-01-01

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation in software systems with less human interaction. Major challenge to deployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents and preventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems, as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchor toolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure management of mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. It provide...

  19. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  20. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  1. 季铵盐、季膦盐类高分子抗菌剂的研究进展%Research Progress on Macromolecule Antimicrobial Agents of Quaternary Ammonium Salt and Season Phosphonic Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    延秀银; 王小晋; 刘桂花; 常宏宏; 魏文珑

    2012-01-01

    综述了季铵盐、季膦盐类高分子抗菌剂的研究进展,包括该类抗菌剂的合成、性能及抗菌机理。现有的研究结果表明,含有多种杀菌基团高分子抗菌剂的抗菌作用可能与杀菌基团的种类、杀菌基团的固载量、载体与杀菌基的结合位置、杀菌基团的分布、载体的表面亲水性能、聚合物的交联度、链结构等有关。若能在分子结构中同时有序引入季铵盐或季膦盐、海因类杀菌基团,有可能存在杀菌基团的协同效应,并且可能形成一个新的高分子抗菌材料的研究分支。%The macromolecule antibacterial agents of quaternary ammonium salt and season phosphonic salt were discussed, with emphasis on the synthesis, the performance and the antibacterium mechanics of macromolecule antibacterial agents. As the existing results showed, the effect of anti-bacterial containing a variety of sterilization groups might be related to the type of sterilization groups, the solid capacity of sterilization groups, the combination position of the carrier and sterilization groups, the distribution of sterilization groups, the hydrophilicity of carrier, the crosslinking degree of polymer and chain structure. The paper presented if quaternary ammonium salt, season phosphonic salt and hydantoin sterilization groups were inserted orderly in molecular structure mutually, the cooperativity of sterilization groups could be happened and a new branch of macromolecule antimicrobial material might emerge.

  2. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells: new players in anti-bacterial immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Ussher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells are an innate-like T cell population involved in antibacterial immunity. In humans, MAIT cells are abundant, comprising ~ 10% of the CD8+ T cell compartment in blood. They are enriched at mucosal sites and are particularly prevalent within the liver. MAIT cells are defined by the expression of a semi-invariant T cell receptor (Vα7.2-Jα33/12/20 and are restricted by the non-polymorphic, highly evolutionarily conserved MHC class Ib molecule, MR1. MR1 has recently been shown to present an unstable pyrimidine intermediate derived from a biosynthetic precursor of riboflavin; riboflavin biosynthesis occurs in many bacteria but not in humans. Consistent with this, MAIT cells are responsive to riboflavin-metabolizing bacteria, including Salmonella. In mouse models, MAIT cells have been shown to play a non-redundant role in antibacterial immunity, including against E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. In humans, MAIT cells are decreased in frequency in the blood of patients with tuberculosis or pneumonia, and their frequency has been inversely correlated with the risk of subsequent systemic bacterial infection in patients in intensive care. Intriguingly, MAIT cells are also depleted from the blood early in HIV infection and fail to recover with antiretroviral therapy, which may contribute to the susceptibility of patients infected with HIV to certain bacterial infections, including with non-typhoidal Salmonella. In this review we will discuss what is currently known about MAIT cells, the role that Salmonella has played in elucidating MAIT cell restriction and function, and the role MAIT cells might play in the control of Salmonella infection.

  3. Efficient Synthesis of 3-Methyl-flavanones and Evaluation of Their Anti-bacterial Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nawghare Beena; Funde Sharad; Raheem Abdul; Lokhande Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    A series of 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydrochromon-4-one derivatives (flavanone derivatives) were synthesized by silica gel assisted isomerization of several a-methyl-2'-hydroxy chalcones in 74%--88% yield. These flavanones were further oxidized to 3-methyl flavones by using iodine in dimethyl sulphoxide at 60℃ in presence of acid. The newly synthesized derivatives were evaluated for in vitro study against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus epidermis.

  4. Phytochemical and anti-bacterial activity of epidermal glands extract of Christella parasitica (L.) H. Lev.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Raj; K; Irudayaraj; V; Johnson; M; Patric; Raja; D

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the morphology,biochemistry and bioactivity of the epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of Christella parasitica(C.parasitica)(L.) H.Lev.Methods: Morphological studies on epidermal glands were earned out by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope.To prepare the extract,the shade-dried fronds of glandular morphotype were soaked in acetone.For antibacterial studies paper disc method was followed by using various pathogenic bacteria.Results:Detailed micromorphological,phytochemical and bioactivity studies on a medicinal fern C.parasitica(L.) H.Lev.showed its inlraspecific variation in antibacterial activity.The presence or absence of the epidermal glands was the key factor for antibacterial activity in the morphovariants of this species.The epidermal glands were orange-coloured,stalked and elongated ones of about 84.2μm×45μm,and distributed on the undersurface of cosla,coslules and veins in croziers,young and mature leaves.Frequency of glands varied from 15/cm on costa in mature leaves to 140/cm on costules in croziers.The acetone extract of the glands showed antibacterial activities and also toxic effect against mosquito larvae and tadpoles of frog.Preliminary phytochemical analysis and HPLC studies of the gland extract showed the presence of various kinds of terpenoids,alkaloids,tannins,saponins and flavonoids in it.Conclusions:The present study shows that epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of C. parasitica(L.) H.Lev.have several bioactive compounds and such rare moiphovariant should be conserved in nature.The next step is to isolate the pure compounds and to screen the bioactivity of individual compounds of the epidermal glands.

  5. Preliminary Phytochemical, UV-VIS, HPLC and Anti-bacterial Studies on Gracilaria corticata J. Ag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnaveni Eahamban; Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and UV-VIS, HPTC profiling and the antibacterial activity of Gracilaria corticata J. Ag extracts against the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out by Harborne method. The G. corticata extracts were tested against bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: The results of the presence study showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic groups, saponins, tannin, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and sugars. Proteins, xantoproteins, coumarins and catechin did not show any positive result for their presence in any of the six extracts of Gracilaria corticata tested. The result of the present study revealed the various behavior character of Gracilaria corticata crude drug. The UV-VIS spectrum profile of Gracilaria corticata methanolic, petroleum ether, benzene and aqueous extracts profiles were recorded. The HPLC profile of Gracilaria corticata petroleum ether benzene and aqueous extracts were tabulated. The maximum (9/12 bacterial pathogens) degree of antibacterial activity was observed in isopropanol soxhlet extracts followed by isopropanol cold extracts (7/12 bacterial pathogens). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that G. corticata may be rich sources of phytoconstituents which can be isolated and further screened for different kinds of biological activities, depending on their reported therapeutic uses.

  6. Isolation and Structural Determination of an Anti Bacterial Constituent from the Leaves of Cassia alata Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Paul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By different solvent extractions and chromatographic techniques an antibacterial constituent was isolated from leaves of Cassia alata Linn. Infra red spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the isolated compound was chemically 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid. In vitro antibacterial activity of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was studied against four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was also recorded against those bacteria by serial dilution technique. Kanamycin was used as positive control. Results showed that 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid had antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.

  7. Phytochemical and anti-bacterial activity of epidermal glands extract of Christella parasitica (L.) H. Lev.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Raj K; Irudayaraj V; Johnson M; Patric Raja D

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the morphology, biochemistry and bioactivity of the epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of Christella parasitica (C. parasitica) (L.) H. Lev. Methods:Morphological studies on epidermal glands were carried out by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope. To prepare the extract, the shade-dried fronds of glandular morphotype were soaked in acetone. For antibacterial studies paper disc method was followed by using various pathogenic bacteria. Results: Detailed micromorphological, phytochemical and bioactivity studies on a medicinal fern C. parasitica (L.) H. Lev. showed its intraspecific variation in antibacterial activity. The presence or absence of the epidermal glands was the key factor for antibacterial activity in the morphovariants of this species. The epidermal glands were orange-coloured, stalked and elongated ones of about 84.2 μm 45 μm, and distributed on the undersurface of costa, costules and veins in croziers, young and mature leaves. Frequency of glands varied from 15/cm on costa in mature leaves to 140/cm on costules in croziers. The acetone extract of the glands showed antibacterial activities and also toxic effect against mosquito larvae and tadpoles of frog. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and HPLC studies of the gland extract showed the presence of various kinds of terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids in it. Conclusions: The present study shows that epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of C. parasitica (L.) H. Lev. have several bioactive compounds and such rare morphovariant should be conserved in nature. The next step is to isolate the pure compounds and to screen the bioactivity of individual compounds of the epidermal glands.

  8. Novel copper (II) alginate hydrogels and their potential for use as anti-bacterial wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkajon, Wimonwan; Supaphol, Pitt

    2014-08-01

    The incorporation of a metal ion, with antimicrobial activity, into an alginate dressing is an attractive approach to minimize infection in a wound. In this work, copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels were successfully prepared using a two-step cross-linking procedure. In the first step, solid alginate films were prepared using a solvent-casting method from soft gels of alginate solutions that had been lightly cross-linked using a copper (II) (Cu(2+)) sulfate solution. In the second step, the films were further cross-linked in a corresponding Cu(2+) sulfate solution using a dipping method to further improve their dimensional stability. Alginate solution (at 2%w/v) and Cu(2+) sulfate solution (at 2%w/v) in acetate buffer at a low pH provided soft films with excellent swelling behavior. An increase in either Cu(2+) ion concentration or cross-linking time led to hydrogels with more densely-cross-linked networks that limited water absorption. The hydrogels clearly showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes, which was proportional to the Cu(2+) ion concentration. Blood coagulation studies showed that the tested copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels had a tendency to coagulate fibrin, and possibly had an effect on pro-thrombotic coagulation and platelet activation. Conclusively, the prepared films are likely candidates as antibacterial wound dressings.

  9. Anti-bacterial immunity to Listeria monocytogenes in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) were studied in allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow chimeras. Lethally irradiated AKR (H-2k) mice were successfully reconstituted with marrow cells from C57BL/10 (B10) (H-2b), B10 H-2-recombinant strains or syngeneic mice. Irradiated AKR mice reconstituted with marrow cells from H-2-compatible B10.BR mice, [BR----AKR], as well as syngeneic marrow cells, [AKR----AKR], showed a normal level of responsiveness to the challenge stimulation with the listeria antigens when DTH was evaluated by footpad reactions. These mice also showed vigorous activities in acquired resistance to the L.m. By contrast, chimeric mice that had total or partial histoincompatibility at the H-2 determinants between donor and recipient, [B10----AKR], [B10.AQR----AKR], [B10.A(4R)----AKR], or [B10.A(5R)----AKR], were almost completely unresponsive in DTH and antibacterial immunity. However, when [B10----AKR] H-2-incompatible chimeras had been immunized with killed L.m. before challenge with live L.m., these mice manifested considerable DTH and resistance to L.m. These observations suggest that compatibility at the entire MHC between donor and recipient is required for bone marrow chimeras to be able to manifest DTH and protection against L.m. after a short-term immunization schedule. However, this requirement is overcome by a preceding or more prolonged period of immunization with L.m. antigens. These antigens, together with marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, can then stimulate and expand cell populations that are restricted to the MHC (H-2) products of the donor type

  10. B and T cell crosstalk in anti-bacterial immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Wit

    2012-01-01

    This thesis shows that phagocytosis of Salmonella by B cells may generate a survival niche and transport vehicle for Salmonella, but that simultaneously Salmonella-infected B cells induce an optimal anti-Salmonella response through activation of multiple arms of the adaptive immune response. The the

  11. Nanostructured anti-bacterial poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid films for skin tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Ercan, Batur; Chung, Stanley; Taylor, Erik; Denkbaş, Emir B; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-12-01

    Major issues faced with the use of today's skin grafts are infection, scar tissue formation, insufficient keratinocyte (or skin producing cells) proliferation and high production costs. To overcome these limitations, we propose here for the first time, a nanofeatured poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membrane as a next generation antibacterial skin graft material. An alkaline surface treatment method was used to create random nanofeatures on PLGA membranes where sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration and exposure times were altered to control surface morphology. Most significantly, and without the use of antibiotics, results showed a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus (a dangerous pathogen infecting skin grafts) growth for up to ∼40% after 2 days of culture on nanofeatured PLGA membranes compared to untreated controls. Results also showed that while bacteria growth was stunted, mammalian cell growth was not. Specifically, cell culture results showed an increase in human epidermal keratinocyte density, while the density of scar tissue forming human dermal fibroblasts, did not change on nanofeatured PLGA surfaces compared to the untreated controls after 3 days of culture. These findings indicate that the alkaline treatment of PLGA membranes is a promising quick and effective manner to limit scar tissue formation and bacterial invasion while increasing skin cell proliferation for improving numerous wound-healing applications.

  12. Development of anti-bacterial, re-mineralising and selfadhesive dental composites

    OpenAIRE

    Aljabo, A. F. H.

    2015-01-01

    The project aim was characterisation of antibacterial releasing, remineralising and self-adhesive novel dental composites. Commercially available bulk filling and flowable composites were tested in order to provide benchmark properties for successful dental composite materials. 20 wt. % of light curable urethane dimethacrylate based liquid was mixed with 80 wt. % glass filler containing 10 wt. % CHX and 0 - 40 wt. % CaP. Conversion versus depth with 20 or 40 s light exposure was assessed by F...

  13. Novel copper (II) alginate hydrogels and their potential for use as anti-bacterial wound dressings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of a metal ion, with antimicrobial activity, into an alginate dressing is an attractive approach to minimize infection in a wound. In this work, copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels were successfully prepared using a two-step cross-linking procedure. In the first step, solid alginate films were prepared using a solvent-casting method from soft gels of alginate solutions that had been lightly cross-linked using a copper (II) (Cu2+) sulfate solution. In the second step, the films were further cross-linked in a corresponding Cu2+ sulfate solution using a dipping method to further improve their dimensional stability. Alginate solution (at 2%w/v) and Cu2+ sulfate solution (at 2%w/v) in acetate buffer at a low pH provided soft films with excellent swelling behavior. An increase in either Cu2+ ion concentration or cross-linking time led to hydrogels with more densely-cross-linked networks that limited water absorption. The hydrogels clearly showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes, which was proportional to the Cu2+ ion concentration. Blood coagulation studies showed that the tested copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels had a tendency to coagulate fibrin, and possibly had an effect on pro-thrombotic coagulation and platelet activation. Conclusively, the prepared films are likely candidates as antibacterial wound dressings. (paper)

  14. CATS-based Agents That Err

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  15. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  17. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhraj eKaur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  18. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  19. [Pharmacology of bone anabolic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-10-01

    Bone is constantly remodeled to maintain its volume, structural integrity and strength Currently available bone anabolic agent is teriparatide. Teriparatide increases bone mass and strength via both remodeling-dependent and -independent mechanisms, although remodeling-dependent mechanism overweighs the other. Canonical Wnt signal plays an important role in enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and its osteocyte-derived inhibitor, sclerostin, regulates bone formation via the regulation of Wnt signaling. Anti-sclerostin antibody stimulates Wnt signaling and enhances bone formation. Phase II clinical trials with anti-sclerostin antibodies, romosozumab and blosozumab, demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density after one year of treatment. The new modality of anabolic agents via remodeling-independent stimulation of bone formation may open up a new avenue for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  20. Crimen organizado y agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Reus, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos de la justicia penal actual es la lucha contra la criminalidad organizada, bien por su propia naturaleza de “crimen organizado”, bien porque presenta elementos trasnacionales que impiden su investigación a fondo. Todo ello exige la creación de recursos que permitan la investigación de dichos delitos, recursos como el de infiltración de los agentes policiales, objeto del trabajo.

  1. Antipsychotic agents and QT changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, R.; Chue, P

    2000-01-01

    Recently, antipsychotic medications of the novel or atypical classes have received increased attention because of concerns with respect to potential lengthening of the QT interval, yet the currently available and commonly prescribed conventional antipsychotics are significantly more cardiotoxic, particularly agents in the butyrophenone and phenothiazine classes. Lengthening of the QT interval can be associated with a fatal paroxysmal ventricular arrhythmia known as torsades de pointes. The sp...

  2. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  3. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  4. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  5. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  6. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  7. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  8. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  9. Agent planning in AgScala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  10. Dimensions and Issues of Mobile Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Agent is a type of software system which acts “intelligently” on one’s behalf with the feature of autonomy, learning ability and most importantly mobility. Now mobile agents are gaining interest in the research community. In this article mobile agents will be addressed as tools for mobile computing. Mobile agents have been used in applications ranging from network management to information management. We present mobile agent concept, characteristics, classification, need, applications and technical constraints in the mobile technology. We also provide a brief case study about how mobile agent is used for information retrieval.

  11. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  12. A framework for organization-aware agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by the presence of a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals. Organizations, such as those used in real-life to structure human activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, can regulate the agents...... explicit coordination mechanisms within the agents. The organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model, but uses an organizational metamodel. We show how AORTA helps agents work together in a system with an organization......’ behavior space and describe the expected behavior of the agents. Assuming an open environment, where agents are developed independently of the Organizational structures, agents need to be able to reason about the structure, so that they can deliberate about their actions and act within the expected...

  13. Analysis and Optimization for Mobile Agent Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGBo; LIUDayou

    2005-01-01

    Communication performance is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of mobile agent system. Only traditional optimization techniques for communication performance are not enough, especially in large-scale intelligent mobile agent system, so more intelligent optimization techniques are needed. In the background, the paper studies communication of mobile agent system from the viewpoint of performance. The paper makes qualitative and quantitative analysis of four important factors that will affect the communication performance of mobile agent system and presents the communication performance optimization model. The model hasthree primary functions. First, the model provides a formalism method to describe the communication task and process of mobile agent. Second, the model provides a means to make quantitative analysis of the performance of mobile agent system. Third, the model can plan out an optimal communication scheme for mobile agent to minimize the cost of whole communication. The model could thus be a building block for the optimization of the communication behavior of mobile agent.

  14. A Framework for Multi-Agent Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Tonino, J.F.M.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework, consisting of resources, skills, goals and services to represent the plans of individual agents and to develop models and algorithms for cooperation processes between a collection of agents.

  15. Agent Communication Channel Based on BACnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen-bin; Zhou Man-li

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the common shortcoming in the existing agent MTPs (message transport protocols). With employing the File object and related service AtomicWriteFile of BACnet (a data communication protocol building automation and control networks), a new method of agent message transport is proposed and implemented. Every agent platform (AP) has one specified File object and agents in another AP can communicate with agents in the AP by using AtomicWriteFile service. Agent messages can be in a variety of formats. In implementation, BACnet/IP and Ethernet are applied as the BACnet data link layers respectively. The experiment results show that the BACnet can provide perfect support for agent communication like other conventional protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP), remote method invocation (RMI) etc. and has broken through the restriction of TCP/IP. By this approach, the agent technology is introduced into the building automation control network system.

  16. Comparison of Communication Models for Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Li

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An agent is a self-contained process being acting on behalf of a user. A Mobile Agent is an agent roaming the internet to access data and services, and carry out its assigned task remotely. This paper will focus on the communication models for Mobile Agents. Generally speaking, communication models concern with problems of how to name Mobile Agents, how to establish communication relationships, how to trace moving agents, and how to guarantee reliable communication. Some existing MA systems are purely based on RPC-style communication, whereas some adopts asynchronous message passing, or event registration/handling. Different communication concepts suitable for Mobile Agents are well discussed in [1]. However, we will investigate these concepts and existing models from a different point view: how to track down agents and deliver messages in a dynamic, changing world.

  17. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange VA presumes porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is related to Veterans' exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service when the ...

  18. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange VA presumes some soft tissue sarcomas in Veterans are related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. The soft ...

  19. Sports Agent Industry Emerges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeiZiand; YiYou

    2003-01-01

    The agent profession is not new to Chinese. First appearing in the Western Zhou Dynasty, agents were called "Zhi Ren" then and "Ya Ren" from the Tang Dynasty onwards. In the Ming Dynasty, a certain amount of property and a license were required if one wanted to become an agent. In the late Qing Dynasty, Mai Ban (Chinese executives working in foreign firms), also a sort of agents, began to emerge in major cities of China.

  20. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server...

  1. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Neeraj Singla

    2011-01-01

    A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm...

  2. Explaining Simulations Through Self Explaining Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Maaike Harbers; John-Jules Meyer; Karel Van den Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is more variable and harder to predict than reactive behavior, and therefore it might be harder to explain. However, the approach presented in this paper tries to make advantage of the agents' pro-active...

  3. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuayuQiu; ChuanfuLiu; XiaokeMa; YingjuanFu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-15 30%, were better than that of the imported product.

  4. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huayu Qiu; Chuanfu Liu; Xiaoke Ma; Yingjuan Fu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally, some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-1530%, were better than that of the imported product.

  5. Virtual Knowledge Communities for Semantic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    International audience Virtual Knowledge Communities are a well suited paradigm for decentralized knowldege exchanges and they have been applied in several domains. In this paper we investigate the implementation of virtual knowledge communities with se- mantic agents. Using the SAM (Semantic Agent Modeling) approach, we show that agents can exchange community re- lated concepts (in OWL) and behavior (in SWRL). Agents can then learn and adapt new community-related behavior, which is useful...

  6. Topology and Social Behaviour of Agents

    OpenAIRE

    O. Hudak

    2003-01-01

    In a social group its members are caled here agents. Any two agents from the group may interact. The interaction consists of the exchange of information and it costs some energy. There exist subgroups of interacting agents which are nonreducibile. The structure, configuration of interactions between agents in the group, forms a macroscopic structure. The statistical equilibrium due to microreversibility is characterised by the maximum of entropy and by the minimum of energy, costs of informat...

  7. Integration of Agent System with Legacy Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi; ZHAO Yan-hong; YIN Zhao-lin

    2003-01-01

    Agent technique is a new method that can analyze, design and realize a distributed open system. It has been used in almost every field. But if act for the real practical words in technique, it must integrate with legacy software, such as database system etc, and control them. This paper introduces the specification of agent software integration, ontology, instances database as implementing agent software integration with CORBA technique and takes XML, ACL as language communicating among agents.

  8. Bisimulation for Single-Agent Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic plausibility models are Kripke models agents use to reason about the knowledge and beliefs of themselves and each other. Restricting ourselves to the single-agent case, we determine when such models are indistinguishable in the logical language containing conditional belief, i.e., we......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....

  9. Self-Adapting Reactive Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, M.; Ali, M. K.

    This paper describes a new self-adapting control algorithm for reactive autonomous agents. The architecture of the autonomous agents integrates the reactive behavior with reinforcement learning. We show how these components perform on-line adaptation of the autonomous agents to various complex navigation situations by constructing an internal model of the environment. Also, a discussion on cooperation and coordination of teams of agents is presented.

  10. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  11. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  12. Embedded Automation in Human-Agent Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tweedale, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    This research book proposes a general conceptual framework for the development of automation in human-agents environments that will allow human- agent teams to work effectively and efficiently. We examine various schemes to implement artificial intelligence techniques in agents.  The text is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors and students of all disciplines, interested in the agency methodology and applications.

  13. Preferences of Agents in Defeasible Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Governatori, G.; Rotolo, A.; Torre, L.W.N. van der

    2005-01-01

    Defeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally, we illustra

  14. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may r

  15. Multi-Agent Planning with Planning Graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, The Duy; Jamroga, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider planning for multi-agents situations in STRIPS-like domains with planning graph. Three possible relationships between agents' goals are considered in order to evaluate plans: the agents may be collaborative, adversarial or indifferent entities. We propose algorithms to dea

  16. Explaining simulations through self explaining agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  17. Explaining Simulations through Self Explaining Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Dignum, F.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  18. Stability of Evolving Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Wilde, Philippe; 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2110642

    2011-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multi-Agent Systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external, user-generated input into the Multi-Agent System. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory-less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model Multi-Agent Systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at Multi-Agent Systems that evolve, i.e. the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model, and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control Multi-Agent Systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based defi...

  19. The Ontogenesis of Agent: Linguistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley Barrett; Carpenter, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the findings of a longitudinal study of three infants between their 11th and 22nd months to document development of linguistic expression of the agent concept indicated that first vocalizations were inconsistently associated with nonverbal agentive behaviors and later mature utterances coded agent-action-recipient events. (MC)

  20. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  1. Radioactive scanning agents with hydroquinone stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise hydroquinone in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material which carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  2. 7 CFR 1430.210 - MILC agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MILC agents. (a) MILC benefits may be disbursed by a dairy marketing cooperative that serves special... operation may authorize an agent of a dairy cooperative or milk handler affiliated with such cooperative to... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false MILC agents. 1430.210 Section 1430.210...

  3. Agents and Lattice-valued Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Germanno Resconi

    2006-01-01

    In fuzzy set theory, instead of the underlying membership set being a two -valued set it is a multi-valued set that generally has the structure of a lattice L with a minimal element O and the maximal element I. Furthermore if ∧, ∨, → and (「) are defined in the set L, then we can use these operations to define, as in the ordinary set theory, operations on fuzzy subsets. In this paper we give a model of the Lattice-Valued Logic with set of agents.Any agents know the logic value of a sentence p. The logic value is compatible with all of the accessible conceptual models or worlds of p inside the agent. Agent can be rational or irrational in the use of the logic operation.Every agent of n agents can have the same set of conceptual models for p and know the same logic for p in this case the agents form a consistent group of agents.When agents have different conceptual models for p,different subgroup of agents know different logic value for p. In this case the n agents are inconsistent in the expression of the logic value for p. The valuation structure of set of agents can be used as a semantic model for the Lattice-valued Logic and fuzzy logic.

  4. Improving Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen; Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt;

    2011-01-01

    We describe the approach used to develop the multi-agent system of herders that competed as the Jason-DTU team at the Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2010. We also participated in 2009 with a system developed in the agentoriented programming language Jason which is an extension of AgentSpeak. We ...

  5. Construction and Evaluation of Animated Teachable Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenheimer, Bobby; Williams, Betsy; Kramer, Mattie Ruth; Viswanath, Karun; Balachandran, Ramya; Belynne, Kadira; Biswas, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the design decisions, technical approach, and evaluation of the animation and interface components for an agent-based system that allows learners to learn by teaching. Students learn by teaching an animated agent using a visual representation. The agent can answer questions about what she has been taught and take quizzes.…

  6. Stigmergy in multi-agent reinforcement learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, Raghav; Dutech, Alain; Charpillet, François

    2004-01-01

    http://www.computer.org In this paper, we describe how certain aspects of the biological phenomena of stigmergy can be imported into multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL), with the purpose of better enabling coordination of agent actions and speeding up learning. In particular, we detail how these stigmergic aspects can be used to define an inter-agent communication framework.

  7. Agent for roentgenocontrast examination of cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water-soluble agent, additionaly containing starch, agar, water, is suggested to increase accuracy of injured cavity diagnostics. The method for roentgenocontrast agent preparation on the base of starch-agar gel is described. Advantages of the agent suggested in comparison with those of roentgenologic cavity investigation used are shown

  8. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age...

  9. Properties of Ettringite Type Expansive Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By employing different forms and amounts of materials,many kinds of ettringite type expansive agents had been prepared.The relationship between the compositions and properties of expansive agents was analyzed.The design methods of expansive agent have been put forward according to the property requirement of expansive concrete.

  10. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a th

  11. Social Robots as Persuasive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms...... to describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents....

  12. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  13. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (January 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 12 of 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2014), EMBASE (1974 to January 2014), and Science Citation Index-Expanded (1900 to January 2014). Manual searches in reference...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...

  14. Mobile agent location in distributed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Argyropoulos, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    An agent is a small program acting on behalf of a user or an application which plays the role of a user. Artificial intelligence can be encapsulated in agents so that they can be capable of both behaving autonomously and showing an elementary decision ability regarding movement and some specific actions. Therefore they are often called autonomous mobile agents. In a distributed system, they can move themselves from one processing node to another through the interconnecting network infrastructure. Their purpose is to collect useful information and to carry it back to their user. Also, agents are used to start, monitor and stop processes running on the individual interconnected processing nodes of computer cluster systems. An agent has a unique id to discriminate itself from other agents and a current position. The position can be expressed as the address of the processing node which currently hosts the agent. Very often, it is necessary for a user, a processing node or another agent to know the current position of an agent in a distributed system. Several procedures and algorithms have been proposed for the purpose of position location of mobile agents. The most basic of all employs a fixed computing node, which acts as agent position repository, receiving messages from all the moving agents and keeping records of their current positions. The fixed node, responds to position queries and informs users, other nodes and other agents about the position of an agent. Herein, a model is proposed that considers pairs and triples of agents instead of single ones. A location method, which is investigated in this paper, attempts to exploit this model.

  15. Camouflaging Agents for Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Claudia; Porto, Dennis A; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W

    2016-04-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired condition resulting in patches of depigmented skin that is cosmetically disfiguring and can subsequently be psychologically disturbing. For patients seeking to mask their vitiligo, camouflage options have historically been limited and been designated as a cosmetic, rather than a medical, concern. As research has indicated that proper concealment of vitiligo lesions can vastly improve quality of life, we believe it is essential that dermatologists become aware of all the options available to their patients and that discussions of camouflage options be broached from the first visit. Methods for concealment include cosmetic tattoos, dihydroxyacetone, general cosmetics, and various topical camouflage agents, including the newest product, Microskin™. We conducted a literature review of all of the available options for vitiligo concealment and evaluated their advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, temporary methods of concealment are recommended; but the particular agent used can come from discussion with the patient based on the location of the lesions, degree of concealment desired, cost, and availability. PMID:27050692

  16. Surfactants as blackbird stressing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P.W.; Seubert, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Applications of wetting-agent solutions produce mortality in birds. The exact cause of death is undetermined but it is believed that destruction of the insulating qualities of the plumage permits ambient cold temperatures and evaporation to lower the body temperature to a lethal level. The original concept of using these materials as bird-control tools was developed in 1958 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Laurel, Maryland. Early field trials by personnel of the Division of Wildlife Services and the Denver Wildlife Research Center indicated that ground-application techniques had promise but limitations of the equipment precluded successful large-scale roost treatments. In 1966, Patuxent Center personnel began using tanker-type aircraft to evaluate high-volume aerial applications of wetting agents. The success of these tests led to the use of small aircraft to make low-volume, high-concentration aerial applications just prior to expected rainfall. Recent trials of the low-volume method show that, with some limitations, it is effective, inexpensive, and safe to the environment. Current research emphasizes the screening of new candidate materials for efficacy, biodegradability, and toxicity to plants and non-target animals, as well as basic investigations of the avian physiological mechanisms involved. Field trials to develop more effective application techniques will continue.

  17. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  18. An Agent-Based Distributed Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Li; J.Y.H.Fuh; Y.F.Zhang; A.Y.C.Nee

    2006-01-01

    Agent theories have shown their promising capability in solving distributed complex system ever since its development. In this paper, one multi-agent based distributed product design and manufacturing planning system is presented. The objective of the research is to develop a distributed collaborative design environment for supporting cooperation among the existing engineering functions. In the system, the functional agents for design, manufacturability evaluation,process planning and scheduling are efficiently integrated with a facilitator agent. This paper firstly gives an introduction to the system structure, and the definitions for each executive agent are then described and a prototype of the proposed is also included at the end part.

  19. Cooperative planning in multi-agent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Torreño Lerma, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Automated planning is a centralized process in which a single planning entity, or agent, synthesizes a course of action, or plan, that satisfies a desired set of goals from an initial situation. A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a distributed system where a group of autonomous agents pursue their own goals in a reactive, proactive and social way. Multi-Agent Planning (MAP) is a novel research field that emerges as the integration of automated planning in MAS. Agents are endowed with plan...

  20. A SURVEY OF THE PROPERTIES OF AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelije Rabuzin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade agent systems were considered to be as one of the major fields of study in Artificial Intelligence (AI field. Many different definitions of agents were presented and several different approaches describing agency can be distinguished. While some authors have tried to define “what” an agent really is, others have tried to identify agents by means of properties which they should possess. Most authors agree on these properties (at least basic set of properties which are intrinsic to agents. Since agent's definitions are not consistent, we are going to give an overview and list the properties intrinsic to an agent. Many different adjectives were attached to the term agent as well and many different kinds of agents and different architectures emerged too. The aim of this paper it go give an overview of what was going on in the field while taking into consideration main streams and projects. We will also present some guidelines important when modelling agent systems and say something about security issues. Also, some existing problems which restrict the wider usage of agents will be mentioned too.

  1. Introduction to Agent Mining Interaction and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Longbing

    In recent years, more and more researchers have been involved in research on both agent technology and data mining. A clear disciplinary effort has been activated toward removing the boundary between them, that is the interaction and integration between agent technology and data mining. We refer this to agent mining as a new area. The marriage of agents and data mining is driven by challenges faced by both communities, and the need of developing more advanced intelligence, information processing and systems. This chapter presents an overall picture of agent mining from the perspective of positioning it as an emerging area. We summarize the main driving forces, complementary essence, disciplinary framework, applications, case studies, and trends and directions, as well as brief observation on agent-driven data mining, data mining-driven agents, and mutual issues in agent mining. Arguably, we draw the following conclusions: (1) agent mining emerges as a new area in the scientific family, (2) both agent technology and data mining can greatly benefit from agent mining, (3) it is very promising to result in additional advancement in intelligent information processing and systems. However, as a new open area, there are many issues waiting for research and development from theoretical, technological and practical perspectives.

  2. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server for queries in SQL and converts the query results into XML documents and a stationary agent acting as a client for query forwarding and conversion of received documents into text files readable by a client application. We have tested the performance of the agents in a distributed simulation scenario and established that the agents can be used to connect heterogeneous simulation models and other applications, improving their connectivity and usability.

  3. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin

    2016-08-01

    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.

  4. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  5. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  6. Model Based Testing for Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Thangarajah, John; Padgham, Lin

    Although agent technology is gaining world wide popularity, a hindrance to its uptake is the lack of proper testing mechanisms for agent based systems. While many traditional software testing methods can be generalized to agent systems, there are many aspects that are different and which require an understanding of the underlying agent paradigm. In this paper we present certain aspects of a testing framework that we have developed for agent based systems. The testing framework is a model based approach using the design models of the Prometheus agent development methodology. In this paper we focus on model based unit testing and identify the appropriate units, present mechanisms for generating suitable test cases and for determining the order in which the units are to be tested, present a brief overview of the unit testing process and an example. Although we use the design artefacts from Prometheus the approach is suitable for any plan and event based agent system.

  7. Agent-Oriented Probabilistic Logic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Shi-Er Ju; Chun-Nian Liu

    2006-01-01

    Currently, agent-based computing is an active research area, and great efforts have been made towards the agent-oriented programming both from a theoretical and practical view. However, most of them assume that there is no uncertainty in agents' mental state and their environment. In other words, under this assumption agent developers are just allowed to specify how his agent acts when the agent is 100% sure about what is true/false. In this paper, this unrealistic assumption is removed and a new agent-oriented probabilistic logic programming language is proposed, which can deal with uncertain information about the world. The programming language is based on a combination of features of probabilistic logic programming and imperative programming.

  8. Agent-Based Modeling and Mapping of Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z; Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Considering the agent-based modeling and mapping i n manufacturing system, some system models are described in this paper, which are included: Domain Based Hierarchical Structure (DBHS), Cascading Agent Structure (CAS), Proximity Relation Structure (PRS), and Bus-based Network Structure (BNS ). In DBHS, one sort of agents, called static agents, individually acts as Domai n Agents, Resources Agents, UserInterface Agents and Gateway Agents. And the oth ers, named mobile agents, are the brokers of task and ...

  9. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  10. Opinion evolution influenced by informed agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kangqi; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Guiding public opinions toward a pre-set target by informed agents can be a strategy adopted in some practical applications. The informed agents are common agents who are employed or chosen to spread the pre-set opinion. In this work, we propose a social judgment based opinion (SJBO) dynamics model to explore the opinion evolution under the influence of informed agents. The SJBO model distinguishes between inner opinions and observable choices, and incorporates both the compromise between similar opinions and the repulsion between dissimilar opinions. Three choices (support, opposition, and remaining undecided) are considered in the SJBO model. Using the SJBO model, both the inner opinions and the observable choices can be tracked during the opinion evolution process. The simulation results indicate that if the exchanges of inner opinions among agents are not available, the effect of informed agents is mainly dependent on the characteristics of regular agents, including the assimilation threshold, decay threshold, and initial opinions. Increasing the assimilation threshold and decay threshold can improve the guiding effectiveness of informed agents. Moreover, if the initial opinions of regular agents are close to null, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion can be realized, indicating that, to maximize the influence of informed agents, the guidance should be started when regular agents have little knowledge about a subject under consideration. If the regular agents have had clear opinions, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion cannot be achieved. However, the introduction of informed agents can make the majority of agents choose the pre-set opinion.

  11. Interaction Protocols in Multi-Agent Systems based on Agent Petri Nets Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Barkaoui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of interaction between agents in Multi Agents System (MAS based on Agent Petri Nets (APN. Our models are created based on communicating agents. Indeed, an agent initiating a conversation with other can specify the interaction protocol wishes to follow. The combination of APN and FIPA Protocols schemes leads to a set of deployment formal rules for points where model interaction can be successfully implemented. We introduce some models FIPA standard protocols.

  12. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...... several such logical theories which we prove to be consistent. These theories are all based on first-order predicate logic. To prove our consistency results, we develop a general mathematical framework, suitable for proving a large number of consistency results concerning logical theories involving...

  13. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  14. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  15. Fault Tolerance Mobile Agent System Using Witness Agent in 2-Dimensional Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rostami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of a user or its owner and travel through a network of heterogeneous machines. Fault tolerance is important in their itinerary. In this paper, existent methods of fault tolerance in mobile agents are described which they are considered in linear network topology. In the methods three agents are used to fault tolerance by cooperating to each others for detecting and recovering server and agent failure. Three types of agents are: actual agent which performs programs for its owner, witness agent which monitors the actual agent and the witness agent after itself, probe which is sent for recovery the actual agent or the witness agent on the side of the witness agent. Communication mechanism in the methods is message passing between these agents. The methods are considered in linear network. We introduce our witness agent approach for fault tolerance mobile agent systems in Two Dimensional Mesh (2D-Mesh Network. Indeed Our approach minimizes Witness-Dependency in this network and then represents its algorithm.

  16. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  17. Agent Grid技术研究初探%Initial Research on Agent Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英朝; 张维明; 肖卫东; 沙基昌

    2003-01-01

    The term "Grid" is increasingly appearing in computer literature, generally referring to some form of system framework into which hardware, software, or information resources can be plugged, and which permits easy configuration and creation of new functionality from existing resources. In this article, first, we introduce the concepts of Grid and Agent Grid based on our own understanding. Then we compare Agent Grid with the traditional Multi-Agent System to make the concept and characters of Agent Grid much clearer. Next, the key techniques of Agent Grid, such as Agent Grid System Architecture, System Models, Intelligent Agents and Agent-Based System Resource Management, are thoroughly illustrated. Finally, we briefly discusse the future applications of Agent Grid.

  18. MATRIX-AGENT FRAMEWORK:A VIRTUAL PLATFORM FOR MULTI-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lan ZHANG; Clement H.C. LEUNG; Gitesh K. RAIKUNDALIA

    2006-01-01

    Multi-agent technology has been applied extensively to many areas, including Decision Support Systems (DSS). However, the applications of multi-agent technology in DSS are still very preliminary.Most of the current agent frameworks, such as middle-agent-based or agent-facilitator-based frameworks, are basically agent-to-agent model. These agent-based frameworks often neglect the living environment for agents and they suffer from: (i) inability to adapt to the environment, (ii)inability to self-upgrade, and (iii) inefficiency in information acquisition. Here, we introduce a recently proposed multi-agent framework, namely Agent-based Open Connectivity for Decision Support Systems (AOCD). In this new framework, the communication and cooperation between agents are through a key component, the Matrix, which provides a virtual platform for agents. We use a unified Matrices framework to solve the bottleneck problem in the AOCD framework. Our experimental results based on different agent network topologies indicate that the hybrid topology presents superior performance compared with the centralised and decentralised topologies.

  19. Diuretic Agents in Treatment of Sudden Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chang-you; LI Hong-tao; ZHOU Ding-rong; CHEN Ji-chuan; WANG Yi-nan; GUAN Li-qian; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the role of diuretic agents in treating sudden deafness (SD) and explore the possibility of endolymphatic hydrops as a potential cause of SD. Methods Twenty-eight SD cases were reviewed. In 23 cases, treatment was initiated with routine agents. Diuretic agents were later added in 8 of these cases that failed to respond to routine treatment agents. Diuretic agents were included in the initial treatment in the rest 5 cases. In total, 13 cases received diuretics in addition to routine treatment agents and 15 cases received conventional treatment only. Results In the 8 cases who received diuretics after failed conventional treatments, 4 showed hearing improvement, whereas all 5 cases in which diuretics were included in the initial treatment demonstrated hearing improvement. Conclusion These results suggest a possible role of endolymphatic hydrops in the pathophysiologic course of SD. Diuretics should be considered when clear indications exist with no conflicts to other medical conditions.

  20. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wan-Ting; Dai, Ming-Xiang; Xue, Fang-Zheng

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonistic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all of the agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all of the agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups and that agents in the same group collaborate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203080 and 61473051) and the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing City (Grant No. CSTC 2011BB0081).

  1. Departments as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be

  2. Ultrasound contrast agents: bubbles, drops and particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lajoinie, Guillaume Pierre René

    2015-01-01

    The research on the medical use of microbubbles has coontinuously provided fascinating results for half a century. Investigating new agents or new uses of existing agents requires both innovative physics and ideas and extensive testing in-vitro and in vivo. The translation from the lab to the clinic is long and calls upon many specialties. In this dissertation, we have presented and studied various experimental agents for biomedical imaging and therapy, some in the early development phase and...

  3. Web-Based Computing Resource Agent Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Web-based Computing Resource Publishing is a efficient way to provide additional computing capacity for users who need more computing resources than that they themselves could afford by making use of idle computing resources in the Web.Extensibility and reliability are crucial for agent publishing. The parent-child agent framework and primary-slave agent framework were proposed respectively and discussed in detail.

  4. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin LITOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  5. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  6. Applying Software Engineering to Agent Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Mark A.; Lock Haven University; RITTER, Frank E.; Haynes, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    Developing intelligent agents and cognitive models is a complex software engineering activity. This article shows how all intelligent agent creation tools can be improved by taking advantage of established software engineering principles such as high-level languages, maintenance-oriented development environments, and software reuse. We describe how these principles have been realized in the Herbal integrated development environment, a collection of tools that allows agent developers to exploi...

  7. Agent-based argumentation for ontology alignments

    OpenAIRE

    Laera, Loredana; Tamma, Valentina; Bench-Capon, Trevor; Euzenat, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    laera2006a International audience When agents communicate they do not necessarily use the same vocabulary or ontology. For them to interact successfully they must find correspondences between the terms used in their ontologies. While many proposals for matching two agent ontologies have been presented in the literature, the resulting alignment may not be satisfactory to both agents and can become the object of further negotiation between them. This paper describes our work constructing ...

  8. NESTA: NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Smith, Kevin E.; O'Farrel, Ryan l; Boloni, Ladislau

    2006-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Division at the NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed an agent-based tool to monitor the space shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent (NESTA), increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the shuttle's subsystems. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when predefined crit...

  9. Decentralized network management based on mobile agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 冯珊

    2004-01-01

    The mobile agent technology can be employed effectively for the decentralized management of complex networks. We show how the integration of mobile agent with legacy management protocol, such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), leads to decentralized management architecture. HostWatcher is a framework that allows mobile agents to roam network, collect and process data, and perform certain adaptive actions. A prototype system is built and a quantitative analysis underlines the benefits in respect to reducing network load.

  10. Glaucoma: role of neuroprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, considered as the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and a progressive loss of vision. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is one of the most important risk factors for developing glaucoma and hence we mainly focus on lowering IOP to arrest the progression of glaucoma. However, many patients continue to demonstrate a clinically downhill course despite the control of initially raised IOP. In fact, some patients develop what is called normal tension glaucoma, not associated to an increased IOP. This emphasizes that several pressure-independent mechanisms are responsible for the development and progression of glaucomatous neuropathy and that high IOP and vascular insufficiency in the optic nerve head are only risk factors for the development of glaucoma, and are not the only target for the treatment of glaucoma. The reason is that the process of RGC death is thought to be biphasic, and the primary injury is followed by a slower secondary degeneration related to a noxious environment surrounding the apoptotic cells. This environment is characterized by changes in the extra-cellular ionic concentrations, increased amounts of free radicals, neurotrophins (NT depletion and increased glutamate-induced excitotoxicity due to high extra-cellular glutamate levels, which binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors leading to an abnormally high intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Neuroprotection is a process that attempts to preserve the remaining cells that are still vulnerable to damage, and the main aim of neuroprotective therapy is to employ pharmacologic or other means to attenuate the hostility of the environment surrounding the degenerating cells, or to supply the cells with the tools to deal with this aggression, providing resilience to the insult. Several agents have been reported neuroprotective in glaucoma, both in clinical assays

  11. Agent fabrication and its implementation for agent-based electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Su; Zhu, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, agent-based e-commerce has emerged as a potential role for the next generation of e-commerce. How to create agents for e-commerce applications has become a serious consideration in this field. This paper proposes a new scheme named agent fabrication and elaborates its implementation in multi-agent systems based on the SAFER (Secure Agent Fabrication, Evolution & Roaming) architecture. First, a conceptual structure is proposed for software agents carrying out e-commerce act...

  12. Multi-agent systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2009-01-01

    Methodological Guidelines for Modeling and Developing MAS-Based SimulationsThe intersection of agents, modeling, simulation, and application domains has been the subject of active research for over two decades. Although agents and simulation have been used effectively in a variety of application domains, much of the supporting research remains scattered in the literature, too often leaving scientists to develop multi-agent system (MAS) models and simulations from scratch. Multi-Agent Systems: Simulation and Applications provides an overdue review of the wide ranging facets of MAS simulation, i

  13. Agent-Based Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose combination of software intelligent agents to achieve decentralized reasoning, with fault detection and diagnosis using PCA, neural nets, and maximum...

  14. Integrating Interaction Framework for Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正光; 王振杰; 徐良贤

    2003-01-01

    Agent negotiation has become increasingly important since the advent of electronic commerce.There are two kinds of interactions in the process of agent negotiation.One is the interaction between different agents,and the other is the interaction between the agent and the human user.In this paper,firstly,we introduce Q language,a scenario description language for designing interactions between agents and human users.Then we propose an integrating interaction framework for agent negotiation,in which both kinds of interactions are described by Q scenario.Our framework can make the interaction process open and easy to be understood by the users.Users can understand how the negotiation process goes and what is happening in the system including some erroneous or inappropriate actions caused by the negotiation agent.This gives the users a chance to terminate or change the behavior of negotiation agent in time to avoid unfavorable negotiation outcome.In addition,users can customize the agent's behaviors through visible interactions with it.

  15. Agent architecture for intelligent manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madejski

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analysis is made of requirements posed by tasks of agents operating in the intelligent manufacturing systems and their resulting architecture is presented.Design/methodology/approach: Architecture of agent systems for industrial environment is presented, making it possible to generate the particular agents customised for the specific tasks, based on the automatic analysis of its required features.Findings: Extension of cellular automata approach underlying the conventional agent behaviour specification using the Fuzzy Cognitive Maps is presented in conjunction with the neural networks providing learning capability of the agents designed for the various levels of the manufacturing supervisory and execution systems. Adding reaction time specification to FCM makes it possible to analyse and design systems with the required behaviour.Research limitations/implications: Specific features of the designed agent architecture have been tested as separate mechanisms which can be merged into the final comprehensive at a later stage.Originality/value: Agent architecture is proposed for the industrial applications of single agents and their groups that can collaborate to achieve the individual and joint goals specified in reaction to changing environment conditions and into their agendas in XML format. Automatic generation of custom agent reactions models can be carried out based on a set of requirements that may be specified in the if-then rules form.

  16. TEST SUITE GENERATION PROCESS FOR AGENT TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOUHAMDI ZINA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Software agents are a promising technology for today's complex, distributed systems. Methodologies and techniques that address testing and reliability of multi agent systems are increasingly demanded, in particular to support automated test case generation and execution. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for goal-oriented software agent testing. It specifies a testing process that complements the goal oriented methodology Tropos and reinforces the mutual relationship between goal analysis and testing. Furthermore, it defines a structured and comprehensive agent test suite generation process by providing a systematic way of deriving test cases from goal analysis.

  17. Mobile Agents Principles of Operation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Genco, A

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are one of the most effective software design paradigms, and they are considered to be the most recent evolutionary step of object-oriented programming. Agents have several advantages when compared with objects. The most important among them is to be made of active code, which is capable of acting autonomously. Agents can be a suitable choice to exploit the Internet reality, since users can operate easily in a less compelling way and also reduce Internet connection time. Mobile agents thus make a PC an intelligent entity able to autonomously accomplish boring human tasks, s

  18. Dronedarone: a new antiarrhythmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Ola O; Rogers, Carrie E; Hofmann, Prudence O

    2010-09-01

    Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the reduction of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The drug is a derivative of amiodarone and has been modified to reduce the organ toxicities frequently encountered with amiodarone. Dronedarone exerts its antiarrhythmic effects through multichannel blockade of the sodium, potassium, and calcium channels and also possesses antiadrenergic activity, thereby exhibiting pharmacologic effects of all four Vaughan Williams classes of antiarrhythmics. The efficacy of dronedarone for the maintenance of sinus rhythm, ventricular rate control, and reduction in cardiovascular-related hospitalizations has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Although a high rate of gastrointestinal events (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) has been associated with dronedarone, more serious adverse events such as thyroid, liver, or pulmonary toxicities have not been observed. Because of a possible increase in mortality, dronedarone should be avoided in patients with New York Heart Association class IV or II-III heart failure with a recent decompensation. Given the efficacy and safety data currently available, dronedarone represents a reasonable alternative for maintenance of sinus rhythm in appropriately selected patients.

  19. Copper complexes as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; White, Anthony R

    2012-02-01

    The importance of transition metals in biological processes has been well established. Copper (Cu) is a transition metal that can exist in oxidised and reduced states. This allows it to participate in redox and catalytic chemistry, making it a suitable cofactor for a diverse range of enzymes and molecules. Cu deficiency or toxicity is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions; therefore inorganic complexes of Cu have been investigated for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. These Cu complexes have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment due to their cytotoxic action on tumour cells. Alternatively, Cu complexes can also modulate Cu homeostasis in the brain, resulting in protective effects in several models of neurodegeneration. In other diseases such as coronary heart disease and skin disease, the success of Cu complexes as potential therapeutics will most likely be due to their ability to increase SOD activity, leading to relief of oxidative stress. This review seeks to provide a broad insight into some of the diverse actions of Cu complexes and demonstrate the strong future for these compounds as potential therapeutic agents.

  20. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  1. Application Framework with Abstractions for Protocol and Agent Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2016-01-01

    In multi-agent systems, agents interact by sending and receiving messages and the actual sequences of message form interaction structures between agents. Protocols and agents organized internally by agent roles support these interaction structures. Description and use of protocols based on agent...

  2. Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Kikuo.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Core Competencies Of A Call Centre AgentCore Competencies Of A Call Centre Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Christine White; Vera Roos

    2005-01-01

    Call centre agents are becoming increasingly important in the call centre context. They act as a contact point between the customer and the company. Call centre agents should have certain competencies to perform their duties sufficiently. Identifying competencies, required to be effective agents, will ease the task of training and recruitment. Due to the interrelatedness of the call centre agent, the management of a call centre and customers, all relevant role players’ perceptions were taken ...

  4. Your company's secret change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Richard Tanner; Sternin, Jerry

    2005-05-01

    Organizational change has traditionally come about through top-down initiatives such as hiring experts or importing best-of-breed practices. Such methods usually result in companywide rollouts of templates mandated from on high. These do little to get people excited. But within every organization, there are a few individuals who find unique ways to look at problems that seem impossible to solve. Although these change agents start out with the same tools and access to resources as their peers, they are able to see solutions where others do not. They find a way to bridge the divide between what is happening and what is possible. These positive deviants are the key, the authors believe, to a better way of creating organizational change. Your company can make the most of their methods by following six steps. In Step 1, Make the group the guru, the members of the community are engaged in the process of their own evolution. Step 2, Reframe through facts, entails restating the problem in a way that opens minds to new possibilities. Step 3, Make it safe to learn, involves creating an environment that supports innovative ideas. In Step 4, Make the problem concrete, the community combats abstraction by stating uncomfortable truths. In Step 5, Leverage social proof, the community looks to the larger society for examples of solutions that have worked in parallel situations. In Step 6, Confound the immune defense response, solutions are introduced organically from within the group in a way that promotes acceptance. Throughout the steps, the leader must suspend his or her traditional role in favor of more facilitatory practices. The positive-deviance approach has unearthed solutions to such complicated and diverse problems as malnutrition in Mali and human trafficking in East Java. This methodology can help solve even the most extreme dilemmas. PMID:15929405

  5. Designing Negotiating Agent for Automated Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Traditional research in automated negotiation is focused on negotiation protocol and strategy.This paper studies automated negotiation from a new point of view, proposes a novel concept, namely negotiating agent, and discusses its significance in construction of automated negotiation system, with an abstract model formally described and the architecture designed, which supports both goal-directed reasoning and reactive response. A communication model was proposed to construct interaction mechanism used by negotiating agents, in which the negotiation language used by agents is defined.The communication model and the language are defined in a way general enough to support a wide variety of market mechanisms, thus being particularly suitable for flexible applications such as electronic business. The design and expression of the negotiation ontology is also discussed. On the base of the theoretical model of negotiating agent, negotiating agent architecture and negotiating agent communication model (NACM) are explicit and formal specifications for the agents negotiating in an E-business environment; especially, NACM defines the negotiation language template shared among all agents formally and explicitly. The novelty of the communication model is twofold.

  6. Modeling agents with a theory of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Training systems with intelligent virtual agents provide an effective means to train people for complex, dynamic tasks like crisis management or firefighting. Virtual agents provide more adequate behavior and explanations if they not only take their own goals and beliefs into account, but also the a

  7. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  8. 31 CFR 330.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.9 Fiscal agents. (a) The Federal Reserve Banks referred to below, as fiscal agents of the United States, are... Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, P.O. Box 961, Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT, MA, ME, NH,...

  9. 31 CFR 342.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.9 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of the United States..., Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ (northern half), NY (City & State), RI, VT,...

  10. Transient Diversity in Multi-Agent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lyback, David

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is an important aspect of highly efficient multi-agent teams. We introduce the main factors that drive a multi-agent system in either direction along the diversity scale. A metric for diversity is described, and we speculate on the concept of transient diversity. Finally, an experiment on social entropy using a RoboCup simulated soccer team is presented.

  11. Semantics of Agent Communication: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, R.M. van

    2002-01-01

    Communication has been one of the salient issues in the research on concurrent and distributed systems. This holds no less for the research on multiagent systems. Over the last few years the study of agent communication, and in particular the semantics of agent communication, has attracted increased

  12. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DES

  13. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  14. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  15. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS AGENTS AND WATERBORNE DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus of study by researchers ...

  16. Modelling cooperative agents in infrastructure networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, A.; Chappin, E.J.L.; Stikkelman, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of concepts of cooperation into an agent-based model of an industrial network. It first addresses the concept of cooperation and how this could be captured as heuristical rules within agents. Then it describes tests using these heuristics in an abstract model of

  17. Freeze conditioning agents ease winter railcar unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.E.

    1982-02-01

    A US midwest utility's freeze control programme is described. All coal is treated with a glycol-based freeze control agent. Some rail wagons were treated with a side release agent which stops coal sticking to the metal wagon. The use of calcium chloride or heat to thaw frozen coal is also discussed.

  18. Explanation in human-agent teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bradshaw, J.M.; Johnson, M.; Feltovich, P.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    There are several applications in which humans and agents jointly perform a task. If the task involves interdependence among the team members, coordination is required to achieve good team performance. This paper discusses the role of explanation in coordination in human-agent teams. Explanations ab

  19. Agent programming languages: programming with mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Intelligent Agents are personal assistants which can provide proactive support to users by executing routine activities like searching on the Internet, the scheduling of meetings, etc. The concept of an Intelligent Agent has its roots in Artificial Intelligence and provides a basis for the con

  20. PU Sizing Agent Sector Starts Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polyurethane (PU) sizing agent is a thermoplastic PU elastomer extensively used in synthetic leather, artificial deerskin and electrostatic flocking sectors. The drastic production and demand increase of synthetic leather in China in recent years has promoted rapid consumption growth of PU sizing agent.

  1. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  2. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Jörg; Rodríguez, Juan; Pérez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  3. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm providesmany benefits in developments of distributed application at the sametime introduce new requirements for security issues with thesesystems. In this paper we try to focus mainly on security issues thatarise when mobile agent paradigm comes into play.

  4. Interaction between some common genotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, L; Nordenson, I

    1986-01-01

    The clastogenic effects of arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide and the protective effect of selenium were studied in short-term lymphocyte cultures. The three agents selected are the major toxic substances in emissions from copper smelters. Cells from non-smoking, healthy individuals were exposed to individual agents and combinations of the four agents (sodium arsenite, lead acetate, sodium sulphite and sodium selenite) and the cells were analysed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatide exchanges. Selenium showed an antagonistic (protective) effect against the other agents. No synergistic effects were found, and the interactions between arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide were mainly antagonistic. These rather unexpected findings indicate that mixed exposure from copper smelters, and other mixed exposures where arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide are involved, may cause less genetic damage than expected and that an adequate dietary supplement of selenium may reduce the genotoxic effects of these agents. PMID:3793119

  5. Development of Soda Residue Concrete Expansion Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-min; WANG Li-jiu; M F Mohd Zain; F C Lai

    2003-01-01

    A new type of concrete expansion agent has been successfully developed for the first time in the world by utilizing an industrial waste residue-soda residue and an industrial wasteliquor.Adding 3%-6% of the agent into Portland cement enables a shrinkage-compensating concrete to be prepared.Mortar and concrete containing this expansion agent have better shrinkage-compensating and mechanical properties.The raw materials component,production process,technical properties,micro-analysis of mortar made with this expansion agent,mechanism of expansion and research results are described in this article.The experimental results show that the new type of concrete expansion agent accords with the standard and its main mineral component is xCaO-ySO3-zAl2O3.

  6. A Network Management Framework Using Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lefebvre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Network management of heterogeneous networks is still hard to achieve automatically and efficiently. In this study, we present a framework that has the ability to perform network management tasks on heterogeneous networks using mobile agents. This framework handles the inability of many network devices to run mobile agents. While the main focus of the project is the framework, we present an example of mobile agents that are able to locate a fixed set of network failures and detect the possible causes accurately. Experimental results show that some network management tasks can be more easily executed by mobile agents. In particular, search and diagnostic mobile agents are able to find more precisely a cause of a network failure by finding alternate paths to gather more data about the failure.

  7. Incorporating Inertia Into Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Man, W C

    2005-01-01

    We consider a model that demonstrates the crucial role of inertia and stickiness in multi-agent systems, based on the Minority Game (MG). The inertia of an agent is introduced into the game model by allowing agents to apply hypothesis testing when choosing their best strategies, thereby reducing their reactivity towards changes in the environment. From massive numerical simulations, a remarkable improvement of global cooperation is observed throughout the whole phase space, and the maladaptation behaviour due to over-reaction of agents is removed. Also, these agents are found to be advantageous over the standard ones, which are sometimes too sensitive to attain a fair success rate. Analytical calculation on determining the minimum amount of inertia needed to achieve the above improvement is also provided, which is consistent with the numerical data.

  8. Highlights on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Miguel; Mathieu, Philippe; Rodríguez, Juan; Adam, Emmanuel; Ortega, Alfonso; Moreno, María; Navarro, Elena; Hirsch, Benjamin; Lopes-Cardoso, Henrique; Julián, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  9. Econophysics of agent-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this book is to present the research findings and conclusions of physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of "Econophysics" who have undertaken agent-based modelling, comparison with empirical studies and related investigations. Most standard economic models assume the existence of the representative agent, who is “perfectly rational” and applies the utility maximization principle when taking action. One reason for this is the desire to keep models mathematically tractable: no tools are available to economists for solving non-linear models of heterogeneous adaptive agents without explicit optimization. In contrast, multi-agent models, which originated from statistical physics considerations, allow us to go beyond the prototype theories of traditional economics involving the representative agent. This book is based on the Econophys-Kolkata VII Workshop, at which many such modelling efforts were presented. In the book, leading researchers in the...

  10. Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

  11. 9th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, specification of agent communication languages, agent privacy, safety and security, formalization of ontologies and conversational agents. The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 38 papers classified in the following specific topics: learning paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, business model innovation and disruptive technologies, anthropic-oriented computing, serious games and business intelligence, design and implementation of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published p...

  12. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Nestor; Cesar, Jonatas; Vicente, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with more conservative-like agents treating it more equally than liberal-like agents. This is consistent with the correlation between political affiliation and the Openness personality trait reported in the literature. 3. Under the increase of a model parameter interpreted as an external pressure, the statistics of liberal agents resemble more those of conservative agents, consistent with reports on the consequences of external threats on measures of conservatism. We also show that in the social influence phase liberal-like agents readapt much faster than conservative-like agents when subjected to changes on the relevant set of moral issues. This suggests a verifiable dynamical criterium for attaching liberal or conservative labels to groups.

  13. Agent-based Modeling and Mapping of Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z; Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Considering the gent-based modeling and mapping in m anufacturing system, in this paper, some system models are described, which are including: Domain Based Hierarchical Structure (DBHS), Cascading Agent Struc ture (CAS), Proximity Relation structure (PRS), and Bus-based network structure (BNS). In DBHS, one sort of agent individually delegates Domain Agents, Res ources Agents, UserInterface Agents and Gateway Agents and the other one is a br oker of tasks and process flow. Static agents representing...

  14. An Application of Mobile Agent System in Network Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chen-xiang; DU Jun-ping; YIN Yi-xin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an application of a reusable mobile agent system in network management. A mobile agent reusable system is constructed to realize a new method in forming mobile agent systems. By using this method, an agent can change its route dynamically without making any change to its specific behavior. By classifying mobile agents into two categories, the task agent can be reusable in different networks. In this way, a mobile agent system can easily carry out network management tasks.

  15. Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and Field Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Kaskiris, Charis; vanHoof, Ron

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model-based, distributed architecture that integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: an astronaut's space suit, cameras, rover/All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), robotic assistant, other personnel in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team (with time delay). Software processes, called agents, implemented in the Brahms language, run on multiple, mobile platforms. These mobile agents interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. The Brahms-based mobile agent architecture (MAA) uses a novel combination of agent types so the software agents may understand and facilitate communications between people and between system components. A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface is integrated with Brahms models, supporting a speech-driven field observation record and rover command system (e.g., return here later and bring this back to the habitat ). This combination of agents, rover, and model-based spoken dialogue interface constitutes a personal assistant. An important aspect of the methodology involves first simulating the entire system in Brahms, then configuring the agents into a run-time system.

  16. Persistent agents in Axelrod's social dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Axelrod's model of social dynamics has been studied under the effect of external media. Here we study the formation of cultural domains in the model by introducing persistent agents. These are agents whose cultural traits are not allowed to change but may be spread through local neighborhood. In the absence of persistent agents, the system is known to present a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural regime at some critical Q (number of traits). Our results reveal a dependence of critical Q on the occupation probability p of persistent agents and we obtain the phase diagram of the model in the (p,Q) -plane. The critical locus is explained by the competition of two opposite forces named here barrier and bonding effects. Such forces are verified to be caused by non-persistent agents which adhere (adherent agents) to the set of traits of persistent ones. The adherence (concentration of adherent agents) as a function of p is found to decay for constant Q. Furthermore, adherence as a function of Q is found to decay as a power law with constant p.

  17. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  18. Agent and multi-Agent systems in distributed systems digital economy and e-commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Hartung, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technology, in particular artificial intelligence, can be used to support economy and commerce using digital means. This book is about agents and multi-agent distributed systems applied to digital economy and e-commerce to meet, improve, and overcome challenges in the digital economy and e-commerce sphere. Agent and multi-agent solutions are applied in implementing real-life, exciting developments associated with the need to eliminate problems of distributed systems.   The book presents solutions for both technology and applications, illustrating the possible uses of agents in the enterprise domain, covering design and analytic methods, needed to provide a solid foundation required for practical systems. More specifically, the book provides solutions for the digital economy, e-sourcing clusters in network economy, and knowledge exchange between agents applicable to online trading agents, and security solutions to both digital economy and e-commerce. Furthermore, it offers soluti...

  19. Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    Coordinating the behavior of a large number of agents to achieve a system level goal poses unique design challenges. In particular, problems of scaling (number of agents in the thousands to tens of thousands), observability (agents have limited sensing capabilities), and robustness (the agents are unreliable) make it impossible to simply apply methods developed for small multi-agent systems composed of reliable agents. To address these problems, we present an approach based on deriving agent goals that are aligned with the overall system goal, and can be computed using information readily available to the agents. Then, each agent uses a simple reinforcement learning algorithm to pursue its own goals. Because of the way in which those goals are derived, there is no need to use difficult to scale external mechanisms to force collaboration or coordination among the agents, or to ensure that agents actively attempt to appropriate the tasks of agents that suffered failures. To present these results in a concrete setting, we focus on the problem of finding the sub-set of a set of imperfect devices that results in the best aggregate device. This is a large distributed agent coordination problem where each agent (e.g., device) needs to determine whether to be part of the aggregate device. Our results show that the approach proposed in this work provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional search methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents failed midway through the simulation) the system's performance degrades gracefully and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized search algorithm. The results also show that the gains increase as the size of the system (e.g., number of agents) increases. This latter result is particularly encouraging and suggests that this method is ideally suited for domains where the number of agents is currently in the

  20. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  1. Fluorescence quenching of flavins by reductive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Bansal, A.K. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Song, S.-H.; Dick, B. [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-07-09

    The fluorescence behaviour of the flavins riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and lumiflavin in aqueous solution at pH 8 in the presence of the reducing agents {beta}-mercaptoethanol ({beta}-ME), dithiothreitol (DTT), and sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) is studied under aerobic conditions. The fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are determined as a function of the reducing agent concentration. For all three reducing agents diffusion controlled dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed which is thought to be due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. For DTT additionally static fluorescence quenching occurs.

  2. Cognitive agent programming : A semantic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Riemsdijk, van, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we are concerned with the design and investigation of dedicated programming languages for programming agents. We focus in particular on programming languages for rational agents, i.e., flexibly behaving computing entities that are able to make "good" decisions about what to do. An important line of research in this area is based on Bratman’s so-called Belief Desire Intention (BDI) philosophy. The idea of BDI philosophy is that the behavior of rational agents can be predicted by...

  3. Agent Based Processing of Global Evaluation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Joarder, Md Mahbubul Alam

    2011-01-01

    Load balancing across a networked environment is a monotonous job. Moreover, if the job to be distributed is a constraint satisfying one, the distribution of load demands core intelligence. This paper proposes parallel processing through Global Evaluation Function by means of randomly initialized agents for solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems. A potential issue about the number of agents in a machine under the invocation of distribution is discussed here for securing the maximum benefit from Global Evaluation and parallel processing. The proposed system is compared with typical solution that shows an exclusive outcome supporting the nobility of parallel implementation of Global Evaluation Function with certain number of agents in each invoked machine.

  4. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  5. On agent-mediated electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    He, M.; Jennings, N. R.; Leung, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys and analyzes the state of the art of agent-mediated electronic commerce (e-commerce), concentrating particularly on the business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) aspects. From the consumer buying behavior perspective, agents are being used in the following activities: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering, and negotiation. The roles of agents in B2B e-commerce are discussed through the business-to-business tran...

  6. Intelligent agent based control of TL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agent based control of complex systems is becoming popular due to its ability to identify the critical situation and its ability to dynamically search for the best available solution to the problem with constrained optimization of the inputs. In this paper we are presenting the architecture of intelligent agent for automatic control of power supplies of TL-1 (Transfer Line 1) to maximise the injection process against the changes in the input beam obtained from Microtron. The paper discusses the results obtained by applying this agent architecture to the accelerator model comprises of Microtron output, TL-1 and booster. (author)

  7. Information Service Model with Mobile Agent Supported

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 王继成; 张福炎

    2000-01-01

    Mobile Agent is a kind of novel agent technology characterized by mobile, intelligent, parallel and asynchronous computing. In this paper, a new information service model that adopts mobile agent technology is introduced first,and then an experimental system DOLTRIA system that is implemented based on the model is described. The DOLTRIA system implemented by WWW framework and Java can search for relevant HTML documents on a set of Web servers. The result of experiments shows that performance improvement can be achieved by this model, and both the elapsed time and network traffic are reduced significantly.

  8. Evaluating Agent Architectures: Cougaar, Aglets and AAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian; Haack, Jereme N.; Mcgee, David R.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Thomson, Judi R.; Carlos Lucena Alessandro Garcia Alexander Romanovsky, et al

    2003-05-03

    Research and development organizations are constantly evaluating new technologies in order to implement the next generation of advanced applications. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, agent technologies are perceived as an approach that can provide a competitive advantage in the construction of highly sophisticated software systems in a range of application areas. To determine the sophistication, utility, performance, and other critical aspects of such systems, a project was instigated to evaluate three candidate agent toolkits. This paper reports on the outcomes of this evaluation, the knowledge accumulated from carrying out this project, and provides insights into the capabilities of the agent technologies evaluated.

  9. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  10. Francisella tularensis - potential biological agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisella tularensis is a small, nonmotile, aerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, or decaying animal carcasses. F. tularensis is the causative of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterium was first identified in ground squirrels in Tulare County, California (1912). The human disease was recognized and described by Edward Francis (1922) as tularemia, and the agent was renamed Francisella tularensis in his honor. F. tularensis is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known, as few as 10-50 organisms can cause disease. Humans can become incidentally infected through diverse environmental exposures: bites by infected arthropods; handling infectious animal tissues or fluids; direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil and inhalation of infective aerosols. Humans can develop severe and sometimes fatal illness, but do not transmit the disease to others. F. tularensis have few subspecies: 1) F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), highly virulent, found only in North America. The bacterium is transmitted among animals and from animals to humans by ticks, occasionally deerfly, or by aerosols; 2) F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B), moderately virulent, occurs in Euroasia and North America, mainly associated with streams, lakes, ponds, rivers and semi-aquatic animals such as muskrats and beavers (water-borne disease). Type B tularemia has been observed during war times (during Second World War 100 000 cases occurred each year, in Kosovo in 2000 and 2003 over 300 cases each year); 3) F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, rarely reported, isolated only in Kazahstan and Turkmenistan; 4) F. tularensis subsp. novicida is of low virulence, isolated in USA, Canada, Spain and Australia; 5) F. tularensis subsp. philomiragia, is of low virulence, associated with salt water (Atlantic, Mediterranean). Tularemia is very rear in Macedonia, but in 1996 an

  11. Ontology Based Agent Communication in Resource Allocation and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Arora

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of ontology is to share information between sending and receiving agents of Multi Agent System (MAS. It provides standard vocabulary and terms for knowledge sharing and is designed to share information conveniently and understandably. Agent based application requires complex interaction among agents. This complexity is due to agent-agent and agent-user communication. It is required to use ontology in agent based application of resource allocation and monitoring. The purpose of Resource Allocation and Monitoring System is to make the procedures involved in allocating fund resources to competing fund seekers transparent so that deserving candidates get funds. Proactive and goal directed behaviour of agents make the system transparent and intelligent. This paper presents ontology designed and implemented for the purpose of communication among agents of Multi Agent System for Resource Allocation and Monitoring (MASRAM. FIPA (Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents compliant software JADE (Java Agent Development is used to implement ontology.

  12. RESEARCH ON A SOCCER SERVER TEAM WITH ENVIRONMENTAL-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposed a new agent model, which applies the agent-oriented paradigm to represent multiple objects. This agent model consists of three types of agents as follows: (a) an upperagent which describes an autonomous and dynamic object; (b) a lower-agent which describes a reactive and static object; and (c) an environ-mental-agent which describes the environment of the other agents. As an example, it considered soccer players (a kind of multiple objects) in environmental-agent. Three kinds of soccer agents were constructed with different powers. With soccer server the soccer games were simulated to confirm the effectiveness of our model.

  13. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  14. Multi-target pursuit formation of multi-agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jing; Guan Xin-Ping; Luo Xiao-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to design a team of agents that can accomplish multi-target pursuit formation using a developed leader-follower strategy. It is supposed that every target can accept a certain number of agents. First, each agent can automatically choose its target based on the distance from the agent to the target and the number of agents

  15. Web Search Agents: "One-Stop Shopping" for Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    Explains Web search agents as tools that apply intelligent agent software technology for the purpose of automating, improving, and speeding up online search operations. Topics include intelligent desktop agents; search agent marketplace; comparing Web search agents; subjective evaluations; and use by researchers. (LRW)

  16. A Highly Secure Mobile Agent System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okataku, Yasukuni; Okutomi, Hidetoshi; Yoshioka, Nobukazu; Ohgishi, Nobuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi

    We propose a system architecture for mobile agents to improve their security in the environments of insecure networks and non-sophisticated terminals such as PDAs. As mobile agents freely migrate onto their favorite terminals through insecure networks or terminals, it is not appropriate for them to store some secret information for authentication and encryption/decryption. We introduce one and more secure nodes(OASIS NODE) for securely generating and verifying authentication codes. The each agent’s data are encrypted by a pseudo-chaos cipher mechanism which doesn’t need any floating processing co-processor. We’ve constructed a prototype system on a Java mobile agent framework, “Bee-gent" which implements the proposed authentication and cipher mechanisms, and evaluated their performances and their applicability to business fields such as an auction system by mobile agents.

  17. Agent Based Patient Scheduling Using Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A Murali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes about an agent based approach to patient scheduling using experience based learning. A heuristic algorithm is also used in the proposed framework. The evaluation on different learning techniques shows that the experience based learning (EBL gives better solution. The processing time decreases as the experience increases. The heuristic algorithm make use of EBL in calculating the processing time. The main objective of this patient scheduling system is to reduce the waiting time of patient in hospitals and to complete their treatment in minimum required time. The framework is implemented in JADE. In this approach the patients and resources are represented as patient agents (PA and resource agents (RA respectively. Even though mathematical model give optimal solution, the computational complexity increases for large size problems. Heuristic solution gives better solution for large size problems. The comparisons of the proposed framework with other scheduling rules shows that an agent based approach to patient scheduling using EBL is better.

  18. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir kamal Salih

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework (JADE as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems.

  19. Behavior-based dual dynamic agent architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仵博; 吴敏; 曹卫华

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the architecture is to make agent promptly and adaptively accomplish tasks in the real-time and dynamic environment. The architecture is composed of elementary level behavior layer and high level be-havior layer. In the elementary level behavior layer, the reactive architecture is introduced to make agent promptlyreact to events; in the high level behavior layer, the deliberation architecture is used to enhance the intelligence ofthe agent. A confidence degree concept is proposed to combine the two layers of the architecture. An agent decisionmaking process is also presented, which is based on the architecture. The results of experiment in RoboSoccer simu-lation team show that the proposed architecture and the decision process are successful.

  20. Study of Desorption Agent for LADS Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaojing; Qin Ruyi; Liu Jinlong

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the procedure for selection, evaluation and development of the LADS-D desorption agent associated with the LADS-A adsorbent used in the non-hydroprocessing adsorptive desulfurization (LADS) process for FCC naphtha developed by LPEC Refining Research Institute. The LADS-D desorption agent can effectively remove the sulfides adsorbed on the LADS-A adsorbent. The saturated LADS-A adsorbent can be instantly regenerated by the LADS-D desorption agent to recover its adsorption activity. The LADS-D desorption agent can not only effectively remove all impurities adsorbed on the adsorbent, but also has strong ability to dissolve the impurities to keep a stable desorption efficiency of adsorbent to be basically commensurate with fresh adsorbent after extended use.

  1. Multi-Agent Formations and Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate three intertwined problems concerned with distributed cooperative control of groups of autonomous mobile agents. These problems are the consensus problem in mobile networks, the localization problem in sensor networks and the formation maintenance problem in autonomous robotic teams.

  2. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., quality and level of service, and conformity with established guidelines and procedures. (d) Each Agent... the report of such audit. The auditor selected must be recognized by a State or territorial...

  3. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    CERN Document Server

    Caticha, Nestor; Vicente, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with mo...

  4. Towards Culturally-Aware Virtual Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    in a game-like environment in a more interesting way than for example learning with a textbook. The authors support the idea that virtual agents are a great opportunity for teaching cultural awareness. Realizing this, the concept of culture needs to be translated into computational models and the advantages......Globalization leads to an increase in intercultural encounters with a risk of misunderstandings due to different patterns of behavior and understanding. Learning applications have been proposed that employ virtual agents as their primary tool. Through their embodiment, learning can be done...... of different systems using virtual agents need to be considered. Therefore, the authors reflect in this chapter on how virtual agents can help to learn about culture, scan definitions of culture from the social sciences, give an overview on how multiagent systems developed over time and classify the state...

  5. Empowerment for Continuous Agent-Environment Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Tobias; Stone, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops generalizations of empowerment to continuous states. Empowerment is a recently introduced information-theoretic quantity motivated by hypotheses about the efficiency of the sensorimotor loop in biological organisms, but also from considerations stemming from curiosity-driven learning. Empowemerment measures, for agent-environment systems with stochastic transitions, how much influence an agent has on its environment, but only that influence that can be sensed by the agent sensors. It is an information-theoretic generalization of joint controllability (influence on environment) and observability (measurement by sensors) of the environment by the agent, both controllability and observability being usually defined in control theory as the dimensionality of the control/observation spaces. Earlier work has shown that empowerment has various interesting and relevant properties, e.g., it allows us to identify salient states using only the dynamics, and it can act as intrinsic reward without requi...

  6. Nominaliseeritud protsessi agent meediauudistes / Reet Kasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasik, Reet, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Ajalehe "Postimees" 2005. aasta materjalile toetudes vaadeldakse, mis tüüpi on nominalisatsioonides representeeritavad protsessid ja mis kujul on esitatud protsessi agent ehk tegija. Aluseks on võetud funktsionaalse grammatika põhimõtted.

  7. Intelligent agents in data-intensive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Luís; Molina, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents new approaches that advance research in all aspects of agent-based models, technologies, simulations and implementations for data intensive applications. The nine chapters contain a review of recent cross-disciplinary approaches in cloud environments and multi-agent systems, and important formulations of data intensive problems in distributed computational environments together with the presentation of new agent-based tools to handle those problems and Big Data in general. This volume can serve as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary work in the areas of data intensive computing and Big Data systems using emergent large-scale distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp key concepts and potential solutions on advanced topics of theory, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in Multi-Agent systems and data intensive computing. .

  8. Spatial interactions in agent-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Merlone, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Agent Based Modeling (ABM) has become a widespread approach to model complex interactions. In this chapter after briefly summarizing some features of ABM the different approaches in modeling spatial interactions are discussed. It is stressed that agents can interact either indirectly through a shared environment and/or directly with each other. In such an approach, higher-order variables such as commodity prices, population dynamics or even institutions, are not exogenously specified but instead are seen as the results of interactions. It is highlighted in the chapter that the understanding of patterns emerging from such spatial interaction between agents is a key problem as much as their description through analytical or simulation means. The chapter reviews different approaches for modeling agents' behavior, taking into account either explicit spatial (lattice based) structures or networks. Some emphasis is placed on recent ABM as applied to the description of the dynamics of the geographical distribution o...

  9. Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu-Quang, Hieu

    2015-01-01

    for chemotherapy. The nanoparticles were 150 nm in size with spherical shape, which contained PFOB in the inner core and Dox and ICG in the polymeric shell. More importantly, they could target folate receptor expressing cancer cells, which provide positive in vitro and in vivo NIR and 19F MRI results. In project......Nanoparticles have been employed as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to improve sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis. In addition, these contrast agents are potentially combined with other therapeutic compounds or near infrared bio-imaging (NIR) fluorophores to obtain...... theranostic or dual imaging purposes, respectively. There were two main types of MRI contrast agent that were synthesized during this PhD project including fluorine containing nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles. In regard of fluorine containing nanoparticles, there were two types contrast agent...

  10. Ontology-based multi-agent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadzic, Maja; Wongthongtham, Pornpit; Dillon, Tharam; Chang, Elizabeth [Digital Ecosystems and Business Intelligence Institute, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    The Semantic web has given a great deal of impetus to the development of ontologies and multi-agent systems. Several books have appeared which discuss the development of ontologies or of multi-agent systems separately on their own. The growing interaction between agents and ontologies has highlighted the need for integrated development of these. This book is unique in being the first to provide an integrated treatment of the modeling, design and implementation of such combined ontology/multi-agent systems. It provides clear exposition of this integrated modeling and design methodology. It further illustrates this with two detailed case studies in (a) the biomedical area and (b) the software engineering area. The book is, therefore, of interest to researchers, graduate students and practitioners in the semantic web and web science area. (orig.)

  11. Competing intelligent search agents in global optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streltsov, S.; Vakili, P. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Muchnik, I. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new search methodology that we view as a development of intelligent agent approach to the analysis of complex system. The main idea is to consider search process as a competition mechanism between concurrent adaptive intelligent agents. Agents cooperate in achieving a common search goal and at the same time compete with each other for computational resources. We propose a statistical selection approach to resource allocation between agents that leads to simple and efficient on average index allocation policies. We use global optimization as the most general setting that encompasses many types of search problems, and show how proposed selection policies can be used to improve and combine various global optimization methods.

  12. inventory management, VMI, software agents, MDV model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Wieczerzycki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: As it is well know, the implementation of instruments of logistics management is only possible with the use of the latest information technology. So-called agent technology is one of the most promising solutions in this area. Its essence consists in an entirely new way of software distribution on the computer network platform, in which computer exchange among themselves not only data, but also software modules, called just agents. The first aim is to propose the alternative method of the implementation of the concept of the inventory management by the supplier with the use of intelligent software agents, which are able not only to transfer the information but also to make the autonomous decisions based on the privileges given to them. The second aim of this research was to propose a new model of a software agent, which will be both of a high mobility and a high intelligence. Methods: After a brief discussion of the nature of agent technology, the most important benefits of using it to build platforms to support business are given. Then the original model of polymorphic software agent, called Multi-Dimensionally Versioned Software Agent (MDV is presented, which is oriented on the specificity of IT applications in business. MDV agent is polymorphic, which allows the transmission through the network only the most relevant parts of its code, and only when necessary. Consequently, the network nodes exchange small amounts of software code, which ensures high mobility of software agents, and thus highly efficient operation of IT platforms built on the proposed model. Next, the adaptation of MDV software agents to implementation of well-known logistics management instrument - VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory is illustrated. Results: The key benefits of this approach are identified, among which one can distinguish: reduced costs, higher flexibility and efficiency, new functionality - especially addressed to business negotiation, full automation

  13. Studies of dynamics of physical agent ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Moreno, Israel

    2002-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of learning in physical heterogeneous multi-agent systems(MAS) and the analysis of the benefits of using heterogeneous MAS with respect tohomogeneous ones. An algorithm is developed for this task; building on a previous work on stability in distributed systems by Tad Hogg and Bernardo Huberman, and combining two phenomena observed in natural systems, task partition and hierarchical dominance. This algorithm is devised for allowing agents to learn which are th...

  14. Distributed enterprise search using software agents

    OpenAIRE

    Gunadi, Erwin; Meder, Michael; Plumbaum, Till; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a distributed information retrieval system using agent-based technology. In this multiagent system, each agent has its own specific task and can be used to handle a specific document repository. The system is designed to automatically comply with access restriction rules that are normally enforced in companies. It is used in the administration offices of the German capital city Berlin where it serves as a testbed for further research on aggre...

  15. Designinig Coordination among Human and Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Perini, Anna; Susi, Angelo; Giunchiglia, Fausto

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a new methodology for designing coordination between human angents and software agents and, ultimately, among software agents. The methodology is based on two key ideas. The first is that coordination should be designed in steps, according to a precise software engineering methodology, and starting from the specification of early requirements. The second is that coordination should be modeled as dependency between actors. Two actors may depend on one anoth...

  16. Bacteriophages as recognition and identification agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorescu, M.C.; Gaspar, A.

    1987-04-23

    Bacteriophages are employed as agents for recognition and identification of molecules and cellular materials, using their ability to recognize their bacterial host, by coating them with antibodies or by selecting them to perform in a manner analogous to antibodies. Visibility for identification is effected by incorporating a fluorescent agent, a radioisotope, a metal, an enzyme, or other staining material. The method of this invention may be utilized in selected clinical procedures, and is adaptable to use in an assay kit.

  17. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  18. Evolution of hemostatic agents in surgical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Chandru P.; Keenan, Alison C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Topical hemostatic agents are used in a wide variety of surgical settings, and the evolution of this class of surgical tools is an interesting topic. We reviewed and outlined the historical progress of topical hemostats into present day surgery and urology, and highlight opportunities for future research. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE search of all available literature concerning several classes of topical hemostatic agents was performed. Fibrins sealants, Gelatin sponge hemosta...

  19. Delegating budgets when agents care about autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Michael; Gundlach, Erich

    2006-01-01

    We consider resource allocation within an organisation and show how delegation bears on moral hazard and adverse selection when agents have a preference for autonomy. Agents may care about autonomy for reasons of job-satisfaction, status or greater reputation when performing well under autonomy. Separating allocations (overall budget and degree of delegation) are characterised depending on the preference for autonomy. As the latter increases, the degree of delegation assigned to productive an...

  20. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  1. Research on Virtual Agent Perception Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiu-fang; GAO Bao-lu

    2006-01-01

    An intelligent virtual environment is described for training users in the operation of complex engineering systems. After analyzing the original model of virtual environment, a virtual agent perception model was put forward. The information layer was inserted into original virtual environment. The model classifies all kinds of information and offers a way for knowledge description of virtual environment, and contributes to set up feeling model for the Virtual Agent within virtual environment.

  2. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    OpenAIRE

    Cheonshik Kim; You S. Hong

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to...

  3. Agents advanced features for negotiation and coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, E.

    2001-01-01

    Agent-based systems suitable for dealing with applications where the environment is both dynamic and populated with competitors demand for sophisticated characteristics including adaptation, negotiation and coordination. We here briefly summarize some proposals on agents negotiation capabilities including adaptation through reinforcement learning as well as qualitative multi-criteria negotiation and coalition formation protocols. Also, and inspired by robosoccer domain, some basic hints on kn...

  4. Scheduling Activity in an Agent Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Ignacio

    2000-01-01

    Agents for applications in dynamic environments require artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems to achieve their objectives. For example, they must develop plans of actions to carry out missions in their environment, in other words, to achieve some state in the world. But also, the agents must fulfill real-time requirements that arise because the characteristics of the applications and the dynamism of the environment. In this paper we analyze the use of a schedule of activity in ...

  5. Institutions, Behavior of Agents and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the efficiency criterion, describing the behavior and choices of agents, the influence of moral norms on the model of behavior, as well as the criterion of efficiency as an institution to assess the behavior and development of the economic system. Curve proposed institutional compromise that allows to determine the possibility of changes in the welfare of interacting agents and their compliance with ethical standards when welfare increases due to violation or compliance with these standards. For the purposes of this demonstration of the influence of the model of chart-based dilemmas Holmes-Moriarty. Incentives in determining the agents behaviors play a key role in their formation due to the moral principles of behavior. However, in economics there are situations when moral principles are derived certain behaviors or interactions agents. Holmes and Moriarty there is an alternative interaction, which they can not take advantage of, and there is a full range of alternatives that actually programs the strategic outcomes of interactions that reflect the curves of "institutional compromise." Choosing an agent of moral standards as a potential model determines its behavior and, most importantly, interaction with other agents, adhering to certain moral principles. Assess the condition and the possibility of using a static criterion of Pareto efficiency for the analysis of situations where it is important to measure the economic efficiency. Showing institutional aspects that must be considered in the application or formulation of new performance criteria. It is proved that there is a connection microeconomic efficiency / inefficiency and parameters of behavior of agents that actualizes the need to impact on the behavior of agents incentives to solve the task of changing the structure.

  6. Creating Real-Time Embodied Autonomous Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ A challenging research area for computer graphics and virtual environments (VE) is training interpersonal interactions. In such a system, at least one person is the VE participant, while several more virtual human agents (represented by human-like, embodied models) are engaged in activities in the same virtual space. The participants, whether live or virtual, should interact as if all were real. This means that the virtual agents must have several characteristics afforded to real people, including the following:

  7. Agent-oriented commonsense knowledge base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汝钤; 石纯一; 张松懋; 毛希平; 徐晋晖; 杨萍; 范路

    2000-01-01

    Common sense processing has been the key difficulty in Al community. Through analyzing various research methods on common sense, a large-scale agent-oriented commonsense knowledge base is described in this paper. We propose a new type of agent——CBS agent, specify common sense oriented semantic network descriptive language-Csnet, augment Prolog for common sense, analyze the ontology structure, and give the execution mechanism of the knowledge base.

  8. Operations on Rigid Formations of Autonomous Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Tolga; Anderson, Brian D. O.; Morse, A. Stephen; Whiteley, Walter; Belhumeur, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the maintenance of rigid formations of mobile autonomous agents. A key element in all future multi-agent systems will be the role of sensor and communication networks as an integral part of coordination. Network topologies are critically important for autonomous systems involving mobile underwater, ground and air vehicles and for sensor networks. This paper focuses on developing techniques and strategies for the analysis and design of sensor a...

  9. Natural compounds as anticancer agents: Experimental evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention research has drawn much attention worldwide. It is believed that some types of cancer can be prevented by following a healthy life style. Cancer chemoprevention by either natural or synthetic agents is a promising route towards lowering cancer incidence. In recent years, the concept of cancer chemoprevention has evolved greatly. Experimental studies in animal models demonstrate that the reversal or suppression of premalignant lesions by chemopreventive agents is achievable. ...

  10. Intelligent agents for e-commerce applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuppala, Krishna

    1999-12-01

    This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.

  11. Agent-based modeling and network dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Namatame, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The book integrates agent-based modeling and network science. It is divided into three parts, namely, foundations, primary dynamics on and of social networks, and applications. The book begins with the network origin of agent-based models, known as cellular automata, and introduce a number of classic models, such as Schelling’s segregation model and Axelrod’s spatial game. The essence of the foundation part is the network-based agent-based models in which agents follow network-based decision rules. Under the influence of the substantial progress in network science in late 1990s, these models have been extended from using lattices into using small-world networks, scale-free networks, etc. The book also shows that the modern network science mainly driven by game-theorists and sociophysicists has inspired agent-based social scientists to develop alternative formation algorithms, known as agent-based social networks. The book reviews a number of pioneering and representative models in this family. Upon the gi...

  12. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  13. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  14. The Behaviors Decision of Agent in Multi-agent System%多agent系统中agent的行为决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新军; 王怀民; 楚蓓蓓; 王逸欣

    2003-01-01

    The behavior decision of agent in multi-agent system is dependent on the task of individual agent ,the cooperation with other agents,and the multi-agent system' constraints. The paper presents three abstract concept models of achievement intention,joint intention and maintenance intention representing the factors that affect agent's behaviors respectively,to investigate autonomous agent's behaviors decision in support of agent-oriented software development. The paper discusses and analyzes how they will affect agent's behavior decision and the relationship among them,defines their formal and rigorous semantics,finally specifies and proves a number of important properties.

  15. An Agent Operationalization Approach for Context Specific Agent-Based Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Christof Knoeri; Binder, Claudia R.; Hans-Joerg Althaus

    2011-01-01

    The potential of agent-based modeling (ABM) has been demonstrated in various research fields. However, three major concerns limit the full exploitation of ABM; (i) agents are too simple and behave unrealistically without any empirical basis, (ii) 'proof of concept' applications are too theoretical and (iii) too much value placed on operational validity instead of conceptual validity. This paper presents an operationalization approach to determine the key system agents, their interaction, deci...

  16. Intelligent Agent-Based System for Digital Library Information Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师雪霖; 牛振东; 宋瀚涛; 宋丽哲

    2003-01-01

    A new information search model is reported and the design and implementation of a system based on intelligent agent is presented. The system is an assistant information retrieval system which helps users to search what they need. The system consists of four main components: interface agent, information retrieval agent, broker agent and learning agent. They collaborate to implement system functions. The agents apply learning mechanisms based on an improved ID3 algorithm.

  17. Research and Application of Multi-Agent Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Zhang Fengming

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces the background and conception of Agent and Multi-Agent technology and compares the frameworks of Agent system and MAS. Analyzing the framework of Agent secondly. Then explaining the communication language used in the Multi-Agent society where knowledge communication plays a key role among Agents. Finally, some applications are enumerated and the future direction of this technology is prospected.

  18. Engagement driven Topic Selection for an Information-Giving Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, Nadine; Prepin, Ken; Pelachaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    International audience We propose a model for conversational agents to select the topic of interaction in agent-initiated information-giving chat. By taking into account the agent's dynamically updated perception of the user's engagement, the agent's own preferences and its associations between topics, the agent tries to select the topic that max-imises the agent and user's combined engagement. The model offers engagement driven dialogue management on the topic level.

  19. The Agent Modeling Language AML A Comprehensive Approach to Modeling Multi-agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cervenka, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are already a focus of studies for more than 25 years. Despite substantial effort of an active research community, modeling of multi-agent systems still lacks complete and proper definition, general acceptance, and practical application. Due to the vast potential of these systems e.g., to improve the practice in software and to extent the applications that can feasibly be tackled, this book tries to provide a comprehensive modeling language - the Agent Modeling Language (AML) - as an extension of UML 2.0, concentrating on multi-agent systems and applications.

  20. An Interactive Tool for Creating Multi-Agent Systems and Interactive Agent-based Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing principles from parallel and distributed processing combined with inspiration from modular robotics, we developed the modular interactive tiles. As an educational tool, the modular interactive tiles facilitate the learning of multi-agent systems and interactive agent-based games....... The modular and physical property of the tiles provides students with hands-on experience in exploring the theoretical aspects underlying multi-agent systems which often appear as challenging to students. By changing the representation of the cognitive challenging aspects of multi-agent systems education...

  1. Mobile Agent Based on Internet%基于Internet的移动Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐练; 周龙骧; 王翰虎

    2001-01-01

    Mobile Agent is a hybrid of Internet technology and Artificial Intelligence. Today there are tremendous amount of information resources distributing among Internet ,but it's very difficult to find the wanted-thing. Internet has increasingly become a vital compute platform for electron commercial which has highly popular through the world. Developing new Internet-based application programs such as shopping online,e-business,search engine etc pose new task. Mobile Agent proffers new clue and technology. Considering Internet,this thesis conducts a research on architecture,mobile mechanism in mobile Agent system. Based on the Agent theory research and engineering ,the thesis focuses point at researching Mobile Agents,which have the ability to rove through the network. Using OMG's "Mobile Agent Facility Specification" for reference,we design a model architecture of Mobile Agent System. Based on the architecture ,the article analyzes the key technology and gives methods to resolving them ,emphases on mobility mechanism of Agent and implementing it. At last a model of java-based Mobile Agent System is given.

  2. Challenges of agent banking experiences in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gichana Atandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available More than ever before there is a global concern to entrench financial deepening access to previously ignored areas due to some areas considered economically unviable where majority of the MSEs operate their businesses. There is an increasing need to promote technological and institutional innovation as a means to expand financial system access and usage, including addressing infrastructure weaknesses and empowering business enterprises by developing financial literacy and financial capability programs to bring all people on board and all to participate in economic development of a country, perhaps agent banking will offer a solution to slow pace of individuals enterprise development especially from the rural areas. The uptake of agent banking in Kenya has not been well appreciated by the target beneficiaries who include among others the micro and small enterprises in the rural areas in Kenya who were expected to benefit from this technologically innovative service. In as much as it has been witnessed that there is an increase in penetration of agent banking services clients have not fully made use of the available agents at their localities to cut down on transaction costs occasioned by travelling to traditional branches and also time wasted on queuing for services . It can also be noted that, the banks have not fully taken advantage of agent banking to explore all market segments at a low operating costs. The researcher also identified some of the factors hindering the well functioning of agent banking despite mounting financial literacy training to Equity bank clients. Lack of mobile network services and float, lack of capital, issues of insecurity and fear of robbery. The paper is based on a study conducted to reveal the challenges which are hindering the rural people of Kenya from benefiting from agent banking.

  3. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  4. Environmental Agents Service (EAS) Registry System of Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Environmental Agent Service (EAS) Registries is the information system encompassing the Ionizing Radiation Registry (IRR), the Agent Orange Registry (AOR), and...

  5. 2015 Special Sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Josefa; Mathieu, Philippe; Campbell, Andrew; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Moreno, María; Julián, Vicente; Alonso-Betanzos, Amparo; Jiménez-López, María; Botti, Vicente; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems and Sustainability : the PAAMS Collection

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2015 special sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, held at University of Salamanca, Spain, at 3rd-5th June, 2015: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and Recommender systems (WebMiRes); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Agent-based Modeling of Sustainable Behavior and Green Economies (AMSBGE); Emotional Software Agents (SSESA) and Intelligent Educational Systems (SSIES). The volume also includes the paper accepted for the Doctoral Consortium in PAAMS 2015. PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest develo...

  6. Frequently asked questions: iodinated contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Michael A

    2004-10-01

    Although iodinated contrast agents are safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. Some questions are easily answered and others still require extensive investigation. For one frequent question--is informed consent necessary before all contrast media injections--the simple answer is no. Another question concerns use of contrast media in patients with prior reactions or allergies. Contrast agents can be safely used in such patients, but special care must be taken to be aware of what the previous reaction was and to be ready to treat any reaction. The protective role of pre-treatment with steroids is well established for minor reactions, but they may not prevent major reactions. It is important to realize that even life-threatening, anaphylactoid reactions are not the result of a true allergy to contrast media. Many questions arise about contrast agent-induced nephropathy. Baseline serum creatinine values should be obtained in patients who are at risk, not all patients. The incidence and natural history of contrast agent-induced nephropathy remain unclear. It occurs only in patients with compromised renal function before contrast agent injection, but even patients with normal serum creatinine levels can have renal dysfunction. Calculated creatinine clearance is a better way to determine risk and to follow this complication. The outcome in almost all patients is benign, with progression to end-stage renal disease being rare. The major risk factors, in addition to renal dysfunction, are long-standing diabetes mellitus, dehydration, and use of other nephrotoxic medications. Recent work in preventing and ameliorating contrast agent-induced nephropathy with N-acetyl cysteine, substitution of an isosmolal nonionic contrast agent, and various hydration regimens has been promising. Another common concern is use of iodinated contrast agents in pregnant or breast-feeding women. In both cases, there is no evidence

  7. Dispatching mobile Agents for DDM applicationss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-ning; Guillaume Autran

    2008-01-01

    Techniques for mining information from distributed data sources accessible over the Internet are a growing area of research. The mobile Agent paradigm opens a new door for distributed data mining and knowledge discovery applications. In this paper we present the design of a mobile agent system which couples service discovery, using a logical language based application programming interface, and database access. Combining mobility with database access provides a means to create more efficient data mining applications. The processing of data is moved to network wide data locations instead of the traditional approach of bringing huge amount of data to the processing location. Our proposal aims at implementing system tools that will enable intelligent mobile Agents to roam the Internet searching for distributed data services. Agents access the data, discover patterns, extract useful information from facts recorded in the databases, then communicate local results back to the user. The user then generates a global data model through the aggregation of results provided by all Agents. This overcomes barriers posed by network congestion, poor security, and unreliability.

  8. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  9. Agents: An approach for dynamic process modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Axel; Kopetzky, Roland; Lurk, Alexander

    1999-03-01

    With the growing amount of distributed and heterogeneous information and services, conventional information systems have come to their limits. This gave rise to the development of a Multi-Agent System (the "Logical Client") which can be used in complex information systems as well as in other advanced software systems. Computer agents are proactive, reactive and social. They form a community of independent software components that can communicate and co-operate in order to accomplish complex tasks. Thus the agent-oriented paradigm provides a new and powerful approach to programming distributed systems. The communication framework developed is based on standards like CORBA, KQML and KIF. It provides an embedded rule based system to find adequate reactions to incoming messages. The macro-architecture of the Logical Client consists of independent agents and uses artificial intelligence to cope with complex patterns of communication and actions. A set of system agents is also provided, including the Strategy Service as a core component for modelling processes at runtime, the Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) Component for supporting remote co-operation between human users and the Repository for managing and hiding the file based data flow in heterogeneous networks. This architecture seems to be capable of managing complexity in information systems. It is also being implemented in a complex simulation system that monitors and simulates the environmental radioactivity in the country Baden-Württemberg.

  10. Constructing Agent Model for Virtual Training Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yohei; Sugimoto, Yuki; Ishida, Toru

    Constructing highly realistic agents is essential if agents are to be employed in virtual training systems. In training for collaboration based on face-to-face interaction, the generation of emotional expressions is one key. In training for guidance based on one-to-many interaction such as direction giving for evacuations, emotional expressions must be supplemented by diverse agent behaviors to make the training realistic. To reproduce diverse behavior, we characterize agents by using a various combinations of operation rules instantiated by the user operating the agent. To accomplish this goal, we introduce a user modeling method based on participatory simulations. These simulations enable us to acquire information observed by each user in the simulation and the operating history. Using these data and the domain knowledge including known operation rules, we can generate an explanation for each behavior. Moreover, the application of hypothetical reasoning, which offers consistent selection of hypotheses, to the generation of explanations allows us to use otherwise incompatible operation rules as domain knowledge. In order to validate the proposed modeling method, we apply it to the acquisition of an evacuee's model in a fire-drill experiment. We successfully acquire a subject's model corresponding to the results of an interview with the subject.

  11. Joint chemical agent detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laljer, Charles E.

    2003-08-01

    The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) has continued development through 2002. The JCAD has completed Contractor Validation Testing (CVT) that included chemical warfare agent testing, environmental testing, electromagnetic interferent testing, and platform integration validation. The JCAD provides state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to military and homeland security operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty countries have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of weapons of mass destruction (and the industrial capability for manufacture of these weapons) to third world nations and terrorist organizations has greatly increased the chemical agent threat to U.S. interests. Coupled with the potential for U.S. involvement in localized conflicts in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the military Joint Services may encounter chemical agents anywhere in the world. The JCAD is a small (45 in3), lightweight (2 lb.) chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection component across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD detects, identifies, quantifies, and warns of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector provides local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew and other personnel in the local area with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD is capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD provides the operator with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

  12. Do Low Molecular Weight Agents Cause More Severe Asthma than High Molecular Weight Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca, Olga; Cruz, María-Jesús; Sánchez-Ortiz, Mónica; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier; Ojanguren, Iñigo; Munoz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to analyse whether patients with occupational asthma (OA) caused by low molecular weight (LMW) agents differed from patients with OA caused by high molecular weight (HMW) with regard to risk factors, asthma presentation and severity, and response to various diagnostic tests. Methods Seventy-eight patients with OA diagnosed by positive specific inhalation challenge (SIC) were included. Anthropometric characteristics, atopic status, occupation, latency periods, asthma severity according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) control classification, lung function tests and SIC results were analysed. Results OA was induced by an HMW agent in 23 patients (29%) and by an LMW agent in 55 (71%). A logistic regression analysis confirmed that patients with OA caused by LMW agents had a significantly higher risk of severity according to the GINA classification after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 3.579, 95% CI 1.136–11.280; p = 0.029). During the SIC, most patients with OA caused by HMW agents presented an early reaction (82%), while in patients with OA caused by LMW agents the response was mainly late (73%) (p = 0.0001). Similarly, patients with OA caused by LMW agents experienced a greater degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, measured as the difference in the methacholine dose-response ratio (DRR) before and after SIC (1.77, range 0–16), compared with patients with OA caused by HMW agents (0.87, range 0–72), (p = 0.024). Conclusions OA caused by LMW agents may be more severe than that caused by HMW agents. The severity of the condition may be determined by the different mechanisms of action of these agents. PMID:27280473

  13. A Multi-Agent Approach for Solving Traveling Salesman Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tiejun; TAN Yihong; XING Lining

    2006-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a classical optimization problem and it is one of a class of NP-Problem. This paper presents a new method named multi-agent approach based genetic algorithm and ant colony system to solve the TSP. Three kinds of agents with different function were designed in the multi-agent architecture proposed by this paper. The first kind of agent is ant colony optimization agent and its function is generating the new solution continuously. The second kind of agent is selection agent, crossover agent and mutation agent, their function is optimizing the current solutions group. The third kind of agent is fast local searching agent and its function is optimizing the best solution from the beginning of the trial. At the end of this paper, the experimental results have shown that the proposed hybrid approach has good performance with respect to the quality of solution and the speed of computation.

  14. A Study in a Hybrid Centralised-Swarm Agent Community

    CERN Document Server

    van Aardt, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a systems architecture for a hybrid Centralised/Swarm based multi-agent system. The issue of local goal assignment for agents is investigated through the use of a global agent which teaches the agents responses to given situations. We implement a test problem in the form of a Pursuit game, where the Multi-Agent system is a set of captor agents. The agents learn solutions to certain board positions from the global agent if they are unable to find a solution. The captor agents learn through the use of multi-layer perceptron neural networks. The global agent is able to solve board positions through the use of a Genetic Algorithm. The cooperation between agents and the results of the simulation are discussed here. .

  15. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  16. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  17. Existence of Multiagent Equilibria with Limited Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Bowling, M; 10.1613/jair.1332

    2011-01-01

    Multiagent learning is a necessary yet challenging problem as multiagent systems become more prevalent and environments become more dynamic. Much of the groundbreaking work in this area draws on notable results from game theory, in particular, the concept of Nash equilibria. Learners that directly learn an equilibrium obviously rely on their existence. Learners that instead seek to play optimally with respect to the other players also depend upon equilibria since equilibria are fixed points for learning. From another perspective, agents with limitations are real and common. These may be undesired physical limitations as well as self-imposed rational limitations, such as abstraction and approximation techniques, used to make learning tractable. This article explores the interactions of these two important concepts: equilibria and limitations in learning. We introduce the question of whether equilibria continue to exist when agents have limitations. We look at the general effects limitations can have on agent b...

  18. Antiseptic skin agents for percutaneous procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepor, Norman E; Madyoon, Hooman

    2009-01-01

    Infections associated with percutaneously implanted devices, such as pacemakers, internal cardiac defibrillators, and endovascular prostheses, create difficult and complex clinical scenarios because management can entail complete device removal, antibiotic therapy, and prolonged hospitalization. A source for pathogens is often thought to be the skin surface, making skin preparation at the time of the procedure a critical part of minimizing implantation of infected devices and prostheses. The most common skin preparation agents used today include products containing iodophors or chlorhexidine gluconate. Agents are further classified by whether they are aqueous-based or alcoholbased solutions. Traditional aqueous-based iodophors, such as povidone-iodine, are one of the few products that can be safely used on mucous membrane surfaces. Alcohol-based solutions are quick, sustained, and durable, with broader spectrum antimicrobial activity. These agents seem ideal for percutaneous procedures associated with prosthesis implantation, when it is critical to minimize skin colony counts to prevent hardware infection.

  19. DIRAC - Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaregorodtsev, A; Closier, J; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; van Herwijnen, E; Loverre, F; Ponce, S; Graciani Diaz, R.; Galli, D; Marconi, U; Vagnoni, V; Brook, N; Buckley, A; Harrison, K; Schmelling, M; Egede, U; Bogdanchikov, A; Korolko, I; Washbrook, A; Palacios, J P; Klous, S; Saborido, J J; Khan, A; Pickford, A; Soroko, A; Romanovski, V; Patrick, G N; Kuznetsov, G; Gandelman, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes DIRAC, the LHCb Monte Carlo production system. DIRAC has a client/server architecture based on: Compute elements distributed among the collaborating institutes; Databases for production management, bookkeeping (the metadata catalogue) and software configuration; Monitoring and cataloguing services for updating and accessing the databases. Locally installed software agents implemented in Python monitor the local batch queue, interrogate the production database for any outstanding production requests using the XML-RPC protocol and initiate the job submission. The agent checks and, if necessary, installs any required software automatically. After the job has processed the events, the agent transfers the output data and updates the metadata catalogue. DIRAC has been successfully installed at 18 collaborating institutes, including the DataGRID, and has been used in recent Physics Data Challenges. In the near to medium term future we must use a mixed environment with different types of grid mid...

  20. Using Mobile Agents to Implement Workflow System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LIU Xian-xing; GUO Zheng-wei

    2004-01-01

    Current workflow management systems usually adopt the existing technologies such as TCP/IP-based Web technologies and CORBA as well to fulfill the bottom communications.Very often it has been considered only from a theoretical point of view, mainly for the lack of concrete possibilities to execute with elasticity.MAT (Mobile Agent Technology) represents a very attractive approach to the distributed control of computer networks and a valid alternative to the implementation of strategies for workflow system.This paper mainly focuses on improving the performance of workflow system by using MAT.Firstly, the performances of workflow systems based on both CORBA and mobile agent are summarized and analyzed; Secondly, the performance contrast is presented by introducing the mathematic model of each kind of data interaction process respectively.Last, a mobile agent-based workflow system named MAWMS is presented and described in detail.

  1. AGVs Dispatching Using Multiple Cooperative Learning Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    AGVs dispatching,one of the hot problems in FMS, has attracted widespread inte rest in recent years. It is hard to dynamically schedule AGVs with pre-designed rule because of the uncertainty and dynamic nature of AGVs dispatching progress,so the AGVs system in this paper is treated as a cooperative learning mul tiag ent system, in which each agent adopts multilevel decision method, which includes two level decisions:the option level and the action level.On the option level,an agent learns a policy to execute a subtask with the best resp onse to the other AGVs'current options. On the action level,an agent learns an optimal policy of actions for achieving his planned option.The method is applied to a AGVs'dispatching simulation,and the performance of the AGVs system bas ed on this method is verified.

  2. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  3. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  4. NATURAL AGENTS FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darji Vinay Chhanalal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract. It comprises the two conditions, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, characterized by chronic recurrent ulceration of the bowel. Conventional drugs for colitis treatment include aminosalicylate, corticosteroids,antibiotics & immunomodulators. 5- Amino salicylic acid having side effects in 30% of the patients. Systemic corticosteroids producing incidence of complication is 4.3%. Antibiotic therapy is beneficial in 70% of the patients & Immunomodulators having 50 to 70% beneficial effects. This report shows that there is no any appropriate treatment available to treat IBD without side effects. A natural agent with reduced or no toxicity is therefore essential. In nature there are so many types of natural agents which are used as protective agents in IBD. This article emphasizes many natural products obtained from plant & other sources, which possess potent activity against experimentally induced IBD.

  5. Network Management using Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor DUQUE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a multiagent system for network management. The models developed for the proposed system defines certain intelligent agents interact to achieve the objectives and requirements of the multiagent organization.These agents have the property of being adaptive, acquire knowledge and skills to make decisions according to the actual state of the network that is represented in the information base, MIB, SNMP devices. The ideal state of the network policy is defined by the end user entered, which contain the value that should have performance variables and other parameters such as the frequency with which these variables should be monitored.. An agent based architecture increase the integration, adaptability, cooperation, autonomy and the efficient operation in heterogeneous environment in the network supervision. 

  6. Network Management using Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo ISAZA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a multiagent system for network management. The models developed for the proposed system defines certain intelligent agents interact to achieve the objectives and requirements of the multiagent organization.These agents have the property of being adaptive, acquire knowledge and skills to make decisions according to the actual state of the network that is represented in the information base, MIB, SNMP devices. The ideal state of the network policy is defined by the end user entered, which contain the value that should have performance variables and other parameters such as the frequency with which these variables should be monitored.. An agent based architecture increase the integration, adaptability, cooperation, autonomy and the efficient operation in heterogeneous environment in the network supervision. 

  7. Intelligent Virtual Agents Architecture in Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfan Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the contemporary performing behavior in the reciprocity of virtual agents is glazed excessively and can't satisfy complex unknown environment, the research of Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA with active learning and local apperception must be accelerated. In this paper, we design and implement a new IVA system architecture, for which active learning and local apperceive interaction were approached. Active learning using knowledge acquisition and knowledge evolution improved the self-regulation of behavior mechanism significantly, while local apperceive interaction could sense disturbances of the simulated environment and interactively communicate with other simulated agents within perception dimension effectively. Ultimately, the experimental result provides effectiveness and practicability of the performance in our prototype IVA system.

  8. Toward Agent Programs with Circuit Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    1992-01-01

    New ideas are presented for computing and organizing actions for autonomous agents in dynamic environments-environments in which the agent's current situation cannot always be accurately discerned and in which the effects of actions cannot always be reliably predicted. The notion of 'circuit semantics' for programs based on 'teleo-reactive trees' is introduced. Program execution builds a combinational circuit which receives sensory inputs and controls actions. These formalisms embody a high degree of inherent conditionality and thus yield programs that are suitably reactive to their environments. At the same time, the actions computed by the programs are guided by the overall goals of the agent. The paper also speculates about how programs using these ideas could be automatically generated by artificial intelligence planning systems and adapted by learning methods.

  9. Smell Detection Agent Based Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Chandra S. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel nature-inspired optimization algorithm has been employed and the trained behaviour of dogs in detecting smell trails is adapted into computational agents for problem solving. The algorithm involves creation of a surface with smell trails and subsequent iteration of the agents in resolving a path. This algorithm can be applied in different computational constraints that incorporate path-based problems. Implementation of the algorithm can be treated as a shortest path problem for a variety of datasets. The simulated agents have been used to evolve the shortest path between two nodes in a graph. This algorithm is useful to solve NP-hard problems that are related to path discovery. This algorithm is also useful to solve many practical optimization problems. The extensive derivation of the algorithm can be enabled to solve shortest path problems.

  10. Price Prediction in a Trading Agent Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Lochner, K M; Vorobeychik, Y; Wellman, M P; 10.1613/jair.1333

    2011-01-01

    The 2002 Trading Agent Competition (TAC) presented a challenging market game in the domain of travel shopping. One of the pivotal issues in this domain is uncertainty about hotel prices, which have a significant influence on the relative cost of alternative trip schedules. Thus, virtually all participants employ some method for predicting hotel prices. We survey approaches employed in the tournament, finding that agents apply an interesting diversity of techniques, taking into account differing sources of evidence bearing on prices. Based on data provided by entrants on their agents' actual predictions in the TAC-02 finals and semifinals, we analyze the relative efficacy of these approaches. The results show that taking into account game-specific information about flight prices is a major distinguishing factor. Machine learning methods effectively induce the relationship between flight and hotel prices from game data, and a purely analytical approach based on competitive equilibrium analysis achieves equal ac...

  11. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  12. Learning Pet -- Intelligent Agents for WBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玮; 俞方桦

    2001-01-01

    An intelligent agent is any program that can be considered by the user to be acting as an assistant or helper, rather than as a tool in the manner of a conventional direct-manipulation interface. An agent should as well display some, but perhaps not all, of the characteristics that are associated with human intelligence: learning, inference, adaptability,independence, creativity, etc.. In order to make webbased education (WBE) more vividly and instructionally with learner's independence at the same time, the intelligent agent can act as a learning pet, which is affiliated with learner's score or grades and will grow up with learner's achievement. And during the course of study, the learning pet can provides any information required by the learner, gives hints if necessary when the learner doing his/her assignment, offers instructional guide for further study etc..

  13. CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA: A PROMISING ANTIFERTILITY AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Jhuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Population explosion is a serious problem trough out the world. Population is a major problem in our country. Birth control becomes essential part of our life. Synthetic antifertility agents have severe side effect like breast cancer, cervical cancer etc. The practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility in most part of India is based on the uses of plant medicines of many years. Cissampelos pareira Linn. is a perennial twining shrub with small yellow flower commonly, is one of the folk medicinal plant used as an agent for birth control among rural people. The present review encompasses botanical information, description, geographical distribution, phytochemical properties, uses and recent research on Cissampelos pareira Linn which may help us to know the effectiveness of Cissampelos pareira Linn. as antifertility agent.

  14. Multi-Agent Simulation and Management Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Celia, Helen; Clegg, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent agents offer a new and exciting way of understanding the world of work. Agent-Based Simulation (ABS), one way of using intelligent agents, carries great potential for progressing our understanding of management practices and how they link to retail performance. We have developed simulation models based on research by a multi-disciplinary team of economists, work psychologists and computer scientists. We will discuss our experiences of implementing these concepts working with a well-known retail department store. There is no doubt that management practices are linked to the performance of an organisation (Reynolds et al., 2005; Wall & Wood, 2005). Best practices have been developed, but when it comes down to the actual application of these guidelines considerable ambiguity remains regarding their effectiveness within particular contexts (Siebers et al., forthcoming a). Most Operational Research (OR) methods can only be used as analysis tools once management practices have been implemented. Ofte...

  15. Nondestructive intervention to multi-agent systems through an intelligent agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    For a given multi-agent system where the local interaction rule of the existing agents can not be re-designed, one way to intervene the collective behavior of the system is to add one or a few special agents into the group which are still treated as normal agents by the existing ones. We study how to lead a Vicsek-like flocking model to reach synchronization by adding special agents. A popular method is to add some simple leaders (fixed-headings agents). However, we add one intelligent agent, called 'shill', which uses online feedback information of the group to decide the shill's moving direction at each step. A novel strategy for the shill to coordinate the group is proposed. It is strictly proved that a shill with this strategy and a limited speed can synchronize every agent in the group. The computer simulations show the effectiveness of this strategy in different scenarios, including different group sizes, shill speed, and with or without noise. Compared to the method of adding some fixed-heading leaders, our method can guarantee synchronization for any initial configuration in the deterministic scenario and improve the synchronization level significantly in low density groups, or model with noise. This suggests the advantage and power of feedback information in intervention of collective behavior.

  16. A Multi Agent System for MS Windows using Matlab-enabled Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupkens, Th.M.; Thaens, R.

    2005-01-01

    A method is described to program the properties of agents of a multi agent system by using Matlab instructions or Matlab m-files. Apart from the obvious advantage that all Matlab functionality is immediately available, there is the added advantage that all debugging capabilities that Matlab provides

  17. A Comparison of Organization-Centered and Agent-Centered Multi-Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Whereas most classical multi-agent systems have the agent in center, there has recently been a development towards focusing more on the organization of the system, thereby allowing the designer to focus on what the system goals are, without considering how the goals should be fulfilled. We have d...

  18. Research of Communication Mechanism of the Multi-agent in Multi-agent Robot Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cooperation of multi-robot that is based on the multi-agent system (MAS) theory of distributed artificial intelligence has become a hotspot in the robotics R&D. In the research the multi-robot is regarded as multi-agent. So the communication and cooperation of multi-agent become the key problem for gaining the dynamic running information of cooperating robots. In this paper the authors introduce the communication modes for agent and provide a common strategy which aims at the communication resources of multi-agent model-the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) protocol which is based on the transmittal medium. It supports the cable-communication of multi-robot and the experiments prove its validity.

  19. 10th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    The modern economy is driven by technologies and knowledge. Digital technologies can free, shift and multiply choices, often intruding on the space of other industries, by providing new ways of conducting business operations and creating values for customers and companies. The topics covered in this volume include software agents, multi-agent systems, agent modelling, mobile and cloud computing, big data analysis, business intelligence, artificial intelligence, social systems, computer embedded systems and nature inspired manufacturing, etc. that contribute to the modern Digital Economy. This volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent, new digital and knowledge economy research and includes 28 papers classified in the following specific topics: business process management, agent-based modeling and simulation, anthropic-oriented computing, learning paradigms, business informatics and gaming, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published papers were selected for presentatio...

  20. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  1. Chelating agents in pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 71 abstracts of papers. Fourteen abstracts were inputted in INIS. The topics covered include: the effects of chelating agents on the retention of 63Ni, 109Cd, 203Hg, 144Ce, 95Nb and the excretion of 210Po, 63Ni, 48V, 239Pu, 241Am, 54Mn; the applications of tracer techniques for studies of the efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with heart and brain disorders; and the treatment of metal poisoning with chelating agents. (J.P.)

  2. New agents: great expectations not realized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancet, Jeffrey E

    2013-09-01

    A number of new agents in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have held much promise in recent years, but most have failed to change the therapeutic landscape. Indeed, with the exception of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (which was subsequently voluntarily withdrawn from the commercial market), no new agent has been approved for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) beyond the 7 + 3 regimen, which was has been in use for over 40 years. This review touches upon the potential reasons for these failures and explores the newer therapeutic approaches being pursued in AML.

  3. Intelligent Agents: The Measure of their Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlabosse, François

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents an original attempt for testing the level of autonomy of intelligent physical agents. After a short review of the architectural problematic of designing such artefacts, we try to situate the place of uncertainty modelling in mobile robotic and complex control systems. We then briefly describe a design for giving to an industrial control problem the highest level of autonomy for performing its tasks. We give some hints how to extend these tests on physical agents exhibiting adaptive behaviours. Future works for applying this methodology will be illustrated.

  4. Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2014-08-12

    A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

  5. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  6. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheonshik Kim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to create optimum traffic signals in congested conditions. The effectiveness of this method was shown through simulation of multiple intersections.

  7. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, H. D.; Siddons, D. P.

    1990-05-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-rays and an iodine-containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic X-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron radiation source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the X-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation X-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contain contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth. The X-ray energy spectrum of the X-17 superconduction wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been used for these calculations. Both perfect Si crystals and Si crystals with a small mosaic spread are considered as monochromators. Contrast agents containing Gd or Yb seem to have about the optimal calculated signal to noise ratio. Gd-DTPA is already approved for use as a contrast agent for

  8. Agentes Comunitários de Saúde e os sentidos de "ser agente" Community Health Agents and the meanings of "being an agent"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Milan Pupin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Saúde da Família constitui-se enquanto estratégia de mudança do modelo assistencial. O artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa sobre os sentidos de "ser agente" produzidos, por meio de entrevistas abertas, com Agentes Comunitários de Saúde que trabalham nos cinco Núcleos de Saúde da Família da cidade de Ribeirão Preto - São Paulo, vinculados à Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - USP. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas na íntegra e analisadas segundo princípios da análise de conteúdo. A análise permitiu a descrição de sentidos acerca de ser agente subdivididos em: Sentidos produzidos na relação com a comunidade e Sentidos produzidos na relação com a equipe. A análise dos sentidos de ser agente possibilitou construir um diálogo sobre as tensões relacionadas a um fazer em saúde ora permeado por concepções atreladas ao modelo biomédico, ora atrelado aos novos paradigmas em saúde.The Family Health Program consists of a strategy to change the health care model. This article presents the results from a qualitative study about the meanings of "being an agent" obtained through open interviews with Community Health Agents who work in five Family Health Centers of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine (University of São Paulo, located in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. Interviews were tape recorded, fully transcribed, and then content analyzed. The analysis allowed for descriptions of meanings toward "being an agent", subdivided into: Meanings produced by relationships with the community, and Meanings produced by relationships with the team. Analyzing the meanings of being an agent provided the establishment of a dialogue about the tensions related to a health practice that is at times influenced by conceptions associated with the biomedical method, and at other times with the new health paradigm.

  9. Intrathecal chemotherapy. Selection of cytostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, T; Yamada, R; Kanai, N; Kuroda, R; Ushio, Y; Higashi, H; Mogami, H

    1970-09-01

    Selection of cytostatic agents for intrathecal administration is the subject of this paper.Both the toxic side effects-destruction of blood-brain barrier and change of body weight-and the cytostatic effects on intracranially transplanted Yoshida ascites sarcoma were investigated of intrathecal administration of various cytostatic agents. As a result, it may be concluded that Methotrexate and Endoxan and lower dose of mitomycin C are suitable drugs for intrathecal chemotherapy.Based on these findings, clinical cases of malignant brain tumours were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy.Grateful acknowledgement is made to Professor Dennosuke Jinnai for his constant interest and guidance in this investigation.

  10. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  11. A Multi-Agent Immunology Model for Security Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a computer immunology model for computersecurity , whose main components are defined as idea of Multi-Agent. It introduces the n at ural immune system on the principle, discusses the idea and characteristics of Mu lti-Agent. It gives a system model, and describes the structure and function of each agent. Also, the communication method between agents is described.

  12. Schools as Agents of Social Exclusion and Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.; Warshofsky, Boaz

    2013-01-01

    Although schools are usually regarded as important agents for social inclusion, research has shown that they may also function as agents of exclusion itself. The goal of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how schools function as agents of exclusion and how they can become more effective agents of inclusion. It is based on action research…

  13. 49 CFR 375.205 - May I have agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May I have agents? 375.205 Section 375.205... General Responsibilities § 375.205 May I have agents? (a) You may have agents provided you comply with... performs such services only on an emergency or temporary basis. (b) If you have agents, you must...

  14. Applications of Multi-Agent Technology to Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takeshi

    Currently, agents are focus of intense on many sub-fields of computer science and artificial intelligence. Agents are being used in an increasingly wide variety of applications. Many important computing applications such as planning, process control, communication networks and concurrent systems will benefit from using multi-agent system approach. A multi-agent system is a structure given by an environment together with a set of artificial agents capable to act on this environment. Multi-agent models are oriented towards interactions, collaborative phenomena, and autonomy. This article presents the applications of multi-agent technology to the power systems.

  15. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...... of the agent) if this does not affect their pay-off....

  16. Multi-Agent Systems Design for Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Simon; Rajendran, Keerthi

    2005-01-01

    Advanced approaches to the construction of software systems can present difficulties to learners. This is true for multi-agent systems (MAS) which exhibit concurrency, non-determinacy of structure and composition and sometimes emergent behavior characteristics. Additional barriers exist for learners because mainstream MAS technology is young and…

  17. Design and evaluation of explainable BDI agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that providing explanations is an important capability of intelligent systems. Explanation capabilities are useful, for example, in scenario-based training systems with intelligent virtual agents. Trainees learn more from scenario-based training when they understand why the

  18. Mobile Agent PLM Architecture for extended enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhak Boulaalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays manufacturers are under increased pressure to have an add value for their products to struggle the low-cost production in emerging countries. Distributed control and Intelligent Product are a new and exciting opportunity to build more effective process networks for a wide range of applications in logistics and product development, Radio Frequency Identification is applied increasingly; this technology applied in conjunction with the Mobile Agent system can bring more values in managing and control the lifecycle of products by optimizing the three essential factors: cost, quality and deadline for the survival of a company in the competitive manufacturing world. In this paper we propose Mobile Agent PLM Architecture for extended enterprise, based on Mobile Agent and RFID or, more generally, Product Embedded Information Devices (PEID, for tracking and managing the information of the whole product lifecycle in the extended enterprise, and to satisfy new requirements for increased integrability, traceability, adaptability, extendibility, and closed-loop PLM. Mobile Agents are suitable for tracking information in distributing environment and the mobility aspect, at any time and any place. This paper proposes a first architecture based on these technologies.

  19. Agent Based Image Segmentation Method : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Mishra; Navita Srivastava; Shukla, K. K.; Achintya Singlal

    2011-01-01

    Image segmentation is an important research area in computer vision and many segmentation methods have been proposed. This paper attempts to provide a brief overview of elemental segmentation techniques based on boundary or regional approaches. It focuses mainly on the agent based image segmentation techniques

  20. On multiple agent models of moral hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Attar; Eloisa Campioni; Gwena�l Piaser; Uday Rajan

    2006-01-01

    In multiple principal, multiple agent models of moral hazard, we provide conditions under which the outcomes of equilibria in direct mechanisms are preserved when principals can offer indirect communication schemes. We discuss the role of random allocations and recommendations and relate the result to the existing literature.