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Sample records for anti oxidant activity

  1. Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions and methanolic extract of Philonotis hastate (Duby Wijk & MargaDant). ... The fractions and methanolic extract exhibited moderate antioxidant potentials with various models. The flavonoid contents of the methanol extract and fractions ranged between 1.70 ...

  2. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C G; Deepak, M; Viswanatha, G L; Savinay, G; Hanumantharaju, V; Rajendra, C E; Halemani, Praveen D

    2013-04-13

    To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Parastoo; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α mRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 µg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-α mRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 µg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions. PMID:25182441

  4. Anti-oxidative activities of sorghum, foxtail millet and proso millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... The sorghum extract contained high amount of phenolic compounds as well as a high level of anti- oxidant activity ..... Low absorbance values in the FTC method indicate a high level of anti- oxidant activity. Figure 3 shows the changes in absorbance for each sample during 30 h of incubation at. 70°C. The ...

  5. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biplab Kumar; Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Chowdhury, Nusrat Nabila; Majumder, Md Fakhar Uddin; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Pavel, Md Adit Muktadir

    2015-03-01

    Our present study was carried out to explore the potential role of the methanol extract from the leavesof Phlogocanthus thyrsiflorus (PT) Nees. in central and peripheral analgesic activities using hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods. We also tested the antiinflammatory effects and anti-oxidant activity using carrageenan-induced paw edema and the DPPH method, respectively. Methanol extracts of PT leaves were prepared using 500 g powder in 1.8 L methanol by percolation method, followed by evaporation in a rotary evaporator under controlled temperature and pressure. The crude methanol extract was dried by freeze drier and preserved at 4 °C. Oral administration of PT significantly (p methanol extract which could be correlated with its observed biological activities.

  6. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. GC-MS analysis, evaluation of phytochemicals, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of Exacum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appaji Mahesh Ashwini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the GC-MS analysis, phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of leaves of Exacum bicolor. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohol, phenols, alkanes, aromatic compounds, aldehyde and ethers. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eight phyto-constituents. The total phenol, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were 18.0 ± 0.2 mg/GAE/g, 13.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/g and 108.0 ± 1.2 mg AE/g respectively. The DPPH assay exhibited potent anti-oxidant abilities with IC50 8.8 µg/mL. Significant thrombolytic activity was demonstrated by clot lysis method (45.1 ± 0.8%. The methanol extract showed significant membrane stabilization on human red blood cell with IC50 value of 37.4 µg/mL. There was a significant correlation (R2>0.98 with total phenolic content versus anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The above results confirmed that E. bicolor could be a promising anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of Secamone afzelii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This study re-ports the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of S. afzelii. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method in 7 day old chicks and antioxi-dant property by the 2 ...

  9. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

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    Puiyan Lam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  10. Anti-oxidation activity of different types of natural Cordyceps sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Li, P; Dong, T T; Tsim, K W

    2001-05-01

    Cordyceps, one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicines, consists of the dried fungus Cordyceps sinensis growing on the larva of the caterpillar. It is commonly used for the replenishment of body health. One of the known pharmacological effects is its anti-oxidation activity. However, there is a great variation of the quality in different sources of Cordyceps. Here, the water extracts of various sources of natural C. sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia were analyzed for their anti-oxidation activity by using three different assay methods such as the xanthine oxidase assay, the induction of hemolysis assay and the lipid peroxidation assay. The results showed that Cordyceps, in general, possesses a strong anti-oxidation activity in all assays tested. However, both natural and cultured Cordyceps showed the lowest inhibition in the lipid peroxidation when compared with the other two assay methods. The cultured Cordyceps mycelia had equally strong anti-oxidation activity as compared to the natural Cordyceps. Besides, the anti-oxidation activities were increased to 10-30 folds in the partially purified polysaccharide fractions from the cultured Cordyceps mycelia, which suggested that the activity could be derived partly from Cordyceps polysaccharides.

  11. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Liying; Ma, Zhongsu; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-12-23

    Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG) concentration of diabetic mice, which indicated their potential anti-diabetic activities. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays were also performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Besides, several serum lipid values including total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) was increased. The anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the CSFs suggest a potential therapeutic treatment for diabetic conditions.

  12. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG concentration of diabetic mice, which indicated their potential anti-diabetic activities. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA assays were also performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Besides, several serum lipid values including total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were reduced and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C was increased. The anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the CSFs suggest a potential therapeutic treatment for diabetic conditions.

  13. GC-MS analysis, evaluation of phytochemicals, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of Exacum bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Appaji Mahesh Ashwini; Latha Puttarudrappa; Belagumba Vijaykumar Ravi; Mala Majumdar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the GC-MS analysis, phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of leaves of Exacum bicolor. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohol, phenols, alkanes, aromatic compounds, aldehyde and ethers. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eight phyto-constituents. The total phenol, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were 18.0 ± 0.2 mg/GAE/g, 13.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/g and 108.0 ± 1.2 mg AE/g re...

  14. Antidiabetic, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Fadogia ancylantha extracts from Malawi

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nyirenda, KK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available , cold and hot aqueous extracts of the herbal tea was evaluated for its effect on glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle and Chang cell lines. Metformin and insulin were used as positive controls. The anti-oxidant activity, based on neutralisation of DPPH free...

  15. Evaluation of Anti-Oxidant Activity of Lavandula angustifolia using DPPH Method

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    Masoud Soheili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Stress oxidative factors are known to causes diseases resulting from metabolic disorders. Therefore, preventing, or at least decreasing the amount of these factors may have a positive impact on prevention or improvement of the metabolic problems. Recently, the herbal medicines are more considered due to more effectiveness. We designed the present study to evaluate anti-oxidant effect of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia. Materials and Methods: For extract preparation, the dry aerial part of lavender mixed with boiling water for 4 hours and then the container was filtered and condensed in a bain marie. Finally, the extract was powdered by freeze dryer. The anti-oxidant activities of the herbal medicine samples in 5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm concentrations were determined via DPPH method. This method is based on free radical scavenging of 2, 2- dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH reflected in the color and absorbance changes in spectrophotometery method in 520 nm. Finally the IC50 was calculated and compared with that of for vitamin C as a standard. Results: All doses of the aqueous extract of the lavender showed dose- dependent potent anti-oxidant activity, So that, their differences were significant compared to control sample. The IC50 of the herbal medicine was 24.66 ppm that was less than the vitamin C of 2.3 ppm. Conclusion: As a potent anti-oxidant, the lavender aqueous extract can be effective in treatment of metabolic diseases.

  16. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts

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    B N Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer′s disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. Objective: The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Results: Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Conclusions: Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer′s disease.

  17. Mineral components and anti-oxidant activities of tropical seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshi, Suzuki; Yumiko, Yoshie-Stark; Joko, Santoso

    2005-07-01

    Seaweeds are known to hold substances of high nutritional value; they are the richest resources of minerals important to the biochemical reactions in the human body. Seaweeds also hold non-nutrient compounds like dietary fiber and polyphenols. However, there is not enough information on the mineral compounds of tropical seaweeds. Also we are interested in the antioxidant activities of seaweeds, especially those in the tropical area. In this study, Indonesian green, brown and red algae were used as experimental materials with their mineral components analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The catechins and flavonoids of these seaweeds were extracted with methanol and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the antioxidant activities of these seaweeds were evaluated in a fish oil emulsion system. The mineral components of tropical seaweeds are dominated by calcium, potassium and sodium, as well as small amounts of copper, iron and zinc. A green alga usually contains epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and catechin. However, catechin and its isomers are not found in some green and red algae. In the presence of a ferrous ion catalyst, all the methanol extracts from the seaweeds show significantly lower peroxide values of the emulsion than the control, and that of a green alga shows the strongest antioxidant activity. The highest chelation on ferrous ions is also found in the extract of this alga, which is significantly different from the other methanol extracts in both 3 and 24 h incubations.

  18. Activation of anti-oxidant Nrf2 signaling by enone analogues of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Lorraine M; Hunsaker, Lucy A; Vander Jagt, Thomas A; Whalen, Lisa J; Royer, Robert E; Vander Jagt, David L

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are common in many chronic diseases. Targeting signaling pathways that contribute to these conditions may have therapeutic potential. The transcription factor Nrf2 is a major regulator of phase II detoxification and anti-oxidant genes as well as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective genes. Nrf2 is widespread in the CNS and is recognized as an important regulator of brain inflammation. The natural product curcumin exhibits numerous biological activities including ability to induce the expression of Nrf2-dependent phase II and anti-oxidant enzymes. Curcumin has been examined in a number of clinical studies with limited success, mainly owing to limited bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Enone analogues of curcumin were examined with an Nrf2 reporter assay to identify Nrf2 activators. Analogues were separated into groups with a 7-carbon dienone spacer, as found in curcumin; a 5-carbon enone spacer with and without a ring; and a 3-carbon enone spacer. Activators of Nrf2 were found in all three groups, many of which were more active than curcumin. Dose-response studies demonstrated that a range of substituents on the aromatic rings of these enones influenced not only the sensitivity to activation, reflected in EC 50 values, but also the extent of activation, which suggests that multiple mechanisms are involved in the activation of Nrf2 by these analogues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagib, Marwa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Tadros, Mariane G., E-mail: mirogeogo@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); ELSayed, Moushira I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, Amani E. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  20. Anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective activities of total flavonoids of Indocalamus latifolius

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    Juan Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoids of Indocalamus latifolius were evaluated in term of their anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective activities. The results showed that in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities of total flavonoids at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively, were comparable to those of the known hepatoprotective drug silymarin at 100 mg/kg. These data were supplemented with histopathological studies of rat liver sections. Seven of the main flavonoid compounds purified by column chromatography using silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and develosil ODS, and determined to be vitexin, orientin, isovitexin, homoorientin, tricin, tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside.

  1. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

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    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  2. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammation Activities of Pork Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juae; Kim, Dongwook; Yoon, Seok-Ki; Ham, Jun-Sang; Jang, Aera

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of boiled pork powder (BPP) and hot water extract powder (HWEP) from 4 cuts of meat from Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc (LYD). The highest DPPH radical scavenging activities determined were from BPP of Boston butt (13.65 M TE) and HWEP of loin (19.40 M TE) and ham (21.45 M TE). The 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of BPP from shoulder ham (39.28 M TE) and ham (39.43 M TE) were higher than those of other meat cuts, while HWEP of ham exhibited the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity. A higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity was determined for BPP from ham (198.35 M TE) and in HWEP from loin (204.07 M TE), Boston butt (192.85 M TE), and ham (201.36 M TE). Carnosine content of BPP and HWEP from loin and were determined to be 106.68 and 117.77 mg/g on a dry basis, respectively. The anserine content of BPP (5.26 mg/g, dry basis) and HWEP (6.79 mg/g, dry basis) of shoulder ham exhibited the highest value as compared to the extracts from the other meat cuts. The viability of RAW 264.7 cells was increased with increasing HWEP from loin and ham treatment. In addition, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly reduced by HWEP from loin and ham, in a dose dependent manner. These results suggested that boiled pork and hot water extract of pork have antioxidative and cytokine inhibitory effects.

  3. Anti-oxidant activity and attenuation of bladder hyperactivity by the flavonoid compound kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaw-Bin; Lin, Ming-Wei; Chao, Yun; Huang, Chi-Te; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of the flavonoid compound, kaempferol, and to examine its role in the suppression of oxidative stress and attenuation of bladder hyperactivity in a rat model of bladder injury. The anti-oxidative activity of kaempferol was examined in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages by using flow cytometry. For in vivo studies, rats were pretreated with kaempferol or vehicle for 24 h. The rat urothelium was injured by the administration of protamine sulfate for 1.5 h and irritated by the subsequent infusion of potassium chloride for 4 h. Oxidative stress in the bladder tissue was assessed using chemiluminescence assay, and the bladder pressure was determination by cystomertrogram. Kaempferol significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species production in RAW264.7 rat macrophages. Exposure of the rat bladder to sequential infusion of protamine sulfate and potassium chloride induced bladder hyperactivity. Pretreatment with kaempferol, prevented the formation of reactive oxygen species and prolonged the intercontraction interval. Kaempferol suppresses oxidative stress and attenuates bladder hyperactivity caused by potassium chloride after protamine sulfate-induced bladder injury. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis using Phoenix dactylifera fruit extract, characterization, and anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Anas Ejaz; Satardekar, Kshitij Vasant; Khan, Rummana Rehman; Tarte, Nanda Amit; Barve, Siddhivinayak Satyasandha

    2018-03-01

    Hydro-alcoholic (2:8 v/v) extract of the pulp of Phoenix dactylifera fruit pulp obtained using Soxhlet extraction (70 °C, 6 h) was found to contain alkaloids, sterols, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, proteins, and carbohydrates. An aqueous solution (20% v/v) of the extract led to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 0.01 M AgNO3 solution as confirmed by the surface plasmon resonance at 445 nm determined using UV-visible spectroscopy after 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be mostly spherical and complexed with phytochemicals from the extract. The size of AgNPs ranged from 12.2-140.2 nm with mean diameter of 47.0 nm as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elemental composition of the AgNPs complexed with the phytochemicals was found to be 80.49% silver (Ag), 15.21% carbon (C), and 4.30% oxygen (O) on a weight basis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Using the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, an anti-oxidant activity of 89.15% for 1 µg L-1 ultrasonically homogenized ethanolic solution of complexed AgNPs was obtained (equivalent to 0.20 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution), while methanolic solution of plant extract possessed an EC50 value of 3.45% (v/v) (equivalent to 0.11 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution). The plant-nanosilver broth was also found to possess effective anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 as assessed by the disc diffusion assay. However, the plant extract showed negligible anti-microbial activity.

  5. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Yun, Kyusik

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml-1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml-1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml-1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside.

  6. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Yun, Kyusik; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml −1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml −1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml −1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside. (paper)

  7. Novel curcumin analogue 14p protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through Nrf2-activating anti-oxidative activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weixin [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wu, Mingchai [Department of Pharmacy, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzou, Zhejiang (China); Tang, Longguang; Pan, Yong; Liu, Zhiguo [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zeng, Chunlai [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Jingying [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wei, Tiemin, E-mail: lswtm@sina.com [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Liang, Guang, E-mail: wzmcliangguang@163.com [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Alleviating the oxidant stress associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion has been demonstrated as a potential therapeutic approach to limit ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac damage. Curcumin, a natural compound with anti-oxidative activity, exerts beneficial effect against cardiac I/R injury, but poor chemical and metabolic stability. Previously, we have designed and synthesized a series of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin (MACs) with high stability. This study aims to find new anti-oxidant MACs and to demonstrate their effects and mechanisms against I/R-induced heart injury. Methods: H9c2 cells challenged with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or TBHP were used for in vitro bio-screening and mechanistic studies. The MDA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and SOD levels in H9C2 cells were determined, and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Myocardial I/R mouse models administrated with or without the compound were used for in vivo studies. Results: The in vitro cell-based screening showed that curcumin analogues 8d and 14p exhibited strong anti-oxidative effects. Pre-treatment of H9c2 cells with 14p activated Nrf2 signaling pathway, attenuated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-increased MDA and SOD level, followed by the inhibition of TBHP-induced cell death and Bax/Bcl-2–caspase-3 pathway activation. Silencing Nrf2 significantly reversed the protective effects of 14p. In in vivo animal model of myocardial I/R, administration of low dose 14p (10 mg/kg) reduced infarct size and myocardial apoptosis to the same extent as the high dose curcumin (100 mg/kg). Conclusion: These data support the novel curcumin analogue 14p as a promising antioxidant to decrease oxidative stress and limit myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating Nrf2. - Highlights: • Mono-carbonyl analogue of curcumin, 14p, exhibited better chemical stability. • Compound 14p inhibited TBHP-induced apoptosis through activating Nrf2 in vitro. • Compound 14p limited myocardial ischemia

  8. Ferulic acid modification enhances the anti-oxidation activity of natural Hb in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Donglai; Li, Qian; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiang

    2018-03-13

    During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability. It was showed that Hb modified with FA (FA-Hb) had similar oxygen-binding capacity to natural Hb. Moreover, the anti-oxidant ability of FA-Hb in vitro in different systems was superior to natural Hb and in proportion to the degree of modification of FA. The results indicate that FA-Hb might have the potential to serve as a novel oxygen carrier with the capacity to reduce oxidative side reaction.

  9. Reduced anti-oxidative stress activities of DJ-1 mutants found in Parkinson's disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Niki, Takeshi; Taira, Takahiro; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M.M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2004-01-01

    DJ-1 is a multi-functional protein that plays roles in transcriptional regulation and anti-oxidative stress, and loss of its function is thought to result in onset of Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that L166P, a mutant DJ-1 found in Parkinson's disease patients, had no activity to prevent hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cell death. In this study, we analyzed other mutants of DJ-1 found in Parkinson's disease patients, including M26I, R98Q, and D149A, as well as L166P. We first found that all of the mutants made heterodimers with wild-type DJ-1, while all of the mutants except for L166P made homodimers. We then found that M26I and L166P, both of which are derived from homozygous mutations of the DJ-1 gene, were unstable and that their stabilities were recovered, in part, in the presence of proteasome inhibitor, MG132. NIH3T3 cell lines stably expressing these mutants of DJ-1 showed that cell lines of L166P and C106S, a mutant for protease activity (-) of DJ-1, had no activity to scavenge even endogenously producing reactive oxygen species. These cell lines also showed that all of the mutants had reduced activities to eliminate exogenously added H 2 O 2 and that these activities, except for that of D149A, were parallel to those preventing H 2 O 2 -induced cell death

  10. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect.

  11. Medicinal chemistry and anti-inflammatory activity of nitric oxide-releasing NSAI drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç And, Esra; Küçükgüzel, S Güniz

    2009-05-01

    Nitric Oxide, which acts as a non-specific cytotoxic mediator and a biological messenger on immunological competence, has been gaining significantly increasing importance. As an alternative to conventional NSAIDs having significant side effects, pharmacologically improved and therapeutically enhanced NO releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with less side effects are being planned to produce.

  12. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASA S. STOJICEVIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves by the classical (maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively. The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans only but not against the tested bacteria.

  13. Anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities of Hieracium pilosella L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA P. STANOJEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities of different extracts from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae whole plant were investigated. The total dry extracts were determined for all the investigated solvents: methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane:methanol (9:1. It was found that the highest yield was obtained by extraction with methanol (12.9 g/100 g of dry plant material. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed by the HPLC method, using external standards. Chlorogenic acid, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and umbelliferone were detected in the highest quantity in the extracts. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the extracts depends on the solvent used. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in the methanolic extract, both with and without incubation, EC50 = 0.012 and EC50 = 0.015 mg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts towards the bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were determined by the disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for all the investigated extracts against all the mentioned microorganisms.

  14. Analysis of anti-bacterial and anti oxidative activity of Azadirachta indica bark using various solvents extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raid Al Akeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medications have been used for relief of symptoms of disease. Regardless of the great advances observed in current medicine in recent decades, plants still make a significant contribution to health care. An alarming increase in bacterial strains resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to or less sensitive to current antibiotics. Anti-bacterial activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark was tested against pathogenic Salmonella paratyphi and Salmonella typhi using various solvent extracts. The in vitro anti-bacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method and the results were expressed as the average diameter of zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the well. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed better anti-bacterial activity with zone of inhibition (20–25 mm when compared with other tested extracts and standard antibiotic Erythromycin (15 mcg with zone of inhibition (13–14 mm. Using Fisher’s exact test of significance difference was found between two Salmonella strains sensitivity patterns against tested extracts (P ⩽ 0.035. Extracts of A. indica stem bark also exhibited significant antioxidant activity, thus establishing the extracts as an antioxidant. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the A. indica stem bark for further investigation of compounds and in future could be used as drug.

  15. Antioxidant activity for spice oils (1) anti oxidative stability of thyme and caraway oil extracts under UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atef Ghazy, M.; Shaker, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    The anti oxidative activity for some spice essential oils have been investigated using thiocyanate method and compared with common natural antioxidant. The antioxidant activity for nine spice oils has been measured at 500 ppm after 13 days. The most potent one was the lemon grass (99.8), followed by orange peel, thyme, and caraway. The activities for these four oils were higher than that for Alpha-tocopherol (87.7%). Petitgrain, and geranium oils have marched activity but less than that for Alpha-tocopherol. No obvious has been found for citronella. fennel, and cardamon oils. The aqueous, butanoic, methanolic and hexanoic extracts for thyme and caraway oil exhibit effective anti oxidative activities under UV irradiation (254 nm) for 6 and 10 hr compared with that for alpha-tocopherol. The anti oxidative effect of thyme and caraway oil extracts were found to be strong and stable towards UV-irradiation, and equal to that for Alpha-tocopherol. Thyme's aqueous and caraway's hexanal extracts were the most potent extracts under the same conditions

  16. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high. The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  17. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  18. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  19. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  20. An ethanol extract of Piper betle Linn. mediates its anti-inflammatory activity via down-regulation of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sudipto; Mula, Soumyaditya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2007-05-01

    The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for the relief of pain; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. betle (100 mg kg(-1); PB) were demonstrated in a complete Freund's adjuvant-induced model of arthritis in rats with dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg(-1)) as the positive control. At non-toxic concentrations of PB (5-25 microg mL(-1)), a dose-dependent decrease in extracellular production of nitric oxide in murine peritoneal macrophages was measured by the Griess assay and corroborated by flow cytometry using the nitric oxide specific probe, 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate. This decreased generation of reactive nitrogen species was mediated by PB progressively down-regulating transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages, and concomitantly causing a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of interleukin-12 p40, indicating the ability of PB to down-regulate T-helper 1 pro-inflammatory responses. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthrotic activity of PB is attributable to its ability to down-regulate the generation of reactive nitrogen species, thus meriting further pharmacological investigation.

  1. ROS-mediated inhibition of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase contributes to the activation of anti-oxidative mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Kovacs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants being involved in diverse physiological processes like germination, root growth, stomata closing and response to biotic and abiotic stress. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO as a biological NO donor has a very important function in NO signaling since it can transfer its NO moiety to other proteins (trans-nitrosylation. Such trans-nitrosylation reactions are equilibrium reactions and depend on GSNO level. The breakdown of GSNO and thus the level of S-nitrosylated proteins are regulated by GSNO-reductase (GSNOR. In this way, this enzyme controls S-nitrosothiol levels and regulates NO signaling. Here we report that Arabidopsis thaliana GSNOR activity is reversibly inhibited by H2O2 in-vitro and by paraquat-induced oxidative stress in-vivo. Light scattering analyses of reduced and oxidized recombinant GSNOR demonstrated that GSNOR proteins form dimers under both reducing and oxidizing conditions. Moreover, mass spectrometric analyses revealed that H2O2-treatment increased the amount of oxidative modifications on Zn2+-coordinating Cys47 and Cys177. Inhibition of GSNOR results in enhanced levels of S-nitrosothiols followed by accumulation of glutathione. Moreover, transcript levels of redox-regulated genes and activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes are increased in gsnor-ko plants, which may contribute to the enhanced resistance against oxidative stress. In sum, our results demonstrate that ROS-dependent inhibition of GSNOR is playing an important role in activation of anti-oxidative mechanisms to damping oxidative damage and imply a direct crosstalk between ROS- and NO-signaling.

  2. Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activity of various essential oils in fresh chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Heena; Mendiratta, S K; Agarwal, Ravi Kant; Kumar, Sudheer; Soni, Arvind

    2017-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant effect of essential oils on the quality of fresh (raw, ready to cook) chicken sausages. Several preliminary trials were carried out to optimize the level of four essential oils viz., clove oil, holybasil oil, thyme oil and cassia oil and these essential oils were incorporated at 0.25, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.125%, respectively in fresh chicken sausages. Quality evaluation and detailed storage stability studies were carried out for fresh chicken sausages for 20 days at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C). Refrigerated storage studies revealed that TBARS of control was significantly higher than treatment products whereas, total phenolics and DPPH activity was significantly lower in control. Among treatments, clove oil products had significantly lower TBARS but higher total phenolic content and DPPH activity followed by cassia oil, thyme oil and holybasil oil products. Microbial count of essential oil incorporated products were significantly lower than control and remained well below the permissible limit of fresh meat products (log 10 7 cfu/g). Cassia oil products were observed with better anti-microbial characteristics than clove oil products at 0.25% level of incorporation, whereas, thyme oil products were better than holy basil oil products at 0.125% level. Storage studies revealed that clove oil (0.25%), holy basil oil (0.125%), cassia oil (0.25%) and thyme oil (0.125%) incorporated aerobically packaged and refrigerated fresh chicken sausages had approx. 4-5, 2-3, 5-6 and 2-3 days longer shelf life than control, respectively.

  3. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macková, Hana [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Horák, Daniel, E-mail: horak@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Donchenko, Georgiy Viktorovich; Andriyaka, Vadim Ivanovich; Palyvoda, Olga Mikhailovna; Chernishov, Vladimir Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Chekhun, Vasyl Fedorovich; Todor, Igor Nikolaevich [R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NASU, 45 Vasylkivska St., 03022 Kiev (Ukraine); Kuzmenko, Oleksandr Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    Maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides and subsequent oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and coated with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(DMAAm-AA)]. They were characterized by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The effect of superparamagnetic P(DMAAm-AA)-γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on oxidation of blood lipids, glutathione and proteins in blood serum was detected using 2-thiobarbituric acid and the ThioGlo fluorophore. Finally, mice received magnetic nanoparticles administered per os and the antitumor activity of the particles was tested on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male mice line C57BL/6 as an experimental in vivo metastatic tumor model; the tumor size was measured and the number of metastases in lungs was determined. Surface-modified γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed higher antitumor and antimetastatic activities than commercial CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles and the conventional antitumor agent cisplatin. - Highlights: • Maghemite nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. • Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) coating was synthetized. • Blood lipid, glutathione and protein peroxidation/oxidation was determined. • Antitumor effect of coated particles on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was observed.

  4. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activity of Esters of Quinoxaline 1,4-Di-N-Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Palos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be a public health problem in the world, and drug resistance has been a major obstacle in its treatment. Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide has been proposed as a scaffold to design new drugs to combat this disease. To examine the efficacy of this compound, this study evaluates methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and n-propyl esters of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (pansusceptible and monoresistant strains. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of esters of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide on M. tuberculosis gyrase supercoiling was examined, and a stability analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was also carried out. Results showed that eight compounds (T-007, T-018, T-011, T-069, T-070, T-072, T-085 and T-088 had an activity similar to that of the reference drug isoniazid (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 0.12 µg/mL with an effect on nonreplicative cells and drug monoresistant strains. Structural activity relationship analysis showed that the steric effect of an ester group at 7-position is key to enhancing its biological effects. Additionally, T-069 showed a high stability after 24 h in human plasma at 37 °C.

  5. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

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    Xuchong Tang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with a central composite design (CCD. Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3% was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of pressure, 70 °C of temperature, 120 min of extraction time and 25.95 L/h of flow rate. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of four fatty acids in Lepidium apetalum seed oil, with a high content (91.0% of unsaturated fatty acid. The anti-oxidant activity of the oil was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and 2,2′-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS test. Lepidium apetalum seed oil possessed a notable concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 1.00 and 3.75 mg/mL, respectively.

  6. Structure-activity relationships of novel salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH analogs: iron chelation, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic properties.

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    Eliška Potůčková

    Full Text Available Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH is a lipophilic, tridentate iron chelator with marked anti-oxidant and modest cytotoxic activity against neoplastic cells. However, it has poor stability in an aqueous environment due to the rapid hydrolysis of its hydrazone bond. In this study, we synthesized a series of new SIH analogs (based on previously described aromatic ketones with improved hydrolytic stability. Their structure-activity relationships were assessed with respect to their stability in plasma, iron chelation efficacy, redox effects and cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, studies assessed the cytotoxicity of these chelators and their ability to afford protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The ligands with a reduced hydrazone bond, or the presence of bulky alkyl substituents near the hydrazone bond, showed severely limited biological activity. The introduction of a bromine substituent increased ligand-induced cytotoxicity to both cancer cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. A similar effect was observed when the phenolic ring was exchanged with pyridine (i.e., changing the ligating site from O, N, O to N, N, O, which led to pro-oxidative effects. In contrast, compounds with long, flexible alkyl chains adjacent to the hydrazone bond exhibited specific cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and low toxicity against H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Hence, this study highlights important structure-activity relationships and provides insight into the further development of aroylhydrazone iron chelators with more potent and selective anti-neoplastic effects.

  7. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganya Venkateshan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dietary changes playmajor risk roles in oxidative stress andcardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action.  Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group andfed with a standard diet (control, high-fat diet (HFD, high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight andoxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profilein rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus(200 mg/kg offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (pConclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H.indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage.

  8. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hyun Cho1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric,1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activityin the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigatedthe cineole’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitiesin lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineolehad inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteinsin general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ionremoval ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Hypercholesterolemiawas induced in zebrafish using cholesterol-feedingtreatment, 4% cholesterol, for 3 weeks. After feeding with orwithout the addition of cineole, the results revealed that cineolepossessed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activitiesin hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. In addition, serum amyloidA and interleukin-6 levels were lowered and lipid accumulationwas decreased in the liver. Conclusively, 1,8-cineole wasfound to have anti-oxidant activities in lipoprotein metabolismboth in vitro and in vivo with simultaneous reduction of lipidaccumulation in the liver of zebrafish.

  9. The Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Hydroxyl Substituted Chalcone Analogs with in Vitro Anti-Free Radicals Pharmacological Activity and in Vivo Anti-Oxidation Activity in a Free Radical-Injury Alzheimer’s Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis involves an imbalance between free radical formation and destruction. In order to obtain a novel preclinical anti-AD drug candidate, we synthesized a series of novel hydroxyl chalcone analogs which possessed anti-free radical activity, and screened their effects on scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and OH free radicals in vitro. Compound C7, 4,2'-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxychalcone was found to have potent activity in these anti-free radical activity tests. Further research revealed that C7 could elevate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX and super oxide dismutase (SOD levels and lower malonaldehyde (MDA level in vivo in the Alzheimer’s model. The indication of C7’s effect on AD needs further study.

  10. Platelet-released growth factors can accelerate tenocyte proliferation and activate the anti-oxidant response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidnezhad, M; Varoga, D; Wruck, C J; Brandenburg, L O; Seekamp, A; Shakibaei, M; Sönmez, T T; Pufe, Thomas; Lippross, S

    2011-05-01

    Little is know about the pathophysiology of acute and degenerative tendon injuries. Although most lesions are uncomplicated, treatment is long and unsatisfactory in a considerable number of cases. Besides the common growth factors that were shown to be relevant for tendon integrity more recently protection against oxidative stress was shown to promote tendon healing. To improve tendon regeneration, many have advocated the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a thrombocyte concentrate that can serve as an autologous source of growth factors. In this study, we investigated the effect of platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) on tenocytes. Tenocytes were isolated from the Achilles tendon of postnatal rats. Tenocyte cell cultures were stimulated with PRGF. We used a CyQuant assay and WST assay to analyse tendon cell growth and viability in different concentrations of PRGF. Migration and proliferation of cells grown in PRGF were assessed by a scratch test. A dual-luciferase assay was used to demonstrate the activation of the anti-oxidant response element (ARE) in tenocytes. A positive effect of PRGF could be shown on tendon cell growth and migratory capacity. PRGF activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Here, we provide evidence of a biological effect of PRGF on tenocytes by the promotion of tenocyte growth and activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. This is a novel aspect of the action of platelet concentrates on tendon growth.

  11. Synthesis of β-Maltooligosaccharides of Glycitein and Daidzein and their Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Allergic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Hamada

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of β-maltooligosaccharides of glycitein and daidzein using Lactobacillus delbrueckii and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase as biocatalysts was investigated. The cells of L. delbrueckii glucosylated glycitein and daidzein to give their corresponding 4'- and 7-O-β-glucosides. The β-glucosides of glycitein and daidzein were converted into the corresponding  β-maltooligosides by CGTase. The 7-O-β-glucosides of glycitein and daidzein and 7-O-β-maltoside of glycitein showed inhibitory effects on IgE antibody production. On the other hand, β-glucosides of glycitein and daidzein exerted 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging activity and supeoxide-radical scavenging activity.

  12. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Donchenko, G. V.; Andriyaka, V. I.; Palyvoda, O. M.; Chernishov, V. I.; Chekhun, V. F.; Todor, I. N.; Kuzmenko, O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, 15 April (2015), s. 125-131 ISSN 0304-8853. [International Conference on the Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers /10./. Dresden, 10.06.2014-14.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12054; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 259796 - DIATOOLS Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticle * poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) * protein oxidation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  13. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of the root bark extract of the African laburnum “Cassia sieberiana” and its effect on the anti-oxidant defence system in rats

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    Nartey Edmund T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the widespread use of roots of Cassia sieberiana in managing several health conditions including gastric ulcer disease, there is little scientific data to support the rational phytotherapeutics as an anti-ulcer agent. This paper reports an evaluation of the in vivo anti-oxidant properties of an aqueous root bark extract of C. sieberiana in experimental gastric ulcer rats in a bid to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Fisher 344 (F344 rats received pretreatment of C. sieberiana root bark extract (500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days after which there was induction of gastric injury with absolute ethanol. The mean ulcer index (MUI was calculated and serum total anti-oxidant level determined. Gastric mucosal tissues were prepared and the activity level of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and myeloperoxidase (MPO were measured together with the level of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO. Statistical difference between treatment groups was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc t test. Statistical significance was calculated at P Results The administration of ethanol triggered severe acute gastric ulcer and pretreatment with C. sieberiana root bark extract significantly and dose dependently protected against this effect. The root bark extract also dose dependently and significantly inhibited the ethanol induced decrease in activity levels of the enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx. The extract also inhibited the ethanol-induced decrease in level of serum total anti-oxidant capacity. The increase in ethanol-induced LPO level and MPO activity were also significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the root bark extract. Conclusions The gastro-cytoprotective effect, inhibition of decrease in activity of gastric anti-oxidant enzymes and MPO as well as the inhibition of gastric LPO level suggests that one of the anti-ulcer mechanisms of

  14. Phyto-assisted synthesis of bio-functionalised silver nanoparticles and their potential anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and wound healing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Biswas, Kunal; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Jaya; De, Debashis; Jayabalan, Rasu; Bastia, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Bio- synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was made by using the aqueous leaf extract of Ardisia solanacea. Rapid formation of AgNPs was observed from silver nitrate upon treatment with the aqueous extract of A. solanacea leaf. The formation and stability of the AgNPs in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle diameter of AgNPs was calculated from the DLS with an average size ∼4 nm and ∼65 nm. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of alcohols, aldehydes, flavonoids, phenols and nitro compounds in the leaf which act as the stabilizing agent. Antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was performed using agar well diffusion and broth dilution method against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Further, robust anti-oxidative potential was evaluated by DPPH assay. The highest antimicrobial activity of synthesized AgNPs was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.2 ± 0.52 mm) whereas moderate activity was found against Bacillus subtilis (16.1 ± 0.76), Candida kruseii (13.0 ± 1.0), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.6 ± 1.52). Moreover, the potential wound healing activity was observed against the BJ-5Ta normal fibroblast cell line. Current research revealed that A. solanacea was found to be a suitable source for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

  15. JS-K, an arylating nitric oxide (NO) donor, has synergistic anti-leukemic activity with cytarabine (ARA-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shami, Paul J; Maciag, Anna E; Eddington, Jordan K; Udupi, Vidya; Kosak, Ken M; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K

    2009-11-01

    We have designed prodrugs that release nitric oxide (NO) on metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GST). This design exploits the upregulation of GST in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K, a member of this class) has potent anti-leukemic activity. HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells were used for in vitro studies of the combination of JS-K with daunorubicin (DAUNO), cytarabine (ARA-C) or etoposide (ETOP) using the median effect method to determine synergistic, antagonistic, or additive effects. Combinations of JS-K added simultaneously, 2h before or 2h after the other compounds were used. JS-K and DAUNO were antagonistic in all three drug sequences. JS-K and ETOP were also antagonistic but to a lesser degree. JS-K and ARA-C showed strong synergy. The combination index at the 50% fraction affected was 0.37+/-0.23, 0.24+/-0.27, and 0.15+/-0.11 for simultaneous, JS-K first and ARA-C first additions, respectively. JS-K by itself induced DNA strand breaks at relatively high concentrations. However, at submicromolar concentrations, it significantly augmented ARA-C-induced DNA strand breaks. NMR spectroscopy revealed no evidence of chemical interaction between JS-K and the other chemotherapeutic agents. We conclude that ARA-C and JS-K have synergistic anti-leukemic activity and warrant further exploration in combination.

  16. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

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    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  17. Enhanced anti-oxidative activity and lignocellulosic ethanol production by biotin addition to medium in Pichia guilliermondii fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kai; Xia, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation requires its high titer, but the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during the bioprocess damaged the cells and compromised this goal. To improve the cellular anti-oxidative activity during non-detoxified corncob residue hydrolysate fermentation, seed cells were prepared to possess a higher level of intracellular biotin pool (IBP), which facilitated the biosyntheses of catalase and porphyrin. As a result, the catalase activity increased by 1.3-folds compared to control while the ROS level reduced by 50%. Cell viability in high-IBP cells was 1.7-folds of control and the final ethanol titer increased from 31.2 to 41.8 g L(-1) in batch fermentation. The high-IBP cells were further used for repeated-batch fermentation in the non-detoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, and the highest titer and average productivity of ethanol reached 63.7 g L(-1) and 1.2 g L(-1)h(-1). The results were favorable to future industrial application of this lignocellulosic bioethanol process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro anti-oxidative activities of the various parts of Parkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the aqueous extracts of the stem bark and leaves, all other extracts exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS) activity but the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of the stem bark and EtOH extracts of the root and leaves possessed more powerful HRS activity than other corresponding extracts in the parts. Further, nitric ...

  19. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; G?mez-Caravaca, Ana Mar?a; Fern?ndez-Guti?rrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds ...

  20. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities of Asparagus laricinus leaf and stem extracts

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    Polo-Ma-Abiele Hildah Ntsoelinyane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activities, antibacterial activities and a phytochemical constituent of Asparagus laricinus stem and leaf extracts. Determination of antibacterial activity of extracts was assessed by agar dilution method and antioxidant properties by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the leaf was at a concentration of 0.125 mg/mL against S. saprophyticus and E. cloacae, and at a concentration of 1 mg/mL against S. aureus and B. subtilis. There was no MIC of the stem extract at any concentration. The leaf extract showed effective free radical scavenging activity (72.1%, while stem extract had low activity. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and phlobatannins. The leaf extract further confirmed the presence of glycosides, steroids, ternoids and carbohydrates. Our results indicate that, A. laricinus leaf extracts have potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  1. Phyto-Constituents And Anti-Oxidant Activity Of The Pulp Of Snake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phyto-constituents and antioxidant activity of the fruit pulp of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. have not been reported in literature and were therefore studied. Two identified morphotypes of this plant (Morphotype I [V1] having long fruit with deep green background and white stripes; and Morphotype II [V2] having light green ...

  2. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Content and Anti oxidative Activities of Eight Malaysian Traditional Vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Huda-Faujan; Zulaikha Abdul Rahim; Maryam Mohamed Rehan; Faujan Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables have been believed to exhibit antioxidant activities due to its phenolic content. Thus, this study was carried out to determine the total phenolic content of water and ethanolic extracts of Malaysian traditional vegetables and assess their antioxidant activities. Eight samples of Malaysian traditional vegetables were dried and extracted its phenolic compounds using water and ethanolic solvent. Total phenolic content of the extracts were compared and evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu and Prussian Blue reagent. The antioxidant activity were assessed using ferric thiocyanate assay and DPPH free radical scavenging assays. Results found that total phenolic content of water extracts ranged from 7.08 to 14.76 mg GAE (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and 3.50 to 7.82 mg GAE (Prussian Blue assay). However, the content of phenolic of ethanolic extracts ranged from 5.21 to 15.86 mg GAE (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and 1.84 to 11.54 mg GAE (Prussian Blue assay). The highest antioxidant activity was observed in water extracts of Etlingera elatior (75.6 %) and ethanolic extracts of Sauropus androgynus (78.1 %). Results also found that the best half maximal inhibitory concentration or IC 50 were demonstrated by water and ethanolic extracts of Sauropus androgynus which demonstrated 0.077 mg/mL and 0.078 mg/ mL, respectively. Hence, this study obtained that most of the Malaysian traditional vegetables have a potential source of natural antioxidant. (author)

  3. Anti-Oxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ziziphus mucronata Fruit Extract Against Dimethoate-Induced Toxicity

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    Kwape Tebogo Elvis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Ziziphus mucronata (ZM fruit extract. Methods: The different types of fruit extract were prepared by soaking the dry powdered fruit in different solvents followed by rotary evaporation. Each extract was tested for its phenol content and antioxidant activities. An in vivo study was performed in Sprague- Dawley (SD rats. Thirty adult male SD rats (aged 21 weeks were divided into six groups of five rats each and treated as follows: The normal control (NC received distilled water while the dimethoate control (DC received 6 mg/kg.bw.day-1 dimethoate dissolved in distilled water. The experimental groups E1, E2, E3, and E0 received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (100 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (200 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1, and ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1 only. Both the normal control and the dimethoate control groups were used to compare the results. After 90 days, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected for biochemical assays, and livers were harvested for histological study. Results: High phenol content was estimated, and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH spectrophotometric, thin layer chromatography (TLC and 2, 2-Azobis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assays showed a high antioxidant activity among the extracts. The preventive effects observed in the E1, E2 and E3 groups proved that the extract could prevent dimethoate toxicity by maintaining normal reduced glutathione (GSH, vitamin C and E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cholineasterase and lipid profiles. The preventive effect was observed to be dose dependent. The EO group showed no extractinduced toxicity. Histological observations agreed with the results obtained in the biochemical studies. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that ZM methanol fruit extract is capable of attenuating dimethoate-induced toxicity because of its

  4. Therapeutic implications of curcumin in the prevention of diabetic retinopathy via modulation of anti-oxidant activity and genetic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldebasi, Yousef H; Aly, Salah M; Rahmani, Arshad H

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus that affects the blood vessels of the retina, leading to blindness. The current approach of treatment based on anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis drugs and laser photocoagulation are effective but also shows adverse affect in retinal tissues and that can even worsen the visual abilities. Thus, a safe and effective mode of treatment is needed to control or delaying the DR. Based on the earlier evidence of the potentiality of natural products as anti-oxidants, anti-diabetic and antitumor, medicinal plants may constitute a good therapeutic approach in the prevention of DR. Curcumin, constituents of dietary spice turmeric, has been observed to have therapeutic potential in the inhibition or slow down progression of DR. In this review, we summarize the therapeutic potentiality of curcumin in the delaying the DR through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth and nuclear transcription factors. The strength of involvement of curcumin in the modulation of genes action creates a strong optimism towards novel therapeutic strategy of diabetic retinopathy and important mainstay in the management of diabetes and its complications DR. PMID:24379904

  5. Anti-influenza A virus activity of rhein through regulating oxidative stress, TLR4, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signal pathways.

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    Qian-Wen Wang

    Full Text Available Rhein, an anthraquinone compound existing in many traditional herbal medicines, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities, but its anti-influenza A virus (IAV activity is ambiguous. In the present study, through plaque inhibition assay, time-of-addition assay, antioxidant assay, qRT-PCR, ELISA, and western blotting assays, we investigated the anti-IAV effect and mechanism of action of rhein in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that rhein could significantly inhibit IAV adsorption and replication, decrease IAV-induced oxidative stress, activations of TLR4, Akt, p38, JNK MAPK, and NF-κB pathways, and production of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in vitro. Oxidant H2O2 and agonists of TLR4, Akt, p38/JNK and IKK/NF-κB could significantly antagonize the inhibitory effects of rhein on IAV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE and IAV replication. Through an in vivo test in mice, we also found that rhein could significantly improve the survival rate, lung index, pulmonary cytokines, and pulmonary histopathological changes. Rhein also significantly decreased pulmonary viral load at a high dose. In conclusion, rhein can inhibit IAV adsorption and replication, and the mechanism of action to inhibit IAV replication may be due to its ability to suppress IAV-induced oxidative stress and activations of TLR4, Akt, p38, JNK MAPK, and NF-κB signal pathways.

  6. Phytochemically evaluation and net anti-oxidant activity of Tunisian Melia azedarach leaves extract from their ProAntidex parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Akacha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is a discipline which is interested in the design, the preparation and the interpretation of structure activity relationship of the natural bioactive molecules. In this context, ethanolic leaves extract of Melia azedarach L. was phytochemically analysed on the bases of HPLC and by GC–MS. Extract wase tested for his in vitro antioxidant activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, H2O2, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Ferric Reducing Power (FRP and Ferrous ion chelating abilities methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. The ratio of pro-oxidant to the antioxidant activity (ProAntidex represents a useful index of the net free radical scavenging potential of the synthesized compounds. Tested extract showed significant antioxidant activity with a moderate ProAntidex.

  7. Selective inhibition of extracellular oxidants liberated from human neutrophils--A new mechanism potentially involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroxychloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančinová, Viera; Pažoureková, Silvia; Lucová, Marianna; Perečko, Tomáš; Mihalová, Danica; Bauerová, Katarína; Nosáľ, Radomír; Drábiková, Katarína

    2015-09-01

    Hydroxychloroquine is used in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis or lupus erythematosus. Although these diseases are often accompanied by activation of neutrophils, there are still few data relating to the impact of hydroxychloroquine on these cells. We investigated the effect of orally administered hydroxychloroquine on neutrophil oxidative burst in rats with adjuvant arthritis. In human neutrophils, extra- and intracellular formation of oxidants, mobilisation of intracellular calcium and the phosphorylation of proteins regulating NADPH oxidase assembly were analysed. Administration of hydroxychloroquine decreased the concentration of oxidants in blood of arthritic rats. The inhibition was comparable with the reference drug methotrexate, yet it was not accompanied by a reduction in neutrophil count. When both drugs were co-applied, the effect became more pronounced. In isolated human neutrophils, treatment with hydroxychloroquine resulted in reduced mobilisation of intracellular calcium, diminished concentration of external oxidants and in decreased phosphorylation of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C isoforms PKCα and PKCβII, which regulate activation of NADPH oxidase on plasma membrane. On the other hand, no reduction was observed in intracellular oxidants or in the phosphorylation of p40(phox) and PKCδ, two proteins directing the oxidase assembly to intracellular membranes. Hydroxychloroquine reduced neutrophil-derived oxidants potentially involved in tissue damage and protected those capable to suppress inflammation. The observed effects may represent a new mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of this drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative activities of an ethanol-soluble pigment extract prepared from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiang Ping; Fan, Chong; Dong, Wen Min; Gao, Bin; Yuan, Wei; Gong, Jia Shun

    2013-09-01

    An ethanol-soluble pigment extract was separated from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea. The compositions of the ethanol soluble pigment extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The extract was prepared into a series of ethanol solutions and analyzed for free radical-scavenging activities (against two free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)) and in vitro anti-oxidative properties. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that the peaks of DPPH and TEMPO decreased with increasing extract concentration, suggesting that the extract had excellent free radical-scavenging activities. In vitro cell culture suggested that, at 50-200 mg/L, the extract had no measurable effect on the viability of vascular endothelial cells (ECV340) but produced significant protective effects for cells that underwent oxidative injuries due to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatment. Compared with the H₂O₂ treatment alone cells group, 200 mg/L of the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells by 397.3%, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of lactate acid dehydrogenase (LDH) by 47.8% and 69.6%, respectively. These results suggest that the extract has excellent free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical analysis of phenolic compounds and determination of anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts of Pinus coulteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumia Merah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available New bioactive natural products, the phenolic composition and the biological activities of organic extracts from the needles of the Algerian Pinus coulteri were investigated. The analysis by HPLC-DAD of crude extract revealed the presence of 10 phenolic acids and nine flavonoids. In vitro anti-oxidant activities were performed using four different tests. The greatest antiradical activity was found in the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 3.2 ± 0.3 µg/mL, whereas the diethyl ether fraction had the higher contents of total phenolics and flavonoids and exhibited a highest activity in reducing power and β-carotene–linoleic acid tests with EC50= 67.1 ± 0.4 μg/mL and 71.5 ± 0.2% of inhibition, respectively. Furthermore, a low to moderate antimicrobial activity according to all extracts was revealed against eight bacteria tested. The MIC value of chloroform fraction showed a strong degree of antibacterial activity (<0.09 mg/mL. The crude extract was found toxic with LC50 value of 15.2 μg/mL by brine shrimp toxicity assay. The needle extract of P. coulteri is rich in valuable biologically active compounds and could represent a new resource of anti-oxidant agents for the treatment of diseases.

  10. Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomini, André M; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; da Silva, Roberta F; Monteiro, Henrique L; Llesuy, Susana; De Angelis, Kátia; Amaral, Sandra L; Zago, Anderson S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50-84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the "Functional Fitness Battery Test," BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values.

  11. Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomini, André M.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; da Silva, Roberta F.; Monteiro, Henrique L.; Llesuy, Susana; De Angelis, Kátia; Amaral, Sandra L.; Zago, Anderson S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50–84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the “Functional Fitness Battery Test,” BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values. PMID:28326041

  12. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alejandro Dreifuss

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT brute hydroethanolic (BHE extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3 and n-butanolic (BuOH, rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1 or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process or vehicle (Control was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  13. Differential requirement for nitric oxide in IGF-1-induced anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and anti-atherosclerotic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergiy; Higashi, Yusuke; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Blackstock, Christopher; Galvez, Sarah; Vaughn, Charlotte; Titterington, Jane; Delafontaine, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We have shown previously that insulin like-growth factor I (IGF-1) suppressed atherosclerosis in Apoe−/− mice and activated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. To determine whether IGF-1-induced atheroprotection depends on NO, IGF-1- or saline-infused mice were treated with L-NAME, the pan-NO synthase inhibitor or with D-NAME (control). IGF-1 reduced atherosclerosis in both the D-NAME and L-NAME groups suggesting that IGF-1’s anti-atherogenic effect was NO-independent. IGF-1 increased plaque smooth muscle cells, suppressed cell apoptosis and downregulated lipoprotein lipase and these effects were also NO-independent. On the contrary, IGF-1 decreased oxidative stress and suppressed TNF-α levels and these effects were blocked by L-NAME. Thus IGF-1’s anti-oxidant effect is dependent on its ability to increase NO but is distinct from its anti-atherosclerotic effect which is NO-independent. PMID:21872589

  14. New Alcamide and Anti-oxidant Activity of Pilosocereus gounellei A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Jéssica K S; Chaves, Otemberg S; Brito Filho, Severino G; Teles, Yanna C F; Fernandes, Marianne G; Assis, Temilce S; Fernandes, Pedro Dantas; de Andrade, Alberício Pereira; Felix, Leonardo P; Silva, Tania M S; Ramos, Nathalia S M; Silva, Girliane R; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei

    2015-12-22

    The Cactaceae family is composed by 124 genera and about 1438 species. Pilosocereus gounellei, popularly known in Brazil as xique-xique, is used in folk medicine to treat prostate inflammation, gastrointestinal and urinary diseases. The pioneering phytochemical study of P. gounellei was performed using column chromatography and HPLC, resulting in the isolation of 10 substances: pinostrobin (1), β-sitosterol (2), a mixture of sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside/stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3a/3b), 13²-hydroxyphaeophytin a (4), phaeophytin a (5), a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (6a/6b), kaempferol (7), quercetin (8), 7'-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine (mariannein, 9) and trans-feruloyl tyramine (10). Compound 9 is reported for the first time in the literature. The structural characterization of the compounds was performed by analyses of 1-D and 2-D NMR data. In addition, a phenolic and flavonol total content assay was carried out, and the anti-oxidant potential of P. gounellei was demonstrated.

  15. New Alcamide and Anti-oxidant Activity of Pilosocereus gounellei A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica K. S. Maciel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cactaceae family is composed by 124 genera and about 1438 species. Pilosocereus gounellei, popularly known in Brazil as xique-xique, is used in folk medicine to treat prostate inflammation, gastrointestinal and urinary diseases. The pioneering phytochemical study of P. gounellei was performed using column chromatography and HPLC, resulting in the isolation of 10 substances: pinostrobin (1, β-sitosterol (2, a mixture of sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside/stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3a/3b, 132-hydroxyphaeophytin a (4, phaeophytin a (5, a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (6a/6b, kaempferol (7, quercetin (8, 7′-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine (mariannein, 9 and trans-feruloyl tyramine (10. Compound 9 is reported for the first time in the literature. The structural characterization of the compounds was performed by analyses of 1-D and 2-D NMR data. In addition, a phenolic and flavonol total content assay was carried out, and the anti-oxidant potential of P. gounellei was demonstrated.

  16. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of ZnO/reduced graphene oxide composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and anti-photocorrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yonggang; Ji, Junling; Chen, Dajun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO/reduced graphene oxide composites were prepared by in situ growth with ultrasound assisted method. • A plausible formation mechanism of ZnO/rGO composites was deduced. • After hybridization with rGO, the photocatalytic activity of ZnO was improved and its photocorrosion was inhibited obviously. - Abstract: A method to improve the photocatalytic activity and suppress the photocorrosion of ZnO was developed by depositing ZnO nanoparticles onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via in situ growth with ultrasound assisted synthesis. The optimum synergetic effect of ZnO/rGO composite was found at a weight ratio of 2% (rGO/ZnO). Compared with ZnO, the photocatalytic activities of ZnO/rGO composite for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and C.I. acid red 249 (AR249) aqueous solutions under UV light irradiation were increased by 8.6% and 14.7%, respectively. The improved photocatalytic activity was originated from the rapid separation of photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of rGO and ZnO. The photocorrosion of ZnO was inhibited obviously after hybridization with rGO. Even after six successive cycles under UV irradiation, the photocatalytic activities of ZnO/rGO composite for MB and AR249 still retained 92.9% and 94.8% of that for the first cycling run, while that of ZnO obviously decreased due to serious photocorrosion. The photocorrosion inhibition of ZnO by rGO was attributed to the reduced activation of surface oxygen atom on the surface of ZnO.

  17. Tocopherol activity correlates with its location in a membrane: A new perspective on the anti-oxidant Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Drew; Williams, Justin; Kucerka, Norbert; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Katsaras, John; Wassall, Stephen; Harroun, Thad

    2013-03-01

    There are no proven health benefits to supplementing with Vitamin E, so why do we require it for healthy living? The whole notion that vitamin E is an in-vivo antioxidant is now being seriously questioned. Using neutron diffraction and supporting techniques, we have correlated vitamin E's location in model membranes with its antioxidant activity. experiments were conducted using phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers whose fatty acid chains varied in their degree of unsaturation. We observe vitamin E up-right in all lipids examined, with its overall height in the bilayer lipid dependant. Interestingly we observe vitamin E's hydroxyl in the headgroup region of the bilayer for both the fully saturated and poly unsaturated lipids. Vitamin E was most effective at intercepting water borne oxidants than radical initiated within the bilayer core. However for lipids where vitamin E resides slightly lower (glycerol backbone) we observe comparable antioxidant activity against both water borne and hydrocarbon borne oxidants. Thus showing lipid species can modulate the location of vitamin E's activity.

  18. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of herbal preparation EM 1201 in adjuvant arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimis Akramas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study suggests that EM 1201 has protective activity against arthritis and demonstrated its potential beneficiary effect analogical to diclofenac. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of EM 1201 in rats with AA support the need of further investigations by using it as supplementary agent alone or together with other anti-arthritic drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. K20E, an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate, exhibits anti-angiogenic activities through down-regulations of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Chun-Hsu [Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Hsin; Chien, Yi-Chung; Liu, Fon-Chang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung, E-mail: kuoyh@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Tsuzuki Institute for Traditional Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chieh-Hsi, E-mail: chhswu@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-15

    Anti-angiogenesis is one of the most popular clinical interventions for cancer chemotherapy. A series of synthesized derivative of methyl caffeate were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic activity and to investigate possible pharmacological mechanisms in the present study. The most potent anti-angiogenic compound was evaluated in the experiments of murine allograft tumor model and Matrigel plug assay as well as cell models in the human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the LLC1 lung cancer cells. Our results suggested that K20E suppressed the tumor growth in the allograft tumor model and exhibited anti-angiogenic activity in Matrigel plug assay. Besides, HUVEC viability was found to be significantly reduced by arresting cell cycle at G{sub 2}/M phase and apoptosis. Cell migration, invasion, and tube formation of the HUVECs were also markedly suppressed by K20E treatment. K20E largely down-regulated the intracellular and secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the LLC1 cancer cells. Besides, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and its downstream signaling cascades (AKT-mTOR and MEK1/2-ERK1/2) as well as gelatinases were all evidently reduced in the HUVECs treated with K20E. Inversely, K20E can up-regulate the expression levels of p53 and p21 proteins in the HUVECs. Based on these results, our study suggested that K20E possessed inhibiting angiogenesis through regulation of VEGF/VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling cascades in the vascular endothelial cells (VECs). - Highlights: • K20E is an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate. • K20E exhibits anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects. • K20E suppresses the expressions of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) proteins. • K20E deactivates VEGFR-2-mediated downstream signaling pathways to inhibit angiogenesis. • K20E up-regulates p53-p21 pathway to induce apoptosis and cell arrest at G2/M phase.

  1. FLAVONOIDS AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY MEDIATED GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTION OF LEATHERY MURDAH, TERMINALIA CORIACEA (ROXB. WIGHT & ARN. LEAF METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Safwan ALI KHAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. from family Combretaceae is used in Ayurveda and Siddha traditional systems of medicine to heal ulcers. OBJECTIVE The present study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective effect and understand the fundamental mechanism of action of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. Leaf Methanolic Extract. METHODS The test extract was screened for anti-ulcer activity by Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses - 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. using Ranitidine 50 mg/kg and Misoprostol 100 μg/kg as standard drug in respective models. Seven parameters were carefully examined, that is, ulcer index, total protein, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels and histopathology. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic - Ultra Violet profiling and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectral analysis of crude Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract were carried out as a part of chemical characterization to identify bioactive compounds. RESULTS All the test doses exhibited significant gastroprotective function, particularly the higher doses demonstrated improved action. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and Mucin with reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also illustrated the gastroprotective effect of Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract. CONCLUSION Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract exhibited strong anti-oxidant and anti-secretory activities mediated gastroprotection besides inducing the gastric mucosal production. The observed pharmacological response can be attributed to the flavonoidal compounds namely - Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Myricetin hexoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosylglucoside and

  2. Anti-nitric oxide production, anti-proliferation and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract from Tithonia diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsit Hiransai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the immunomodulation caused by the aqueous leaf extract of T. diversifolia, resulting from the inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-M-induced PBMCs proliferation and LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Although the anti-oxidative activity was presented in the chemical-based anti-oxidant assay, the extract cannot protect cell death from stress conditions.

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Ambar K.; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated co...

  4. Study of phytochemical, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Jaya; Muhammad, BushraTaj; Thapa, Pratiksha; Shrestha, Bhupal Govinda

    2017-02-08

    There is growing interest in the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Medicinal plants are currently being evaluated as source of promising anticancer agents. In this paper, we have investigated the anticancer potential of plant Allium wallichii, a plant native to Nepal and growing at elevations of 2300-4800 m. This is the first study of its kind for the plant mentioned. The dried plant was extracted in aqueous ethanol. Phytochemical screening, anti-microbial assay, anti-oxidant assay, cytotoxicity assay and the flow-cytometric analysis were done for analyzing different phytochemicals present, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii. We observed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars and glycosides in the plant extract and the plant showed moderate anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity. The IC 50 values of Allium wallichii in different cancer cell lines are 69.69 μg/ml for Prostate cancer (PC3) cell line, 55.29 μg/ml for Breast Cancer (MCF-7) cell line and 46.51 μg/ml for cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line as compared to Doxorubicin (0.85 μg/ml). The cell viability assay using FACS showed that the IC 50 value of Allium wallichii for Burkitt's lymphoma (B-Lymphoma) cell line was 3.817 ± 1.99 mg/ml. Allium wallichii can be an important candidate to be used as an anticancer agent. Separation of pure compounds with bioassay guided extraction, spectrometric analysis and subsequent cytotoxicity assay of the pure bioactive compounds from Allium wallichii is highly recommended as the crude extract itself showed promising cytotoxicity.

  5. Poly herbal formulation with anti-elastase and anti-oxidant properties for skin anti-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyana Sundaram, Induja; Sarangi, Deepika Deeptirekha; Sundararajan, Vignesh; George, Shinomol; Sheik Mohideen, Sahabudeen

    2018-01-29

    Skin forms an important part of human innate immune system. Wrinkles, thinning and roughening of skin are some of the symptoms that affect the skin as it ages. Reactive oxygen species induced oxidative stress plays a major role in skin aging by modulating the elastase enzyme level in the skin. Extrinsic factors that affect skin aging such as UV radiation can also cause malignant melanoma. Here we selected four medicinal plant materials, namely, leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, unripe and ripe Aegle marmelos fruit pulp and the terminal meristem of Musa paradisiaca flower and investigated their anti-aging properties and cytotoxicity in vitro individually as well as in a poly herbal formulation containing the four plant extracts in different ratios. The phytochemical contents of the plant extracts were investigated for radical scavenging activity and total reducing power. Based upon its anti-oxidant properties, a poly herbal formulation containing leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, unripe and ripe fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos, and the terminal meristem of Musa paradisiaca flower in the ratio 6:2:1:1 (Poly Herbal Formulation 1) and 1:1:1:1 (Poly Herbal Formulation 2), respectively were formulated. It has been observed that the Poly Herbal Formulation 1 was more potent than Poly Herbal Formulation 2 due to better anti-oxidant and anti-elastase activities in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. In addition Poly Herbal formulation 1 also had better anti-cancer activity in human malignant melanoma cells. Based on these results these beneficial plant extracts were identified for its potential application as an anti-aging agent in skin creams as well as an anti-proliferation compound against cancer cells.

  6. C-Phycocyanin protects against acute tributyltin chloride neurotoxicity by modulating glial cell activity along with its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory property: A comparative efficacy evaluation with N-acetyl cysteine in adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2015-08-05

    Spirulina is a widely used health supplement and is a dietary source of C-Phycocyanin (CPC), a potent anti-oxidant. We have previously reported the neurotoxic potential of tributyltin chloride (TBTC), an environmental pollutant and potent biocide. In this study, we have evaluated the protective efficacy of CPC against TBTC induced neurotoxicity. To evaluate the extent of neuroprotection offered by CPC, its efficacy was compared with the degree of protection offered by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (a well known neuroprotective drug, taken as a positive control). Male Wistar rats (28 day old) were administered with 20mg/kg TBTC (oral) and 50mg/kg CPC or 50mg/kg NAC (i.p.), alone or in combination, and various parameters were evaluated. These include blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage; redox parameters (ROS, GSH, redox pathway associated enzymes, oxidative stress markers); inflammatory, cellular, and stress markers; apoptotic proteins and in situ cell death assay (TUNEL). We observed increased CPC availability in cortical tissue following its administration. Although BBB associated proteins like claudin-5, p-glycoprotein and ZO-1 were restored, CPC/NAC failed to protect against TBTC induced overall BBB permeability (Evans blue extravasation). Both CPC and NAC remarkably reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. NAC effectively modulated redox pathway associated enzymes whereas CPC countered ROS levels efficiently. Interestingly, CPC and NAC were equivalently capable of reducing apoptotic markers, astroglial activation and cell death. This study illustrates the various pathways involved in CPC mediated neuroprotection against this environmental neurotoxicant and highlights its capability to modulate glial cell activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutics role of olive fruits/oil in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-oxidant, anti-tumour and genetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Albutti, Aqel S; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment for various diseases is based on synthetic drugs are effective but they show adverse effect and also alter the genetic and metabolic activity. Moreover, some drugs prepared from plants and their constituents show potentiality with more efficacy than synthetic agents used in clinical therapy. Earlier report has shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly related with reduced risk of developing various diseases. Several epidemiological studies has shown that, the incidence heart disease and cancers is lowest in the Mediterranean basin as compared to the part of the world because of their diet rich in olives and olive products. Olives are commonly consumed in Mediterranean and Arabian Peninsula and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that, the constituents from olive such as oleuropein, squalene and hydroxytyrosol modulate the genes functions and other activities. In this review, the medicinal value of olives and their constituents are summarized in terms of therapeutic approach in the diseases management through regulation of various activities.

  8. Silver oxide nanoparticles embedded silk fibroin spuns: Microwave mediated preparation, characterization and their synergistic wound healing and anti-bacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Doble, Mukesh; Raichur, Ashok M

    2018-03-01

    The synergistic wound healing and antibacterial activity of silver oxide nanoparticles embedded silk fibroin (Ag 2 O-SF) spuns is reported here. UV-Vis spectro photometric analysis of these spuns showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) confirming the formation of the silver oxide nanoparticles (Ag 2 O NPs) on the surface of the silk fibroin (SF). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) also confirmed the presence of Ag 2 O NPs on surface of SF. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the crystalline nature of both SF and Ag 2 O-SF. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results showed the different forms of silk (I and II) and their corresponding protein (amide I, II, III) confirmations. Biodegradation study revealed insignificant changes in the morphology of Ag 2 O-SF spuns even after 14 days of immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Ag 2 O-SF spuns showed excellent antibacterial activity against both pathogen (S. aureus and M. tuberculosis) and non-pathogen (E. coli) bacteria. More importantly, In vitro wound healing (scratch assay) assay revealed fast migration of the T3T fibroblast cells through the scratch area treated with extract of Ag 2 O-SF spuns and the area was completely covered within 24 h. Cytotoxicity assay confirmed the biocompatible nature of the Ag 2 O-SF spuns, thus suggesting an ideal material for wound healing and anti-bacterial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dicranostiga leptopodu (Maxim.) Fedde extracts attenuated CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deping; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jinzhou; Mao, Aihong; Liao, Shiqi; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Dicranostiga Leptodu (Maxim.) fedde (DLF), a poppy plant, has been reported have many benefits and medicinal properties, including free radicals scavenging and detoxifying. However, the protective effect of DLF extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in mice liver has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function. In this study, the mice liver damage evoked by CCl 4 was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations of mitochondrial respiratory function. Interestingly, pretreatment with DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced morphological damage and increasing of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. Additionally, DLF extracts improved mitochondrial function by preventing the disruption of respiratory chain and suppression of mitochondrial Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, administration with DLF extracts elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and maintained the balance of redox status. This results showed that toxic protection effect of DLF extracts on mice liver is mediated by improving mitochondrial respiratory function and keeping the balance of redox status, which suggesting that DLF extracts could be used as potential toxic protection agent for the liver against hepatotoxic agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of an enzyme bath of Oryza sativa (rice bran) and Camellia sinensis O. Kuntz (green tea) fermented with Bacillus subtilis (OCB). Methods: The anti-oxidant effects of OCB were assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and flow ...

  11. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 for selective extraction of a highly active anti-oxidant flavonoid from Caragana Jubata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yang, Xue-Dong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2018-04-06

    The medicinal compositions or active components in medicinal plants are the major sources to find new drugs or lead compounds. Exploring novel sorbents with good selectivity for extraction and separation of medicinal compositions or active components from complex medicinal plants are interesting and challenging. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) show great potential in adsorption and extraction recently. Herein, we report our primary attempt of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as a model MOF for selective extraction of a flavonoid named 3,4-dihydroxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan (compound 1) from a traditional medicinal plant Caragana Jubata. The enrichment factor of ZIF-8 for compound 1 is 57.7. The recoveries of compound 1 at three spiked levels (50, 100, 150 mg L -1 ) in Caragana Jubata dichloromethane extract are 62.1%, 66.4%, and 75.4%, respectively, with the relative standard deviations of less than 2.9%. The compound 1 also gave good linearity (R 2 of 0.999) in the concentration range of 5-1000 mg L -1 . The obtained compound 1 gave highly antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging rate of 79.03%, inhibitory rate on lipid peroxidation of 75.30%, which were higher than the positive controls Vitamin C and BHT) and low IC 50 values (5.438 ± 0.068, 20.970 ± 0.083 μg mL -1 for DPPH radical scavenging activities and inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation, respectively). These results demonstrated the feasibility of MOFs in selective extraction of medicinal compositions or active components from complex medicinal plants. The current work may open a new way of MOFs in selective extraction of pharmacological active components from medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant capacity of Myrathius arboreus (Cecropiaceae) in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Ologe, Olufunmilayo; Alabi, Akinyinka; Tunde Yusuf, Ganiyu; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-27

    Inflammation is involved in various diseases; search for safe treatments is warranted. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Myrathius arboreus (EEMa) were studied in carrageenan-induced model, formaldehyde sub-acute-induced model, and in 48 h lipopolysaccharide-induced air pouch model of inflammation. EEMa membrane-stabilizing activities and anti-oxidant capacity were determined in vitro. In the carrageenan model EEMa (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), or vehicle 3 mL/kg was administered orally in rats (n=5). After 1 h, 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan was injected into the right hind paw of rats. Change in edema sizes was measured for 3 h with plethysmometer. One-tenth milliliter (0.1 mL) of 2.5% formaldehyde was injected into the rat paw on the first day and the third day to induce sub-acute inflammation; changes in the edema sizes were determined, and percentages of inhibitions were calculated. Anti-inflammatory effects of EEMa were further examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced air-pouch based on leukocytes count, volume of exudates, levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxides, and tumor necrosis factor released into the inflammatory fluids. EEMa-free radicals scavenging activities were studied in DPPH and reducing power tests. Membrane-stabilizing activities of EEMa were evaluated in the red blood cell lysis induced by thermal and hypotonic solution. EEMa (250, 500 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001; p<0.05) inhibition of inflammation when compared with vehicle. Also, EEMa (250, 500, or 1000 μg/mL) significantly stabilized membrane and produced free radical scavenging activities. M. arboreus possesses anti-inflammatory and the anti-oxidant properties that might benefit translational medicine.

  13. Multi-Response Extraction Optimization Based on Anti-Oxidative Activity and Quality Evaluation by Main Indicator Ingredients Coupled with Chemometric Analysis on Thymus quinquecostatus Celak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan-Li; Shen, Meng; Ren, Xue-Yang; He, Ting; Wang, Le; Fan, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiu-Huan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yi; Sui, Hong; She, Gai-Mei

    2018-04-19

    Thymus quinquecostatus Celak is a species of thyme in China and it used as condiment and herbal medicine for a long time. To set up the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus , the response surface methodology (RSM) based on its 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was introduced to optimize the extraction condition, and the main indicator components were found through an UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS n method. The ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction time on optimum conditions were 42.32%, 1:17.51, and 1.8 h, respectively. 35 components having 12 phenolic acids and 23 flavonoids were unambiguously or tentatively identified both positive and negative modes to employ for the comprehensive analysis in the optimum anti-oxidative part. A simple, reliable, and sensitive HPLC method was performed for the multi-component quantitative analysis of T. quinquecostatus using six characteristic and principal phenolic acids and flavonoids as reference compounds. Furthermore, the chemometrics methods (principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA)) appraised the growing areas and harvest time of this herb closely relative to the quality-controlled. This study provided full-scale qualitative and quantitative information for the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus , which would be a valuable reference for further study and development of this herb and related laid the foundation of further study on its pharmacological efficacy.

  14. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Fen Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power (RP, β-carotene bleaching (BCB activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%, thymol (14.36% and carvacrol (12.33%, and eugenol (0.87%, respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability.

  15. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min,Ahn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to verify anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of Korean wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China. Methods : For the measurement of anti-oxidation, SOD-like activity was evaluated using xanthine oxidase reduction method under in vitro environment. Subcutaneous and abdominal cancer were induced using CT-26 human colon cancer cells for the measurement of growth inhibition of cancer cells and differences in survival rate. Results : 1. Measurement of anti-oxidant activity of ginseng, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng samples showed concentration dependent anti-oxidant activity in HX/XOD system. Anti-oxidant activity showed drastic increase at 1mg/ml in all samples. 2. For the evaluation of growth inhibition of cancer cells after hypodermic implantation of CT-26 cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng and natural wild ginseng groups showed significant inhibition of tumor growth from the 12th day compared to the control group. Similar inhibitory effects were also shown on the 15th and 18th days. But there was no significant difference between the experiment groups. 3. For the observation of increase in survival rate of the natural wild ginseng group, CT-26 cancer cells were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice.

  17. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate from yellow field pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Fatou; Vuong, Tri; Duarte, Jairo; Aluko, Rotimi E; Matar, Chantal

    2012-02-01

    Enzymatic protein hydrolysates of yellow pea seed have been shown to possess high anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities. The aim of this work was to confirm the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activities of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate of yellow field pea seeds. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of peptides from yellow field pea proteins (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated in LPS/IFN-γ-activated RAW 264.7 NO⁻ macrophages. The immunomodulating potential of pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) was then studied in a murine model. Pea protein hydrolysate, after a 12 h pre-treatment, showed significant inhibition of NO production by activated macrophages up to 20%. Moreover, PPH significantly inhibited their secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α- and IL-6, up to 35 and 80%, respectively. Oral administration of PPH in mice enhanced the phagocytic activity of their peritoneal macrophages and stimulated the gut mucosa immune response. The number of IgA+ cells was elevated in the small intestine lamina propria, accompanied by an increase in the number of IL-4+, IL-10+ and IFN-γ+ cells. This was correlated to up-regulation of IL-6 secretion by small intestine epithelial cells (IEC), probably responsible for B-cell terminal differentiation to IgA-secreting cells. Moreover, PPH might have increased IL-6 production in IECs via the stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) family, especially TLR2 and TLR4 since either anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 was able to completely abolish PPH-induced IL-6 secretion. Enzymatic protein degradation confers anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating potentials to pea proteins, and the resulted peptides could be used as an alternative therapy for the prevention of inflammatory-related diseases.

  18. Aloperine attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via anti-oxidation activity and suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ya-Qiong [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Jin, Shao-Ju [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China); Liu, Ning [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Li, Yu-Xiang [College of Nursing, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Zheng, Jie [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Ma, Lin [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Du, Juan; Zhou, Ru [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Zhao, Cheng-Jun [Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Niu, Yang [Key Laboratory of Hui Ethnic Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Sun, Tao [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Yu, Jian-Qiang, E-mail: Yujq910315@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Aloperine has anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced CCI. • Aloperine reduces ROS in neuropathic pain mice. • Aloperine down-regulates the expression of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain mice. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether aloperine (ALO) has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury, whether ALO reduces ROS against neuropathic pain, and what are the mechanisms involved in ALO attenuated neuropathic pain. Methods: Mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal thermal hyperalgesia were estimated by behavior methods such as Von Frey filaments, cold-plate, radiant heat, paw pressure and tail immersion on one day before surgery and days 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after surgery, respectively. In addition, T-AOC, GSH-PX, T-AOC and MDA in the spinal cord (L4/5) were measured to evaluate anti-oxidation activity of ALO on neuropathic pain. Expressions of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in the spinal cord (L4/5) were analyzed by using Western blot. Results: Administration of ALO (80 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal threshold, paw pressure, paw withdrawal latencies, tail-curling latencies, T-AOC, GSH-PX and T-SOD concentration, reduced the numbers of paw lifts and MDA concentration compared to CCI group. ALO attenuated CCI induced up-regulation of expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β at the dose of 80 mg/kg (i.p.). Pregabalin produced similar effects serving as positive control at the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusion: ALO has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effects of ALO against neuropathic pain is related to reduction of ROS, via suppression of NF-κB pathway.

  19. Aloperine attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via anti-oxidation activity and suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ya-Qiong; Jin, Shao-Ju; Liu, Ning; Li, Yu-Xiang; Zheng, Jie; Ma, Lin; Du, Juan; Zhou, Ru; Zhao, Cheng-Jun; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aloperine has anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced CCI. • Aloperine reduces ROS in neuropathic pain mice. • Aloperine down-regulates the expression of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain mice. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether aloperine (ALO) has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury, whether ALO reduces ROS against neuropathic pain, and what are the mechanisms involved in ALO attenuated neuropathic pain. Methods: Mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal thermal hyperalgesia were estimated by behavior methods such as Von Frey filaments, cold-plate, radiant heat, paw pressure and tail immersion on one day before surgery and days 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after surgery, respectively. In addition, T-AOC, GSH-PX, T-AOC and MDA in the spinal cord (L4/5) were measured to evaluate anti-oxidation activity of ALO on neuropathic pain. Expressions of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in the spinal cord (L4/5) were analyzed by using Western blot. Results: Administration of ALO (80 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal threshold, paw pressure, paw withdrawal latencies, tail-curling latencies, T-AOC, GSH-PX and T-SOD concentration, reduced the numbers of paw lifts and MDA concentration compared to CCI group. ALO attenuated CCI induced up-regulation of expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β at the dose of 80 mg/kg (i.p.). Pregabalin produced similar effects serving as positive control at the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusion: ALO has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effects of ALO against neuropathic pain is related to reduction of ROS, via suppression of NF-κB pathway

  20. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  1. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  2. Garlic Consumption Alters Testicular Histology and Anti-Oxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent fashion. These histological observations and the depletion in endogenous anti-oxidant status associated with the administration of garlic could result in significant affectation of male reproductive functions. Keywords: garlic, superoxide ...

  3. Quantitative combination of natural anti-oxidants prevents metabolic syndrome by reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingjing; Zhao, Zhen; Lv, Pengyu; Li, YuFang; Gao, Juntao; Zhang, Michael; Zhao, Baolu

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and abdominal obesity are present in the majority of people with the metabolic syndrome. Antioxidant therapy might be a useful strategy for type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant states. The combination of vitamin C (Vc) and vitamin E has synthetic scavenging effect on free radicals and inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation. However, there are few studies about how to define the best combination of more than three anti-oxidants as it is difficult or impossible to test the anti-oxidant effect of the combination of every concentration of each ingredient experimentally. Here we present a math model, which is based on the classical Hill equation to determine the best combination, called Fixed Dose Combination (FDC), of several natural anti-oxidants, including Vc, green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract proanthocyanidin (GSEP). Then we investigated the effects of FDC on oxidative stress, blood glucose and serum lipid levels in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats which serve as obesity model, and KK-ay mice as diabetic model. The level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the treated rats was studied and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining or Oil red slices of liver and adipose tissue in the rats were examined as well. FDC shows excellent antioxidant and anti-glycation activity by attenuating lipid peroxidation. FDC determined in this investigation can become a potential solution to reduce obesity, to improve insulin sensitivity and be beneficial for the treatment of fat and diabetic patients. It is the first time to use the math model to determine the best ratio of three anti-oxidants, which can save much more time and chemical materials than traditional experimental method. This quantitative method represents a potentially new and useful strategy to screen all possible combinations of many natural anti-oxidants, therefore may help develop novel therapeutics with the potential to ameliorate the worldwide metabolic

  4. The anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Tianyi; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang; Xie, Tianpei; Xu, Jifeng; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping

    2017-10-15

    Tea includes puer tea, black tea, green tea and many others. By using model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract were systemically examined in this study. We found that water extract of puer tea, black tea and green tea all increased the lifespan of worms, postponed Aβ-induced progressive paralysis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic worms, and improved the tolerance of worms to the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal Cr 6+ . Moreover, the anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract at low concentration were different among 4 kinds of brands of green tea. The underlying mechanisms were further explored using genetically manipulated-mutant worms. The anti-oxidative stress effects of green tea water extract depend on the dietary restriction and germline signaling pathways, but not the FOXO and mitochondrial respiratory chain signals. Therefore, tea water extract provides benefits of anti-aging, anti-AD and anti-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in maleWistar rats ...

  6. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surached Thitimuta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE (Camellia sinensis L.. The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE’s principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl4-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl4 intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  7. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitimuta, Surached; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2017-03-04

    The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE) ( Camellia sinensis L.). The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl₄-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE's principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl₄-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl₄ intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude methanolic extracts of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were evaluated for its anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities. When given orally to rats at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, the extract showed a significant (P<0.001) anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced paw edema in rats ...

  9. Tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Teruo; Komoda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Toshihiko; Node, Koichi

    2008-10-01

    Oxidative stress as well as inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although, various anti-oxidative dietary supplements have been evaluated for their ability to prevent atherosclerosis, no effective ones have been determined at present. "Camu-camu" (Myrciaria dubia) is an Amazonian fruit that offers high vitamin C content. However, its anti-oxidative property has not been evaluated in vivo in humans. To assess the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of camu-camu in humans, 20 male smoking volunteers, considered to have an accelerated oxidative stress state, were recruited and randomly assigned to take daily 70 ml of 100% camu-camu juice, corresponding to 1050 mg of vitamin C (camu-camu group; n=10) or 1050 mg of vitamin C tablets (vitamin C group; n=10) for 7 days. After 7 days, oxidative stress markers such as the levels of urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (P<0.05) and total reactive oxygen species (P<0.01) and inflammatory markers such as serum levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (P<0.05), interleukin (IL)-6 (P<0.05), and IL-8 (P<0.01) decreased significantly in the camu-camu group, while there was no change in the vitamin C group. Our results suggest that camu-camu juice may have powerful anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, compared to vitamin C tablets containing equivalent vitamin C content. These effects may be due to the existence of unknown anti-oxidant substances besides vitamin C or unknown substances modulating in vivo vitamin C kinetics in camu-camu.

  10. Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties of Daucus gracilis essential oil and its mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem El Kolli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: D. gracilis EO showed potent antimicrobial and anti-oxidative activities and had acted on the cytoplasm membrane. These activities could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.

  11. The anti-oxidant effects of melatonin derivatives on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiphatwatcharaded, Chawapon; Puthongking, Ploenthip; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Sakolchai, Sumon; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of indole ring modified melatonin derivatives as compared with melatonin in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. Anti-oxidant activity of melatonin (MLT), acetyl-melatonin (AMLT) and benzoyl-melatonin (BMLT) was evaluated by5 standard methods as follows: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); superoxide anion scavenging; nitric oxide (NO) scavenging; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs).Evaluation of cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and protectivity against H 2 O 2 induced cellular damage was performed via MTT assay in HGF cells. According to the standard anti-oxidant assays, the antioxidant power of AMLT and BMLT were slightly less than MLT in FRAP and superoxide scavenging assays. In the NO scavenging and TBARs assays, BMLT and AMLT were more potent than MLT, whereas DPPH assays demonstrated that MLT was more potent than others. BMLT and AMLT had more potent anti-oxidant and protective activities against H 2 O 2 in HGF cells as compared with MLT. MLT derivatives demonstrated different anti-oxidant activities as compared with MLT, depending upon assays. These findings imply that N-indole substitution of MLT may help to improve hydrogen atom transfer to free radicals but electron transfer property is slightly decreased. Anti-oxidant and protective effects of melatonin derivatives (AMLT and BMLT) on human gingival fibroblasts imply the potential use of these molecules as alternative therapeutics for chronic inflammatory oral diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-oxidation and scavenging effects of some extracts from Chinese medicines on free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua; Cui Fengmei; Shao Yuan; Sun Cunpu

    1999-11-01

    The inhibiting effects of Chinonin, Quercetin and Tannic Acid on the lipid oxidation induced by radiation exposure were investigated by means of a modified TBA spectrophotometry. The scavenging effects on free radicals caused by γ-irradiation exposure of the three active principles were observed by technique of ESR. The results showed that anti-oxidation effects of Chinonin and Quercetin were better than that of Tannic Acid, while the scavenging effects of the three active principles on free radicals were similar

  13. Oxidized LDL-induced angiogenesis involves sphingosine 1-phosphate: prevention by anti-S1P antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaré, Caroline; Trayssac, Magali; Garmy-Susini, Barbara; Mucher, Elodie; Sabbadini, Roger; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Neovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic lesions may promote plaque expansion, intraplaque haemorrhage and rupture. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are atherogenic, but their angiogenic effect is controversial; both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. The angiogenic mechanism of oxLDL is partly understood, but the role of the angiogenic sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), in this process is not known. Thus, we investigated whether S1P is involved in the oxLDL-induced angiogenesis and whether an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody can prevent this effect. Angiogenesis was assessed by capillary tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) cultured on Matrigel and in vivo by the Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice. Human oxLDL exhibited a biphasic angiogenic effect on HMEC-1; low concentrations were angiogenic, higher concentrations were cytotoxic. The angiogenic response to oxLDL was blocked by the sphingosine kinase (SPHK) inhibitor, dimethylsphingosine, by SPHK1-siRNA and by an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibition of oxLDL uptake and subsequent redox signalling by anti-CD36 and anti-LOX-1 receptor antibodies and by N-acetylcysteine, respectively, blocked SPHK1 activation and tube formation. In vivo, in the Matrigel plug assay, low concentrations of human oxLDL or murine oxVLDL also triggered angiogenesis, which was prevented by i.p. injection of the anti-S1P antibody. These data highlight the role of S1P in angiogenesis induced by oxLDL both in HMEC-1 cultured on Matrigel and in vivo in the Matrigel plug model in mice, and demonstrate that the anti-S1P antibody effectively blocks the angiogenic effect of oxLDL. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Proteasome inhibitors activate autophagy involving inhibition of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway as an anti-oxidation defense in human RPE cells.

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    Bingrong Tang

    Full Text Available The two major intracellular protein degradation systems, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS and autophagy, work collaboratively in many biological processes including development, apoptosis, aging, and countering oxidative injuries. We report here that, in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE, ARPE-19 cells, proteasome inhibitors, clasto-lactacystinβ-lactone (LA or epoxomicin (Epo, at non-lethal doses, increased the protein levels of autophagy-specific genes Atg5 and Atg7 and enhanced the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3 from LC3-I to its lipidative form, LC3-II, which was enhanced by co-addition of the saturated concentration of Bafilomycin A1 (Baf. Detection of co-localization for LC3 staining and labeled-lysosome further confirmed autophagic flux induced by LA or Epo. LA or Epo reduced the phosphorylation of the protein kinase B (Akt, a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in ARPE-19 cells; by contrast, the induced changes of autophagy substrate, p62, showed biphasic pattern. The autophagy inhibitor, Baf, attenuated the reduction in oxidative injury conferred by treatment with low doses of LA and Epo in ARPE-19 cells exposed to menadione (VK3 or 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE. Knockdown of Atg7 with siRNA in ARPE-19 cells reduced the protective effects of LA or Epo against VK3. Overall, our results suggest that treatment with low levels of proteasome inhibitors confers resistance to oxidative injury by a pathway involving inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and activation of autophagy.

  15. IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTI-TRICHOMONAL ACTIVITIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infective, has shown anti-malarial and antitrypanocidal activities. Therefore using bioactivity guided fractionation, anti-trichomonal activity of E. uniflora leaf was investigated. Anti-trichomonal activities of leaf methanol extract and its fractions against ...

  16. PEGylated bilirubin nanoparticle as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory demulcent in pancreatic islet xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jun; Lee, Yonghyun; Jon, Sangyong; Lee, Dong Yun

    2017-07-01

    Transplanted islets suffer hypoxic stress, which leads to nonspecific inflammation. This is the major cause of islet graft failure during the early stage of intrahepatic islet transplantation. Although bilirubin has shown potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions, its clinical applications have been limited due to its insolubility and short half-life. To overcome this problem, novel amphiphilic bilirubin nanoparticles are designed. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is conjugated to the hydrophobic bilirubin molecule. Then, the PEG-bilirubin conjugates form nanoparticles via self-assembly, i.e., so-called to BRNPs. BRNPs can protect islet cells not only from chemically induced oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species molecules, but also from activated macrophages by suppressing cytokine release. Importantly, in vivo experiments demonstrate that BRNP treatment can dramatically and significantly prolong islet graft survival compared to bilirubin treatment. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis shows BRNPs have potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capabilities. Collectively, novel BRNPs can be a new potent remedy for successful islet transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pro-oxidant activity of dietary chemopreventive agents: an under-appreciated anti-cancer property [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/15s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfar S Azmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food” was quoted by Hippocrates more than two thousand years ago and since ancient times the health benefits of different natural agents have been exploited. In modern research, the disease preventive benefits of many such natural agents, particularly dietary compounds and their derivatives, has been attributed to their well recognized activity as the regulators of redox state of the cell. Nevertheless, most of these studies have focused on their antioxidant activity. A large body of evidence indicates that a major fraction of these agents can elicit pro-oxidant (radical generating behavior which has been linked to their anti-cancer effects. This editorial provides an overview of the under-appreciated pro-oxidant activity of natural products, with a special focus on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species in the presence of transition metal ions, and discusses their possible use as cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assay and flow cytometry. The anti-inflammatory effects of OCB were assessed by a nitric oxide (NO) assay ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... officially used at the 11th Winter Olympics Games of 1972 in ... well known for its beneficial properties on body condition ...

  19. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber Officinale on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic ...

  20. Palladium-catalysed anti-Markovnikov selective oxidative amination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Daniel G.; Gockel, Samuel N.; Kennemur, Jennifer L.; Waller, Peter J.; Hull, Kami L.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the synthesis of amines and other nitrogen-containing motifs has been a major area of research in organic chemistry because they are widely represented in biologically active molecules. Current strategies rely on a multistep approach and require one reactant to be activated prior to the carbon-nitrogen bond formation. This leads to a reaction inefficiency and functional group intolerance. As such, a general approach to the synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds from readily available and benign starting materials is highly desirable. Here we present a palladium-catalysed oxidative amination reaction in which the addition of the nitrogen occurs at the less-substituted carbon of a double bond, in what is known as anti-Markovnikov selectivity. Alkenes are shown to react with imides in the presence of a palladate catalyst to generate the terminal imide through trans-aminopalladation. Subsequently, olefin isomerization occurs to afford the thermodynamically favoured products. Both the scope of the transformation and mechanistic investigations are reported.

  1. Thymosin beta 4 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by targeting anti-oxidative enzymes and anti-apoptotic genes.

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    Chuanyu Wei

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. The mechanism by which Tβ4 modulates cardiac protection under oxidative stress is not known. The purpose of this study is to dissect the cardioprotective mechanism of Tβ4 on H(2O(2 induced cardiac damage.Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with or without Tβ4 pretreatment were exposed to H(2O(2 and expression of antioxidant, apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. ROS levels were estimated by DCF-DA using fluorescent microscopy and fluorimetry. Selected antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic genes were silenced by siRNA transfections in neonatal cardiomyocytes and effect of Tβ4 on H(2O(2-induced cardiac damage was evaluated.Pre-treatment of Tβ4 resulted in reduction of the intracellular ROS levels induced by H(2O(2 in cardiomyocytes. Tβ4 pretreatment also resulted in an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and reduction of Bax/BCl(2 ratio in the cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with Tβ4 resulted in stimulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes copper/zinc SOD and catalase in cardiomyocytes at both transcription and translation levels. Tβ4 treatment resulted in the increased expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory genes. Silencing of Cu/Zn SOD and catalase gene resulted in apoptotic cell death in the cardiomyocytes which was prevented by treatment with Tβ4.This is the first report that demonstrates the effect of Tβ4 on cardiomyocytes and its capability to selectively upregulate anti-oxidative enzymes, anti-inflammatory genes, and antiapoptotic enzymes in the neonatal cardiomyocytes thus preventing cell death thereby protecting the myocardium. Tβ4 treatment resulted in decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the myocardium under oxidative stress.

  2. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Arbutus unedo aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idir Moualek

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: A. unedo showed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation and red blood cells membrane stabilization. Our results show that aqueous leaf extract of A. unedo has good antioxidant activity and interesting anti-inflammatory properties. A. unedo aqueous extract can be used to prevent oxidative and inflammatory processes.

  3. Thymoquinone Attenuates Brain Injury via an Anti-oxidative Pathway in a Status Epilepticus Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yi-Ye; Li, Bing; Huang, Yong-Mei; Luo, Qiong; Xie, Yang-Mei; Chen, Ying-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to seizure-induced brain injury. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive monomer extracted from black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant activity in various diseases. This study evaluated the protective effects of TQ on brain injury in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model of SE and investigated the underlying mechanism related to antioxidative pathway. Electroencephalogram and Racine scale were used to value seizure severity. Passive-avoidance test was used to determine learning and memory function. Moreover, anti-oxidative activity of TQ was observed using Western blot and super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity assay. Latency to SE increased in the TQ-pretreated group compared with rats in the model group, while the total power was significantly lower. Seizure severity measured on the Racine scale was significantly lower in the TQ group compared with the model group. Results of behavioral experiments suggest that TQ may also have a protective effect on learning and memory function. Investigation of the protective mechanism of TQ showed that TQ-pretreatment significantly increased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 proteins and SOD in the hippocampus. These findings showed that TQ attenuated brain injury induced by SE via an anti-oxidative pathway.

  4. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

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    Shu-Yuan Chiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM reduced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  5. Zinc oxide nanoparticles provide anti-cholera activity by disrupting the interaction of cholera toxin with the human GM1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shamila; Ali, Asif; Pal, Mahadeb; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2017-11-03

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera and is the leading cause of diarrhea in developing countries, highlighting the need for the development of new treatment strategies to combat this disease agent. While exploring the possibility of using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) in cholera treatment, we previously found that ZnO NPs reduce fluid accumulation in mouse ileum induced by the cholera toxin (CT) protein. To uncover the mechanism of action of ZnO NPs on CT activity, here we used classical (O395) and El Tor (C6706) V. cholerae biotypes in growth and biochemical assays. We found that a ZnO NP concentration of 10 μg/ml did not affect the growth rates of these two strains, nor did we observe that ZnO NPs reduce the expression levels of CT mRNA and protein. It was observed that ZnO NPs form a complex with CT, appear to disrupt the CT secondary structure, and block its interaction with the GM1 ganglioside receptor in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in intestinal (HT-29) cells and thereby reduce CT uptake into the cells. In the range of 2.5-10 μg/ml, ZnO NPs exhibited no cytotoxicity on kidney (HEK293) and HT-29 cells. We conclude that ZnO NPs prevent the first step in the translocation of cholera toxin into intestinal epithelial cells without exerting measurable toxic effects on HEK293 and HT-29 cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Nrf2, the Master Regulator of Anti-Oxidative Responses

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    Sandra Vomund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tight regulation of inflammation is very important to guarantee a balanced immune response without developing chronic inflammation. One of the major mediators of the resolution of inflammation is the transcription factor: the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2. Stabilized following oxidative stress, Nrf2 induces the expression of antioxidants as well as cytoprotective genes, which provoke an anti-inflammatory expression profile, and is crucial for the initiation of healing. In view of this fundamental modulatory role, it is clear that both hyper- or hypoactivation of Nrf2 contribute to the onset of chronic diseases. Understanding the tight regulation of Nrf2 expression/activation and its interaction with signaling pathways, known to affect inflammatory processes, will facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to prevent Nrf2 dysregulation and ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. We discuss in this review the principle mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation with a focus on inflammation and autophagy, extending the role of dysregulated Nrf2 to chronic diseases and tumor development.

  7. Methanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L. possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Tae; Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Hee-Juhn; Choi, Jong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    As an attempt to identify bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we evaluated the effects of the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. (MEXS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicate that MEXS is a potent inhibitor of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha production. Consistent with these findings, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha mRNA were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEXS inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity and the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus by blocking the degradation of inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of MEXS in vivo. MEXS (100, 200 mg/kg/d, p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activities in an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. Thus, our study suggests that the inhibitions of iNOS, COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha release by the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. are achieved by blocking NF-kappaB activation, and that this is also responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide in Mice

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    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of one synthetic product, N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide (abbrev. FECA, by using animal model of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of FECA was determined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the edema paw tissue, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. The results showed that FECA reduced the paw edema at three, four and five hours after λ-carrageenan administration. The levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α, and MDA in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws were reduced and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in liver tissues were raised by FECA. These results suggested that FECA possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be related to the decrease of the levels of COX-2, NO, and TNF-α in inflamed tissues and the increase in the MDA level by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 μg/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of five Veronica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, U Sebnem; Saracoglu, Iclal; Inoue, Makoto; Ogihara, Yukio

    2002-04-01

    Biological activities of five Veronica species (Scrophulariaceae), V. cymbalaria, V. hederifolia, V. pectinata var. glandulosa, V. persica and V. polita were studied for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Their methanol extracts showed both the inhibitory activity of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and cytotoxic activity against KB epidermoid carcinoma and B16 melanoma. When the methanol extracts were fractionated between water and chloroform, water fractions significantly inhibited NO production without any cytotoxicity, while chloroform fractions showed cytotoxicity dose-dependently. When the radical scavenging activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), water fractions of the five Veronica species scavenged free radicals effectively, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of this species on NO production was due to their radical scavenging activity. On the other hand, chloroform fractions of Veronica species except for V. cymbalaria showed similar cytotoxic activity against KB and B16 melanoma cells.

  11. Anti hypoxic and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. F.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The anti hypoxic and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus esculentus seeds were investigated employing eight in vitro assay systems. Anti hypoxic activity was investigated in two models, haemic and circulatory. The effects were pronounced in both models of hypoxia. The anti hypoxic effects were dose-dependent. The results indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against hypoxia induced lethality in mice. The extracts showed antioxidant activity in some models. IC{sub 5}0 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 234 {+-} 8.9 {mu}g ml{sup 1}. The extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity between 0.1 and 1.6 mg ml{sup -}1. The extracts showed weak Fe{sup 2}+ chelating ability. IC{sub 5}0 were 150 {+-} 13 {mu}g ml{sup -}1. The extracts also exhibited low antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid model but were capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. The total amount of phenolic compounds in each extract was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Pharmacological effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. (Author) 40 refs.

  12. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifullah, Mohmmed; Namsa, Nima Dandu; Mandal, Manabendra; Chiruvella, Kishore Kumar; Vikrama, Paritala; Gopal, Ghanta Rama

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacterium smegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines. PMID:23905016

  13. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Sida rhombifolia stems and roots in adjuvant induced arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendhirakannan, R T; Limmy, T P

    2012-04-01

    Free radical stress leads to tissue injury and progression of disease conditions such as arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hepatic injury, aging and ischemia, reperfusion injury of many tissues, gastritis, tumor promotion, neurodegenerative diseases and carcinogenesis. Safer anti-oxidants suitable for long term use are needed to prevent or stop the progression of free radical mediated disorders. Herbal medicine provides a foundation for various traditional medicine systems worldwide. The Sida species is one of the most important families of medicinal plants in India. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the possible anti-oxidant potential of Sida rhombifolia extracts for 30 days on adjuvant induced arthritis in experimental rats. The altered levels of hematological parameters were reverted to near normal levels, especially the elevated rate of erythrocyte sedimentation was significantly reduced by S. rhombifolia extracts in experimental rats. Oral administration of root and stem of S. rhombifolia extracts significantly increased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and decreased the levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity in arthritis induced rats. The free radical scavenging activity of the plant was further evidenced by histological and transmission electron microscopy observations made on the hind limb tissue.

  15. Combining nitric oxide release with anti-inflammatory activity preserves nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation and prevents motor impairment in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impagnatiello Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current evidence suggests a role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP model of basal ganglia injury. Reportedly, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs mitigate DAergic neurotoxicity in rodent models of PD. Consistent with these findings, epidemiological analysis indicated that certain NSAIDs may prevent or delay the progression of PD. However, a serious impediment of chronic NSAID therapy, particularly in the elderly, is gastric, renal and cardiac toxicity. Nitric oxide (NO-donating NSAIDs, have a safer profile while maintaining anti-inflammatory activity of parent compounds. We have investigated the oral activity of the NO-donating derivative of flurbiprofen, [2-fluoro-α-methyl (1,1'-biphenyl-4-acetic-4-(nitrooxybutyl ester], HCT1026 (30 mg kg-1 daily in rodent chow in mice exposed to the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP. Methods Ageing mice were fed with a control, flurbiprofen, or HCT1026 diet starting ten days before MPTP administration and continuing for all the experimental period. Striatal high affinity synaptosomial dopamine up-take, motor coordination assessed with the rotarod, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH- and dopamine transporter (DAT fiber staining, stereological cell counts, immunoblotting and gene expression analyses were used to assess MPTP-induced nigrostriatal DAergic toxicity and glial activation 1-40 days post-MPTP. Results HCT1026 was well tolerated and did not cause any measurable toxic effect, whereas flurbiprofen fed mice showed severe gastrointestinal side-effects. HCT1026 efficiently counteracted motor impairment and reversed MPTP-induced decreased synaptosomal [3H]dopamine uptake, TH- and DAT-stained fibers in striatum and TH+ neuron loss in subtantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc, as opposed to age-matched mice fed with a control diet. These effects were associated to a significant decrease in reactive

  16. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306

  17. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1 were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale. TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01 with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.

  18. Phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant activity and in vitro anticancer potential of ethanolic and water leaves extracts of Annona muricata (Graviola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavamukulya, Yahaya; Abou-Elella, Faten; Wamunyokoli, Fred; AEl-Shemy, Hany

    2014-09-01

    To determine the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethanolic and water leaves extracts of Annona muricata (A. muricata) from the Eastern Uganda. Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard qualitative methods and a Chi-square goodness of fit test was used to assign the relative abundance of the different phytochemicals. The antioxidant activity was determined using the 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power methods whereas the in vitro anticancer activity was determined using three different cell lines. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed that they were rich in secondary class metabolite compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins and lactones, anthraquinones, tannins, cardiac glycosides, phenols and phytosterols. Total phenolics in the water extract were (683.69±0.09) μg/mL gallic acid equivalents (GAE) while it was (372.92±0.15) μg/mL GAE in the ethanolic extract. The reducing power was 216.41 μg/mL in the water extract and 470.51 μg/mL GAE in the ethanolic extract. In vitro antioxidant activity IC50 was 2.0456 mg/mL and 0.9077 mg/mL for ethanolic and water leaves extracts of A. muricata respectively. The ethanolic leaves extract was found to be selectively cytotoxic in vitro to tumor cell lines (EACC, MDA and SKBR3) with IC50 values of 335.85 μg/mL, 248.77 μg/mL, 202.33 μg/mL respectively, while it had no cytotoxic effect on normal spleen cells. The data also showed that water leaves extract of A. muricata had no anticancer effect at all tested concentrations. The results showed that A. muricata was a promising new antioxidant and anticancer agent. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed Ali; El-Sayed, Wael Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Turmeric (rich in curcuminoids) and ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Ayurveda/Chinese medicine since antiquity. Here, we compared the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity of these two plants in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Both plants (at dose 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed (but with different degrees) the incidence and severity of arthritis by increasing/decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, and activating the anti-oxidant defence system. The anti-arthritic activity of turmeric exceeded that of ginger and indomethacin (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), especially when the treatment started from the day of arthritis induction. The percentage of disease recovery was 4.6-8.3% and 10.2% more in turmeric compared with ginger and indomethacin (P turmeric over ginger and indomethacin, which may have beneficial effects against rheumatoid arthritis onset/progression as shown in AIA rat model.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S; Meckes, M; Pérez, C; Susunaga, A; Zavala, M A

    2005-10-31

    Lippia dulcis hexane and ethanol extracts were tested for its anti-inflammatory activity in several animal models. Hexane extract showed to be inactive, but the ethanol extract at doses of 400 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema and reduced the weight of cotton pellet-induced granuloma, moreover, the topical application of 0.5 mg/ear of this extract inhibited the edema induced with TPA by 49.13%, an effect which is of less intensity than that produced by indomethacine at the same dose.

  1. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Wang, Chi-Ping; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu 2+ -induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression

  2. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien [School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chi-Ping [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hui-Hsuan, E-mail: linhh@csmu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu{sup 2+}-induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression.

  3. Study of burahol (Stelechocarpus burahol (Blume Hook & Thomson as an anti-oxidative compounds containing fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJADJAT TISNADJAJA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Burahol (Stelechocarpus burahol (Blume Hook & Thomson is one of fruit tree that originally was founded in Indonesia. Traditionally burahol is used as natural deodorance, but due to low economic value, the cultivation program of this plant species is almost abandoned. Regarding to this situation, currently this plant species could be categorized as one of endangered species. At present, economic value of this fruit is almost neglected and this is the main reason why not many people interested to cultivate this plant. In order to change the people opinion on this plant and to improve it economic value, study on the chemical content of this plant had been carried out. From the research work, it was founded that burahol fruit have a significant content of anti-oxidative compound. From the anti-oxidative analysis using DPPH (1,1-diphinil pycril hidrazil method, the lowest IC50 was showed by n-buthanol extract of flower (22.44 ppm and ethyl acetate extract of fruit (29.12 ppm. Flower part also showed low IC50 of ethyl acetate extract (35.07 ppm. Further purification through fractionation process of the plant extract was surprisingly followed by the decrease of anti-oxidative activity.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hsiung Pan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL-24, intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2. However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology.

  5. Ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by regulating COX-2/iNOS, inflammatory cytokine expression, MAP kinase pathways, the cell cycle and anti-oxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Dong Seob; Son, Hong Joo; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Hee Seob; Bae, Chang Joon; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinesis (A. cochinchinesis) is a medicine traditionally used to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease in northeast Asian countries. Although numerous studies of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. cochinchinesis have been conducted, the underlying mechanisms of such effects in macrophages remain to be demonstrated. To investigate the mechanism of suppressive effects on the inflammatory response in macrophages, alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) level, the cell viability, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels, inflammatory cytokine expression, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with ethyl acetate extract from A. cochinchinesis root (EaEAC). RAW264.7 cells pretreated two different concentrations of EaEAC prior to LPS treatment exhibited no significant toxicity. The concentration of NO was significantly decreased in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. A similar decrease in mRNA transcript level of COX-2, iNOS, pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) was detected in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group, although the decrease rate varied. Enhancement of the phosphorylation of MAPK family members following LPS treatment was partially rescued in the EaEAC pretreated group, and the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, the EaEAC pretreated group exhibited a reduced level of ROS generation compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC suppresses inflammatory responses through inhibition of NO production, COX-2 expression and ROS production, as well as

  6. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  7. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Activities of Flavonoids from Puerariae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results ...

  8. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  9. Anti-Obesity Activity of the Marine Carotenoid Fucoxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. A few molecular targets offer hope for anti-obesity therapeutics. One of the keys to success could be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid, exactly belonging to xanthophylls, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups. Fucoxanthin, which can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds, recently displayed its many physiological functions and biological properties. We reviewed recent studies and this article aims to explain essential background of fucoxanthin, focusing on its promising potential anti-obesity effects. In this respect, fucoxanthin can be developed into promising marine drugs and nutritional products, in order to become a helpful functional food.

  10. Anti-obesity activity of the marine carotenoid fucoxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-04-13

    Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. A few molecular targets offer hope for anti-obesity therapeutics. One of the keys to success could be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid, exactly belonging to xanthophylls, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups. Fucoxanthin, which can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds, recently displayed its many physiological functions and biological properties. We reviewed recent studies and this article aims to explain essential background of fucoxanthin, focusing on its promising potential anti-obesity effects. In this respect, fucoxanthin can be developed into promising marine drugs and nutritional products, in order to become a helpful functional food.

  11. Polysaccharides from Sargassum thunbergii: Monthly variations and anti-complement and anti-tumour activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weihua; Liu, Ge; Zhong, Weihong; Sun, Chaomin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2017-12-01

    Monthly variations of polysaccharides from Sargassum thunbergii and their anti-complement and anti-tumour activities were investigated. It was observed that an increase in fucose and total sugar contents occurred during the growth period (from early April to mid-June), accompanied by a decrease in molar ratios of other monosaccharides to fucose. The highest yields were obtained from early July to early September, which was in accordance with the significant increase in molar ratio of glucose to fucose and decrease in molar ratio of other monosaccharides to fucose. And the above results suggested that S. Thunbergii synthesized large amount of laminaran, the storage substance of brown algae, during the senescence period. However, sulfate contents were relatively stable in the life cycle of S. thunbergii. These results suggested that S. thunbergii synthesized complex sulfated heteropolysacchairdes during inactive period, while during other periods, it synthesized more sulfated galactofucan. All polysaccharides showed anti-complement activity, suggesting that the harvesting time did not influence the anti-complement activities. In the anti-tumour assay in vitro, the polysaccharides taken during the senescence period had much lower anti-tumour activity, suggesting that fucoidan, but not laminaran, determined the anti-tumour activities. Therefore, polysaccharides from S. thunbergii might have great potential in anti-complement and anti-tumour application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multinationals and Anti-sweatshop Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Harrison; Jason Scorse

    2010-01-01

    During the 1990s, anti-sweatshop activists campaigned to improve conditions for workers in developing countries. This paper analyzes the impact of anti-sweatshop campaigns in Indonesia on wages and employment. Identification is based on comparing the wage growth of workers in foreign-owned and exporting firms in targeted regions or sectors before and after the initiation of anti-sweatshop campaigns. We find the campaigns led to large real wage increases for targeted enterprises. There were so...

  13. Developing a Materialist Anti-Racist Approach to Language Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a materialist anti-racist approach to language activism. This approach combines Joshua Fishman's pioneering work on language activism with critical race theory and the recent materialist turn in applied linguistics. A materialist anti-racist approach to language activism, positions language policy within broader…

  14. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Radiation Safety, Chiba, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  15. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  16. Lectins with Anti-HIV Activity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Akkouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus. The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Anti-glication Effects of the Hexane Extract from Piper auritum Leaves in Vitro and Beneficial Activity on Oxidative Stress and Advanced Glycation End-Product-Mediated Renal Injury in Streptozotocin-Treated Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Neira Gonzalez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of hexane extracts from leaves of Piper auritum (HS. Eight complementary in vitro test methods were used, including inhibition of DPPH· radicals, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, ion-chelating, ABTS, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, β-carotene bleaching and peroxy radical scavenging. The results indicated that HS possesses high antioxidant activity. To add to these finding we tested the effect against oxidative stress in liver, pancreas and kidney in diabetic rats. Low levels of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in diabetic rats were reverted to near normal values after treatment with HS. These results suggest that P. auritum prevents oxidative stress, acting as a suppressor of liver cell damage. Given the link between glycation and oxidation, we proposed that HS might possess significant in vitro antiglycation activity. Our data confirmed the inhibitory effect of HS on bovine serum albumin, serum glycosylated protein, glycation of LDL, and glycation hemoglobin. The effect of HS on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of HS at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days significantly reduced advanced glycation endproduct (AGE formation, elevated renal glucose and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in the kidneys of diabetic rats. This implies that HS would alleviate the oxidative stress under diabetes through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidney and that HS can prevent renal damage associated with diabetes by attenuating the oxidative stress.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-arthritic activities of Indian Apis dorsata bee venom in experimental animals: biochemical, histological, and radiological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipate, S S; Hurali, Prakash B; Ghaisas, M M

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally venoms are used from thousands of years to treat pain, inflammation, and arthritis. In Ayurveda "Suchika Voron" and "Shodhona" were practiced against pain. In the present study, venom composition of the Indian honeybee Apis florea (AF), Apis dorsata (AD), and Apis cerana indica (AC) were analyzed using electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This venom analysis was used to shed light upon the correlation in structure and the venom composition among the three species in Indian fields. Among the three species, Indian Apis dorsata bee venom (ADBV) is evaluated for an anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive activity, and antiarthritic activity in different animal models. The effect of ADBV is revealed for its anti-arthritic activity in the FCA- and CIA-induced arthritis model in male Wistar rats. The immunosuppressant action of ADBV was studied by hemagglutination antibody titer. It has been found that ADBV possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. In FCA- and CIA-induced arthritis, ADBV able to decrease rheumatoid factor, pain perception parameters, C-reactive protein, erythrocytes sedimentation rate, urinary hydroxyproline, serum transaminase level, and serum nitric oxide level when compared with diseased control arthritic rats. IL-6, TNF-α level was found to be decrease by ADBV treatment in collagen induced arthritis model. Thus this study confirmed the scientific validation behind utilization of venom in Indian Apis dorsata bees in arthritis and inflammatory diseases which has been not reported till date.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activities of Chantaleela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic activity of Chantaleela recipe may act via mechanism at peripheral and partly central nervous system. In antipyretic test, Chantaleela recipe significantly decreased rectal temperature of brewer's yeast-induced hyperthermia rats, probably by inhibiting synthesis and/or release of prostaglandin E2 in the ...

  1. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  2. Anti-oxidant effect of extracts of kinnow rind, pomegranate rind and seed powders in cooked goat meat patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Narsaiah, K; Borah, A

    2010-05-01

    To overcome the disadvantages of using synthetic anti-oxidants in meat products, an investigation was carried out to evaluate the anti-oxidant effect of extracts of fruit by-products viz., kinnow rind powder (KRP), pomegranate rind powder (PRP) and pomegranate seed powder (PSP) in goat meat patties. Total phenolics content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and effect of these extracts on instrumental color, sensory attributes and TBARS values during storage (4+/-1 degrees C) of goat meat patties were evaluated. Results showed that these extracts are rich sources of phenolic compounds having free radical scavenging activity. Hunter Lab L value significantly (Pgoat meat patties was observed in PRP, PSP and KRP as compared to control patties. Average TBARS values (mg/kg meat) during refrigerated storage (4+/-1 degrees C) were significantly lower in PRP, followed by PSP and KRP as compared to control. The overall anti-oxidant effect was in the order of PRP>PSP>KRP. It was concluded that extracts of above fruits by-product powders have potential to be used as natural anti-oxidants in meat products. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-leishmanial and structure-activity relationship of ring substituted 3-phenyl-1-(1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalin-2-yl-2-propen-1-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Burguete

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of ring substituted 3-phenyl-1-(1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalin-2-yl-2-propen-1-one derivatives were synthesized and tested for in vitro leishmanicidal activity against amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis in axenical cultures and murine infected macrophages. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated the importance of a radical methoxy at position R3', R4' and R5'. (2E-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl-1-(3,6,7-trimethyl-1,4-dioxy-quinoxalin-2-yl-propenone was the most active. Cytotoxicity on macrophages revealed that this product was almost six times more active than toxic.

  4. Serum oxidative-anti-oxidative stress balance is dysregulated in patients with hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mamoru; Takaki, Akinobu; Tamaki, Naofumi; Maruyama, Takayuki; Onishi, Hideki; Kobayashi, Sayo; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Koike, Kazuko; Hagihara, Hiroaki; Kuwaki, Kenji; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Fusao; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with progression of chronic liver disease (CLD). This association is best established in chronic hepatitis C. However, the anti-oxidative state is not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to investigate the balance of oxidative and anti-oxidative stress in CLD patients. We recruited a study population of 208 patients, including healthy volunteers (HV; n = 15), patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related CLD without or with hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-non-HCC, n = 25, and HBV-HCC, n = 50, respectively), and patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related CLD without or with HCC (HCV-non-HCC, n = 49, and HCV-HCC, n = 69, respectively). Serum levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and anti-oxidative markers (OXY-adsorbent test; OXY) were determined, and the balance of these values was used as the oxidative index. Correlations among ROM, OXY, oxidative index and clinical characteristics were investigated. Patients with CLD exhibited elevated ROM and oxidative index compared to HV. Among patients with CLD, HCV positive status correlated with increased ROM. In CLD, HCV-HCC patients exhibited the highest ROM levels. Among HCV-related CLD patients, lower OXY correlated with HCC positive status, but was recovered by eradication of HCC. In HCV-HCC, lower OXY correlated with high PT-INR. HCV positive CLD patients displayed higher oxidative stress and HCV-HCC patients displayed lower anti-oxidative state. Anti-oxidative state depression was associated with liver reservoir-related data in HCV-HCC and could be reversed with HCC eradication. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the Amorphophallus Bulbifer in Wistar rats and mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroalcohol extract of A. bulbifer whole plant at dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. in rats was determined with a plethysmograph paw volume ...

  6. Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros Cordifolia Extract. S Das, PK Haldar, G Pramanik, SP Panda, S Bera. Abstract. In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia (MEDC) Roxb. The analgesic effects of the ...

  7. ANTI-MICROBIAL AND ANTI-AMOEBIC ACTIVITY SOME AZOMETHINES - POTENTIAL TEXTILE DYESTUFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new synthesized three azomethine derivatives applied in dyeing textiles checking the anti-microbial properties of active components, at the same time [1-3]. The emphasis is thrown on the verification of anti-microbial properties that are important for obtaining textile with significantly improved performance. All compounds were characterized and evaluated for their anti-microbial activity against 7 pathogenic bacteria, 1 parasitic protozoan and 1 fungus. It estimated anti-bacterial activity in vitro against the following microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Candida albicans. The anti-amoebic activity in vitro was evaluated against the HM1: IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica and the results were compared with the standard drug, metronidazole. The synthesized azomethines, showed very good substantivity for wool fibers, gave fine coloring, with good degree of exhaustion after dyeing. The combination of extended synthetic analogues of natural molecules leads to discovery of chemical entities which might be excellent anti-microbial and anti-amoebic compounds as depicted in our results. Being highly the effects this compound can be explored in future as an option for decreasing pathogenic potential of infecting from different sources. Azomethines containing hydrazone (dyestuff 1 and phenylhydrazone (dyestuff 2 as moiety show average yield and moderate inhibition activity while azomethines containing thiosemicarbazone (dyestuff 3 as moiety show higher yield and greater inhibition activity towards gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria as well as a fungus.

  8. Ferulic Acid Orchestrates Anti-Oxidative Properties of Danggui Buxue Tang, an Ancient Herbal Decoction: Elucidation by Chemical Knock-Out Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G W Gong

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid, a phenolic acid derived mainly from a Chinese herb Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR, was reported to reduce the formation of free radicals. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, a herbal decoction composing of Astragali Radix (AR and ASR, has been utilized for more than 800 years in China having known anti-oxidative property. Ferulic acid is a major active ingredient in DBT; however, the role of ferulic acid within the herbal mixture has not been resolved. In order to elucidate the function of ferulic acid within this herbal decoction, a ferulic acid-depleted herbal decoction was created and named as DBTΔfa. The anti-oxidative properties of chemically modified DBT decoction were systemically compared in cultured H9C2 rat cardiomyoblast cell line. The application of DBT and DBTΔfa into the cultures showed functions in (i decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, detected by laser confocal; (ii increasing of the activation of Akt; (iii increasing the transcriptional activity of anti-oxidant response element (ARE; and (iv increasing the expressions of anti-oxidant enzymes, i.e. NQO1 and GCLM. In all scenario, the aforementioned anti-oxidative properties of DBTΔfa in H9C2 cells were significantly reduced, as compared to authentic DBT. Thus, ferulic acid could be an indispensable chemical in DBT to orchestrate multi-components of DBT as to achieve maximal anti-oxidative functions.

  9. Secapin, a bee venom peptide, exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Choi, Yong Soo; Jin, Byung Rae

    2016-10-01

    Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents that have various biological, toxicological, and pharmacological actions. However, the biological actions of secapin, a venom peptide in bee venom, remain largely unknown. Here, we provide the evidence that Asiatic honeybee (Apis cerana) secapin (AcSecapin-1) exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities. The recombinant mature AcSecapin-1 peptide was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. AcSecapin-1 functions as a serine protease inhibitor-like peptide that has inhibitory effects against plasmin, elastases, microbial serine proteases, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Consistent with these functions, AcSecapin-1 inhibited the plasmin-mediated degradation of fibrin to fibrin degradation products, thus indicating the role of AcSecapin-1 as an anti-fibrinolytic agent. AcSecapin-1 also inhibited both human neutrophil and porcine pancreatic elastases. Furthermore, AcSecapin-1 bound to bacterial and fungal surfaces and exhibited anti-microbial activity against fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the bee venom peptide secapin has multifunctional roles as an anti-fibrinolytic agent during fibrinolysis and an anti-microbial agent in the innate immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  11. Theranostic carbon dots derived from garlic with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Hansen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages....

  12. Oxidative stress in patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus and healthy subjects with anti-desmoglein 1 antibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ericson Leonardo; Ramos, Willy; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Tello, Mercedes; Ronceros, Gerardo; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G.

    2018-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown oxidative stress in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, nevertheless, it remains unknown whether a similar response is characteristic of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Peru. Objectives To determine the oxidative stress response in endemic pemphigus foliaceus patients and subjects with positive for anti-desmoglein1 antibodies (anti-dsg1) from endemic areas of Peru. Subjects and Methods This is a cross-sectional study. The study population included 21 patients with Endemic Pemphigus foliaceus and 12 healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies from the Peruvian Amazon (Ucayali), as well as 30 healthy control subjects. Malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation by free radicals, was measured in serum. Results We collected 21 cases of endemic pemphigus foliaceus, 15 of them with active chronic disease and 6 in clinical remission. Serum malondialdehyde values in patients with chronic active evolution and healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies were statistically higher than those of healthy controls (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between serum values of localized and generalized clinical forms. Study limitations The main limitation of this present study is the small number of patients with endemic pemphigus and healthy subjects positive for desmoglein 1 antibodies. Conclusions The increased serum levels of malondialdehyde in patients with chronic active endemic pemphigus foliaceus and healthy subjects from endemic areas with anti-dsg1 antibodies may suggest a contribution of systemic lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of endemic pemphigus foliaceus. PMID:29723379

  13. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of calyces from Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Reina M; Aragón, Diana M; Ospina, Luis F; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana calyces are used extensively in folk medicine. The crude ethanolic extract and some fractions of calyces were evaluated in order to explore antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the TPA-induced ear edema model. The antioxidant in vitro activity was measured by means of the superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions. The butanolic fraction was found to be promising due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, a bio-assay guided approach was employed to isolate and identify rutin (1) and nicotoflorin (2) from their NMR spectroscopic and MS data. The identification of rutin in calyces of P. peruviana supports the possible use of this waste material for phytotherapeutic, nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  14. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg–1, orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg–1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. PMID:26401358

  15. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg(-1), orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg(-1) for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility.

  16. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some anti-inflammatory drugs on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjizadeh, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghgoo, S. [Center of Quality Control of Drug, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-31

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of several anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, diclofenac and indomethacin) was investigated on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel (NHMN) electrode in alkaline solution. This oxidation process and its kinetics were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of drugs, the anodic peak current of low-valence nickel species increases, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This pattern indicates that drugs were oxidized on the redox mediator immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Ni(III) active sites and their subsequent consumption by drugs was also investigated. The corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer was developed and kinetic parameters were derived. In this context, the charge-transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through impedancemetry was used as a criterion. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of drugs and the electron-transfer coefficients are reported. A sensitive, simple and time-saving amperometric procedure was developed for the analysis of these drugs in bulk form and for the direct assay of tablets, using the NHMN electrode.

  17. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some anti-inflammatory drugs on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjizadeh, M.; Jabbari, A.; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A.; Haghgoo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of several anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, diclofenac and indomethacin) was investigated on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel (NHMN) electrode in alkaline solution. This oxidation process and its kinetics were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of drugs, the anodic peak current of low-valence nickel species increases, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This pattern indicates that drugs were oxidized on the redox mediator immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Ni(III) active sites and their subsequent consumption by drugs was also investigated. The corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer was developed and kinetic parameters were derived. In this context, the charge-transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through impedancemetry was used as a criterion. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of drugs and the electron-transfer coefficients are reported. A sensitive, simple and time-saving amperometric procedure was developed for the analysis of these drugs in bulk form and for the direct assay of tablets, using the NHMN electrode

  18. [In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from Ilex centrochinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-jun; Yu, Li-juan; Li, Yan-ci; Liu, Meng-yuan; Wu, Zheng-zhi

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from flex centrochinensis S. Y. Hu in vitro and their structure-activity relationship. LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage was used as inflammatory model. MTT assay for cell availability, Griess reaction for nitric oxide (NO) production, the content of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and PGE, were detected with ELISA kits; DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals scavenging activities were also investigated. According to the result, all flavans tested exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in different levels. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 showed potent anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NO, TNF-alpha, IL-lp and IL-6, of which 1 was the most effective inhibitor, however, 2 and 5 were relatively weak or inactive. The order of free radical scavenging activities was similar to that of anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, these results suggest that 3, 4 and 6, especially of 1, were,in part responsible for the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of Ilex centrochinensis. Hydroxyl group at 4'-position of B-ring plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging capacities.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Sanghuangporus sanghuang Mycelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Ching Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome. Therefore, our study aimed to test whether the mycelium extract of Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS-1, believed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be used against the excessive inflammatory response associated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. The experimental results showed that the administration of SS-1 could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. SS-1 could reduce the number of inflammatory cells, inhibit myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, regulate the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the signal transduction of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the lung tissue, and inhibit high mobility group box-1 protein 1 (HNGB1 activity in BALF. In addition, SS-1 could affect the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 and Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 in the lung tissue and regulate signal transduction in the KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor Nrf2/Kelch Like ECH associated Protein 1 (Keap1 pathway. Histological results showed that administration of SS-1 prior to induction could inhibit the large-scale LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissue. Therefore, based on all experimental results, we propose that SS-1 exhibits a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI in mice. The mycelium of S. sanghuang can potentially be used for the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  20. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin–graphene oxide conjugates: Carriers for anti-cancer drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jingting; Meng, Na; Fan, Yunting; Su, Yutian; Zhang, Ming [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Biological Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing 210023 (China); Xiao, Yinghong, E-mail: yhxiao@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Biological Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Ninglin, E-mail: zhouninglin@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Biological Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing 210023 (China); Nanjing Zhou Ninglin Advanced Materials Technology Company Limited, Nanjing 211505 (China)

    2016-04-01

    A novel drug carrier based on hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) modified carboxylated graphene oxide (GO-COOH) was designed to incorporate anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX). The formulated nanomedicines were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that PTX can be incorporated into GO-COO-HP-β-CD nanospheres successfully, with an average diameter of about 100 nm. The solubility and stability of PTX-loaded GO-COO-HP-β-CD nanospheres in aqueous media were greatly enhanced compared with the untreated PTX. The results of hemolysis test demonstrated that the drug-loaded nanospheres were qualified with good blood compatibility for intravenous use. In vitro anti-tumor activity was measured and results demonstrated that the incorporation of PTX into the newly developed GO-COO-HP-β-CD carrier could confer significantly improved cytotoxicity to the nanosystem against tumor cells than single application of PTX. GO-COO-HP-β-CD nanospheres may represent a promising formulation platform for a broad range of therapeutic agent, especially those with poor solubility. - Highlights: • Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) modified carboxylated graphene oxide (GO-COOH) was designed as a drug carrier. • The prepared PTX-loaded nanospheres can be dispersed in aqueous medium stably. • The GO-COO-HP-β-CD nanospheres are safe for blood-contact applications. • This newly developed PTX-delivery system could confer significantly improved cytotoxicity against tumor cells.

  1. Novel vanillin derivatives: Synthesis, anti-oxidant, DNA and cellular protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Matteo; Kay, Graeme; Megson, Ian; Kong Thoo Lin, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants have been the subject of intense research interest mainly due to their beneficial properties associated with human health and wellbeing. Phenolic molecules, such as naturally occurring Resveratrol and Vanillin, are well known for their anti-oxidant properties, providing a starting point for the development of new antioxidants. Here we report, for the first time, the synthesis of a number of new vanillin through the reductive amination reaction between vanillin and a selection of amines. All the compounds synthesised, exhibited strong antioxidant properties in DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays, with compounds 1b and 2c being the most active. The latter also demonstrated the ability to protect plasmid DNA from oxidative damage in the presence of the radical initiator AAPH. At cellular level, neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were protected from oxidative damage (H 2 O 2 , 400 μM) with both 1b and 2c. The presence of a tertiary amino group, along with the number of vanillin moieties in the molecule contribute for the antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the delocalization of the electron pair of the nitrogen and the presence of an electron donating substituent to enhance the antioxidant properties of this new class of compounds. In our opinion, vanillin derivatives 1b and 2c described in this work can provide a viable platform for the development of antioxidant based therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-lipolytic activity and phytochemical screening ofChelianthesalbomarginataagainst pathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Jarial

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic properties of selected fern, Chelianthusalbomarginataand to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic fern-extract (MFE of these ferns was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. MFE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (6-23mm zone of inhibition and was maximum against Enterobacter sp (23 mm. In addition, the MFE of C. albomarginatahad the best MIC values of 2.25µg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MFE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (66.5% against a porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%. This result showed that MFE of C. albomarginataunder optimal concentrationis not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities, that is to be beneficial in the body weight management.

  3. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Maeda, N; Falk, RJ; Assmann, KJM; Kallenberg, CGM; Jennette, JC

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In addition, NO radicals derived from eNOS inhibit platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and, thus, may have anti-inflammatory effects. To study

  4. Saponins from Panax japonicus attenuate D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment through its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Di, Guojie; Yang, Li; Dun, Yaoyan; Sun, Zhiwei; Wan, Jingzhi; Peng, Ben; Liu, Chaoqi; Xiong, Guangrun; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain ageing, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. SPJ were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were randomly divided into four groups: control group (saline), D-gal-treated group (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously), D-gal + SPJ groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) and vitamin E group (100 mg/kg). Rats were injected corresponding drugs once daily for 8 weeks. Neuroprotective effects of SPJ were evaluated by Morris water maze, histopathological observations, biochemical assays, western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in vivo as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and apoptosis assay in vitro. Our present study showed that D-gal had a neurotoxic effect in rats and in SH-SY5Y cells due to oxidative stress induction, including decreased total anti-oxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activity, ultimately leading to spatial learning and memory impairment in rats and ROS accumulation in SH-SY5Y cells. SPJ improved spatial learning and memory deficits, attenuated hippocampus histopathological injury and restored impaired anti-oxidative as well as anti-apoptotic capacities in D-gal-induced ageing rats. In addition, SPJ remarkably decreased lipofuscin levels, increased hippocampus nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue (SIRT1) protein levels and anti-oxidant genes expression such as manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), heme oxygenase (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) in D-gal-induced brain ageing. Our data suggested that D-gal induced multiple molecular and functional changes in brain similar to natural ageing process. SPJ protected brain from D-gal-induced neuronal

  5. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLIEFERA. LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K.N. Venkataswera; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Loganathan, V.; Nathan, S. Shanmuganathan

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant. PMID:22556890

  6. Electrophoretic characterization of D. melanogaster strains deficient in endogenous anti-oxidants in combination with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomar A, S.

    2012-01-01

    The free radicals derived of the oxygen and other reactive species are generated by endogenous processes as sub-products of the aerobic metabolism or by exogenous factors as the environmental pollution, the biological half life of these free radicals is of microseconds, but they have the capacity of reacting with any atom or molecule to its around causing oxidant stress and damage to molecules, cellular membranes and tissues. To counteract them, there is endogenous and exogenous anti-oxidants, the first ones are synthesized by the organism for maintaining the cellular homeostasis as the superoxide dismutase and catalase. There are recent evidences that indicate that the sodium cooper chlorophyllin (SCC) presents a dual effect reducing and/or increasing the induced genetic damage by different mutagenic agents. One hypothesis for this effect is that the SCC can act as oxidant per se or through some of their metabolites. Results more recent indicated that a similar of the SCC, the protoporphyrin-Ix, can produce genetic damage. In this work exogenous anti-oxidants were used, as the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or the bilirubin in the induction of endogenous anti-oxidants enzymes to evaluate the supposed oxidant activity of the SCC and/or their metabolites. Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in superoxide dismutase, catalase and withered were used and a rustic strain Canton-S as control. In the three experiments were treated 60 males of 1 day of age, with SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or bilirubin to one concentration of 69 m M during 12 days. Every 4 days 10 males were isolated to measure them the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results showed that the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix and bilirubin considered like anti-oxidants, were able to increase the induction of the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes. This result maybe is because they are able to generate reactive species of oxygen, as the anion superoxide and the hydrogen peroxide. Among the three

  7. On chemical activity of heavy metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of solid oxides of heavy nonferrous metals with sulfur and carbon is investigated. The results are discussed. Direct dependence of chemical activity of oxides on disordering of their crystal lattice at heating is established. Beginning of interaction in the systems studied is accompanied by change of oxide conductivity type

  8. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    time of the animals treated with either standard or extract. Pentazocin ... standard. Results: The extract showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the two test dose ..... effectiveness of analgesic agents in the tail- flick pain ...

  9. anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bedisag@yahoo.fr. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM,. EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS INHIBITED. LIPOXYGENASE L-1 AND CYCLOOXYGENASE OF ...

  10. ANTI-VIRAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCIRRHETINIC AND GLYCIRRHIZIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zarubaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious human disease. In the course of use of antiviral drugs drug-resistant strains of the virus are formed, resulting in reduced efficiency of the chemotherapy. The review describes the biological activity of glycirrhetinic (GLA and glycirrhizic (GA acids in terms of their use as a therapeutic agent for viral infections. So, these compounds are against a broad spectrum of viruses, including herpes, corona-, alphaand flaviviruses, human immunodeficiency virus, vaccinia virus, poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus. These data indicate that anti-viral effect of these compounds is due to several types of activity — direct antiviral effects, effects on cellular proand anti-viral and immunomodulating pathways, in particular by activation of innate immunity system. GA interferes with early steps of the viral reproductive cycle such as virus binding to its receptor, the absorption of the virus by endocytosis or virus decapsidation in the cytoplasm. This is due to the effect of GA-induced reduction of membrane fluidity. Thus, one mechanism for the antiviral activity of GA is that GA molecule increases the rigidity of cellular and viral membranes after incorporation in there. This results in increasing of energy threshold required for the formation of negative curvature at the fusion zones, as well as difficult lateral migration of the virus-receptor complexes. In addition, glycyrrhizin prevents interaction of viral nucleoprotein with cellular protein HMGB1, which is necessary for the viral life cycle. Glycyrrhizin also inhibits the induction of oxidative stress during influenza infection, exhibiting antioxidant properties, which leads to a reduction of virus-induced production of cytokines/chemokines, without affecting the replication of the virus. A wide spectrum of biological activity and effect on various aspects of the viral pathogenesis substantiate the effect of GA and GLA as a component

  11. Anti-oxidative effect of turmeric on frying characteristics of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Santinath; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is known to act as an anti-oxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-carcinogen. This study aimed to find out the thermal and oxidative stability of soybean oil when potatoes marinated with turmeric were deep fried in the oil. Two sets of experiment were carried out. In one set, 1 L of oil was heated for 24 h (8 h daily for 3 consecutive days) and 200 g of potato chips without any marination were fried each time twice daily. Foods were fried in batches to replicate the commercial practice of the food industries. The temperature maintained during the whole experiment was at 180-190 °C i.e. at the frying temperature. About 50 ml of the oil sample was collected after every 4 h. In the second set, another 1 L of soybean oil was heated for 24 h in the similar manner and potato chips marinated with turmeric was fried twice daily. Oil samples were collected as before and comparative studies were done. The chemical parameters like acid value, peroxide value, content of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) and fatty acid composition for all the oil samples of each set were determined. The comparative studies on peroxide value and content of HNE revealed that the antioxidant property of curcumin in turmeric helped in reducing the oxidation of the oil initially, but with increase in duration of time, the antioxidant potency got gradually reduced. The loss of unsaturated fatty acids were calculated from the fatty acid composition and it was found that loss of unsaturation in soybean oil where turmeric marinated potatoes were fried was 6.37 % while the controlled one showed 7.76 % loss after 24 h of heating. These results indicated higher thermal and oxidative stability of the soybean oil in presence of turmeric. However, the antioxidant effect gradually decreased with increase in duration of heating.

  12. Huperzine A attenuates hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Wang, Yang

    2014-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HI/R) injury may occur during liver transplantation and remains a serious concern in clinical practice. Huperzine A (HupA), an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese traditional medicine Huperzia serrata, has been demonstrated to possess anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic properties. In the present study, a rat model of HI/R was established by clamping the hepatic artery, the hepatoportal vein and the bile duct with a vascular clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 6 h under anesthesia. HupA was injected into the tail vein 5 min prior to the induction of HI/R at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg. The histopathological assessment of the liver was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assayed in the serum samples. The tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondiadehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were also measured spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, the protein expression of caspase‑3, Bcl‑2 and Bax in hepatic tissues was detected via western blot analysis. Treatment of Wistar rats with HupA at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg markedly attenuated HI/R injury as observed histologically. In addition, the significant reductions of serum ALT and AST were observed in HupA‑treated ischemic rats. Furthermore, HupA treatment enhanced the activity of hepatic tissue SOD, CAT and GSH, but decreased the MDA tissue content. Western blot analysis revealed elevated levels of Bcl‑2 expression but decreased Bax and caspase‑3 tissue expression at the protein level in the HupA‑treated group. The present data suggest that HupA attenuates the HI/R injury of rats through its anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic signaling pathways.

  13. Synergy of anti-CD40, CpG and MPL in activation of mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongyu; Felder, Mildred A R; Sondel, Paul M; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L

    2015-08-01

    Activation of macrophages is a prerequisite for their antitumor effects. Several reagents, including agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD40), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), can stimulate activation of macrophages. Our previous studies showed synergy between anti-CD40 and CpG and between anti-CD40 and MPL in macrophage activation and antitumor efficacy in mice. In the present study, we asked whether there was synergy among these three reagents. The activation of adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from mice injected with anti-CD40 and then treated with CpG and/or MPL in vitro was determined by their ability to suppress proliferation of tumor cells and to produce various cytokines and chemokines in vitro. Cell sorting and histology followed by functional testing showed that macrophages were the main cell population in PEC activated by CD40 ligation in vivo. A combination of anti-CD40, CpG or MPL activated PEC to suppress proliferation of B16 cells and produce nitric oxide far greater than the single reagents or any of the double combinations of these reagents. In addition, the combination of all three reagents activated PEC to secrete IL-12, IFN-γ and MCP-1 to a greater degree than any single reagent or any two combined reagents. These results demonstrate that macrophages can be synergistically activated by anti-CD40, CpG and MPL, suggesting that this novel combined approach might be further investigated as potential cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergy of anti-CD40, CpG and MPL in activation of mouse macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongyu; Felder, Mildred A.R.; Sondel, Paul M.; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of macrophages is a prerequisite for their antitumor effects. Several reagents, including agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD40), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), can stimulate activation of macrophages. Our previous studies showed synergy between anti-CD40 and CpG and between anti-CD40 and MPL in macrophage activation and antitumor efficacy in mice. In the present study, we asked whether there was synergy among these three reagents. The activation of adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from mice injected with anti-CD40 and then treated with CpG and/or MPL in vitro was determined by their ability to suppress proliferation of tumor cells and to produce various cytokines and chemokines in vitro. Cell sorting and histology followed by functional testing showed that macrophages were the main cell population in PEC activated by CD40 ligation in vivo. A combination of anti-CD40, CpG or MPL activated PEC to suppress proliferation of B16 cells and produce nitric oxide far greater than the single reagents or any of the double combinations of these reagents. In addition, the combination of all three reagents activated PEC to secrete IL-12, IFN-γ and MCP-1 to a greater degree than any single reagent or any two combined reagents. These results demonstrate that macrophages can be synergistically activated by anti-CD40, CpG and MPL, suggesting that this novel combined approach might be further investigated as potential cancer therapy. PMID:25829245

  15. Determination of Antioxidant and Anti-Melanogenesis Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) while anti-melanogensis activity was evaluated by tyrosinase enzyme activity and B16 melanoma cell assays (melanin inhibition and cytotoxicity).

  16. Comparative study of the anti-oxidant activity of the total polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus Sabdariffa L., Glycine max L. Merr., yellow tea and red wine through reaction with DPPH free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Andzi Barhé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is part of the evaluation of extracts of Glycine max L. Merr and Hibiscus L. Sabdariffa as antioxidants. A comparative study was performed with extracts of yellow tea and commercial red wine, two foods known for their antioxidant activity. The method applied is free radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH°. The antioxidant properties were identified and measured by the determining the anti-radical activity reducing index, expressed in percentage % RSA (Radical Scavenger Activity, and by the determination of the colouring intensity (IC50. All results are compared to those of ascorbic acid as reference antioxidant. The results indicate the following order for the antioxidant power of the extracts tested. % RSA (tea > % RSA (Glycine max % > RSA (red wine % > RSA (Sabdariffa Hibiscus, and colouring intensities (IC50 ranging from 4.62 μM (ascorbic acid to 1.10 μM (Hibiscus sabdariffa correlated with their chemical structure and the content of phenolic compounds.

  17. In-vitro antioxidant and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities of aerial parts of Cassia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasu P. Mehta

    2017-05-01

    The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured using scavenging of 2,2′-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH, bleaching of β-carotene and % inhibition of H2O2. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema method on Wistar albino rats. The etahnolic extracts of aerial parts of C. siamea and C. javanica were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity against the animal model of female Wistar albino rats. Ethanol extracts showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects. The contents of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds could be correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities observed for C. siamea and C. javanica. Our findings suggest that aerial parts of C. siamea and C. javanica contain potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, which could be tested as drug candidates against oxidative and inflammation-related pathological processes in medicinal chemistry studies.

  18. Role of gastric antioxidant and anti-Helicobactor pylori activities in antiulcerogenic activity of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R K; Sairam, K; Rao, C V

    2001-07-01

    Studies with plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) have indicated its ulcer protective and healing activities through its predominant effect on various mucosal defensive factors [Sanyal et.al, Arch Int Pharmacodyn, 149 (1964) 393; 155 (1965) 244]. Oxidative stress and Helicobactorpylori colonization are considered to be important factors in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers. In the present study methanolic extract of plantain banana pulp (BE) was evaluated for its (i) antiulcer and antioxidant activities in 2 hr cold restraint stress and (ii) anti-H.pylori activity in vitro. The extract (BE, 50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) showed significant antiulcer effect and antioxidant activity in gastric mucosal homogenates, where it reversed the increase in ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase values induced by stress. However it did not produce any change in catalase values, which was significantly decreased by stress. Further, in the in vitro study. BE (0.32-1,000 microg/ml) did not show any anti-H.pylori activity. The results suggest absence of anti-H. pyloric activity of methanolic extract of banana in vitro and its antioxidant activity may be involved in its ulcerprotective activity.

  19. Synthetic polymeric substrates as potent pro-oxidant versus anti-oxidant regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hak-Joon; Chandra, Prafulla; Treiser, Matthew D; Liu, Er; Iovine, Carmine P; Moghe, Prabhas V; Kohn, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell signal transduction pathways emanating from engineered cell substrates remains unclear. To elucidate the role, polymers derived from the amino acid L-tyrosine were used as synthetic matrix substrates. Variations in their chemical properties were created by co-polymerizing hydrophobic L-tyrosine derivatives with uncharged hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 1,000 Da), and negatively charged desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT). These substrates were characterized for their intrinsic ability to generate ROS, as well as their ability to elicit Saos-2 cell responses in terms of intracellular ROS production, actin remodeling, and apoptosis. PEG-containing substrates induced both exogenous and intracellular ROS production, whereas the charged substrates reduced production of both types, indicating a coupling of exogenous ROS generation and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, PEG-mediated ROS induction caused nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and an increase in caspase-3 activity, confirming a link with apoptosis. PEG-rich pro-oxidant substrates caused cytoskeletal actin remodeling through beta-actin cleavage by caspase-3 into fractins. The fractins co-localized to the mitochondria and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The remnant cytosolic beta-actin was polymerized and condensed, events consistent with apoptotic cell shrinkage. The cytoskeletal remodeling was integral to the further augmentation of intracellular ROS production. Conversely, the anti-oxidant DT-containing charged substrates suppressed the entire cascade of apoptotic progression. We demonstrate that ROS activity serves an important role in "outside-in" signaling for cells grown on substrates: the ROS activity couples exogenous stress, driven by substrate composition, to changes in intracellular signaling. This signaling causes cell apoptosis, which is mediated by actin remodeling.

  20. Syntheses, characterization, and anti-cancer activities of pyridine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to their potent anti-oxidant properties in addition to several other .... similar procedure with an identical scale was followed ... H2Lp−OMe (1.0 g, 0.0026 mmol) was dissolved in .... tion of 1 × 104 cells/well in 200 μL of complete ..... Interestingly, liquid holding conditions ..... Xue Y L, Zhang Y G and Liu X H 2012 Asian J. Chem.

  1. Anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa fruits: possible role in prevention of diabetic complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ibrar; Ahmad, Haroon; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycationend products (AGE's) in the body, due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is associated with several pathological conditions like aging and diabetes mellitus. Hence a plant having anti-glycation and anti-oxidation potentials may serve as therapeutic agent for diabetic complications and aging. In this study the anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of crude methanolic extracts of fruits of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa were investigated. Among the two C. frutescens had more anti-glycation ability with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 90βg/mLas compared to 324βg/mL MIC50 of C. longa. Curcuma longa had the more anti-oxidation potential i.e. 35.01, 30.83 and 28.08% at 0.5mg, 0.25mg and 0.125mg respectively.

  2. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, V; Sruthi, V; Padmaja, B; Asha, V V

    2011-04-12

    To determine anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflexa in cell lines (in vitro). Anti-inflammatory activity of the water extract was analysed in vitro using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory reactions in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The expression of COX-2 and TNF-α genes involved in inflammation was analysed by SQ RT-PCR. EMSA was conducted to analyse the influence of the extract on NF-κB signalling. Anti-cancer activity was analysed on Hep3B cells by MTT assay, DAPI staining, annexin V staining and SQ-RT PCR analysis of BAX, Bcl-2, p53 and survivin. The extract down regulated LPS induced over expression of TNF-α and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells; blocked NF-κB binding to its motifs and induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells as evidenced from MTT, DAPI staining and annexin V staining assays. The extract up regulated pro-apoptotic factors BAX and p53, and down regulated anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and survivin. The study showed that Cuscuta reflexa inhibits LPS induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells through interplay of TNF-α, COX-2 and NF-κB signalling. It induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells through the up regulation of p53, BAX and down regulation of Bcl-2 and survivin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioactivity screening of microalgae for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eLauritano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are considered a potentially new and valuable source of biologically active molecules for applications in the food industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic sectors. They can be easily cultured, have short generation times and enable an environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery by overcoming problems associated with the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. In this study, 21 diatoms, 7 dinoflagellates and 4 flagellate species were grown in three different culturing conditions and the corresponding extracts were tested for possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes, antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In addition, for two diatoms we also tested two different clones to disclose diversity in clone bioactivity. Six diatom species displayed specific anti-inflammatory, anticancer (blocking human melanoma cell proliferation and anti-biofilm (against the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis activities whereas, none of the other microalgae were bioactive against the conditions tested for. Furthermore, none of the 6 diatom species tested were toxic on normal human cells. Culturing conditions (i.e. nutrient starvation conditions greatly influenced bioactivity of the majority of the clones/species tested. This study denotes the potential of diatoms as sources of promising bioactives for the treatment of human pathologies.

  4. Improving Asphalt Mixtures Performance by Mitigating Oxidation Using Anti-Oxidants Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessouky, Samer; Diaz, Manuel

    Polymer modified additives are typically used to improve rheological properties of asphalt binder as well as mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mix. In this study, polymer-modified binder PG70-22 is mixing with two co-polymers enhanced with anti-oxidant agents namely; Solution Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SSBR) and Solution Ethylene-Butylene/Styrene (SEBS). The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of those additives into the rheological properties of the asphalt binder using temperature sweep test and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes. The aging index is determined to evaluate the role of additives to reduce brittleness after aging of the binder. The performance of asphalt mixes were characterized by Hamburg Wheel Tracking Test for moisture damage, Beam Fatigue Test for fatigue properties and Flow Number Test for rutting performance. It is found that the asphalt mixes with enhanced binders are improving its rutting and moisture resistance but decreased its fatigue life compared to the control mix.

  5. Anti-cancer activities of diospyrin, its derivatives and analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-09-01

    Natural products have played a vital role in drug discovery and development process for cancer. Diospyrin, a plant based bisnaphthoquinonoid, has been used as a lead molecule in an effort to develop anti-cancer drugs. Several derivatives/analogues have been synthesized and screened for their pro-apoptotic/anti-cancer activities so far. Our review is focused on the pro-apoptotic/anti-cancer activities of diospyrin, its derivatives/analogues and the different mechanisms potentially involved in the bioactivity of these compounds. Particular focus has been placed on the different mechanisms (both chemical and molecular) thought to underlie the bioactivity of these compounds. A brief bioinformatics analysis at the end of the article provides novel insights into the new potential mechanisms and pathways by which these compounds might exert their effects and lead to a better realization of the full therapeutic potential of these compounds as anti-cancer drugs. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-cancer activities of diospyrin, its derivatives and analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2010-01-01

    Natural products have played a vital role in drug discovery and development process for cancer. Diospyrin, a plant based bisnaphthoquinonoid, has been used as a lead molecule in an effort to develop anti-cancer drugs. Several derivatives/analogues have been synthesized and screened for their pro-apoptotic/anti-cancer activities so far. Our review is focused on the pro-apoptotic/anti-cancer activities of diospyrin, its derivatives/analogues and the different mechanisms potentially involved in the bioactivity of these compounds. Particular focus has been placed on the different mechanisms (both chemical and molecular) thought to underlie the bioactivity of these compounds. A brief bioinformatics analysis at the end of the article provides novel insights into the new potential mechanisms and pathways by which these compounds might exert their effects and lead to a better realization of the full therapeutic potential of these compounds as anti-cancer drugs. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. O2-(6-Oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl)methyl diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolates: a new class of nitric oxide donors activatable by GSH/GSTπ with both anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic activities against melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chengfeng; Xue, Rongfang; Wu, Jianbing; Lv, Tian; Luo, Xiaojun; Huang, Yun; Gong, Yan; Zhang, Honghua; Zhang, Yihua; Huang, Zhangjian

    2017-05-02

    The new nitric oxide (NO) donor O 2 -(6-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl)methyl diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 3c could simultaneously liberate NO as well as an active 3-glutathionyl-2-exomethylene-cyclohexanone 2 in the presence of GSH/GSTπ; exhibit potent antiproliferative activity; repress migration, invasion, and lateral migration of metastatic B16-BL6 cells; and significantly decrease hetero-adhesion of B16-BL6 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  8. Activity incorporation into zinc doped PWR oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, Kari

    1998-01-01

    Activity incorporation into the oxide layers of PWR primary circuit constructional materials has been studied in Halden since 1993. The first zinc injection tests showed that zinc addition resulted in thinner oxide layers on new metal surfaces and reduced further incorporation of activity into already existing oxides. These tests were continued to find out the effects of previous zinc additions on the pickup of activity onto the surface oxides which were subsequently exposed to zinc-free coolant. The results showed that previous zinc addition will continue to reduce the rate of Co-60 build-up on out-of-core surfaces in subsequent exposure to zinc-free coolants. However, the previous Zn free test was performed for a relatively short period of time and the water chemistry programme was continued to find out the long term effects for extended periods without zinc. The activity incorporation into the stainless steel oxides started to increase as soon as zinc dosing to the coolant was stopped. The Co-60 concentration was lowest on all of the coupons which were first oxidised in Zn containing primary coolant. After the zinc injection period the thickness of the oxides increased, but activity in the oxide films did not increase at the same rate. This could indicate that zinc in the oxide blocks the adsorption sites for Co-60 incorporation. The Co-60 incorporation rate into the oxides on Inconel 600 seemed to be linear whether the oxide was pre-oxidised with or without Zn. The results indicate that zinc can either replace or prevent cobalt transport in the oxides. The results show that for zinc injection to be effective it should be carried out continuously. Furthermore the actual mechanism by which Zn inhibits the activity incorporation into the oxides is still not clear. Therefore, additional work has to follow with specified materials to verify the conclusions drawn in this work. (author)

  9. Anti-oxidative and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of ethyl acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2016; 15 (6): 1175-1181 ... microglia were used to study the expression and production of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) ... Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis.

  10. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  11. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-?B Activation in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract (VBME) on microglial activation and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action of these effects. The anti-inflammatory properties of VBME were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. We measured the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?),...

  12. Involvement of the Acr3 and DctA anti-porters in arsenite oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Shi, Zunji; Bothner, Brian; Wang, Gejiao; McDermott, Timothy R

    2015-06-01

    Microbial arsenite (AsIII) oxidation forms a critical piece of the arsenic cycle in nature, though our understanding of how and why microorganisms oxidize AsIII remains rudimentary. Our model organism Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A contains two distinct ars operons (ars1 and ars2) that are similar in their coding region content. The ars1 operon is located nearby the aio operon that is essential for AsIII oxidation. The AsIII/H(+) anti-porters encoded by acr3-1 and acr3-2 are required for maximal AsIII and antimonite (SbIII) resistance, but acr3-1 (negatively regulated by ArsR-1) appears more active in this regard and also required for AsIII oxidation and expression of aioBA. A malate-phosphate anti-porter DctA is regulated by RpoN and AsIII, and is required for normal growth with malate as a sole carbon source. Qualitatively, a ΔdctA mutant was normal for AsIII oxidation and AsIII/SbIII resistance at metalloid concentrations inhibitory to the Δacr3-1 mutant; however, aioBA induction kinetics was significantly phase-shift delayed. Acr3 involvement in AsIII/SbIII resistance is reasonably well understood, but the role of Acr3 and DctA anti-porters in AsIII oxidation and its regulation is unexpected, and suggests that controlled AsIII trafficking across the cytoplasmic membrane is important to a process understood to occur in the periplasm. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Anti-Oxidant effects of pomegranate juice on Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Pomegranate juice has a positive effect on fatty acid, vitamin and protein synthesis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accordingly, we believe that it has significantly decreased oxidative damage thereby making a positive impact on yeast development. Key words: Pomegranate juice, SDS-PAGE, fatty acid, vitamin.

  14. Anti-Oxidative, Metal Chelating and Radical Scavenging Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (8): 1349-1355. ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... 3 kDa fraction against oxidative protein damage were comparable to that of reduced glutathione. ... optimum temperatures of each protease, namely .... exhibited concentration-dependent increase in .... Ability of Ethanol Extracts of Hypericum Scabrum L.

  15. Anti-leishmanial and Anti-cancer Activities of a Pentacyclic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and anti-cancer activity on K562 leukaemic cell line. Results: A .... crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia was used for this test. The cells ... containing 1×106 cells/ml, 2 mM L-glutamine and 50 µg/ml ...

  16. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models (anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing response method. The water extract of I. asarifolia in doses of ...

  17. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male rats. Antiinflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan and histamine induced oedema right hind paw volume while the ...

  18. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  19. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at screening the methanol tuber extract of Chlorophytum alismifolium for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities using experimental animal models. The antinociceptive activity was tested using acetic acid-induced writhing response in Swiss albino mice and formalininduced pain in Wistar rats, ...

  20. Anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides extracted from Senecio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *, Bao Zhang, Mingming Han, Xin Jin, Liyuan Sun and Tao Li. Department of ..... Yang J, Li X, Xue Y, Wang N, Liu W. Anti-hepatoma activity and mechanism of corn ... Peng W, Wu JG, Jiang YB, Liu YJ, Sun T, Wu N, Wu CJ. Antitumor activity of ...

  1. Anti-tuberculosis activity of -lactam antibiotics: prospects for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review is prepared to show results on the anti-TB activity of -lactam antibiotics. -Lactams are among the oldest drugs with little or no side effects. Both in vitro studies and clinical data indicate that -lactams have a promising activity for use in the management of MDR-TB. More studies are required to define the interaction ...

  2. Anti-proliferative activity of recombinant melittin expressed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant melittin was then successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The activity of affinity-purified recombinant melittin was determined in human leukemic U937 cells. Results show that the recombinant melittin had the same anti-proliferative activity in human leukemic U937 cells in vitro as natural one. This shows the ...

  3. Effect of Graphene Oxide on Anti-aging Property of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The blends with higher damping performance was prepared based on nitrile butadiene rubber(NBR with addition of graphene oxide(GO and modified graphene oxide(MGO prepared by improved Hammer method. Meanwhile, the damping property and the anti-aging property of the blends were investigated by DMA, AFM, SEM and so forth. The results show that after the addition of the GO and MGO, the tangent of loss angle(tanδ increases and also the anti-aging property is improved. When adding less amount of GO in the matrix, the anti-aging property is better; when adding MGO in the matrix, the amount of addition is not obviously related with the anti-aging property of the blends. The dispersion of GO and MGO has positive correlation with its anti-aging property. By microscopic analysis, the main reason for the decrease of anti-aging property of the blends is the agglomeration of the GO. The interface effect formed by the addition of MGO and GO is the main reason for its high damping property and anti-aging property.

  4. Anti-leukemic activity and tolerability of anti-human CD47 monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, E C; Dong, J; Cardoso, R; Zhang, X; Chin, D; Hawkins, R; Dinh, T; Zhou, M; Strake, B; Feng, P-H; Rocca, M; Santos, C Dos; Shan, X; Danet-Desnoyers, G; Shi, F; Kaiser, E; Millar, H J; Fenton, S; Swanson, R; Nemeth, J A; Attar, R M

    2017-01-01

    CD47, a broadly expressed cell surface protein, inhibits cell phagocytosis via interaction with phagocyte-expressed SIRPα. A variety of hematological malignancies demonstrate elevated CD47 expression, suggesting that CD47 may mediate immune escape. We discovered three unique CD47-SIRPα blocking anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with low nano-molar affinity to human and cynomolgus monkey CD47, and no hemagglutination and platelet aggregation activity. To characterize the anti-cancer activity elicited by blocking CD47, the mAbs were cloned into effector function silent and competent Fc backbones. Effector function competent mAbs demonstrated potent activity in vitro and in vivo, while effector function silent mAbs demonstrated minimal activity, indicating that blocking CD47 only leads to a therapeutic effect in the presence of Fc effector function. A non-human primate study revealed that the effector function competent mAb IgG1 C47B222-(CHO) decreased red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit and hemoglobin by >40% at 1 mg/kg, whereas the effector function silent mAb IgG2σ C47B222-(CHO) had minimal impact on RBC indices at 1 and 10 mg/kg. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting CD47 is an attractive therapeutic anti-cancer approach. However, the anti-cancer activity observed with anti-CD47 mAbs is Fc effector dependent as are the side effects observed on RBC indices. PMID:28234345

  5. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyoung Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish from 2006 to the present.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Varun, B

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use.

  7. Novel direct factor Xa inhibitory compounds from Tenebrio molitor with anti-platelet aggregation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Kim, Mi-Ae; Park, InWha; Hwang, Jae Sam; Na, MinKyun; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2017-11-01

    Tenebrio molitor is an edible insect that has antimicrobial, anticancer, and antihypertensive effects. The aim of this study was to identify the unreported bioactive compounds from T. molitor larvae with inhibitory activities against factor Xa (FXa) and platelet aggregation. Isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-FXa and anti-platelet aggregation properties by monitoring clotting time, platelet aggregation, FXa activity, and thrombus formation. A diketopiperazine (1, cyclo( L -Pro- L -Tyr)) and a phenylethanoid (2, N-acetyltyramine) were isolated and inhibited the catalytic activity of FXa in a mixed inhibition model and inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and U46619. They inhibited ADP- and U46619-induced phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) and the expression of P-selectin and PAC-1 in platelets. They also improved the production of nitric oxide and inhibited the oversecretion of endothelin-1 compared to that of the ADP- or U46619-treated group. In an animal model of arterial and pulmonary thrombosis, the isolated compounds showed enhanced antithrombotic effects. They also elicited anticoagulant effects in mice. Compounds 1-2 inhibited ADP-, collagen-, or U46619-induced platelet aggregation and showed similar anti-thrombotic efficacy to rivaroxaban, a positive control. Therefore, 1-2 could serve as candidates and provide scaffolds for the development of new anti-FXa and anti-platelet drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-allergic activity of sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2011-02-01

    From the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (CRE), several major constituents including the sesquiterpene derivatives (valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide), monoterpenes (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) and 4-cymene were isolated and examined for their anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. In rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells, the sesquiterpenes strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed leukotrienes production. In addition, they inhibited β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, with valencene having the highest inhibitory effect. CRE inhibited leukotrienes production and β-hexosaminidase release at 300 μg/mL. It was also found that the most active sesquiterpene (valencene) and CRE inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation by inhibiting the initial activation reaction, Lyn phosphorylation, in IgE-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, CRE, valencene and nootkatone significantly inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice when administered orally at 50-300 mg/kg. In conclusion, C. rotundus and its constituents, valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide, exert anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. These sesquiterpenes, but not monoterpenes, certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of C. rotundus.

  9. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim Ethanol Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Meng, Ning; Chang, Bingquan; Quan, Xianghua; Yuan, RuiYing; Li, Bin

    2018-04-05

    Epimedium brevicornu Maxim has been used as a traditional herbal drug in China. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of E. brevicornu Maxim ethanol extract (EBME) were investigated in RAW264.7 macrophages and mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that EBME attenuated inflammation by decreasing the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. EBME increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. The inhibitory effects of EBME on LPS-stimulated NO and PGE 2 expression were partially reversed by HO-1 inhibitor. EBME also elicited an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced peritonitis. Therefore, EBME exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-neuroinflammatory Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in activated microglial cells has not been studied. Microglia are ... modulation frequency, 100 kHz; modulation amplitude, 2 G ... with 5 % non‐fat milk, the membranes were ..... reactive nitrogen oxides mediate neuronal cell death. Brain Res ...

  11. Anti-nucleosome antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: Relation to anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and disease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada Ali Abdalla

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Anti-NCS antibodies could play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE and is related to disease activity. Its association with anti-dsDNA antibodies and its presence in those with negative anti-ds DNA may aid in the diagnosis of SLE.

  12. An essential role of Nrf2 in American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinqing; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Jin, Yu; Hofseth, Lorne J; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Windust, Anthony; Cui, Taixing

    2010-07-20

    Ginseng has been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in Asia, and has become a popular herbal medicine world-wide. Recent studies have revealed that ginseng, including American ginseng, exerts antioxidant effects in the cardiovascular system; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated role of Nrf2, a master transcription factor of endogenous anti-oxidative defense systems, in the regulation of American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes. A standardized crude extract of American ginseng was supplied by the National Research Council of Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards. H9C2 cells, a rat cardiomyocyte cell line, were exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) to induce oxidative stress that was examined by measuring formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Oxidative stress-induced cell death was induced by exogenous addition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Proteins were measured by Western blot and mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real time PCR. Nrf2-driven transcriptional activity was assessed by antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter assay. Direct Nrf2 binding to its target gene promoters was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Adenoviral over-expression of Nrf2 shRNA was utilized to knock down Nrf2 in H9C2 cells. Immunochemical staining was applied for Nrf2 expression in the heart. American ginseng induced dramatic increases in Nrf2 protein expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Nrf2 transcriptional activity, direct Nrf2 binding to its target gene promoters, and expression of a group of anti-oxidative genes driven by Nrf2 in H9C2 cells. In addition, American ginseng inhibited Ang II- or TNFalpha-induced free radical formation and H(2)O(2)-induced cell death in H9C2 cells over-expressed with control shRNA but not in the cells over-expressed with Nrf2 shRNA. Finally, oral

  13. Antioxidant, Anti-Glycation and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Phenolic Constituents from Cordia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine compounds have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of C. sinensis, namely protocatechuic acid (1, trans-caffeic acid (2, methyl rosmarinate (3, rosmarinic acid (4, kaempferide-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7, kaempferide-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (8 and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranosyl (1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (9, all reported for the first time from this species. The structures of these compounds were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic studies, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1–9 were investigated for biological activity and showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageen induced rat paw edema test. The antioxidant activities of isolated compounds 1–9 were evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging test, and compounds 1, 2, 4 and 7–9 exhibited marked scavenging activity compared to the standard BHA. These compounds were further studied for their anti-glycation properties and some compounds showed significant anti-glycation inhibitory activity. The purity of compounds 2–5, 8 and 9 was confirmed by HPLC. The implications of these results for the chemotaxonomic studies of the genus Cordia have also been discussed.

  14. Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic constituents from Cordia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musayeib, Nawal; Perveen, Shagufta; Fatima, Itrat; Nasir, Muhammad; Hussain, Ajaz

    2011-12-08

    Nine compounds have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of C. sinensis, namely protocatechuic acid (1), trans-caffeic acid (2), methyl rosmarinate (3), rosmarinic acid (4), kaempferide-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), kaempferide-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (8) and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranosyl (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), all reported for the first time from this species. The structures of these compounds were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic studies, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1-9 were investigated for biological activity and showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageen induced rat paw edema test. The antioxidant activities of isolated compounds 1-9 were evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging test, and compounds 1, 2, 4 and 7-9 exhibited marked scavenging activity compared to the standard BHA. These compounds were further studied for their anti-glycation properties and some compounds showed significant anti-glycation inhibitory activity. The purity of compounds 2-5, 8 and 9 was confirmed by HPLC. The implications of these results for the chemotaxonomic studies of the genus Cordia have also been discussed.

  15. Influence of γ ionizing radiation on anti-oxidative effect of vegetables polyphenolic parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuyck, S.; Connaulte, J.; Lesgards, G.; Prost, M.; Raffi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation of vegetables is a cleaning up and preservation physical treatment which consists in submitting them to γ radiation, X radiation or electrons beam. This study deals with the influence of γ radiation on anti-oxidative effect of vegetables polyphenolic parts. In that purpose, we use a simple biological test based on erythrocytes hemolysis. (authors)

  16. CuZnSOD gene expression and its relationship with anti-oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the minimum in the LY. The proportion of gene expression was positively correlated with the anti-oxidative capacity in muscle. The expression of the CuZnSOD gene was positively correlated with meat colour and tenderness; and negatively correlated with marbling score, drip loss, cooking loss and intramuscular fat.

  17. Anti-radical power gives insight into early lipid oxidation events during frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to use anti-radical power (ARP) to study early lipid oxidation events during frying. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH¿) test was used to determine the ARP. As oil does not dissolve completely in methanol, which is generally used for the DPPH¿ test, butanol

  18. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet activities of Buddleja crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Ishfaq A; Gilani, Anwar H; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Saeed, Anjum

    2016-02-25

    Buddleja crispa Benth (Buddlejaceae) is a dense shrub; several species of genus Buddleja have been used in the management of various health conditions including pain and inflammation. The present study was aimed to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties of B. crispa. Male rats (220-270 gm,) and mice (25-30 gm) were randomly divided into different groups (n = 6). Various doses of plant extract of B. crispa, its fractions and pure compounds isolated from the plant were administered intraperitoneally (i.p). The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet activities were assessed using acetic acid and formalin-induced nociception in mice, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and arachidonic acid-induced platelets aggregation tests. The intraperitoneal administration of the methanolic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg), hexane fraction (10 and 25 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant inhibition (P < 0.01) of the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and attenuated formalin-induced reaction time of animals in second phase of the test. Pure compounds BdI-2, BdI-H3 and BH-3 isolated from B. crispa produced significant (P < 0.01) analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced and formalin tests. The crude extract of B. crispa (50-200 mg/kg i.p.) and its hexane fraction inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw edema with maximum inhibition of 65 and 71% respectively (P < 0.01). The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the plant extract and isolated pure compounds were comparable to diclofenac sodium. B. crispa plant extract (0.5-2.5 mg/mL) produced significant anti-platelet effect (P < 0.01) with maximum inhibition of 78% at 2.5 mg/ml. The findings from our present study suggest that B. crispa possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties. B. crispa could serve a potential novel source of compounds effective in pain and inflammatory conditions.

  19. QSAR models for anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoquinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Vijay H; Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Mahajan, Devidas T

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, predictive quantitative structure - activity relationship (QSAR) models for anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoquinolines have been developed. CORAL, which is freely available on internet (http://www.insilico.eu/coral), has been used as a tool of QSAR analysis to establish statistically robust QSAR model of anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoquinolines. Six random splits into the visible sub-system of the training and invisible subsystem of validation were examined. Statistical qualities for these splits vary, but in all these cases, statistical quality of prediction for anti-malarial activity was quite good. The optimal SMILES-based descriptor was used to derive the single descriptor based QSAR model for a data set of 112 aminoquinolones. All the splits had r(2)> 0.85 and r(2)> 0.78 for subtraining and validation sets, respectively. The three parametric multilinear regression (MLR) QSAR model has Q(2) = 0.83, R(2) = 0.84 and F = 190.39. The anti-malarial activity has strong correlation with presence/absence of nitrogen and oxygen at a topological distance of six.

  20. Conjugation of Inulin Improves Anti-Biofilm Activity of Chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiang; Liu, Jing; Li, Ruilian; Jiao, Siming; Feng, Cui; Wang, Zhuo A; Du, Yuguang

    2018-05-04

    Bacteria biofilm helps bacteria prevent phagocytosis during infection and increase resistance to antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium and is tightly associated with biofilm-related infections, which have led to great threat to human health. Chitosan, the only cationic polysaccharide in nature, has been demonstrated to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities, which, however, require a relative high dosage of chitosan. Moreover, poor water solubility further restricts its applications on anti-infection therapy. Inulins are a group of polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, and are widely used in processed foods. Compared to chitosan, inulin is very soluble in water and possesses a mild antibacterial activity against certain pathogenic bacteria. In order to develop an effective strategy to treat biofilm-related infections, we introduce a method by covalent conjugation of inulin to chitosan. The physicochemical characterization of the inulin⁻chitosan conjugate was assayed, and the anti-biofilm activity was evaluated against S. aureus biofilm. The results indicated that, as compared to chitosan, this novel polysaccharide⁻polysaccharide conjugate significantly enhanced activities against S. aureus either in a biofilm or planktonic state. Of note, the conjugate also showed a broad spectrum anti-biofilm activity on different bacteria strains and low cellular toxicity to mammalian cells. These results suggested that chitosan conjugation of inulin was a viable strategy for treatment against biofilm-related infections. This finding may further spread the application of natural polysaccharides on treatments of infectious disease.

  1. Attenuation of Diabetic Nephropathy by Carvacrol through Anti-oxidative Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Jamshidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is prevalent in many countries. Nephropathy is a main debate’s side effect. Role of oxidative stress is well known in induction of diabetic nephropathy while carvacrol is a potent anti-oxidant that might attenuate oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of carvacrol in decreasing nephropathy-induced oxidative damage in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty five Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided to 7 groups. The rats received alloxan (i.p., 200 mg/kg for induction of diabetes. After one week, fasting blood sugar (FBS was assessed and the rats with FBS>250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after alloxan injection, the blood urea (BUN and creatinine (Cr were determined for confirmation of inducing nephropathy. Then, the animals were treated with carvacrol for one week. Finally, they were anesthetized and blood was collected from animal’s heart for calculation of BUN and Cr. Furthermore, the kidneys were for oxidative stress markers such as glutathione capacity, protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Results: Our results showed that glutathione level and catalase activity significantly increased after treatment with carvacrol. Same results were found in rats that received vitamin E. Also, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, BUN and Cr levels significantly decreased after treatment with carvacrol in comparison with diabetic rats. Conclusion: Our results showed that carvacrol improved nephropathy-induced oxidative damage similar to vitamin E. Therefore, it may be suggested that carvacrol can be suggested as a useful supplement in decreasing diabetic complaints along with anti-diabetic drugs.

  2. Skin photoprotection by natural polyphenols: Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and DNA repair mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Joi A.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation in various skin diseases including premature aging of the skin and melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Chronic UV radiation exposure-induced skin diseases or skin disorders are caused by the excessive induction of inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, etc.. The use of chemopreventive agents, such as plant polyphenols, to inhibit these events in UV-exposed skin is gaining attention. Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents that can inhibit, reverse, or retard the process of these harmful events in the UV-exposed skin. A wide variety of polyphenols or phytochemicals, most of which are dietary supplements, have been reported to possess substantial skin photoprotective effects. This review article summarizes the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols, such as green tea polyphenols, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin and genistein, on UV-induced skin inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage, etc., with a focus on mechanisms underlying the photoprotective effects of these polyphenols. The laboratory studies conducted in animal models, suggest that these polyphenols have the ability to protect the skin from the adverse effects of UV radiation, including the risk of skin cancers. It is suggested that polyphenols may favorably supplement sunscreens protection, and may be useful for skin diseases associated with solar UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:19898857

  3. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions.

  4. Consumption of high-dose vitamin C (1250 mg per day) enhances functional and structural properties of serum lipoprotein to improve anti-oxidant, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-aging effects via regulation of anti-inflammatory microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Lim, So-Mang; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Woo, Moon-Jea; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Background Although the health effects of vitamin C are well known, its physiological effect on serum lipoproteins and microRNA still remain to be investigated, especially daily consumption of a high dosage. Objectives To investigate the physiological effect of vitamin C on serum lipoprotein metabolism in terms of its anti-oxidant and anti-glycation activities, and gene expression via microRNA regulation. Methods We analyzed blood parameters and lipoprotein parameters in young subjects (n = 46, 22 ± 2 years old) including smokers who consumed a high dose of vitamin C (1250 mg) daily for 8 weeks. Results Antioxidant activity of serum was enhanced with the elevation of Vit C content in plasma during 8 weeks consumption. In the LDL fraction, the apo-B48 band disappeared at 8 weeks post-consumption in all subjects. In the HDL fraction, apoA-I expression was enhanced by 20% at 8 weeks, especially in male smokers. In the lipoprotein fraction, all subjects showed significantly reduced contents of advanced glycated end products and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Triglyceride (TG) contents in each LDL and HDL fraction were significantly reduced in all groups following the Vit C consumption, suggesting that the lipoprotein was changed to be more anti-inflammatory and atherogenic properties. Phagocytosis of LDL, which was purified from each individual, into macrophages was significantly reduced at 8-weeks post-consumption of vitamin C. Anti-inflammatory and anti-senescence effects of HDL from all subjects were enhanced after the 8-weeks consumption. The expression level of microRNA 155 in HDL3 was reduced by 49% and 75% in non-smokers and smokers, respectively. Conclusion The daily consumption of a high dose of vitamin C for 8 weeks resulted in enhanced anti-senescence and anti-atherosclerotic effects via an improvement of lipoprotein parameters and microRNA expression through anti-oxidation and anti-glycation, especially in smokers.

  5. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the volatile oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the qualitative methods used for the control of the antimicrobial activity, the method of diffusion on filter paper discs proved to be the most efficient, the results correlating well with the MIC. Our studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the natural compounds' of T. majus L. in anti-inflammatory treatments in animals.

  6. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background of study: Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances which can be used to treat various infectious diseases. Aim: The study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf. Methods: The acute ...

  7. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula ... Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, ... albino mice, while the phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and glycosides.

  8. Anti-Inflamatory and Analgesic Activities of Securidaca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used in many parts of Africa for the treatment of rheumatic conditions, fever, headache and various other inflammatory based diseases. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Securidaca longepedunculata ...

  9. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bovine mastitis is one of the most relevant and problematic diseases to treat and control in practice. Puxing Yinyang San (PYS) is a compound of herbs to treat bovine mastitis in China. This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of PYS in mice and rats. Materials and ...

  10. Synthesis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Microbial infections often produce pain and inflammation. Chemotherapeutic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed simultaneously in normal practice. The compound possessing all three activities is not common.The purpose of the present study was to examine whether molecular modification ...

  11. Evaluation of anti-leishmanial and antibacterial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-leishmanial and antibacterial activities of a relatively unexplored whole plant of Waldheimia tomentosa (Asteraceae) and the chemical profiling of its most bioactive fraction. Methods: The whole plant material was extracted with methanol - water (9 : 1) and fractionated into nhexane (C6H14 or ...

  12. Anti-bacterial activities and phytochemical screening of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-bacterial activity tests were carried out using disc diffusion assay and tube dilution technique, and phytochemical screening was carried out through Thin Layer Chromatography. The crude extracts showed antibacterial effects on M. vaccae, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. M. vaccae was most sensitive, particularly to the ...

  13. Anti- toxoplasma gondii activity of constituents from Balsamocitrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, characterization and anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity of constituents from the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1/1) extract of the roots of the cameroonian plant Balsamocitrus camerunensis L. were investigated in this study. Four known coumarins derivatives were isolated, namely, marmin (1), imperatorin (2), xanthoxyletin (3), ...

  14. The Preliminary Assessment of Anti-Microbial Activity of Hplc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clear aqueous extracts that were obtained after a 0.45 μm membrane filtration (Millipore Millex-HV Hydrophillic PVDF filter), were then injected into a preparative high performance liquid chromatography instrument in which pure components, as shown by peaks, were collected and evaluated for anti-microbial activity ...

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection.

  16. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug,. Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a ...

  17. Analysis of an Anti-Phishing Lab Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Laurie A.; Courte, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in spam detection software, anti-spam laws, and increasingly sophisticated users, the number of successful phishing scams continues to grow. In addition to monetary losses attributable to phishing, there is also a loss of confidence that stifles use of online services. Using in-class activities in an introductory computer course…

  18. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal,...

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... The Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) is a popular traditional medicinal plant in India. This study was intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of S. cumini seed in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  20. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and ...

  1. Flavonoids, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity of Macfadyena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kaempferol, 7-O, 8-C diglucoside and vicenin II were isolated, while 6, methoxy, acacetin 7-O glucoside; and quercitrin were isolated from ethanol extract. These compounds were characterized and identified by their physicochemical and spectral data. The crude ethanol extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity ...

  2. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Anacardium occidentale is a local medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, constipation,pain and inflammation. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant parts were assessed for anti- inflammatory and antibacterial activities using experimental animal model and agar disc ...

  3. Essential Oil Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Sage, Salvia officinalis L (Lamiaceae), is widely cultivated medicinal plant for its economic importance and large content of bioactive components; therefore, in the present study, the active components (volatile compounds) and the anti-inflammatory effect of S. officinalis have been investigated. Methods: Salvia ...

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of bark of Xeromphis spinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Nath Das

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Xeromphis spinosa extracted by a mixture of equal proportions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol at an oral dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with control.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  6. Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Activities of Flavonoids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata. Sch Bip. (BP), as well as its antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Methods: The whole herb of BP was extracted with 95 % ethanol, which was then partitioned sequentially with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butyl alcohol to obtain ...

  7. Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    naturally abundant oleanolic acid, displayed diverse biolog- ical activities ... triterpenoids and natural products. CDDO and its .... ration was determined by treating with anti-BrdU antibody and Texas red ..... apoptotic and necrotic in the tumour tissue. Thus .... Palmer RM, Ashton DS and Moncada S 1988 Vascular endothelial.

  8. Anti-oxidant effect of gold nanoparticles restrains hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom SooHyun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is imperative for its morbidity towards diabetic complications, where abnormal metabolic milieu as a result of hyperglycemia, leads to the onset of several complications. A biological antioxidant capable of inhibiting oxidative stress mediated diabetic progressions; during hyperglycemia is still the need of the era. The current study was performed to study the effect of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs to control the hyperglycemic conditions in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results The profound control of AuNPs over the anti oxidant enzymes such as GSH, SOD, Catalase and GPx in diabetic mice to normal, by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation during hyperglycemia evidence their anti-oxidant effect during hyperglycemia. The AuNPs exhibited an insistent control over the blood glucose level, lipids and serum biochemical profiles in diabetic mice near to the control mice provokes their effective role in controlling and increasing the organ functions for better utilization of blood glucose. Histopathological and hematological studies revealed the non-toxic and protective effect of the gold nanoparticles over the vital organs when administered at dosage of 2.5 mg/kilogram.body.weight/day. ICP-MS analysis revealed the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in the vital organs showing accumulation of AuNPs in the spleen comparatively greater than other organs. Conclusion The results obtained disclose the effectual role of AuNPs as an anti-oxidative agent, by inhibiting the formation of ROS, scavenging free radicals; thus increasing the anti-oxidant defense enzymes and creating a sustained control over hyperglycemic conditions which consequently evoke the potential of AuNPs as an economic therapeutic remedy in diabetic treatments and its complications.

  9. Implications of chronic daily anti-oxidant administration on the inflammatory response to intracortical microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Stewart, Wade G.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Wong, Chun T.; Meador, William D.; Ziats, Nicholas P.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Oxidative stress events have been implicated to occur and facilitate multiple failure modes of intracortical microelectrodes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a sustained concentration of an anti-oxidant and to reduce oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration for the application of intracortical microelectrodes. Approach. Non-functional microelectrodes were implanted into the cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats for up to sixteen weeks. Half of the animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of the natural anti-oxidant resveratrol, at 30 mg kg-1. The study was designed to investigate the biodistribution of the resveratrol, and the effects on neuroinflammation/neuroprotection following device implantation. Main results. Daily maintenance of a sustained range of resveratrol throughout the implantation period resulted in fewer degenerating neurons in comparison to control animals at both two and sixteen weeks post implantation. Initial and chronic improvements in neuronal viability in resveratrol-dosed animals were correlated with significant reductions in local superoxide anion accumulation around the implanted device at two weeks after implantation. Controls, receiving only saline injections, were also found to have reduced amounts of accumulated superoxide anion locally and less neurodegeneration than controls at sixteen weeks post-implantation. Despite observed benefits, thread-like adhesions were found between the liver and diaphragm in resveratrol-dosed animals. Significance. Overall, our chronic daily anti-oxidant dosing scheme resulted in improvements in neuronal viability surrounding implanted microelectrodes, which could result in improved device performance. However, due to the discovery of thread-like adhesions, further work is still required to optimize a chronic anti-oxidant dosing regime for the application of intracortical microelectrodes.

  10. Effects of nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on melanoma cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Huiwen [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Mollica, Molly Y.; Lee, Shin Hee [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Wang, Lei [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A., E-mail: velazque@ualberta.ca [Chemistry Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis and Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8 (Canada); Wu, Shiyong, E-mail: wus1@ohio.edu [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO•)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 20–30% and fibronectin by 25–44% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (∼ 56%) the activity of β1 integrin, which binds to α4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO•)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. -- Highlights: ► NONO-naproxen, a novel nitric oxide-releasing NSAID, was synthesized. ► NONO-NSAIDs, but not their parent NSAIDs, reduced melanoma adhesion. ► NONO-naproxen, but not NONO-aspirin and NSAIDs, reduced activity of β1 integrin.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of plant response to ionising radiation. Exploration of the glucosinolate role in the anti-oxidative response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms are exposed to low doses of ionising radiation from natural or anthropogenic sources. The major effects of the radiations are due to DNA deterioration and water radiolysis which generates an oxidative stress by free radical production. Plants constitute good models to study the effects of ionising radiations and the search of antioxidant molecules because of their important secondary metabolism. Thus this thesis, funded by the Brittany region, characterized the physiological and molecular response of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to low (10 Gy) and moderate (40 Gy) doses of ionising radiation, and was therefore interested in glucosinolates, characteristic compounds of the Brassicaceae family. The global proteomic and transcriptomic studies carried out on this model revealed (1) a common response for both doses dealing with the activation of DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle regulation and protection of cellular structures; (2) an adjustment of the energetic metabolism and an activation of secondary compounds biosynthesis (i.e. glucosinolates and flavonoids) after the 10 Gy dose; (3) an induction of enzymatic control of ROS, the regulation of cellular components recycling and of programmed cell death after the 40 Gy dose. The potential anti-oxidative role of glucosinolates was then explored. The in vitro anti-oxidative power of some glucosinolates and their derivative products were demonstrated. Their modulating effects against irradiation-induced damages were then tested in vivo by simple experimental approaches. The importance of the glucosinolate level to give a positive or negative effect was demonstrated. (author)

  12. Anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Mesona procumbens in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Liao, Jung-Chun; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lin, Tsung-Hui; Deng, Jeng-Shyan

    2012-04-01

    Mesona procumbens is consumed as a herbal drink and jelly-type dessert in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of M. procumbens (AMP) using the λ-carrageenin (Carr)-induced mouse paw oedema model. The fingerprint chromatogram of AMP was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of AMP, the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in paw oedema were monitored. Serum nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were also evaluated. The fingerprint chromatogram from HPLC indicated that AMP contained protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid and caffeic acid. In the anti-inflammatory test, AMP decreased paw oedema after Carr administration and increased the CAT, SOD and GPx activities and decreased the MDA level in paw oedema at 5 h after Carr injection. AMP also affected the serum NO, TNF-α and IL-1β levels at 5 h after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that AMP decreased the expression of Carr-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Mesona procumbens has the potential to provide a therapeutic approach to inflammation-associated disorders. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from the Leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Le Son; Tran, Manh Hung; Lee, Joo Sang; To, Dao Cuong; Nguyen, Van Thu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-01-01

    A novel pyrrolizidine alkaloids, madhumidine A (1), and two known alkaloids, lindelofidine benzoic acid ester (2) and minalobine B (3) were isolated from the leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard) H. J. LAM. The chemical structures of these alkaloids were established mainly by NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in macrophage RAW264.7 cell. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds was tested against a panel of cancer cell lines.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of nitric oxide-releasing hydrocortisone NCX 1022, in a murine model of contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Eric; Bolla, Manlio; Steinhoff, Martin; Wallace, John L; Soldato, Piero Del; Vergnolle, Nathalie

    2004-11-01

    1 The concept that nitric oxide (NO) release can be beneficial in inflammatory conditions has raised more attention in the recent years, particularly with the development of nitric oxide-releasing anti-inflammatory drugs. There is considerable evidence that NO is capable of enhancing the anti-inflammatory benefits of conventional anti-inflammatory drugs. 2 Since hydrocortisone is the most widely used anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of skin inflammation, we compared the anti-inflammatory effects of hydrocortisone to an NO-releasing derivative of hydrocortisone, NCX 1022, in a murine model of irritant contact dermatitis, induced by epidermal application of benzalkonium chloride. 3 Topical pre- and post-treatment with NCX 1022 (3 nmol) in C57BL6 mice not only reduced ear oedema formation in a dose-dependent manner, but also was significantly more effective than the parent compound during the initial stages of inflammation (from 1 to 5 h). NCX 1022, but not hydrocortisone, significantly inhibited granulocyte recruitment (tissue myeloperoxidase activity). Histological samples of mouse ears treated with NCX 1022 showed significant reduction in both the number of infiltrated cells and disruption of the tissue architecture compared to hydrocortisone-treated tissues. 4 With intravital microscopy, we observed that both pre- and post-treatments with NCX 1022 were more effective than hydrocortisone in terms of inhibiting benzalkonium chloride-induced leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium, without affecting the flux of rolling leukocytes or venule diameter. 5 These results suggest that by releasing NO, NCX 1022 modulates one of the early events of skin inflammation: the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Overall, we have shown that NO-hydrocortisone provided faster and greater protective effects, reducing major inflammatory parameters (leukocyte adhesion and recruitment, oedema formation, tissue disruption) compared to its parental compound.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva

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    D F Buccini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities and the toxic effects of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva for elucidating the modulation mechanism between arthropod saliva and host. Methods: For saliva collection, engorged ticks were obtained from a controlled bovine infestation and collected by natural fall. The ticks were fixed and injected pilocarpine 0.2% for induction of salivation. Saliva was collected, lyophilized and stored at - 80 °C. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by the hemolysis method (25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 μ g/mL and MTT cell viability assay (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 μ g/mL for 24, 48 and 72 h. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the method of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity of mice at doses of 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg; antinociceptive activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, and formalin-induced paw-licking in mice at dose of 15 mg/kg. Results: Saliva did not cause erythrocytes hemolysis at any concentration tested, as well as did not decrease cell viability in the MTT assay. Saliva inhibited neutrophil migration by 87% and 73% at doses of 15 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In the nociceptive tests, saliva presented analgesic activity of 69.96% in the abdominal writhing test, and of 84.41% in the formalin test. Conclusions: The study proves that Rhipicephalus microplus saliva has significant in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The data presented herein support the development of further studies to elucidate the active principles of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva and its mechanism of action and, in future, to develop novel anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory and Antiarthritic Activity of Anthraquinone Derivatives in Rodents

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    Ajay D. Kshirsagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe emodin is isolated compound of aloe vera which is used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro pharmacokinetic data suggest that glucuronosyl or sulfated forms of aloe emodin may provide some limitations in its absorption capacity. Aloe emodin was reported to have in vitro anti-inflammatory activity due to inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (iNO and prostaglandin E2, via its action on murine macrophages. However, present work evidenced that molecular docking of aloe emodin modulates the anti-inflammatory activity, as well as expression of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2 in rodent. The AEC (4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2 carboxylic acid was synthesized using aloe emodin as starting material. The study was planned for evaluation of possible anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity in carrageenan rat induced paw oedema and complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The AE (aloe emodin and AEC significantly P<0.001 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema at 50 and 75 mg/kg. Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis model showed significant P<0.001 decrease in injected and noninjected paw volume, arthritic score. AE and AEC showed significant effect on various biochemical, antioxidant, and hematological parameters. Diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg showed significant P<0.001 inhibition in inflammation and arthritis.

  17. Brief report on development of indigofera pseudotinctoria mats high flavonoid mutant and anti-oxidation of its exacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiaoxia; Mei Shufang; Shu Xiaoli; Wu Dianxing

    2010-01-01

    Mutant high in flavonoid was successfully developed after the dry seeds of Indigofera pseudotinctoria Mats were irradiated by 300 Gy 60 Co gamma rays. The contents of flavonoid in different tissues of mutant line MJ-HF1 were all higher than that of the wild type, especially in the seeds and leaves, which was 5.89 and 1.46 times of the wild type. Anti-oxidation testing showed that the flavonoid exacts from MJ-HF1 could decrease the contents of malondialdehyde(MDA) and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the aged white mice in a 30-day feeding test. (authors)

  18. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  19. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian, E-mail: shivashangari@gmail.com [Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu (India); Ravikumar, Vilwanathan, E-mail: ravikumarbdu@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-11-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  20. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla L. (Saltcedar) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Hamayun, Rahma; Ali, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Tamarix aphylla. The powdered plant was extracted by the method of cold maceration using aqueous ethanol (70:30) as solvents. Analgesic activity was assessed by Eddy's hot plate method, formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carageenan-induced mice paw edema. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. The aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla showed 42% inhibition (pTamarix aphylla exhibit analgesic and antipyretic activity but lacks anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. Gallic acid prevents nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy in rat by blocking oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmay; Bindu, Samik; Dey, Sumanta; Alam, Athar; Goyal, Manish; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Maity, Pallab; Adhikari, Susanta S; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2010-07-15

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced oxidative stress plays a critical role in gastric mucosal cell apoptosis and gastropathy. NSAIDs induce the generation of hydroxyl radical ((*)OH) through the release of free iron, which plays an important role in developing gastropathy. Thus, molecules having both iron-chelating and antiapoptotic properties will be beneficial in preventing NSAID-induced gastropathy. Gallic acid (GA), a polyphenolic natural product, has the capacity to chelate free iron. Here, we report that GA significantly prevents, as well as heals, NSAID-induced gastropathy. In vivo, GA blocks NSAID-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress by preventing mitochondrial protein carbonyl formation, lipid peroxidation, and thiol depletion. In vitro, GA scavenges free radicals and blocks (*)OH-mediated oxidative damage. GA also attenuates gastric mucosal cell apoptosis in vivo as well as in vitro in cultured gastric mucosal cells as evident from the TUNEL assay. GA prevents NSAID-induced activation of caspase-9, a marker for the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, and restores NSAID-mediated collapse of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and dehydrogenase activity. Thus, the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress by GA is associated with the inhibition of NSAID-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells, which are responsible for gastric injury or gastropathy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active ingredients and pathways

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    Chi H.J. Kao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGanoderma lucidum, commonly referred to as Lingzhi, has been used in Asia for health promotion for centuries. The anti-cancer effects of G. lucidum have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the observed anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma have prompted its usage by cancer patients alongside chemotherapy.The main two bioactive components of G. lucidum can be broadly grouped into triterpenes and polysaccharides. Despite triterpenes and polysaccharides being widely known as the major active ingredients, the different biological pathways by which they exert their anti-cancer effect remain poorly defined. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of action may lead to more widespread use of Ganoderma as an anti-cancer agent.The aim of this paper is to summarise the various bioactive mechanisms that have been proposed for the anti-cancer properties of triterpenes and polysaccharides extracted from G. lucidum. A literature search of published papers on NCBI with keywords “Ganoderma” and “cancer” was performed. Among those, studies which specifically examined the anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma triterpenes and polysaccharides were selected to be included in this paper.We have found five potential mechanisms which are associated with the anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma triterpenes and three potential mechanisms for Ganoderma polysaccharides. In addition, G. lucidum has been used in combination with known anti-cancer agents to improve the anti-cancer efficacies. This suggests Ganoderma’s bioactive pathways may compliment that of anti-cancer agents. In this paper we present several potential anti-cancer mechanisms of Ganoderma triterpenes and polysaccharides which can be used for the development of Ganoderma as an anti-cancer agent.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Senthil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All the results obtained revealed that the extract MEIC showed potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity against all the tested models and the results obtained were comparable with the standards used. The activity of the extract may be due to the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.

  4. Anti-allergic and anti-microbial activities of some Thai crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinya Tewtrakul

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen Thai crops including banana, okra, jackfruit, germinated rice, rambutan, durian, jampadah, huasa potato,tamarind, coconut, mango, fan palm fruit and dioscorea tuber were tested for anti-allergic effect using RBL-2H3 cells andanti-microbial activity. These 13 crops, some of which included different parts, e.g. skin, flesh, and seed, were extracted withfour solvents separately [(95% ethanol (EtOH, 50% EtOH, water (W and hot water (HW], respectively, to obtain 112extracts. Among these extracts, mango seed in 50% EtOH possessed the highest anti-allergic activity against antigen-inducedb-hexosaminidase release as a marker of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with an IC50 value of 7.5±0.8 mg/ml, followed bybanana (W, IC50 = 13.5±2.4 mg/ml, okra (W, IC50 = 13.6±3.1 mg/ml, jampadah skin (HW, IC50 = 13.8±3.9 mg/ml, tamarindseed coat (HW, IC50 = 14.2±3.1 mg/ml, jampadah flesh (W, IC50 = 14.6±3.1 mg/ml; whereas other crops possessed IC50values from 21.5->100 mg/ml. Moreover, the plants showing high anti-allergic effects were also possessed marked antibacterialactivity. Rambutan peel, mango peel, mango seed and tamarind seed coat exhibited appropriate anti-bacterialactivity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC values ranging from 250-2,000 mg/ml, but did not show any effect towards Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. This study indicates that these Thaicrops may have potential as functional foods and neutraceuticals for treatment of allergy, allergy-related diseases and somebacterial infections.

  5. Antibacterial, anti-swarming and anti-biofilm formation activities of Chamaemelum nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Hossein; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Heidari, Hamid; Amiri, Pouya; Yamchi, Jalil Kardan; Shavalipour, Aref; Houri, Hamidreza; Maleki, Abbas; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda

    2015-01-01

    Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) is widely used throughout the world, and has anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative, antiseptic, anti-catarrhal, and spasmolytic properties. Because of the increasing incidence of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of natural antibacterial sources such as medical herbs for the treatment of infectious diseases is necessary. Extracts from different plant parts such as the leaves, flowers, fruit, and bark of Combretum albiflorum, Laurus nobilis , and Sonchus oleraceus were found to possess anti-quorum sensing (QS) activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of C. nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. The P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from patients with different types of infection, including wound infection, septicemia, and urinary tract infection. The flowers of C. nobile were dried and the extract was removed using a rotary device and then dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at pH 7.4. The microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this extract on P. aeruginosa , and biofilm inhibition was assayed. Eighty percent of the isolated samples (16/20) could form a biofilm, and most of these were isolated from wound infections. The biofilm inhibitory concentration of the C. nobile extract was 6.25-25mg/ml, whereas the MIC was 12.5-50mg/ml. The anti-QS property of C. nobile may play an important role in its antibacterial activity, thus offering an additional strategy in the fight against bacterial infections. However, molecular investigation is required to explore the exact mechanisms of the antibacterial action and functions of this phytocompound.

  6. Antibacterial, anti-swarming and anti-biofilm formation activities of Chamaemelum nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kazemian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Chamomile ( Chamaemelum nobile is widely used throughout the world, and has anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative, antiseptic, anti-catarrhal, and spasmolytic properties. Because of the increasing incidence of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of natural antibacterial sources such as medical herbs for the treatment of infectious diseases is necessary. Extracts from different plant parts such as the leaves, flowers, fruit, and bark of Combretum albiflorum, Laurus nobilis , and Sonchus oleraceus were found to possess anti-quorum sensing (QS activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of C. nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formationMETHODS:The P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from patients with different types of infection, including wound infection, septicemia, and urinary tract infection. The flowers of C. nobile were dried and the extract was removed using a rotary device and then dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at pH 7.4. The microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of this extract on P. aeruginosa , and biofilm inhibition was assayed.RESULTS:Eighty percent of the isolated samples (16/20 could form a biofilm, and most of these were isolated from wound infections. The biofilm inhibitory concentration of the C. nobile extract was 6.25-25mg/ml, whereas the MIC was 12.5-50mg/ml.CONCLUSIONS:The anti-QS property of C. nobile may play an important role in its antibacterial activity, thus offering an additional strategy in the fight against bacterial infections. However, molecular investigation is required to explore the exact mechanisms of the antibacterial action and functions of this phytocompound.

  7. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of lovastatin in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Statins are among the most prescribed drugs in recent clinical practice. They are also known for their pleiotropic actions, which are independent of their lipid-lowering properties. The effect of lovastatin was investigated against carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Wistar rats (200-250 g and on leukocyte migration, as measured by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in male Swiss mice (20-25 g, which are models of acute inflammation. Lovastatin (administered 1 h prior to carrageenan, at oral doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg, markedly attenuated paw edema formation in rats at the 4th hour after carrageenan injection (25, 43, and 37% inhibition, respectively. Inhibitions of 20, 45 and 80% were observed in the leukocyte migration, as evaluated by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice with lovastatin doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg, as compared to controls. Furthermore, lovastatin (administered 1 h before initiation reduced the nociceptive effect of the formalin test in mice, at both phases, at doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg: first phase (51, 65, and 70%, respectively and second phase (73, 57, and 66% inhibition of licking time, respectively. The anti-nociceptive activity of lovastatin was inhibited by naloxone (3 mg/kg, sc. Lovastatin (0.01, 0.1, and 1 µg/mL inhibited by 23, 79, and 86%, respectively, the release of myeloperoxidase from human neutrophils. Leukocyte (predominantly neutrophils infiltration was almost completely reduced by lovastatin treatment, as observed in the model of acute paw edema with hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, lovastatin decreased the number of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity. Therefore, the alterations in leukocyte activity and cytokine release could contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of lovastatin.

  8. Anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides prepared from Stichopus japonicus in an endurance swimming rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Shen, Caihong; Huang, Yayan; Zhang, Xueqin; Xiao, Meitian

    2017-10-01

    Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is a well-known nutritious and luxurious seafood in Asia which has attracted increasing attention because of its nutrition and bioactivities in recent years. In this study, the anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) prepared from S. japonicus was evaluated in a load-induced endurance swimming model. The SCP prepared in this study was mainly made up of low-molecular-weight peptides (fatigue was significantly improved by SCP treatment. Meanwhile, the remarkable alterations of energy metabolic markers, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress biomarkers were normalized. Moreover, administration of SCP could modulate alterations of inflammatory cytokines and downregulate the overexpression of TRL4 and NF-κB. SCP has anti-fatigue activity and it exerted its anti-fatigue effect probably through normalizing energy metabolism as well as alleviating oxidative damage and inflammatory responses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana calyces with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Luis A; Ocampo, Yanet C; Gómez, Harold A; De la Puerta, Rocío; Espartero, José L; Ospina, Luis F

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana is a native plant from the South American Andes and is widely used in traditional Colombian medicine of as an anti-inflammatory medicinal plant, specifically the leaves, calyces, and small stems in poultice form. Previous studies performed by our group on P. peruviana calyces showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in an enriched fraction obtained from an ether total extract. The objective of the present study was to obtain and elucidate the active compounds from this fraction and evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro. The enriched fraction of P. peruviana was purified by several chromatographic methods to obtain an inseparable mixture of two new sucrose esters named peruviose A (1) and peruviose B (2). Structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations. The anti-inflammatory activity of the peruvioses mixture was evaluated using λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages. Results showed that the peruvioses did not produce side effects on the liver and kidneys and significantly attenuated the inflammation induced by λ-carrageenan in a dosage-dependent manner, probably due to an inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, which was demonstrated in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of sucrose esters in P. peruviana that showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest the potential of sucrose esters from the Physalis genus as a novel natural alternative to treat inflammatory diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Chisato, E-mail: yosizaki@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nishio, Yoshihiko [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Chisato; Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. ► EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. ► Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of ω3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with ω3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). ω3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with ω3-PUFA prevented H 2 O 2 -induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez González, Cuauhtemoc; Serrano Vega, Roberto; González-Chávez, Marco; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  13. Anti-inflammatory activities of essential oil isolated from the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., belonging to the family of Malvaceae, is considered to be a plant with health care applications in China. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of its essential oil and assess its potential therapeutic effect on anti-inflammatory activity. A water steam distillation method was used to extract the essential oil from H. Sabdariffa. The essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a total of 18 volatile constituents were identified, the majority of which were fatty acids and ester compounds. Biological activity showed that the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The nitric oxide (NO) inhibition rate reached 67.46% when the concentration of the essential oil was 200 μg mL -1 . Further analysis showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa might be exerted through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK (JNK and ERK1/2) signaling pathways to decrease NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) production. Thus, the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa is a good source of a natural product with a beneficial effect against inflammation, and it may be applied as a food supplement and/or functional ingredient.

  14. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of Heliotropium strigosum in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Gul, Farah; Hussain, Sajjid; Ashraf, Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    The current project was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of crude extract of Heliotropium strigosum and its subsequent solvent fractions in post carrageenan-induced edema and post xylene-induced ear edema at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The results revealed marked attenuation of edema induced by carrageenan injection in a dose-dependent manner. The ethyl acetate fraction was most dominant with 73.33% inhibition followed by hexane fraction (70.66%). When the extracts were challenged against xylene-induced ear edema, again ethyl acetate and hexane fractions were most impressive with 38.21 and 35.77% inhibition, respectively. It is concluded that various extracts of H. strigosum possessed strong anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Study of nitric oxide catalytic oxidation on manganese oxides-loaded activated carbon at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Fu-Tian [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Guang-Wei, E-mail: gwyu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Wang, Yin, E-mail: yinwang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Xing, Zhen-Jiao [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Liu, Xue-Jiao; Li, Jie [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Loading manganese oxides on activated carbon effectively promotes NO oxidation. • NO adsorption-desorption on activated carbon is fundamental to NO oxidation. • A high Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+} ratio contributes to NO oxidation by promoting lattice O transfer. - Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is an air pollutant that is difficult to remove at low concentration and low temperature. Manganese oxides (MnO{sub x})-loaded activated carbon (MLAC) was prepared by a co-precipitation method and studied as a new catalyst for NO oxidation at low temperature. Characterization of MLAC included X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Activity tests demonstrated the influence of the amount of MnO{sub x} and the test conditions on the reaction. MLAC with 7.5 wt.% MnO{sub x} (MLAC003) exhibits the highest NO conversion (38.7%) at 1000 ppm NO, 20 vol.% O{sub 2}, room temperature and GHSV ca. 16000 h{sup −1}. The NO conversion of MLAC003 was elevated by 26% compared with that of activated carbon. The results of the MLAC003 activity test under different test conditions demonstrated that NO conversion is also influenced by inlet NO concentration, inlet O{sub 2} concentration, reaction temperature and GHSV. The NO adsorption-desorption process in micropores of activated carbon is fundamental to NO oxidation, which can be controlled by pore structure and reaction temperature. The activity elevation caused by MnO{sub x} loading is assumed to be related to Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+} ratio. Finally, a mechanism of NO catalytic oxidation on MLAC based on NO adsorption-desorption and MnO{sub x} lattice O transfer is proposed.

  17. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AG is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/activator protein (AP-1 and (2 IκB kinase ε (IKKε/interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.

  18. Curcumin Conjugated with PLGA Potentiates Sustainability, Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghela, Bhargav N.; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M.; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy. PMID:25692854

  19. Evaluation of Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Heterofucan from Dictyota menstrualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bonciani Nader

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term that defines a family of homo- and hetero-polysaccharides containing sulfated l-fucose in its structure. In this work, a heterofucan (F2.0v from the seaweed, Dictyota menstrualis, was evaluated as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agent. F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg inhibits 100% of leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity after chemical stimulation. However, F2.0v does not alter the expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg has peripheral antinociceptive activity with potency similar to dipyrone. On the other hand, it had no effect on pain response on the hot plate test. Confocal microscopy analysis and flow cytometry showed that F2.0v binds to the surface of leucocytes, which leads us to suggest that the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive F2.0v is related to its ability to inhibit the migration of leukocytes to the site of tissue injury. In summary, the data show that F2.0v compound has great potential as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory, and future studies will be performed to further characterize the mechanism of action of F2.0v.

  20. The dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis induces pro- and anti-oxidative reactions in the silkworm Bombyx mori: Enzymatic and genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Pooja; Pradeep, Appukuttan Nair R; Hungund, Shambhavi P; Ponnuvel, Kangayam M; Trivedy, Kanika

    2017-02-01

    Hymenopteran parasitoids inject various factors including polydnaviruses along with their eggs into their host insects that suppress host immunity reactions to the eggs and larvae. Less is known about the mechanisms evolved in dipteran parasitoids that suppress host immunity. Here we report that the dipteran, Exorista bombycis, parasitization leads to pro-oxidative reactions and activation of anti-oxidative enzymes in the silkworm Bombyx mori larva. We recorded increased activity of oxidase, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin peroxidase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and peroxidases in the hemolymph plasma, hemocytes, and fat body collected from B. mori after E. bombycis parasitization. Microarray and qPCR showed differential expression of genes encoding pro- and anti-oxidant enzymes in the hemocytes. The significance of this work lies in increased understanding of dipteran parasitoid biology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Conjugation of Inulin Improves Anti-Biofilm Activity of Chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Guiqiang Zhang; Jing Liu; Ruilian Li; Siming Jiao; Cui Feng; Zhuo A. Wang; Yuguang Du

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria biofilm helps bacteria prevent phagocytosis during infection and increase resistance to antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium and is tightly associated with biofilm-related infections, which have led to great threat to human health. Chitosan, the only cationic polysaccharide in nature, has been demonstrated to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities, which, however, require a relative high dosage of chitosan. Moreover, poor water solubility...

  2. Anti-solvent derived non-stacked reduced graphene oxide for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoheung; Lee, Keunsik; Baik, Chul; Yoo, Heejoun; Min, Misook; Park, Younghun; Lee, Sae Mi; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-08-27

    An anti-solvent for graphene oxide (GO), hexane, is introduced to increase the surface area and the pore volume of the non-stacked GO/reduced GO 3D structure and allows the formation of a highly crumpled non-stacked GO powder, which clearly shows ideal supercapacitor behavior. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Study of anti-oxidation and scavenging effects on free radicals of quercetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua; Shao Yuan

    1999-01-01

    The effects of Quercetin on the contents of lipid peroxides (LPO) in the mice caused by γ-whole-body irradiation by method of the modified spectrophotometry of TBA, and the scavenging effects of Quercetin on the free radicals of DNA induced by radiation exposure by means of ESR technique were investigated. The results demonstrates that Quercetin has a good anti-oxidation effect and is very effective in scavenging of free radicals

  4. Inhibition of human polimorfonuclear leucocyte migration by clofazimine: a new pro-oxidative anti-inflammatory agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen van Rensburg, C.E.

    1986-10-01

    Preliminary studies on the in vitro and in vivo effects of clofazimine on the function of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) from normal individuals and patients with lepromatous leprosy showed that clofazimine caused a progressive dose-dependent inhibition of both random mortality of PMNL as well as migration of PMNL induced by the leucoattractant endotoxin-activated serum (EAS). The drug also increased chemiluminescence as well as hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS). These studies on clofazimine include the use of radiolabelling with 14 C, 125 I and 3 H. Clofazimine-mediated inhibition of PMNL migration is dependent on intact membrane-associated oxidative metabolism. Clofazimine is therefore a pro-oxidative anti-inflammatory agent

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eMoles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From these, ethanol extracts of ten species from five different phyla resulted suitable to be studied in cell macrophage cultures (RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity (MTT method and production of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, interleukin-1 were determined at three extract concentrations (50, 125, 250 g/mL. Bioassays resulted in four different species showing anti-inflammatory activity corresponding to three sponges: Mycale (Oxymycale acerata, Isodictya erinacea, and I. toxophila; and one hemichordate: Cephalodiscus sp. These results show that Antarctic sessile invertebrates may have great value as a source of lead compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Establishment of evaluation system for oxidation/anti-oxidation in living organisms using radiation irradiation and its practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umegaki, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    Basic study on the degree of oxidation damages after X-ray irradiation and changes in the anti-oxidative defense action was made using the rat. In addition, amplification of trace DNA damages by X-ray irradiation was investigated with human lymphocytes. Wistar rats were exposed to X-ray at 3 Gy under no anesthetization and killed after various time after the irradiation. The content of vitamin C, an anti-oxidant vitamin C in the bone marrow was markedly reduced by X-ray irradiation and the content after 24 hours from the irradiation was about 2% of that of the unexposed group. The content of vitamin E in the bone marrow was ca. 43% of that of the unexposed group. However, the contents of these anti-oxidant vitamins gradually recovered from 3-4 days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the content of 4-hydroxynonenal among the aldehydes that were tested as the indicator for oxidation damage of lipid was significantly increased one day after the irradiation and the contents of hexanal and TBARS reached the maximum level 3 days after. However, daily administration of about 100-fold larger amount of vitamin E (α-tocopherol at 460 mg/kg) for 3 days before the irradiation resulted in an increase in its content in the bone marrow, but significant decreases in the vitamin E and C levels in the bone marrow 24 hours after X-ray irradiation and aldehyde contents were increased, suggesting that pre-irradiation administration of vitamin E has no effects on the damages of bone marrow cells. As an indicator of DNA damages, the rate of appearance for lymphocytes having micronuclei was determined. The number of such lymphocytes was not significantly changed by exercise, but the number after irradiation at 1.5 Gy was dose dependently increased. These results suggested that trace DNA oxidation damages produced by severe exercise were markedly amplified by X-ray irradiation in not-trained subjects. (M.N.)

  7. Experimental studies on anti-oxidants reducing lipid peroxidation of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Liu Keliang; Su Liaoyuan

    1993-08-01

    The free radical plays an important role in the irradiation damage. The irradiation damage would be reduced if anti-oxidants is used, because anti-oxidants can scavenge free radicals and suppress lipid peroxidation. In the study, a fluoro-spectrophotometer was used to determine the changes of MDA levels in mice tissues and serum after irradiation and the protective effect of anti-oxidants of Vit E and DMSO on damage caused by free radicals. The results are as follows: (1) The highest MDA level was at 12 to 24 hours after irradiation dose of 3.0 Gy. (2) The MDA level is increasing with the increasing of irradiation dose. It means the MDA level can indicate the extent of irradiation damage. (3) Both Vit E and DMSO had a powerful effect on reducing MDA level, but the effect of DMSO was stronger than Vit E. The optimum doses of them were 0.25 mg/g body weight and 10 mg/g body weight respectively. (4) The best effect obtained was to use Vit E and DMSO simultaneously

  8. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway inhibits neointimal hyperplasia by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jie Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neointimal hyperplasia as a consequence of vascular injury is aggravated by inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR is a orchestrator of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP, which refers to a physiological neuro-immune mechanism that restricts inflammation. Here, we investigated the potential role of CAP in neointimal hyperplasia using α7nAChR knockout (KO mice. Male α7nAChR-KO mice and their wild-type control mice (WT were subjected to wire injury in left common carotid artery. At 4 weeks post injury, the injured aortae were isolated for examination. The neointimal hyperplasia after wire injury was significantly aggravated in α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. The α7nAChR-KO mice had increased collagen contents and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs amount. Moreover, the inflammation was significantly enhanced in the neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice relative to WT mice, evidenced by the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α/interleukin-1β, and macrophage infiltration. Meanwhile, the chemokines chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 and chemokine (CXC motif ligand 2 expression was also augmented in the neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. Additionally, the depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD and reduced glutathione (GSH, and the upregulation of 3-nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were more pronounced in neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. Accordingly, the protein expression of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4, was also higher in neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. Finally, pharmacologically activation of CAP with a selective α7nAChR agonist PNU-282987, significantly reduced neointima formation, arterial inflammation and oxidative stress after vascular injury in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that α7nAChR-mediated CAP is a neuro-physiological mechanism that inhibits neointima

  9. Nutraceuticals of anti-inflammatory activity as complementary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okbi, Sahar Y

    2014-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by elevated oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. The severe side effects of drug used during such disease necessitate the search for new and safe approaches. Food is a rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory bioactive constituents including phenolic compounds, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, toccopherols, and carotenoids. We have a series of publications dealing with the anti-inflammatory activity of different food extracts (as nutraceuticals) in experimental animals (acute and chronic inflammation model) and in clinical study (RA patients). Fish oil, primrose oil, extracts of black cumin, fenugreek, liquorice, coriander, tomato, carrot, sweet potato, broccoli, green tea, rosemary, hazelnut, walnut, wheat germ, and date in addition to the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum were the nutraceuticals studied. During these studies, changes in inflammatory biomarkers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), seromucoids, fibrinogen, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), antioxidant status (total antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, vitamin E, retinol, β-carotene), the level of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) and colonic microflora in response to the administration of nutraceuticals have been assessed. Results of these studies showed that the majority of nutraceuticals studied possess beneficial effect toward chronic inflammatory diseases, which might be due to the presence of one or more of the above-mentioned phytochemicals. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutraceuticals may serve as complementary medicine for the management of RA. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Coté

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean, Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Héloïse; Boucher, Marie-Anne; Pichette, André; Legault, Jean

    2017-05-25

    Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean), Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  12. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of phenylbutenoid dimer analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Fang, Yuan Ying; Park, Hae Eil

    2015-01-01

    Several phenylbutenoid dimer (PBD) analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activities against nitric oxide (NO) production and TNF-α release. The PBD analogs were synthesized via Diels–Alder and subsequent Schlosser reactions as key steps. Among the tested compounds, two analogs (8c, 8f) exhibited much stronger inhibitory activity against LPS-stimulated NO production and TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 cells than that of wogonin

  13. Antimelanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Hazwani Mat; Sim, Kae Shin; Tan, Yee Shin

    2018-01-01

    Five culinary-medicinal mushrooms are commonly available in the Malaysian market: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Ganoderma lucidum, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus floridanus, and P. pulmonarius. These species were selected for use in the current study, the aim of which was to investigate the antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity of these mushrooms in an attempt to evaluate their potential use in cosmeceuticals. Mushroom fruiting bodies were extracted with hot water, and the extracts were freeze-dried before testing. The antimelanogenesis activity of the extracts was determined by cell viability assay, measurement of intracellular melanin content, and cellular tyrosinase assay with B16F10 melanoma cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the mushroom extracts was tested by measuring the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-10 excreted by RAW264.7 macrophages. Brown A. bisporus reduced intracellular melanin content to the largest extent-up to 57.05 ± 3.90%-without a cytotoxic effect on B16F10 melanoma cells. This extract also reduced cellular tyrosinase activity to 17.93 ± 2.65%, performing better than kojic acid, the positive control. In parallel, the extract from brown A. bisporus, at the highest concentration tested, has appreciable anti-inflammatory activity through reductions of NO and TNF-α levels. The other 5 extracts showed moderate antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. In summary, our findings show that A. bisporus (brown) extract has the potential to be used as an ingredient in whitening skincare products and to sooth the inflammatory response on the skin.

  14. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  15. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Zataria multiflora essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; HeidaryTabar, R; Mahdizadeh, E

    2017-06-01

    Dermtophytes are a group of pathogenic fungi and the major cause of dermatophytosis in humans and animals. Fighting dermatophytes by natural essential oils is one important issue in new researches. In this investigation, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of three samples of Z. multiflora essential oils against dermatophytes along with analysis of chemical compositions of the essential oils and their anti-elastase activities on elastase production in dermatophytes. Carvacrol (1.5-34.4%), thymol (25.8-41.2%), carvacrol methyl ether (1.9-28.3%) and p-cymene (2.3-8.3%) were the main components of Z. multiflora essential oils. Z. multiflora essential oils (100ppm) inhibited the mycelium growth of dermatophytes (6±1.7-47.0±1.4%) and had the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.03-0.25μl/ml against dermatophytes. Essential oils inhibited elastase produced in dermatophytes and pure porcine elastase. Z. multiflora essential oils can be used as natural anti-dermatophyte agent for fighting dermatophytes in further preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. An overview of structure-activity relationship studies of curcumin analogs as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Laiba; Haque, Md Areeful; Abbas Bukhari, Syed Nasir; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Curcumin, extracted mainly from Curcuma longa rhizomes, has been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Although safe at higher doses and exhibiting multiple biological activities, curcumin still has the problem of poor bioavailability which has been an attractive area of research over the last few years. A number of efforts have been made by modifying structural features of curcumin. This review highlights the structurally modified and more stable newly synthesized curcumin analogs that have been screened against antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Also the structure-activity relationship to gain insight into future guidelines for scheming new compounds has been discussed, and further these analogs being more stable may serve as promising agents for use in different pathological conditions.

  17. High performance liquid chromatography profiling of health-promoting phytochemicals and evaluation of antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase, iron chelating and anti-glucosidase activities of wetland macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Wong, Fai-Chu; Sit, Nam-Weng; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2014-08-01

    The phytochemistry and bioactivity of wetland macrophytes are underexplored. Plants are known as the natural sources of phytochemical beneficial to health. The objective of this study is to analyze the phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of 10 extracts prepared from different plant parts of wetland macrophytes Hanguana malayana, Ludwigia adscendens and Monochoria hastata. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the phytochemical profile of the extracts. Antioxidant assay such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power were performed. Bioactivity assays carried out were anti-lipoxygenase, anti-glucosidase, and iron chelating. Leaf extract of L. adscendens had the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (half of maximal effective concentration [EC50] =0.97 mg/mL) and NO (EC50 = 0.31 mg/mL) scavenging activities. The extract also exhibited the highest iron chelating (EC50 = 3.24 mg/mL) and anti-glucosidase (EC50 = 27.5 μg/mL) activities. The anti-glucosidase activity of L. adscendens leaf extract was comparable or superior to those of acarbose, myricetin and quercetin. Correlation between iron chelating and radical scavenging activities among the extracts implies the presence of dual-function phytoconstituents with concurrent iron chelating and radical scavenging activities. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), gallic acid (GA) and myricetin in all or most extracts. M. hastata fruit and leaf extracts had the highest p-hydroxybenzoic acid content. Antioxidant and anti-glucosidase activities of the extracts were correlated with p-CA, GA, and myricetin contents. Our study demonstrated that wetland macrophytes H. malayana, L. adscendens and M. hastata are potential sources of health-promoting phytochemicals with potent therapeutically-relevant bioactivities.

  18. High performance liquid chromatography profiling of health-promoting phytochemicals and evaluation of antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase, iron chelating and anti-glucosidase activities of wetland macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Wong, Fai-Chu; Sit, Nam-Weng; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The phytochemistry and bioactivity of wetland macrophytes are underexplored. Plants are known as the natural sources of phytochemical beneficial to health. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of 10 extracts prepared from different plant parts of wetland macrophytes Hanguana malayana, Ludwigia adscendens and Monochoria hastata. Materials and Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the phytochemical profile of the extracts. Antioxidant assay such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power were performed. Bioactivity assays carried out were anti-lipoxygenase, anti-glucosidase, and iron chelating. Results: Leaf extract of L. adscendens had the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (half of maximal effective concentration [EC50] =0.97 mg/mL) and NO (EC50 = 0.31 mg/mL) scavenging activities. The extract also exhibited the highest iron chelating (EC50 = 3.24 mg/mL) and anti-glucosidase (EC50 = 27.5 μg/mL) activities. The anti-glucosidase activity of L. adscendens leaf extract was comparable or superior to those of acarbose, myricetin and quercetin. Correlation between iron chelating and radical scavenging activities among the extracts implies the presence of dual-function phytoconstituents with concurrent iron chelating and radical scavenging activities. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), gallic acid (GA) and myricetin in all or most extracts. M. hastata fruit and leaf extracts had the highest p-hydroxybenzoic acid content. Antioxidant and anti-glucosidase activities of the extracts were correlated with p-CA, GA, and myricetin contents. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that wetland macrophytes H. malayana, L. adscendens and M. hastata are potential sources of health-promoting phytochemicals with potent therapeutically-relevant bioactivities. PMID:25298659

  19. Anti-corrosion performance of oxidized and oxygen plasma-implanted NiTi alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Ray W.Y.; Ho, Joan P.Y.; Liu, Xuanyong; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Lu, William W.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys are useful orthopedic biomaterials on account of its super-elastic and shape memory properties. However, the problem associated with out-diffusion of harmful nickel ions in prolonged use inside the human body raises a critical safety concern. Titanium oxide films are deemed to be chemically inert and biocompatible and hence suitable to be the barrier layers to impede the leaching of Ni from the NiTi substrate to biological tissues and fluids. In the work reported in this paper, we compare the anti-corrosion efficacy of oxide films produced by atmospheric-pressure oxidation and oxygen plasma ion implantation. Our results show that the oxidized samples do not possess improved corrosion resistance and may even fare worse than the untreated samples. On the other hand, the plasma-implanted surfaces exhibit much improved corrosion resistance. Our work also shows that post-implantation annealing can further promote the anti-corrosion capability of the samples

  20. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activity of Ouabain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ingrid Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump, was identified as an endogenous substance of human plasma. Ouabain has been studied for its ability to interfere with various regulatory mechanisms. Despite the studies portraying the ability of ouabain to modulate the immune response, little is known about the effect of this substance on the inflammatory process. The aim of this work was to study the effects triggered by ouabain on inflammation and nociceptive models. Ouabain produced a reduction in the mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan, compound 48/80 and zymosan. This anti-inflammatory potential might be related to the inhibition of prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, and mast-cell degranulation but not to histamine. Ouabain also modulated the inflammation induced by concanavalin A by inhibiting cell migration. Besides that, ouabain presented antinociceptive activity. Taken these data together, this work demonstrated, for the first time, that ouabain presented in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  1. Benefits of Anti-Aging Actives in Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lintner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters into these formulas and by communicating about the additional benefits, be they anti-aging, moisturizing, firming, anti-wrinkle, etc. While some of these ideas of additional ingredients make sense as supplementary skin protection, some others do not afford much benefit in view of the infrequent application and short period of usage. The present article reviews some of these ideas and presents a few active ingredients that might be of value in such a context, even if substantiation of such additional claims in sunscreens is often lacking.

  2. Anti-cancer activity of compounds from Bauhinia strychnifolia stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyongsawad, Supreeya; Bunluepuech, Kingkan; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2013-11-25

    The stem and root of Bauhinia strychnifolia Craib (Fabaceae family) have been traditionally used in Thailand to treat fever, alcoholic toxication, allergy and cancer. An EtOH extract of Bauhinia strychnifolia showed good inhibitory activity against several cancer cell lines including HT-29, HeLa, MCF-7 and KB. As there has been no previous reports on chemical constituents of Bauhinia strychnifolia, this study is aimed to isolate the pure compounds with anti-cancer activity. Five pure compounds were isolated from EtOH extract of Bauhinia strychnifolia stem using silica gel, dianion HP-20 and sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and were tested for their cytotoxic effects against HT-29, HeLa, MCF-7 and KB cell lines using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Among five compounds, 3,5,7,3',5'-pentahydroxyflavanonol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) possessed very potent activity against KB (IC₅₀=0.00054μg/mL), HT-29 (IC₅₀=0.00217 μg/mL), MCF-7 (IC₅₀=0.0585 μg/mL) and HeLa cells (IC₅₀=0.0692 μg/mL). 3,5,7-Trihydroxychromone-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (3) also showed good activity against HT-29 (IC₅₀=0.02366 μg/mL), KB (IC₅₀=0.0412 μg/mL) and MCF-7 (IC₅₀=0.297 μg/mL), respectively. The activity of 2 (IC₅₀=0.00054 μg/mL) against KB cell was ten times higher than that of the positive control, Camptothecin (anti-cancer drug, IC₅₀=0.0057 μg/mL). All compounds did not show any cytotoxicity with normal cells at the concentration of 1 μg/mL. This is the first report of compounds 2 and 3 on anti-cancer activity and based on the anti-cancer activity of extracts and pure compounds isolated from Bauhinia strychnifolia stem, it might be suggested that this plant could be useful for treatment of cancer. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Melatonin Promotes the In Vitro Development of Microinjected Pronuclear Mouse Embryos via Its Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Apoptotic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuzhi; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Lu; Ji, Pengyun; Wang, Jing; Lv, Dongying; Li, Guangdong; Chai, Menglong; Lian, Zhengxing; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-05-05

    CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) combined with pronuclear microinjection has become the most effective method for producing transgenic animals. However, the relatively low embryo developmental rate limits its application. In the current study, it was observed that 10 -7 M melatonin is considered an optimum concentration and significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine microinjected pronuclear embryos, as indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate and blastocyst cell number. When these blastocysts were implanted into recipient mice, the pregnancy rate and birth rate were significantly higher than those of the microinjected control, respectively. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin treatment reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cellular apoptosis during in vitro embryo development and improved the quality of the blastocysts. The implantation of quality-improved blastocysts led to elevated pregnancy and birth rates. In conclusion, the results revealed that the anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities of melatonin improved the quality of microinjected pronuclear embryos and subsequently increased both the efficiency of embryo implantation and the birth rate of the pups. Therefore, the melatonin supplementation may provide a novel alternative method for generating large numbers of transgenic mice and this method can probably be used in human-assisted reproduction and genome editing.

  4. Enabling the high capacity of lithium-rich anti-fluorite lithium iron oxide by simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chun; Yao, Zhenpeng; Lu, Jun; Ma, Lu; Maroni, Victor A.; Li, Liang; Lee, Eungje; Alp, Esen E.; Wu, Tianpin; Wen, Jianguo; Ren, Yang; Johnson, Christopher; Thackeray, Michael M.; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Wolverton, Chris; Amine, Khalil

    2017-12-01

    Anionic redox reactions in cathodes of lithium-ion batteries are allowing opportunities to double or even triple the energy density. However, it is still challenging to develop a cathode, especially with Earth-abundant elements, that enables anionic redox activity for real-world applications, primarily due to limited strategies to intercept the oxygenates from further irreversible oxidation to O2 gas. Here we report simultaneous iron and oxygen redox activity in a Li-rich anti-fluorite Li5FeO4 electrode. During the removal of the first two Li ions, the oxidation potential of O2- is lowered to approximately 3.5 V versus Li+/Li0, at which potential the cationic oxidation occurs concurrently. These anionic and cationic redox reactions show high reversibility without any obvious O2 gas release. Moreover, this study provides an insightful guide to designing high-capacity cathodes with reversible oxygen redox activity by simply introducing oxygen ions that are exclusively coordinated by Li+.

  5. [Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, etofenamate, in experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Motoyoshi, S; Imazu, C; Ishii, K; Yokoyama, Y; Seto, Y; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1982-08-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of orally administered etofenamate, the diethylene glycol ester of flufenamic acid, were investigated in experimental animals. Against acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice and ultra-violet light-induced erythema in guinea pigs, etofenamate produced a dose related inhibition at doses of 40--320 mg/kg and 5--20 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, felt-pellet-induced granuloma formation and adjuvant-induced arthritis were significantly inhibited by repeated administration of etofenamate at doses of 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days and 40 mg/kg/day for 21 days, respectively. Etofenamate showed an inhibitory activity on the squeak response caused by flexing and extending the silver nitrate-induced arthritic joint in rats; and it produced a dose related anti-writhing activity at doses of 50--300 mg/kg and 10--80 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Etofenamate showed a significant anti-pyretic activity at doses of 0.2 mg/kg or more. These potencies of etofenamate were 0.5 to 1.6 times those of flufenamic acid. In particular, the anti-erythema, anti-arthritis, and anti-pyretic activities of etofenamate were approximately equivalent to or superior to those of flufenamic acid. From these results, it was suggested that etofenamate given orally, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities in experimental animals.

  6. Anti-complement activities of human breast-milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, M O

    1999-08-01

    It has long been observed that the human milk possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties, while simultaneously protecting the infant against many intestinal and respiratory pathogens. There is, however, a paucity of information on the degree and extent of this anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of different fractions of human milk on serum complement activity were analysed. Colostrum and milk samples from healthy voluntary lactating donors at different postpartum ages were obtained and pooled normal human serum was used as source of complement in a modified CH50 assay. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also investigated by measuring the deposition of an activated C3 fragment on a serum-sensitive bacteria, and by haemolytic assays. Most whole- and defatted-milk samples consistently showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the serum complement activity. This inhibition was greater in mature milk compared to transitional milk samples. It was enhanced by inactivation of milk complement, and diminished by centrifugation of milk samples, which partly removed fat and larger protein components including casein micelles. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also demonstrated by haemolysis of sensitised sheep erythrocytes and deposition of C3 fragments on solid-phase bacteria. These activities were highest in the colostrum and gradually decreased as lactation proceeded. Several natural components abundant in the fluid phase of the human breast-milk have been shown to be inhibitors of complement activation in vitro. Their physiological significance probably reside in their ability to prevent inflammatory-induced tissue damage of the delicate immature gastrointestinal tract of the new-born as well as the mammary gland itself, which may arise from ongoing complement activation.

  7. Chemical study, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective activities of Centaurea cyanus L. petals aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Graziela Bragueto; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali; Marques, Mariza Boscacci; Azevedo, Luciana; do Carmo, Mariana Araújo Vieira; Daguer, Heitor; Molognoni, Luciano; Prado-Silva, Leonardo do; Sant'Ana, Anderson Souza; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Granato, Daniel

    2018-05-19

    This study aimed to optimise the experimental conditions of extraction of the phytochemical compounds and functional properties of Centaurea cyanus petals. The following parameters were determined: the chemical composition (LC-ESI-MS/MS), the effects of pH on the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, anti-hemolytic activity, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective effect, and the measurements of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Results showed that the temperature and time influenced (p ≤ 0.05) the content of flavonoids, anthocyanins, and FRAP. Only the temperature influenced the total phenolic content, non-anthocyanin flavonoids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The statistical approach made it possible to obtain the optimised experimental extraction conditions to increase the level of bioactive compounds. Chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, isoquercitrin, and coumarin were identified as the major compounds in the optimised extract. The optimised extract presented anti-hemolytic and anti-hypertensive activity in vitro, in addition to showing stability and reversibility of anthocyanins and antioxidant activity with pH variation. The C. cyanus extract exhibited high IC 50 and GI 50 (>900 μg/mL) values for all cell lines, meaning low cytotoxicity. Based on the stress oxidative assay, the extract exhibited pro-oxidant action (10-100 μg/mL) but did not cause damage or cell death. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianqing; DU, Congxin; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Zhihua

    2015-02-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HEP) is a notable medicinal fungus grown in China and other oriental countries. Polysaccharides from HEP have recently attracted considerable attention due to their numerous physiological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of HEP in a mouse model. After one week of acclimation, mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a low-dose HEP-treated group, a moderate-dose HEP-treated group, and a high-dose HEP-treated group. The treated groups received HEP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received saline solution. Following treatment for 28 days, the mice performed a forced swimming test until they were exhausted, then the exhaustive swimming time was recorded along with certain biochemical parameters related to fatigue, including blood lactic acid (BLA), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), tissue glycogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These results suggested that HEP has significant anti-fatigue activity by decreasing BLA, SUN and MDA content, as well as increasing tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Based on these results, this study provided theoretical support for the application of HEP in the field of sports nutrition.

  9. Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, JIANQING; DU, CONGXIN; WANG, YIFEI; YU, ZHIHUA

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HEP) is a notable medicinal fungus grown in China and other oriental countries. Polysaccharides from HEP have recently attracted considerable attention due to their numerous physiological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of HEP in a mouse model. After one week of acclimation, mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a low-dose HEP-treated group, a moderate-dose HEP-treated group, and a high-dose HEP-treated group. The treated groups received HEP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received saline solution. Following treatment for 28 days, the mice performed a forced swimming test until they were exhausted, then the exhaustive swimming time was recorded along with certain biochemical parameters related to fatigue, including blood lactic acid (BLA), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), tissue glycogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These results suggested that HEP has significant anti-fatigue activity by decreasing BLA, SUN and MDA content, as well as increasing tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Based on these results, this study provided theoretical support for the application of HEP in the field of sports nutrition. PMID:25574220

  10. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  11. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-01-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  12. Anti-fatigue activity of a mixture of seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis hydrolysate and red ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalae Kang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seahorse, a syngnathidae fish, is one of the important organisms used in Chinese traditional medicine. Hippocampus abdominalis, a seahorse species successfully cultured in Korea, was validated for use in food by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in February 2016; however. the validation was restricted to 50% of the entire composition. Therefore, to use H. abdominalis as a food ingredient, H. abdominalis has to be prepared as a mixture by adding other materials. In this study, the effect of H. abdominalis on muscles was investigated to scientifically verify its potential bioactivity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of a mixture comprising H. abdominalis and red ginseng (RG was evaluated to commercially utilize H. abdominalis in food industry. H. abdominalis was hydrolyzed using Alcalase, a protease, and the effect of H. abdominalis hydrolysate (HH on the muscles was assessed in C2C12 myoblasts by measuring cell proliferation and glycogen content. In addition, the mixtures comprising HH and RG were prepared at different percentages of RG to HH (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% RG, and the anti-fatigue activity of these mixtures against oxidative stress was assessed in C2C12 myoblasts. In C2C12 myoblasts, H2O2-induced oxidative stress caused a decrease in viability and physical fatigue-related biomarkers such as glycogen and ATP contents. However, treatment with RG and HH mixtures increased cell viability and the content of fatigue-related biomarkers. In particular, the 80% RG mixture showed an optimum effect on cell viability and ATP synthesis activity. In this study, all results indicated that HH had anti-fatigue activity at concentrations approved for use in food by the law in Korea. Especially, an 80% RG to HH mixture can be used in food for ameliorating fatigue.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ambrosia artemisiaefolia and Rhoeo spathacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez G, R M

    1996-09-01

    Alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Ambrosia artemisiaefolia and Rhoeo spathacea have been investigated for anti-inflammatory activity using various experimental models of inflammation (croton oil ear oedema, carrageenan-induced edema, cotton pellet granuloma and formaldehyde induced arthritis) and the results compared with phenylbutazone and bethamethasone, standard anti-inflammatory drugs. These extracts at doses of 50, 100 and 150mg/kg of A. artemisiaefolia and R. spathacea, showed significant inhibition of acute oedema in rats and mice induced by the phlogistic agents, carrageenan and croton oil, in a dose-dependant manner. The ethanol extracts reduced cotton pellet granuloma and caused a statistically significant inhibitory effect on edema in the chronic model of formaldehyde arthritis in rats. Since Ambrosia artemisiaefolia and Rhoeo spathacea were found to be effective in both acute and chronic phases of inflammation they can be considered as general anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 1996 Gustav Fischer Verlag · Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) root extracts in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocco, Stefania; Calabrone, Luana; Adesso, Simona; Larocca, Marilena; Franceschelli, Silvia; Autore, Giuseppina; Martelli, Giuseppe; Rossano, Rocco

    2015-12-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Horseradish root is used as a condiment due to its extremely pungent flavour, deriving from the high content of glucosinolates and their breakdown products such as isothiocyanates and other sulfur compounds. Horseradish also has a long history in ethnomedicine. In this study the anti-inflammatory potential of three accessions of Armoracia rusticana on lipopolysaccharide from E. coli treated J774A.1 murine macrophages was evaluated. Our results demonstrate that Armoracia rusticana reduced nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages, acting on nuclear transcription factor NF-κB p65 activation. Moreover Armoracia rusticana reduced reactive oxygen species release and increased heme-oxygenase-1 expression, thus contributing to the cytoprotective cellular effect during inflammation.

  15. Analysis of anti-condensation mechanism on superhydrophobic anodic aluminum oxide surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yanpeng; Zhang, Chaoying

    2013-01-01

    Wetting theory about superhydrophobic surfaces reveals that hydrophobicity of surfaces has great relationship with surface roughness and surface free energy. Adopt electrochemical plus fluorine silane modified method to prepare superhydrophobic surface on anodic aluminum oxide surface, which not only enhances surface roughness, but also reduces surface free energy, even the static contact angle can reach 159.2° and anti-condensation is authenticated. Based on the experimental findings, analyze the reason of anti-condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces: one is that the density of droplets formed on superhydrophobic surfaces is low and the number of droplets is little; the other is bigger static contact angle and smaller rolling angle on superhydrophobic surfaces make droplets easy to detach on smaller tilt angle. This research can solve some condensation problems of equipment using in HVAC systems, such as heat exchangers in air conditioning system, cold radiation boards, air supply outlets, and so on. Highlights: • Prepare superhydrophobic surface on anodic aluminum oxide surface. • Analyze the reason of anti-condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces. • The density of droplets formed on superhydrophobic surfaces is low. • Droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces are easy to detach. • This research can solve some problems of equipment using in HVAC systems

  16. A novel anti-influenza copper oxide containing respiratory face mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkow, Gadi; Zhou, Steve S; Page, Tom; Gabbay, Jeffrey

    2010-06-25

    Protective respiratory face masks protect the nose and mouth of the wearer from vapor drops carrying viruses or other infectious pathogens. However, incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the risk of pathogen transmission, rather than reduce it, especially when masks are used by non-professionals such as the lay public. Copper oxide displays potent antiviral properties. A platform technology has been developed that permanently introduces copper oxide into polymeric materials, conferring them with potent biocidal properties. We demonstrate that impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent biocidal properties in addition to their inherent filtration properties. Both control and copper oxide impregnated masks filtered above 99.85% of aerosolized viruses when challenged with 5.66+/-0.51 and 6.17+/-0.37 log(10)TCID(50) of human influenza A virus (H1N1) and avian influenza virus (H9N2), respectively, under simulated breathing conditions (28.3 L/min). Importantly, no infectious human influenza A viral titers were recovered from the copper oxide containing masks within 30 minutes (masks. Similarly, the infectious avian influenza titers recovered from the copper oxide containing masks were masks 5.03+/-0.54 log(10)TCID(50). The copper oxide containing masks successfully passed Bacterial Filtration Efficacy, Differential Pressure, Latex Particle Challenge, and Resistance to Penetration by Synthetic Blood tests designed to test the filtration properties of face masks in accordance with the European EN 14683:2005 and NIOSH N95 standards. Impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent anti-influenza biocidal properties without altering their physical barrier properties. The use of biocidal masks may significantly reduce the risk of hand or environmental contamination, and thereby subsequent infection, due to improper handling and disposal of the masks.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts from Musa sapientum peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuaklee, Pathompong; Ruangnoo, Srisopa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2012-01-01

    Many parts of Musa sapientum Linn. (Musaceae) are used in Thai traditional medicine as drugs, food supplements and cosmetics. The banana peel is used as an astringent in foot care, the unripe fruit is used to treat diarrhea and, the ripe fruit is used as tonic. To evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of banana peel extracts obtained from different extraction methods and to determine their total phenolic content. Four extraction methods were used to extract unripe and ripe peels. Nitric oxide inhibitory and DPPH scavenging assays were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, respectively. Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent was used to determine total phenolic content. The water extract of fresh ripe peel exhibited the most potent NO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 6.68 +/- 0.34 microg/ml), but apparently exhibited no antioxidant activity. The decoction extract of fresh unripe peel exhibited strong antioxidant activity as well as had the highest total phenolic compound. The antioxidant activity exhibited a correlation with the total phenolic content. This study supports the use of Musa sapientum peel in Thai Traditional Medicine for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.

  18. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is a special folk medicinal plant in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of the stem of K. gracilis. TEAC, total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were analyzed. Among all fractions, the chloroform fraction showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities. The chloroform fraction also had the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Chloroform fractions also decreased LPS-induced NO production and expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions were studied in vitro using HepG2 cells, and the results were consistent with their antioxidant capacities. Chloroform fractions had the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC(50) of 136.85 ± 2.32 μg/ml. Eupafolin also had good pharmacological activity in the antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antiproliferative. Eupafolin might be an important bioactive compound in the stem of K. gracilis. The above experimental data indicated that the stem of K. gracilis is a potent antioxidant medicinal plant, and such efficacy may be mainly attributed to its polyphenolic compounds.

  19. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  1. Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kocot, Joanna; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element of antioxidant properties. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause numerous side effects including oxidative stress. The present study aimed at evaluating if sodium selenite could influence chosen anti- and pro-oxidant parameters in rats treated with lithium. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control) - treated with saline; II (Li) - treated with lithium (2.7 mgLi/kg b.w. as Li2CO3), III (Se) - treated with selenium (0.5 mgSe/kg b.w. as Na2SeO3), IV (Li+Se) - treated with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3 together at the same doses as in group II and III, respectively. All treatments were performed by stomach tube for three weeks in form of water solutions. The following anti- and pro-oxidant parameters: total antioxidant status (TAS) value, catalase (CAT) activity, concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Selenium given alone markedly enhanced whole blood GPx and diminished plasma CAT vs. Lithium significantly decreased plasma CAT and slightly increased AA vs. Selenium co-administration restored these parameters to the values observed in control animals. Furthermore, selenium co-administration significantly increased GPx in Li-treated rats. All other parameters (TAS, SOD and MDA) were not affected by lithium and/or selenium. Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. HT oxidation activity of soil irradiated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Tjahaja, P.I.; Takashima, Yoshimasa

    1992-01-01

    The HT oxidation activity was examined for soils irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays at various doses. The HT oxidation rate decreased with increase of initial H 2 concentration, indicating a similar oxidation mechanism between HT and H 2 . Irradiated soils showed decrease of oxidation activity with dose suggests that HT and H 2 oxidation activities were affected by sterilization with γ-rays. The decline of the oxidation activity with dose was analyzed by a composite of two components with different radiosensitivity and they were considered to be activities of soil microorganisms and abiotic soil enzymes. The oxidation activity due to soil microorganisms would be important at low dose range and more radioresistant abiotic soil enzymes would be responsible for the oxidation activity observed at more than several kGy. In non-irradiated soil about half of the oxidation activity was considered resulting from abiotic soil enzymes. (author)

  3. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf and fruit extracts from Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, Přemysl; Skálová, L.; Boušová, I.; Kutil, Zsófia; Langhansová, Lenka; Lou, J.D.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2014), s. 103-106 ISSN 1011-601X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : anti-proliferative activity * anti-inflammatory activity * breast cancer Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2014 http://www.pjps.pk/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/27/1/Paper-15.pdf

  4. Decreased histone deacetylase 2 impairs Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, Nicolas; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Thomas, Catherine M.R.; Fenwick, Peter S.; Chana, Kirandeep K.; Donnelly, Louise E.; Biswal, Shyam; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nrf2 anti-oxidant function is impaired when HDAC activity is inhibited. → HDAC inhibition decreases Nrf2 protein stability. → HDAC2 is involved in reduced Nrf2 stability and both correlate in COPD samples. → HDAC inhibition increases Nrf2 acetylation. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of multiple anti-oxidant genes. However, where high levels of oxidative stress are observed, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Nrf2 activity is reduced, although the molecular mechanism for this defect is uncertain. Here, we show that down-regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 causes Nrf2 instability, resulting in reduced anti-oxidant gene expression and increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. Although Nrf2 protein was clearly stabilized after hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) stimulation in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B), Nrf2 stability was decreased and Nrf2 acetylation increased in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also reduced Nrf2-regulated heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in these cells, and this was confirmed in acute cigarette-smoke exposed mice in vivo. HDAC2 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in reduced H 2 O 2 -induced Nrf2 protein stability and activity in BEAS2B cells, whereas HDAC1 knockdown had no effect. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers (non-smokers and smokers) and COPD patients showed a significant correlation between HDAC2 expression and Nrf2 expression (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). Thus, reduced HDAC2 activity in COPD may account for increased Nrf2 acetylation, reduced Nrf2 stability and impaired anti oxidant defences.

  5. Decreased histone deacetylase 2 impairs Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Nicolas [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom); Thimmulappa, Rajesh [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomas, Catherine M.R.; Fenwick, Peter S.; Chana, Kirandeep K.; Donnelly, Louise E. [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom); Biswal, Shyam [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ito, Kazuhiro [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom); Barnes, Peter J., E-mail: p.j.barnes@imperial.ac.uk [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Nrf2 anti-oxidant function is impaired when HDAC activity is inhibited. {yields} HDAC inhibition decreases Nrf2 protein stability. {yields} HDAC2 is involved in reduced Nrf2 stability and both correlate in COPD samples. {yields} HDAC inhibition increases Nrf2 acetylation. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of multiple anti-oxidant genes. However, where high levels of oxidative stress are observed, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Nrf2 activity is reduced, although the molecular mechanism for this defect is uncertain. Here, we show that down-regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 causes Nrf2 instability, resulting in reduced anti-oxidant gene expression and increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. Although Nrf2 protein was clearly stabilized after hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) stimulation in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B), Nrf2 stability was decreased and Nrf2 acetylation increased in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also reduced Nrf2-regulated heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in these cells, and this was confirmed in acute cigarette-smoke exposed mice in vivo. HDAC2 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Nrf2 protein stability and activity in BEAS2B cells, whereas HDAC1 knockdown had no effect. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers (non-smokers and smokers) and COPD patients showed a significant correlation between HDAC2 expression and Nrf2 expression (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). Thus, reduced HDAC2 activity in COPD may account for increased Nrf2 acetylation, reduced Nrf2 stability and impaired anti oxidant defences.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Untreated, Germinated, and Fermented Mung Bean Aqueous Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlaily Mohd Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB, germinated mung bean (GMB, and fermented mung bean (FMB was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000 mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

  7. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active ingredients and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Chi H.J. Kao; Amalini C. Jesuthasan; Karen S. Bishop; Marcus P. Glucina; Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTGanoderma lucidum, commonly referred to as Lingzhi, has been used in Asia for health promotion for centuries. The anti-cancer effects of G. lucidum have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the observed anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma have prompted its usage by cancer patients alongside chemotherapy.The main two bioactive components of G. lucidum can be broadly grouped into triterpenes and polysaccharides. Despite triterpenes and polysaccharides bei...

  8. Chemical composition and anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activity of rhizome essential oil of Globba sessiliflora Sims. collected from Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravendra Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Family Zingiberaceae is worldwide in distribution. Plants of the zingiberaceae family are used in traditional herbal folk medicine besides their uses in spices, cosmetic, ornamental, food preservatives etc. In Uttarakhand the herbs grow from sub-tropical to temperate region. Globba sessiliflora Simsrhizomes were collected at maturity stage in November from Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India. In present communication the medicinal use of various zingiberaceous herb provoked us to study the chemical diversity and pharmacological activity determination of this important traditional herb. Experimental: The essential oil was extracted using hydrodistillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. Anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities of essential oil were experimently determined using mice model. Results: The major compounds identified were β-eudesmol (27.6%, (E-β-caryophyllene (24.3%, α-humulene (3.0%, (6E-nerolidol (4.1%, caryophyllene oxide (9.7%, γ-eudesmol (6.4% and τ-muurolol (8.3% besides other minor constituents. Essential oil of G. sessiliflora rhizome showed good anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight. The oral administration of the essential oil exhibited no toxicity at 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg b.wt. concentration. Ibuprofen, indomthacin and paracetamol were used as standard drugs for comparison. Recommended applications/industries: G. sessiliflora essential oil can be used as herbal remedy for its nontoxicityanti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities.

  9. Melatonin as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent Modulating Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Favero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation may be defined as the innate response to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, injury, and metabolic stress; its ultimate function is to restore the physiological homeostatic state. The exact aetiology leading to the development of inflammation is not known, but a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many inflammation-related clinical conditions. Recent studies suggest that the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases also involves the inflammasomes, intracellular multiprotein complexes that mediate activation of inflammatory caspases thereby inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine, is considered an important multitasking molecule with fundamental clinical applications. It is involved in mood modulation, sexual behavior, vasomotor control, and immunomodulation and influences energy metabolism; moreover, it acts as an oncostatic and antiaging molecule. Melatonin is an important antioxidant and also a widespread anti-inflammatory molecule, modulating both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in different pathophysiological conditions. This review, first, gives an overview concerning the growing importance of melatonin in the inflammatory-mediated pathological conditions and, then, focuses on its roles and its protective effects against the activation of the inflammasomes and, in particular, of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  10. 76 FR 69204 - Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity Reporting Requirements for Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... 1506-AB14 Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity Reporting Requirements for Housing... enterprises as financial institutions for the purpose of requiring them to establish anti-money laundering... organizations to establish anti-money laundering programs and report suspicious activities is intended to help...

  11. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf and fruit extracts from Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Premysl; Skalova, Lenka; Bousova, Iva; Kutil, Zsofia; Langhansova, Lenka; Lou, Ji-Dong; Vanek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative (tested on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-10A cell lines) and anti-inflammatory (evaluated as inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis catalyzed by cyclooxygenase-2) effect of various extracts from Vaccinium bracteatum leaves and fruits. The highest anti-proliferative effect possessed leaf dichloromethane extract with IC50 values ranging from 93 to 198 μg/mL. In the case of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition, n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethanol fruit extracts showed the best activity with IC50 values = 2.0, 5.4, and 12.7 μg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that V. bracteatum leaves and fruits could be useful source of anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory compounds.

  12. Preliminary screening of some traditional zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J; Opoku, A R; Geheeb-Keller, M; Hutchings, A D; Terblanche, S E; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    1999-12-15

    Aqueous and methanolic extracts from different parts of nine traditional Zulu medicinal plants, of the Vitaceae from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were evaluated for therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents. Of the twenty-nine crude extracts assayed for prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, only five methanolic extracts of Cyphostemma natalitium-root, Rhoicissus digitata-leaf, R. rhomboidea-root, R. tomentosa-leaf/stem and R. tridentata-root showed significant inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1). The extracts of R. digitata-leaf and of R. rhomboidea-root exhibited the highest inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with 53 and 56%, respectively. The results suggest that Rhoicissus digitata leaves and of Rhoicissus rhomboidea roots may have the potential to be used as anti-inflammatory agents. All the screened plant extracts showed some degrees of anti-microbial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. The methanolic extracts of C. natalitium-stem and root, R. rhomboidea-root, and R. tomentosa-leaf/stem, showed different anti-microbial activities against almost all micro-organisms tested. Generally, these plant extracts inhibited the gram-positive micro-organisms more than the gram-negative ones. Several plant extracts inhibited the growth of Candida albicans while only one plant extract showed inhibitory activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All the plant extracts which demonstrated good anti-inflammatory activities also showed better inhibitory activity against Candida albicans.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Lavandula dentata L. and Lavandula stoechas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Vezza, Teresa; Garrido-Mesa, Jose; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Utrilla, M Pilar; González-Tejero, M Reyes; Casares-Porcel, Manuel; Molero-Mesa, Joaquin; Del Mar Contreras, Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Pérez-Palacio, José; Diaz, Caridad; Vergara, Noemí; Vicente, Francisca; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2016-08-22

    Plants from genus Lavandula have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs in Mediterranean traditional medicine. Nowadays, there is a growing interest for complementary medicine, including herbal remedies, to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To test the anti-inflammatory properties of Lavandula dentata and Lavandula stoechas extracts in two inflammatory experimental models: TNBS model of rat colitis and the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, in order to mimic the intestinal conditions and the extra-intestinal manifestations of human IBD, respectively. The extracts were characterized through the qualitative HPLC analysis. Then, they were assayed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed in BMDMs and CMT-93 epithelial cells with different concentrations of the extracts (ranging from 0.1 to 100µg/ml). The extracts were tested in vivo in the TNBS model of rat colitis (10 and 25mg/kg) and in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (10, 25 and 100mg/kg). L. dentata and L. stoechas extracts displayed immunomodulatory properties in vitro down-regulating different mediators of inflammation like cytokines and nitric oxide. They also showed anti-inflammatory effects in the TNBS model of colitis as evidenced by reduced myeloperoxidase activity and increased total glutathione content, indicating a decrease of neutrophil infiltration and an improvement of the oxidative state. Besides, both extracts modulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and ameliorated the altered epithelial barrier function. They also displayed anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, since a significant reduction of the paw thickness was observed. This was associated with a down-regulation of the expression of different inducible enzymes like MMP-9, iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, all involved in the maintenance of the inflammatory condition. L. dentata and L. stoechas extracts showed intestinal anti

  14. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempone, A.G.; Lourenco, C.O.; Spencer, P.J.; Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N.; Andrade Junior, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a 60 Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author)

  15. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempone, A.G.; Lourenco, C.O.; Spencer, P.J.; Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia; Andrade Junior, H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Medicina Tropical

    1999-11-01

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a {sup 60} Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract suppresses experimental arthritis via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract on rheumatoid arthritis in male Wistar rats. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of 200 µl Freund’s complete adjuvant into a footpad of the right hind leg of male rats at two consecutive days. Arthritic rats were orally treated with Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract at dose level of 100 mg/kg b.wt /day for 1, 2 and 3 weeks and were compared with corresponding arthritic control at the same periods. The increased right hind paw circumference at tarsal pad, deleteriously affected ankle joint histological architecture, articular inflammatory cell infiltration and focal necrosis in arthritic rats were counteracted by hydroethanolic extract treatment at the three tested periods. Elevated leukocytes count in arthritic rats connected with changes of spleen and thymus histological architecture, extramedullary megakaryocytes, lymphoblasts activation and mitotic figures were significantly improved by Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract treatment at the three tested peroids. The elevated rheumatoid factor (RF, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-17 (IL-17 and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β levels and the lowered interleukin-4 (IL-4 level in arthritic rats were markedly ameliorated as a result of Ulva lactuca administration. The lowered glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities as well as the elevated lipid peroxides level in serum of arthritic rats were potentially alleviated as a result of Ulva lactuca treatment. In conclusion, Ulva lactuca could have anti-arthritic efficacies which may be mediated via its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potentials. Keywords: Ulva lactuca, Joints, Spleen, Thymus, Rheumatoid arthritis, Inflammation, Oxidative stress

  17. Study on The Potency of Methanol Extracts From Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld As Natural Anti Oxidant by Thiobarbituric Acid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Ratnawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld (the Purple yam was selected as experimental material. This plant was collected from Rejang Lebong region, Bengkulu Province. Methanol extract 96% from stem of purple yam was studied its anti-oxidant activity in various concentrations with α-tocopherol (200 ppm as standard of antioxidant. Antioxidant activity was determined using Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA method. Linoleic acid was oxidized at 40 ºC for seven days with or without extract and the final product malondialdehyde (MDA was reacted with thiostembituric acid to be of red colored complex (MDA-TBA and was then measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer at λ 532 nm. Stem extract of purple yam with concentration of 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm and 300 ppm respectively had the inhibition of 19.32%, 21.85%, 29.47%, and 31.05%. α-Tocopherol as positive control which showed inhibition ability of 85.14% at 200 ppm. Based on the result obtained in this study, the stem’s extract of Purpel yam plant showed that antioxidant activity was lower than α-tocopherol.

  18. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and immunostimulatory effect of extracts from Byrsonima crassa Nied. (Malpighiaceae

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    Vilegas Wagner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several in vitro studies have looked at the effect of medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Regardless of the popular use of Byrsonima crassa (B. crassa as antiemetic, diuretic, febrifuge, to treat diarrhea, gastritis and ulcers, there is no data on its effects against H. pylori. In this study, we evaluated the anti-H. pylori of B. crassa leaves extracts and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Methods The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by broth microdilution method and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. Results The methanolic (MeOH and chloroformic (CHCl3 extracts inhibit, in vitro, the growth of H. pylori with MIC value of 1024 μg/ml. The MeOH extract induced the production H2O2 and NO, but CHCl3 extract only NO. Conclusion Based in our results, B. crassa can be considered a source of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity, but its use should be done with caution in treatment of the gastritis and peptic ulcers, since the reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury induced by ulcerogenic agents and H. pylori infections.

  19. Bactericidal activity of partially oxidized nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Julia; Dringen, Ralf; Zare, Richard N; Maas, Michael; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2014-06-24

    Nanodiamonds are a class of carbon-based nanoparticles that are rapidly gaining attention, particularly for biomedical applications, i.e., as drug carriers, for bioimaging, or as implant coatings. Nanodiamonds have generally been considered biocompatible with a broad variety of eukaryotic cells. We show that, depending on their surface composition, nanodiamonds kill Gram-positive and -negative bacteria rapidly and efficiently. We investigated six different types of nanodiamonds exhibiting diverse oxygen-containing surface groups that were created using standard pretreatment methods for forming nanodiamond dispersions. Our experiments suggest that the antibacterial activity of nanodiamond is linked to the presence of partially oxidized and negatively charged surfaces, specifically those containing acid anhydride groups. Furthermore, proteins were found to control the bactericidal properties of nanodiamonds by covering these surface groups, which explains the previously reported biocompatibility of nanodiamonds. Our findings describe the discovery of an exciting property of partially oxidized nanodiamonds as a potent antibacterial agent.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulatory activities of caffeic acid and ellagic acid in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice

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    Hsu Cheng-chin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeic acid (CA and ellagic acid (EA are phenolic acids naturally occurring in many plant foods. Cardiac protective effects of these compounds against dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice were examined. Methods Diabetic mice were divided into three groups (15 mice per group: diabetic mice with normal diet, 2% CA treatment, or 2% EA treatment. One group of non-diabetic mice with normal diet was used for comparison. After 12 weeks supplement, mice were sacrificed, and the variation of biomarkers for hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice were measured. Results The intake of CA or EA significantly increased cardiac content of these compounds, alleviated body weight loss, elevated plasma insulin and decreased plasma glucose levels in diabetic mice (p p p p p p p Conclusion These results support that CA and EA could provide triglyceride-lowering, anti-coagulatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory protection in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice. Thus, the supplement of these agents might be helpful for the prevention or attenuation of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  1. Anti-biofilm activity of Fe heavy ion irradiated polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, R.P. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Hareesh, K., E-mail: appi.2907@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Bankar, A. [Department of Microbiology, Waghire College, Pune 412301 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalore 574166 (India); Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Arun Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Dahiwale, S.S.; Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Highlights: • PC films were irradiated by 60 and 120 MeV Fe ions. • Irradiated PC films showed changes in its physical and chemical properties. • Irradiated PC also showed more anti-biofilm activity compared to pristine PC. - Abstract: Polycarbonate (PC) polymers were investigated before and after high energy heavy ion irradiation for anti-bacterial properties. These PC films were irradiated by Fe heavy ions with two energies, viz, 60 and 120 MeV, at different fluences in the range from 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. UV-Visible spectroscopic results showed optical band gap decreased with increase in ion fluences due to chain scission mainly at carbonyl group of PC which is also corroborated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic results. X-ray diffractogram results showed decrease in crystallinity of PC after irradiation which leads to decrease in molecular weight. This is confirmed by rheological studies and also by differential scanning calorimetric results. The irradiated PC samples showed modification in their surfaces prevents biofilm formation of human pathogen, Salmonella typhi.

  2. Anti-cholinesterase activity of the standardized extract of Syzygium aromaticum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalai, Manoj K; Bhadra, Santanu; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2014-04-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is a well-known culinary spice with strong aroma; contains a high amount of oil known as clove oil. The major phyto-constituent of the clove oil is eugenol. Clove and its oil possess various medicinal uses in indigenous medicine as an antiseptic, anti-oxidant, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. Thus, it draws much attention among researchers from pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-cholinesterase activity of the methanol extract of clove, its oil and eugenol. In vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of S. aromaticum was performed by a thin layer chromatography bio autography, 96 well micro titer plate and kinetic methods. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis was carried out to identify the biomarker compound eugenol in clove oil. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition study revealed that eugenol possess better inhibition of the enzymes than extract and oil. Clove extract, its oil and eugenol showed better inhibition of AChE than BChE. Polyphenolic compound eugenol was detected through RP-HPLC analysis. The content of eugenol in essential oil was found to be 0.5 μg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the cholinesterase inhibition study of the extract; clove oil and eugenol have shown that they possess mixed type of inhibition for AChE and non-competitive type of inhibition for BChE. These results might be useful in explaining the effect of clove as anti-cholinesterase agent for the management of cognitive ailments like Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin

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    Tsung-Chun Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (PC is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat not only common cold, nausea and diarrhea but also headache and fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of standardized PC methanol extract (PCMeOH in vivo. Investigations were performed in mice with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid-induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested by λ-carrageenan (Carr-induced mice paw edema. These analgesic experimental results indicated that PCMeOH (1.0 g/kg decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg decreased the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Moreover, Carr-induced paw edema inflammation was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner when PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg was administered 3 and 4 h after the Carr injection. Mechanistic studies showed that PCMeOH decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in the edema paw by increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in the liver and decreasing the cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α activities in the edema paw. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of PCMeOH, thus verifying its popular use in traditional medicine.

  4. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities from Actinidia callosa var. callosa In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Jung-Chun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinidia callosa var. callosa has been widely used to treat antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammation, abdominal pain, and fever in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages and pawedema induced by λ-carrageenan activities of the methanol extract from A. callosa. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of ethyl-acetate fraction of A. callosa (EAAC was established. EAAC showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. We evaluated that EAAC and the reference compound of catechin and caffeic acid decreased the LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of male ICR mice with EAAC significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing response and the formalin-induced pain in the late phase. Administration of EAAC showed a concentration-dependent inhibition on paw edema development after Carr treatment in mice. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EAAC might be correlated to the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the results showed that EAAC demonstrated antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activity, which supports previous claims of the traditional use for inflammation and pain.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of azadirachtin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Darly G; Godin, Adriana M; Menezes, Raquel R; Nogueira, Rafaela D; Brito, Ana Mercy S; Melo, Ivo S F; Coura, Giovanna Maria E; Souza, Danielle G; Amaral, Flávio A; Paulino, Tony P; Coelho, Márcio M; Machado, Renes R

    2014-06-01

    Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) extracts have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. However, the activities of azadirachtin, a limonoid and the major bioactive compound found in the extracts, have been poorly investigated in animal models. In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by azadirachtin in experimental models of pain and inflammation in mice. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by subcutaneous cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of azadirachtin in mice. Zymosan-induced writhing and hot plate tests were employed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity. To explore putative mechanisms of action, the level of tumor necrosis factor-α in inflammatory tissue was measured and the effect induced by opioidergic and serotonergic antagonists was evaluated. Previous per os (p. o.) administration of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan. However, the concomitant increase of the paw concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α induced by this inflammatory stimulus was not reduced by azadirachtin. In addition to inhibiting the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan, azadirachtin (6, 60, and 120 mg/kg) inhibited the proliferative phase of the inflammatory response, as demonstrated by the reduced formation of fibrovascular tissue growth. Azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) also inhibited the nociceptive response in models of nociceptive (hot plate) and inflammatory (writhing induced by zymosan) pain. The activity of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) in the model of nociceptive pain was attenuated by a nonselective opioid antagonist, naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i. p.), but not by a nonselective serotonergic antagonist, cyproheptadine. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the activity of azadirachtin in experimental models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain, and also in models of acute and chronic inflammation

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of 3-thiazolyl coumarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salar, U.; Khan, M.; Bakhtawar, A.; Kanwal, A.; Jabeen, A.; Faheem, A.

    2017-01-01

    3-Thiazolyl coumarins 1-33 along with coumarin scaffold (IC50 = 5.2 +- 0.2 mu g/mL) were evaluated for in vitro antiinflammatory activity. Activity of compounds was investigated by looking their influence on oxidative burst activity of zymosan stimulated whole blood phagocytes by using a luminol enhanced chemiluminescence technique. Ibuprofen was used as standard drug (IC50 = 54.2 +- 9.2 mu M). Four 3-thiazolyl coumarin derivatives 9 (IC50 = 31.0 +- 2.5 mu g/mL), 13 (IC50 = 27.1 +- 4.2 mu g/mL), 18 (IC50 = 5.6 +- 2.6 mu g/mL), and 29 (IC50 = 1.9 +- 1.0 mu g/mL) out of thirty-three demonstrated antiinflammatory activity as compared to the standard ibuprofen (IC50 = 11.2 +- 1.9 mu g/mL). Especially, compound 29 showed many folds better activity as compared to coumarin and standard ibuprofen. Structure-activity relationship was also established. It is worth-mentioning that active analogs 9, 13, 18, and 29 were found to be non-toxic on NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. (author)

  7. Characterization, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antityrosinase activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindappa, M.; Hemashekhar, B.; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Ravishankar Rai, V.; Ramachandra, Y. L.

    2018-06-01

    The current research study is to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of Calophyllum tomentosum (CtAgNPs) and evaluated the extract to know the effects of anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity. Using UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) characterized the Calophyllum tomentosum mediated silver nanoparticles. The leaf extract of C. tomentosum yielded flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, terpenoids and coumarins. AgNPs formation was confirmed by UV-vis spectra at 438 nm. Crystalline structure with a face centered cubic (fcc) of AgNPs was observed in XRD. FTIR had shown that the phytochemicals were responsible for the reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The size and shape of the AgNPs were determined using SEM. From EDX study analysed the strong absorption property of AgNPs. The CtAgNPs have showed significant antibacterial activity on multi drug resistance bacteria. The CtAgNPs had shown strong antioxidant (DPPH, H2O2 scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging power, reducing power) activities. The CtAgNPs had strongly inhibited the α-glucosidase and DPPIV compared to α-amylase. The CtAgNPs exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity (albumin denaturation, membrane stabilization, heat haemolytic, protein inhibitory, lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase) and tyrosinase inhibitory activity. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract. Hence, to validate our results the in vivo studies at molecular level are needed to develop an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  8. Enhanced Sensitivity of Anti-Symmetrically Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors with Zinc Oxide Intermediate Layers

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    Nan-Fu Chiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel design wherein high-refractive-index zinc oxide (ZnO intermediary layers are used in anti-symmetrically structured surface plasmon resonance (SPR devices to enhance signal quality and improve the full width at half maximum (FWHM of the SPR reflectivity curve. The surface plasmon (SP modes of the ZnO intermediary layer were excited by irradiating both sides of the Au film, thus inducing a high electric field at the Au/ZnO interface. We demonstrated that an improvement in the ZnO (002 crystal orientation led to a decrease in the FWHM of the SPR reflectivity curves. We optimized the design of ZnO thin films using different parameters and performed analytical comparisons of the ZnO with conventional chromium (Cr and indium tin oxide (ITO intermediary layers. The present study is based on application of the Fresnel equation, which provides an explanation and verification for the observed narrow SPR reflectivity curve and optical transmittance spectra exhibited by (ZnO/Au, (Cr/Au, and (ITO/Au devices. On exposure to ethanol, the anti-symmetrically structured showed a huge electric field at the Au/ZnO interface and a 2-fold decrease in the FWHM value and a 1.3-fold larger shift in angle interrogation and a 4.5-fold high-sensitivity shift in intensity interrogation. The anti-symmetrically structured of ZnO intermediate layers exhibited a wider linearity range and much higher sensitivity. It also exhibited a good linear relationship between the incident angle and ethanol concentration in the tested range. Thus, we demonstrated a novel and simple method for fabricating high-sensitivity, high-resolution SPR biosensors that provide high accuracy and precision over relevant ranges of analyte measurement.

  9. Geissoschizine methyl ether N-oxide, a new alkaloid with antiacetylcholinesterase activity from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Wei; Su, Jia; Wu, Xing-De; He, Juan; Peng, Li-Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Geissoschizine methyl ether N-oxide, a new oxindole alkaloid, along with 14 known alkaloids, was isolated from the aerial part of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were identified by comprehensive spectral methods, including 2D NMR experiments, and confirmed by comparing with the literature data. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity assay showed that the new compound exhibited anti-AChE activity with IC₅₀ value of 23.4 μM.

  10. Modeling the LPS Neutralization Activity of Anti-Endotoxins

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    Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, also known as endotoxins, are major structural components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that serve as a barrier and protective shield between them and their surrounding environment. LPS is considered to be a major virulence factor as it strongly stimulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines which mediate the host immune response and culminating in septic shock. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of the LPS neutralization activities of anti-endotoxins were performed using charge and quantum chemical descriptors. Artificial neural network implementing the back-propagation algorithm was selected for the multivariate analysis. The predicted activities from leave-one-out cross-validation were well correlated with the experimental values as observed from the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of 0.930 and 0.162, respectively. Similarly, the external testing set also yielded good predictivity with correlation coefficient and root mean square error of 0.983 and 0.130. The model holds great potential for the rational design of novel and robust compounds with enhanced neutralization activity.

  11. Diabetes alters activation and repression of pro- and anti- inflammatory signalling pathways in the vasculature

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    Elyse eDi Marco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A central mechanism driving vascular disease in diabetes is immune cell-mediated inflammation. In diabetes, enhanced oxidation and glycation of macromolecules, such as lipoproteins, insults the endothelium and activates both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system by generating new antigens for presentation to adaptive immune cells. Chronic inflammation of the endothelium in diabetes leads to continuous infiltration and accumulation of leukocytes at sites of endothelial cell injury. We will describe the central role of the macrophage as a source of signalling molecules and damaging by-products which activate infiltrating lymphocytes in the tissue and contribute to the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory micro-environment. An important aspect to be considered is the diabetes- associated defects in the immune system, such as fewer or dysfunctional athero-protective leukocyte subsets in the diabetic lesion compared to non-diabetic lesions. This review will discuss the key pro-inflammatory signalling pathways responsible for leukocyte recruitment and activation in the injured vessel, with particular focus on pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways aberrantly activated or repressed in diabetes. We aim to describe the interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGEs and their principle receptor RAGE, Angiotensin II (Ang II and the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, in addition to reactive oxygen species (ROS production by NADPH oxidase (Nox enzymes that are relevant to vascular and immune cell function in the context of diabetic vasculopathy. Furthermore, we will touch on recent advances in epigenetic medicine that have revealed high glucose-mediated changes in the transcription of genes with known pro-inflammatory downstream targets. Finally, novel anti-atherosclerosis strategies that target the vascular immune interface will be explored; such as vaccination against modified LDL and pharmacological inhibition of ROS producing enzymes.

  12. Anti-inflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Jung; Lin, Ting-Yu; Tung, Judia Chen; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the fruit essential oil of Cinnamomum insularimontanum was prepared by using water distillation. Followed by GC-MS analysis, the composition of fruit essential oil was characterized. The main constituents of essential oil were alpha-pinene (9.45%), camphene (1.70%), beta-pinene (4.30%), limonene (1.76%), citronellal (24.64%), citronellol (16.78%), and citral (35.89%). According to the results obtained from nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity assay, crude essential oil and its dominant compound (citral) presented the significant NO production inhibitory activity, IC(50) of crude essential oil and citral were 18.68 and 13.18microg/mL, respectively. Moreover, based on the results obtained from the protein expression assay, the expression of IKK, iNOS, and nuclear NF-kappaB was decreased and IkappaBalpha was increased in dose-dependent manners, it proved that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral was blocked via the NF-kappaB pathway, but it could not efficiently suppress the activity on COX-2. In addition, citral exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory activity in the assay of croton oil-induced mice ear edema, when the dosage was 0.1 and 0.3mg per ear, the inflammation would reduce to 22% and 83%, respectively. The results presented that the fruit essential oil of C. insularimontanum and/or citral may have a great potential to develop the anti-inflammatory medicine in the future.

  13. Anti-stress effects of human placenta extract: possible involvement of the oxidative stress system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Sunyoung; Hahm, Dae Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Oh, Chang Taek; Han, Hae Jung; Ji, Hyi Jeong; Shim, Insop

    2018-05-08

    Human placenta hydrolysate (hPH) has been utilized to improve menopausal, fatigue, liver function. Its high concentration of bioactive substances is known to produce including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. However, its mechanisms of stress-induced depression remain unknown. The present study examined the effect of hPH on stress-induced depressive behaviors and biochemical parameters in rats. hPH (0.02 ml, 0.2 ml or 1 ml/rat) was injected intravenously 30 min before the daily stress session in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to repeated immobilization stress (4 h/day for 7 days). The depressive-like behaviors of all groups were measured by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST). After the behavior tests, brain samples of all groups were collected for the analysis of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) staining. Treatment with hPH produced a significant decrease of immobility time in the FST compared to the controls. Additionally, hPH treatment elicited a slightly decreasing trend in anxiety behavior on the EPM. Furthermore, hPH increased the level of GPx protein in the hippocampus, and decreased the expression of NADPH-d in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). This study demonstrated that hPH has anti-stress effects via the regulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and antioxidant activity in the brain. These results suggest that hPH may be useful in the treatment of stress-related diseases such as chronic fatigue syndrome.

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S J; Tsai, J Y; Chang, S P; Lin, D L; Wang, S S; Huang, S N; Ng, L T

    2006-12-06

    Physalis peruviana L. (PP) is a medicinal herb widely used in folk medicine. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) method was employed to obtain three different PP extracts, namely SCEPP-0, SCEPP-4 and SCEPP-5. The total flavonoid and phenol concentrations, as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these extracts were analyzed and compared with aqueous and ethanolic PP extracts. Among all the extracts tested, SCEPP-5 demonstrated the highest total flavonoid (234.63+/-9.61 mg/g) and phenol (90.80+/-2.21 mg/g) contents. At concentrations 0.1-30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect. At 30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 microg/ml)-induced cell cytotoxicity in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells. At 10-50 microg/ml, it also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO release and PGE2 formation in a dose-dependent pattern. SCEPP-5 at 30 microg/ml remarkably blocked the LPS induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Taken together, these results suggest that SCEPP-5, an extract of SFE-CO2, displayed the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as compared to other extracts. Its protection against LPS-induced inflammation could be through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression.

  15. Salt and nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension: kidney dysfunction and brain anti-oxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktar, Süleyman; Ilhan, Selçuk; Meydan, Sedat; Aydin, Mehmet; Yönden, Zafer; Gökçe, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine the effects of salt-loading on kidney function and brain antioxidant capacity. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control rats were given normal drinking water and no drug treatment for 2 weeks. LNNA group: rats were given normal drinking water and the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), 3 mg/kg/day. LNNA + Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and 3 mg/kg L-NNA. Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and no drug treatment. Basal blood pressure and the levels of serum BUN, creatinine, uric acid, cortisol, electrolyte, serum antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress were measured. NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels were measured in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cerebellum. Salt overload increased the blood pressure of the LNNA + Salt group. Salt-loading enhanced BUN, creatinine, sodium retention. High salt produced an increase in uric acid levels and a decrease in cortisol levels in serum. Additionally, the oxidative stress index in serum increased in the LNNA + Salt group. Salt-loading enhanced brain NO levels, but not SOD and CAT activity. L-NNA increased brain SOD activity, but not CAT and NO levels. In conclusion, salt-loading causes hypertension, kidney dysfunction, and enhances oxidative stress in salt-sensitive rats.

  16. A novel anti-influenza copper oxide containing respiratory face mask.

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    Gadi Borkow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protective respiratory face masks protect the nose and mouth of the wearer from vapor drops carrying viruses or other infectious pathogens. However, incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the risk of pathogen transmission, rather than reduce it, especially when masks are used by non-professionals such as the lay public. Copper oxide displays potent antiviral properties. A platform technology has been developed that permanently introduces copper oxide into polymeric materials, conferring them with potent biocidal properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent biocidal properties in addition to their inherent filtration properties. Both control and copper oxide impregnated masks filtered above 99.85% of aerosolized viruses when challenged with 5.66+/-0.51 and 6.17+/-0.37 log(10TCID(50 of human influenza A virus (H1N1 and avian influenza virus (H9N2, respectively, under simulated breathing conditions (28.3 L/min. Importantly, no infectious human influenza A viral titers were recovered from the copper oxide containing masks within 30 minutes (< or = 0.88 log(10TCID(50, while 4.67+/-1.35 log(10TCID(50 were recovered from the control masks. Similarly, the infectious avian influenza titers recovered from the copper oxide containing masks were < or = 0.97+/-0.01 log(10TCID(50 and from the control masks 5.03+/-0.54 log(10TCID(50. The copper oxide containing masks successfully passed Bacterial Filtration Efficacy, Differential Pressure, Latex Particle Challenge, and Resistance to Penetration by Synthetic Blood tests designed to test the filtration properties of face masks in accordance with the European EN 14683:2005 and NIOSH N95 standards. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent anti-influenza biocidal properties without altering their physical

  17. Anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activity of recombinant anginex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandwijk, Ricardo J.M.G.E.; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Linden, Edith van der; Mayo, Kevin H.; Thijssen, Victor L.J.L.; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2006-01-01

    Anginex, a synthetic 33-mer angiostatic peptide, specifically inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation and migration along with induction of apoptosis in endothelial cells. Here we report on the in vivo characterization of recombinant anginex and use of the artificial anginex gene for gene therapy approaches. Tumor growth of human MA148 ovarian carcinoma in athymic mice was inhibited by 80% when treated with recombinant anginex. Histological analysis of the tumors showed an approximate 2.5-fold reduction of microvessel density, suggesting that angiogenesis inhibition is the cause of the anti-tumor effect. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the gene expression patterns of 16 angiogenesis-related factors after treatment with both recombinant and synthetic anginex. To validate the applicability of the anginex gene for gene therapy, stable transfectants of murine B16F10 melanoma cells expressing recombinant anginex were made. Supernatants of these cells inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, after subcutaneous injection of these cells in C57BL/6 mice, an extensive delay in tumor growth was observed. These data show that the artificial anginex gene can be used to produce a recombinant protein with similar activity as its synthetic counterpart and that the gene can be applied in gene therapy approaches for cancer treatment

  18. Influence of the growth phenophases on the phenolic composition and anti-oxidant properties of Roscoea procera Wall. in western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Sandeep; Jugran, Arun K; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S

    2018-02-01

    Roscoea procera Wall. is one of the important Himalayan medicinal plant used in traditional as well as in modern health care system. The present study aimed to find out the influence of different phenophases on the phenolic compounds and anti-oxidant properties by analysing after every week for over 4 months from shoot bud initiation to the preparation of senescence. Concentration of total phenolic content were found to be about 1.5 times higher in preparation of senescence phase (6.10 mg GAE/g dry weight or dw) as compared to vegetative growth phase. Similarly, total flavonoid concentration ranged from 4.36 to 5.65 mg querectin equivalents/g dw. The concentration of selected phenolic compounds, i.e., gallic acid, catechin and p -coumaric acid was quantified by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and varied significantly among the different phenophases. While, anti-oxidant activity was found 2-3 times higher in preparation of senescence phase as compared to vegetative phase. Thus, these results concluded that in R. procera , November month (preparation of senescence phase) could be recommended for extracting optimum level of total phenolics, flavonoids and anti-oxidant activity. These results will be further helpful for obtaining maximum benefits from the species and to reduce pressure on reproductive phase while ensuring its conservation.

  19. 77 FR 8148 - Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity Report Filing Requirements for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... 1506-AB02 Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity Report Filing Requirements for... finance companies for the purpose of requiring them to establish anti-money laundering programs and report... Secretary is authorized to impose anti-money laundering (``AML'') program requirements on financial...

  20. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the ...

  1. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Polysaccharide from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyun Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (Vaccinium spp. are rich in bioactive compounds. However, the biological activity of polysaccharides from blueberry has not been reported so far. This study evaluated the anti-tumor and immunological activities of a polysaccharide (BBP3-1 from blueberry in S180-bearing mice. The experimental results indicated that BBP3-1 (100 mg·kg−1·d−1 inhibited the tumor growth rate by 73.4%. Moreover, this group, compared with the model control, had shown an effect of increasing both the spleen and thymus indices (p < 0.05, increasing phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05, boosting the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes (p < 0.01, promoting the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 (p < 0.05 and improving NK cell activity (p < 0.01. From this study, we could easily conclude that BBP3-1 has the ability to inhibit tumor progression and could act as a good immunomodulator.

  2. Effects of whole-body γ-irradiation on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzymes in the liver of N-nitrosodiethylamine-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzinski, I.P.; Frankiewicz-Jozko, A; Gajewska, J.; Szczypka, M.; Szymanski, A.

    2000-01-01

    B6c3F1 mice were treated per os with either normal saline or N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg body weight) daily for 21 days. On day 22 nd of the experiment , the animals were whole-body γ-irradiated (10 Gy) and examined at 3.5 days post-radiation exposure. Pretreatment of mice with NDEA at the lowest dosage (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity in the liver. Since the agent at the highest doses (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) did not have any effects on TBARS, it was associated with the selective increase of thiol (SH) groups and GSH-linked anti-oxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), transferase (GST) and reductase (GR). γ-irradiation decreased TBARS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GPX activity in NDEA-treated mice. Simultaneously, γ-rays did not have any effects on GST and GR enzymes, and it slightly decreased SH groups and CAT activity. Results of the present study indicate that NDEA can promote lipid peroxidation in mice liver. γ-irradiation of mice at a dose of 10 Gy modifies the activity of hepatic anti-oxidant enzymes, which in turn can lead to the reduction of NDEA-induced lipid peroxidation and/or pro-oxidant shift(s). The anti-oxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPX are suggested to be mainly involved in this process. (author)

  3. Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Jeong, Sang Hee; Cho, Joon Hyoung; Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Jong Myung; Cho, Myung Haing

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), an organophosphate insecticide, widely used for grain storage and agriculture, has been suspected as endocrine disrupter by a few in vitro studies. This study was performed to investigate the (anti-) estrogenicity and (anti-) androgenicity of CPM in vivo using immature rat uterotrophic assay and rat Hershberger assay. CPM with or without 17β-estradiol were administered to 20 days old female rats to investigate its (anti-) estrogenic activity. Uterine and vaginal weight, uterine epithelial cell height were not affected by the treatment of CPM (2, 10, 50, 250 mg/kg). CPM 250 mg/kg potentiated relative vagina weight in 17β-estradiol treated immature female rats without any changing of uterine weight. Relative liver weight was increased with decrease of body weight by CPM 250 mg/kg treatment. Uterine cell proliferation tested with bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was not observed in CPM treated rats. CPM with or without testosterone propionate were administered to castrated rat of 51 days old for 10 days to investigate the (anti-)androgenic activity,. The weight of relative and absolute androgen-dependent accessory sex organs; seminal vesicle with coagulating glands (SV/CG), ventral prostate gland (VP), glans penis (GP), levator ani plus bulbocarvernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's gland (CG,) were unchanged by the treatment of CPM alone. While CPM induced the increase of relative adrenal gland weight, CPM 50 mg/kg decreased the weights of CV/CG, VP, CG and LABC without change of GP without changing of GP when it was treated with TP. In conclusion, CPM dose not show estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity in immature female rats, but it represents anti-androgenic activity by inhibition of the TP-stimulated increase of the weight of accessory sex organs

  4. LL-37-derived membrane-active FK-13 analogs possessing cell selectivity, anti-biofilm activity and synergy with chloramphenicol and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Ganesan; Kim, Eun Young; Shin, Song Yub

    2017-05-01

    Although the human-derived antimicrobial peptide (AMP) LL-37 has potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, its therapeutic application is limited by its low cell selectivity and high production cost due to its large size. To overcome these problems, we tried to develop novel LL-37-derived short α-helical AMPs with improved cell selectivity and without a significant loss of anti-inflammatory activity relative to that of parental LL-37. Using amino acid substitution, we designed and synthesized a series of FK13 analogs based on the sequence of the 13-meric short FK13 peptide (residues 17-29 of LL-37) that has been identified as the region responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LL-37. Among the designed FK13 analogs, FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 showed high cell selectivity and retained the anti-inflammatory activity. The therapeutic index (a measure of cell selectivity) of FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 was 6.3- and 2.3-fold that of parental LL-37, respectively. Furthermore, FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 displayed more potent antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria including MRSA, MDRPA, and VREF, than did LL-37. In addition, FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 exhibited greater synergistic effects with chloramphenicol against MRSA and MDRPA and were more effective anti-biofilm agents against MDRPA than LL-37 was. Moreover, FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 maintained their activities in the presence of physiological salts and human serum. SYTOX green uptake, membrane depolarization and killing kinetics revealed that FK13-a1 and FK13-a7 kills microbial cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane and damaging membrane integrity. Taken together, our results suggest that FK13-a1 and FK13-a7 can be developed as novel antimicrobial/anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Resveratrol as a Bioenhancer to Improve Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Apigenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ah Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin through co-treatment with resveratrol as a bioenhancer of apigenin. RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with hepatic metabolites formed by the co-metabolism of apigenin and resveratrol (ARMs in HepG2 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. ARMs prominently inhibited (p < 0.05 the production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Otherwise no such activity was observed by hepatic metabolites of apigenin alone (AMs. ARMs also effectively suppressed protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Co-administration of apigenin (50 mg/kg and resveratrol (25 mg/kg also showed a significant reduction of carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (61.20% to 23.81%. Co-administration of apigenin and resveratrol led to a 2.39 fold increase in plasma apigenin levels compared to administration of apigenin alone, suggesting that co-administration of resveratrol could increase bioavailability of apigenin. When the action of resveratrol on the main apigenin metabolizing enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs, was investigated, resveratrol mainly inhibited the formation of apigenin glucuronides by UGT1A9 in a non-competitive manner with a Ki value of 7.782 μM. These results suggested that resveratrol helps apigenin to bypass hepatic metabolism and maintain apigenin’s anti-inflammatory activities in the body.

  6. In vitro demonstration of anti-lipogenic activity in serum from obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.B.S.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with parabiosed rats provide evidence for a humoral factor, originating in obese animals, that specifically inhibits adipose lipogenesis. A bioassay was developed that allows serum from obese rats to be tested for this factor in vitro. Adipocytes are isolated from epididymal fat of 250g Sprague-Dawley rats. The cells are preincubated at 37 0 C for 1 or 12 hrs, in TC199 media containing 1.1 mg/ml glucose, 0.1 M Hepes and 2% serum. Following preincubation, the cells are washed 3 times and resuspended in serum-free media. Aliquots of cells are tested for metabolic activity in a subsequent 2 hour radiolabelled incubation in serum-free media with the addition of 0.5 μCi/ml U- 14 C-glucose. Basal, insulin (100 μU/ml) and norepinephrine (0.1 μg/ml) stimulated rates of glucose oxidation and conversion to triglyceride fatty acids are measured. Using serum from ad libitum fed rats as control, preincubation with serum from obese rats (20 days at 2 x normal intake) depressed basal and insulin stimulated glucose oxidation, and basal fatty acid synthesis. Serum from obese parabiotic rats and parabiotic partners of obese rats depressed basal fatty acid synthesis. This assay allows us to test serum for anti-lipogenic activity and may be used to identify the factor responsible for this activity in obese animals

  7. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  8. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A

    2016-12-31

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone ( Haliotis rubra ) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  9. HEATING AND ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ACTIVATE ANTI-STRESS GENE FUNCTIONS IN HUMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fadeevitch Semenkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All types of cell stress are accompanied by the activation of anti-stress genes that can suppress ROS synthesis. We hypothesized that different environmental factors would affect organisms through the activation of anti-stress genes by autologous serum (AS proteins, followed by the synthesis of molecules that increase cell resistance to oxidative stress. The goal of this work was to study the influence of AS on ROS production by peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from donors in different age groups. Neutrophils were isolated from 59 donors (38-94 years old. AS was heated at 100˚C for 30 sec. or irradiated by ultraviolet light (UV at 200-280 nm and 8 W for 10 min. Neutrophils were exposed to heat shock at 42˚C for 1 min. (short-term heating stress or 43˚C for 10 min., followed by the determination of the chemiluminescence reaction induced by zymosan. AS can increase or decrease ROS production by neutrophils depending on the structure of the proteins in the serum; these structures can be changed by heating or UV treatment and the temperature of their interaction (4˚C or 37˚C. We propose that the effect of environmental factors on AS proteins can cause an adverse increase in oxidative stress levels due to the functional reduction of anti-stress genes. We found a negative correlation between the quantity of intracellular Hsp70 and levels of intracellular ROS production following 10 minutes of heat shock at 43°C. Short-term heating stress (1 minute at 42°C was followed by a prominent reduction in ROS production. This effect may be a result of the impact of the hormone adrenaline on the functions of anti-stress genes. Indeed, the same effect was observed after treatment of the neutrophils with adrenaline at concentrations of 10-4 M and 10-5 M. In contrast, dexamethasone from the other stress hormone group did not evoke the same effect at the same concentrations.

  10. Biocatalytically Oligomerized Epicatechin with Potent and Specific Anti-proliferative Activity for Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Nagarajan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Catechins, naturally occurring flavonoids derived from wine and green tea, are known to exhibit multiple health benefits. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is one of the most widely investigated catechins, but its efficacy in cancer therapy is still inconsistent and limited. The poor stability of EGCG has contributed to the disparity in the reported anti-cancer activity and other beneficial properties. Here we report an innovative enzymatic strategy for the oligomerization of catechins (specifically epicatechin that yields stable, water-soluble oligomerized epicatechins with enhanced and highly specific anti-proliferative activity for human breast cancer cells. This one-pot oxidative oligomerization is carried out in ambient conditions using Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP as a catalyst yielding water-soluble oligo(epicatechins. The oligomerized epicatechins obtained exhibit excellent growth inhibitory effects against human breast cancer cells with greater specificity towards growth-inhibiting cancer cells as opposed to normal cells, achieving a high therapeutic differential. Our studies indicate that water-soluble oligomeric epicatechins surpass EGCG in stability, selectivity and efficacy at lower doses.

  11. Structural insights into the regulation of Bacillus subtilis SigW activity by anti-sigma RsiW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Raj Devkota

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis SigW is localized to the cell membrane and is inactivated by the tight interaction with anti-sigma RsiW under normal growth conditions. Whereas SigW is discharged from RsiW binding and thus initiates the transcription of its regulon under diverse stress conditions such as antibiotics and alkaline shock. The release and activation of SigW in response to extracytoplasmic signals is induced by the regulated intramembrane proteolysis of RsiW. As a ZAS (Zinc-containing anti-sigma family protein, RsiW has a CHCC zinc binding motif, which implies that its anti-sigma activity may be regulated by the state of zinc coordination in addition to the proteolytic cleavage of RsiW. To understand the regulation mode of SigW activity by RsiW, we determined the crystal structures of SigW in complex with the cytoplasmic domain of RsiW, and compared the conformation of the CHCC motif in the reduced/zinc binding and the oxidized states. The structures revealed that RsiW inhibits the promoter binding of SigW by interacting with the surface groove of SigW. The interaction between SigW and RsiW is not disrupted by the oxidation of the CHCC motif in RsiW, suggesting that SigW activity might not be regulated by the zinc coordination states of the CHCC motif.

  12. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and cataract. Novel drug delivery therapeutic strategies targeting telomere reduction and the expression of telomerase activity in the lens epithelial cells with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops: anti-cataract which helps to prevent and treat cataracts in the eyes of dogs and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2014-01-01

    Cataracts in small animals are shown to be at least partially caused by oxidative damage to lens epithelial cells (LECs) and the internal lens; biomarkers of oxidative stress in the lens are considered as general biomarkers for life expectancy in the canine and other animals. Telomeres lengths and expressed telomerase activity in canine LECs may serve as important monitors of oxidative damage in normal LECs with documented higher levels of telomerase activity in cataractous LECs during cells' lifespan. Loss of functional telomere length below a critical threshold in LECs of canines during the effect of UV and chronic oxidative stress or metabolic failure, can activate programs leading to LEC senescence or death. Telomerase is induced in LECs of canines at critical stages of cataractogenesis initiation and exposure to oxidative stress through the involvement of catalytically active prooxidant transition metal (iron) ions. This work documents that transition metal ions (such as, ferrous ions- catalytic oxidants) might induce premature senescence in LECs of canines, telomere shortening with increased telomerase activity as adaptive response to UV light, oxidative and metabolic stresses. The therapeutic treatment with 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug delivery is beneficial for prevention and dissolution of ripe cataracts in canines. This biological activity is based on the findings of ferroxidase activity pertinent to the dipeptide carnosine released ophthalmically from NAC prodrug of L-carnosine, stabilizing properties of carnosine on biological membranes based on the ability of the imidazole-containing dipeptides to interact with lipid peroxidation products and reactive oxygen species (ROS), to prevent membrane damage and delute the associated with membrane fragements protein aggregates. The advent of therapeutic treatment of cataracts in canines with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops through targeting the prevention of loss of functional telomere length below

  13. Active ingredients in anti-stigma programmes in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, Vanessa; Thornicroft, Graham; Huxley, Peter; Farmer, Paul

    2005-04-01

    This paper draws upon a review of the relevant literature and the results of the recent Mental Health Awareness in Action (MHAA) programme in England to discuss the current evidence base on the active ingredients in effective anti-stigma interventions in mental health. The MHAA Programme delivered educational interventions to 109 police officers, 78 adults from different community groups whose working lives involved supporting people with mental health problems but who had received no mental health training and 472 schools students aged 14-15. Each adult target group received two intervention sessions lasting two hours. The two school lessons were 50 minutes each. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intent were assessed at baseline and follow-up. In addition focus groups were held with mental health service users to explore the impact of stigma on their lives and facilitators of educational workshops were interviewed to provide expert opinion on 'what works' to reduce psychiatric stigma. Personal contact was predictive of positive changes in knowledge and attitudes for the school students but not the police officers or community adult group. The key active ingredient identified by all intervention groups and workshop facilitators were the testimonies of service users. The statements of service users (consumers) about their experience of mental health problems and of their contact with a range of services had the greatest and most lasting impact on the target audiences in terms of reducing mental health stigma.

  14. Anti-prion activity of Brilliant Blue G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Iwamaru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with no effective therapy currently available. Accumulating evidence has implicated over-activation of P2X7 ionotropic purinergic receptor (P2X7R in the progression of neuronal loss in several neurodegenerative diseases. This has led to the speculation that simultaneous blockade of this receptor and prion replication can be an effective therapeutic strategy for prion diseases. We have focused on Brilliant Blue G (BBG, a well-known P2X7R antagonist, possessing a chemical structure expected to confer anti-prion activity and examined its inhibitory effect on the accumulation of pathogenic isoforms of prion protein (PrPres in a cellular and a mouse model of prion disease in order to determine its therapeutic potential. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BBG prevented PrPres accumulation in infected MG20 microglial and N2a neural cells at 50% inhibitory concentrations of 14.6 and 3.2 µM, respectively. Administration of BBG in vivo also reduced PrPres accumulation in the brains of mice with prion disease. However, it did not appear to alleviate the disease progression compared to the vehicle-treated controls, implying a complex role of P2X7R on the neuronal degeneration in prion diseases. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of prion diseases and have important implications for the treatment.

  15. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  16. The Association of Anti-CCP and Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Rahim Merza

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: A highly significant correlation was found between Anti-CCP value and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis, smoker patients had higher value of Anti-CCP compared to non-smoker patients. Smokers demonstrated a more active and severe disease activity compared to non-smokers. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 743-751

  17. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of Fructus Viticis and its effective fractions and chemical constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Xin, H-L; Zhang, Q-Y; Zheng, H-C; Rahman, K; Qin, L-P

    2007-10-01

    Vitex rotundifolia L. is widely distributed along the sea coast of China. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of substances isolated from Fructus Viticis (the fruit of Vitex rotundifolia), which may be effective in the treatment of pre-menstrual symptoms, using acetic-acid-induced writhing and metoclopramide-dihydrochloride-induced hyperprolactinemia in mice. The fractions effective in terms of anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities were obtained from Fructus Viticis by elution through macro-porous resin, and polyamide and silica gel column chromatography. The standardization of the fractions obtained from the separation procedures was carried out by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fingerprint. In this study, the flavone-enriched fraction (Fraction 6) showed a higher inhibitory rate than indomethacin (69.4% vs. 56.4%) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt., and significantly reduced the prolactin level as compared to HPRL-treated mice (8.2 ng/ml vs. 25.5 ng/ml). Furthermore, this fraction showed anti-nociceptive activity in a dose-dependent manner (10-50 mg/kg body wt., i.g.). On further purification with silica gel, Casticin was isolated from this fraction and it decreased abnormal serum levels of prolactin by approximately 50% (p screening methods, our results indicate that the presence of flavonoids such as Casticin in this plant may be responsible for the activity effects. Casticin has potent analgesic and anti-hyperprolactinaemia properties, is likely to be one of the active components of Fructus Viticis, and may have a role in treating PMS (premenstrual syndrom).

  18. In vitro anti-Malassezia activity and potential use in anti-dandruff formulation of Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onlom, C; Khanthawong, S; Waranuch, N; Ingkaninan, K

    2014-02-01

    Malassezia species are frequently associated with dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The study was conducted to evaluate anti-fungal activities of the extracts obtained from the roots of Asparagus racemosus Willd against Malassezia furfur and M. globosa. Asparagus racemosus roots were successively extracted with the series of solvents, that is, hexane, ethanol and water, and also a saponin-enriched fraction was prepared. The amounts of saponin (equivalent to shatavarin IV) in the extracts were determined using ELISA. The extracts were tested for anti-fungal activity by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. By disc diffusion, only the ethanolic and saponin-enriched extracts demonstrated anti-fungal activity against M. furfur and M. globosa at the concentration of 1 mg per disc whereas the extracts with other solvents were ineffective. Multiple concentrations using the broth microdilution method against M. furfur and M. globosa yielded minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 25 mg mL(-1) for the ethanolic extract but much higher potency for the saponin-enriched extract: MICs to 0.20 and 0.40 mg mL(-1) for M. furfur and M. globosa, respectively. These extracts showed no antagonist effect with the anti-fungal agents, ketoconazole and zinc pyrithione. These studies revealed the antifungal activity of A. racemosus roots extracts. Because A. racemosus is also anti-inflammatory agent, it has the potential use as an active ingredient in an anti-dandruff formulation. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanol extract from aerial part of Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Shi Wang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of the methanol extract from the aerial part of Phlomis younghusbandii (MEAP and to explore the possible related mechanisms. Anti-inflammatory effects of MEAP were evaluated by using the ear edema test induced by dimethylbenzene and vascular permeability test induced by acetic acid. Anti-nociceptive activities of MEAP were evaluated by the chemical nociception in models of acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced hind paw licking, and by the thermal nociception in hot plate tests. Mechanisms of MEAP activities also were explored by evaluating expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS induced by LPS using real-time fluorogenic PCR and expression of COX-2 using Western blotting and an open-field test. The results indicated that the MEAP administered orally could significantly decrease ear edema induced by dimethylbenzene and increase vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Additionally, the nociceptions induced by acetic acid and formalin were significantly inhibited. The anti-nociceptive effect could not be decreased by naloxone in the formalin test, and MEAP did not affect the normal autonomic activities of mice. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS induced by LPS were decreased obviously by treatment with MEAP. Furthermore, COX-2 expression in the spinal dorsal horns of the pain model mice induced by formalin was significantly down-regulated by MEAP. In conclusion, MEAP has significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, and the mechanisms may be related to the down-regulated expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2.

  20. Polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark with anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jia; GRACE Mary H; ESPOSITO Debora; KOMARNYTSKY Slavko; WANG Fei; LILA Mary Ann

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark crude extract (B) and fractions (B1-B7) obtained by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and evaluate their anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) inhibitory activities.Fractions B4,B5,B6,B7 (total phenolics 850.3,983.0,843.9,and 572.5 mg·g-1,respectively;proanthocyanidins 75.7,90.5,95.0,and 44.8 mg·g-1,respectively) showed significant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS),nitric oxide (NO) production,and expression of pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.All the extracts suppressed α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities,two primary enzymes responsible for carbohydrate digestion.A.mearnsii bark samples possessed significantly stronger inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 0.4-1.4 tg·mL-1) than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 141.8 μg·mL-1).B6 and B7 (IC5017.6 and 11.7 μg·mL-1,respectively) exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity as efficacious as acarbose (IC50 15.4 μg·mL-1).Moreover,B extract,at 25 μg·mL-l,significantly decreased the non-mitochondrial oxidative burst that is often associated with inflammatory response in human monocytic macrophages.

  1. Inhibition of LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation in RAW 264.7 cells show anti-atherogenic properties of a foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis.

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    Nambiar, Sinjitha S; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Bhatt, Praveena; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoproteins and their further uptake by macrophages is known to result in the formation of foam cells, which are critical in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signalling cascades. Thus, powerful dietary antioxidants are receiving attention for the reversal of such pathological states. Extracts of Scoparia dulcis have been used as tea and health drinks with various health promoting effects. In the present study, we examined the reactive oxygen scavenging potential as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic efficacies, using leaf extracts obtained after successive extraction with various solvents. A methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 570 μg/ml, caused hydrogen peroxide scavenging (28.9 µg/ml) and anti-inflammatory effects by improving human erythrocyte membrane stabilisation (about 86%). The methanol extract also efficiently inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidation of low density lipoproteins, thus preventing foam cell formation in cultured RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, phytochemical screening of the extracts showed high accumulation of flavonoids. The foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis has a strong anti-atherogenic potential and this property could be attributed maybe due to presence of flavonoids since HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of myricetin and rutin in the methanol extract.

  2. Anti-inflammatory Potential of Petiveria alliacea on Activated RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages.

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    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Defense and protection to multiple harmful stimuli are the inflammation, when is self-amplified and uncontrolled is the basis of the pathogenesis of a wide variety of inflammatory illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate if Petiveria alliacea could attenuate inflammation in a murine model of RAW264 macrophages the involved model and its involved mechanism. The ethanol extract from P. alliacea was precipitated with water and supernatant was used for this study (PW). The anti-inflammatory effects of PW were investigated through evaluating of the production of several cytokines, chemokines, and expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Also was determined the ability to decrease the oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells with carboxy-2',7'-dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate. PW significantly suppress the secretion of prostaglandin E 2 , leukotriene C 4 , interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase, IL-1 β, IL-4, in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PW also markedly inhibited the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. PW produced significant anti-inflammatory activity through inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators through the NF-κB inactivation in the LPS-stimulated RAW24.7 cells. PW exerts significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and this effect can be attributed in part, to the presence of dibenzyl disulfide, dibenzyl trisulfide pinitol, coumarin, myricetin, glutamyl-S-benzyl cysteine, and petiveriins A and B. Treatment with ethanol extract from Petiveria alliacea which was previously precipitated with water and supernatant (PE) was tested in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PE suppressed the level of oxidative stress and the induction of proinflammatory mediators, as PGE2, LTC4, IL-1 ß, IL-6, IL-10, IFN- NO, iNOS, IL-1 ß, IL-4, in RAW264.7 macrophages through NF-B inactivation. These findings

  3. Phenolic Glycosides from Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Medik and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

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    Joon Min Cha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new sesquilignan glycoside 1, together with seven known phenolic glycosides 2–8 were isolated from the aerial parts of Capsella bursa-pastoris. The chemical structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR data (1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy (1H-1H COSY, heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC, and nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY and HR-FABMS analysis. The anti-inflammatory effects of 1–8 were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine microglia BV-2 cells. Compounds 4 and 7 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells, with IC50 values of 17.80 and 27.91 µM, respectively.

  4. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory active copper(II-lawsone complexes.

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    Ján Vančo

    Full Text Available We report in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a series of copper(II-lawsone complexes of the general composition [Cu(Law2(LNx(H2O(2-x]·yH2O; where HLaw = 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, x = 1 when LN = pyridine (1 and 2-aminopyridine (3 and x = 2 when LN = imidazole (2, 3-aminopyridine (4, 4-aminopyridine (5, 3-hydroxypyridine (6, and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (7. The compounds were thoroughly characterized by physical techniques, including single crystal X-ray analysis of complex 2. Some of the complexes showed the ability to suppress significantly the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB both by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and TNF-alpha (complexes 3-7 at 100 nM level in the similar manner as the reference drug prednisone (at 1 μM level. On the other hand, all the complexes 1-7 decreased significantly the levels of the secreted TNF-alpha after the LPS activation of THP-1 cells, thus showing the anti-inflammatory potential via both NF-κB moderation and by other mechanisms, such as influence on TNF-alpha transcription and/or translation and/or secretion. In addition, a strong intracellular pro-oxidative effect of all the complexes has been found at 100 nM dose in vitro. The ability to suppress the inflammatory response, caused by the subcutaneous application of λ-carrageenan, has been determined by in vivo testing in hind-paw edema model on rats. The most active complexes 1-3 (applied in a dose corresponding to 40 μmol Cu/kg, diminished the formation of edema simalarly as the reference drug indomethacine (applied in 10 mg/kg dose. The overall effect of the complexes, dominantly 1-3, shows similarity to anti-inflammatory drug benoxaprofen, known to induce intracellular pro-oxidative effects.

  5. Anti-oxidative effects of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis on immobilization-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

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    In-Sun Hong

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic psychological stress may be related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS or free radicals, and thus, long-term exposure to high levels of oxidative stress may cause the accumulation of oxidative damage and eventually lead to many neurodegenerative diseases. Compared with other organs, the brain appears especially susceptible to excessive oxidative stress due to its high demand for oxygen. In the case of excessive ROS production, endogenous defense mechanisms against ROS may not be sufficient to suppress ROS-associated oxidative damage. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to protect neurons against a variety of experimental neurodegenerative conditions. In particular, Rooibos tea might be a good source of antioxidants due to its larger proportion of polyphenolic compounds. An optimal animal model for stress should show the features of a stress response and should be able to mimic natural stress progression. However, most animal models of stress, such as cold-restraint, electric foot shock, and burn shock, usually involve physical abuse in addition to the psychological aspects of stress. Animals subjected to chronic restraint or immobilization are widely believed to be a convenient and reliable model to mimic psychological stress. Therefore, in the present study, we propose that immobilization-induced oxidative stress was significantly attenuated by treatment with Rooibos tea. This conclusion is demonstrated by Rooibos tea's ability to (i reverse the increase in stress-related metabolites (5-HIAA and FFA, (ii prevent lipid peroxidation (LPO, (iii restore stress-induced protein degradation (PD, (iv regulate glutathione metabolism (GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, and (v modulate changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT.

  6. Comblike poly(ethylene oxide)/hydrophobic C6 branched chitosan surfactant polymers as anti-infection surface modifying agents.

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    Mai-ngam, Katanchalee

    2006-05-01

    A series of structurally well-defined poly(ethylene oxide)/hydrophobic C6 branched chitosan surfactant polymers that undergo surface induced self assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces were synthesized and characterized. The surfactant polymers consist of low molecular weight (Mw) chitosan backbone with hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and hydrophobic hexyl pendant groups. Chitosan was depolymerized by nitrous acid deaminative cleavage. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated PEO chains were simultaneously attached to low Mw chitosan hydrochloride via reductive amination. The surfactant polymers were prepared with various ratios of the two side chains. The molecular composition of the surfactant polymers was determined by FT-IR and 1H NMR. Surface active properties at the air-water interface were determined by Langmuir film balance measurements. The surfactant polymers with PEO/hexyl ratios of 1:3.0 and 1:14.4 were used as surface modifying agents to investigate their anti-infection properties. E. coli adhesion on Silastic surface was decreased significantly by the surfactant polymer with PEO/hexyl 1:3.0. Surface growth of adherent E. coli was effectively suppressed by both tested surfactant polymers.

  7. Anti-Oxidative and Antibacterial Self-Healing Edible Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Film in Fresh-Cut Fruits.

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    Liu, Xuefan; Han, Wei; Zhu, Yanxi; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Jianhao; Ge, Liqin

    2018-04-01

    The consumption of fresh-cut fruits is limited because of the oxidation browning and pathogenic bacteria's growth on the fruit surface. Besides, crack of the fresh-keeping film may shorten the preservation time of fruit. In this work, polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) electrostatic deposition method. The film was made by carboxy methylcellulose sodium (CMC) and chitosan (CS). The as-prepared PEM film had good anti-oxidative and antibacterial capability. It inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and the antibacterial rate was more than 95%. The stratified structure and linear increase of the absorbance in the film verified a linear increase of film thickness. The slight scratched film could self-heal rapidly after the stimulation of water whatever the layer number was. Moreover, the film could heal cracks whose width was far bigger than the thickness. The application of PEM film on fresh-cut apples showed that PEM film had good browning, weight loss and metabolic activity inhibition ability. These results showed that the PEM film is a good candidate as edible film in fresh-cut fruits applications.

  8. Silicon-doped hafnium oxide anti-ferroelectric thin films for energy storage

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    Ali, Faizan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhou, Dayu; Yang, Xirui; Xu, Jin; Schenk, Tony; Müller, Johannes; Schroeder, Uwe; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by the development of ultracompact electronic devices as miniaturized energy autonomous systems, great research efforts have been expended in recent years to develop various types of nano-structural energy storage components. The electrostatic capacitors characterized by high power density are competitive; however, their implementation in practical devices is limited by the low intrinsic energy storage density (ESD) of linear dielectrics like Al2O3. In this work, a detailed experimental investigation of energy storage properties is presented for 10 nm thick silicon-doped hafnium oxide anti-ferroelectric thin films. Owing to high field induced polarization and slim double hysteresis, an extremely large ESD value of 61.2 J/cm3 is achieved at 4.5 MV/cm with a high efficiency of ˜65%. In addition, the ESD and the efficiency exhibit robust thermal stability in 210-400 K temperature range and an excellent endurance up to 109 times of charge/discharge cycling at a very high electric field of 4.0 MV/cm. The superior energy storage performance together with mature technology of integration into 3-D arrays suggests great promise for this recently discovered anti-ferroelectric material to replace the currently adopted Al2O3 in fabrication of nano-structural supercapacitors.

  9. Assessing the anti-fungal efficiency of filters coated with zinc oxide nanoparticles

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    Decelis, Stephen; Sardella, Davide; Triganza, Thomas; Brincat, Jean-Pierre; Gatt, Ruben; Valdramidis, Vasilis P.

    2017-05-01

    Air filters support fungal growth, leading to generation of conidia and volatile organic compounds, causing allergies, infections and food spoilage. Filters that inhibit fungi are therefore necessary. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have anti-fungal properties and therefore are good candidates for inhibiting growth. Two concentrations (0.012 M and 0.12 M) were used to coat two types of filters (melt-blown and needle-punched) for three different periods (0.5, 5 and 50 min). Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium expansum isolated from spoiled pears were used as test organisms. Conidial suspensions of 105 to 103 spores ml-1 were prepared in Sabouraud dextrose agar at 50°C, and a modified slide-culture technique was used to test the anti-fungal properties of the filters. Penicillium expansum was the more sensitive organism, with inhibition at 0.012 M at only 0.5 min coating time on the needle-punched filter. The longer the coating time, the more effective inhibition was for both organisms. Furthermore, it was also determined that the coating process had only a slight effect on the Young's Moduli of the needle-punched filters, while the Young's Moduli of the melt-blown filters is more susceptible to the coating method. This work contributes to the assessment of the efficacy of filter coating with ZnO nanopaticles aimed at inhibiting fungal growth.

  10. Anti-platelet activity of water dispersible curcuminoids in rat platelets.

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    Maheswaraiah, Anikisetty; Rao, Lingamallu Jaganmohan; Naidu, Kamatham Akhilender

    2015-03-01

    Curcuminoids are active principle of turmeric with plethora of health beneficial properties. In this study, we have evaluated for the first time the effect of water dispersible curcuminoids on rat platelet aggregation. Curcuminoids (10-30 µg/mL) significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by agonists viz., collagen, ADP and arachidonic acid. Curcuminoids were found to be two-fold more potent than curcumin in inhibiting platelet aggregation. Intracellular curcuminoid concentration was relatively higher than curcumin in rat platelets. Curcuminoids significantly attenuated thromboxane A2 , serotonin levels in rat platelets which play an important role in platelet aggregation. Curcuminoid treatment increased nitric oxide (NO) levels in platelets treated with agonists. Curcuminoids inhibited free radicals such as superoxide anion released from activated platelets, which ultimately inhibits platelet aggregation. Further, curcuminoids inhibited 12-lipoxygenase activity and formation of 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE) in activated rat platelets which regulates platelet aggregation. The results suggest that curcuminoids have remarkable anti-platelet activity by modulating multiple mechanisms involved in platelet aggregation. Thus curcuminoids may have a therapeutic potential to prevent platelet activation related disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Serum prolidase activity and oxidative status in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Nazligul, Yasar; Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Aksoy, Nurten; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2007-01-01

    During the course of Helicobacter pylori infection, increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal mucosal inflammation, which can cause gastric mucosal atrophy that characterized by the replacement of the gastric mucosal glands by collagen fibers. In the present study, we aimed to determine serum prolidase activity and oxidative status, and to find out if there is any association between serum prolidase activity and oxidative status in H. pylori infection. Forty H. pylori-positive and 32 H. pylori-negative subjects were enrolled. Serum prolidase activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Oxidative status was determined using total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status measurement and calculation of oxidative stress index. Total antioxidant capacity level was lower in H. pylori-positive group than H. pylori-negative group (ptotal oxidant status, oxidative stress index and prolidase activity were higher (all ptotal antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index (p<0.01, r=-0.367; p<0.05, r=0.283; p<0.01, r=0.379; respectively) in H. pylori-positive subjects. H. pylori infection may be associated with increased oxidative stress and increased serum prolidase activity. Increased oxidative stress seems to be associated with increased serum prolidase activity and this association may help to provide a better understanding about the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection.

  12. Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This

  13. Cell based assays for anti-Plasmodium activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgethi-Morule, Thabang; N'Da, David D

    2016-03-10

    Malaria remains one of the most common and deadly infectious diseases worldwide. The severity of this global public health challenge is reflected by the approximately 198 million people, who were reportedly infected in 2013 and by the more than 584,000 related deaths in that same year. The rising emergence of drug resistance towards the once effective artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) has become a serious concern and warrants more robust drug development strategies, with the objective of eradicating malaria infections. The intricate biology and life cycle of Plasmodium parasites complicate the understanding of the disease in such a way that would enhance the development of more effective chemotherapies that would achieve radical clinical cure and that would prevent disease relapse. Phenotypic cell based assays have for long been a valuable approach and involve the screening and analysis of diverse compounds with regards to their activities towards whole Plasmodium parasites in vitro. To achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of malaria eradication by 2020, new generation drugs that are active against all parasite stages (erythrocytic (blood), exo-erythrocytic (liver stages and gametocytes)) are needed. Significant advances are being made in assay development to overcome some of the practical challenges of assessing drug efficacy, particularly in the liver and transmission stage Plasmodium models. This review discusses primary screening models and the fundamental progress being made in whole cell based efficacy screens of anti-malarial activity. Ongoing challenges and some opportunities for improvements in assay development that would assist in the discovery of effective, safe and affordable drugs for malaria treatments are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants of anti-corruption activities at the regional level

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    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the concept of corruption, defined as an obstacle to economic and social development, created by representatives of the power structures of the country, region, enterprise, weakening the efficiency of management and the institutional foundation of society. Anticorruption activity is presented in the article as conditions created by the state and ensuring that the country's economy is not irreparably damaged by internal and external economic threats. The estimated characteristics of the anti-corruption activities of the regions and the country as a whole, as a rule, are studied in the domestic sources and among foreign authors. Statistical evaluation of the relationship between the level of corruption and indicators: the dynamics of GRP growth, the index of real incomes of the population, the costs of training, health care is made on the basis of the coefficient Pearson correlation. Based on the correlation analysis, stable links were established between the level of corruption and the socio-economic indicators of the region's development: an increase in the level of corruption associated with an increase in the population's spending on education and medicine; a reduction in the level of corruption, as a result of increased incomes of the population and higher wages. The consequences of corruption are presented: legal (the undeveloped legislative base, which involves bribery of powerful people, the growth of corruption in the society, the increase in corruption crimes, the inefficiency of the regulatory framework, social (moral violation, low public evaluation of the activities of power structures, low level of culture and upbringing , economic (bias financial, investment decisions, illegal distribution of property and non-property benefits, the impossibility of competitors Vat with developed countries and others.

  15. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid is a potent activator of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yuan; Li, Kai; Yan, Qiaojing; Koizumi, Schuichi; Shi, Liye; Takahashi, Shuhei; Zhu, Ying; Matsue, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Masayuki; Kitamura, Masanori; Yao, Jian

    2011-10-01

    Flufenamic acid (FFA) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. In addition, it modulates multiple channel activities. The mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions of FFA are presently unclear. Given that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has both anti-inflammatory and channel-regulating functions, we examined whether FFA induces AMPK activation. 1) Exposure of several different types of cells to FFA resulted in an elevation of AMPKα phosphorylation at Thr172. This effect of FFA was reproduced by functionally and structurally similar mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, niflumic acid, and meclofenamic acid. 2) FFA-induced activation of AMPK was largely abolished by the treatment of cells with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) or depletion of extracellular Ca(2+), whereas it was mimicked by stimulation of cells with the Ca(2+) ionophore 5-(methylamino)-2-({(2R,3R,6S,8S,9R,11R)-3,9,11-trimethyl-8-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-2-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)ethyl]-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl}methyl)-1,3-benzoxazole-4-carboxylic acid (A23187) or ionomycin. 3) FFA triggered a rise in intracellular Ca(2+), which was abolished by cyclosporine, a blocker of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Cyclosporine also abolished FFA-induced activation of AMPK. 4) Inhibition of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) with 7-oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid acetate (STO-609) or down-regulation of CaMKKβ with short interfering RNA largely abrogated FFA-induced activation of AMPK. 5) FFA significantly suppressed nuclear factor-κB activity and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression triggered by interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α. This suppression was also largely abrogated by STO-609. Taken together, we conclude that FFA induces AMPK activation through the Ca(2+)-CaMKKβ pathway

  16. Polydatin attenuates d-galactose-induced liver and brain damage through its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lie-Qiang; Xie, You-Liang; Gui, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Xie; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Sun, Chao-Yue; Li, Cai-Lan; Luo, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Su, Zi-Ren; Xie, Jian-Hui

    2016-11-09

    Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic injection of d-galactose (d-gal) can mimic natural aging, with accompanying liver and brain injury. Oxidative stress and apoptosis play a vital role in the aging process. In this study, the antioxidant ability of polydatin (PD) was investigated using four established in vitro systems. An in vivo study was also conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of PD on d-gal-induced liver and brain damage. The results showed that PD had remarkable in vitro free radical scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH˙), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS + ˙) radical ions, and hydroxyl and superoxide anions. Results in vivo indicated that, in a group treated with d-gal plus PD, PD remarkably decreased the depression of body weight and organ indexes, reduced the levels of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alleviated alterations in liver and brain histopathology. PD also significantly decreased the level of MDA and elevated SOD, GSH-Px, CAT activity and T-AOC levels in the liver and brain. In addition, the levels of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum were markedly reduced after PD treatment. Western blotting results revealed that PD treatment noticeably attenuated the d-gal-induced elevation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and caspase-3 protein expression in liver and brain. Overall, our findings indicate that PD treatment could effectively attenuate d-gal-induced liver and brain damage, and the mechanism might be associated with decreasing the oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis caused by d-gal. PD holds good potential for further development into a promising pharmaceutical candidate for the treatment of age-associated diseases.

  17. Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Taxus Baccata Linn. Bark Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Satyajit; Mariappan, G; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sarkar, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit(1) has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation.

  18. Phytochemical analysis of essential oil of Anthriscus nemorosa and evaluation of antioxidant and anti-malarial activity

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    S. Naeini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: This investigation was performed in order to analyze the composition of the essential oil (EO of Anthriscus nemorosa and evaluation of its anti-oxidant and anti-malarial activity of its extracts and determination of the total phenolics content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC. Methods: One hundred g dried powder of Anthriscus nemorosa was submitted to hydro-distillation and also was extracted (with n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH, by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. Moreover, extracted essential oil (EO was analyzed by GC-MS. Furthermore, the anti-oxidant, anti- malaria, Total phenolics content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of EO and the extracts were investigated by DPPH, cell free -hematin formation, Folin- Ciocalteau and colorimetric methods, respectively. Results: Fifty nine compounds, representing 94% of total oil were identified High content of terpenoids (60.02% were identified in the essential oil with isogeranol (28.86%, crystathenyl acetate  (13.86% and farnesene (10.39% as the most dominant compounds.. Methanol extract demonstrated free radical scavenging activity (RC50 0.192±0.133.Total phenol contents was (325.82±2.72 mg/g. Total flavonoid content was (140.4096±2.4 mg/g. None of the extracts showed anti-malaria effect. Conclusion: Main constituents of A. nemorosa were terpenoids. In comparison with other species of Anthriscus, antioxidant activity of A. nemorosa essential oil was less noticeable.

  19. Anti-nociceptive, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-arthritic activity of amides and extract obtained from Piper amalago in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Arrigo, Jucicléia; Balen, Eloise; Júnior, Ubirajara Lanza; da Silva Mota, Jonas; Iwamoto, Renan Donomae; Barison, Andersson; Sugizaki, Mario Mateus; Leite Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida

    2016-02-17

    Piper amalago (Piperaceae) has been used in folk medicine as an analgesic. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of extract and pure amides obtained from P. amalago on pain to provide a pharmacological basis for their use in traditional medicine. This study evaluated the anti-nociceptive, anti-hyperalgesic, anti-arthritic and anti-depressive activities of the ethanolic extract of P. amalago (EEPA) and the amides N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine (1) and N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(E),4(E)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine (2) obtained from P. amalago in animal models. Mice treated daily with EEPA (100mg/kg, p.o.) were assayed for 20 days for knee edema (micrometer measurement), mechanical hyperalgesia (analgesiometer analysis), heat sensitivity and immobility (forced swim test) in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) model. Cold (acetone test) and mechanical hyperalgesia (electronic von Frey analysis) responses were evaluated for 15 days in rats treated with oral EEPA (100mg/kg) in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model. Meanwhile, mice were evaluated for carrageenan-induced edema and mechanical hyperalgesia and for nociception using the formalin model after a single administration of EEPA (100mg/kg) or amides 1 and 2 (1mg/kg). Amides (1) and (2) were detected and isolated from the EEPA. The EEPA inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia, knee edema, and heat hyperalgesia, but not depressive-like behavior, induced by the intraplantar injection of CFA. When evaluated in the SNI model, the EEPA inhibited mechanical and cold hyperalgesia. The EEPA, 1 and 2 prevented the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan and the anti-nociceptive effects in both phases of formalin nociception. The EEPA did not induce alterations in the open field test. The EEPA was effective for inhibition of pain and arthritic parameters but was not effective against depressive-like behavior; additionally, it did not alter locomotor activity. The

  20. Policosanol composition, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil at different seed maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Saoussem; Ferchichi, Azza; Bacheli, Asma; Fellah, Hayet

    2018-04-16

    Several anti-arthritic drugs and synthetic antioxidants have wide pharmaceutical uses and are often associated with various side effects on the human health. Dietary seed oils and their minor components like policosanol may offer an effective alternative treatment for arthritic and oxidative-stress related diseases. The biological effects of seed oils were affected by different parameters such as the stage of seed maturity. Hence, this study seeks to determine the policosanol content, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil extracted at various stages of seed maturation. Milk thistle oil samples were extracted from seeds collected at three maturation stages (immature, intermediate, and mature). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the extracted oils. The anti-arthritic activity of oil samples was evaluated with bovine serum protein denaturation and egg albumin denaturation methods. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine the policosanol profile. Policosanol profile, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle oil were influenced by the seed maturity stages. The oil extracted from the immature seeds had the highest total policosanol content (987.68 mg/kg of oil) and displayed the maximum antiradical activity (96.42% and 90.35% for DPPH test and ABTS assay, respectively). Nine aliphatic alcohols were identified in the milk thistle oil. The dominant poliosanol in the mature seed oil was octacosanol (75.44%), while triacontanol was the major compound (40.25%) in the immature seed oil. Additionally, the maximum inhibition of bovine serum protein denaturation (92.53%) and egg albumin denaturation (86.36%) were observed in immature seed oil as compared to mature seed oil. A high correlation was found between the total

  1. Oxidative stress-mediated antibacterial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Graphene holds great promise for potential use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices due to its unique high carrier mobility, good optical transparency, large surface area, and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we used a novel reducing agent, betamercaptoethanol (BME), for synthesis of graphene to avoid the use of toxic materials. To uncover the impacts of GO and rGO on human health, the antibacterial activity of two types of graphene-based material toward a bacterial model P. aeruginosa was studied and compared. The synthesized GO and rGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, particle-size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Further, to explain the antimicrobial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, we employed various assays, such as cell growth, cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, and DNA fragmentation. Ultraviolet-visible spectra of the samples confirmed the transition of GO into graphene. Dynamic light-scattering analyses showed the average size among the two types of graphene materials. X-ray diffraction data validated the structure of graphene sheets, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene. Raman spectroscopy data indicated the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups from the surface of GO and the formation of graphene. The exposure of cells to GO and rGO induced the production of superoxide radical anion and loss of cell viability. Results suggest that the antibacterial activities are contributed to by loss of cell viability, induced oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation. The antibacterial activities of GO and rGO against P. aeruginosa were compared. The loss of P. aeruginosa viability increased in a dose- and

  2. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Tumor Activities of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new p-hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid-4-O-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 1 and 4-O-α-l-rhamnopyran-osyl-(1 → 6-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 2, and seven known compounds, compound 3, 6, 7 (acid components, compound 8, 9 (flavonoids, compound 4 (a coumarin and compound 5 (an alkaloid, were isolated from the 70% ethanol aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by use of extensive spectroscopic methods Infrared Spectroscopy (IR, High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS, and 1H and 13C-NMR. Sugar residues obtained after acid hydrolysis were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The antioxidant activity of all the compounds was evaluated by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+ and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The anti-inflammatory effects of the compounds were also evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. All compounds were shown to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of all the compounds on MCF-7 cells was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 method. The results showed that compounds 1, 2, 7, 8, 9 exhibited better antioxidant activity compared to the other compounds. compounds 1–9 had different inhibitory effects on the release of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by LPS, of which compound 7 was the most effective against inflammatory factors. compounds 1 and 2 have better antitumor activity compared to other compounds. Further research to elucidate the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall is

  3. Anti-HIV and immunomodulation activities of cacao mass lignin-carbohydrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kawano, Michiyo; Thet, May Maw; Hashimoto, Ken; Satoh, Kazue; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Haishima, Yuji; Maeda, Yuuichi; Sakurai, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a prominent antiviral and macrophage stimulatory activity of cacao lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) has been reported. However, the solubility and sterility of LCC have not been considered yet. In the present study, complete solubilisation and sterilisation was achieved by autoclaving under mild alkaline conditions and the previously reported biological activities were re-examined. LCCs were obtained by 1% NaOH extraction and acid precipitation, and a repeated extraction-precipitation cycle. Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine productions were assayed by the Griess method and ELISA, respectively. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical-scavenging activity was determined by ESR spectroscopy. Cacao mass LCC showed reproducibly higher anti-HIV activity than cacao husk LCC. Cacao mass LCC, up to 62.5 μg/ml, did not stimulate mouse macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 and J774.1) to produce NO, nor did it induce iNOS protein, in contrast to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cacao mass LCC and LPS synergistically stimulated iNOS protein expression, suggesting a different point of action. Cacao mass LCC induced tumour necrosis factor-α production markedly less than LPS, and did not induce interleukin-1β, interferon-α or interferon-γ. ESR spectroscopy showed that cacao mass LCC, but not LPS, scavenged NO produced from NOC-7. This study demonstrated several new biological activities of LCCs distinct from LPS and further confirmed the promising antiviral and immunomodulating activities of LCCs.

  4. Association between the NF-E2 Related Factor 2 Gene Polymorphism and Oxidative Stress, Anti-Oxidative Status, and Newly-Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a major risk factor in the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. NF-E2 related factor 2 (NRF2 is a pivotal transcription factor in oxidative stress related illnesses. This study included 2174 subjects with 879 cases of newly-diagnosed T2DM and 1295 healthy controls. Compared to individuals with the CC genotype, those with the AA genotype had lower total anti-oxidative capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity; and lower homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function index. Those with the AA genotype also had a higher malondialdehyde concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index values. The frequency of allele A was significantly higher in T2DM subjects (29.4%, compared to control subjects (26.1%; p = 0.019. Individuals with the AA genotype had a significantly higher risk of developing T2DM (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.11, 2.20; p = 0.011, relative to those with the CC genotype, even after adjusting for known T2DM risk factors. Our results suggest that the NRF2 rs6721961 polymorphism was significantly associated with oxidative stress, anti-oxidative status, and risk of newly-diagnosed T2DM. This polymorphism may also contribute to impaired insulin secretory capacity and increased insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

  5. Anti-ulcer activity of Synadenium grantii latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa L. G. Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synadenium grantii Hook f., Euphorbiaceae, is popularly known as leitosinha or janaúba. The diluted latex (18 drops/L of water is commonly used in the south of Brazil to treat gastric disturbances. This study evaluated phytochemical screening and toxicity using Artemia salina Leach of crude bark extract and also latex. The toxicity and the anti-ulcer activity of S. grantii latex were also tested in rats. Phytochemical results showed presence of tannins, terpenes, unsaponificable substances, coumarins and anthraquinones in the crude bark extract and terpenes in the latex. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of diterpene tigliane esters in the latex, identified as 12-deoxyphorbol-13-(2-metilpropionate and phorbol 12,13,20-triacetate. The toxicity results using A. salina presented CL50 26.58μg/mL and CL50 778.66μg/mL, for the latex and the crude bark extract respectively. The toxicological hepatic parameters of the diluted latex were not different to the control group (p<0.05. The eosinophils cells showed an increase in both the diluted and pure latex groups. The pure latex showed gastric protection of 90% (p<0.05 and the diluted latex showed 6% compared to the negative control. Therefore, our data indicate that S. grantii latex, under research conditions presented gastric protection. Pure latex showed more toxicity than the diluted latex.

  6. Evidence for Anti-Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd Activity of Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Ghosh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS in bats, caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd, is a cutaneous infection that has devastated North American bat populations since 2007. At present, there is no effective method for controlling this disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of propolis against Pd in vitro. Using Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium, approximately 1.7 × 107 conidia spores of the Pd strain M3906-2/mL were spread on each plate and grown to form a consistent lawn. A Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion assay was employed using different concentrations of propolis (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, in plates incubated at 8 °C and 15 °C. At 8 °C and 15 °C, as the concentration of propolis increased, there was an increasing zone of inhibition (ZOI, reaching the highest degree at 10% and 25% concentrations, respectively. A germule suppression assay showed a similar effect on Pd conidia germination. A MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of propolis revealed multiple constituents with a potential anti-Pd activity, including cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and dihydrochalcones, which could be further tested for their individual effects. Our study suggests that propolis or its individual constituents might be suitable products against Pd.

  7. Evidence for Anti-Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) Activity of Propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumya; McArthur, Robyn; Guo, Zhi Chao; McKerchar, Rory; Donkor, Kingsley; Xu, Jianping; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2017-12-21

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) in bats, caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), is a cutaneous infection that has devastated North American bat populations since 2007. At present, there is no effective method for controlling this disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of propolis against Pd in vitro. Using Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium, approximately 1.7 × 10⁷ conidia spores of the Pd strain M3906-2/mL were spread on each plate and grown to form a consistent lawn. A Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was employed using different concentrations of propolis (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), in plates incubated at 8 °C and 15 °C. At 8 °C and 15 °C, as the concentration of propolis increased, there was an increasing zone of inhibition (ZOI), reaching the highest degree at 10% and 25% concentrations, respectively. A germule suppression assay showed a similar effect on Pd conidia germination. A MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of propolis revealed multiple constituents with a potential anti- Pd activity, including cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and dihydrochalcones, which could be further tested for their individual effects. Our study suggests that propolis or its individual constituents might be suitable products against Pd .

  8. Experimental study of anti-tumor activity of direct current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1989-01-01

    The anti-tumor activity of direct current combined with radiation was studied. The experiments were performed with fibrosarcomas (FSA, NFSA) syngenetic to C3H mice. Direct current (0.6mA, 120min) alone was effective to reduce the tumor sizes, but could not cure the tumors. When the direct current therapy (DC therapy) was combined with radiation the DC therapy following radiation was more effective than that before radiation. Using TCD 50 assay, the DC therapy enhanced the effect of a single dose of radiation with the dose-modifying factor of 1.2. However, tumor control rates by the combination therapy were more improved at the smaller doses of radiation than at the larger ones. When the single DC therapy (0.6mA, 120min) was applied immediately after the first radiation of fractionated one the combination therapy still showed the enhanced effect. However, both DC therapy and the radiation therapy were divided in three fractions, and the DC therapy (0.6mA, 40min) was applied after each radiation. Tumor growth retardation by the combination therapy was no different from that by radiation alone. This result suggests that there might be a minimum required dose of coulombs to show the effect of the combination therapy. (author)

  9. Development of functionally graded anti-oxidation coatings for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, J.H. [Dept. of Materials Technology, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Changwon (Korea); Fang Hai-Tao; Lai Zhong-Hong; Yin Zhong-Da [Materials Science and Engineering School, Harbin Inst. of Tech., Harbin (China)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was originated in the research field of thermal barrier coatings. Continuous changes in the composition, grain size, porosity, etc., of these materials result in gradients in such properties as mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. In recent years, functionally graded structural composite materials have received increased attention as promising candidate materials to exhibit better mechanical and functional properties than homogeneous materials or simple composite materials. Therefore the research area of FGMs has been expending in the development of various structural and functional materials, such as cutting tools, photonic crystals, dielectric and piezoelectric ceramics, thermoelectric semiconductors, and biomaterials. We have developed functionally graded structural ceramic/metal composite materials for relaxation of thermal stress, functionally graded anti-oxidation coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and functionally graded dielectric ceramic composites to develop advanced dielectric ceramics with flat characteristics of dielectric constant in a wide temperature range. This paper introduces functionally graded coatings for C/C composites with superior oxidation resistance at high temperatures. (orig.)

  10. Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Treated Cotton Fabric Subjected to Zinc Oxide-Anti-Microbial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics are highly popular because of their excellent properties such as regeneration, bio-degradation, softness, affinity to skin and hygroscopic properties. When in contact with the human body, cotton fabrics offer an ideal environment for microbial growth due to their ability to retain oxygen, moisture and warmth, as well as nutrients from spillages and body sweat. Therefore, an anti-microbial coating formulation (Microfresh and Microban together with zinc oxide as catalyst was developed for cotton fabrics to improve treatment effectiveness. In addition, plasma technology was employed in the study which roughened the surface of the materials, improving the loading of zinc oxides on the surface. In this study, the low stress mechanical properties of plasma pre-treated and/or anti-microbial-treated cotton fabric were studied. The overall results show that the specimens had improved bending properties when zinc oxides were added in the anti-microbial coating recipe. Also, without plasma pre-treatment, anti-microbial-treatment of cotton fabric had a positive effect only on tensile resilience, shear stress at 0.5° and compressional energy, while plasma-treated specimens had better overall tensile properties even after anti-microbial treatment.

  11. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Furozan-Based Nitric Oxide-Releasing Derivatives of Oridonin as Potential Anti-Tumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Cai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To search for novel nitric oxide (NO releasing anti-tumor agents, a series of novel furoxan/oridonin hybrids were designed and synthesized. Firstly, the nitrate/nitrite levels in the cell lysates were tested by a Griess assay and the results showed that these furoxan-based NO-releasing derivatives could produce high levels of NO in vitro. Then the anti-proliferative activity of these hybrids against four human cancer cell lines was also determined, among which, 9h exhibited the most potential anti-tumor activity with IC50 values of 1.82 µM against K562, 1.81 µM against MGC-803 and 0.86 µM against Bel-7402, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship was concluded based on the experimental data obtained. These results suggested that NO-donor/natural product hybrids may provide a promising approach for the discovery of novel anti-tumor agents.

  12. Characterization of the organoleptic properties, vitamin C levels and anti-oxidant contents of Californian grown persimmons (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    California is the largest U.S. producer of persimmons (Diospyros kaki). Consumer demand for persimmons is driven by their organoleptic and nutritional properties (vitamin C and anti-oxidant contents). Most commercial production is divided between a small number of astringent “Hachiya” and non-astri...

  13. Oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with aqueous permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Triñanes, Sara; Cela, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidant widely used in drinking water treatment, that can react with organic micropollutants. Thus, the oxidation kinetics and transformation route of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) upon reaction with potassium permanganate was investigated. A liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) system was used to follow the time course of pharmaceuticals concentrations and for the identification of their by-products. Under strong oxidation conditions (2 mg L(-1) KMnO4, 24 h), only two NSAIDs were significantly degraded: indomethacine and diclofenac. The degradation kinetics of these two drugs was investigated at different concentrations of permanganate, chlorides, phosphates and sample pH by means of a full factorial experimental design. Depending on these factors, half-lives were in the range: 2-270 h for indomethacine and 3-558 h for diclofenac, equivalent to apparent second order constants between 0.65 and 9.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 0.27 and 7.4 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Permanganate concentration was the most significant factor on NSAIDs oxidation kinetics, but the pH also played a significant role in diclofenac reaction, being faster at acidic pH. In the case of indomethacine, the dose of permanganate seemed also to play an autocatalytic effect. The use of an accurate-mass high resolution LC-Q-TOF-MS system permitted the identification of a total of 13 by-products. The transformation path of these drugs consisted mainly of hydroxylations, decarboxylations and oxidation of aromatic double bonds, with ring opening. The software predicted toxicity of these products indicates that they are expected not to be more toxic than the NSAIDs, with the exception of two indomethacine by-products. Reaction in real samples was slower and/or incomplete for both pharmaceuticals, depending on the organic matter content of the sample. However, still all transformation products could be detected for

  14. Anti-plasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities of cyclotide-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... orthodox anti-malarial treatments, and in search of relief, people living in ... the world today are still derived from natural sources.5. An important role in ..... each assay plate. Effect of CRF on LPS-evoked tumor necrosis factor ..... to contribute to the inflammatory cascade by increasing vascular permeability.

  15. [Exploration on mechanism of anti-influenza virus activity of genus Paeonia based on network pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ya-Qi; Bao, Ya-Ting; Wang, Hong-Jin; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Lin-Fang; He, Jie; Liu, Tian-Tian; Zeng, Rui

    2018-04-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the anti-influenza virus activity of the genus Paeonia, screen potential anti-influenza virus compounds and predict targets of anti-influenza virus to explore the mechanism of anti-influenza virus activity. First of all, a total of 301 compounds of the genus Paeonia were summarized from the literatures in recent ten years. The candidate active ingredients from the genus Paeonia were identified by database such as PubChem and Chemical Book. The ligands were constructed by ChemDraw, Avogadro and Discovery Studio Visualizer. Secondly, 23 potential anti-influenza virus targets were developed by combining the target database and the literatures. Uniprot database was used to find the anti-influenza virus targets, and RCSB was used to identify targets associated with anti-influenza virus activity as docked receptor proteins. QuickVina 2.0 software was used for molecular docking. Finally, the Cytoscape 3.5.1 software was used to map the potential activity compounds of the genus Paeonia against influenza virus and the anti-influenza virus target network. Uniprot online database was used to analyze the target GO enrichment and KEGG metabolic pathways. The results showed that 74 compounds of the genus Paeonia had anti-influenza virus effect and 18 potential anti-influenza virus targets were screened. GO analysis concluded that the mechanism of the genus Paeonia anti-influenza virus is consistent with the mechanism of NA anti-influenza virus in order to stop the sprouting, dispersion and diffusion of virus and reduce the ability of virus to infect, so that the infection can be restricted so as to achieve the anti-influenza virus effect. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Methyl Salicylate Glycosides Isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch. Rehder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Hua Du

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch. Rehder is a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatments of rheumatoid arthritis, swelling and pain. Two methyl salicylate glycosides, namely methyl benzoate-2-O-b-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6-O-b-D-gluco-pyranoside (J12122 and methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (J12123, are natural salicylic derivatives isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of J12122 and J12123 on LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells by measuring the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of nitric oxide (NO, and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The results showed that both methyl salicylate glycosides dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6, respectively. Consistent with these observations, J12122 and J12123 significantly suppressed the accumulation of NO, with an inhibitory rate of 56.20% and 51.72% at 3.0 μg/mL concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the two methyl salicylate glycosides reduced the level of ROS induced by LPS. These results showed that the isolated compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition the production pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and ROS.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl salicylate glycosides isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Rui; Sun, Lan; Huang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Tai; Du, Guan-Hua

    2011-05-09

    Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder is a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatments of rheumatoid arthritis, swelling and pain. Two methyl salicylate glycosides, namely methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (J12122) and methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2)[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (J12123), are natural salicylic derivatives isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of J12122 and J12123 on LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells by measuring the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results showed that both methyl salicylate glycosides dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6, respectively. Consistent with these observations, J12122 and J12123 significantly suppressed the accumulation of NO, with an inhibitory rate of 56.20% and 51.72% at 3.0 μg/mL concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the two methyl salicylate glycosides reduced the level of ROS induced by LPS. These results showed that the isolated compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition the production pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and ROS.

  18. Anti-synchronization of two new different chaotic systems via active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the anti-synchronization of chaos between two new different chaotic systems by using active control. Numerical simulations are used to show the robustness of the active control scheme in anti-synchronizing the two different coupled systems. JONAMP Vol. 11 2007: pp. 15-20 ...

  19. ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF m-IODOBENZOIC ACID AND SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-fungal activities of alkali and alkaline earth metal iodobenzoates were studied. Calcium iodobenzoate exhibited the highest anti-fungal activities of 74.60% inhibition for 15 ppm while sodium iodobenzoate exhibited the least inhibition of 61.64%. An optimum concentration of all the metal complexes for inhibition ...

  20. The Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Activities of the Bauhinia Championii Flavone are Connected with Protection Against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jie; Xuan, Feifei; Qin, Feizhang; Huang, Renbin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Bauhinia championii flavone (BCF) exhibits anti-oxidative, anti-hypoxic and anti-stress properties. This study was designed to investigate whether BCF has a cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries in rats and to shed light on its possible mechanism. The model of I/R was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min, then reperfusing for 180 min. Hemodynamic changes were continuously monitored. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were assessed. The release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was determined by caspase-3 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The expression of TLR4, NF-x03BA;Bp65, Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by western blotting. Pretreatment with BCF significantly reduced the serum levels of LDH, MDA and IL-6, but increased the activities of SOD and GSH-Px. It also attenuated myocardial infarct size, reduced the apoptosis rate and preserved cardiac function. Furthermore, BCF inhibited caspase-3 activity and the expression of TLR4, phosphorylated NF-x03BA;Bp65 and Bax, but enhanced the expression of Bcl-2. These results provide substantial evidence that BCF exerts a protective effect on myocardial I/R injury, which may be attributed to attenuating lipid peroxidation, the inflammatory response and apoptosis. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and diuretic activity of Ludwigia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2014-10-11

    Oct 11, 2014 ... paw edema, acetic acid-‐induced writhing, and diuresis in mice were ... KEY WORDS: Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn; Anti-‐inflammatory .... experimental animals were placed into ... The time kinetics of carrageenan-‐induced.

  2. Synthesis, in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and molecular docking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    alkyl and heterocyclic alkyl moieties were synthesized, characterized and subsequently evaluated for ... Docking studies with these compounds against cyclooxygenase-2 receptor ...... thiadiazole derivatives as possible anti-tubercular agents.

  3. Electrochemical and antimicrobial activity of tellurium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pramod K. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110067 (India); Special Centre for Nanosciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Prem Prakash; Sharma, Anshu [Special Centre for Nanosciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Khan, Zishan H., E-mail: zishan_hk@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110067 (India); Solanki, Pratima R., E-mail: pratimarsolanki@gmail.com [Special Centre for Nanosciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • TeO{sub 2} NPs synthesized without using any catalyst by chemical vapour deposition method. • The growth temperature was 410 °C with continuous flow of O{sub 2.} • TeO{sub 2} NPs have anti-bacterial activity against E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus while enhances the growth of S. pyogenes. • TeO{sub 2} shows maximum redox current at pH 7 for phosphate buffer solution. - Abstract: Thin film of tellurium oxide (TeO{sub 2}) has been synthesized by chemical vapour deposition method onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate without using any catalyst. XRD pattern of TeO{sub 2} thin film suggests that the structure of TeO{sub 2} changes from amorphous to crystalline (paratellurite) on dispersing into deionized water. Zeta potential measurement reveals a positive surface potential of 28.8 mV. TEM images shows spherical shaped TeO{sub 2} nanoparticles having average particle size of 65 nm. Electrochemical studies of TeO{sub 2}/ITO electrode exhibit improved electron transfer owing to its inherent electron transfer property at pH 7.0 of phosphate buffer. Antimicrobial activity of TeO{sub 2} has been studied for gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacterial and fungal strains (Aspergillus nizer and Candida albicans). These studies suggest that the TeO{sub 2} NPs inhibit the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus bacteria, whereas the same particles enhance the growth of S. pyogenes bacteria.

  4. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation. PMID:26712768

  5. rhEPO Enhances Cellular Anti-oxidant Capacity to Protect Long-Term Cultured Aging Primary Nerve Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huqing; Fan, Jiaxin; Chen, Mengyi; Yao, Qingling; Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Guilian; Wu, Haiqin; Yu, Xiaorui

    2017-08-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) may protect the nervous system of animals against aging damage, making it a potential anti-aging drug for the nervous system. However, experimental evidence from natural aging nerve cell models is lacking, and the efficacy of EPO and underlying mechanism of this effect warrant further study. Thus, the present study used long-term cultured primary nerve cells to successfully mimic the natural aging process of nerve cells. Starting on the 11th day of culture, cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Using double immunofluorescence labeling, we found that rhEPO significantly improved the morphology of long-term cultured primary nerve cells and increased the total number of long-term cultured primary cells. However, rhEPO did not improve the ratio of nerve cells. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure nerve cell activity and showed that rhEPO significantly improved the activity of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Moreover, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double immunofluorescence labeling flow cytometry revealed that rhEPO reduced the apoptotic rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) immunohistochemistry staining showed that rhEPO significantly reduced the aging rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Immunochemistry revealed that rhEPO enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) abundance and reduced the intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) level. In addition, this effect depended on the dose, was maximized at a dose of 100 U/ml and was more pronounced than that of vitamin E. In summary, this study finds that rhEPO protects long-term cultured primary nerve cells from aging in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this effect may be associated with the enhancement of the intracellular anti-oxidant

  6. A novel strategy involved in [corrected] anti-oxidative defense: the conversion of NADH into NADPH by a metabolic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranji Singh

    Full Text Available The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH is pivotal to the cellular anti-oxidative defence strategies in most organisms. Although its production mediated by different enzyme systems has been relatively well-studied, metabolic networks dedicated to the biogenesis of NADPH have not been fully characterized. In this report, a metabolic pathway that promotes the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, a pro-oxidant into NADPH has been uncovered in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to oxidative stress. Enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase (PC, malic enzyme (ME, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, malate synthase (MS, and isocitrate lyase (ICL that are involved in disparate metabolic modules, converged to create a metabolic network aimed at the transformation of NADH into NADPH. The downregulation of phosphoenol carboxykinase (PEPCK and the upregulation of pyruvate kinase (PK ensured that this metabolic cycle fixed NADH into NADPH to combat the oxidative stress triggered by the menadione insult. This is the first demonstration of a metabolic network invoked to generate NADPH from NADH, a process that may be very effective in combating oxidative stress as the increase of an anti-oxidant is coupled to the decrease of a pro-oxidant.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of Berberis aristata DC. in experimental models of inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Singh, Surender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Berberis aristata (Berberidaceae) is an important medicinal plant used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study is to scientifically validate the traditional use of BA in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BA hydroalcoholic extract (BAHE) were evaluated in experimental models, viz., carrageenan-induced paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation, and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced stimulation of peritoneal macrophages in rats. Expression of inflammatory mediators, viz., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, TNF-R1, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was carried out in serum and peritoneal macrophages to derive the plausible mechanism of BAHE in activated peritoneal macrophages. Results: Pretreatment with BAHE produced a dose-dependent reduction (P < 0.01) in carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. BAHE treatment produced significant (P < 0.01) reduction in serum inflammatory cytokine levels as compared to control. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory markers, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-R1, and COX-2, was found to be reduced in stimulated macrophages whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was upregulated in peritoneal macrophages. Conclusion: The result of the present study thus demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BAHE which may be attributed to its inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived cytokine and mediators. PMID:27114638

  8. In vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic activities against prostate cancer of extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worawattananutai, Patsorn; Itharat, Arunporn; Ruangnoo, Srisopa

    2014-08-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) leaves are a vegetable, which is used as a healthy sour soup for protection against chronic diseases in Thai traditional medicine. To investigate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa leave extracts from diferent extraction methods. Fresh and dry Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were extracted by various methods such as maceration with 95% and 50% ethanol, squeeze, and boiling with water or decoction. All extracts were testedfor antioxidant activity by using DPPH radical scavenging assay, anti-inflammatory activity by determination on inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production on RAW264. 7 cell. Cytotoxic activity also tested against human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Total phenolic content determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results found that the 95% ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa dried leaves (HSDE95) showed the highest antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 34.51±2.62 μg/ml and had the highest phenolic content (57.00±3.73 mg GAE/g). HSDE95 also showed potent cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cell line with an IC50 of 8.58±0.68 μg/ml whereas HSDE95 and all of extracts ofHibiscus sabdariffa leaves had no anti-inflammatory activity. The obtained results revealed that HSDE95 extract showedpotent cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells but low antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This extract should be further isolated as active compounds against prostate cancer.

  9. The anti-apoptotic activity associated with phosphatidylinositol transfer protein α activates the MAPK and Akt/PKB pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenning, M.; Goedhart, J.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Avram, D.; Wirtz, K.W.A.; Snoek, G.T.

    2008-01-01

    The conditioned medium (CM) from mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast cells overexpressing phosphatidylinositol transfer protein α (PI-TPα; SPIα cells) demonstrates an increased anti-apoptotic activity compared with CM from wild type NIH3T3 (wtNIH3T3) cells. As previously shown, the anti-apoptotic activity acts

  10. In-vitro evaluation of anti-trichomonal activities of Eugenia uniflora leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibikunle, Gabriel Femi; Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Famuyiwa, Funmilayo Gladys; Aladesanmi, Adetunji Joseph; Adewunmi, Clement Oladapo

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, used ethnomedically in some tropical countries as an anti-infective, has shown anti-malarial and anti-trypanocidal activities. Therefore using bioactivity guided fractionation, anti-trichomonal activity of E. uniflora leaf was investigated. Anti-trichomonal activities of leaf methanol extract and its fractions against Trichomonas gallinae as well as their cytotoxicities using an in vitro haemaglutination assay were determined. Anti-trichomonacidal activities of the extract improved on purification up to a stage. Subfractions E(2-5) had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 4.77 - 5.28, 18.49 - 25.00 and 4.53 - 5.18, 18.32 - 19.07 µg/ml at 24 and 48 hrs, respectively that were better than those of metronidazole. Further purification of E(2-5) led to loss of activity suggesting that the active components were probably working synergistically and additively. Demonstration of low haemaglutination titre values of 0.00 - 5.33 by methanolic extract and its partition fractions suggested their low toxicity profile. The established safety of the leaf indicated that its anti-trichomonal activity was not due to non-specific cytotoxicity, hence could be used in ethnomedicine as an anti-trichomonal agent.

  11. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of Boerhavia elegans and Solanum surattense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodakarim Nastaran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy, due to the increasing problem of drug resistance to malaria parasites. In the present study, the aim was to discover novel, effective plant-based extracts for the activity against malaria. Methods Ten plants found in Iran were selected by ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants. The crude ethanolic extracts were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum: K1 (chloroquine-resistant strain and CY27 (chloroquine-sensitive strain, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH assay. The anti-plasmodial activity of the extracts was also assessed in the 4-day suppressive anti-malarial assay in mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain. Crude ethanolic extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity were further fractionated by partitioning in water and dichloromethane. Results Of 10 plant species assayed, three species: Boerhavia elegans (Choisy, Solanum surattense (Burm.f. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw. showed promising anti-plasmodial activity in vitro (IC50 ≤ 50 μg/ml and in vivo with no toxicity. The dichloromethane fraction of three extracts revealed stronger anti-plasmodial activity than the total extracts. Conclusion Anti-plasmodial activities of extracts of B. elegans and S. surattense are reported for the first time.

  12. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of Boerhavia elegans and Solanum surattense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy, due to the increasing problem of drug resistance to malaria parasites. In the present study, the aim was to discover novel, effective plant-based extracts for the activity against malaria. Methods Ten plants found in Iran were selected by ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants. The crude ethanolic extracts were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum: K1 (chloroquine-resistant strain) and CY27 (chloroquine-sensitive strain), using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. The anti-plasmodial activity of the extracts was also assessed in the 4-day suppressive anti-malarial assay in mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). Crude ethanolic extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity were further fractionated by partitioning in water and dichloromethane. Results Of 10 plant species assayed, three species: Boerhavia elegans (Choisy), Solanum surattense (Burm.f.) and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) showed promising anti-plasmodial activity in vitro (IC50 ≤ 50 μg/ml) and in vivo with no toxicity. The dichloromethane fraction of three extracts revealed stronger anti-plasmodial activity than the total extracts. Conclusion Anti-plasmodial activities of extracts of B. elegans and S. surattense are reported for the first time. PMID:20462416

  13. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: II. Activity against periopathogenic biofilms and anti-inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, J; Scott, R.W.; Diamond, G

    2011-01-01

    Whereas periodontal disease is ultimately of bacterial etiology, from multispecies biofilms of gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms, much of the deleterious effects are caused by the resultant epithelial inflammatory response. Hence, development of a treatment that combines anti-biofilm antibiotic activity with anti-inflammatory activity would be of great utility. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins are naturally occurring peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum activity as well as a variety of immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, bacteria do not readily develop resistance to these agents. However, clinical studies have suggested that they do not represent optimal candidates for exogenous therapeutic agents. Small-molecule mimetics of these AMPs exhibit similar activities to the parent peptides, in addition to having low toxicity, high stability and low cost. To determine whether AMP mimetics have the potential for treatment of periodontal disease, we examined the activity of one mimetic, mPE, against biofilm cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Metabolic assays as well as culture and biomass measurement assays demonstrated that mPE exhibits potent activity against biofilm cultures of both species. Furthermore, as little as 2 µg ml−1 mPE was sufficient to inhibit interleukin-1β-induced secretion of interleukin-8 in both gingival epithelial cells and THP-1 cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with a reduction in activation of nuclear factor-κB, suggesting that mPE can act both as an anti-biofilm agent in an anaerobic environment and as an anti-inflammatory agent in infected tissues. PMID:21040516

  14. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid induces antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cuevas, J; Navarro-Partida, J; Marquez-Aguirre, A L; Bueno-Topete, M R; Beas-Zarate, C; Armendáriz-Borunda, J

    2011-01-01

    Experimental liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is associated with oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. This work was focused on elucidating the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in this model of hepatotoxicity. Wistar male rats were treated with CCl(4) and EDTA (60, 120, or 240 mg/kg). Morphometric analyses were carried out in Masson's stained liver sections to determine fibrosis index. Coagulation tests prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were also determined. Gene expression for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1), alpha1(I) procollagen gene (alpha1 Col I), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was monitored by real-time PCR. Antioxidant effect of EDTA was measured by its effects on lipid peroxidation; biological activity of ceruloplasmin (Cp), SOD, and catalase (Cat) were analyzed by zymography assays. Animals with CCl(4)-hepatic injury that received EDTA showed a decrement in fibrosis (20%) and lipid peroxidation (22%). The mRNA expression for TNF-alpha (55%), TGF-beta1 (50%), IL-6 (52%), and alpha1 Col I (60%) was also decreased. This group of animals showed increased Cp (62%) and SOD (25%) biological activities. Coagulation blood tests, Cat activity, and gene expression for SOD were not modified by EDTA treatment. This study demonstrates that EDTA treatment induces the activity of antioxidant enzymes, decreases lipid peroxidation, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis in experimental liver fibrosis induced by CCl(4).

  15. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Seeds of Phalaris canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigales-Ahuatzi, D; Perez-Gutierrez, R M

    2016-01-01

    Chloroform extract (ALC) from the seeds of Phalaris canariensis were assayed for antiinflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced oedema, cotton pellets-induced granuloma, histamine-induced inflammation, croton oil-induced oedema, activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), adjuvant-induced arthritis, quantification of TNFα, IL-1β, PGE2 and LTB4 and nitric oxide (NO) assay. ALC exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in different chemically-induced edemas in a dose dependent manner. In the chronic model cotton pellets-induced granuloma showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue. Also caused inhibition of ear inflammation edema and influx of polymorphonuclear cells, as evidence by a decrease in ear thickness and reduced myeloperoxidase activity and inhibit mediators of inflammation as TNFα, IL-1β, PGE2 and LTB4. When RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with ALC together with LPS a significant inhibition of NO production was detected. These data provide evidence for antiinflammatory effect of P. canariensis by mechanisms that involve a reduced neutrophil influx and decreased production of inflammatory cytokines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Young-Joon

    2002-08-01

    A wide variety of phenolic substances derived from spice possess potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Examples are curcumin, a yellow colouring agent, contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), [6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient present in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and capsaicin, a principal pungent principle of hot chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L, Solanaceae). The chemopreventive effects exerted by these phytochemicals are often associated with their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been recognized as a molecular target of many chemopreventive as well as anti-inflammatory agents. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB. This short review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects of the aforementioned spice ingredients in terms of their effects on intracellular signaling cascades, particularly those involving NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

  17. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of virgin coconut oil supplementation abrogate acute chemotherapy oxidative nephrotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Aja, Patrick M; Maduagwuna, Ekenechukwu K; Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Ufebe, Odomero G; Azubuike-Osu, Sharon O

    2017-12-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an efficacious anticancer agent constrained in clinical use due to its toxicity on non-targeted tissue, a considerable source of worry to clinicians. Because the toxicity is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, the study explored antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) supplementation in nephrotoxicity induced by MTX in rats. Rats were randomized into 4 groups (n=6) as follows: Control group; MTX group injected with single dose of MTX (20mg/kg, ip) on day 14; VCO (5%)+MTX and VCO (15%)+MTX groups were pre-treated with VCO diet and injected with single dose of MTX (20mg/kg, ip) on day 14. After 3 days of MTX injection, serum kidney markers, renal activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Lipid peroxidation level and inflammatory markers- interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were estimated in kidney. Histopathological alterations were examined for kidney damage. MTX nephrotoxicity was evidenced by markedly elevated serum renal markers along with significant decreases in renal GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes confirmed by histopathology. Lipid peroxidation level, IL-6, NO and CRP markedly increased compared to control. VCO supplementation prior to MTX injection attenuated MTX-induced oxidative nephrotoxicity via prominent increases in GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities in a dose-dependent manner. The renal inflammatory markers and MDA depleted considerably compared to MTX control group. Histopathological alterations were mitigated to confirm the biochemical indices. VCO supplementation demonstrates nephroprotective activity by attenuating MTX oxidative nephrotoxicity via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in kidney. Our results suggested that VCO may benefit cancer patients on MTX chemotherapy against kidney injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Combination of nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy as a novel therapeutic application to manage the pain and treat many clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Salaheldin; Dickinson, Eva

    2014-02-01

    From hypertension to diabetes, cancer to HIV, stroke to memory loss and learning disorders to septic shock, male impotence to tuberculosis, there is probably no pathological condition where nitric oxide does not play an important role. Nitric oxide is an analgesic, immune-modulator, vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, growth modulator, angiogenetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulator. Because of the above actions of nitric oxide, many clinical conditions associated with abnormal Nitric oxide (NO) production and bioavailability. Our novel therapeutic approach is to restore the homeostasis of nitric oxide and replace the lost cells by combining nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of the essential oil and active compounds from Cordia verbenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Giselle F; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Pianowski, Luiz F; Campos, Maria M; Calixto, João B

    2007-03-21

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae) and some of its active compounds were evaluated. Systemic treatment with the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (300-600mg/kg, p.o.) reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, myeloperoxidase activity and the mouse oedema elicited by carrageenan, bradykinin, substance P, histamine and platelet-activating factor. It also prevented carrageenan-evoked exudation and the neutrophil influx to the rat pleura and the neutrophil migration into carrageenan-stimulated mouse air pouches. Moreover, Cordia verbenacea oil inhibited the oedema caused by Apis mellifera venom or ovalbumin in sensitized rats and ovalbumin-evoked allergic pleurisy. The essential oil significantly decreased TNFalpha, without affecting IL-1beta production, in carrageenan-injected rat paws. Neither the PGE(2) formation after intrapleural injection of carrageenan nor the COX-1 or COX-2 activities in vitro were affected by the essential oil. Of high interest, the paw edema induced by carrageenan in mice was markedly inhibited by both sesquiterpenic compounds obtained from the essential oil: alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene (50mg/kg, p.o.). Collectively, the present results showed marked anti-inflammatory effects for the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea and some active compounds, probably by interfering with TNFalpha production. Cordia verbenacea essential oil or its constituents might represent new therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  20. Effects of curcumin on angiotensin-converting enzyme gene expression, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant status in thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Yumna; Fatima, Syeda Nuzhat; Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of curcumin on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant status in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Total 32 albino Wistar rats (male, 200-250 g) were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: untreated controls; Group 2: received TAA (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); i.p.) for 12 weeks; Group 3: received curcumin (75 mg/kg b.w.) for 24 weeks; Group 4: received TAA (200 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) for 12 weeks+curcumin (75 mg/kg b.w.) for 12 weeks. A significantly higher ACE gene expression was observed in TAA-induced groups as compared with control, indicating more synthesis of ACE proteins. Treatment with curcumin suppressed ACE expression in TAA liver and reversed the toxicity produced. TAA treatment results in higher lipid peroxidation and lower GSH, SOD and CAT than the normal, and this produces oxidative stress in the liver. Cirrhotic conditions were confirmed by serum enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) as well as histopathological observations. Curcumin treatment reduced oxidative stress in animals by scavenging reactive oxygen species, protecting the anti-oxidant enzymes from being denatured and reducing the oxidative stress marker lipid peroxidation. Curcumin treatment restores hepatocytes, damaged by TAA, and protects liver tissue approaching cirrhosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Effects of an anti-oxidative ACAT inhibitor on apoptosis/necrosis and cholesterol accumulation under oxidative stress in THP-1 cell-derived foam cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miike, Tomohiro; Shirahase, Hiroaki; Jino, Hiroshi; Kunishiro, Kazuyoshi; Kanda, Mamoru; Kurahashi, Kazuyoshi

    2008-01-02

    THP-1 cell-derived foam cells were exposed to oxidative stress through combined treatment with acetylated LDL (acLDL) and copper ions (Cu2+). The foam cells showed caspase-dependent apoptotic changes on exposure to oxidative stress for 6 h, and necrotic changes with the leakage of LDH after 24 h. KY-455, an anti-oxidative ACAT inhibitor, and ascorbic acid (VC) but not YM-750, an ACAT inhibitor, prevented apoptotic and necrotic changes. These preventive effects of KY-455 and VC were accompanied by the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in culture medium containing acLDL and Cu2+, suggesting the involvement of oxidized acLDL in apoptosis and necrosis. Foam cells accumulated esterified cholesterol (EC) for 24 h in the presence of acLDL without Cu2+, which was suppressed by KY-455 and YM-750. Foam cells showed necrotic changes and died in the presence of acLDL and Cu2+. KY-455 but not YM-750 prevented cell death and reduced the amount of EC accumulated. The foam cells treated with VC further accumulated EC without necrotic changes for 24 h even in the presence of acLDL and Cu2+. YM-750 as well as KY-455 inhibited lipid accumulation when co-incubated with VC in foam cells exposed to oxidative stress. It is concluded that an anti-oxidative ACAT inhibitor or the combination of an antioxidant and an ACAT inhibitor protects foam cells from oxidative stress and effectively reduces cholesterol levels, which would be a promising approach in anti-atherosclerotic therapy.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activities of compounds from twigs of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huynh Nguyen Khanh; Nguyen, Van Thu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Rho, Seong Soo; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Sui; Lee, Jeong-Hyung; Min, Byung Sun

    2017-07-01

    Five new compounds, 10-oxomornigrol F (1), (7″R)-(-)-6-(7″-hydroxy-3″,8″-dimethyl-2″,8″-octadien-1″-yl)apigenin (2), ramumorin A (3), ramumorin B (4), and (4S,7S,8R)-trihydroxyoctadeca-5Z-enoic acid (5), together with 31 known compounds (6-36), were isolated from the twigs of Morus alba (Moraceae). The chemical structures of these compounds were established using spectroscopic analyses, 1D and 2D NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), and Mosher's methods. The anti-inflammatory activities of the compounds were evaluated by investigating their ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1, 2, 13, 17, 19, 25-28, and 32 showed inhibitory effects with IC 50 values ranging from 2.2 to 5.3μg/mL. Compounds 1, 2, 17, 25, and 32 reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pretreating the cells with compound 1, 17, and 32 significantly suppressed LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Unusual anti-leukemia activity of nanoformulated naproxen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Raj [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175005 (India); Advanced Material Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175005 (India); Siril, Prem Felix, E-mail: prem@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175005 (India); Advanced Material Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175005 (India); Javid, Farideh [School of Applied Science, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most widely used pharmaceuticals worldwide. Interestingly, many of them have significant anticancer properties too. However, the poor water solubility of certain NSAIDs limits their application for cancer treatment. Nanosizing of such drugs can help to improve the solubility and this may result in enhanced anticancer activities too. Moreover, over dosages and the accompanying side effects of NSAIDs can be minimized by improving their solubility and bioavailability. Successful nanoformulation of three NSAIDs: ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprufen (KP) and naproxen (NAP) using a novel evaporation assisted solvent-antisolvent interaction (EASAI) method is reported here. Three water soluble and biocompatible polymers: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were used to stabilize the drug nanoparticles. Particles having spherical morphology with average size below 30 nm were thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) imaging. The nanoformulation resulted in ten to fifteen fold improvements in the solubility and significant enhancement in the in-vitro drug release profiles of the NSAIDs. Anticancer screening of the nanoformulated NSAIDs against five different cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 (Human breast cancer cell line), (Human pancreatic cancer cell line) MIA-PA-CA-2, (Human colon cancer cell line) HT-29, (Human leukemia cell line) Jurkat and (human ovarian carcinoma cell line) A2780 was performed. All the nanoformulated samples showed improved anticancer activity against the Leukemia cancer cell line, out of which NAP-PVP showed the highest anti-cancer activity. The anti-Leukemia activity of NAP-PVP was more than twice that of doxorubicin which is a standard anticancer drug. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared. • Particle sizes were

  4. Unusual anti-leukemia activity of nanoformulated naproxen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Raj; Siril, Prem Felix; Javid, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most widely used pharmaceuticals worldwide. Interestingly, many of them have significant anticancer properties too. However, the poor water solubility of certain NSAIDs limits their application for cancer treatment. Nanosizing of such drugs can help to improve the solubility and this may result in enhanced anticancer activities too. Moreover, over dosages and the accompanying side effects of NSAIDs can be minimized by improving their solubility and bioavailability. Successful nanoformulation of three NSAIDs: ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprufen (KP) and naproxen (NAP) using a novel evaporation assisted solvent-antisolvent interaction (EASAI) method is reported here. Three water soluble and biocompatible polymers: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were used to stabilize the drug nanoparticles. Particles having spherical morphology with average size below 30 nm were thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) imaging. The nanoformulation resulted in ten to fifteen fold improvements in the solubility and significant enhancement in the in-vitro drug release profiles of the NSAIDs. Anticancer screening of the nanoformulated NSAIDs against five different cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 (Human breast cancer cell line), (Human pancreatic cancer cell line) MIA-PA-CA-2, (Human colon cancer cell line) HT-29, (Human leukemia cell line) Jurkat and (human ovarian carcinoma cell line) A2780 was performed. All the nanoformulated samples showed improved anticancer activity against the Leukemia cancer cell line, out of which NAP-PVP showed the highest anti-cancer activity. The anti-Leukemia activity of NAP-PVP was more than twice that of doxorubicin which is a standard anticancer drug. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared. • Particle sizes were

  5. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  6. Preparation of anti-oxidative SiC/SiO2 coating on carbon fibers from vinyltriethoxysilane by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Kedong; Lu Chunxiang; Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The SiC/SiO 2 coating was prepared on carbon fibers by the sol–gel method. ► Nano-crystallites with an average diameter of 130 nm were aligned along the fiber axis uniformly. ► The oxidation resistant property of coated carbon fiber was increased with the increase of sol concentration and the heat treatment temperature. ► The oxidation activation energy of the coated carbon fiber was increased by 23% in comparison with uncoated carbon fiber. - Abstract: The anti-oxidative SiC/SiO 2 coating was prepared on carbon fibers by a sol–gel process using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) as the single source precursor. The derived coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The oxidation resistant properties of the carbon fiber with and without coating were studied by isothermal oxidation. The results indicated that the carbothermal reduction reaction led to the decrease of SiO 2 phase and the increase of SiC phase at 1500 °C. The uniform SiC/SiO 2 coating prepared from a sol concentration of 4 wt% and heat treated at 1500 °C showed the optimal oxidation resistant property. The oxidation resistance of the carbon fiber was improved by the SiC/SiO 2 coating, and the oxidation activation energy was increased by about 23% as compared with uncoated carbon fiber.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanol Extract of Moutan Cortex in LPS-Activated Raw264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Chul Chun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Moutan Cortex (MCE has been used in traditional medicine to remove heat from the blood, promote blood circulation and alleviate blood stasis. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of MCE on regulatory mechanisms of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO involved in immunological activity of Raw264.7 cells. Cells were pretreated with methanolic extracts of MCE, and further cultured for an appropriate time after lipopolyssacharide (LPS addition. During the entire experimental period, 0.1 and 0.3 mg ml−1 of MCE had no cytotoxicity. In these concentrations, MCE inhibited the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and phosphorylated inhibitor of κBα (p-IκBα, and the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. MCE also reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the Raw264.7 cells that were activated by LPS. These results demonstrate that MCE has anti-inflammatory effects through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression by suppressing the phosphorylation of I-κBα and the activation of NF-κB.

  8. Structure-Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Relationships of Purpurin and Related Anthraquinones in Chemical and Cell Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Nam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone (9,10-anthraquinone and several hydroxy derivatives, including purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone, anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone, and chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, were evaluated for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in chemical assays and mammalian cells (murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Several tests were used to assess their activities: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical; ABTS radical cation; hydrogen peroxide scavenging; reduction of potassium ferricyanide; chelation of ferrous ions; inhibition of lipid peroxidation; inhibition of nitric oxide generation; scavenging of the intracellular hydroxyl radical; expression of NLRP3 polypeptide for inflammasome assembly; and quantitation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β for inflammasome activation. The results show that purpurin, from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L., exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both chemical and cultured cell antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activities of the other three anthraquinones were lower than that of purpurin. In addition, purpurin could down-regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, suggesting that it might protect foods against oxidative damage and prevent in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation. Structure-activity relationships and the significance of the results for food quality and human health are discussed.

  9. Functional components in Scutellaria barbata D. Don with anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Lan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the variety and amount of various functional components in Scutellaria barbata D. Don as well as study their anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 cells. Both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were shown to contain the functional components including phenolics, flavonoids, chlorophylls, and carotenoids, with the former mainly composed of phenolics and flavonoids, and the latter of carotenoids and chlorophylls. Both extracts could significantly inhibit (p < 0.05 the production of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interlukin-6, and interlukin-1β, as well as the expressions of phosphor extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphor-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, but failed to retard tumor necrosis factor-α expression. Both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts had a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory efficiency can be varied for both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, which can be attributed to the presence of different varieties and amounts of functional components, as mentioned above. This finding suggested that S. Barbata extract may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent for possible future biomedical application.

  10. A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR Study of Neolignan Compounds with Anti-schistosomiasis Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Claúdio N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of eighteen neolignan derivative compounds with anti-schistosomiasis activity was studied by using the quantum mechanical semi-empirical method PM3 and other theoretical methods in order to calculate selected molecular properties (variables or descriptors to be correlated to their biological activities. Exploratory data analysis (principal component analysis, PCA, and hierarchical cluster analysis, HCA, discriminant analysis (DA and the Kth nearest neighbor (KNN method were employed for obtaining possible relationships between the calculated descriptors and the biological activities studied and predicting the anti-schistosomiasis activity of new compounds from a test set. The molecular descriptors responsible for the separation between active and inactive compounds were: hydration energy (HE, molecular refractivity (MR and charge on the C19 car