WorldWideScience

Sample records for anti glare screens

  1. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall;

    2009-01-01

    Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contra...... to initially static HDR images. By conducting psychophysical studies, we validate that our method improves perceived brightness and that dynamic glare-renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene.......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic and...

  2. Flying GLARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumler, T.

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the second millennium did the aircraft industry decide for the first time to apply the fiber metal laminate GLARE in a large quantity on a civil transport aircraft. It was focused on an application of the material on the pressurised fuselage, the decision driven by the demand for weigh

  3. Anti-screening ferromagnetic superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Olesen, P

    2013-01-01

    We consider the Ginzburg-Landau mean field theory of ferromagnetic superconductors with complex order parameter $\\psi_i, i=1,2,3$. Below the critical temperature superconductivity is generated by means of a tachyonic term in the free energy $-\\alpha |\\psi_i|^2$ $(\\alpha>0)$, stabilized by a $\\psi^4$-term. However, we show that when $\\alpha$ becomes negative superconductivity can also be generated spontaneously by the magnetic field through the Zeeman like coupling between the field and the spin of the order parameter, in analogy with what happens in W-meson condensation. We also show that this mechanism leads to a vortex lattice which has anti-screening currents, enhancing the magnetic field instead of counteracting it. The lattice of vortices is a collective phenomenon where the individual elements do not exist in isolated form. If the parameter $\\alpha$ vanishes it is possible to obtain an explicit form of the vortex lattice in terms of Weierstrass' p-function.

  4. Discomfort glare measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczak, Urszula J.

    2009-06-01

    In the paper some results of research on discomfort glare measurement are described. The idea of practical realization of this measurement in interiors on the basis of the analysis of the investigated room image is presented. To obtain the necessary geometric quantities the coordinates of proper pixels in the image and some parameters of the imaging system should be known. The luminance values are extracted after the analysis of the brightness distribution of calibrated image, which is registered by the pinhole digital camera. The most important properties of the camera, such as spectral sensitivity, linearity, noise and the influence of exposition parameters on the pixel brightness were investigated. After correcting the spectral sensitivity experiments in the laboratory and in the didactic room were conducted. In the laboratory test the error of the UGR measurement was lower - it reached 6,9%. Some possibilities of improving the accuracy of measurement are indicated.

  5. SCREENING OF PLANTS FOR ANTI DERMATOPHYTE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Chauhan, A. Suthar, V. Naik and K. Salkar*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic infections of skin are caused by dermatophytes. Screening of plants for anti dermatophyte activity was carried out based on the literature search done. Native plants of Maharashtra (India were screened for anti dermatophyte activity. Various plant parts from different regions were collected and then extracted with three different solvents viz. alcohol, hydro-alcohol and aqueous. The obtained extracts were subjected for anti dermatophyte activity using agar-well diffusion technique. Three different concentrations of extract were checked for activity. Two species of dermatophytes, viz. - Trichophyton and Microsporum were used in the screening assay. Out of the twenty-eight plants screened by agar diffusion method, seven were found to be active with different activity profile. Methanol extract was the most active extract. Pterospermum suberifolium, Trachyspermum ammi, Peltaphorum pterocarpum, Ixora coccinia, Persicaria glabra, Terminallia elliptica and Cicca acida showed activity at different concentrations against the two species of dermatophytes. The data obtained can be used for further studying the anti dermatophyte potential of active plants.

  6. Discomfort Glare: What Do We Actually Know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-04-19

    We reviewed glare models with an eye for missing conditions or inconsistencies. We found ambiguities as to when to use small source versus large source models, and as to what constitutes a glare source in a complex scene. We also found surprisingly little information validating the assumed independence of the factors driving glare. A barrier to progress in glare research is the lack of a standardized dependent measure of glare. We inverted the glare models to predict luminance, and compared model predictions against the 1949 Luckiesh and Guth data that form the basis of many of them. The models perform surprisingly poorly, particularly with regards to the luminance-size relationship and additivity. Evaluating glare in complex scenes may require fundamental changes to form of the glare models.

  7. The assessment of glare in street-lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian, W. & Schreuder, D.A.

    1968-01-01

    Quantitative measures for glare restriction can be introduced only if a- both disability glare and discomfort glare are included; b- the glare of a full installation not of one single lantern only-can be assessed at the design stage; and c- the system under considerations allows simple and fast calc

  8. Glare suppression by coherence gated negation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Edward Haojiang; Brake, Joshua; Ruan, Haowen; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of a weak target hidden behind a scattering medium can be significantly confounded by glare. We report a method, termed coherence gated negation (CGN), that uses destructive optical interference to suppress glare and allow improved imaging of a weak target. As a demonstration, we show that by permuting through a set range of amplitude and phase values for a reference beam interfering with the optical field from the glare and target reflection, we can suppress glare by an order of magnitude, even when the optical wavefront is highly disordered. This strategy significantly departs from conventional coherence gating methods in that CGN actively 'gates out' the unwanted optical contributions while conventional methods 'gate in' the target optical signal. We further show that the CGN method can outperform conventional coherence gating image quality in certain scenarios by more effectively rejecting unwanted optical contributions.

  9. On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: In the 1920s and 1930s, disability glare was a topic of great interest in the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE). The Second World War prevented agreement being reached on a standard to quantify disability glare but the Stiles-Holladay formula was widely accepted as such. In

  10. Gravitational anti-screening as an alternative to dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, A. Raymond

    2016-04-01

    A semiclassical model of the screening of electric charge by virtual electric dipoles, as found in electrodynamic theory, will be presented. This model is then applied to the hypothetical case of an electric force where like charges attract. The resulting anti-screening of the electric charge is found to have the same functional dependence on the field source and observation distance that is found with the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relationship. This leads to an anti-screening model for the gravitational force which is then used to determine the theoretical rotational curve of the Galaxy and the theoretical velocity dispersions and shear values for the Coma cluster. These theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding astronomical observations. The screening of electric charge as found in QED and the larger apparent masses of galaxies and galactic clusters therefore appears to be two sides of the same coin.

  11. Screening of Anti-Obesity Agent from Herbal Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Kee Jo; Uhee Jung; Changhyun Roh

    2012-01-01

    Globally, one in three of the World’s adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion—Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl ...

  12. Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity: A screening study

    OpenAIRE

    Noopur Srivastava; Gaurav Tiwari; Ruchi Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen the Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The blood glucose lowering activity of the Polyherbal preparation-I (1:1:1 of Wheat germ oil, Coriandrum sativum and Aloe vera) was studied in normal rats after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg and Polyherbal preparation-I, II (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 2:2:1), and III (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera ...

  13. Evaluation of Glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sims, Cianan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian, Joshua Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I - 15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. Reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground - based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impact s of the glare . Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by he liostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (pot ential for after - image) up to a distance of %7E6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage . Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after - image at all ground - based monitoring locations outside of the site bound aries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed. This page intentionally left blank

  14. Pattern glare: the effects of contrast and color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eMonger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test a theory of visual stress by investigating the inter-relationships between (1 the threshold contrast/saturation at which individuals first report discomfort when viewing colored gratings of progressively increasing contrast and decreasing saturation; (2 the choice of a colored overlay for reading; (3 any increase in reading speed when the overlay is used. Method: Ninety-five young adults, with normal color vision, reported illusions from square-wave gratings (Pattern Glare Test, chose any colored overlays that improved clarity (Intuitive Color Overlays and read aloud randomly ordered common words (Wilkins Rate of Reading Test. This was followed by an automated choice of tints for text using various screen colors on a tablet, and a test of discomfort from patterns of progressively increasing contrast and decreasing saturation, using software developed for this study. All participants wore their optimal refractive correction throughout the procedure.Results: Fifty-eight participants chose a colored overlay and reported that it made text easier and more comfortable to read. On average, these individuals had a greater improvement in reading speed with their overlays (p=0.003, a lower contrast threshold at which discomfort from achromatic gratings was first reported (p=0.015, and a tendency to report more pattern glare (p=0.052, compared to the other participants. Participants who chose both a most and least preferred tint for text using the automated procedure reported discomfort from colored gratings at a significantly higher contrast with their most preferred color compared to their least preferred color (p=0.003. The choice of a colored tint was therefore moderately consistent across tests. The most and least preferred colors tended to be complementary.Conclusion: Colored tints that improved reading speed reduced pattern glare both in terms of the illusion susceptibility and in terms of discomfort contrast threshold, supporting a

  15. Screening of anti-obesity agent from herbal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2012-01-01

    Globally, one in three of the World's adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion--Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl gallate from the herbal composition known as HemoHIM that actively inhibits lipid formation as evidenced by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting their use as an anti-obesity agent. Furthermore, the amount of glycerol released from cells into the medium had increased by treatment of methyl gallate in a concentration-dependent manner. The present study suggests that a promising anti-obesity agent like methyl gallate might be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22447026

  16. Screening of Anti-Obesity Agent from Herbal Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kee Jo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, one in three of the World’s adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion—Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl gallate from the herbal composition known as HemoHIM that actively inhibits lipid formation as evidenced by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting their use as an anti-obesity agent. Furthermore, the amount of glycerol released from cells into the medium had increased by treatment of methyl gallate in a concentration-dependent manner. The present study suggests that a promising anti-obesity agent like methyl gallate might be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of obesity.

  17. Screening of anti-obesity agent from herbal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2012-03-23

    Globally, one in three of the World's adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion--Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl gallate from the herbal composition known as HemoHIM that actively inhibits lipid formation as evidenced by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting their use as an anti-obesity agent. Furthermore, the amount of glycerol released from cells into the medium had increased by treatment of methyl gallate in a concentration-dependent manner. The present study suggests that a promising anti-obesity agent like methyl gallate might be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of obesity.

  18. Glare as a criterion for quality in street lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.B. & Schreuder, D.A.

    1967-01-01

    A simple method is given for determining the degree of discomfort glare in street lighting installations. This method is derived from results obtained partly from new investigations and partly from previous tests. Results arrived at by this method are compared with the glare produced in existing lig

  19. Distortions and Residual Stresses of GLARE Induced by Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abouhamzeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    GLARE is used in fuselage panels for its improved fatigue and residual strength. In this thesis, predictive models are developed for residual stresses and distortions of GLARE induced by manufacturing. Material behaviour of the epoxy adhesive and the glass-epoxy prepreg is characterised for thermal

  20. An experimental investigation of glare and restructured fiber metal laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Adelina Vanessa

    Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) are a group of materials fabricated by bonding glass/epoxy layers within metal layers. This class of materials can provide good mechanical properties, as well as weight savings. An FML known as Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy (GLARE) was studied. An experimental investigation comprising of microscopy and tensile testing was carried out using different grades of GLARE. Microscopy revealed the construction details of GLARE, while tensile testing provided means of measuring and analyzing its stress-strain responses. Next, different metal surface pretreatment methods were explored. These included sandblasting, Phosphoric Acid Anodizing (PAA), and AC-130 Sol-Gel treatment. Woven S-2 glass, an epoxy adhesive, and aluminum alloy sheet metal were used to fabricate restructured FMLs using time and cost effective procedures. Additional microscopy and tensile testing allowed for comparisons with GLARE and aircraft grade aluminum alloys. The restructured FMLs showed similar behaviors to GLARE with potential significant improvements in fabrication efficiency.

  1. Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity: A screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noopur Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The blood glucose lowering activity of the Polyherbal preparation-I (1:1:1 of Wheat germ oil, Coriandrum sativum and Aloe vera was studied in normal rats after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg and Polyherbal preparation-I, II (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 2:2:1, and III (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 1:2:2 on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein method at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h in normal rats and in diabetic rats at 0, 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days. Blood plasma glucose was estimated by the GOD/POD (glucose oxidase and peroxidase method. The data was compared statistically using the one-way ANOVA method followed by the Dunnett multiple component test. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: The Polyherbal preparation-I produced significant (P<0.05 reduction in the blood glucose level of normal rats and Polyherbal preparation-I, II, and III produced significant (P<0.01 reduction in the blood glucose level of diabetic rats during 30 days study and compared with that of control and Glibenclamide. Conclusion: The Polyherbal preparation-I showed a significant glucose lowering effect in normal rats and Polyherbal preparation-I, II, and III in diabetic rats. This preparation is going to be promising anti-diabetic preparation for masses; however, it requires further extensive studies in human beings.

  2. Daytime veiling glare in automobiles caused by dashboard reflectance

    OpenAIRE

    Dunsäter, Andreas; Andersson, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Veiling glare has always existed in cars, but during the last years it has been brought up as a big problem. One reason is that glossier materials are being used in car interior design. Another reason is that the customers who buy the cars are getting more quality conscious. They demand to get top quality for the high price that they pay for a car, and veiling glare problems could be regarded as “low quality”. Veiling glare is when light hits the car interior and reflects into the windshield,...

  3. Solar glare hazard analysis tool on account of determined points of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K; Sims, Cianan Alexander

    2014-09-23

    Technologies pertaining to determining when glare will be perceived by a hypothetical observer from a glare source and the intensity of glare that will be perceived by the hypothetical observer from the glare source are described herein. A first location of a potential source of solar glare is received, and a second location of the hypothetical observer is received. Based upon such locations, including respective elevations, and known positions of the sun over time, a determination as to when the hypothetical observer will perceive glare from the potential source of solar glare is made. Subsequently, an amount of irradiance entering the eye of the hypothetical observer is calculated to assess potential ocular hazards.

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTI MICROBIAL STUDIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasimha Rayalu Daddam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many forms of alternative medicines were available for those who cannot be helped by conventional medicine. Ayurvedha and Herbal medicine were two important forms of alternative medicine that was widely available in India. This work was mainly concerned with the identification of the therapeutic properties of Hemidesmus indicus. The ethanolic extract of hemidesmus indicus root was used for its anti oxidant and antimicrobial activity. Hemidesmus indicus root extract has very well anti oxidant and anti microbial activity. The ethanolic extract of Hemidesmus indicus was checked for anti microbial activity against pathogenic bacteria such as staphylococcus aures, pseudomonas aeruginosa andfungi Aspergillus niger.

  5. Discomfort glare with complex fenestration systems and the impact on energy use when using daylighting control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine; McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Eleanor S.; Kalyanam, Raghuram

    2015-11-03

    Glare is a frequent issue in highly glazed buildings. A modelling approach is presented that uses discomfort glare probability and discomfort glare index as metrics to determine occupants’ behaviour. A glare control algorithm that actuated an interior shade for glare protection based on the predicted perception was implemented in a building simulation program. A reference case with a state-of-the-art base glazing was compared to the same glazing but with five different complex fenestration systems, i.e., exterior shades. The windows with exterior shades showed significant variations in glare frequencies. Energy use intensity in a prototypical office building with daylighting controls was greatly influenced for the systems with frequent glare occurrence. While the base glazing could benefit from glare control, some of the exterior shades showed significantly greater energy use when discomfort glare-based operation of interior shades was considered.

  6. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  7. Anti-HBc screening in Indian blood donors: Still an unresolved issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hari Krishan Dhawan; Neelam Marwaha; Ratti Ram Sharma; Yogesh Chawla; Beenu Thakral; Karan Saluja; Sanjeev Kumar Sharma; Manish K Thakur; Ashish Jain

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To study the seroprevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in healthy blood donors negative for HBsAg and to evaluate whether anti-HBc detection could be adopted in India as a screening assay for HBV in addition to HBsAg.METHODS:A total of 1700 serum samples collected from HBsAg-negative healthy blood donors were tested for the presence of anti-HBc antibody (IgM + IgG).All samples reactive for anti-HBc antibody were then investigated for presence of anti-HBs and for liver function tests (LFTs).One hundred serum samples reactive for anti-HBc were tested for HBV DNA by PCR method.RESULTS:Out of 1700 samples tested,142 (8.4%)blood samples were found to be reactive for anti-HBc.It was significantly lower in voluntary (6.9%) as compared to replacement donors (10.4%,P=0.011).Seventytwo (50.7%) anti-HBc reactive samples were also reactive for anti-HBs with levels >10 mIU/mL and 70(49.3%) samples were non-reactive for anti-HBs,these units were labeled as anti-HBc-only.These 142 anti-HBc reactive units were also tested for liver function test.HBV DNA was detected in only 1 of 100 samples tested.CONCLUSION:Keeping in view that 8%-18% of donor population in India is anti-HBc reactive,inclusion of anti-HBc testing will lead to high discard rate.Anti-HBs as proposed previously does not seem to predict clearance of the virus.Cost effectiveness of introducing universal anti-HBc screening and discarding large number of blood units versus considering ID NAT (Individual donor nuclic acid testing) needs to be assessed.

  8. Computation of glint, glare, and solar irradiance distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Khalsa, Siri Sahib Singh

    2015-08-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. At least one camera captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed.

  9. A modification of the method for the appraisal of glare in street lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian, W. & D.A. Schreuder

    1971-01-01

    Description of a modification of a method to appraise glare in street lighting. The alteration concerns the assessment of discomfort and disability glare if the photometrical and geometrical data the lantern and the installation are provided.

  10. Fatigue crack propagation and delamination growth in Glare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Fibre Metal Laminate Glare consists of thin aluminium layers bonded together with pre-impregnated glass fibre layers and shows an excellent fatigue crack growth behaviour compared to monolithic aluminium. The fibres are insensitive to the occurring fatigue loads and remain intact while the fatigue c

  11. Evaluation on Glare Response to Car Headlight and Drivers' Visibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dianye; Wang Wuhong; Cao Qi

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes an ideal setof glare rating scales,shows how it affects the vision legibility for driving, and simulates the situation in which cars are moving at the relative speed of 120 km/h and 180 km/h,and the light quantity change caused by the moving light sources affects vision legibility. It will offer quantitative vision data for engineers.

  12. Blunt and Sharp Notch Behaviour of Glare Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Glare laminates are materials that consist of alternating aluminium and glass prepreg layers especially designed for aeroplane structures. The result is a material that combines the properties of its constituents and the properties of a bonded structure. Some of the favourable characteristics of Gla

  13. Specificity and Sensitivity of Screening for Anti-HLA Antibodies in Kidney Allograft Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, H.; F. Nolasco; Santos, MC; Carvalho, F.; Galvão, MJ; Santos, AR; Bordalo, J; Ribeiro Santos, J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prospective testing for posttransplant circulating anti-HLA antibodies seems to be a critical noninvasive tool, but confirmatory data are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over the last 3 years, peritubular capillary (PTC) C4d deposition was prospectively sought by an immunofluorescence technique applied to frozen tissue in biopsies obtained for allograft dysfunction. Screening for circulating anti-HLA class I/II alloantibodies (AlloAb) by the flow cytometric test was performed ...

  14. An Assay Suitable for High Throughput Screening of Anti-Influenza Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Mao; Jun Wang; DeGrado, William F.; Masayori Inouye

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel drug screening system for anti-influenza A virus by targeting the M2 proton channel. In the SPP (Single Protein Production) system, E. coli cell growth occurs only in the presence of effective M2 channel inhibitors, and thus simple measurement of cell growth was used as readouts for drug screening. Two potential inhibitors for M2 (V27A) mutant were verified using this method, which inhibit both the mutant and wild-type M2 channels.

  15. Screening of selected Herbal plants for Anti Acne Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Chetana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the invitro and in-vivo anti-acne effects of ethanolic and aqueous extract of rhizomes of selected curcuma species (Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma amada, Curcuma zedoaria and bark of Adina cordifolia against Propionibacterium acnes. Minimum inhibitory concentration to inhibit the growth of P.acne of ethanolic extract of Curcuma spp. And Adina cordifolia were found to be 125 μg/ml and aqueous extract of Curcuma spp and Adina cordifolia. were found to inhibit the growth of P. acne at concentration 250 μg/ml. 140 μg of heat killed P. acnes injected in the ears of rats by subcutaneous route. Ear thickness was measured as an index of inflammatory strength using vernier caliper upto 35 days but there was no significant change after 10th day.

  16. Bioactivity screening of microalgae for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eLauritano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are considered a potentially new and valuable source of biologically active molecules for applications in the food industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic sectors. They can be easily cultured, have short generation times and enable an environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery by overcoming problems associated with the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. In this study, 21 diatoms, 7 dinoflagellates and 4 flagellate species were grown in three different culturing conditions and the corresponding extracts were tested for possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes, antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In addition, for two diatoms we also tested two different clones to disclose diversity in clone bioactivity. Six diatom species displayed specific anti-inflammatory, anticancer (blocking human melanoma cell proliferation and anti-biofilm (against the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis activities whereas, none of the other microalgae were bioactive against the conditions tested for. Furthermore, none of the 6 diatom species tested were toxic on normal human cells. Culturing conditions (i.e. nutrient starvation conditions greatly influenced bioactivity of the majority of the clones/species tested. This study denotes the potential of diatoms as sources of promising bioactives for the treatment of human pathologies.

  17. In-silico screening for anti-Zika virus phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Kendall G; Ogungbe, Ifedayo Victor; Setzer, William N

    2016-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus that has infected hundreds of thousands of people and is a rapidly expanding epidemic across Central and South America. ZIKV infection has caused serious, albeit rare, complications including Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital microcephaly. There are currently no vaccines or antiviral agents to treat or prevent ZIKV infection, but there are several ZIKV non-structural proteins that may serve as promising antiviral drug targets. In this work, we have carried out an in-silico search for potential anti-Zika viral agents from natural sources. We have generated ZIKV protease, methyltransferase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase using homology modeling techniques and we have carried out molecular docking analyses of our in-house virtual library of phytochemicals with these protein targets as well as with ZIKV helicase. Overall, 2263 plant-derived secondary metabolites have been docked. Of these, 43 compounds that have drug-like properties have exhibited remarkable docking profiles to one or more of the ZIKV protein targets, and several of these are found in relatively common herbal medicines, suggesting promise for natural and inexpensive antiviral therapy for this emerging tropical disease. PMID:27588363

  18. Screening and Improvement of an Anti-VEGF DNA Aptamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Ikebukuro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain an aptamer with a high affinity for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, we focused on the receptor-binding domain (RBD of VEGF as a target epitope. Three rounds of screening gave Vap7, which bound to the VEGF isoforms VEGF121 and VEGF165 with KD values of 1.0 nM and 20 nM, respectively. Moreover, Vap7 showed specificity within the VEGF family. Secondary structure predictions and circular dicrhoism suggested that Vap7 folds into a G-quadruplex structure. We obtained a mutant aptamer that contains only this region of the aptamer sequence. This truncated mutant (V7t1 bound to both VEGF121 and VEGF165 with KD values of 1.1 nM and 1.4 nM, respectively. Its sequence was 5'-TGTGGGGGTGGACGGGCCGGGTAGA-3', and it appeared to form a G-quadruplex structure. We also produced an aptamer heterodimer consisting of our previously derived aptamer (del5-1, which binds to the heparin-binding domain of VEGF, linked to V7t1. The resulting heterodimer bound strongly to VEGF165 with a KD value of 4.7 × 102 pM.

  19. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories.

  20. Phytochemical screening and In vivo anti-ulcer activity of Ethanolic extract of Heliotropium indicum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Nethaji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical compounds and anti-ulcer activity of leaves and root extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by in vitromethod and anti-ulcer activity was conducted by in vivomethod. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates and glycosides, phytosterols, fixed oils and fats, phenolic compounds and tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids,proteins and amino acids. The ethanolic extract of Heliotropium indicumleaf and root was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against pylorous ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. It was found that significant reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. The present study concluded that the H.indicumplant extract have various bioactivecompounds and anti-ulcer activity in animal models against the drug induced gastric ulcer.

  1. Applying artificial intelligence to clinical guidelines: the GLARE approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenziani, Paolo; Montani, Stefania; Bottrighi, Alessio; Molino, Gianpaolo; Torchio, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    We present GLARE, a domain-independent system for acquiring, representing and executing clinical guidelines (GL). GLARE is characterized by the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in the definition and implementation of the system. First of all, a high-level and user-friendly knowledge representation language has been designed. Second, a user-friendly acquisition tool, which provides expert physicians with various forms of help, has been implemented. Third, a tool for executing GL on a specific patient has been made available. At all the levels above, advanced AI techniques have been exploited, in order to enhance flexibility and user-friendliness and to provide decision support. Specifically, this chapter focuses on the methods we have developed in order to cope with (i) automatic resource-based adaptation of GL, (ii) representation and reasoning about temporal constraints in GL, (iii) decision making support, and (iv) model-based verification. We stress that, although we have devised such techniques within the GLARE project, they are mostly system-independent, so that they might be applied to other guideline management systems.

  2. Experimental investigation on impact performances of GLARE laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was carried out on the damage resistance to a concentrated quasi-static indentation force and low-velocity impact of four kinds of glass-reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE for short. Compared with the experimental results of the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics laminates, the performance of GLARE was determined. By means of concentrated quasi-static indentation force test, typical force–displacement response, the maximum contact force and dent depth were received. Through drop-weight low-velocity impact tests, impact force histories, indentation depths (through a new method and dissipated energy were obtained. The test results show that the force–displacement response of GLARE 4 laminates under the concentrated quasi-static indentation force has an obvious flat roof and the failure is instantaneous, which are different from CFRP laminates. The indention will be visible once the impact happens. C-scan results find that there is no delamination besides the impact area after both the concentrated quasi-static indentation and low-velocity impact. The dissipated energy approximately equals the impact energy.

  3. Experimental investigation on impact performances of GLARE laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qi; Guan Zhidong; Li Zengshan; Ji Zhaojie; Zhuo Yue

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out on the damage resistance to a concen-trated quasi-static indentation force and low-velocity impact of four kinds of glass-reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE for short). Compared with the experimental results of the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) laminates, the performance of GLARE was determined. By means of concentrated quasi-static indentation force test, typical force–displacement response, the maximum contact force and dent depth were received. Through drop-weight low-velocity impact tests, impact force histories, indentation depths (through a new method) and dissipated energy were obtained. The test results show that the force–displacement response of GLARE 4 laminates under the concentrated quasi-static indentation force has an obvious flat roof and the failure is instantaneous, which are different from CFRP laminates. The indention will be visible once the impact happens. C-scan results find that there is no delamination besides the impact area after both the concentrated quasi-static indentation and low-velocity impact. The dissipated energy approximately equals the impact energy.

  4. In vitro screening for anti-acetylcholiesterase, anti-oxidant, anti-glucosidase, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effect of three traditional medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ghareeb, Doaa A; ElAhwany, Amani M.D.; El-mallawany, Sherif M.; Saif, Ashraf A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the phytoconstituents Calluna vulgaris, Ferula hermonis and Tribulus terrestris, and then assessed their possible biological activities by using standard methods. A preliminary phytochemical investigation of the three extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins, lipids, phenolic compounds, saponins, sterols and amino acids. Three extracts showed anti-oxidant effect as they inhibited the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) oxidation and pro...

  5. Current Status of Targets and Assays for Anti-HIV Drug Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the most serious public health challenges globally. Despite the great efforts that are being devoted to prevent, treat and to better understand the disease, it is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, there are 30 drugs or combinations of drugs approved by FDA. Because of the side-effects, price and drug resistance, it is essential to discover new targets, to develop new technology and to find new anti-HIV drugs. This review summarizes the major targets and assays currently used in anti-HIV drug screening.

  6. An assay suitable for high throughput screening of anti-influenza drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Mao

    Full Text Available We developed a novel drug screening system for anti-influenza A virus by targeting the M2 proton channel. In the SPP (Single Protein Production system, E. coli cell growth occurs only in the presence of effective M2 channel inhibitors, and thus simple measurement of cell growth was used as readouts for drug screening. Two potential inhibitors for M2 (V27A mutant were verified using this method, which inhibit both the mutant and wild-type M2 channels.

  7. Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Asma; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Shahzadi, Samar; Rasul, Ijaz; Rehman, Shahid-Ur; Shah, Masaud; Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Masoud, Muhammad Shareef

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identified from neem leaf extracts showing predicted binding property with the known diabetes mellitus type 2 protein enzyme target phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). The structure data for compounds found in the leaf extract of neem was screened against PEPCK using molecular docking simulation and screening techniques. Results show that the compound 3-Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin possesses best binding properties with PEPCK. This observation finds application for further consideration in in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:24497731

  8. Guidelines for screening, prophylaxis and critical information prior to initiating anti-TNF-alpha treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inge Nordgaard; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Belard, Erika;

    2012-01-01

    -TNF-alpha agents. Screening should take place for both active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis. Screening must evaluate the risk of hepatitis B exposure/infection and that of other viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The assessment should include......-rays and laboratory tests, including an interferon gamma release assay, a hepatitis B test, an HIV test and, when prior VZV infection is uncertain, a VZV antibody test. Prophylaxis: Isoniazid should be administered in cases of suspected latent TB infection. Antiviral treatment is recommended in HBs......Ag-positive patients at the start of anti-TNF-alpha treatment. Before anti-TNF-alpha therapy, vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is recommended, and HBV vaccination may be considered in seronegative patients. Annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended. Human papilloma virus vaccination...

  9. Assessment of user reaction to glare with three solar shading systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jens; Wienold, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Danish Building Research Institute and at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems. At each site, the study was performed in two identical experimental rooms, one with subjects, and the other with measuring equipment. A total of 105 subjects were exposed to three different window arrangements...... typical for today's design of windows in office buildings. To ensure variations in potential glare situations, three different solar shading devices were included, in order to assess existing glare models and to provide a reliable database for the development of a new glare prediction model - daylight......The objective of the study was to investigate the user perception of solar shading systems regarding glare by using laboratory tests with subjects, to compare the results with existing glare rating equations and to derive a new glare prediction model. The laboratory tests were conducted at the...

  10. Development of a Novel Anti-HIF-1α Screening System Coupled with Biochemical and Biological Validation for Rapidly Selecting Potent Anti-Cancer Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Madu, Chikezie; Masters, Jordan; Lu, Andrew; Li, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BCa) is the most diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the American women. Adaptation to the hypoxic environment seen in solid tumors is critical for tumor cell survival and growth. The activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), an important master transcriptional factor that is induced and stabilized by intratumoral hypoxia, stimulates a group of HIF-1α-regulated genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), leading tumor cells towards malignant progression. Therefore, a promising therapeutic approach to cancer treatment is to target HIF-1α. The goal of this project was to develop and validate a screening system coupled with secondary screen/validation process that has the capability to screen large numbers of potential anti-cancer small-molecule compounds based on their anti-HIF-1α activities. Breast cancer MDA-231 cells were used as the model to select potent anti-HIF-1α compounds by their abilities to inhibit transactivation of a VEGF promoter fused to a luciferase reporter gene under hypoxia. Positive compounds were then validated by a series of assays that confirm compounds' anti-HIF-1α activities including measurement of HIF-1α downstream VEGF gene expression and angiogenic ability of BCa cells. Results of our pilot screening demonstrate that this prototype screening coupled with validation system can effectively select highly potent anti-HIF-1α agents from the compound library, suggesting that this prototype screen system has the potential to be developed into a high-throughput screen (HTS) coupled with automated validation process for the screening and identification of novel and effective anti-cancer drugs based on anti-HIF-1α mechanism.

  11. Assessment of user reaction to glare with three solar shading systems

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Jens; Wienold, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the user perception of solar shading systems regarding glare by using laboratory tests with subjects, to compare the results with existing glare rating equations and to derive a new glare prediction model. The laboratory tests were conducted at the Danish Building Research Institute and at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems. At each site, the study was performed in two identical experimental rooms, one with subjects, and the other w...

  12. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti-white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somnath Chakraborty; Upasana Ghosh; Thangavel Balasubramanian; Punyabrata Das

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model.Methods:ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug.Results:Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection.Conclusions:Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug.

  13. A cell-based screening system for anti-influenza A virus agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wan Ying; Loh, Sheng Wei; Ng, Wei Lun; Tan, Ming Cheang; Yeo, Kok Siong; Looi, Chung Yeng; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Ea, Chee-Kwee

    2015-01-01

    Emerging of drug resistant influenza A virus (IAV) has been a big challenge for anti-IAV therapy. In this study, we describe a relatively easy and safe cell-based screening system for anti-IAV replication inhibitors using a non-replicative strain of IAV. A nickel (II) complex of polyhydroxybenzaldehyde N4-thiosemicarbazone (NiPT5) was recently found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro. NiPT5 impedes the signaling cascades that lead to the activation of NF-κB in response to different stimuli, such as LPS and TNFα. Using our cell-based screening system, we report that pretreating cells with NiPT5 protects cells from influenza A virus (IAV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. Furthermore, NiPT5 inhibits replication of IAV by inhibiting transcription and translation of vRNAs of IAV. Additionally, NiPT5 reduces IAV-induced type I interferon response and cytokines production. Moreover, NiPT5 prevents activation of NF-κB, and IRF3 in response to IAV infection. These results demonstrate that NiPT5 is a potent antiviral agent that inhibits the early phase of IAV replication. PMID:25728279

  14. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  15. Study on Wusan Granule Anti-tumor Related Target Gene Screened by Cdna Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Zi-li; SHI Jin-ping; CHEN Hai-hong

    2006-01-01

    To screen Wusan Granule anti-tumor related target gene using cDNA microarray technique, both mRNA from Lewis lung carcinoma tissues treated by Wusan Granule and untreated control are reversibly transcribed to prepare cDNA probes which are labeled by Cy5 and Cy3. Then, the probes are hybridized to the mice cDNA microarray type MGEC-20S. After hybridization, the cDNA microarray is scanned by ScanArray 3 000 scanner and the data is analyzed by ImaGene 3 software to screen the differentially expressed genes. There are 45 differentially expressed genes including 18 known genes and 27 unknown genes between the two groups, and among them, 20 elevated genes and 25 reduced genes are identified. Additionally, the genes related to invasion and metastasis of malignant carcinomas are down-regulated and the genes related to apoptosis are up-regulated. The cDNA microarray technique is a high-throughput approach to screen the Wusan Granule anti-tumor related target genes, which allow us to explore the molecular biological mechanism on a genomic scale.

  16. Screening for anti-inflammatory components from Corydalis bungeana Turcz. based on macrophage binding combined with HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zi-Bo; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Zhao, Bing-Jie; Li, Chao; Tian, Gang; Niu, Ben; Qi, Hong; Feng, Liang; Shao, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background Corydalis bungeana Turcz. (CB; family: Corydalis DC.) is an anti-inflammatory medicinal herb used widely in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for upper respiratory tract infection, etc., but its anti-inflammatory active molecules are unknown. This study was designed to screen for the anti-inflammatory components from CB based on macrophage binding combined with HPLC. Methods Xylene-induced ear edema in mouse and carrageenan-induced hind-paw edema in rats were used to evaluate the ...

  17. Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the side effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have less side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against pain and inflammation.

  18. Discovery of Anti-SARS Coronavirus Drug Based on Molecular Docking and Database Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Hai-Feng(陈海峰); YAO,Jian-Hua(姚建华); SUN,Jing(孙晶); LI,Qiang(李强); LI,Feng(李丰); FAN,Bo-Tao(范波涛); YUAN,Shen-Gang(袁身刚)

    2004-01-01

    The active site of 3CL proteinase (3CLpro) for coronavirus was identified by comparing the crystal structures of human and porcine coronavirus. The inhibitor of the main protein of rhinovirus (Ag7088) could bind with 3CLpro of human coronavirus, then it was selected as the reference for molecular docking and database screening. The ligands from two databases were used to search potential lead structures with molecular docking. Several structures from natural products and ACD-SC databases were found to have lower binding free energy with 3CLpro than that of Ag7088. These structures have similar hydrophobicity to Ag7088. They have complementary electrostatic potential and hydrogen bond acceptor and donor with 3CLpro, showing that the strategy of anti-SARS drug design based on molecular docking and database screening is feasible.

  19. Ligand-Based Virtual Screening in a Search for Novel Anti-HIV-1 Chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczyk, Agata; Warszycki, Dawid; Musiol, Robert; Kafel, Rafał; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2015-10-26

    In a search for new anti-HIV-1 chemotypes, we developed a multistep ligand-based virtual screening (VS) protocol combining machine learning (ML) methods with the privileged structures (PS) concept. In its learning step, the VS protocol was based on HIV integrase (IN) inhibitors fetched from the ChEMBL database. The performances of various ML methods and PS weighting scheme were evaluated and applied as VS filtering criteria. Finally, a database of 1.5 million commercially available compounds was virtually screened using a multistep ligand-based cascade, and 13 selected unique structures were tested by measuring the inhibition of HIV replication in infected cells. This approach resulted in the discovery of two novel chemotypes with moderate antiretroviral activity, that, together with their topological diversity, make them good candidates as lead structures for future optimization.

  20. A morphology screen coding anti-counterfeiting method based on visual characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-long; GU Ze-cang; FANG Zhi-liang

    2008-01-01

    A paper information anti-fake and tamper-proofing method based on human visual characteristics and morphology screen coding technology is proposed. Through controlling the distribution of mathematical morphology of screen dot-matrix, warning mark and information are hidden in the background texture. Because of the differences between human vision and the duplicate characteristics of copy machine, warning mark which can not be discriminated by human eyes will emerge after copy. Tampered or fake certificates can be verified by comparing embedded information which is extracted from scanned image of certificate with plain text printed on the certificate. This method is applied in many bills and certificates. Experimental results show that the identification accuracy is above 98%

  1. Molecular screening of Chinese medicinal plants for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Manir Ahmed; Jan-Ying Yeh; Yi-Chia Tang; Winston Teng-Kuei Cheng; Bor-Rung Ou

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have adverse effects, and many of these adverse effects are caused by progestins. Due to this, many women choose to use botanical alternatives for hormone replacement therapy, which does not trigger steroidogenic properties. Therefore, it is necessary to screen these herbs for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic properties. Extract of 13 Chinese medicinal plants were analysed for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activities by using progesterone response element-driven luciferase reporter gene bioassay. MTT assay was carried out to investigate the cytotoxic effect of herb extract on PAE cells. Among the 13 herbs, Dipsacus asperoides extract exhibited progestogenic activity, and 10 species – Cortex eucommiae, Folium artemisiae argyi, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala koidz, Scutellaria baicalensis, Cuscuta chinensis, Euscaphis japonica, Ailanthus altissima, and Dioscorea opposita – were recognized to have anti-progestogenic like activities. Extract of Dipsacus asperoides demonstrated dose-dependent progestogenic activity, and the progestogenic activity of 100 g/mL extracts was equivalent to 31.45 ng/mL progesterone activity. Herbs extracts that exhibited anti-progestogenic-like activity also inhibited the 314.46 ng/mL progesterone activity in a dose-response manner. None of the herb extracts shown significant toxic effect on PAE cells at 40–100 g/mL compared to control. This discovery will aid selection of suitable herbs for hormone replacement therapy.

  2. GACPAT HIV 1 + 2: a simple, inexpensive assay to screen for, and discriminate between, anti-HIV 1 and anti-HIV 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J V; Connell, J A; Reinbott, P; Garcia, A B; Avillez, F; Mortimer, P P

    1995-01-01

    A simple and cheap assay suitable for screening for anti-HIV 1 and anti-HIV 2 and discriminating between them was evaluated. In it specimens are incubated in U-bottomed microplate wells coated with anti-human IgG for 30 min at room temperature. After washing, 100 microliters of a 1 in 50 dilution of HIV 1-coated gelatin particles (Serodia-HIV 1/2, Fujirebio) are added. Settling patterns are read on the second day: A positive reaction is indicated by adherence of the particles and a negative by a button. The HIV 1 particles are then washed away and HIV 2 particles added. Anti-HIV 2 reaction patterns are read on the third day. To assess the performance of the modified "GACPAT HIV 1 + 2" assay a panel of 1,621 serum/plasma specimens was used. It comprised validated anti-HIV 1 positive (n = 220), anti-HIV 2 positive (n = 214), dual anti-HIV 1/anti-HIV 2 positive (n = 11), and anti-HIV negative (n = 1,176) serum/plasma specimens. All 434 specimens that contained anti-HIV 1 or anti-HIV 2 reacted positively with the homologous particles. The 11 dually positive specimens reacted positively with both HIV 1 and HIV 2 particles. Five (2.3%) anti-HIV 1 and five (2.3%) anti-HIV 2 positive specimens gave positive reactions with both particle types, but none of the five cross-reactive anti-HIV 2 specimens were dually reactive when the order of particle addition was reversed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Screening for Anti-Cancer Compounds in Marine Organisms in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Dobretsov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Marine organisms are a rich source of bioactive molecules with potential applications in medicine, biotechnology and industry; however, few bioactive compounds have been isolated from organisms inhabiting the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. This study aimed to isolate and screen the anti-cancer activity of compounds and extracts from 40 natural products of marine organisms collected from the Gulf of Oman. Methods: This study was carried out between January 2012 and December 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Fungi, bacteria, sponges, algae, soft corals, tunicates, bryozoans, mangrove tree samples and sea cucumbers were collected from seawater at Marina Bandar Al-Rowdha and Bandar Al-Khayran in Oman. Bacteria and fungi were isolated using a marine broth and organisms were extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate. Compounds were identified from spectroscopic data. The anti-cancer activity of the compounds and extracts was tested in a Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF-7 cell line breast adenocarcinoma model. Results: Eight pure compounds and 32 extracts were investigated. Of these, 22.5% showed strong or medium anti-cancer activity, with malformin A, kuanoniamine D, hymenialdisine and gallic acid showing the greatest activity, as well as the soft coral Sarcophyton sp. extract. Treatment of MCF-7 cells at different concentrations of Sarcophyton sp. extracts indicated the induction of concentration-dependent cell death. Ultrastructural analysis highlighted the presence of nuclear fragmentation, membrane protrusion, blebbing and chromatic segregation at the nuclear membrane, which are typical characteristics of cell death by apoptosis induction. Conclusion: Some Omani marine organisms showed high anti-cancer potential. The efficacy, specificity and molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer compounds from Omani marine organisms on various cancer models should be investigated in future in vitro and in vivo studies.

  4. Screening for potential anti-infective agents towards Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Su Anne; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The established treatment for melioidosis is antibiotic therapy. However, a constant threat to this form of treatment is resistance development of the causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, towards antibiotics. One option to circumvent this threat of antibiotic resistance is to search for new alternative anti-infectives which target the host innate immune system and/or bacterial virulence. In this study, 29 synthetic compounds were evaluated for their potential to increase the lifespan of an infected host. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was adopted as the infection model as its innate immune pathways are homologous to humans. Screens were performed in a liquid-based survival assay containing infected worms exposed to individual compounds and survival of untreated and compound-treated worms were compared. A primary screen identified nine synthetic compounds that extended the lifespan of B. pseudomallei-infected worms. Subsequently, a disc diffusion test was performed on these selected compounds to delineate compounds into those that enhanced the survival of worms via antimicrobial activity i.e. reducing the number of infecting bacteria, or into those that did not target pathogen viability. Out of the nine hits selected, two demonstrated antimicrobial effects on B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the findings from this study suggest that the other seven identified compounds are potential anti-infectives which could protect a host against B. pseudomallei infection without developing the risk of drug resistance.

  5. Screening for anti-infective properties of several medicinal plants of the Mauritians flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Oumadevi; Raoelison, Guy; Rakotoniriana, Francisco E; Cheuk, Kiban; Urverg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah; Subratty, Anwar Hussein

    2007-01-19

    Several plants of the Mauritian flora alleged to possess anti-infective properties were studied against different strains of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The grounded dried plant materials were extracted with different extractants and screened for anti-microbial activity using the disk diffusion and the micro-dilution techniques. Preliminary screening revealed that the methanol extracts were most active. Salmonella enteritidis, Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus subtilis were the three test organisms, which were found to be susceptible to all the crude methanolic extracts of the different plants investigated (100% susceptibility), followed by Escherichia coli (57.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (57.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (28.6%). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration recorded for the different crude methanol extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus subtilis and the mould fungus Candida albicans were 500, 1000, 125, 250, 1000 and 125 micro g/ml, respectively. Bioautography using Cladosporium cucumerinum revealed that dichloromethane (DCM) extracts had the highest activity against the phytopathogenic fungus. It was also noted that the DCM extracts of Michelia champaca and Antidesma madagascariense yielded the maximum number of growth inhibiting compounds against Cladosporium cucumerinum. Activity of the different crude extracts was also investigated against several phytopathogenic filamentous fungi, Colletotrichum glocosporoides, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium, Guignardia sp. and Fusarium oxysporum. It was found that crude hexane extracts as well as crude DCM extracts exhibited marked activity against several strains of fungi, especially Colletotrichum glocosporoides, Sclerotinia sclerotium and Guignardia sp. PMID:17011733

  6. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti-white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Upasana Ghosh; Somnath Chakraborty; Thangavel Balasubramanian; Punyabrata Das

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model.Methods:Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug.Results: Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection.Conclusions:The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug.

  7. An in vivo C. elegans model system for screening EGFR-inhibiting anti-cancer drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ki Bae

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a well-established target for cancer treatment. EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK inhibitors, such as gefinitib and erlotinib, have been developed as anti-cancer drugs. Although non-small cell lung carcinoma with an activating EGFR mutation, L858R, responds well to gefinitib and erlotinib, tumors with a doubly mutated EGFR, T790M-L858R, acquire resistance to these drugs. The C. elegans EGFR homolog LET-23 and its downstream signaling pathway have been studied extensively to provide insight into regulatory mechanisms conserved from C. elegans to humans. To develop an in vivo screening system for potential cancer drugs targeting specific EGFR mutants, we expressed three LET-23 chimeras in which the TK domain was replaced with either the human wild-type TK domain (LET-23::hEGFR-TK, a TK domain with the L858R mutation (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R], or a TK domain with the T790M-L858R mutations (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R] in C. elegans vulval cells using the let-23 promoter. The wild-type hEGFR-TK chimeric protein rescued the let-23 mutant phenotype, and the activating mutant hEGFR-TK chimeras induced a multivulva (Muv phenotype in a wild-type C. elegans background. The anti-cancer drugs gefitinib and erlotinib suppressed the Muv phenotype in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R]-expressing transgenic animals, but not in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R] transgenic animals. As a pilot screen, 8,960 small chemicals were tested for Muv suppression, and AG1478 (an EGFR-TK inhibitor and U0126 (a MEK inhibitor were identified as potential inhibitors of EGFR-mediated biological function. In conclusion, transgenic C. elegans expressing chimeric LET-23::hEGFR-TK proteins are a model system that can be used in mutation-specific screens for new anti-cancer drugs.

  8. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S.; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhi...

  9. The zebrafish embryo as a tool for screening and characterizing pleurocidin host-defense peptides as anti-cancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Morash, Michael G.; Douglas, Susan E.; Anna Robotham; Ridley, Christina M.; Gallant, Jeffrey W.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The emergence of multidrug-resistant cancers and the lack of targeted therapies for many cancers underscore an unmet need for new therapeutics with novel modes of action towards cancer cells. Host-defense peptides often exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and show potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we screen 26 naturally occurring variants of the peptide pleurocidin for cytotoxic and anti-cancer activities, and investigate the underlying mechanism of actio...

  10. The zebrafish embryo as a tool for screening and characterizing pleurocidin host-defense peptides as anti-cancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Morash; Douglas, Susan E.; Anna Robotham; Ridley, Christina M.; Gallant, Jeffrey W.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The emergence of multidrug-resistant cancers and the lack of targeted therapies for many cancers underscore an unmet need for new therapeutics with novel modes of action towards cancer cells. Host-defense peptides often exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and show potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we screen 26 naturally occurring variants of the peptide pleurocidin for cytotoxic and anti-cancer activities, and investigate the underlying mechanism of action. ...

  11. Genetically Engineered Protein Modules: Development and Applications in Anti-Viral Agent Screening and Cancer Marker Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Payal

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION Genetically Engineered Protein Modules: Development and Applications in Anti-Viral Agent Screening and Cancer Marker Detection byPayal BiswasDoctor of Philosophy Cell Molecular and Developmental Biology Graduate ProgramUniversity of California, Riverside, August 2010Dr. Wilfred Chen, ChairpersonOne of the most critical aspects in drug discovery is the bioactivity screening assay, by which compounds that most effectively inhibit the target are identified. During t...

  12. From screen to target: insights and approaches into the development of anti-virulence compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine SH Beckham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The detailed understanding of host-pathogen interactions provides exciting opportunities to interfere with the infection process. Anti-virulence compounds aim to modulate or pacify pathogenesis by reducing expression of critical virulence determinants. In particular, prevention of attachment by inhibiting adhesion mechanisms has been the subject of intense research. Whilst it has proven relatively straightforward to develop robust screens for potential antivirulence compounds, understanding their precise mode of action has proven much more challenging. In this review we illustrate this challenge from our own experiences working with the salicylidene acylhydrazide group of compounds. We aim to provide a useful perspective to guide researchers interested in this field and to avoid some of the obvious pitfalls.

  13. Efficient Fruit Defect Detection and Glare removal Algorithm by anisotropic diffusion and 2D Gabor filter

    CERN Document Server

    Katyal, Vini

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on fruit defect detection and glare removal using morphological operations, Glare removal can be considered as an important preprocessing step as uneven lighting may introduce it in images, which hamper the results produced through segmentation by Gabor filters .The problem of glare in images is very pronounced sometimes due to the unusual reflectance from the camera sensor or stray light entering, this method counteracts this problem and makes the defect detection much more pronounced. Anisotropic diffusion is used for further smoothening of the images and removing the high energy regions in an image for better defect detection and makes the defects more retrievable. Our algorithm is robust and scalable the employability of a particular mask for glare removal has been checked and proved useful for counteracting.this problem, anisotropic diffusion further enhances the defects with its use further Optimal Gabor filter at various orientations is used for defect detection.

  14. Virtual Screening and Docking Studies of Synthesized Chalcones: Potent Anti-Malarial Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of Chalcones were synthesized targets asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum has been analyzed by utilizing a combination of molecular modeling techniques. Statistically significant structure-based quantitative structure activity relationships models were generated and validated through acceptable predictive ability to support internal and external set of compounds. Screening of most valuable drug among of pre-synthesized drug on the basis of binding efficiency to target receptor was carried out by docking view. Prior this pre-computed Mean IC50 and MIC value were also taken in consideration. The most effective compound on the basis all consideration was found. Previous studies have suggested that Ca2+-ATPase (PfATP6 of P. falciparum is the target of many anti-malarial drugs. However, the mechanism of inhibition of Ca2+- ATPase (PfATP6 is not known. Here we address this issue using bioinformatics tools. We generated a molecular model of Ca2+-ATPase (PfATP6 of P. falciparum and performed molecular docking of all chalcones. Molecular docking programme Glide iGEMDock was used to determine binding feasibility of 52 analogues of chalcones. The comparison of docking parameters showed, more than 5 analogues are better ligands of PfATP6. The binding of chalocones to PFATP6 is mediated by both hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and polar interactions. Our results suggest that chalcones analogues are promising lead compounds for the development of anti-malarial drugs

  15. The dark side of photovoltaic — 3D simulation of glare assessing risk and discomfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems form an important force in the implementation of renewable energies, but as we all know, the force has always its dark side. Besides efficiency considerations and discussions about architectures of power distribution networks, the increasing numbers of installations of PV systems for implementing renewable energies have secondary effects. PV systems can generate glare due to optical reflections and hence might be a serious concern. On the one hand, glare could affect safety, e.g. regarding traffic. On the other hand, glare is a constant source of discomfort in vicinities of PV systems. Hence, assessment of glare is decisive for the success of renewable energies near municipalities and traffic zones for the success of solar power. Several courts decided on the change of PV systems and even on their de-installation because of glare effects. Thus, location-based assessments are required to limit potential reflections and to avoid risks for public infrastructure or discomfort of residents. The question arises on how to calculate reflections accurately according to the environment's topography. Our approach is founded in a 3D-based simulation methodology to calculate and visualize reflections based on the geometry of the environment of PV systems. This computational model is implemented by an interactive tool for simulation and visualization. Hence, project planners receive flexible assistance for adjusting the parameters of solar panels amid the planning process and in particular before the installation of a PV system. - Highlights: • Solar panels cause glare that impacts neighborhoods and traffic infrastructures. • Glare might cause disability and discomfort. • 3D environment for the calculation of glare • Interactive tool to simulate and visualize reflections • Impact assessment of solar power plant farms

  16. The dark side of photovoltaic — 3D simulation of glare assessing risk and discomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Thomas; Wollert, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems form an important force in the implementation of renewable energies, but as we all know, the force has always its dark side. Besides efficiency considerations and discussions about architectures of power distribution networks, the increasing numbers of installations of PV systems for implementing renewable energies have secondary effects. PV systems can generate glare due to optical reflections and hence might be a serious concern. On the one hand, glare could affect safety, e.g. regarding traffic. On the other hand, glare is a constant source of discomfort in vicinities of PV systems. Hence, assessment of glare is decisive for the success of renewable energies near municipalities and traffic zones for the success of solar power. Several courts decided on the change of PV systems and even on their de-installation because of glare effects. Thus, location-based assessments are required to limit potential reflections and to avoid risks for public infrastructure or discomfort of residents. The question arises on how to calculate reflections accurately according to the environment's topography. Our approach is founded in a 3D-based simulation methodology to calculate and visualize reflections based on the geometry of the environment of PV systems. This computational model is implemented by an interactive tool for simulation and visualization. Hence, project planners receive flexible assistance for adjusting the parameters of solar panels amid the planning process and in particular before the installation of a PV system. - Highlights: • Solar panels cause glare that impacts neighborhoods and traffic infrastructures. • Glare might cause disability and discomfort. • 3D environment for the calculation of glare • Interactive tool to simulate and visualize reflections • Impact assessment of solar power plant farms.

  17. Human-inspired lighting the intention control in robot systems with of glare avoidance%Human-inspired lighting the intention control in robot systems with of glare avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shengyong; Guan Qiu; Liu Sheng; Bi Dexue

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some human-inspired strategies for lighting control in a robot system for best scene interpretation, where the main intention is to avoid possible glares or highlights occurring in images. It firstly compares the characteristics of human eyes and robot eyes. Then some evaluation criteria are addressed to assess the lighting conditions. A bio-inspired method is adopted to avoid the visual glare which is caused by either direct illumination from large light sources or indirect illumination reflected by smooth surfaces. Appropriate methods are proposed to optimize the pose and optical parameters of the light source and the vision camera.

  18. Studies with anti fouling coating on seawater intake system screens of MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofouling has been a concern for cooling water systems of coastal power plants and the same is being experienced in Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Macro fouling organisms cause major problems for smooth operation and maintenance of the cooling water system. The cooling water intake structures particularly the screens, which act as the barrier for marine organisms to enter into the cooling water system, gets fouled severely in a short period of time. Though chlorination is being done to control biofouling, it is ineffective due to the inward flow of seawater. Severely fouled gates necessitate frequent cleaning and maintenance which involves lifting of heavy structures, laborious manual cleaning and maintenance. In order to find remedial measures for the said concern, studies have been taken up for identification of simple but effective methods in controlling bio fouling. Accordingly studies with Anti Fouling Coating (AFC) applications have been identified and field studies were carried out to review its effectiveness in meeting the given requirement. One of the gates was coated with Anti Fouling Coating (AFC) and exposed to sea water and the bio fouling tendency was regularly monitored. It was noted that the AFC coated gate was observed to have less bio fouling compared to the in-practice coal tar epoxy coatings. The small quantity of fouling deposits was generally observed to be on the side opposite to the sea water current. The area exposed to sea water currents had relatively less biogrowth. The dislodgement or removal of bio growth could be achieved by gentle pressure or scrapping thus demonstrating its effectiveness in controlling the bio fouling. Studies are also in progress to with Foul release coatings (FRC) to study its effectiveness. (author)

  19. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  20. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  1. Screening for anti-pancreatic lipase properties of 28 traditional Thai medicinal herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananya Dechakhamphu; Nattapong Wongchum

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the effect of 28 medicinal plants on inhibition of pancreatic lipase and evaluate the phytochemical contents of extracts. Methods: The ethanolic extracts of 28 traditional Thai herbal medicines were assayed for their in vitro activities against porcine pancreatic lipase using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as a substrate. Quantitative estimation of flavonoids, phenolics, and alkaloids was done. Results: Extracts from four herbs, Memecylon edule Roxb., Garcinia vilersiana Pierre, Cryptolepis elegans Wall. and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl., at a concentration of 100 mg/mL, strongly inhibited porcine pancreatic lipase by 90.97%, 92.04%, 94.64%and 95.38%, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between phenolic content and inhibition activity. Inhibition activity was significantly correlated with flavonoid and with alkaloid contents. Conclusions: From this result, it could be concluded that herbs represent a rich of anti-pancreatic lipase compounds, in particular, Cryptolepis elegans Wall. and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl. It is suggested that the phytochemical compounds from these plants may be applied for the prevention and treatment of obesity or hyperlipidemia.

  2. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  3. A high-throughput model for screening anti-tumor agents capable of promoting polymerization of tubulin in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei HU; Hui DONG; Yue-zhong LI; Xi-tao HU; Guan-jun HAN; Yin-bo QU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a high-throughput model for screening anti-tumor agents capable of promoting the polymerization of tubulin in vitro. METHODS: Tubulin was prepared in different purity for two screening steps. The first step was a high-throughput screening (HTS) for a set of 1500 samples using the GTP-containing tubulin and the end-reading method. The second step was performed on 119 hits from the first screening by a kinetic assay with GTP-lacking tubulin. RESULTS: The HTS for 1500 samples was accomplished in less than 3 h. From the screening, 108 samples were identified with >20 % promotion activity at 10 mg/L. Five of 108 were further confirmed by the kinetic assay using the purified tubulin subsequently. Three of the hit compounds were Epothilone A or its analogs, the other two compounds had new structures with a common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules. In an MTT test, the five selected samples from the screening showed a minimal IC50 at 0.28±0.06 nmol/L to Hela cells. CONCLUTION: The two-step screening method is a high-throughtput,cost-effective, and efficient approach to identify microtubule-stabilizing agents.

  4. Large area glare sources and their effect on discomfort and visual performance at computer workstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterhaus, W.K.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bailey, I.L. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Optometry

    1992-05-01

    This paper studies the effects of a large area light source of variable but uniform luminance surrounding a video display terminal (VDT) on the perceived glare discomfort and visual performance of computer operators. A set of criteria was established for rating the discomfort from glare as either ``intolerable,`` ``disturbing,`` ``noticeable,`` or ``imperceptible``. Source luminance adjustments by means of a variable transformer to match the subjective glare criteria, as well as ratings of preselected lighting conditions on a visual analog scale with the same criteria, were used to determine comfortable lighting conditions. Results from the experiment indicate that subjects reliably selected a preferred lighting condition at any time when asked to adjust the luminance to produce optimum visual comfort. There was considerable between-subject variation in the range of luminances over which the surround field was neither noticeably too dim nor noticeably too bright. Comfortable luminance ranges also varied with initial presentation luminances immediately preceding the adjustment. Subjects preferred higher luminances following high initial presentation luminances. Performance speed at a difficult letter-counting task suggests that visual performance was slightly impaired by the presence of glare discomfort. Counting errors also occurred slightly more frequently under higher surround source luminances. There was a tendency for subjects to become more susceptible to glare over the course of the experiment.

  5. Screening of HBsAg and anti HCV from tertiary care, private and public sector hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To find out the frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies in patients referred from a tertiary care public sector hospital, other public sector and private hospitals of Karachi. Settings and duration: Pakistan Medical Research Council's Specialized Research Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi from January to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted where patients were referred from different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (tertiary care public sector hospital), other public sector hospitals, private hospitals and clinics for the screening of hepatitis B and C virus infection. Three ml blood was collected from each patient, serum separated and tested for HBsAg and Anti HCV using Abbott Murex fourth Generation ELISA kits. Results: A total of 2965 cases were referred in a year. Overall sero prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV was 5.9% and 12.8% respectively. HBsAg positivity in patient referred from public sector hospitals was 5.8%, those from private hospitals/clinics were 7.2%, and self-referred patients was 5.6%. Anti HCV positivity rates amongst these cases were 12.5%, 16.7% and 8.5% respectively. Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus was seen in 0.9, 2.5 and 1.4% cases respectively. Breakdown of viral positivity within different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi showed HBsAg positivity of 7.1% in Medical department, 5.2% in Surgical department, 5.0% in Gynaecology department, 6.6% in other departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre while, only 1.7% were positive from Pakistan Railway, hospital Anti HCV positivity was maximally (20.3%) seen in medical department followed by 14% in other departments, 10.9% in surgical department, 7.9% in gynaecology and 5.1% in railway hospital. Co-infection of HBV and HCV was seen in 2% cases referred from medical department, while rest of the

  6. Predictive models for anti-tubercular molecules using machine learning on high-throughput biological screening datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periwal Vinita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, affecting more than two billion people around the globe and is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Recent reports suggest that Mtb has been developing resistance to the widely used anti-tubercular drugs resulting in the emergence and spread of multi drug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR strains throughout the world. In view of this global epidemic, there is an urgent need to facilitate fast and efficient lead identification methodologies. Target based screening of large compound libraries has been widely used as a fast and efficient approach for lead identification, but is restricted by the knowledge about the target structure. Whole organism screens on the other hand are target-agnostic and have been now widely employed as an alternative for lead identification but they are limited by the time and cost involved in running the screens for large compound libraries. This could be possibly be circumvented by using computational approaches to prioritize molecules for screening programmes. Results We utilized physicochemical properties of compounds to train four supervised classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Random Forest, J48 and SMO on three publicly available bioassay screens of Mtb inhibitors and validated the robustness of the predictive models using various statistical measures. Conclusions This study is a comprehensive analysis of high-throughput bioassay data for anti-tubercular activity and the application of machine learning approaches to create target-agnostic predictive models for anti-tubercular agents.

  7. Toward discovering new anti-cancer agents targeting topoisomerase IIα: a facile screening strategy adaptable to high throughput platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shih Lin

    Full Text Available Topoisomerases are a family of vital enzymes capable of resolving topological problems in DNA during various genetic processes. Topoisomerase poisons, blocking reunion of cleaved DNA strands and stabilizing enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage complex, are clinically important antineoplastic and anti-microbial agents. However, the rapid rise of drug resistance that impedes the therapeutic efficacy of these life-saving drugs makes the discovering of new lead compounds ever more urgent. We report here a facile high throughput screening system for agents targeting human topoisomerase IIα (Top2α. The assay is based on the measurement of fluorescence anisotropy of a 29 bp fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotide duplex. Since drug-stabilized Top2α-bound DNA has a higher anisotropy compared with free DNA, this assay can work if one can use a dissociating agent to specifically disrupt the enzyme/DNA binary complexes but not the drug-stabilized ternary complexes. Here we demonstrate that NaClO4, a chaotropic agent, serves a critical role in our screening method to differentiate the drug-stabilized enzyme/DNA complexes from those that are not. With this strategy we screened a chemical library of 100,000 compounds and obtained 54 positive hits. We characterized three of them on this list and demonstrated their effects on the Top2α-mediated reactions. Our results suggest that this new screening strategy can be useful in discovering additional candidates of anti-cancer agents.

  8. Redeployment-based drug screening identifies the anti-helminthic niclosamide as anti-myeloma therapy that also reduces free light chain production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite recent therapeutic advancements, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and new therapies are needed, especially for the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients. We have screened a panel of 100 off-patent licensed oral drugs for anti-myeloma activity and identified niclosamide, an anti-helminthic. Niclosamide, at clinically achievable non-toxic concentrations, killed MM cell lines and primary MM cells as efficiently as or better than standard chemotherapy and existing anti-myeloma drugs individually or in combinations, with little impact on normal donor cells. Cell death was associated with markers of both apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, niclosamide rapidly reduced free light chain (FLC) production by MM cell lines and primary MM. FLCs are a major cause of renal impairment in MM patients and light chain amyloid and FLC reduction is associated with reversal of tissue damage. Our data indicate that niclosamides anti-MM activity was mediated through the mitochondria with rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and production of mitochondrial superoxide. Niclosamide also modulated the nuclear factor-κB and STAT3 pathways in MM cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that MM cells can be selectively targeted using niclosamide while also reducing FLC secretion. Importantly, niclosamide is widely used at these concentrations with minimal toxicity

  9. Mobile computing device configured to compute irradiance, glint, and glare of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin P; Ho, Clifford K; Khalsa, Siri Sahib

    2014-03-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. A mobile computing device includes at least one camera that captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed by the mobile computing device.

  10. Triglyceride/HDL ratio as a screening tool for predicting success at reducing anti-diabetic medications following weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intentional weight loss, by reducing insulin resistance, results in both better glycemic control and decreased need for anti-diabetic medications. However, not everyone who is successful with weight loss is able to reduce anti-diabetic medication use. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the predictive accuracy of baseline triglyceride (TGL/HDL ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, to screen patients for success in reducing anti-diabetic medication use with weight loss. METHODS: Case records of 121 overweight and obese attendees at two outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. The weight loss intervention consisted of a calorie-restricted diet (~1000Kcal/day deficit, a behavior modification plan, and a plan for increasing physical activity. RESULTS: Mean period of follow-up was 12.5 ± 3.5 months. By study exit, mean weight loss and mean HbA1c% reduction were 15.4 ± 5.5 kgs and 0.5 ± 0.2% respectively. 81 (67% in the study cohort achieved at least 1 dose reduction of any anti-diabetic medication. Tests for predictive accuracy of baseline TGL/HDL ratio ≤ 3 to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under the curve, likelihood ratio (LR + and LR-of 81, 83, 90, 70, 78, 4.8 and 0.2, respectively. Reproducibility of TGL/HDL ratio was acceptable. CONCLUSION: TGL/HDL ratio shows promise as an effective screening tool to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications. The results of our study may inform the conduct of a systematic review using data from prior weight loss trials.

  11. Discovery of New Anti-Schistosomal Hits by Integration of QSAR-Based Virtual Screening and High Content Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Bruno J; Dantas, Rafael F; Senger, Mario R; Melo-Filho, Cleber C; Valente, Walter C G; de Almeida, Ana C M; Rezende-Neto, João M; Lima, Elid F C; Paveley, Ross; Furnham, Nicholas; Muratov, Eugene; Kamentsky, Lee; Carpenter, Anne E; Braga, Rodolpho C; Silva-Junior, Floriano P; Andrade, Carolina Horta

    2016-08-11

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease, caused by flatworms of Schistosoma genus. The treatment relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), making the discovery of new compounds extremely urgent. In this work, we integrated QSAR-based virtual screening (VS) of Schistosoma mansoni thioredoxin glutathione reductase (SmTGR) inhibitors and high content screening (HCS) aiming to discover new antischistosomal agents. Initially, binary QSAR models for inhibition of SmTGR were developed and validated using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidance. Using these models, we prioritized 29 compounds for further testing in two HCS platforms based on image analysis of assay plates. Among them, 2-[2-(3-methyl-4-nitro-5-isoxazolyl)vinyl]pyridine and 2-(benzylsulfonyl)-1,3-benzothiazole, two compounds representing new chemical scaffolds have activity against schistosomula and adult worms at low micromolar concentrations and therefore represent promising antischistosomal hits for further hit-to-lead optimization. PMID:27396732

  12. Endotoxin Molecule Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Zebrafish Inflammation Model: A Novel Screening Method for Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin molecule, has been used to induce inflammatory responses. In this study, LPS was used to establish an in vivo inflammation model in zebrafish for drug screening. We present an experimental method that conveniently and rapidly assesses the anti-inflammatory properties of drugs. The yolks of 3-day post-fertilization (dpf larvae were injected with 0.5 mg/mL LPS to induce fatal inflammation. After LPS stimulation, macrophages were tracked by NR and SB staining and neutrophil migration was observed using the MPO:GFP line. Larval mortality was used as the primary end-point. Expression levels of key cytokines involved in the inflammatory response including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Macrophages and neutrophils were both recruited to the LPS-injected site during the inflammatory response. Mortality was increased by LPS in a dose-dependent manner within 48 h. Analyses of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression levels revealed the upregulation of the inflammatory response in the LPS-injected larvae. Further, the anti-inflammatory activity of chlorogenic acid (CA was evaluated in this zebrafish model to screen for anti-inflammatory drugs. A preliminary result showed that CA revealed a similar effect as the corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX, which was used as a positive control, by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophil recruitment to the LPS site and improving survival. Our results suggest that this zebrafish screening model could be applied to study inflammation-mediated diseases. Moreover, the Traditional Chinese Medicine CA displays potential anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Methodologies for screening of bacteria-carbohydrate interactions: anti-adhesive milk oligosaccharides as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan A; Mariño, Karina; Rudd, Pauline M; Carrington, Stephen D; Slattery, Helen; Hickey, Rita M

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the capacity of glycan-based compounds to disrupt microbial binding to mucosal epithelia. Therefore, oligosaccharides have potential application in the prevention of certain bacterial diseases. However, current screening methods for the identification of anti-adhesive oligosaccharides have limitations: they are time-consuming and require large amounts of oligosaccharides. There is a need to develop analytical techniques which can quickly screen for, and structurally define, anti-adhesive oligosaccharides prior to using human cell line models of infection. Considering this, we have developed a rapid method for screening complex oligosaccharide mixtures for potential anti-adhesive activity against bacteria. Our approach involves the use of whole bacterial cells to "deplete" free oligosaccharides from solution. As a case study, the free oligosaccharides from the colostrum of Holstein Friesian cows were screened for interactions with whole Escherichia coli cells. Reductions in oligosaccharide concentrations were determined by High pH Anion Exchange Chromatography and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC-HPLC). Oligosaccharide structures were confirmed by a combination of HILIC-HPLC, exoglycosidase digestion and off-line negative ion mode MS/MS. The depletion assay confirmed selective bacterial interaction with certain bovine oligosaccharides which in previous studies, by other methodologies, had been shown to interact with E. coli. In particular, the bacterial cells depleted the following oligosaccharides in a population dependent manner: 3'-sialyllactose, disialyllactose, and 6'-sialyllactosamine. The assay methodology was further validated by studies in which we demonstrated the inhibitory activity of 3'-sialyllactose, and a mixture of bovine colostrum oligosaccharides, on E. coli adhesion to differentiated HT-29 cells. PMID:22507447

  14. In vivo screening of hepatocellular carcinoma using AC susceptibility of anti-alpha fetoprotein-activated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Jie Chieh

    Full Text Available With antibody-mediated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs applied in cancer examinations, patients must pay at least twice for MNP reagents in immunomagnetic reduction (IMR of in vitro screening and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of in vivo tests. This is because the high maintenance costs and complex analysis of MRI have limited the possibility of in vivo screening. Therefore, this study proposes novel methods for in vivo screening of tumors by examining the AC susceptibility of bound MNPs using scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID biosusceptometry (SSB, thereby demonstrating high portability and improved economy. The favorable agreement between in vivo tests using SSB and MRI demonstrated the feasibility of in vivo screening using SSB for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC targeted by anti-alpha fetoprotein (AFP-mediated MNPs. The magnetic labeling was also proved by in vitro tests using SSB and biopsy assays. Therefore, patients receiving bioprobe-mediated MNPs only once can undergo in vivo screening using SSB in the future.

  15. Session IV. Problem Solving. Vehicle lighting system. Four steps in glare reduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    A number of proposals are described that may help to reduce glare. The systems are either only a partial improvement, or they are expensive, or their introduction raises severe problems. One solution, already widely in use, is applica- tion of overhead lighting. In order to really improve the situa

  16. SYBR® Green qPCR Screening Methods for Detection of Anti-herbicide Genes in Genetically Modiifed Processed Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zhen; Lv Wei; Tang Zhi-fen; Liu Ying; Ao Jin-xia; Yuan Xiao-han; Zhang Ming-hui; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun

    2016-01-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food products becomes more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with labelling requirements. There are few effective screening methods for processed GM (genetically modified) products. Three anti-herbicide genes (CP4-EPSPS,BAR andPAT) are common exogenous genes used in commercialized transgenic soybean, maize and rice. In the present study, a new SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was developed to simultaneously detect the three exogenous anti-herbicide genes and one endogenous gene in a run. We tested seven samples of representative processed products (soya lecithin, soya protein powder, chocolate beverage, infant rice cereal, maize protein powder, maize starch, and maize jam) using the developed method, and amplicons of endogenous gene and transgenic fragments were obtained from all the processed products, and the sensitivity was 0.1%. These results indicated that SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was appropriate for qualitative detection of transgenic soybean, maize and rice in processed products.

  17. Cost Effectiveness Associated with Helicobacter pylori Screening and Eradication in Patients Taking Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and/or Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hyun Jin; Kwon, Jin-Won; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Young Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims This study was performed to investigate the cost effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening/eradication in South Korean patients treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or aspirin. Methods A decision Markov model was used to estimate the effectiveness and economic impact of an H. pylori screening/eradication strategy compared to a no-screening strategy among patients who were included in the model at the age of 40 years. Utility weights were applied ...

  18. Synthesis, pharmacological screening and in silico studies of new class of Diclofenac analogues as a promising anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkar, Mahesh B; Singhai, Anuj S; Ronad, Pradeepkumar M; Vishwanathswamy, A H M; Boreddy, Thippeswamy S; Veerapur, Veeresh P; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif S; Rane, Rajesh A; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-15

    A novel series of 5-[2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)benzyl]-3-(substituted)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-thione (4a-k) derivatives have been synthesized by the Mannich reaction of 5-[2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)benzyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-thione (3) with an appropriately substituted primary/secondary amines, in the presence of formaldehyde and absolute ethanol. Structures of these novel compounds were characterized on the basis of physicochemical, spectral and elemental analysis. The title compounds (4a-k) were screened for in vivo acute anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at a dose of 10mg/kg b.w. Compound 4k exhibited the most promising and significant anti-inflammatory profile while compounds 4a, 4d, 4e, 4i, and 4j showed moderate to good inhibitory activity at 2nd and 4thh, respectively. These compounds were also found to have considerable analgesic activity (acetic acid induced writhing model) and antipyretic activity (yeast induced pyrexia model). In addition, the tested compounds were also found to possess less degree of ulcerogenic potential as compared to the standard NSAIDs. Compounds that displayed promising anti-inflammatory profile were further evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX-1/COX-2), by colorimetric COX (ovine) inhibitor screening assay method. The results revealed that the compounds 4a, 4e, 4g and 4k exhibited effective inhibition against COX-2. In an attempt to understand the ligand-protein interactions in terms of the binding affinity, docking studies were performed using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD-2013, 6.0) for those compounds, which showed good anti-inflammatory activity. It was observed that the binding affinities calculated were in agreement with the IC50 values. PMID:24751552

  19. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gulecha; Sivakumar, T.; Aman Upaganlawar; Manoj Mahajan; Chandrashekhar Upasani

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  20. Screening for Celiac Disease Using Anti Tissue Transglutaminase in Patients with Esophageal SCC between 2004 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Vosoughinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Esophageal Squamous-Cell Carcinoma (SCC is one of the most common malignancies in Iran. To reduce the incidence of esophageal SCC, it is important to recognize the controllable risk factors and prevent them. Celiac disease is widely known as a possible risk factor for esophageal SCC.  Thus, we decided to assess the frequency of celiac disease in esophageal SCC patients in North east of Iran in order to suggest correlation between two diseases. Materials and Methods: In a Cross-sectional study one hundred and forty-three cases of esophageal SCC were examined for anti tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG between the years 2004 and 2009 in Ghaem and Omid Hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was the test of choice in this study since it provides the sensitivity and specificity needed for the diagnosis and screening of celiac disease. The results of this test were compared with those of the control group which were compatible in terms of sex and age. Data were analyzed through SPSS software and statistical analysis such as x2, exact x2 and T-test. Results: 19.6% patients (SCC had positive anti-tTG (>20 which was significantly different to 7.9% in control group (p -value=0.005. Comparing age groups of patients for positive anti_tTG using exact x square test showed significant difference in patients with Conclusion: There seems to be a correlation between positive anti_tTG and esophageal SCC; that is to say, celiac disease might play a role in the earlier manifestations of esophageal SCC.

  1. Screening of Fungi from Chinese Medical Plants for Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to isolate anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents from natural products, 97 ethanolic extracts of 90 fungi were tested for their inhibitory activity on HIV-1. Most of the extracts tested were relatively non-toxic to human lymphocytic MT-4 cells, but extracts of some fungi exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in an in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay with a selectivity index greater than 3. Most fungi were isolated from Dendrobium sp. and Taxus sp.

  2. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice.METHODS:A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H.pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method.Anti-H.pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).RESULTS:The ...

  3. Novel Anti-Campylobacter Compounds Identified Using High Throughput Screening of a Pre-selected Enriched Small Molecules Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Drozd, Mary; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Xu, Xiulan; Helmy, Yosra A.; Antwi, Janet; Fuchs, James R.; Nislow, Corey; Templeton, Jillian; Blackall, Patrick J.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and infections can be fatal. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter spp. necessitates the development of new antimicrobials. We identified novel anti-Campylobacter small molecule inhibitors using a high throughput growth inhibition assay. To expedite screening, we made use of a “bioactive” library of 4182 compounds that we have previously shown to be active against diverse microbes. Screening for growth inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni, identified 781 compounds that were either bactericidal or bacteriostatic at a concentration of 200 μM. Seventy nine of the bactericidal compounds were prioritized for secondary screening based on their physico-chemical properties. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration against a diverse range of C. jejuni and a lack of effect on gut microbes, we selected 12 compounds. No resistance was observed to any of these 12 lead compounds when C. jejuni was cultured with lethal or sub-lethal concentrations suggesting that C. jejuni is less likely to develop resistance to these compounds. Top 12 compounds also possessed low cytotoxicity to human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and no hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. Next, these 12 compounds were evaluated for ability to clear C. jejuni in vitro. A total of 10 compounds had an anti-C. jejuni effect in Caco-2 cells with some effective even at 25 μM concentrations. These novel 12 compounds belong to five established antimicrobial chemical classes; piperazines, aryl amines, piperidines, sulfonamide, and pyridazinone. Exploitation of analogs of these chemical classes may provide Campylobacter specific drugs that can be applied in both human and animal medicine. PMID:27092106

  4. Specificity of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody screening in patients with haematological malignancies at risk for fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duettmann, Wiebke; Koidl, Christoph; Krause, Robert; Lackner, Gertrude; Woelfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Combination of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody (Mn/A-Mn) testing has been reported a useful and specific strategy for diagnosis of invasive Candida infections (ICIs). We evaluated Mn/A-Mn as a screening tool in patients with haematological malignancies. This clinical prospective study was performed at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Graz, Austria between July and December 2012. Patients at risk for fungal infection were included into the study and twice weekly screened by Mn/A-Mn testing, yielding 650 samples. Of overall 67 patients 66 had no evidence for ICI. From those, 153/640 serum samples (23.9%) were positive for mannan Ab, and nine (1.4%) for Ag. Most false positive Ab results were observed among 375 samples from patients without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (34.9% resulted positive). Combined specificity of Mn/A-Mn was 74.8%. Of 10 samples obtained in the single patient with candidemia, five were positive for mannan Ag (from the day of diagnosis up to 40 days after detection of candidemia) and none for Ab. In conclusion, mannan Ab screening yielded a high number of false positive results. While mannan Ag was found to be highly specific and may have potential for diagnostic driven testing, mannan Ab testing cannot be recommended based on our study results. PMID:26916753

  5. Specificity of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody screening in patients with haematological malignancies at risk for fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duettmann, Wiebke; Koidl, Christoph; Krause, Robert; Lackner, Gertrude; Woelfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Combination of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody (Mn/A-Mn) testing has been reported a useful and specific strategy for diagnosis of invasive Candida infections (ICIs). We evaluated Mn/A-Mn as a screening tool in patients with haematological malignancies. This clinical prospective study was performed at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Graz, Austria between July and December 2012. Patients at risk for fungal infection were included into the study and twice weekly screened by Mn/A-Mn testing, yielding 650 samples. Of overall 67 patients 66 had no evidence for ICI. From those, 153/640 serum samples (23.9%) were positive for mannan Ab, and nine (1.4%) for Ag. Most false positive Ab results were observed among 375 samples from patients without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (34.9% resulted positive). Combined specificity of Mn/A-Mn was 74.8%. Of 10 samples obtained in the single patient with candidemia, five were positive for mannan Ag (from the day of diagnosis up to 40 days after detection of candidemia) and none for Ab. In conclusion, mannan Ab screening yielded a high number of false positive results. While mannan Ag was found to be highly specific and may have potential for diagnostic driven testing, mannan Ab testing cannot be recommended based on our study results.

  6. Measurement of stray light and glare: comparison of Nyktotest, Mesotest, stray light meter, and computer implemented stray light meter

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn, L J; Nischler, C.; Gamer, D; Franssen, L.; de Wit, G; Kaper, R; Vonhoff, D; Grabner, G; Wilhelm, H.; Völker-Dieben, H.J.; van den Berg, T. J T P

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the properties of devices for measuring stray light and glare: the Nyktotest, Mesotest, “conventional” stray light meter and a new, computer implemented version of the stray light meter.

  7. General unknown screening, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Pulikkal Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results showed a relatively high concentration of phenolics, high scavenger activity and high anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extract compared to the leaf extract. The results indicate that the plant can be a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  8. A nation-wide fetal RHD screening programme for targeted antenatal and postnatal anti-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, M. de; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Scheffer, P.G.; Verlinden, D.A.; Hirschberg, H.; Abbink, F.; Schoot, C.E. van der

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, since 1 July 2011, both antenatal anti-D immunoprophylaxis (1000 IU in the 30th week of gestation) and postnatal prophylaxis (1000 IU) is administered to only those women for whom a fetal RHD typing, performed in week 27 of pregnancy, predicts the presence of a D-positive child.

  9. Screening for anti-pancreatic lipase properties of 28 traditional Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Dechakhamphu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: From this result, it could be concluded that herbs represent a rich of anti-pancreatic lipase compounds, in particular, Cryptolepis elegans Wall. and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl. It is suggested that the phytochemical compounds from these plants may be applied for the prevention and treatment of obesity or hyperlipidemia.

  10. GlaRe, a GIS tool to reconstruct the 3D surface of palaeoglaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitero, Ramón; Rea, Brice R.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Bakke, Jostein; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Frew, Craig R.; Hughes, Philip; Ribolini, Adriano; Lukas, Sven; Renssen, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Glacier reconstructions are widely used in palaeoclimatic studies and this paper presents a new semi-automated method for generating glacier reconstructions: GlaRe, is a toolbox coded in Python and operating in ArcGIS. This toolbox provides tools to generate the ice thickness from the bed topography along a palaeoglacier flowline applying the standard flow law for ice, and generates the 3D surface of the palaeoglacier using multiple interpolation methods. The toolbox performance has been evaluated using two extant glaciers, an icefield and a cirque/valley glacier from which the subglacial topography is known, using the basic reconstruction routine in GlaRe. Results in terms of ice surface, ice extent and equilibrium line altitude show excellent agreement that confirms the robustness of this procedure in the reconstruction of palaeoglaciers from glacial landforms such as frontal moraines.

  11. Night vision and glare vision thresholds and recovery time in myopic and hyperopic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare night vision and glare vision thresholds and recovery times in myopic and hyperopic eyes. Using a Night Sight Meter, these three parameters were measured in 44 myopic and 44 hyperopic eyes of Black male subjects age-matched 20.8 years ± 1.67 and 21.6 years ± 1.05 old respectively and compared. Thresholds were measured first by assessing the eye’s ability to see under conditions of low illumination and in the presence of a glare source. Glare recovery time was determined by measuring the minimum time neededto adjust to low levels of light illumination after exposure to a glare stimulus. Descriptive, two-sample t-test and Pearson correlation statistics were used to analyze and compare the sets of data from the two groups. The mean refractive error in the myopic eyes was –2.15 D ± 1.41 (range = –0.50 D to –4.50 D and 1.76 D ± 1.22 (range = 0.50 D to 4.00 D in the hyperopic group. The mean night vision thresholds for the myopic eyes was 32 cd/m2 ± 4.69 (range = 23 cd/m2 to 42 cd/m2 and 28.97 cd/m2 ± 4.90 (range = 18 cd/m2 to 37 cd/m2 for hyperopic eyes. The difference between the mean night vision thresholds of the myopic and hyperopic eyes wasstatistically significant (p < 0.05. For glare vision threshold, the mean for myopic eyes was 64 cd/m2 ± 5.81 (range = 53 cd/m2 to 78 cd/m2, while the mean for hyperopic eyes was 44.84 cd/m2 ± 5.69 (range = 32 cd/m2 to 59 cd/m2. Also, the difference between the mean glare vision thresholds of the myopic and hyperopic eyes was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The recovery times ranged from 0.45 s to 3.10 s for the myopic eyes and 0.30 s to 2.25 s for the hyperopic eyes. The mean glare recovery time for the myopic eyes (mean = 1.41 s ± 0.77 was significantly longer (p < 0.05 than the times for hyperopic eyes (mean = 1.04 s ± 0.65. There was a significant positive correlation between recovery times and the magnitude of myopia (r = 0.93, p < 0.05 while

  12. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).

  14. Preliminary Screening of Tinospora cordifolia Extracts and Guduchi Satva for Anti-Rheumatoid Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Palak A.; Shah Gaurang B.

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of Tinospora cordifolia viz. aqueous (TCA), hydroalcoholic (TCH), dichloromethane (TCD) extracts and guduchi satva (TCP) (starch), were studied for anti-rheumatoid activity in complete freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Female albino Wistar rats (body weight: 170 to 200 g) were divided in 11 groups each containing 3 animals. RA was induced by injecting CFA in sub plantar region of left paw in all animals (day 0) except Group I (normal control). Group II (dise...

  15. In vitro screening of traditional medicines for anti-HIV activity: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Many plant products are being used by patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in some countries without any scientific proof that they possess anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) activity. Traditional healers are now offering their remedies for scientific evaluation, and a few studies provide information on the inhibitory activity against HIV of plants such as Viola yedoensis, Arctium lappa, Epimedium grandiflorum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Castanospermum australe. Natural...

  16. Phytochemical screening of five medicinal legumes and their evaluation for in vitro anti-tubercular activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, J. Komal; Devi Prasad, A. G.; Chaturvedi, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in the world. A new alternative for the treatment of tuberculosis is urgently required, due to the emergence of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aim: There is currently considerable interest in developing potential drugs from medicinal plants for treating tuberculosis. To evaluate anti-tubercular activity in the leaves of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams., Humboldtia brunonis Wall., Indigofera cassioides Rottl.ex DC., Derris ...

  17. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gulecha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. Results : The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o. and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o were found to be more effective (P<0.01 in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation, and acetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o. and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o. were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusion : Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain.

  18. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermani Archa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated. Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used in anti-bacterial activity of the extracts at concentration of 200 mg/ml against dental pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of most effective extracts against the most susceptible bacteria were determined using a two-fold serial micro dilution method. Results: Methanolic extract showed maximum anti-bacterial activity against all the bacteria. The most susceptible bacteria were S. sanguis followed by S. aureus, S. mutans, S. salivarius and L. acidophilus. The MIC values showed that methanolic extract was more effective than water extract. Conclusion: The plant has the potential to generate herbal metabolites. The crude extracts demonstrating anti-dental caries activity could result in the discovery of new chemical classes of antibiotics. These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases.

  19. Preliminary screening of 44 plant extracts for anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Wang; Chun-Meng, Zhao; Tao, Guo; Yi-Lin, Zhu; Ping, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    In order to find new tyrosinase inhibitors and antioxidant materials, we investigated 44 plants, which were evaluated for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assay and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay were conducted to evaluate these activities. Among all tested plant extracts, Morus alba L. (positive control), Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Momordica charantia L., Cuminum cyminum L. et al. exhibit higher tyrosinase inhibition. Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Rosa rugosa Thunb. and Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. perform the highest antioxidant activity, similar to vitamin C (the positive control). A low positive correlation is found in the DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition assay. Considering these factors, the extracts of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Alpinia officinarum Hance and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. exhibit high anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities and could be used in the cosmetic industry. Further studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant properties of these plant extracts. PMID:26408894

  20. Screening for lead compounds and herbal extracts with potential anti-influenza viral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaywong, Konrapob; Khutrakul, Gachagorn; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Petcharat, Nantawan; Leckcharoensuk, Porntippa; Ramasoota, Pongrama

    2014-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) contains a conserved RNA binding domain (RBD) that inhibits antiviral functions of host-innate immune response. Dimerization of NS1 forms a central groove and binds to double stranded (ds) RNA. This region might serve as a potential drug target. In this study, three dimensional structure model of NS1 RBD protein was constructed and virtual screening was performed to identify lead compounds that bound within and around the central groove. The virtual screening showed that 5 compounds bound within the central groove with binding energy ranging between -16.05 and -17.36 Kcal/mol. Two commercially available compounds, estradiol and veratridine, were selected for using in an in vitro screening assay. The results showed that neither of the compounds could inhibit the association between dsRNA and NS1 RBD protein. In addition, 34 herbal extracts were examined for their inhibitory effects. Five of them were able to inhibit association between NS1 RBD and dsRNA in electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Four herbs, Terminalia belirica, Salacia chinensis, Zingiber montanum and Peltophorum pterocarpum, could reduce > 50% of infectivity of H5N1 in a cell-based assay, and it is worth further studying their potential use as source of antiviral drugs. PMID:24964655

  1. Screening and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains with Anti-inflammatory Activities through in vitro and Caenorhabditis elegans Model Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye Kyoung; Choi, Sun-Hae; Lee, Cho Rong; Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Mi Ri; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Myung-Ki; Kim, Geun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to screen candidate probiotic strains for anti-inflammatory activity. Initially, a nitric oxide (NO) assay was used to test selected candidate probiotic strains for anti-inflammatory activity in cultures of the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Then, the in vitro probiotic properties of the strains, including bile tolerance, acid resistance, and growth in skim milk media, were investigated. We also performed an in vitro hydrophobicity test and an intestin...

  2. Pharmacological screening of Hypericum androsaemum extracts for antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation, antiglycation and cytotoxicity activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddiqe, Zeb; Maimoona, Alya; Abbas, Ghulam; Naeem, Ismat; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress and glycation processes have a combined effect on diabetes related complications. Crude plant extracts and plant derived compounds possessing both antiglycation and antioxidant activities have a high therapeutic potential for treating these complications. Antioxidant, antiglycation, anti-lipid per oxidation and cytotoxic activities of crude methanol extract and solvent fractions of Hypericum androsaemum L. (Hypericaceae) were evaluated and correlated with total content of phenolics and flavonoids. Significant radical scavenging activity was observed for the methanol extract against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical used as a basis for antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 92.70±2.85 μg mL(-1) (96.20±2.34% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)). In case of anion scavenging activity the results were not very significant (33.20±1.22% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)). Anti-lipid per oxidation activity was highest for n-hexane fraction (67.83±1.33% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)) while the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest antiglycation activity (62.77±2.54% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)). Statistically significant correlation was determined for antioxidant and antiglycation activity and phenolic and flavonoid contents. In cytotoxicity assay all the extracts had IC50 values >30 μg mL(-1) as compared to the standard cycloheximide (IC50 value 0.084±0.1 μg mL(-1)). The polar extracts of H. androsaemum can be a good source of non-toxic compounds with antioxidant, anti-lipid per oxidation and antiglycation activities.

  3. Phytochemical screening, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle M. Lima; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Thomazzi, Sara M; Emyle M. S. A. Almeida; Mônica S. Melo; Mairim R. Serafini; Sócrates C.H. Cavalcanti; Daniel P. Gelain; João Paulo A. Santos; Blank, Arie F.; Péricles B. Alves; Paulina M. Oliveira Neta; Julianeli T. Lima; Ricardo F. Rocha; José Claúdio F. Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, Poaceae, is a plant widely used in northeast Brazil in folk medicine for the treatment of various pathological conditions, including inflammatory pain. The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of C. zizanioides essential oil (EO) in rodents. EO was further characterized by GC/MS. The major components of EO were identified as khusimol (19.57%), E-isovalencenol (13.24%), α-vetivone (5.25%), β-vetivone (4.87%) a...

  4. Filtration improves the performance of a high-throughput screen for anti-mycobacterial compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Cheng

    Full Text Available The tendency for mycobacteria to aggregate poses a challenge for their use in microplate based assays. Good dispersions have been difficult to achieve in high-throughput screening (HTS assays used in the search for novel antibacterial drugs to treat tuberculosis and other related diseases. Here we describe a method using filtration to overcome the problem of variability resulting from aggregation of mycobacteria. This method consistently yielded higher reproducibility and lower variability than conventional methods, such as settling under gravity and vortexing.

  5. Computational screen and experimental validation of anti-influenza effects of quercetin and chlorogenic acid from traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zekun; Zhao, Junpeng; Li, Weichen; Shen, Li; Huang, Shengbo; Tang, Jingjing; Duan, Jie; Fang, Fang; Huang, Yuelong; Chang, Haiyan; Chen, Ze; Zhang, Ran

    2016-01-01

    The Influenza A virus is a great threat for human health, while various subtypes of the virus made it difficult to develop drugs. With the development of state-of-art computational chemistry, computational molecular docking could serve as a virtual screen of potential leading compound. In this study, we performed molecular docking for influenza A H1N1 (A/PR/8/34) with small molecules such as quercetin and chlorogenic acid, which were derived from traditional Chinese medicine. The results showed that these small molecules have strong binding abilities with neuraminidase from H1N1 (A/PR/8/34). Further details showed that the structural features of the molecules might be helpful for further drug design and development. The experiments in vitro, in vivo have validated the anti-influenza effect of quercetin and chlorogenic acid, which indicating comparable protection effects as zanamivir. Taken together, it was proposed that chlorogenic acid and quercetin could be employed as the effective lead compounds for anti-influenza A H1N1. PMID:26754609

  6. Systematic repurposing screening in xenograft models identifies approved drugs with novel anti-cancer activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Roix

    Full Text Available Approved drugs target approximately 400 different mechanisms of action, of which as few as 60 are currently used as anti-cancer therapies. Given that on average it takes 10-15 years for a new cancer therapeutic to be approved, and the recent success of drug repurposing for agents such as thalidomide, we hypothesized that effective, safe cancer treatments may be found by testing approved drugs in new therapeutic settings. Here, we report in-vivo testing of a broad compound collection in cancer xenograft models. Using 182 compounds that target 125 unique target mechanisms, we identified 3 drugs that displayed reproducible activity in combination with the chemotherapeutic temozolomide. Candidate drugs appear effective at dose equivalents that exceed current prescription levels, suggesting that additional pre-clinical efforts will be needed before these drugs can be tested for efficacy in clinical trials. In total, we suggest drug repurposing is a relatively resource-intensive method that can identify approved medicines with a narrow margin of anti-cancer activity.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Screening and Molecular Modeling of Some Novel Coumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan El-Haggar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin and their derivatives have drawn much attention in the pharmacological and pharmaceutical fields due to their broad range and diverse biological activities. In the present work, starting from the 6-amino-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one, a series of 6-(substituted benzylamino-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-ones 1–11 was synthesized and assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema method. Compounds 2, 3, 4 and 9 showed significant (p < 0.001 reduction of rat paw edema volume after 1 h from the administration of the carrageenan compared to the reference drug, indomethacin. On the other hand, compounds 4 and 8 showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity, surpassing indomethacin after 3 h with 44.05% and 38.10% inhibition, respectively. Additionally, a molecular docking study was performed against the COX enzyme using the MOE 10.2010 software.

  8. Development of a bioassay to screen for chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of calorie restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We identified four sequence motifs lying upstream of putative pro-longevity genes. → One of these motifs binds to HNF-4α. → HNF-4α/PGC-1α could up-regulate the transcription of a reporter gene linked to this motif. → The reporter system described here could be used to screen candidate anti-aging molecules. -- Abstract: Suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I pathway in Ames dwarf (DF) mice, and caloric restriction (CR) in normal mice extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders. In combination, these interventions have an additive effect on lifespan in Ames DF mice. Therefore, common signaling pathways regulated by DF and CR could have additive effects on longevity. In this study, we tried to identity the signaling mechanism and develop a system to assess pro-longevity status in cells and mice. We previously identified genes up-regulated in the liver of DF and CR mice by DNA microarray analysis. Motif analysis of the upstream sequences of those genes revealed four major consensus sequence motifs, which have been named dwarfism and calorie restriction-responsive elements (DFCR-REs). One of the synthesized sequences bound to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α), an important transcription factor involved in liver metabolism. Furthermore, using this sequence information, we developed a highly sensitive bioassay to identify chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of CR. When the reporter construct, containing an element upstream of a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene, was co-transfected with HNF-4α and its regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), SEAP activity was increased compared with untransfected controls. Moreover, transient transgenic mice established using this construct showed increased SEAP activity in CR mice compared with ad libitum-fed mice. These data suggest that because of its rapidity, ease of use, and specificity

  9. Development of a bioassay to screen for chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of calorie restriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Takuya, E-mail: takuya@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Tomoshi [Division of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Mori, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Hiroko [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Shimano, Hitoshi [Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology and Metabolism), Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Spindler, Stephen R. [Department of Biochemistry, Room 5478, Boyce Hall, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Shimokawa, Isao [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We identified four sequence motifs lying upstream of putative pro-longevity genes. {yields} One of these motifs binds to HNF-4{alpha}. {yields} HNF-4{alpha}/PGC-1{alpha} could up-regulate the transcription of a reporter gene linked to this motif. {yields} The reporter system described here could be used to screen candidate anti-aging molecules. -- Abstract: Suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I pathway in Ames dwarf (DF) mice, and caloric restriction (CR) in normal mice extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders. In combination, these interventions have an additive effect on lifespan in Ames DF mice. Therefore, common signaling pathways regulated by DF and CR could have additive effects on longevity. In this study, we tried to identity the signaling mechanism and develop a system to assess pro-longevity status in cells and mice. We previously identified genes up-regulated in the liver of DF and CR mice by DNA microarray analysis. Motif analysis of the upstream sequences of those genes revealed four major consensus sequence motifs, which have been named dwarfism and calorie restriction-responsive elements (DFCR-REs). One of the synthesized sequences bound to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha} (HNF-4{alpha}), an important transcription factor involved in liver metabolism. Furthermore, using this sequence information, we developed a highly sensitive bioassay to identify chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of CR. When the reporter construct, containing an element upstream of a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene, was co-transfected with HNF-4{alpha} and its regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}), SEAP activity was increased compared with untransfected controls. Moreover, transient transgenic mice established using this construct showed increased SEAP activity in CR mice compared with ad libitum-fed mice. These data

  10. [Evaluation of the analytic performance of blood collection tubes (BD Vacutainer SST) for the screening of anti-HIV, anti-HTLV, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, anti-CMV antibodies, and of HBs, P24 HIV antigens, and of alanine aminotransferase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, E; Desruelle, J M; Vigier, J P

    2001-02-01

    HTLV Type 1 et 2 EIA kits with a clear and significant improvement of the reproducibility of the anti-HCV and anti-HTLV Ab screenings. The results of this evaluation, together with the intrinsic BD SST tube characteristics, lead to the conclusion that its use would contribute to improve the quality. Because of the specificities of each laboratory, a change of tube type, as with any other material or reagent, request a close monitoring of the first results to confirm the absence of negative effects. PMID:11281063

  11. Screening Anti-Cancer Drugs against Tubulin using Catch-and-Release Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Darestani, Reza; Winter, Philip; Kitova, Elena N.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Klassen, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Tubulin, which is the building block of microtubules, plays an important role in cell division. This critical role makes tubulin an attractive target for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs to treat cancer. Currently, there is no general binding assay for tubulin-drug interactions. The present work describes the application of the catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay to investigate the binding of colchicinoid drugs to αβ-tubulin dimers extracted from porcine brain. Proof-of-concept experiments using positive (ligands with known affinities) and negative (non-binders) controls were performed to establish the reliability of the assay. The assay was then used to screen a library of seven colchicinoid analogues to test their binding to tubulin and to rank their affinities.

  12. Phytochemical screening, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle M. Lima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty, Poaceae, is a plant widely used in northeast Brazil in folk medicine for the treatment of various pathological conditions, including inflammatory pain. The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of C. zizanioides essential oil (EO in rodents. EO was further characterized by GC/MS. The major components of EO were identified as khusimol (19.57%, E-isovalencenol (13.24%, α-vetivone (5.25%, β-vetivone (4.87% and hydroxy-valencene (4.64%. Following intraperitoneal injection (i.p., EO at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of writhes (51.9 and 64.9%, respectively and the number of paw licks during phase 2 (56.7 and 86.2%, respectively of a formalin model when compared to control group animals. However, EO-treated mice were ineffective at all doses in hot-plate and rota-rod tests. The EO inhibited the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner (34.7, 35.4, and 62.5% at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. In the paw edema test, the EO (100 mg/kg inhibited all three phases of the edema equally well, suggesting that the EO has a non-selective inhibitory effect on the release or actions of these mediators. Our results suggest possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the EO.

  13. 基于CFD方法的红外烟幕干扰性能研究%CFD-based Study on Countermeasure Performance of Anti-infrared Smoke Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐路程; 肖凯涛

    2015-01-01

    采用计算流体力学方法对一平坦开阔地域的风场进行数值模拟,运用离散相模型对红外烟幕在该区域的扩散进行计算,得到了红外烟幕质量浓度的三维空间分布,并由Lambert-Beer定律计算出红外烟幕在跨风方向上的有效遮蔽区域,研究了风速对于红外烟幕遮蔽区域的影响规律。%In this paper, computational fluid dynamics method was applied for the numerical simulation of a flat and open wind field. The dispersion of anti-infrared smoke screen in this area was evaluated by discrete phase model, and the three-dimensional distribution of the concentration of anti-infrared smoke screen was obtained. The efficient shielding region of anti-infrared smoke screen across the wind direction was calculated by using Lambert-Beer law. The relationship between wind velocity and shielding region of anti-infrared smoke screen was also studied in this paper.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis on the results of screening of lung cancer using helical CT conducted by the anti-lung cancer association (ALCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare Yen/person saved in lung cancer screening using helical CT with Yen/person in the screening using conventional direct chest X-rays conducted under the Anti-lung cancer association program of the Tokyo Health Service Association. A mathematical model for cancer screening was used to estimate net number of person relieved from lung cancer by the screening and net cost required for the screening. Finally cost-effectiveness ratios in terms of Yen/person saved were calculated and compared between the two programs. Several important variables employed in the model were as follows: 5 year survival rate in chest X-ray group was 50%, and the rate in helical CT group was 75%. Cost of screening in the chest X-ray group was 15,000 Yen, and that in the helical CT group was 25,000 Yen. Cost/person screened was 14,470 Yen for chest X-ray and 21,890 Yen for helical CT. Cost/person saved was 267 x 105 Yen in X-ray group and 112 x 105 Yen in CT group. Thus the cost was higher, but cost-effectiveness ratio was better in the CT screening group. Helical CT can be adopted for lung cancer screening in stead of chest X-ray if total cost is affordable. (author)

  15. Potential energy savings with exterior shades in large office buildings and the impact of discomfort glare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Exterior shades are highly efficient for reducing solar load in commercial buildings. Their impact on net energy use depends on the annual energy balance of heating, cooling, fan and lighting energy. This paper discusses the overall energy use intensity of various external shading systems for a prototypical large office building split into the different types of energy use and for different orientations and window sizes. Lighting energy was calculated for a constant lighting power as well as for dimmed lighting fixtures (daylighting control). In Section 3, slat angles and solar cut-off angles were varied for fixed exterior slat shading systems. While the most light-blocking shades performed best for the case without daylighting controls, the optimum cut-off angle with daylighting controls was found to be 30 deg for the office building prototype used in Chicago and Houston. For large window-to-wall (WWR) ratios, window related annual energy use could be reduced by at least 70 % without daylighting control and by a minimum of 86 % with daylighting control in average over all orientations. The occurrence of discomfort glare was is considered in Section 4 of the paper, which looks at the performance of commercially available exterior shading systems when an interior shade is used in addition to the exterior shade during hours when occupants would experience discomfort glare. Glare control impacts overall energy use intensity significantly for exterior shades with high transmittance, especially when daylighting controls are used. In these cases, exterior shades are only beneficial for window-to-wall areas ≥ 45% in the hot Houston climate. For smaller windows and in a heating/cooling climate like Chicago, exterior shades can increase energy consumption

  16. Relationship between absorptive lenses and contrast sensitivity in healthy young subjects with glare under photopic- and mesopic-vision conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Masatsugu; Uozato, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the effect of absorptive lenses on contrast sensitivity under photopic- and mesopic-visions with glare, from the viewpoint of luminous transmittance (LT) and spectral transmittance. The subjects were 24 healthy volunteers. Log contrast sensitivity (logCS) under two luminance conditions with glare was measured with a contrast glare test device. Binocular logCSs with absorptive lenses were compared with those without absorptive lenses (control condition). Furthermore, to investigate the effect of spectral transmittance, we calculated the ratio of stimulus quantity and the correlation between this ratio and logCS. Compared with that in the control, logCS was hardly affected in the case of high-luminous-transmittance absorptive lenses under binocular visions with glare. Middle- and long-wavelength lights effectively contribute to contrast sensitivity under photopic-vision and lights at each wavelength showed almost the same coefficients of correlation under mesopic-vision. Previous studies suggested that absorptive lenses provide users with protection against harmful radiation and glare. Our present results suggested that short-wavelength and high-LT absorptive lenses are particularly useful in daylight.

  17. Screening for anti-pancreatic lipase properties of 28 traditional Thai medicinal herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananya; Dechakhamphu; Nattapong; Wongchum

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To screen the effect of 28 medicinal plants on inhibition of pancreatic lipase and evaluate the phytochemical contents of extracts.Methods:The ethanolic extracts of 28 traditional Thai herbal medicines were assayed for their in vitro activities against porcine pancreatic lipase using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as a substrate.Quantitative estimation of flavonoids,phenolics,and alkaloids was done.Results:Extracts from four herbs,Memecylon edule Roxb.,Garcinia vilersiana Pierre,Cryptolepis elegans Wall.and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl.,at a concentration of100 mg/m L,strongly inhibited porcine pancreatic lipase by 90.97%,92.04%,94.64%and95.38%,respectively.There was a significant positive correlation between phenolic content and inhibition activity.Inhibition activity was significantly correlated with flavonoid and with alkaloid contents.Conclusions:From this result,it could be concluded that herbs represent a rich of antipancreatic lipase compounds,in particular,Cryptolepis elegans Wall.and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl.It is suggested that the phytochemical compounds from these plants may be applied for the prevention and treatment of obesity or hyperlipidemia.

  18. A functional yeast survival screen of tumor-derived cDNA libraries designed to identify anti-apoptotic mammalian oncogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Eißmann

    Full Text Available Yeast cells can be killed upon expression of pro-apoptotic mammalian proteins. We have established a functional yeast survival screen that was used to isolate novel human anti-apoptotic genes overexpressed in treatment-resistant tumors. The screening of three different cDNA libraries prepared from metastatic melanoma, glioblastomas and leukemic blasts allowed for the identification of many yeast cell death-repressing cDNAs, including 28% of genes that are already known to inhibit apoptosis, 35% of genes upregulated in at least one tumor entity and 16% of genes described as both anti-apoptotic in function and upregulated in tumors. These results confirm the great potential of this screening tool to identify novel anti-apoptotic and tumor-relevant molecules. Three of the isolated candidate genes were further analyzed regarding their anti-apoptotic function in cell culture and their potential as a therapeutic target for molecular therapy. PAICS, an enzyme required for de novo purine biosynthesis, the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 and the MAST2 kinase are overexpressed in certain tumor entities and capable of suppressing apoptosis in human cells. Using a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model, we also demonstrated that glioblastoma tumor growth requires MAST2 expression. An additional advantage of the yeast survival screen is its universal applicability. By using various inducible pro-apoptotic killer proteins and screening the appropriate cDNA library prepared from normal or pathologic tissue of interest, the survival screen can be used to identify apoptosis inhibitors in many different systems.

  19. Design of the GLARE tool. A grease lubrication apparatus for research and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GLARE: Grease Lubrication Apparatus for Research and Education was designed as a fourth year thesis project with the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT). The purpose of the apparatus is to train Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) staff to properly lubricate bearings with grease and to help detect early equipment failures. Proper re-lubrication is critical to the nuclear industry as equipment may be inaccessible for long periods of time. A secondary purpose for the tool is for UOIT research and undergraduate laboratories.This abstract provides an overview of the project and its application to the nuclear industry. (author)

  20. In-Vitro Anti fungal Screening of Embelia Ribes Plant Extract through EUCAST Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjesh G Rathi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the Embelia ribes plant extracts using standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility test method like EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing M27-A2 Protocol.Antifungal screening of Embelia ribes not studied in detail and not extended to the different spectrum of fungal which are causing human diseases. Thus different types of extracts were prepared using different solvents and TLC characterized. Assays were performed in 96 well plates and detection was carried out with colorimetric plate reader at 530nm.To obtain the MIC50 with the help of the graph pad prism software.The petroleum ether extract, solvent ether extract and methanol extract had low MIC50 values against the Candida species than the other species. Solvent ether extract and petroleum ether extract were highly effective against the c.albicans (MTCC NO 183 with the 65 mg/L and 32mg/L MIC50 values. The methanol extract were more active against c.albican (MTCC NO 183 species with 300-500 mg/L MIC50 value. The solvent ether extract, petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, potassium embelate and Embelin have reported the MIC50 values in range of 800-1600 mg/L against c.tropicalis (MTCC NO 184 and c.parapsilosis (MTCC NO 1744. The petroleum ether extract and potassium embelate was found to have MIC50 between range 300-700 mg/L against c.parapsilosis (MTCC NO 1744 and a.fumigatus (MTCC NO 2550 .Other extracts required higher concentrations against c.parapsilosis and a.fumigatus. Water extract was found to have MIC50 values greater than 2000 mg/L against all fungus. Most of the results for the Embelin could not obtain by EUCAST method due to having higher fluctuation in results.

  1. The high incidence of anti-Ro/SSA and anti-p200 antibodies in female patients with connective tissue diseases confirms the importance of screening for congenital heart block-associated autoantibodies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, E; Agnoletti, Arianna Fay; Pappalardo, F; Schiavetti, I; Torino, A; Parodi, A

    2016-03-01

    It is known that anti-Ro/SSA positivity leads to higher risk of miscarriage and fetal cardiac malformations. Particularly, anti-p200 antibodies against a finer specificity of the Ro/SSA antigen, have been associated with congenital heart block. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of anti-p200 among female patients with different connective tissue diseases and, among these, the relevance of anti-p200 values in patients with cutaneous diseases compared to systemic diseases. Anti-p200 were investigated in 110 anti-Ro/SSA positive female sera, sent to our laboratory between 2008 and 2014 with suspect of connective disease, by using ELISA testing. Positivity was found in 40.9 % samples, 34 of them showed a strong positivity (values ≥ 1.0, cut off = 0.7). Patients with systemic diseases were anti-p200 positive in the 45.9 % of cases while patients with cutaneous diseases were positive in the 24.0 % of cases. Positivity for anti-p200 antibodies was revealed in 24.0 % of patients with discoid lupus erythematosus; 100 % of patients with dermatomyositis; 40.0 % of patients with mixed connective tissue disease; 25.0 % of patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 100 % of patients with Sjögren's syndrome; 33.3 % of patients with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus; 42.9 % of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus; 80.0 % of patients with systemic sclerosis. No significant difference in anti-p200 prevalence was found between systemic and cutaneous involvement, nevertheless, considering only positive sera, the antibody titer was higher in systemic diseases rather than in cutaneous diseases (2.6 ± 1.7 and 1.7 ± 1.9; p = 0.041). The authors think screenings for anti-Ro/SSA and anti-p200 antibodies should be included in the laboratory checklist for pregnancy.

  2. The high incidence of anti-Ro/SSA and anti-p200 antibodies in female patients with connective tissue diseases confirms the importance of screening for congenital heart block-associated autoantibodies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, E; Agnoletti, Arianna Fay; Pappalardo, F; Schiavetti, I; Torino, A; Parodi, A

    2016-03-01

    It is known that anti-Ro/SSA positivity leads to higher risk of miscarriage and fetal cardiac malformations. Particularly, anti-p200 antibodies against a finer specificity of the Ro/SSA antigen, have been associated with congenital heart block. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of anti-p200 among female patients with different connective tissue diseases and, among these, the relevance of anti-p200 values in patients with cutaneous diseases compared to systemic diseases. Anti-p200 were investigated in 110 anti-Ro/SSA positive female sera, sent to our laboratory between 2008 and 2014 with suspect of connective disease, by using ELISA testing. Positivity was found in 40.9 % samples, 34 of them showed a strong positivity (values ≥ 1.0, cut off = 0.7). Patients with systemic diseases were anti-p200 positive in the 45.9 % of cases while patients with cutaneous diseases were positive in the 24.0 % of cases. Positivity for anti-p200 antibodies was revealed in 24.0 % of patients with discoid lupus erythematosus; 100 % of patients with dermatomyositis; 40.0 % of patients with mixed connective tissue disease; 25.0 % of patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 100 % of patients with Sjögren's syndrome; 33.3 % of patients with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus; 42.9 % of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus; 80.0 % of patients with systemic sclerosis. No significant difference in anti-p200 prevalence was found between systemic and cutaneous involvement, nevertheless, considering only positive sera, the antibody titer was higher in systemic diseases rather than in cutaneous diseases (2.6 ± 1.7 and 1.7 ± 1.9; p = 0.041). The authors think screenings for anti-Ro/SSA and anti-p200 antibodies should be included in the laboratory checklist for pregnancy. PMID:26830903

  3. Establishment of liver specific glucokinase gene knockout mice:a new animal model for screening anti-diabetic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-li ZHANG; Xiao-hong TAN; Mei-fang XIAO; Hui LI; Yi-qing Mao; Xiao YANG; Huan-ran TAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the liver-specific role of glucokinase in maintaining glucose homeostasis and to create an animal model for diabetes. METHODS: We performed hepatocyte-specific gene knockout of glucokinase in mice using Cre-loxP gene targeting strategy. First, two directly repeated loxP sequences were inserted to flank the exon 9 and exon 10 of glucokinase in genomic DNA. To achieve this, linearized targeting vector was electroporated into ES cells. Then G418- and Gancyclovir-double-resistant clones were picked and screened by PCR analysis and the positives identified by PCR were confirmed by Southern blot. A targeted clone was selected for microinjection into C57BL/6J blastocysts and implanted into pseudopregnant FVB recipient. Chimeric mice and their offspring were analyzed by Southern blot. Then by intercrossing the Alb-Cre transgenic mice with mice containing a conditional gk allele, we obtained mice with liver-specific glucokinase gene knockout. RESULTS: Among 161 double resistant clones 4 were positive to PCR and Southern blot and only one was used for further experiments. Eventually we generated the liver specific glucokinase knockout mice. These mice showed increased glucose level with age and at the age of 6 weeks fasting blood glucose level was significantly higher than control and they also displayed impaired glucose tolerance. CONCLUSION: Our studies indicate that hepatic glucokinase plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and its deficiencies contribute to the development of diabetes. The liver glucokinase knockout mouse is an ideal animal model for MODY2, and it also can be applied for screening anti-diabetic drugs.

  4. Rapid assays for detection of anti-islet autoantibodies: implications for organ donor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, A K; Yu, L; Miao, D; Nelson, K; Eisenbarth, G S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate rapid assays for autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAA), ICA512bdc/IA-2 (ICA512AA), and insulin (microIAA, mIAA) as a potential tool for identification of cadaveric pancreas donors who were at high risk for developing diabetes. The study included 154 new onset diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy control subjects. Subjects were evaluated for all three autoantibodies in three separate assays: (1) standard (std) assay with a 24-h or 72-h incubation at 4 degrees C (combined GAA/ICA512AA or mIAA, respectively), (2) rapid assay with 1-h room temperature (RT) incubation, and (3) rapid assay with 2-h RT incubation. The serum samples from 777 organ donors were also evaluated for all three autoantibodies and all the positive samples from standard assay evaluated with the 1-h incubation assay. Simple linear regression analyses revealed excellent correlation between the standard assay and the rapid assays for all three autoantibodies, as follows: (1) GAA: std vs. 1 h (R2=0.85) and std vs. 2 h (R2=0.83), (2) ICA512AA: std vs. 1 h (R2=0.85) and std vs. 2 h (R2=0.84), and (3) mIAA: std vs. 1 h (R2=0.70) and std vs. 2 h (R2=0.64). Comparison of assay correlation rates between subject cohorts revealed no significant differences. Compared to their respective standard assays, the 1-h RT GAA assay missed 3.2% and identified an additional 1.3% of samples, the 1-h RT ICA512AA assay had no discordant samples, and the 1-h RT mIAA assay missed 7.1% and identified an additional 5.8% of samples. We analysed a series of 777 stored serum samples from cadaveric donors. Two of 777 (0.25%) were positive for two autoantibodies (both GAA and ICA512AA) and 23 of 777 (3.0%) one autoantibody (11 IAA; 12 GAA). The rapid analysis for all three autoantibodies could be completed in less than 3 h with comparable concordance rates to the more time-consuming standard assays, making these assays an attractive option for organ donor screening to identify

  5. Glaring IPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China Everbright Bank dazzles the domestic stock market with China’s second largest IPO this year As it launched its initial public offering(IPO) in Shanghai on August 18, 2010,China Everbright Bank Co. Ltd. was greeted with a warm welcome- shares of the mid-sized bank closed at 3.66 yuan($0.54) on its first trading date, jumping 18 percent from the IPO price of 3.1 yuan($0.46).

  6. Glaring IPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ As it launched its initial public offer-ing (IPO) in Shanghai on August 18,2010, China Everbright Bank Co.Ltd. was greeted with a warm wel-come--shares of the mid-sized bank closed at 3.66 yuan ($0.54) on its first trading date,jumping 18 percent from the IPO price of 3.1 yuan ($0.46).

  7. Parallel screening of wild-type and drug-resistant targets for anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Cheng Hsu

    Full Text Available Infection with influenza virus is a major public health problem, causing serious illness and death each year. Emergence of drug-resistant influenza virus strains limits the effectiveness of drug treatment. Importantly, a dual H275Y/I223R mutation detected in the pandemic influenza A 2009 virus strain results in multidrug resistance to current neuraminidase (NA drugs. Therefore, discovery of new agents for treating multiple drug-resistant (MDR influenza virus infections is important. Here, we propose a parallel screening strategy that simultaneously screens wild-type (WT and MDR NAs, and identifies inhibitors matching the subsite characteristics of both NA-binding sites. These may maintain their potency when drug-resistant mutations arise. Initially, we analyzed the subsite of the dual H275Y/I223R NA mutant. Analysis of the site-moiety maps of NA protein structures show that the mutant subsite has a relatively small volume and is highly polar compared with the WT subsite. Moreover, the mutant subsite has a high preference for forming hydrogen-bonding interactions with polar moieties. These changes may drive multidrug resistance. Using this strategy, we identified a new inhibitor, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RB19, an anthraquinone dye, which inhibited WT NA and MDR NA with IC(50 values of 3.4 and 4.5 µM, respectively. RB19 comprises a rigid core scaffold and a flexible chain with a large polar moiety. The former interacts with highly conserved residues, decreasing the probability of resistance. The latter forms van der Waals contacts with the WT subsite and yields hydrogen bonds with the mutant subsite by switching the orientation of its flexible side chain. Both scaffolds of RB19 are good starting points for lead optimization. The results reveal a parallel screening strategy for identifying resistance mechanisms and discovering anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors. We believe that this strategy may be applied to other diseases with high

  8. Color and contrast sensitivity after glare from high-brightness LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenbach, H.-D.

    2008-02-01

    The color contrast capability was investigated for 3 volunteers with 7 specially developed test charts in red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow and black as a reference, namely without and after glare from 4 colored high-brightness LEDs. Each subject completed 56 tests in order to check especially the ability to discriminate low contrast. It was found that a contrast decrease of one level is equivalent to an increase of about 4 s in the required identification time and in addition a delay time between about 14 s and 16 s has been measured at the beginning of the respective test as a result of the dazzling glare from an LED. In addition trials have been performed with 4 different pseudoisochromatic color plates designed by Ishihara for color vision. These plates have been used to determine temporary color deficiencies after an exposure from a high-brightness LED. For this purpose 40 volunteers have been included in a laboratory test. Color vision was impaired for periods between 27 s and 186 s depending on the applied color plate and respective LED color.

  9. APPRAISAL OF PRENATAL ANTI-TOXOPLASMA GONDII (IGG+IGM)- IHA/IGM-ELISA SCREENING IN SINGLE SAMPLES VIA IGG AVIDITY TEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bali, Mohammed; Zaglool, Dina A M; Khodari, Yousif A W; Al-Harthi, Saeed A

    2016-04-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with important morbidity and mortality. Since vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii can occur in acute cases, antenatal screening for recent infections is vital. Accurate determination of acute toxoplasmosis requires a combination of immunoassays, usually not routinely applied for screening purposes. This study evaluated the anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening procedure by IgG avidity assay. The routine prenatal screening for (IgG+IgM) anti-T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) in serum samples was done of 2247 pregnant women who attended two hospitals between 2011 and 2013 revealed 487 (21.7%) positive samples. Examination of IHA-positive sera by IgM and IgG/IgG-avidity concurrent ELISA tests revealed 7 positive and 3 border-line IgM-ELISA titers during the initial check-up of 10 women, who were then followed up at 3-4 week-intervals. Among these, 4 (40%) showed simultaneous high avidity IgG antibodies, indicating distant infection by the parasite, and no anti-T. gondii specific IgG could be detected in follow-up sera of two cases (20%), indicating false IgM initial positive results. Only 4 (40%) women showed simultaneous IgM and low avidity IgG antibodies indicating active infections. Avoidance of an over-diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis Anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening must be supplemented by a discriminative test like IgG avidity ELISA. PMID:27363056

  10. Design of linear anti-scatter grid geometry with optimum performance for screen-film and digital mammography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodajou-Chokami, H.; Sohrabpour, M.

    2015-08-01

    A detailed 3D Monte Carlo simulation of the grid geometrical parameters in screen-film mammography (SFM) and digital mammography (DM) systems has been performed. A combination of IEC 60627:2013 international standard conditions and other more clinically relevant parameters were used for this simulation. Accuracy of our results has been benchmarked with previously published data and good agreement has been obtained. Calculations in a wide range of linear anti-scatter grid geometries have been carried out. The evaluated parameters for the SFM system were the Bucky factor (BF) and contrast improvement factor (CIF) and for the DM system it was signal difference-to-noise ratio improvement factor (SIF). The CIF parameter was chosen to be nearly the same as the commercial grade, the BF and SIF were significantly improved compared to commercial grids in use today. Our optimized grid parameters for the SFM system were lead strip thickness d=12  µm, grid ratio r= 5 and strip density N=65 lines/cm. And for the DM system these parameters were d= 5  µm, r = 3 and N=100 lines/cm. Both optimized grid sets have thinner d and higher N compared to the commercial grids.

  11. SCREENING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR EFFECTIVE BIOGENESIS OF SILVER NANO PARTICLES AND EFFICIENT ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ankanna et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanoparticles have been using as an ingredients in the preparation of complementary medicines to cure different diseases is an age old medicinal practices. The plant based Ayurvedic preparations are preferred by 80% of the world population and WHO is encouraging the green medicine due to its less side effects. Hence an attempt has been made to screen this important medicinal plant for secondary metabolites biogenesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs and their antimicrobial efficacy. The stem, roots, stembark and leaves were selected for synthesis of SNPs. The SNPs formation was confirmed with the help of UV-VIS spectroscopy and characterized by AFM. The phytosynthesized SNPs were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities using paper disc diffusion method. The results indicate that the selected plant revealed that it is source for different secondary metabolites like anthocyanins, emodins, triterpenoids, tannins, saponins, luecoanthocyanins, reducing sugars, flavonoids, lignins, anthroquniones, phenols and glycosides. But steroids, coumarins, fatty acids and alkaloids are absent. The SNPs are having more anti microbial efficacy than that of the plant extracts. Moreover the SNPs of selected plant parts are having toxicity towards bacterial species than that of fungal species. It is concluded that the environmentally benign SNPs synthesized from different parts of Shorea tumbuggaia can be used effectively against bacterial and fungal strains. The SNPs may have important advantage over conventional antibiotics to which the bacteria got resistance.

  12. Design of linear anti-scatter grid geometry with optimum performance for screen-film and digital mammography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodajou-Chokami, H; Sohrabpour, M

    2015-08-01

    A detailed 3D Monte Carlo simulation of the grid geometrical parameters in screen-film mammography (SFM) and digital mammography (DM) systems has been performed. A combination of IEC 60627:2013 international standard conditions and other more clinically relevant parameters were used for this simulation. Accuracy of our results has been benchmarked with previously published data and good agreement has been obtained. Calculations in a wide range of linear anti-scatter grid geometries have been carried out. The evaluated parameters for the SFM system were the Bucky factor (BF) and contrast improvement factor (CIF) and for the DM system it was signal difference-to-noise ratio improvement factor (SIF). The CIF parameter was chosen to be nearly the same as the commercial grade, the BF and SIF were significantly improved compared to commercial grids in use today. Our optimized grid parameters for the SFM system were lead strip thickness d = 12 µm, grid ratio r = 5 and strip density N = 65 lines/cm. And for the DM system these parameters were d = 5 µm, r = 3 and N = 100 lines/cm. Both optimized grid sets have thinner d and higher N compared to the commercial grids.

  13. Hepatitis B virus screening in contacts of blood donors with antibodies against core protein (anti-HBc, but without surface antigen (HBsAg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildenete Monteiro Fortes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase blood safety Brazil introduced screening for anti-HBc among blood donors in 1993. There was a decrease in the hepatitis B virus (HBV transmission, but this measure identified a great number of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors. Surveillance policy determines that contacts of HBV carriers should be screened to HBV markers, but there is no recommendation about how to guide contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors. Aiming to evaluate whether the contacts of this group are at greater risk for HBV infection, a cross-sectional study was performed to compare prevalence of HBV infection between contacts of HBsAg-positive blood donors (group I and contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors (group II. Contacts were submitted to a questionnaire and blood tests for HBV markers. In group I (n = 143, 53 (37.1% were anti-HBc-positive and 11 (7.7% were HBsAg-positive. In group II (n = 111, there were 9 and 0.9%, respectively. HBV exposure was associated with group I, sexual activity, blood transfusion, being one of the donor's parents, and living for more than ten years with the donor. Regarding the families as sample units, it was more common to find at least one member with HBV markers (p < 0.05 among the families of group I compared to group II. Contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive individuals presented a much lower risk of having already been exposed to HBV and there is no need to screen them for HBV in low to moderate prevalence populations.

  14. The zebrafish embryo as a tool for screening and characterizing pleurocidin host-defense peptides as anti-cancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Morash

    2011-09-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant cancers and the lack of targeted therapies for many cancers underscore an unmet need for new therapeutics with novel modes of action towards cancer cells. Host-defense peptides often exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and show potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we screen 26 naturally occurring variants of the peptide pleurocidin for cytotoxic and anti-cancer activities, and investigate the underlying mechanism of action. Cytotoxicities were assessed in vitro using cell-based assays and in vivo using zebrafish embryos. Morphological changes were assessed by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and functional assays were performed on zebrafish embryos to investigate the mechanism of cell death. A total of 14 peptides were virtually inactive against HL60 human leukemia cells, whereas 12 caused >50% death at ≤32 μg/ml. Morphological changes characteristic of oncosis were evident by electron microscopy after only 1 minute of treatment with 32 μg/ml of variant NRC-03. Only two peptides were hemolytic. Four peptides showed no toxicity towards zebrafish embryos at the highest concentration tested (25 μM; ∼64 μg/ml and one peptide was highly toxic, killing 4-hour-post-fertilization (hpf embryos immediately after exposure to 1 μM peptide. Four other peptides killed embryos after 24 hours of exposure at 1 μM. Most peptides caused mortality at one or more developmental stages only after continuous exposure (24 hours with higher lethal doses (≥5 μM. Pleurocidin NRC-03 bound to embryos and induced the release of superoxide, caused an increase in the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei, and caused membrane damage and the loss of embryonic epithelial integrity, marked by the exclusion of cells from the outer epithelium and the appearance of F-actin within the circumferential cells of the repair site. Our results indicate that specific pleurocidin variants are attractive cancer-selective agents

  15. Phytochemical screening, anti-pyretic and antidiarrhoeal activities of the n-hexane and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Aegle marmelos

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed M. A; Faheem Amir, Koay Yen Chin; Shaheedha Fathima

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The n-hexane and aqueous extracts of the leaves ofAegle marmelos have been examined anti-pyretic andantidiarrhoeal activities, and phytochemical screening.Materials and methods: Yeast-induced hyperthermia test wasused for antipyretic activity. For both the extracts, rectaltemperatures were measured at fixed intervals. Castor oilinduceddiarrhoea test was used for antidiarrhoeal activity. Forboth the extracts, the droppings were collected at fixedintervals. The phytochemical screenin...

  16. Prevalence of active HCV infection among the blood donors of Khyber Pakhtunkwa and FATA region of Pakistan and evaluation of the screening tests for anti-HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sanaullah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C is a fatal liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. In this study, blood donors, from various districts of the KPK province and the federally administered tribal area (FATA of Pakistan were tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA by ICT (Immuno-chromatographic test, ELISA and RT-PCR. Out of the 7148 blood donors, 224 (3.13% were positive for anti-HCV antibodies by ICT, 135 (1.89% by ELISA while 118 (1.65% blood donors had active HCV infection as detected by RT-PCR. We suggest that ELISA should be used for anti-HCV screening in public sector hospitals and health care units.

  17. Glare-Tunable Transparent Electrochemical Smart Window Coupled with Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takayuki; Shibasaki, Masaaki; Matsuzaki, Tatsuya; Nagata, Yujiro

    2013-04-01

    We fabricated a novel device assembled by coupling a transparent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED) and a glare-tunable transparent electrochemical device. This device could be operated in six different states, namely, (1) transparent, (2) mirror, (3) black, (4) dual emission, (5) single-side emission with mirror, and (6) single-side emission with black. Switching between each of these states could be tuned by varying/selecting the applied DC bias voltage. The device showed 63.8% transmittance in the transparent state, and 42.1% reflectance in the mirror state at 700 nm. Transmittance in both the mirror and black states was less than 0.1% in the visible range.

  18. Synthesis and anti-Parkinson′s screening of some novel 2-(naphthalen-1-yl-N-[2-substituted (4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gomathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The objective of this study is to synthesize some novel 2-(naphthalen-1-yl-N-[2-substituted (4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl] acetamide derivatives and to study their anti-Parkinson′s activity. Materials and Methods: Ethyl (naphthalen-1-yl acetate (1 was prepared from naphthalene-1-yl acetic acid in ethanol. Condensation of ethyl (naphthalen-1-yl acetate (1 with an equimolar quantity of hydrazine hydrate in methanol afforded 2-(naphthalen-1-yl acetohydrazide (2. Compound 2 which on condensation with different aromatic aldehydes yielded respective Schiff bases (3a-e. The Schiff bases are then cyclised with mercaptoacetic acid in dioxane to yield the corresponding naphthalene bearing 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (4a-e. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been established based on their analytical and spectral data such as FT-IR, Mass and NMR spectroscopy. Results: The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-Parkinson′s screening using in vitro free radical scavenging assay. Compounds 4c, 4d, and 4e showed potent free radical scavenging activity giving 82%, 74% and 76% respectively. Three compounds 4c, 4d and 4e were taken for in vivo anti-Parkinson′s screening by 6-Hydroxydopamine lesioned rat′s model (6-OHDA. Among these, one of the 4-thiazolidinone derivatives having a 3-nitro phenyl group at 2 nd position 4c exhibited maximum anti-Parkinson′s activity. Conclusion: Thiazolidinone derivatives showed significant anti-Parkinson′s activity in the 6-OHDA lesioned rat model. The estimated parameters were closely relevant to clinical parkinsonism, and the drug treatment protected the diseased brain of a rat. We appreciate further detailed studies with these drugs in anti-Parkinson′s pharmacology and toxicology.

  19. Development and validation of a high-throughput anti-Wolbachia whole-cell screen: a route to macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Rachel H; Cook, Darren A N; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Ward, Stephen A; Taylor, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new, safe, and affordable macrofilaricidal drugs for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis treatment and control. The Anti-Wolbachia Consortium (A·WOL) aims to provide a novel treatment with macrofilaricidal activity by targeting the essential bacterial symbiont Wolbachia. The consortium is currently screening a diverse range of compounds to find new chemical space to drive this drug discovery initiative and address this unmet demand. To increase the throughput and capacity of the A·WOL cell-based screen, we have developed a 384-well format assay using a high-content imaging system (Operetta) in conjunction with optimized Wolbachia growth dynamics in the C6/36 Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line. This assay uses texture analysis of cells stained with SYTO 11 as a direct measure of bacterial load. This validated assay has dramatically increased the capacity and throughput of the A·WOL compound library screening program 25-fold, enriching the number of new anti-Wolbachia hits identified for further development as potential macrofilaricides for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. PMID:25278497

  20. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rambir Singh; Shariq Hussain; Rajesh Verma; Poonam Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urticadioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Results: Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μg/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacteriumsemegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. Conclusions: C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica.

  1. The Application of Glare Flashlight in Actual Combat%强光手电在实战中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝强

    2012-01-01

    强光手电是公安民警在执法、执勤过程中必备的警用装备之一。在日常勤务中,它的应用极为广泛,它不仅具有照明、攻击、联络和行动保障的功能,它更有震慑和制服犯罪嫌疑人,增强自信心的功效。%Glare flashlight is one of the necessary policing equipments for policeman in law enforcement and performing duties. In daily duty, the using of it is far - ranging. Glare flashlight has the function of lighting, attacking, making contact, action assurance, fright-ening, suppressing the suspects and increasing confidence as well.

  2. Particle agglutination test "Serodia HIV-1/2" as a novel anti-HIV-1/2 screening test: comparative study on 3311 serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, M; Zener, N; Seme, K; Kristancic, L

    1997-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are most widely used screening tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Nevertheless, the need of simpler, noninstrumented tests is evident in many parts of the world, where laboratory facilities and trained personnel are limited, and HIV incidence is high. A recently developed variant of gelatin-particle agglutination tests, Serodia HIV-1/2 (Fujirebio Inc., Tokyo, Japan), is one of such simple and noninstrumented tests. To evaluate its utility, 3311 serum samples (281 anti-HIV-1 positive, 8 anti-HIV-2 positive and 3022 anti-HIV-1/2 negative) obtained from 2632 individuals from Slovenia, other parts of former Yugoslavia and Senegal were investigated. No false-negative results and only one false-positive result were obtained during the procedures, giving overall sensitivity and specificity of the particle agglutination test of 100% and 99.97%, respectively. We have concluded that Serodia HIV-1/2 test is highly specific and sensitive for detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies, suitable for small blood banks and for epidemiological surveys.

  3. A rapid, accurate and robust particle-based assay for the simultaneous screening of plasma samples for the presence of five different anti-cytokine autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen; von Stemann, Jakob Hjorth; Larsen, Rune;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish and validate a rapid, cost-effective and accurate screening assay for the simultaneous testing of human naturally occurring anti-cytokine autoantibodies (c-aAb) targeting interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), granulocyte-macrophage colony...... METHODS: The microsphere-based Luminex platform was used. Recombinant forms of human IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, and IFNα were gently coupled to MAG-PLEX beads. Plasma IgG binding was measured with phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled secondary antibodies. Previously confirmed c-aAb positive and negative donor...

  4. A High Throughput Screening Assay for Anti-Mycobacterial Small Molecules Based on Adenylate Kinase Release as a Reporter of Cell Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Forbes

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is well-established to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens for which new antimicrobial therapies are needed. Herein, we describe the development of a high throughput screening assay for the identification of molecules that are bactericidal against Mycobacteria. The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. We demonstrate that the assay is selective for mycobactericidal molecules and detects anti-mycobacterial activity at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration of many molecules. Thus, the AK assay is more sensitive than traditional growth assays. We have validated the AK assay in the HTS setting using the Mtb surrogate organism M. smegmatis and libraries of FDA approved drugs as well as a commercially available Diversity set. The screen of the FDA-approved library demonstrated that the AK assay is able to identify the vast majority of drugs with known mycobactericidal activity. Importantly, our screen of the Diversity set revealed that the increased sensitivity of the AK assay increases the ability of M. smegmatis-based screens to detect molecules with relatively poor activity against M. smegmatis but good to excellent activity against Mtb.

  5. Measurement of the droplets sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shiquan; Jia, Ming; Wang, Tianyou; Lü, Qieni; Sun, Kai

    2016-04-01

    An improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing (EGPVS) is proposed to investigate the droplets sizes of a flash boiling spray. When a spherical droplet with a relative refractive index from 1.16 to 1.41 is illuminated by two opposite laser sheets and a charge-coupled device camera is used to collect the s-polarization light at an observation angle of 90°, the intensities of the reflected lights are much stronger than the other order scattering lights. If the intensity of incident laser is controlled appropriately, two glare points from the reflected lights for the droplet are formed at the focused plane, while the intensities of the other order scattering lights are too weak to form any glare points. Then, the droplet diameter can be derived from the distance between the two glare points. In addition, the focused image is relative small, making it possible to measure dense spray. First, the characteristics of the improved EGPVS are discussed, and a series of standard particles are measured for validating this technique. Then, the technique is applied to investigate the droplets sizes of flash boiling spray. It is found that the minimum measurable diameter of droplets is 7.1 μm, and the relative error is less than 4.7 %. The droplet size distributions of spray are different at different stages. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of gasoline spray decreases gradually as the fuel temperature increases, which is different from that of a single-component fuel with a sharp decrease in SMD at the flash boiling stage.

  6. Objective Image Quality of CRT Displays under Ambient Glare: Assessing the ISO 9241-7 Ergonomic Technical Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Kempic, Joy III

    1998-01-01

    Objective Image Quality of CRT Displays under Ambient Glare: Assessing the ISO 9241-7 Ergonomic Technical Standard Joy Kempic (Abstract) This thesis assessed the readability of CRT displays viewed under ambient lighting conditions and then evaluated the findings with respect to the ISO 9241-7 standard. More specifically, two phases of work were conducted in this thesis. In Phase 1, seven monitors were evaluated photometrically according to the ISO 9241-...

  7. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

    OpenAIRE

    SASA S. STOJICEVIC; IVANA T. STANISAVLJEVIC; DRAGAN T. VELICKOVIC; VLADA B. VELJKOVIC; MIODRAG L. LAZIC

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L.) leaves by the classical (maceration), ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively). The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extra...

  8. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay for screening arthritis patients for latent tuberculosis infection before starting anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Lee

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF treatment are at an increased risk of reactivating a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT assay for diagnosing LTBI in arthritis patients undergoing anti-TNF treatment.We enrolled 342 consecutive patients from August 2007 to October 2013: 176 (51.5% patients with ankylosing spondylitis and 166 (48.5% with rheumatoid arthritis. Screening tests included tuberculin skin test (TST and QFT assay. Positive QFT results, regardless of TST results, were considered an indicator for LTBI treatment.Bacillus Calmette-Guérin scars were found in 236 (69.0% patients. Of 342 patients, TST and QFT were positive in 122 (35.7% and 103 (30.1% patients, respectively, and discordant in 101 (29.5% patients. During a median follow-up duration of 41.7 months, five patients (1.5% developed TB in a median of 20.8 months after initiation of anti-TNF treatment (428/100,000 person-years. TB did not occur in 62 TST+/QFT+ patients who received LTBI treatment. Of 41 TST-/QFT+ patients who received LTBI treatment, one (2.4% developed TB 20.5 months after starting anti-TNF treatment (705/100,000 person-years. Of 60 TST+/QFT- patients who did not receive LTBI treatment, two (3.3% developed TB 20.8 and 22.0 months after starting anti-TNF treatment (871/100,000 person-years. Of 179 TST-/QFT- patients, two (1.1% developed TB 7.2 and 22.7 months, respectively, after initiating anti-TNF treatment (341/100,000 person-years. TB incidence rate during the follow-up period did not differ among TST-/QFT+, TST+/QFT-, and TST-/QFT- patients (P = 0.661.QFT might be used instead of TST for diagnosing LTBI in patients before starting anti-TNF therapy in countries, such as Korea, where the TB prevalence is intermediate and the BCG vaccination is mandatory at birth. In the absence of a true gold standard test for LTBI, however, there is still a risk of TB development

  9. Screening of flavonoid “quercetin” from the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. for anti-psoriatic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayalakshmi A; Ravichandiran V; Malarkodi Velraj; Nirmala S; Jayakumari S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess anti-psoriatic activity of the methanol extract and the isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of Smilax china (S. china) Linn. Methods: Mouse tail test was used for the evaluation of anti-psoriatic activity. Methanol extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) were tested in Swiss albino mice. Parameters studied in the mouse tail test were changes in epidermal thickness and percentage orthokeratotic values. The anti-inflammatory role of the methanol extract and isolated flavonoid quercetin was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. In vitro antiproliferant assay on HaCaT cell lines was also carried out. Results: The isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of S. china produced significant orthokeratosis (P<0.01) in the mouse tail test. In epidermal thickness, a significant reduction with respect to control was observed in groups treated with retinoic acid and isolated flavonoid quercetin. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (50 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effect in terms of significant inhibition (P<0.001) in leukocyte migration. Maximum antiproliferant activity was shown by isolated flavonoid quercetin (IC50, 62.42±10.20 μg/mL). Conclusions: From the above data, the flavonoid quercetin shows significant orthokeratosis, anti-inflammatory and maximum antiproliferant activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-psoriatic effect of the flavonoid quercetin which is promising for further investigations to prove its anti-psoriatic activity.

  10. From bed topography to ice thickness: GlaRe, a GIS tool to reconstruct the surface of palaeoglaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitero, Ramon; Rea, Brice; Spagnolo, Matteo; Bakke, Jostein; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Frew, Craig; Hughes, Philip; Ribolini, Adriano; Renssen, Hans; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    We present GlaRe, A GIS tool that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometry for palaeoglaciers given the bed topography. This tool utilises a numerical approach and can work using a minimum of morphological evidence i.e. the position of the palaeoglacier front. The numerical approach is based on an iterative solution to the perfect plasticity assumption for ice rheology, explained in Benn and Hulton (2010). The tool can be run in ArcGIS 10.1 (ArcInfo license) and later updates and the toolset is written in Python code. The GlaRe toolbox presented in this paper implements a well-established approach for the determination of palaeoglacier equilibrium profiles. Significantly it permits users to quickly run multiple glacier reconstructions which were previously very laborious and time consuming (typically days for a single valley glacier). The implementation of GlaRe will facilitate the reconstruction of large numbers of palaeoglaciers which will provide opportunities for such research addressing at least two fundamental problems: 1. Investigation of the dynamics of palaeoglaciers. Glacier reconstructions are often based on a rigorous interpretation of glacial landforms but not always sufficient attention and/or time has been given to the actual reconstruction of the glacier surface, which is crucial for the calculation of palaeoglacier ELAs and subsequent derivation of quantitative palaeoclimatic data. 2. the ability to run large numbers of reconstructions and over much larger spatial areas provides an opportunity to undertake palaeoglaciers reconstructions across entire mountain, ranges, regions or even continents, allowing climatic gradients and atmospheric circulation patterns to be elucidated. The tool performance has been evaluated by comparing two extant glaciers, an icefield and a cirque/valley glacier from which the subglacial topography is known with a basic reconstruction using GlaRe. Results from the comparisons between extant glacier surfaces and modelled

  11. Targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis in the prevention of RhD immunisation--outcome of a new antenatal screening and prevention program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonor Tiblad

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of RhD immunisation after implementation of first trimester non-invasive fetal RHD screening to select only RhD negative women carrying RHD positive fetuses for routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a population-based prospective observational cohort study with historic controls including all maternity care centres and delivery hospitals in the Stockholm region, Sweden. All RhD negative pregnant women were screened for fetal RHD genotype in the first trimester of pregnancy. Anti-D immunoglobulin (250-300 µg was administered intramuscularly in gestational week 28-30 to participants with RHD positive fetuses. Main outcome measure was the incidence of RhD immunisation developing during or after pregnancy. RESULTS: During the study period 9380 RhD negative women gave birth in Stockholm. Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma was performed in 8374 pregnancies of which 5104 (61% were RHD positive and 3270 (39% RHD negative. In 4590 pregnancies with an RHD positive test the women received antenatal anti-D prophylaxis. The incidence of RhD immunisation in the study cohort was 0.26 percent (24/9380 (95% CI 0.15-0.36% compared to 0.46 percent (86/18546 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.56% in the reference cohort. The risk ratio (RR for sensitisation was 0.55 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.87 and the risk reduction was statistically significant (p = 0.009. The absolute risk difference was 0.20 percent, corresponding to a number needed to treat (NNT of 500. CONCLUSIONS: Using first trimester non-invasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD to target routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis selectively to RhD negative women with RHD positive fetuses significantly reduces the incidence of new RhD immunisation. The risk reduction is comparable to that reported in studies evaluating the outcome of non selective RAADP to all RhD negative women. The cost-effectiveness of this

  12. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASA S. STOJICEVIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves by the classical (maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively. The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans only but not against the tested bacteria.

  13. Screening of condensed tannins from Canadian prairie forages for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 with an emphasis on purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Ominski, K H; He, M; Xu, Z; Krause, D O; Acharya, S N; Wittenberg, K M; Liu, X L; Stanford, K; McAllister, T A

    2013-04-01

    Tannins from forages grown (n = 10) on the Canadian prairie, as well as from Quebracho, Rhus semialata, and brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum), were screened for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 activity against E. coli O157:H7 strain 3081 at a concentration of 400 μg/ml for each tannin type, except for brown seaweed, which was at 50 μg/ml. Growth of the bacteria was assessed by measuring the optical density at 600 nm over 24 h. Tannin from seaweed at a concentration of 50 μg/ml inhibited growth of strain 3081. Among the terrestrial forages, only condensed tannins (CT) from purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent; PPC) increased (P < 0.05) the lag time and reduced (P < 0.05) the growth rate of E. coli O157:H7. The anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT was further assessed by culturing E. coli strain ATCC 25922 and eight strains of E. coli O157:H7 with PPC CT at 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/ml. Selected strains were enumerated after 0, 6, and 24 h of incubation, and fatty acid composition was determined after 24 h of incubation. E. coli strain 25922 was cultured with 0, 50, or 200 μg of CT per ml and harvested during the exponential growth phase for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Increasing CT concentration linearly increased (P < 0.001) the lag times of seven strains and linearly reduced (P < 0.001) the growth rates of eight E. coli O157:H7 strains. Proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in the total fatty acids were decreased (P < 0.01) by CT at 50 μg/ml. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT disrupted the outer membrane structure. Anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT at levels of up to 200 μg/ml was bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal, and the mechanism of anti-E. coli activity may involve alteration in the fatty acid composition and disruption of the outer membrane of the cell. PMID:23575115

  14. Qualitative screening of veterinary anti-microbial agents in tissues, milk, and eggs of food-producing animals using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongmei; Yu, Jie; Tao, Yanfei; Pan, Yuanhu; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yulian; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-04-01

    A method for the analysis of 120 drugs in animal derived food was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These analytes belong to 12 families of veterinary anti-microbial agents (quinolones, macrolides, β-lactams, nitroimidazoles, sulfonamides, lincomycines, chloramphenicols, quinoxalines, tetracyclines, polypeptides, and antibacterial synergists) as well as other compounds not assigned to a particular drug family. The animal derived food samples include muscle and liver of swine, bovine, sheep, and chicken, as well as hen eggs and dairy milk. The sample preparation included ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with acetonitrile-water and a final clean-up with auto solid-phase extraction (SPE) on HLB cartridges. The detection and quantification of 120 anti-microbial agents was performed using LC-MS/MS in positive and negative ion mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of all drugs in food-producing animals were 0.5-3.0μg/kg and 1.5-10.0μg/kg, respectively. The developed method was successfully utilized to monitor real samples, which demonstrated that it is a simple, fast, and robust method, and could be used as a regulatory to screen for the presence of residues from veterinary anti-microbial drugs in animal-derived foods. PMID:26950031

  15. A forward-genetic screen and dynamic analysis of lambda phage host-dependencies reveals an extensive interaction network and a new anti-viral strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel D Maynard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Latently infecting viruses are an important class of virus that plays a key role in viral evolution and human health. Here we report a genome-scale forward-genetics screen for host-dependencies of the latently-infecting bacteriophage lambda. This screen identified 57 Escherichia coli (E. coli genes--over half of which have not been previously associated with infection--that when knocked out inhibited lambda phage's ability to replicate. Our results demonstrate a highly integrated network between lambda and its host, in striking contrast to the results from a similar screen using the lytic-only infecting T7 virus. We then measured the growth of E. coli under normal and infected conditions, using wild-type and knockout strains deficient in one of the identified host genes, and found that genes from the same pathway often exhibited similar growth dynamics. This observation, combined with further computational and experimental analysis, led us to identify a previously unannotated gene, yneJ, as a novel regulator of lamB gene expression. A surprising result of this work was the identification of two highly conserved pathways involved in tRNA thiolation-one pathway is required for efficient lambda replication, while the other has anti-viral properties inhibiting lambda replication. Based on our data, it appears that 2-thiouridine modification of tRNAGlu, tRNAGln, and tRNALys is particularly important for the efficient production of infectious lambda phage particles.

  16. Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer;

    2013-01-01

    -nutrient exposure in Europe. Contents of minerals (iron, zinc and calcium), in which absorption or utilisation is affected by anti-nutrients, were analysed. Thirty-six products representing foods used in food aid programmes, local blended foods, fortified instant porridges and 'baby foods' were analysed...

  17. STUDIES ON THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND SCREENING FOR ANTI-MITOTIC EFFICACY OF SALICORNIA BRACHIATA ROXB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Pavan Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicorniabrachiata is a euhalopytic plant belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae. The present study investigates the phytochemistry, characterization and antimitotic activity of ethanolic extract of S.brachiata.Plants popularly known as Sea asparagus are cooked and eaten or pickled. It is also a good fodder for cattle, sheep and goat. Plant material is also used as raw material in paper and board factories. Its seeds yield high quality edible oil which is highly polyunsaturated and similar to safflower oil in fatty acid.S.brachiata was collected from the back waters of Bapatla,Guntur district. The collected plant material was shade dried and pulverized. The plant material Was studied for phytochemistry,spectroscopic analysis i.e.,UV- Visible, FT-IR and anti mitotic activity.S. brachiata has been prescribed in traditional medicines for the treatment of intestinal ailments, nephropathy, and hepatitis in Oriental countries. In addition, S.brachiata has recently reported to be effective on the atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. A variety of pharmacological experiments have revealed that solvent-extracted fractions of S.brachiata exhibited anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities,supporting rationale behind its several traditional uses.The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of Tannins and Flavonoids in the plant. UV-Vis Spectrum, used for the quantitative analysis of the plant extract showed peaks at 280 and 290 nm. Identification of the functional groups was performed by FT-IR spectroscopy which confirmed the presence of phenolic, alcoholic and aromatic compounds.

  18. SCREENING OF SYNTHETIC NEW HETEROCYCLIC DERIVATIVES OF 3- FORMYL-4-HYDROXYCOUMARIN FOR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZI AHMAD, MOHAMMAD ASAD ZEBA N SIDDIQUI, ANIL KUMAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins have multiple biological activities; various coumarin-related derivatives arerecognized as inhibitors of the lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase pathways of arachidonatemetabolism. Several natural or synthetic coumarins with various hydroxyl and other substituteswere found to inhibit lipid peroxidation and to scavenge hydroxyl radical and superoxide anionand to influence processes involving free radical mediated injury. The heterocyclic derivatives of3-formyl-4-hydoxycoumarin were found to present significant anti-inflammatory effect, thecompounds inhibited formalin induced hind paw edema and they also significantly suppressedthe formation of granuloma tissue in cotton pellet induced chronic model of inflammation. Theresult showed that the anti-inflammatory (both acute & chronic effect of the test compound Ib iscomparable to that of standard Antiinflammatory drug Diclofenac Sodium.

  19. A novel anti-tumor inhibitor identified by virtual screen with PLK1 structure and zebrafish assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1, one of the key regulators of mitosis, is a target for cancer therapy due to its abnormally high activity in several tumors. Plk1 is highly conserved and shares a nearly identical 3-D structure between zebrafish and humans. The initial 10 mitoses of zebrafish embryonic cleavages occur every∼30 minutes, and therefore provide a rapid assay to evaluate mitosis inhibitors including those targeting Plk1. To increase efficiency and specificity, we first performed a computational virtual screen of∼60000 compounds against the human Plk1 3-D structure docked to both its kinase and Polo box domain. 370 candidates with the top free-energy scores were subjected to zebrafish assay and 3 were shown to inhibit cell division. Compared to general screen for compounds inhibiting zebrafish embryonic cleavage, computation increased the efficiency by 11 folds. One of the 3 compounds, named I2, was further demonstrated to effectively inhibit multiple tumor cell proliferation in vitro and PC3 prostate cancer growth in Xenograft mouse model in vivo. Furthermore, I2 inhibited Plk1 enzyme activity in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 values of I2 in these assays are compatible to those of ON-01910, a Plk1 inhibitor currently in Phase III clinic trials. Our studies demonstrate that zebrafish assays coupled with computational screening significantly improves the efficiency of identifying specific regulators of biological targets. The PLK1 inhibitor I2, and its analogs, may have potential in cancer therapeutics.

  20. Immunogenicity screening assay development for a novel human-mouse chimeric anti-CD147 monoclonal antibody (Metuzumab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Li; Li, Wei; Li, Maohua; Chen, Tao; Wang, Muyang; Sun, Le; Chen, Zhinan

    2016-06-01

    The clinical effect of patient immune responses to therapeutic antibodies affect product safety and efficacy, which makes the development of valid, sensitive immune assays a key aspect of antibody drug development. In this paper, we reported the generations of mouse monoclonal and Cynomolgus monkey polyclonal antibodies against the anti-CD147 antibody (Metuzumab) as the internal standards and the positive controls. Seven mouse monoclonal antibodies were shown to recognize both (Fab)2 and full length of Metuzumab, but not the control normal human IgGs, and monoclonal anti-Metuzumab, Clone 2D9 was chosen to be used as the internal standard for anti-Metuzumab study. A Bridging ELISA assay was developed by coating the wells with the antibody drug, and the anti-drug antibody (ADA) in the animal sera were detected by enzyme-labeled antibody. Its limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 0.39ng/ml of anti-Metuzumab antibody (ADA) with linear range between 0.39-50ng/ml and R(2)=0.994. For normal monkey sera, a minimal dilution was determined to be 1:80. However, very different from peptide or other protein drugs, strong interferences from the residual antibody drugs were observed from most of the testing monkey sera in the preclinical study. It was experimentally determined that the concentration of the residual antibody drug in the assay have to be lower than 1μg/ml, so the assays were carried out at 1:100 dilution of the monkey sera. In the pre-clinical study, 32 monkeys were treated with escalating doses of Metuzumab between 0, 10, 50, 200mg/kg for 13 times over 13weeks of time period. 16 of them were terminated right after the last injection, while the other 16 were rested for additional 4weeks before termination. Afraid to miss any positive response to antibody drug, sera samples were collected at six time points, including 2-, 6- and 10-weeks post 1st dose, prior to last dose, and 2-, 4-weeks into recovery. The highest positive rates were seen with the Medium

  1. The potential of the essential fatty acid-deficient hairless rat as a psoriasis screening model for topical anti-proliferative drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette; Groth, L.; Holmer, G.;

    2002-01-01

    with calcipotriol. Dithranol and its coal tar-containing vehicle also showed a reductive effect on epidermal thickness. EFAD hairless rats possess various histological changes resembling psoriasis. These histological changes normalise during treatment with anti-psoriatic drugs as calcipotriol, dithranol and coal......The objective of this study was to establish essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) in hairless rats and investigate the potential of this model as a psoriasis screening model by testing the effects of calcipotriol and dithranol on differentiation and proliferation in the epidermis. Hairless rats...... were fed with a fat-free diet lacking linoleic acid. The EFAD condition was established within 8 weeks. In order to ensure that this condition had been established, several parameters were measured and observed, i.e. animal weight, water consumption, transepidermal water loss, clinical skin symptoms...

  2. High throughput virtual screening and in silico ADMET analysis for rapid and efficient identification of potential PAP248-286 aggregation inhibitors as anti-HIV agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ruchi; Bunkar, Devendra; Choudhary, Bhanwar Singh; Srivastava, Shubham; Mehta, Pakhuri; Sharma, Manish

    2016-10-01

    Human semen is principal vehicle for transmission of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses. Several endogenous peptides present in semen, including a 39-amino acid fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286) assemble into amyloid fibrils named as semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) that promote virion attachment to target cells which dramatically enhance HIV virus infection by up to 105-fold. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound, is the major catechin found in green tea which disaggregates existing SEVI fibers, and inhibits the formation of SEVI fibers. The aim of this study was to screen a number of relevant polyphenols to develop a rational approach for designing PAP248-286 aggregation inhibitors as potential anti-HIV agents. The molecular docking based virtual screening results showed that polyphenolic compounds 2-6 possessed good docking score and interacted well with the active site residues of PAP248-286. Amino acid residues of binding site namely; Lys255, Ser256, Leu258 and Asn265 are involved in binding of these compounds. In silico ADMET prediction studies on these hits were also found to be promising. Polyphenolic compounds 2-6 identified as hits may act as novel leads for inhibiting aggregation of PAP248-286 into SEVI.

  3. Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Bacterial Studies of the Ethanolic Extract of Citrus Senensis (Linn. Peel against some Clinical Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus senensis peel has many medicinal properties and is widely used against various ailments, such as colic, upset stomach, cancer, diuretic, cormunative, immuno – enhancing, stomachic, tonic to digestive system, immune system and skin. It is also used to treat and prevent vitamin deficiencies, colds, flu, and scurvy and helping to fight viral and bacterial infections. The aim of the study is to verify the ethnomedicinal use of the peel as anti-bacterial. The peels were air-dried and ground to powder using mortar and pestle, extracted with 95% ethanol. The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Agar diffusion method was employed to test the antibacterial activity of the extract and the MIC and MBC of the extract were determined by broth dilution technique. The results of the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, phytosterols and steroids. The results of the antibacterial activity showed that the isolates were sensitive to the extract, with MIC of 0.25-2.5mg/ml and MBC of 0.5-5.0mg/ml. The antibacterial effects of the extracts suggest their possible use for the treatment of infections caused by the test bacteria. The chemotherapeutic potential of the fruit peel could be due to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, phytosterols and steroids. The success of this study could lead to the development of cheap, easily available and relatively safe bactericides from a tropical plant.

  4. High-throughput screening for GPR119 modulators identifies a novel compound with anti-diabetic efficacy in db/db mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119 is highly expressed in pancreatic β cells and enteroendocrine cells. It is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 release, thereby representing a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Although a number of GPR119 agonists were developed, no positive allosteric modulator (PAM to this receptor has been reported. Here we describe a high-throughput assay for screening GPR119 PAMs and agonists simultaneously. Following screening of a small molecule compound library containing 312,000 synthetic and natural product-derived samples, one potent GPR119 agonist with novel chemical structure, MW1219, was identified. Exposure of MIN6 and GLUTag cells to MW1219 enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and GLP-1 release; once-daily oral dosing of MW1219 for 6 weeks in diabetic db/db mice reduced hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and improved plasma glucose, insulin and GLP-1 levels; it also increased glucose tolerance. The results demonstrate that MW1219 is capable of effectively controlling blood glucose level and may have the potential to be developed as a new class of anti-diabetic agents.

  5. Phytochemical screening, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil of Myrcia pubiflora in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara S. Andrade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This report aimed to investigate the chemical composition and possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from fresh leaves of Myrcia pubiflora DC., Myrtaceae (EOMP, through different experimental tests. The essential oil of M. pubiflora (EOMP was obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC-MS, and tested at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (i.p. in three different tests of nociception (acetic acid-induced writhing test, formalin test, and hot plate test and one test of inflammation (leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity in order to evaluate the motor activity in mice treated with EOMP. The major component of EOMP was caryophyllene oxide (22.16%. This oil significantly reduced the number of writhes in an acetic acid test and the time spent licking the paw at the second phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, EOMP inhibited the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. However, administration of EOMP did not alter reaction time in the hot plate test, and did not affect the motor coordination test. These results indicate antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of EOMP probably mediated via inhibition of inflammatory mediator synthesis or other peripheral pathway.

  6. Synthesis, Spectral investigation (¹H, ¹³C) and Anti-microbial Screening of benzophenone imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Muhammad Kaleem; Jamal, Muhammad Asghar; Saif, Muhammad Jawad; Muneer, Majid; Rehman, Fazalur; Farman, Muhammad; Shoaib, Hafiz Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Shabnam

    2015-11-01

    New series of benzophenone imines with general formula Ph2-C=NR; R = Benzyl, 4-Fluorobenzyl, Naphthyl, Phenyl, 4-Nitrophenyl were synthesized by condensation of dichlorodiphenylmethane and different aromatic primary amines (1:1) Those imines were characterized by different physiochemical and spectroscopic techniques like melting point, elemental analysis, FT-IR, multinuclear NMR (¹H, ¹³C). After characterization, imines were subjected to anti-microbial activities. All compounds showed promising activity against different bacterial strains like Escherichia coli, Bacillussubtilis, Pasturellam ultocida and Staphylococcus aureus as well as fungal strains like Alternata alternaria, Ganoderma lucidium, Penicillium notatum and Trichoderma harzianum using Amoxicillin and Flucanazole as a standard drugs respectively. PMID:26639485

  7. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  8. Identification of Novel Anti-mycobacterial Compounds by Screening a Pharmaceutical Small-Molecule Library against Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Thulasi; Martinez-Hoyos, Maria; Marin-Amieva, Manuel; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Porras-De Francisco, Esther; Alvarez-Pedraglio, Ana Isabel; Fraile-Gabaldon, Maria Teresa; Torres-Gomez, Pedro Alfonso; Lopez-Quezada, Landys; Gold, Ben; Roberts, Julia; Ling, Yan; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Little, David; Cammack, Nicholas; Nathan, Carl; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso

    2015-12-11

    Identification of compounds that target metabolically diverse subpopulations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may contribute to shortening the course of treatment for tuberculosis. This study screened 270,000 compounds from GlaxoSmithKline's collection against Mtb in a nonreplicating (NR) state imposed in vitro by a combination of four host-relevant stresses. Evaluation of 166 confirmed hits led to detailed characterization of 19 compounds for potency, specificity, cytotoxicity, and stability. Compounds representing five scaffolds depended on reactive nitrogen species for selective activity against NR Mtb, and two were stable in the assay conditions. Four novel scaffolds with activity against replicating (R) Mtb were also identified. However, none of the 19 compounds was active against Mtb in both NR and R states. There was minimal overlap between compounds found active against NR Mtb and those previously identified as active against R Mtb, supporting the hypothesis that NR Mtb depends on distinct metabolic pathways for survival. PMID:27623055

  9. Screening of QHF formula for effective ingredients from Chinese herbs and its anti-hepatic cell cancer effect in combination with chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that effective ingredients of Chinese herbs are used more and more widely in the treatment or co-treatment of cancers,however,they are usually used separately and there has been limited research about joint application of Chinese herbs in multi-modal treatment.The aim of this study was to screen a QHF(Q:Qingrejiedu,H:Huoxuehuayu and F:Fuzhengguben)formula for effective ingredients from Chinese medicines and assess its anti-hepatic cell cancer(HCC)effect in combination with chemotherapy.Methods Six effective ingredients from Chinese medicine were selected based on the previous literature and used in the study.The QHF formula and the best ratio of ingredients were evaluated in H22 mouse(KM)models with solid tumors and ascites tumors by uniform design and monitoring inhibition of tumor growth and survival.We then observed the anti-hepatic cell cancer(HCC)effect of QHF when combined with cisplatin(DDP)in H22 mouse(Balb/c)models with solid tumors and ascites tumors.Evaluating of the therapeutic effect included the general condition of the mice,inhibition of tumor growth,survival,changes in body weight,thymus index,spleen index and WBC counts.Results The optimal QHF dose ratio for anti-hepatic cell cancer treatment was:800 mg/kg Cinobufotalin,14 mg/kg Ginsenosides Rg3,5.5 mg/kg PNS and 100 mg/kg Lentinan.Treatment was more efficient in inhibiting the growth of transplanted tumors in H22 mice when using the QHF formula(55.91%)than using Cinobufotalin(33.25%),Ginsenosides Rg3(35.11%),PNS(27.12%)or Lentinan(4.97%)separately.QHF also prolonged the life of H22 ascites hepatic cancer mice more efficiently(38.13%)than Cinobufotalin(25.00%),Ginsenosides Rg3(27.27%),PNS(23.30%) or Lentinan (24.43%).QHF combined with DDP could reduce DDP-induced leucopenia,spleen and thymus atrophy and other toxic reactions.Combining QHF with DDP the tumor growth inhibition reached 82.54% with a 66.83% increase in survival.Conclusions QHF is more efficient in

  10. Identification of benzopyrone as a common structural feature in compounds with anti-inflammatory activity in a zebrafish phenotypic screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Robertson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are essential for host defence and are recruited to sites of inflammation in response to tissue injury or infection. For inflammation to resolve, these cells must be cleared efficiently and in a controlled manner, either by apoptosis or reverse migration. If the inflammatory response is not well-regulated, persistent neutrophils can cause damage to host tissues and contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, which respond poorly to current treatments. It is therefore important to develop drug discovery strategies that can identify new therapeutics specifically targeting neutrophils, either by promoting their clearance or by preventing their recruitment. Our recent in vivo chemical genetic screen for accelerators of inflammation resolution identified a subset of compounds sharing a common chemical signature, the bicyclic benzopyrone rings. Here, we further investigate the mechanisms of action of the most active of this chemical series, isopimpinellin, in our zebrafish model of neutrophilic inflammation. We found that this compound targets both the recruitment and resolution phases of the inflammatory response. Neutrophil migration towards a site of injury is reduced by isopimpinellin and this occurs as a result of PI3K inhibition. We also show that isopimpinellin induces neutrophil apoptosis to drive inflammation resolution in vivo using a new zebrafish reporter line detecting in vivo neutrophil caspase-3 activity and allowing quantification of flux through the apoptotic pathway in real time. Finally, our studies reveal that clinically available ‘cromones’ are structurally related to isopimpinellin and have previously undescribed pro-resolution activity in vivo. These findings could have implications for the therapeutic use of benzopyrones in inflammatory disease.

  11. Identification of retinoic acid in a high content screen for agents that overcome the anti-myogenic effect of TGF-beta-1.

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    Chateen Krueger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 is an inhibitor of muscle cell differentiation that is associated with fibrosis, poor regeneration and poor function in some diseases of muscle. When neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β1 or the angiotensin II inhibitor losartan were used to reduce TGF-β1 signaling, muscle morphology and function were restored in mouse models of Marfan Syndrome and muscular dystrophy. The goal of our studies was to identify additional agents that overcome the anti-myogenic effect of TGF-β1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high-content cell-based assay was developed in a 96-well plate format that detects the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC in C2C12 cells. The assay was used to quantify the dose-dependent responses of C2C12 cell differentiation to TGF-β1 and to the TGF-β1 Type 1 receptor kinase inhibitor, SB431542. Thirteen agents previously described as promoting C2C12 differentiation in the absence of TGF-β1 were screened in the presence of TGF-β1. Only all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid allowed a maximal level of C2C12 cell differentiation in the presence of TGF-β1; the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril and 10 nM estrogen provided partial rescue. Vitamin D was a potent inhibitor of retinoic acid-induced myogenesis in the presence of TGF-β1. TGF-β1 inhibits myoblast differentiation through activation of Smad3; however, retinoic acid did not inhibit TGF-β1-induced activation of a Smad3-dependent reporter gene in C2C12 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Retinoic acid alleviated the anti-myogenic effect of TGF-β1 by a Smad3-independent mechanism. With regard to the goal of improving muscle regeneration and function in individuals with muscle disease, the identification of retinoic acid is intriguing in that some retinoids are already approved for human therapy. However, retinoids also have well-described adverse effects. The quantitative, high-content assay will be

  12. Screening of the Anti-diabetic Activities of Xanthones from Garcinia xanthochymus%人面果口山酮抗糖尿病活性的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝元; 田世婷; 陈玉

    2015-01-01

    To study the anti-diabetic activities of xanthones from Garcinia xanthochymus and to screen the active compounds, MTT assay was used to determine its effect on the survival rate of HepG2 cells.The HepG2 cells were induced by high concentration of insulin to establish the insulin-resistance cell model ( HepG2/IR) .Then the glucose consumptions of cells treated with different concentration of compounds were measured by glucose oxidase and peroxidase ( GOD-POD) assay.The results showed that compounds 1, 3, and 4 ( except compounds 2 and 5 ) of the xanthones from Garcinia xanthochymus could significantly enhance the glucose consumption of HepG2/IR cell, which suggested that they had the potential anti-diabetic activities.%为研究人面果中酮的抗糖尿病活性,筛选具有较强活性的化合物,采用MTT法检测了化合物对HepG2细胞增殖率的影响。用高浓度胰岛素诱导HepG2细胞,建立了胰岛素抵抗模型( HepG2/IR),并采用葡萄糖氧化酶法,检测了不同浓度化合物对HepG2细胞胰岛素抵抗模型的葡萄糖消耗的影响。结果表明:人面果中酮中化合物1、3、4(除化合物2、5)能够明显促进HepG2/IR细胞的葡萄糖消耗,具有潜在的抗糖尿病活性。

  13. 一种消除振动筛停机冲击装置的研发%Development of an anti-impact device for halting vibration screens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔庆玉; 韩成春; 孔磊

    2012-01-01

    为解决振动筛停机时振动能释放产生的冲击力损坏振动机构、造成设备故障率上升的问题,研究开发一种在核心技术上具有自主知识产权的消除振动筛停机冲击的装置。该装置利用对液压缸活塞的结构设计和液压油路控制增加液体流动的行程,通过液体流动阻尼和压力降,以此吸收振动能量达到减振的目的。该装置采用了振动能量转换与吸收分离的技术,具有运行同步、减振及时的优点。%The shock generated from released vibration energy of halting vibration screen brings about the damage to the vibration mechanism and the increase in equipment failure.In view of which,a kind of anti-impact device for halting vibration screens was developed whose core technology had independent intellectual property right.The device controlled the stroke of the liquid flow through the structural design of the cylinder piston and the hydraulic circuit,and vibration energy was absorbed to reduce the vibration through the flow damping and pressure drop of liquid.The device worked on the vibration energy transformation and absorption separation technology,and was characterized by synchronous operation and timely vibration reduction.

  14. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Determination of One Hundred Kinds of Pure Chemical Compounds Using Offline and Online Screening HPLC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antioxidant activity of one hundred kinds of pure chemical compounds found within a number of natural substances and oriental medicinal herbs (OMH. Three different methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of DPPH radical-scavenging activity, ABTS radical-scavenging activity, and online screening HPLC-ABTS assays. The results indicated that 17 compounds exhibited better inhibitory activity against ABTS radical than DPPH radical. The IC50 rate of a more practical substance is determined, and the ABTS assay IC50 values of gallic acid hydrate, (+-catechin hydrate, caffeic acid, rutin hydrate, hyperoside, quercetin, and kaempferol compounds were 1.03 ± 0.25, 3.12 ± 0.51, 1.59 ± 0.06, 4.68 ± 1.24, 3.54 ± 0.39, 1.89 ± 0.33, and 3.70 ± 0.15 μg/mL, respectively. The ABTS assay is more sensitive to identifying the antioxidant activity since it has faster reaction kinetics and a heightened response to antioxidants. In addition, there was a very small margin of error between the results of the offline-ABTS assay and those of the online screening HPLC-ABTS assay. We also evaluated the effects of 17 compounds on the NO secretion in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and also investigated the cytotoxicity of 17 compounds using a cell counting kit (CCK in order to determine the optimal concentration that would provide an effective anti-inflammatory action with minimum toxicity. These results will be compiled into a database, and this method can be a powerful preselection tool for compounds intended to be studied for their potential bioactivity and antioxidant activity related to their radical-scavenging capacity.

  15. A Novel High Content Imaging-Based Screen Identifies the Anti-Helminthic Niclosamide as an Inhibitor of Lysosome Anterograde Trafficking and Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion.

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    Magdalena L Circu

    Full Text Available Lysosome trafficking plays a significant role in tumor invasion, a key event for the development of metastasis. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that the anterograde (outward movement of lysosomes to the cell surface in response to certain tumor microenvironment stimulus, such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF or acidic extracellular pH (pHe, increases cathepsin B secretion and tumor cell invasion. Anterograde lysosome trafficking depends on sodium-proton exchanger activity and can be reversed by blocking these ion pumps with Troglitazone or EIPA. Since these drugs cannot be advanced into the clinic due to toxicity, we have designed a high-content assay to discover drugs that block peripheral lysosome trafficking with the goal of identifying novel drugs that inhibit tumor cell invasion. An automated high-content imaging system (Cellomics was used to measure the position of lysosomes relative to the nucleus. Among a total of 2210 repurposed and natural product drugs screened, 18 "hits" were identified. One of the compounds identified as an anterograde lysosome trafficking inhibitor was niclosamide, a marketed human anti-helminthic drug. Further studies revealed that niclosamide blocked acidic pHe, HGF, and epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced anterograde lysosome redistribution, protease secretion, motility, and invasion of DU145 castrate resistant prostate cancer cells at clinically relevant concentrations. In an effort to identify the mechanism by which niclosamide prevented anterograde lysosome movement, we found that this drug exhibited no significant effect on the level of ATP, microtubules or actin filaments, and had minimal effect on the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Niclosamide collapsed intralysosomal pH without disruption of the lysosome membrane, while bafilomycin, an agent that impairs lysosome acidification, was also found to induce JLA in our model. Taken together, these data suggest that niclosamide promotes

  16. Anti-Aβ drug screening platform using human iPS cell-derived neurons for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Naoki Yahata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive memory and cognitive decline during middle to late adult life. The AD brain is characterized by deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ, which is produced from amyloid precursor protein by β- and γ-secretase (presenilin complex-mediated sequential cleavage. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells potentially provide an opportunity to generate a human cell-based model of AD that would be crucial for drug discovery as well as for investigating mechanisms of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We differentiated human iPS (hiPS cells into neuronal cells expressing the forebrain marker, Foxg1, and the neocortical markers, Cux1, Satb2, Ctip2, and Tbr1. The iPS cell-derived neuronal cells also expressed amyloid precursor protein, β-secretase, and γ-secretase components, and were capable of secreting Aβ into the conditioned media. Aβ production was inhibited by β-secretase inhibitor, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI, and an NSAID; however, there were different susceptibilities to all three drugs between early and late differentiation stages. At the early differentiation stage, GSI treatment caused a fast increase at lower dose (Aβ surge and drastic decline of Aβ production. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the hiPS cell-derived neuronal cells express functional β- and γ-secretases involved in Aβ production; however, anti-Aβ drug screening using these hiPS cell-derived neuronal cells requires sufficient neuronal differentiation.

  17. Screening of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes for the Ginsenoside Compound K In Vitro: An Efficient Anti-Cancer Substance Originating from Panax Ginseng.

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    Jian Xiao

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside compound K (CK, a rare ginsenoside originating from Panax Ginseng, has been found to possess unique pharmacological activities specifically as anti-cancers. However, the role of cytochrome P450s (CYPs in the metabolism of CK is unclear. In this study, we screened the CYPs for the metabolism of CK in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs or human recombinant CYPs. The results showed that CK inhibited the enzyme activities of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in the HLMs. The Km and Vmax values of CK were 84.20±21.92 μM and 0.28±0.04 nmol/mg protein/min, respectively, for the HLMs; 34.63±10.48 μM and 0.45±0.05 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP2C9; and 27.03±5.04 μM and 0.68±0.04 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP3A4. The IC50 values were 16.00 μM and 9.83 μM, and Ki values were 14.92 μM and 11.42μM for CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, respectively. Other human CYP isoforms, including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP2C19, showed minimal or no effect on CK metabolism. The results suggested that CK was a substrate and also inhibitors for both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Patients using CK in combination with therapeutic drugs that are substrates of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 for different reasons should be careful, although the inhibiting potency of CK is much poorer than that of enzyme-specific inhibitors.

  18. Computational screening of the human TF-glycome provides a structural definition for the specificity of anti-tumor antibody JAA-F11.

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    Matthew B Tessier

    Full Text Available Recombinant antibodies are of profound clinical significance; yet, anti-carbohydrate antibodies are prone to undesirable cross-reactivity with structurally related-glycans. Here we introduce a new technology called Computational Carbohydrate Grafting (CCG, which enables a virtual library of glycans to be assessed for protein binding specificity, and employ it to define the scope and structural origin of the binding specificity of antibody JAA-F11 for glycans containing the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF human tumor antigen. A virtual library of the entire human glycome (GLibrary-3D was constructed, from which 1,182 TF-containing human glycans were identified and assessed for their ability to fit into the antibody combining site. The glycans were categorized into putative binders, or non-binders, on the basis of steric clashes with the antibody surface. The analysis employed a structure of the immune complex, generated by docking the TF-disaccharide (Galβ1-3GalNAcα into a crystal structure of the JAA-F11 antigen binding fragment, which was shown to be consistent with saturation transfer difference (STD NMR data. The specificities predicted by CCG were fully consistent with data from experimental glycan array screening, and confirmed that the antibody is selective for the TF-antigen and certain extended core-2 type mucins. Additionally, the CCG analysis identified a limited number of related putative binding motifs, and provided a structural basis for interpreting the specificity. CCG can be utilized to facilitate clinical applications through the determination of the three-dimensional interaction of glycans with proteins, thus augmenting drug and vaccine development techniques that seek to optimize the specificity and affinity of neutralizing proteins, which target glycans associated with diseases including cancer and HIV.

  19. Evaluation of Workpiece Temperature during Drilling of GLARE Fiber Metal Laminates Using Infrared Techniques: Effect of Cutting Parameters, Fiber Orientation and Spray Mist Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Giasin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise in cutting temperatures during the machining process can influence the final quality of the machined part. The impact of cutting temperatures is more critical when machining composite-metal stacks and fiber metal laminates due to the stacking nature of those hybrids which subjects the composite to heat from direct contact with metallic part of the stack and the evacuated hot chips. In this paper, the workpiece surface temperature of two grades of fiber metal laminates commercially know as GLARE is investigated. An experimental study was carried out using thermocouples and infrared thermography to determine the emissivity of the upper, lower and side surfaces of GLARE laminates. In addition, infrared thermography was used to determine the maximum temperature of the bottom surface of machined holes during drilling GLARE under dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL cooling conditions under different cutting parameters. The results showed that during the machining process, the workpiece surface temperature increased with the increase in feed rate and fiber orientation influenced the developed temperature in the laminate.

  20. Preliminary Screening of Anti-inflammatory Fraction of Isatidis Radix%板蓝根抗炎作用有效部位初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯; 窦月; 孟凡刚; 田源; 陈智; 田景振

    2012-01-01

    目的:分离并初步筛选板蓝根抗炎作用有效部位.方法:通过膜分离将板蓝根总提取物分为不同截留相对分子质量段,采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀初步筛选,再将有效相对分子质量段用大孔树脂、离子交换树脂分离得到不同部位进一步采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀、小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性评价活性,最后通过特殊颜色反应确定有效部位化学性质.结果:板蓝根中相对分子质量小于1 000的物质对二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀模型抑制率为40.29%,与空白组相比有显著性差异(P<0.05).板蓝根小于1000D物质中被732阳离子交换树脂吸附部分对二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀模型抑制率为28.20%,对醋酸致小鼠毛细血管通透性攻变模型抑制率为17.76%,与空白组相比均有显著性差异(P<0.05).颜色反应说明该部位主要为氨基酸类及生物碱类成分.结论:板蓝根总氨基酸、总生物碱部位可能是其抗炎有效部位.%Objective: To separate and screen and-inflammatory fraction of Isatidis Radix. Method: Membrane separation method was used to separate Isatidis Radix into different sections, their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by acetic acid-induced celiac capillary permeability and xylene-induced mouse ear swelling models in mice. Macroporous resin and ion exchange resin were used to further separate Isatidis Radix into different sections, and the and inflammatory effects were evaluated by abouve mentioned models, finally, their chemical property was determined by color reactions. Result: The substance less than 1 000 in Isatidis Radix had a good inhibiting effect in mice era swelling model, the inhibition rate of swelling being 40.29% (P < 0. 05 ). The fraction absorbed by 732 cationic resin in the less than 1 000 substances could inhibit celiac capillary permeability andear swelling, the inhibiting rate being 17. 76% and 28. 20% , respectively (P <0. 05). Color reactions showed that the

  1. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal O. Bessong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638 of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0–23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0–35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100% was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05, followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%. The MIC50 values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC90 values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to >0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05. Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.

  2. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  3. Effects of screen filter on visibility of alphanumeric presentation on CRT and LCD monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunjic, Aleksandar; Ristic, Ljiljana; Milanovic, Dragan D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a research that deals with the problem of determining of the visibility of the alphanumeric presentation on CRT and LCD screens is presented, in conditions when the screen filters are used, and when they are not used. A methodology that can be used for determination of the visibility of alphanumeric symbols on VDT screens is presented. It is determined the existence of differences in visibility of alphanumeric presentations when screen filters are used, compared to conditions when they are not used. This difference was statistically significant, while the visibility of the presented alphanumeric symbols on CRT and LCD screens that use screen filters is lower than when they are not used. For this reason, the use of protective screen filter is recommended in circumstances where a very high level of glare exists, when the visual fatigue is common appearance and when a user performs a task that does not depend on the detection of stimuli whose RGB values are low.

  4. Screening Anti-LPS VHH from Llama Single Domain Antibody Li-brary and Preparation of Anti-LPS Nanobody Pentamer%抗脂多糖纳米抗体的筛选及其五聚体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文; 李胜华; 张伟京; 王炳奇

    2013-01-01

    目的::筛选抗脂多糖(LPS)纳米单域抗体,并制备抗LPS纳米抗体五聚体。方法:以LPS为抗原,从驼源天然单域重链抗体库中筛选抗LPS纳米抗体,利用分子克隆技术将抗LPS单域抗体基因组装入志贺杆菌样毒素B亚基蛋白结构域(VTB)的五聚体特异性表达载体中进行可溶性表达,并用ELISA法鉴定所获抗体的抗原结合活性和特异性。结果:获得抗LPS纳米单域抗体及LPS纳米抗体五聚体;经鉴定,LPS纳米抗体五聚体的抗原结合活性优于抗LPS单域抗体。结论:利用驼源天然单域重链抗体库制备了抗LPS纳米单域抗体及抗LPS纳米抗体五聚体,为脓毒血症的分子诊断、预后判断及寻找生物治疗新靶点奠定了基础。%Objective: To obtain anti-LPS VHH and prepare anti-LPS nanobody pentamer. Methods: Using phage display screening technology, we selected anti-LPS single domain antibody(sdAb, or nanobody) from a phage display library of llama single domain antibody, and then cloned the anti-LPS single-domain antibody gene into specific expression vector pVTB1 with molecular cloning technology, and expressed anti-LPS pentamer effi-ciently in E.coli. The affinity of different type of anti-LPS nanobodies were detected by ELISA. Results: We ob-tained anti-LPS single domain antibody and anti-LPS antibody pentamer, and proved anti-LPS nanobody pentamer is extremely enhance the specificity and affinity strength of anti-LPS antibody. Conclusion: The selected anti-LPS antibody pentamer is a leading candidate for therapies against LPS-mediated sepsis.

  5. Impact of flat panel-imager veiling glare on scatter-estimation accuracy and image quality of a commercial on-board cone-beam CT imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purposes of this study is to measure the low frequency drop (LFD) of the modulation transfer function (MTF), associated with the long tails of the detector point spread function (PSF) of an on-board flat panel imager and study its impact on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and scatter measurement accuracy. Methods: Two different experimental methods were used to characterize LFD and its associated PSF of a Varian OBI flat-panel detector system: the edge response function (ERF) method and the disk transfer function (DTF) method. PSF was estimated by fitting parametric models to these measurements for four values of the applied voltage (kVp). The resultant PSF was used to demonstrate the effect of LFD on image contrast and CT number accuracy in CBCT images reconstructed from synthetic datasets, as well as, accuracy of scatter measurements with the beam-stop method. Results: The MTFs derived from the measured ERF data revealed LFDs varying from 8% (at 60 kVp) to 10.5% (at 120 kVp), while the intensity of the long PSF tails was found to increase with increasing kVp. The veiling glare line spread functions derived from the ERF and DTF methods were in excellent agreement. Uncorrected veiling glare reduced contrast and the image intensity in CBCT reconstruction, near the phantom periphery (by 67 Hounsfield units in a 20 cm-in-diameter water phantom) and (to a smaller degree) near inhomogeneities. Use of the bow-tie filter mitigated these effects. Veiling glare also resulted in about 10%–15% overestimation of the scatter-to-primary ratio when measured with the beam-stop or beam-stop array method. Conclusions: The long tails of the detector PSF were found to have a modest dependence of beam spectrum, which is reflected on the MTF curve LFD. Our findings show that uncorrected veiling glare can affect quantitative accuracy and contrast in CBCT imaging, based on flat panel imager. In addition, it results in overestimation of the scatter-to-primary ratio

  6. Discovery of Novel Tricyclic Thiazepine Derivatives as Anti-Drug-Resistant Cancer Agents by Combining Diversity-Oriented Synthesis and Converging Screening Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jinbao; Zhang, Zhuoqi; Mu, Yan; Xu, Xianxiu; Guo, Sigen; Liu, Yongjin; Russo, Daniel P; Zhu, Hao; Yan, Bing; Bai, Xu

    2016-05-01

    An efficient discovery strategy by combining diversity-oriented synthesis and converging cellular screening is described. By a three-round screening process, we identified novel tricyclic pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzothiazepines showing potent inhibitory activity against paclitaxel-resistant cell line H460TaxR (EC50 100 μM against normal human fibroblasts). The most active hits also exhibited drug-like properties suitable for further preclinical research. This redeployment of antidepressing compounds for anticancer applications provides promising future prospects for treating drug-resistant tumors with fewer side effects. PMID:27082930

  7. Rescreening and confirmation of anti-HIV antibody positive serum in primary screening in Qingdao%青岛市HIV抗体初筛阳性标本的复检及确证结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓燕; 张洪花; 赵国有; 弋英; 汪照国

    2013-01-01

    Objective To rescreen and confirm anti-HIV antibody positive serum in primary screening in Qingdao from 2009 to 2011 and to analyze the related data,so as to provide basis for prevention and control of AIDS in Qingdao.Methods Samples positive for anti-HIV antibody in primary screening test were re-screened with both Electroselenium method and ELISA.Then the positive samples in either re-screening test were further confirmed with Western Blot (WB).Results In 1348 positive samples from primary screening test,positive were found in 745 cases in re-screening test.By WB confirmation,563 cases were positive,95 cases were suspected and 87 cases were negative.In contrast to WB,positive coincidence rates of ELISA and Electroselenium method were 81.5% and 84.3% respectively.The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 100% and 93.6 % respectively,and those of Electroselenium method were 100% and 94.5% respectively.Flouting population accounted for 58.4% and MSM accounted for 40.1% of total HIV infection.Conclusion Anti-HIV antibody rescreening tests could exclude most false positive samples in primary screening test.However,there is still some false positive rate in either rescreening test.Flouting population and MSM are the high risk population of HIV infection in Qingdao city and intervention should be strengthened among those people.%目的 复检和确认HIV抗体初筛阳性血清并分析相关资料,为青岛市艾滋病防治工作提供依据.方法 对初筛阳性血清,用胶体硒和ELISA试验复检,任一复检试验阳性的血清再用WB试验确证并对确证阳性病例进行流行病学分析.结果 1348份初筛阳性血清经复检745份阳性,WB确证563份HIV-l抗体阳性,不确定95份,阴性87份.ELISA、胶体硒法与WB的阳性符合率分别为81.5%和84.3%,二者的敏感度均为100%,特异度分别为93.6%和94.5%,确证阳性人群中,外来人员占58.4%,男男性行为人群占40.1%.结论 ELISA和胶体硒

  8. "For export only" medicines come back to Europe: a RP-LC method for the screening of six glucocorticoids in illegal and counterfeit anti-inflammatory and lightening creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, M C; Lucente, D; Antoniella, E; Bertocchi, P; Muleri, N; Manna, L; Bartolomei, M; Alimonti, S; Valvo, L; Rodomonte, A L

    2010-10-10

    "For export only" anti-inflammatory and lightening creams are medicinal products sold in African countries for their skin whitening action. In the last years, Rapid Alerts from European Medicinal Regulatory Agencies evidenced the presence of a large number of illegal and counterfeit anti-inflammatory products advertised for their whitening action on black skin in the European market. These drugs, containing glucocorticoids, are illegally sold in Europe in unauthorized ethno-cosmetics-shops and mainly bought by immigrants. This paper reports a new RP-LC method for the rapid simultaneous screening of six different active ingredients in anti-inflammatory and whitening products (creams, ointment and suspension): betamethasone dipropionate, dexamethasone, fluocinonide, fluocinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, methyl-prednisolone acetate. The method was developed and validated in view of its possible application in quality control laboratories, mainly those appointed to the control of illegal/counterfeit medicinal products. The associated measurement uncertainty was calculated from validation data. The method was then applied to the analysis of whitening products obtained from the Italian illegal market.

  9. Screening of benzofuran compound 3-acetamido-2-p-anisoyl benzofuran for anti-inflammatory activity in acute models of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayana K.

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Results from our study show that the compound under study has significant anti-inflammatory activity and further detailed works with this compound in different doses are needed. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 239-242

  10. An anti-tumor protein produced by Trichinella spiralis and identified by screening a T7 phage display library, induces apoptosis in human hepatoma H7402 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichinella spiralis infection confers effective resistance to tumor cell expansion. In this study, a T7 phage cDNA display library was constructed to express genes encoded by T. spiralis. Organic phase multi-cell screening was used to sort through candidate proteins in a transfected human chronic m...

  11. Molecular docking based screening of novel designed chalcone series of compounds for their anti-cancer activity targeting EGFR kinase domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chennu Maruthi Malya Prasada; Yejella, Rajendra Prasad; Rehman, Rehman Shaik Abdul; Basha, Syed Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are critical for the growth of many tumors and expressed at high levels in about one third of epithelial cancers. Hence, blockade of the binding sites for EGFR has been hypothesized as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Chalcone derivative compounds have been shown to be highly effective anti-cancer agents, however there are still so many novel derivatives possible, one of which might get us the best targeted EGFR inhibitor. In this effort directed towards the discovery of novel, potent anti-tumor agents for the treatment of cancer, in the present study a library of novel chalcone series of compounds has been designed and evaluated for their anti-cancer activity targeting EGFR kinase domain using various computational approaches. Among the twenty five novel designed chalcone series of compounds, all of them have found to be successfully docking inside the active binding domain of EGFR receptor target with a binding energy in a range of -6.10 to -9.25 Kcal/mol with predicted IC50 value range of 33.50 micor molar to 164.66 nano molar respectively. On the other hand, calculated 2DQSAR molecular descriptor properties of the compounds showed promising ADME parameters and found to be well in compliance with Lipinski׳s rule of five. Among all the twenty five compounds tested, compound 21 ((2E)-3-(anthracen-9-yl)-1-phenylprop-2-2n-1- one) was found to be the best lead like molecule with a binding energy of -9.25 kcal/mol with predicted IC50 value of 164.66 nano molar. Conclusively, novel designed compound 21 of the present study have shown promising anti-cancer potential worth considering for further evaluations. PMID:26339147

  12. Discovery of potent, novel, non-toxic anti-malarial compounds via quantum modelling, virtual screening and in vitro experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaludov Nikola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing resistance towards existing anti-malarial therapies emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Additionally, many malaria drugs in use today have high toxicity and low therapeutic indices. Gradient Biomodeling, LLC has developed a quantum-model search technology that uses quantum similarity and does not depend explicitly on chemical structure, as molecules are rigorously described in fundamental quantum attributes related to individual pharmacological properties. Therapeutic activity, as well as toxicity and other essential properties can be analysed and optimized simultaneously, independently of one another. Such methodology is suitable for a search of novel, non-toxic, active anti-malarial compounds. Methods A set of innovative algorithms is used for the fast calculation and interpretation of electron-density attributes of molecular structures at the quantum level for rapid discovery of prospective pharmaceuticals. Potency and efficacy, as well as additional physicochemical, metabolic, pharmacokinetic, safety, permeability and other properties were characterized by the procedure. Once quantum models are developed and experimentally validated, the methodology provides a straightforward implementation for lead discovery, compound optimizzation and de novo molecular design. Results Starting with a diverse training set of 26 well-known anti-malarial agents combined with 1730 moderately active and inactive molecules, novel compounds that have strong anti-malarial activity, low cytotoxicity and structural dissimilarity from the training set were discovered and experimentally validated. Twelve compounds were identified in silico and tested in vitro; eight of them showed anti-malarial activity (IC50 ≤ 10 μM, with six being very effective (IC50 ≤ 1 μM, and four exhibiting low nanomolar potency. The most active compounds were also tested for mammalian cytotoxicity and found to be non-toxic, with a

  13. SoNar, a Highly Responsive NAD+/NADH Sensor, Allows High-Throughput Metabolic Screening of Anti-tumor Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuzheng; Hu, Qingxun; Cheng, Feixiong; Su, Ni; Wang, Aoxue; Zou, Yejun; Hu, Hanyang; Chen, Xianjun; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Huang, Xinzhi; Yang, Kai; Zhu, Qian; Wang, Xue; Yi, Jing; Zhu, Linyong; Qian, Xuhong; Chen, Lixin; Tang, Yun; Loscalzo, Joseph; Yang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    The altered metabolism of tumor cells confers a selective advantage for survival and proliferation, and studies have shown that targeting such metabolic shifts may be a useful therapeutic strategy. We developed an intensely fluorescent, rapidly responsive, pH-resistant, genetically encoded sensor of wide dynamic range, denoted SoNar, for tracking cytosolic NAD(+) and NADH redox states in living cells and in vivo. SoNar responds to subtle perturbations of various pathways of energy metabolism in real time, and allowed high-throughput screening for new agents targeting tumor metabolism. Among > 5,500 unique compounds, we identified KP372-1 as a potent NQO1-mediated redox cycling agent that produced extreme oxidative stress, selectively induced cancer cell apoptosis, and effectively decreased tumor growth in vivo. This study demonstrates that genetically encoded sensor-based metabolic screening could serve as a valuable approach for drug discovery.

  14. The contribution of phenolic acids to the anti-inflammatory activity of mushrooms: screening in phenolic extracts, individual parent molecules and synthesized glucuronated and methylated derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodele, Oludemi Taofiq; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Heleno, Sandrina A.; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of fourteen edible mushrooms were investigated for their anti-inflammatory potential in LPS (lipopolysaccharide) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore the extracts were chemically characterized in terms of phenolic acids and related compounds. The identified molecules (p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids) and their glucuronated and methylated derivatives obtained by chemical synthesis were also evaluated for the same bioactivity,...

  15. EVALUATION OF CISPLATIN-INDUCED PICA BEHAVIOUR IN RATS BY MEASURING FAECAL CARMINE-DYE EXCRETION: AN IMPROVED EXPERIMENTAL MODEL TO SCREEN SAMPLES WITH ANTI-EMETIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to evaluate the Cisplatin-induced pica behaviour in rats by measuring faecal carmine dye excretion and to evaluate the anti-emetic effect of drugs on Cisplatin-induced pica behaviour in rats. Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each. Rats from group I and II received DM water (10ml/kg p.o. Rats from group III and IV received Himalaya Anti-emetic Tablets (HAT 250 mg/kg p.o. and ondansetron 4mg/kg p.o, respectively. After one hour of the assigned treatment, all the animals except in group I were injected with Cisplatin 3mg/kg i.p. Rats in group I were injected with saline (1ml/kg i.p.. All the animals were fed with normal as well as kaolin pellets (impregnated with carmine dye. The faeces of each rat was collected after 72 hrs of drug administration and analysed for the carmine content.Cisplatin injection (3mg/kg caused a significant increase in kaolin consumption, which was indicated by increased carmine dye excretion in faeces compared to control. Pre-treatment with HAT and ondansetron significantly suppressed kaolin consumption induced by Cisplatin. The present findings showed that the exact kaolin consumption can be quantified by measuring the faecal excretion of carmine, which was added in kaolin pellets and this can be a sensitive model to study the anti-emetic potential of drugs, overcoming the inherent disadvantages of measuring direct kaolin intake. Pre-treatment with ondansetron and HAT significantly decreased kaolin consumption in rats-induced by Cisplatin injection, which was further shown by decrease in faecal excretion of carmine, indicating anti-emetic potential of tested drugs.

  16. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  17. Study on transformation of anti-nasopharyngeal carcinoma plasmid pFY and bacterial strains screening%抗鼻咽癌质粒 pFY 转化和菌种筛选的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁闪凡; 刘娜; 张晓林

    2015-01-01

    目的:筛选携带抗鼻咽癌质粒 pFY 的稳定高产菌株。方法以 CaCl2法制备大肠杆菌 JM109感受态,将抗鼻咽癌质粒 pFY 转化 JM109感受态,对琼脂平板上获得的菌落进行筛选,选出符合标准的单菌落为菌种,进行菌种稳定性实验。用质粒提取试剂盒检测质粒含量。将抗鼻咽癌质粒 pFY 转染到细胞 CNE-2中,四氮唑蓝(MTT)比色法观察转染试剂及质粒载体对细胞生长增殖的影响。结果筛选得到菌株的培养液中质粒 DNA 含量为30 mg/mL,超螺旋 DNA 比例为92%。经电泳和酶切鉴定,该菌株的50子代所携带质粒与原代一致。质粒 pFY 对 CNE-2细胞株生长有明显的抑制作用。结论成功筛选出携带抗鼻咽癌质粒 pFY 的稳定高产菌株,为大批量制备临床应用级质粒奠定了基础。%Objective To screen the stable high-producing strains carrying anti-nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC)plasmid pFY.Methods Competent E.coli JM109 was prepared by the CaCl2 method and transformed with anti-NPC plasmid pFY.The bacterial colonies obtained from the agar plate were screened for selecting the single colony conforming to the standards as the bac-terial strain and conducting the stability test.The plasmid content was detected by the plasmid extraction reagent kit.Anti-NPC plasmid pFY was transfected into nasopharynegal carcinoma cell line CNE-2.The influence of transfection reagent and the plasmid vector on the cell proliferation was detected by MTT.Results The DNA concentration of plasmids in the culture solution of bacte-rial strain obtained by screening was 30 mg/mL.The proportion of supercoiled DNA was 92%.The identification of electrophoresis and restriction enzymes showed that the plasmids harbored in the 50th progeny of this strain were same as those in the primary. Plasmid pFY had the evident inhibiting effect on the growth of CNE-3 cell line.Conclusion The stable high-producing strains of E. coli carrying anti-NPC plasmid pFY is

  18. The potential of the essential fatty acid-deficient hairless rat as a psoriasis screening model for topical anti-proliferative drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.; Groth, L.; Fullerton, A.;

    2002-01-01

    , histology of the epidermis and fatty acid analysis of serum and skin. Immediately after the EFAD condition had been established, the animals were treated with dithranol ointment or different concentrations of calcipotriol solution. A reduction in epidermal thickness of 15-20% was seen after the treatment...... with calcipotriol. Dithranol and its coal tar-containing vehicle also showed a reductive effect on epidermal thickness. EFAD hairless rats possess various histological changes resembling psoriasis. These histological changes normalise during treatment with anti-psoriatic drugs as calcipotriol, dithranol and coal...

  19. Screening the yeast genome for energetic metabolism pathways involved in a phenotypic response to the anti-cancer agent 3-bromopyruvate

    OpenAIRE

    Lis, Paweł; Jurkiewicz, Paweł; Cal-Bąkowska, Magdalena; Ko, Young H.; Pedersen, Peter L.; Goffeau, Andre; Ułaszewski, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    In this study the detailed characteristic of the anti-cancer agent 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model is described, with the emphasis on its influence on energetic metabolism of the cell. It shows that 3-BP toxicity in yeast is strain-dependent and influenced by the glucose-repression system. Its toxic effect is mainly due to the rapid depletion of intracellular ATP. Moreover, lack of the Whi2p phosphatase results in strongly increased sensitivity of y...

  20. 7251例不规则抗体筛查结果分析%The Analysis of 7251 Cases Irregular Anti-bodies Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志远; 尹婷婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective Detected 7251 cases of irregular antibodies ( Irregular antibody,IA) type,then analysis potency fac-tors of IA positive producing and assessed clinical adverse events related IA positive. Methods Used salt water,micro gel method for prenatal immunological examination to determine qualitative and quantitative of IA,United clinical data were retrospectively analyzed IA impact on clinical adverse events. Results In 7251 cases of patients,IA-positive 54 cases(0. 61%),of which 31 cases(0. 42%) Rh system,including anti-D 23cases,anti-E 4 cases,anti-C2 cases,anti-c 1case,anti-e 1 case;other blood group system identified 8 cases(0. 19%),of which the anti-M3 cases,anti-Mur 2 cases,anti-Lea2 cases,anti-JKb1 cases;auto-antibodies detected in six cases;specific antibodies were not detected in 10 cases. The RA was higher occurrence ration in patients with antigen AB and Rh-,and the IA patented clinical value when antibody titer≥128. In IA-positive patients in 54 cases,12 cases of hepatitis patients(12/1500, 1. 47%),for 27 cases of pregnant women(27/2028,1. 33%),autoimmune diseases six cases(6/477,1. 26%),cancer patients five cases(5/2523,0. 20%),other four cases(4/723,0. 55%). This study further analyzed the correlation between IA and diseases,and found 45 cases of hemolytic reaction in IA-positive patients,that there were different degrees of jaundice and after clinical diagnosis confirmed;but patients with hemolytic reactions in 45 cases,the clinical inspection has 28 cases of patients with no history of blood transfusion and pregnancy history, but there were different degrees of inflammation. Conclusion The investigation included that IA played a role in clinic adverse events by according to hemolytic reaction,the relationship of IA and inflammation was discovered. The results of study may appear that the detection of IA had important value to decrease adverse transfusion reaction,at the same time,it may early warn the hemolytic reaction in persistent

  1. Screening anti-southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus drugs based on S7-1 gene expression in rice suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Wang, Zhenchao; Liu, Jing; Lv, Mingming; Liu, Jiaju; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Jin, Linghong; Hu, Deyu; Yang, Song; Song, Baoan

    2013-08-28

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a rice pathogen that had an outbreak in southern China in 2010 and caused significant crop losses. Therefore, screening for effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV is very important. This study used rice suspension cells infected with SRBSDV by polyethylene glycol-mediated uptake for screening antiviral drugs. SRBSDV P7-1, which is coded by the S7-1 gene, has an intrinsic ability to self-interact to form tubules that play an important role in viral infection. Therefore, relative expression level of the SRBSDV S7-1 gene in infected rice suspension cells was assayed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the antiviral activities of various drugs. Dufulin displayed the highest inhibitory activity against SRBSDV S7-1 expression. In addition, changes in peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were determined in inoculated and noninoculated cells. The results showed that both POD and PPO activities increased upon dufulin treatment. Furthermore, the validity of this approach was confirmed in an in vivo experiment in which dufulin was found to effectively inhibit SRBSDV.

  2. Identification of Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum Hexose Transporter PfHT by Screening Focused Libraries of Anti-Malarial Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz

    Full Text Available Development of resistance against current antimalarial drugs necessitates the search for novel drugs that interact with different targets and have distinct mechanisms of action. Malaria parasites depend upon high levels of glucose uptake followed by inefficient metabolic utilization via the glycolytic pathway, and the Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter PfHT, which mediates uptake of glucose, has thus been recognized as a promising drug target. This transporter is highly divergent from mammalian hexose transporters, and it appears to be a permease that is essential for parasite viability in intra-erythrocytic, mosquito, and liver stages of the parasite life cycle. An assay was developed that is appropriate for high throughput screening against PfHT based upon heterologous expression of PfHT in Leishmania mexicana parasites that are null mutants for their endogenous hexose transporters. Screening of two focused libraries of antimalarial compounds identified two such compounds that are high potency selective inhibitors of PfHT compared to human GLUT1. Additionally, 7 other compounds were identified that are lower potency and lower specificity PfHT inhibitors but might nonetheless serve as starting points for identification of analogs with more selective properties. These results further support the potential of PfHT as a novel drug target.

  3. Effective components screening and anti-myocardial infarction mechanism study of the Chinese medicine NSLF6 based on "system to system" mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qiong-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shuanglong formula (SLF, a Chinese medicine composed of panax ginseng and salvia miltiorrhiza exhibited significant effect in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI in clinical. Because of the complex nature and lack of stringent quality control, it's difficult to explain the action mechanism of SLF. Method In this study, we present a "system to system" (S2S mode. Based on this mode, SLF was simplified successively through bioactivity-guided screening to achieve an optimized minimal phytochemical composition (new formula NSLF6 while maintaining its curative effect for MI. Results Pharmacological test combining with the study of systems biology show that NSLF6 has activity for treatment MI through synergistic therapeutic efficacies between total ginsenosides and total salvianolic acids via promoting cardiac cell regeneration and myocardial angiogenesis, antagonistic myocardial cell oxidative damage. Conclusions The present S2S mode may be an effective way for the discovery of new composite drugs from traditional medicines.

  4. Per-residue energy decomposition pharmacophore model to enhance virtual screening in drug discovery: a study for identification of reverse transcriptase inhibitors as potential anti-HIV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cele FN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Favourite N Cele, Muthusamy Ramesh, Mahmoud ES Soliman Molecular Modelling and Drug Design Research Group, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa Abstract: A novel virtual screening approach is implemented herein, which is a further improvement of our previously published “target-bound pharmacophore modeling approach”. The generated pharmacophore library is based only on highly contributing amino acid residues, instead of arbitrary pharmacophores, which are most commonly used in the conventional approaches in literature. Highly contributing amino acid residues were distinguished based on free binding energy contributions obtained from calculation from molecular dynamic (MD simulations. To the best of our knowledge; this is the first attempt in the literature using such an approach; previous approaches have relied on the docking score to generate energy-based pharmacophore models. However, docking scores are reportedly unreliable. Thus, we present a model for a per-residue energy decomposition, constructed from MD simulation ensembles generating a more trustworthy pharmacophore model, which can be applied in drug discovery workflow. This work is aimed at introducing a more rational approach to the field of drug design, rather than comparing the validity of this approach against those previously reported. We recommend additional computational and experimental work to further validate this approach. This approach was used to screen for potential reverse transcriptase inhibitors using the pharmacophoric features of compound GSK952. The complex was subjected to docking, thereafter, MD simulation confirmed the stability of the system. Experimentally determined inhibitors with known HIV-reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity were used to validate the protocol. Two potential hits (ZINC46849657 and ZINC54359621 showed a significant potential with regard to free binding energy. Reported results obtained from

  5. Per-residue energy decomposition pharmacophore model to enhance virtual screening in drug discovery: a study for identification of reverse transcriptase inhibitors as potential anti-HIV agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Favourite N; Ramesh, Muthusamy; Soliman, Mahmoud Es

    2016-01-01

    A novel virtual screening approach is implemented herein, which is a further improvement of our previously published "target-bound pharmacophore modeling approach". The generated pharmacophore library is based only on highly contributing amino acid residues, instead of arbitrary pharmacophores, which are most commonly used in the conventional approaches in literature. Highly contributing amino acid residues were distinguished based on free binding energy contributions obtained from calculation from molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. To the best of our knowledge; this is the first attempt in the literature using such an approach; previous approaches have relied on the docking score to generate energy-based pharmacophore models. However, docking scores are reportedly unreliable. Thus, we present a model for a per-residue energy decomposition, constructed from MD simulation ensembles generating a more trustworthy pharmacophore model, which can be applied in drug discovery workflow. This work is aimed at introducing a more rational approach to the field of drug design, rather than comparing the validity of this approach against those previously reported. We recommend additional computational and experimental work to further validate this approach. This approach was used to screen for potential reverse transcriptase inhibitors using the pharmacophoric features of compound GSK952. The complex was subjected to docking, thereafter, MD simulation confirmed the stability of the system. Experimentally determined inhibitors with known HIV-reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity were used to validate the protocol. Two potential hits (ZINC46849657 and ZINC54359621) showed a significant potential with regard to free binding energy. Reported results obtained from this work confirm that this new approach is favorable in the future of the drug design industry. PMID:27114700

  6. Optical Design of Low Glare Symmetric LED Street Light%低眩光对称式 LED 路灯光学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶曾; 王敏; 黄胜邦; 徐雯; 王芬; 夏兵

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optical design of low -glare symmetric LED street lamp.Through the study of optical structures and light distribution effects of LED street lamps , its optical lens is designed into peanuts liked shape by using free -form surface.Then we get the bat wing light distribution curve . Meanwhile, the volume and array of LED are adjusted and simulated by optical simulation software , so as to achieve a low-glare, high uniformity rectangular light distribution .The average illuminance Eav is 30.96 lx, evenness Emin /Eav is 0.83, and the light extracting rate is 92.3% .%给出一种低眩光对称式 LED 照明路灯的光学设计方案。通过对 LED 路灯的光学结构和灯具配光效果进行研究,利用自由曲面设计出外形类似花生米的 LED 路灯光学透镜,得到蝙蝠翼型的配光曲线。同时,调整 LED 单元数量和阵列的排列方式,通过光学模拟软件进行仿真,从而达到低眩光、高均匀的矩形配光。其中平均照度 Eav为30.96lx,均匀度 Emin /Eav为0.83,出光率为92.3%。

  7. Screening and identification of neutralizated single-chain antibody of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody%中和抗肾小球基底膜抗体的单链抗体的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖静; 刘章锁; 王沛; 黄留玉; 宋宏彬; 赵明辉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To screen a human single-chain variable fragments(scFv)against antiGBM antibody.Methods Using phage display technique,the phage antibody library was panned by antiglomerular basement membrane(GBM)antibody which was coated in a micro-titer plate,one clone was found to have high affinity to anti-GBM antibody.The DNA sequence of the positive clone was determined.Results Along with the increase of rounds anti-GBM antibody specific phage antibody was highly enriched and screening efficiency was increased 137 folds than the firest round.ELISA and competition inhibition assay showed that the scFv had a specific combination character with anti-GBM antibody.DNA sequencing confirmed that the whole gene of scFv was 750 bp,and in accordance with humanized single-chain variable region antibody sequence structure.Conclusion The results suggested that the scFv fragment to anti-GBM antibody could be successfully selected by recombinant phage antibody technique,which will laid an experimental foundation for further research of the therapy of Goodpasture syndrome.%目的 制备人抗肾小球基底膜(GBM)抗体的特异性人源化单链可变区抗体.方法 采用噬菌体表面展示技术,获得一个与人抗GBM抗体结合活性较强的单链可变区抗体片段的阳性克隆,并对该克隆进行DNA序列测定分析.结果 对噬菌体单链可变区抗体库经过3轮筛选后,与第1轮相比富集了137倍.噬菌体抗体与人抗GBM抗体的结合活性其中有35株克隆ELISA的吸光度较高.对这些噬菌体抗体进行交叉反应后,确定其中有10株交叉反应较弱.确定1株(C31)阳性克隆提取质粒,进行DNA序列测定,大小为750 bp,并符合人源化单链可变区抗体的序列结构.结论 应用噬菌体展示技术成功获得人-抗GBM抗体的单链可变区抗体基因,为临床上治疗Goodpasture综合征奠定实验基础.

  8. EV71特免血浆筛选方法的建立及其应用%Establishment and application of method to screen anti-EV71 positive plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书英; 汪模正; 丁勇; 孙思才

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the titers of EV71 neutralizing antibody in donators' plasma,and to establish a high throughput screening method to screening anti-EV71 positive plasma for the production of EV7l-specific IVIG in practice.Methods The EV71 neutralizing antibody titers in plasma samples and in commercial IVIGs (intravenous immunoglobulins) were evaluated by micro-cytopathic effect neutralization test (MCPENT),and a selecting criteria was determined for screening anti-EV71 positive plasma.Then,a high throughput neutralizing method for screening plasma was established and a comparison with MCPENT was conducted.EV71-specific IVIG was prepared from screened anti-EV71 source plasma,and its neutralizing activity was evaluated in cell model and mouse model.Results The results of MCPENT showed that the titers of EVT1 neutralizing antibody were 1 ∶ 50 or above in 20% of the source plasma,and reached 1 ∶ 180 after being pooled,approaching to the titer of commercial IVIG.In 480 samples,the coincidence rate between the established high throughput neutralizing method and MCPENT was 88.1%.The quality of prepared EV71-specific IVIG was complied with the national standard,and its neutralizing potency was 16 times of that of IVIG,suggesting EV71-specific IVIG had a significantly improved protecting effect on experimental neonatal mice.Conclusion The screening method and the screening criteria for EV71 specific plasma were successfully established.The established high throughput neutralizing method that was operated easily could be used for plasma screening in the development of EV71-specific IVIG.The prepared EV71-specific IVIG,whose neutralizing potency was significantly improved,showed a markedly protective effect on experimental neonatal mice,suggesting it might be very important for the prevention and treatment of handfoot-and-mouth disease.%目的 考察献血员血浆中抗EV71中和抗体的状况,同时建立适宜的高通量筛选EV71特

  9. 基于视觉仿真的飞机座舱风挡眩光分布影响研究%Cockpit Windshield Glare Analysis Based on Optical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓金萍; 李闻; 俞金海; 陈迎春

    2012-01-01

    Cockpit interior lighting, integrated displays, and other light-emitting display units have been found increased application in the modern cockpit. As a result the optical environment within the cockpit becomes more complicated. Inappropriate lighting and furnishing design or cockpit spatial layout generates glare and af fects flight safety. The effects of center pedestal control display unit (CDU) orientation and position changes on resultant windshield glare are analyzed. It is found that, for curved windshield, CDU orientation has limited in fluence on glare distribution while CDU position has a pronounced impact on glare distribution. Hence in CDU position changes are effective for alleviating or eliminating glare.%现代飞机座舱内照明灯具、综合显示器以及其他发光显示器件的大量应用,使得座舱内光学环境越来越复杂。不合理的照明和内饰设计,或者不合适的舱内空间布局,将会导致各种有害光的出现,影响飞行安全。采用视觉仿真方法,从操纵台控制显示装置的布置角度、布置位置等方面对其在前风挡形成的有害光进行分析,结果表明:针对大弧度曲面造型风挡,调整控制显示装置布置角度对有害光分布的影响有限,调整布置位置对有害光分布的影响显著,可以大大改善或避免眩光对飞行员的影响。

  10. 番石榴叶杂源萜类中抗糖尿病活性成分的虚拟筛选%Virtual Screening of Anti-Diabetes Active Components in Meroterpenoids from Psidium guajava Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美凤; 谷灵灵; 蒋利荣; 周惠

    2012-01-01

    来源于番石榴叶的杂源萜类物质对治疗糖尿病的相关靶标有良好的抑制活性,这说明番石榴叶杂源萜类物质中可能含有降糖活性强的成分.因此,文中利用13个二醛杂源萜类化合物作为配体,分析了该类化合物与治疗糖尿病相关的PTP1B、PPARγ、PPARα、α-淀粉酶、α-葡萄糖苷酶的酶/受体分子对接情况,进行相应的虚拟筛选.结果显示:杂源萜类化合物与α-淀粉酶、α-葡萄糖苷酶无对接位点,但与PTP1B、PPARγ、PPARα有对接位点;蛋白和配体间的作用是通过弱非共价键力的相互作用而实现的,如疏水作用、π键和氢键;Euglobal Iia、Euglobal Ib、Euglobal Ic(首次从桉叶中分离得到)与PTP1B、PPARγ、PPARα的结合活性均较高,可为降糖药物的设计和结构修饰提供有用的信息.%The meroterpenoids from Psidium guajava leaves may contain some components with high anti-diabetes activity because they possess high inhibitory activity to the anti-diabetes targets. In this investigation, by using PTPIB, PPARγ, PPARa, α-amylase and α-glycosidase as anti-diabetes targets and 13 dialdehyde meroterpenoid compounds as ligands, the molecular docking conditions between the ligands and the targets were analyzed, thus implementing the corresponding virtual screening. The results show that the meroterpenoids have docking sites with PTPIB, PPARγ and PPARα, but not with a-amylase and a-glycosidase; and that the weak non-covalent interactions, namely hydrophobic interaction, π bonding and hydrogen bonding, all play an important role in the binding of ligands to proteins. In addition, Euglobal Iia, Euglobal Ib and Euglobal Ic firstly extracted from eucalyptus leaves have better affinity to PTPIB, PPARγ and PPARα, which provides some useful information for the design and structural modification of anti-diabetic drugs.

  11. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  12. Screening the yeast genome for energetic metabolism pathways involved in a phenotypic response to the anti-cancer agent 3-bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Paweł; Jurkiewicz, Paweł; Cal-Bąkowska, Magdalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Goffeau, Andre; Ułaszewski, Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    In this study the detailed characteristic of the anti-cancer agent 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model is described, with the emphasis on its influence on energetic metabolism of the cell. It shows that 3-BP toxicity in yeast is strain-dependent and influenced by the glucose-repression system. Its toxic effect is mainly due to the rapid depletion of intracellular ATP. Moreover, lack of the Whi2p phosphatase results in strongly increased sensitivity of yeast cells to 3-BP, possibly due to the non-functional system of mitophagy of damaged mitochondria through the Ras-cAMP-PKA pathway. Single deletions of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes, the TCA cycle enzymes and mitochondrial carriers result in multiple effects after 3-BP treatment. However, it can be concluded that activity of the pentose phosphate pathway is necessary to prevent the toxicity of 3-BP, probably due to the fact that large amounts of NADPH are produced by this pathway, ensuring the reducing force needed for glutathione reduction, crucial to cope with the oxidative stress. Moreover, single deletions of genes encoding the TCA cycle enzymes and mitochondrial carriers generally cause sensitivity to 3-BP, while totally inactive mitochondrial respiration in the rho0 mutant resulted in increased resistance to 3-BP. PMID:26862728

  13. Anti-proliferative and ADMET screening of novel 3-(1H-indol-3-yl-1, 3-diphenylpropan-1-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha K. Siddappa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer tends to be one of the major diseases in the present century affecting global population, and proliferation of cancerous cells needs to be eliminated as the cell growth is uncontrolled. In this present study, a series of facile, high yielding 3-(1H-indol-3-yl-1, 3-diphenylpropan-1-ones 3(a–j was designed, synthesized and evaluated for anti-proliferative activity against different human cancer cell lines; MCF-7 (breast cancer, K562 (leukemic cancer, HeLa (cervical cancer, Colo205 (colorectal adreno carcinoma, HepG2 (Hepato cellular carcinoma cell lines. The compounds 3a, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f, 3g and 3j exhibited an average inhibition of 35% against Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Hepg2 cell lines whereas, compounds 3a, 3c, 3d and 3e exhibited 33, 31, 35 and 33% inhibition, respectively, against HeLa cells at 10 μm concentrations. Doxorubicin was employed as a positive control. The ADME-TOX data was obtained by subjecting the molecules in silico to quantitatively predict the physicochemical properties. The structure of the title compounds were established by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass analysis.

  14. Study on Screening Valid Target of Anti -inflammatory and Analgesic Effets of Calystegia Soldanella%孝扇草抗炎镇痛有效部位的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽; 沈清; 黄真

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To separate and screen the valid target of anti - inflammatory and analgesic effects of Calystegia soldanella . Methods: Systematic solvent method is used to separate the ethanol extract of Calystegia soldanella ,ear edema induced by dimethylbenzene in mice was used to screen the valid target of the anti - inflammatory effects,mice hot -plate procedures and mice wthithing induced by acetic acid were used to screen the valid target of the analgesic effects. Results :The inhibition ratio of swelling induced by dimethylbenzene in mice of the ethanol - extracted acetoacetate - abstraction group of Calystegia soldanella is 50.53% (P < 0.05). The acetoacetate - abstraction group and the rest group could significantly prolong the mouse hot - plate - induced pain of the pain threshold of the mice( P <0.05 ,P <0.05). The ethanol - extracted acetoacetate - abstraction group and the n - buOH - abstraction group can significantly decrease ? acetic acid -induced writhing response in mice(P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Conclusion-.The ethanol -extracted acetoacetate -abstraction group of Calystegia soldanella is most propably the valid target of anti - inflammatory and analgesic.%目的:分离并筛选孝扇草抗炎镇痛作用的有效部位.方法:采用系统溶剂法对孝扇草醇提物进行初步分离;采用二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀实验,筛选孝扇草抗炎作用有效部位;采用热板法和醋酸致小鼠扭体法实验,筛选其镇痛作用有效部位.结果:孝扇草醇提乙酸乙酯萃取部位对二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀的抑制率为50.53%,与空白对照组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05);孝扇草醇提乙酸乙酯萃取部位和各溶剂萃取剩余部位均能显著提高小鼠痛阈值,与空白对照组比较有显著性差异(P <0.05,P<0.05);孝扇草醇提乙酸乙酯和正丁醇萃取部位均能明显减少醋酸致小鼠扭体反应次数,与空白组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05,P<0.05).结论:孝扇草醇提

  15. Epitope mapping of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis: microwave-assisted synthesis of the peptide antigens and ELISA screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Giulia; Ieronymaki, Matthaia; Nuti, Francesca; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Larregola, Maud; Aharoni, Rina; Papini, Anna Maria; Rovero, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The role of pathologic auto-antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in multiple sclerosis is a highly controversial matter. As the use of animal models may enable to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the human disorder, numerous studies on multiple sclerosis are carried out using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In particular, the most extensively used EAE model is obtained by immunizing C57BL/6 mice with the immunodominant peptide MOG(35-55). In this scenario, we analyzed the anti-MOG antibody response in this model using the recombinant refolded extracellular domain of the protein, MOG(1-117). To assess the presence of a B-cell intramolecular epitope spreading mechanism, we tested also five synthetic peptides mapping the 1-117 sequence of MOG, including MOG(35-55). For this purpose, we cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and on-column refolded MOG(1-117), and we applied an optimized microwave-assisted solid-phase synthetic strategy to obtain the designed peptide sequences. Subsequently, we set up a solid-phase immunoenzymatic assay testing both naïve and EAE mice sera and using MOG protein and peptides as antigenic probes. The results obtained disclose an intense IgG antibody response against both the recombinant protein and the immunizing peptide, while no response was observed against the other synthetic fragments, thus excluding the presence of an intramolecular epitope spreading mechanism. Furthermore, as the properly refolded recombinant probe is able to bind antibodies with greater efficiency compared with MOG(35-55), we hypothesize the presence of both linear and conformational epitopes on MOG(35-55) sequence. PMID:26663200

  16. Identification of novel anti-hepatitis C virus agents by a quantitative high throughput screen in a cell-based infection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zongyi; Hu, Xin; He, Shanshan; Yim, Hyung Joon; Xiao, Jingbo; Swaroop, Manju; Tanega, Cordelle; Zhang, Ya-qin; Yi, Guanghui; Kao, C Cheng; Marugan, Juan; Ferrer, Marc; Zheng, Wei; Southall, Noel; Liang, T Jake

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) poses a major health threat to the world. The recent development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV has markedly improved the response rate of HCV and reduced the side effects in comparison to the interferon-based therapy. Despite this therapeutic advance, there is still a need to develop new inhibitors that target different stages of the HCV life cycle because of various limitations of the current regimens. In this study, we performed a quantitative high throughput screening of the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) of ∼350,000 chemicals for novel HCV inhibitors using our previously developed cell-based HCV infection assay. Following confirmation and structural clustering analysis, we narrowed down to 158 compounds from the initial ∼3000 molecules that showed inhibitory activity for further structural and functional analyses. We were able to assign the majority of these compounds to specific stage(s) in the HCV life cycle. Three of them are direct inhibitors of NS3/4A protease. Most of the compounds appear to act on novel targets in HCV life cycle. Four compounds with novel structure and excellent drug-like properties, three targeting HCV entry and one targeting HCV assembly/secretion, were advanced for further development as lead hits. These compounds represent diverse chemotypes that are potential lead compounds for further optimization and may offer promising candidates for the development of novel therapeutics against HCV infection. In addition, they represent novel molecular probes to explore the complex interactions between HCV and the cells. PMID:26515788

  17. Screening of Anti-tumour Actinomycete Using Conidia of Pyricularia Oryzae%利用稻瘟霉分生孢子筛选抗肿瘤放线菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳火; 李汉全; 余甜甜; 过七根; 张良慧; 李文均

    2012-01-01

    利用稻瘟霉分生孢子萌发时菌丝形变为指示,从150余株放线菌中筛选到一株抗肿瘤活性很强的菌株JXJ-0108,并从其发酵液中纯化到一个抗肿瘤活性较强的化合物JXJ-0108-1,该化合物在治疗胃癌和肝癌的药物研制中具有潜在的价值.四氮唑盐酶还原法(MTT)体外研究表明,JXJ-0108-1对人肝癌细胞BEL-7402和人胃癌细胞BGC-823的IC50分别为1.63和0.95 ug/mL;流式细胞仪分析表明,分别从0.50和0.30 ug/mL的化合物作用浓度开始,与空白对照组相比,肝癌细胞BEL-7402和胃癌细胞BGC-823的G0/G1、S和G2/M期细胞比例有极显著差异,其中G0/G1和S期细胞比例降低,G2/M期细胞比例上升.本文为抗肿瘤放线菌的筛选及活性成分的跟踪分离提供了一个快速简便的有效方法.%An anti-tumour strain JXJ-0108 was screened out from 150 actinomycetes strains by detecting deformation of mycelia of Pyricularia Oryzae,and compound JXJ-0108-1 .which showed strong anti-tumour activity and taked on potential value in the development of anti-gastric cancer and hepatoma drugs,was purified from the fermentation liquid. The antitumor activity of the compound was examined by MTT( Microculture Tetrozolium) method in vitro,and the IC50, values on human hepatic carcinoma cells BEL-7402 and gastric carcinoma cells BGC-823 were 1.63 and 0.95 ug/mL, respectively. Compared with the control groups,the proportions of hepatic carcinoma cells BEL-7402 and gastric carcinoma cells BGC-823 in G0/G1 ,S and G2/M phases presented very notable difference after treated with the compound from the concentrations of 0.50 and 0. 30 ug/mL,respectively. As the results,the proportions of cells in G0/G1 and S phases were reduced,while the proportion of cells in G2/M phase was increased. This paper provides a quick and convenient method to screen anti-tumour actinomycetes and track the active compounds during the purification efficaciously.

  18. Triagem sorológica de familiares de pacientes com doença celíaca: anticorpos anti-endomísio, antitransglutaminase ou ambos? Serological screening of relatives of celiac disease patients: antiendomysium antibodies, anti-tissue transglutaminase or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Ramos da Rosa Utiyama

    2007-06-01

    -negativas. O impacto desse fato implica que tais familiares deixarão de ser submetidos a biopsia intestinal para confirmação do diagnóstico da doença, e conseqüentemente, ao tratamento adequado e precoce.BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is the most common intestinal disorder of caucasian populations and presents a prevalence of 8% to 18% between the relatives of patients. The anti-endomysial (IgA-EmA and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG have represented an important non invasive and sensitivity method of screening and diagnosis of celiac disease in risk groups and populations. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of IgA-EmA and IgA-tTG antibodies in relatives of celiac patients and verify the degree of concordance between them. METHODS: One hundred and seventy seven relatives of celiac patients (76(feminino; 101(masculino; 2-79 years and 93 healthy individuals were evaluated (34(feminino; 59(masculino; 2-71 years. IgA-EmA were detected by indirect immunofluorescence, with human umbilical cord as substrate, while anti-IgA-tTG titers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, using commercial kit. RESULTS: Total positivity to antibodies in relatives of celiac patients was of 21% (37/177, and showed significant difference compared to control group (0%; 0/93. Twelve percent (21/177 of celiac disease relatives were positive to IgA-EmA, 13.56% (24/177 to IgA-tTG, and 4.52% (8/177 to both assays simultaneously. The concordance between both methods was 83.6% (148/177 and the discordance was 16.4% (29/177, with a positive and significant correlation (r = 0.435. Among the concordant results, 79.1% (140/177 were negative and 4.52% (8/177 were positive to both antibodies. Among the discordant results, 7.34% (13/177 were positive to IgA-EmA and negative to IgA-tTG, while 9.04% (16/177 were negative to IgA- EmA and positive to IgA-tTG. CONCLUSION: Although the high positivity to IgA-EmA and IgA-tTG emphasizes the importance of the serological screening in

  19. Screening procedure for detection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their metabolites in urine as part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic drugs and poisons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extractive methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Tauvel, F X; Kraemer, T

    2001-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used as analgesic and anti-rheumatic drugs, and they are often misused. A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) screening procedure was developed for their detection in urine as part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic drugs and poisons after extractive methylation. The compounds were separated by capillary GC and identified by computerized MS in the full-scan mode. Using mass chromatography with the ions m/z 119, 135, 139, 152, 165, 229, 244, 266, 272, and 326, the possible presence of NSAIDs and their metabolites could be indicated. The identity of positive signals in such mass chromatograms was confirmed by comparison of the peaks underlying full mass spectra with the reference spectra recorded during this study. This method allowed the detection of therapeutic concentrations of acemetacin, acetaminophen (paracetamol), acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, diflunisal, etodolac, fenbufen, fenoprofen, flufenamic acid, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, indometacin, kebuzone, ketoprofen, lonazolac, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid, mofebutazone, naproxen, niflumic acid, phenylbutazone, suxibuzone, tiaprofenic acid, tolfenamic acid, and tolmetin in urine samples. The overall recoveries of the different NSAIDs ranged between 50 and 80% with coefficients of variation of less than 15% (n = 5), and the limits of detection of the different NSAIDs were between 10 and 50 ng/mL (S/N = 3) in the full-scan mode. Extractive methylation has proved to be a versatile method for STA of various acidic drugs, poisons, and their metabolites in urine. It has also successfully been used for plasma analysis.

  20. Screening a mushroom extract library for activity against Acinetobacter baumannii and Burkholderia cepacia and the identification of a compound with anti-Burkholderia activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rott Marc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acinetobacter baumannii and species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC are significant opportunistic bacterial pathogens of humans. These species exhibit a high degree of antibiotic resistance, and some clinical isolates are resistant to all currently available antimicrobial drugs used for treatment. Thus, new drugs are needed to treat infections by these species. Mushrooms could be a potential source for new drugs to treat A. baumannii and BCC infections. Methods The aim of this study was to screen a library of crude extracts from 330 wild mushrooms by disk diffusion assays for antibacterial activity against A. baumannii and Burkholderia cepacia in the hope of identifying a novel natural drug that could be used to treat infections caused by these species. Once positive hits were identified, the extracts were subjected to bioassay-guided separations to isolate and identify the active drug molecules. MICs were performed to gauge the in vitro activity of the purified compounds. Results Only three crude extracts (0.9% had activity against A. baumannii and B. cepacia. Compounds from two of these extracts had MICs greater than 128 μg/ml, and further analyses were not performed. From the third extract, prepared from Leucopaxillus albissimus, 2-aminoquinoline (2-AQ was isolated. This compound exhibited a modest MIC in vitro against strains from nine different BCC species, including multi-drug resistant clinical isolates (MIC = 8-64 μg/ml, and a weak MIC (128 μg/ml against A baumannii. The IC50 against a murine monocyte line was 1.5 mg/ml. Conclusion The small number of positive hits in this study suggests that finding a new drug from mushrooms to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections may be difficult. Although 2-AQ was identified in one mushroom, and it was shown to inhibit the growth of multi-drug resistant BCC isolates, the relatively high MICs (8-128 μg/ml for both A. baumannii and BCC strains suggests that 2-AQ

  1. Screening a phage display library for a novel FGF8b-binding peptide with anti-tumor effect on prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenhui; Chen, Xilei; Li, Tao; Li, Yanmei; Wang, Ruixue; He, Dan; Luo, Wu [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li, Xiaokun [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Wu, Xiaoping, E-mail: twxp@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2013-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) is the major isoform of FGF8 expressed in prostate cancer and it correlates with the stage and grade of the disease. FGF8b has been considered as a potential target for prostate cancer therapy. Here we isolated 12 specific FGF8b-binding phage clones by screening a phage display heptapeptide library with FGF8b. The peptide (HSQAAVP, named as P12) corresponding to one of these clones showed high homology to the immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain II(D2) of high-affinity FGF8b receptor (FGFR3c), contained 3 identical amino acids (AVP) to the authentic FGFR3 D2 sequence aa 163–169 (LLAVPAA) directly participating in ligand binding, carried the same charges as its corresponding motif (aa163–169) in FGFR3c, suggesting that P12 may have a greater potential to interrupt FGF8b binding to its receptors than other identified heptapeptides do. Functional analysis indicated that synthetic P12 peptides mediate significant inhibition of FGF8b-induced cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase via suppression of Cyclin D1 and PCNA, and blockade of the activations of Erk1/2 and Akt cascades in both prostate cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells. The results demonstrated that the P12 peptide acting as an FGF8b antagonist may have therapeutic potential in prostate cancer. - Highlights: ► A novel FGF8b-binding peptide P12 was isolated from a phage display library. ► The mechanisms for P12 peptide inhibiting cell proliferation were proposed. ► P12 caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via suppression of Cyclin D1 and PCNA. ► P12 suppressed FGF8b-induced activations of Akt and MAP kinases. ► P12 acting as an FGF8b antagonist may have therapeutic potential in prostate cancer.

  2. A(H1N1)流感病毒及抗病毒新药的筛选%A(H1N1) Influenza Virus and Screening of New Anti-influenza Virus Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈执中

    2009-01-01

    A(H1N1) influenza virus is a novel strain of influenza virus mutant,which was found in March to April 2009 in USA and Mexico. The spread of epidemic influenza brings about a serious attention by every country in the world and World Health Organization. In this paper, the A (H1N1) influenza virus and its symptom, virulence and spread are introduced. Meanwhile, the mutant' s resistance to anti-influenza drugs, the characterization of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus polymerase, the crystal structure of human and avian influenza virus polymerase and its action in influenza are also discussed. Accordingly, we put forward the screening ideas and research orientation for anti-influenza virus drugs, which will be a beneficial reference for the further design and development of new anti-influenza virus drugs.%A(H1N1)流感病毒是2009年3~4月在美国和墨西哥发现的一种流感病毒变异的新病毒株.这类流感疫情的蔓延引起了世界各国和世界卫生组织的严重关注.本文介绍了A(H1N1)流感新病毒株及感染这种病毒患者的症状,A(H1N1)流感病毒的致命力和传播,流感病毒变异对抗病毒药的抗药性,以及1918年流感大流行病毒聚合酶特性,人流感病毒和禽流感病毒聚合酶的结晶结构及其在感染中的作用.据此,提出了抗流感病毒药的筛选思路和研究方向,为抗流感病毒新药的设计和开发提供有益的参考.

  3. Fragment and Similarity based on Virtual Screening for Anti-asthma Traditional Chinese Medicine%基于片段搜索和相似性搜索的抗哮喘中药发现研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔连生; 郭亦然; 张燕玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To obtain new potential active traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds for the prevention and treatment of asthma.Method:The drugs with anti-asthma activity were collected from Drugbank database.Two virtual screening methods,active fragment-based and structural similarity-based,were used respectively for the screening of potential active TCM compounds from traditional Chinse medicine database (TCMD 2009).Combined the principles and methods of TCM,the source TCM of the hit compounds were then traced for the formulating prescription against asthma.Result:Thirty-six drugs with the action on eight targets were obtained from the Drugbank database.Seventy-two potential active compounds,which come from 39 commonly used TCM,were hit by virtual screening.Some of the source TCM have been demonstrated to have the anti-asthma effect,such as ephedra,pinellia,asarum,ginger,earthworm,licorice,ophiopogon,aster,evodia and so on.The principle of clearing lung-heat and removing phlegm for lowering adverse qi is always used for the treatment of thermal asthma,while the warming lung for dispelling cold and removing phlegm is for cold asthma.Two prescriptions were discussed for thermal and cold asthma respectively.The prescription consisted by ephedra,pinellia,ginger,licorice was discussed for cold asthma,while the prescription of ephedra,earthworm,licorice for thermal asthma.Conclusion:The results showed that the application of fragment-based search and similarity search methods are feasible for the discovery of Chinese medicine.%目的:探讨利用防治哮喘的常用化学药物结构信息筛选活性中药.方法:以Drugbank数据库中具有明确治疗哮喘的活性化学药物为基础,以活性片段搜索和结构相似性搜索为筛选方法,获得具有防治哮喘的中药成分;追溯活性成分的来源中药,并结合中医防治哮喘的治法治则,探讨进行组方.结果:以36个作用于8个靶点的化学药物为基础,

  4. Construction of phage antibody library and screening of anti-FasFab antibody%噬菌体呈现抗体库的构建及抗 Fas-Fab抗体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希良; 黄云辉; 陈克敏; 朱锡华

    2001-01-01

    目的构建噬菌体抗体库,获得具有功能的抗Fas-Fab噬菌体抗体。方法以Fas重组蛋白为抗原免疫Balb/c小鼠。取其脾细胞提取mRNA,采用RT-PCR方法扩增抗体基因,构建重链和κ链基因库,用重组Fas抗原对所构建的抗体库进行4轮筛选,并以ELISA法鉴定其功能。结果获得抗体重链Fd基因和κ链基因长度约700bp。构建的重链Fd基因为3.5×106的抗体重链基因库。构建的重链和κ链基因库的容量均为3.1×106。经VCSM13感染得到噬菌体的滴度为8.9×1016cFu/L的噬菌体抗体库,含有抗体重链和κ链基因的噬菌体占27%。用重组人Fas抗原进行4轮筛选,得到100%的富集,说明Fas重组抗原富集了抗Fas-Fab噬菌体抗体,经ELISA检测均有抗Fas抗体的特异性。结论制备的可溶性抗Fas-Fab抗体具有抗Fas抗体的特异性,为进一步的研究奠定了基础。%Aim The phage display antibody library was constructed to obtainfunctional anti-Fas Fab. Methods Balb/c mice were immunized with recombinant Fas protein. mRNA was isolated from splenocytes and antibody heavy chain genes Fd and κ chain genes were amplified by RT-PCR, and combinatorial Fab antibody library. This iuelicated that the screening of antibody library was done with recombinont Fas antigen and the immunifacient function of the antibody was determined by ELISA. Results The amplified products were the desired fragments and contained 700 bp. The amplified antibody heavy chain Fd genes were cloned into pcomb3 vector at first, and transformed into E.coli XL1-blue to construct an antibody heavy chain library with a size of 3.5× 106 members. The κ chain genes were then randomly combined with heavy chain genes to generate a combinatorial vector encoding both chains and capable of generating Fab fragments. These combinatorial vectors were transformed to E.coli XL1-Blue,and the combinatorial Fab antibody library was 3.7× 106. The phage antibody library was

  5. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  6. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  7. Screening on the Anti-inflammatory Activities of Compounds from Lycopodium species%石松属植物化学成分抗炎活性的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光忠; 崔圆圆; 王德彬

    2015-01-01

    为研究2种石松属植物化学成分的抗炎活性,筛选具有较强抗炎活性的化合物,用LPS诱导RAW264.7细胞建立了体外炎症模型,采用MTT法检测了化合物对小鼠巨噬细胞株RAW264.7细胞增殖的影响.在安全浓度范围内(细胞存活率大于80%)给予药物干预,用Griess法检测了培养上清液中一氧化氮( NO)水平,以各化合物抑制NO释放的能力为筛选指标,评价了化合物的抗炎活性.结果表明:乙酰基二氢石松生物碱(16)、对香豆酸甲酯(21)、豆甾烷-3-酮-21-酸(22)具有较好的NO抑制率,并呈一定剂量依赖关系,提示它们具有一定的抗炎活性.%To explore the anti-inflammatory activities of the compounds from two Lycopodium species and screen the active compounds, LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell model was established in vitro.The effect of the compounds on the proliferation of murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was determined by MTT assay.The cell line was intervened with compounds in the nontoxic concentration range ( cell survival rate more than 80%) , the level of NO in the culture supernatant was tested by Griess reagent. Their activities were evaluated based on the NO inhibition capability. The results showed that acetyldihydrolycopodine (16), methyl p-coumarate (21), stigmastane-3-oxo-21-oic acid (22) could significantly inhibit NO production in dose-dependent manner, suggesting that they had potential anti-inflammatory activities.

  8. Screening and Characterization of Anti-Root-Knot Nematode Actinomycetes Strain from Mud under Mangrove(Rhizophora)Forest%1株抗根结线虫红树林放线菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏华; 刘敏; 鲍时翔; 朱军; 黄惠琴

    2012-01-01

    从红树林底泥中分离筛选具有抗线虫活性的放线菌,并对活性菌株进行分类鉴定.采用稀释平板法分离放线菌,采用24孔板液体筛选模型筛选具有抗线虫活性的菌株,并对活性菌株进行形态学和生理生化特征研究,测定其16S rDNA序列并进行系统发育分析.筛选得到1株具有杀线虫活性的菌株,编号为HA11090,该菌株发酵液在稀释20倍和40倍后,抗根结线虫校正死亡率分别为70.5%和65.0%.菌株HA11090的16S rDNA序列与Saccharopolyspora hirsuta subsp.kobensis和Saccharopolyspora jiangxiensis的相似性最高,分别为99.35%和99.27%,三者在系统发育树上聚为一个分支,形态和生理生化特征分析显示,菌株HA11090与Saccharopolyspora jiangxiensis基本一致,而与S.hirsuta subsp.kobensis差异较大.鉴定菌株HA11090为Saccharopolyspora jiangxiensis,其发酵液具有较强的抗根结线虫活性,值得进一步研究.%An actinomycetes strain with anti-nematode activity was isolated from mud beneath mangrove (Rhizophora) forest and carried out its taxonomic classification. The strain was isolated with dilution-plate method and screened the strain with anti-nematode activities adopted 24-stomous plate fluid model. The active strain was studied by its morphological and physiological and biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis with 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that a strain possessing nematode killing activity was screened and numbered as HA11090, and mortality rates of the fermentation of strain against root knot nematode were 70.5% and 65% on 20 times dilution and 40 times dilution. The highest 16S rDNA sequence similarity with Saccharopolyspora hirsuta subsp. Kobensis was 99. 35% , and S. Jiangxiensis 99.27%. The phylogenetic tree showed that strain HA11090 formed a cluster in the branch with 5. Hirsula subsp. Kobensis and 5. Jiangxiensis. The characteristics of morphology and physiology of strain HA11090 basically

  9. 重组人VEGF165的表达纯化及单抗的初步筛选%Prokaryotic Expression of VEGF165 and Preliminary Screening of Anti-VEGF Hybridoma Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包欣晨; 李孜; 高向东; 陆小冬; 徐晨

    2011-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis and is a potent and critical target as blocking tumor growth and metastasis. The process described in this report involves a complex auto-induced expression in Escherichia coli and a downstream purification process consisting of protein refolding and three chromatography steps in order to obtain the functional rhVEGF165. Biological activity of the purified 38kDa homodimer was verified by the induction of the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The EC50 for this effect was 2. 4ng/ml. Finally, three Anti-VEGF hybridoma cell lines were obtained after immunization, fusion and preliminary screening.%血管内皮细胞生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)是抑制肿瘤生长和转移的重要靶点.为获得抗VEGF单抗细胞株,构建了rhVEGFt165工程菌,并利用复合自动诱导获得高效表达.经纯化获得高纯度rhVEGF165蛋白,经检测具有促人脐静脉内皮细胞(human umbilical vein endothelial cells,HUVECs)增殖活性,其EC50为2.4ng/ml.免疫小鼠,获得了3株能稳定分泌抗VEGF单抗的杂交瘤细胞株,为开发VEGF治疗性单抗提供了重要基础.

  10. 马奶酒中抗单增李斯特氏菌细菌素产生菌的筛选及鉴定%Screening for anti-Listeria bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from koumiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敬; 芒来; 贺银凤

    2011-01-01

    144 lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from traditional fermented koumiss were screened for bacteriocin production by double agar diffusion method. After eliminating the effects of organic acid and catalase, the cell free supernatant of one strain named MKB63 showed strong anti-Listeria activity and were identified as Enterococcus faecium by physiological-biochemical characterization. After ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and concentration,the activity was enhanced. But the inhibition activity was lost after treatment of trypsin and proteinase K. The result showed this inhibitory material had the features of protein, and could be classified as bacteriocin.%从内蒙古传统乳制品酸马奶酒中分离出144株乳酸菌,通过双层琼脂平板扩散法筛选出具有明显抑菌作用的菌株.在排除有机酸、H2O2等的干扰后,其中1株乳酸菌的发酵上清液对受试的单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌表现出明显抑制作用;进一步硫酸铵沉淀、透析及浓缩处理后,其抑菌活性显著增强,说明其代谢产物中含有蛋白质类抑菌物质,可能是细菌素.经生理、生化试验和形态学观察,将该菌株鉴定为屎肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium).

  11. Screening and Biological Characteristics of Bacillus sp. with High Anti-fungal activity against Pythium aphanidermatum%抗瓜果腐霉芽孢杆菌优良菌株的筛选及生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 尚楠; 张宝; 张志刚; 尚庆茂

    2012-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is known as an important plant pathogenic fungus that can cause various types of crops rot and damping off, as well as results in spoilage of fruits and vegetables, thus leading to great loss of agricultural production and food industry. In order to obtain spore-forming bacteria with anti-fungal activity for fruit and vegetable preservation and biological control, we have screened 204 strains of spore-forming bacteria isolated from 26 kinds of foods, such as lemon, grape, Chinese date, yogurt, fermented bean curd, Harbin sausage, bean paste and other food samples. Totally 62 strains of spore- forming bacteria were assessed by confrontation culture tests to reveal strong anti-fungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. The fermentation supernatants of 4 strains with stronger anti-fungal activity through Oxford cup plate assay method were tested for their anti-fungal activity, and L-NM62 revealed the strongest anti-fungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. The inhibition zone of cell free supematant was (24.54 ± 0.13) mm in diameter. According to the characteristics of morphology, physiology and biochemistry tests, and the comparison of 16S rDNA sequence, strain L-NM62 was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Further study of L-NM62 on physiology characteristics showed that the optimal growth temperature, pH and inoculums were 37 ℃, 7.5 and 1.0%. Under these optimal conditions, L-NM62 had a wide anti-fungal and antibacterial activity and presented a potential prospect.%为获得具有高效抗菌活性的芽孢杆菌用于生物防治与果蔬保鲜,从柠檬、葡萄、红枣、酸奶、腐乳、豆瓣酱、哈尔滨红肠等26种食品样品中分离获得204株芽孢杆菌,通过对峙培养法,初筛得到62株抗瓜果腐霉(P.aphanidermatum)的菌株,选取其中抑菌效果明显的4株菌株,采用牛津杯扩散法经复筛得到1株显著抗瓜果腐霉的芽孢杆菌L-NM62,其发酵上清液对瓜果腐

  12. Analysis of blood donors situation and anti-HIV antibody screening in a hospital of Madagascar%马达加斯加某医院献血员情况及 HIV 抗体筛查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓萍; 李勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the basic situation of blood donors and their anti-HIV antibody screening in a hospital of Madagascar during 2008- 2009 in order to provide the reference information for giving better medical aid and promoting the devel-opment of the clinical transfusion in Madagascar.Methods The blood doner′s personal informations were understood by inquiry and the anti-HIV antibody was detected by the rapid testing,the results were recorded,the constituent ratio of the data was calcu-lated and the chi-square test was performed.Results There were 2 298 blood donors including teenages less than 15 years old dur-ing 2008-2009,female doners were more than male donors,among them 366 cases were pregrant women.The blood donors from village were more than those from city,the education level was dominated by the middle school students,accounting for 51.65%. There were 22 tuberculosis patients in 2008,none in 2009.The detection rate of anti-HIV antibody was 0.04% for these 2 years. Conclusion The protection on the blood donors in Africa area is not optimistic.The phenomenon of pregrant women and teenages as the blood donors exists in Madagascar.%目的:了解马达加斯加某医院2008~2009年献血员的基本情况和艾滋病毒抗体筛查情况,为以后更好的医疗援助马达加斯加及促进其临床输血领域的发展提供参考信息。方法口头询问方式获取献血员的基本信息,采用快速法检测 HIV 抗体,记录结果,计算数据的构成比,并进行χ2检验。结果2008~2009年共2298名献血员,有15岁及以下的献血者,女性献血员多于男性,其中有366名是孕妇;农村多于城市,文化程度以中学为主,占51.65%。2008年有22名结核病患者,2009年为0。两年艾滋病毒抗体阳性检出率为0.04%。结论非洲地区对献血者的保护不容乐观,存在孕妇和青少年献血的现象。

  13. 一种改进的分泌抗半抗原抗体杂交瘤细胞株筛选方法%An Improved Method for Screening Hybridoma Cells Secreting Anti-Hapten Antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云龙; 段江波; 李恒思; 王霈; 毛烈; 张怡青; 王国强; 王继创

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究解决半抗原分子单克隆抗体制备技术路径中遇到的在阳性杂交瘤细胞株筛选时无法排除载体蛋白间交叉反应影响的问题,以半抗原去甲肾上腺素(norepinephrine,NE)为例。方法:在NE完全抗原免疫小鼠实施细胞融合后,分别包被牛血清白蛋白(BSA)、卵清白蛋白(OVA)、BSA-NE、OVA-NE等4种不同抗原的酶标板平行检测细胞培养上清液;挑选BSA、OVA检测结果为阴性,BSA-NE、OVA-NE检测结果为阳性的孔内细胞进行克隆化筛选单克隆细胞。结果:本筛选方法可一次性从8板96孔板中筛选到13个符合要求的阳性孔,经3次克隆化后获得6株特异性强的杂交瘤细胞株。结论:本方法避免了载体蛋白间交叉反应对筛选的影响,改进了传统的单一指标筛选方法,筛选效率更高。%Objective: Take norepinephrine(NE) as an example to establish an improved hybridoma screen mode which increasing specificity and efficiency of screening procedure when preparing for anti-hapten antibodies. Meth-ods: After cell fusion steps, four kinds of antigens, bovine serum albumin(BSA), ovalbumin(OVA), BSA-NE, OVA-NE, were coated separately on 96 wells ELISA plate and simultaneously test the supernatant of hybridoma culture. Those hybridomas wells with results of BSA-NE and OVA-NE positive reaction, but BSA and OVA nega-tive reaction were selected for a further cloning procedure to get monoclonal cell lines. Results: 13 satisfied mono-clonal hybridoma cells were obtained from 8 ELISA plates. After the cloning procedure 6 high specific monoclonal antibody secreting hybridomas cell lines acquired. Conclusion: This improved ELISA screening mode directly en-hanced the specificity towards hapten structure compared with currently commonly used method. This mode can suf-ficiently avoid interaction between protein carriers.

  14. 人源抗创伤弧菌溶血素蛋白单链抗体的筛选及初步鉴定%Screening and initial identification of human anti-vibrio vulnificus haemolysin ScFv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学渊; 付凯飞; 王欲晓; 吴成林; 周丽君

    2016-01-01

    目的 从天然单链(scFv)大容量噬菌体抗体库中筛选特异性抗创伤弧菌溶血素蛋白(vibrio vulnificus haemolysin,VVH)的scFv并进行初步鉴定.方法 以表达纯化后的VVH为靶抗原,采用酸洗脱的方法从天然大容量噬菌体抗体库中筛选人源抗VVH噬菌体单链抗体,并将噬菌体抗体的上清梯度稀释后感染HB2151菌,经异丙基-β-D-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导表达后获得抗VVH蛋白可溶性单链抗体,ELISA检测其与抗原结合活性,DNA序列测定鉴定抗体序列.结果 经过4轮筛选,共筛选到22株可以与VVH结合的噬菌体阳性克隆,其中8株获得可溶性表达,DNA序列分析表明获得3株可变区基因型不同的单链抗体.结论 利用大容量噬菌体抗体库筛选技术获得抗创伤弧菌溶血素蛋白的可溶性抗体,为创伤弧菌感染的治疗奠定了基础.%Objective To screen specific human antibodies against Vibrio vulnificus hemolysin (VVH ) from natural single stranded large capacity phage antibody library and to perform initial identification of the antibodies,for the treatment of vibrio vulnificus infection.Methods The specific antibody against purified VVH was screened from large natural phage antibody library by 4 rounds of " adsorption-elution-amplification" screening process.Soluble ScFvs were prepared through infecting E coli.HB2151 and inducing expression with IPTG.The antigen binding activity and DNA sequence of the antibodies against VVH were identified by ELISA and DNA fingerprint analysis.Results After 4 rounds of panning,22 positive clones with specific binding ability to VVH were obtained,of which 8 obtained soluble expressions.DNA sequence analyses showed that the variable region genes of the clones belonged to different subgroups of immunoglobulin gene family.Conclusions The acquirement of human anti-VVH ScFv from large phage antibody library has laid a good foundation for the treatment of vibrio vulnificus infection.

  15. Screening the mutagenic activities of coomonly used antiparasite drugs by the Simultest, a simplified Salmonella/microsome plate incorporation assay Rastreamento de atividade mutagênica de drogas anti-parasitárias de uso comum pelo Simultest, uma versão simplificada do teste Salmonella/fração microssomal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliane B. Melo

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activities of 16 anti-parasite drugs were screened by the Simultest in both qualitative (spot test and quantitative (plate incorporation assays with a Salmonella typhimurium pool composed by the indicator strains TA97, TA 98, TA100 and TA102. Four anti Chagas' disease drugs (nifurtimox, benznidazole, CL 64,855, and MK 436 and two anti-amebae drugs (metronidazole and tinidazole gave positive results in qualitative tests and incorporation of rat liver microsomes did not alter the results. Comparative dose response curves of the mutagenic activities of CL 64,855, metronidazole and benznidazole obtained by the simultest and by individual Salmonella indicator strains demonstrated that both approachs have similar sensitivities. The results corroborate the validity of the Simultest, as a simplified, fast and economic version of the Ames test in preliminary screening of potential mutagenic drugs.As atividades mutagênicas de 16 drogas com ação anti-parasitária foram avaliadas pelo Simultest em ensaios qualitativos (spot testes e quantitativos (incorporação em placa com uma mistura das linhagens indicadoras de Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 e TA102. Quatro drogas anti-doença de Chagas (nifurtimox, benzonidazol, CL 64,855 e MK 436 e duas drogas anti-amebiase (metronidazol e tinidazol deram resultados positivos em testes qualitativos e a incorporação de fração microssomal de fígado de rato não alterou os resultados. Curvas comparadas de efeito da dose da atividade mutagênica do metronidazol, benzonidazol e CL 64,855 detectadas pelo Simultest e linhagens indicadoras individuais demonstraram que as duas abordagens possuem sensibilidades semelhantes. Os resultados corroboram a validade do Simultest como uma versão simplificada, rápida e econômica do teste de Ames no rastreamento preliminar de drogas potencialmente mutagênicas.

  16. 抗病毒中药总黄酮成分复方的体外筛选%Screening of Chinese herbal flavone ingredient prescriptions of anti-virus in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉清; 王德云; 刘家国; 胡元亮

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen ideal flavone prescriptions of antivirus in vitro , nine total flavone ingredients prescriptions were formed based on the four total flavones of EF, BSRF, WDFF, and SF, which showed better antivirus activities described in previous experiment. Ever)' prescription was diluted into five series concentrations from its maximal safe concentration, then, added into CEF monolayer with three ways. MTT colorimetric assay was used to detect the effects of the nine prescriptions anti-NDV in CEF. The results indicated that all of the prescriptions displayed antivirus abilities in some degree when treated by the above three treatments. Evaluated by D570 values and the highest virus inhibition ratio, three prescriptions of epimedium total flavones-baikal skullcap root total flavones (EF-BSRF), epimedium total flavones-wild dendranthema flower total flavones-baikal skullcap root total flavones (EF-WDFF-BSRE), epimedium total flavones-sanchi total flavones-wild dendranthema flower total flavones-baikal skullcap root total flavones (EF-SF-WDFF-BSRF) showed better antivirus activities.%为筛选出体外抗病毒效果较好的中药总黄酮成分复方,本试验将经初步筛选出的抗病毒效果较好的淫羊藿总黄酮、黄芩总黄酮、野菊花总黄酮、三七总黄酮4个单味成分进行组方,得到9个中药总黄酮成分复方,分别从安全浓度起倍比稀释5个浓度后,以先加药物后加病毒、先加病毒后加药物、病毒和药物同时加入3种加药方式加入到CEF单层细胞中,通过MTT法观察了9个总黄酮成分复方对NDV感染CEF单层细胞的影响.结果表明,各黄酮成分复方在3种加药方式中均表现一定的抗病毒活性,以D570值和最高病毒抑制率综合评价,淫黄、淫野黄、淫三野黄3个复方的抗病毒效果最好.

  17. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — No dataset associated with this publication. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Augustine, S. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis:...

  18. Screening CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken int

  19. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  20. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  1. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  2. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.

    2012-11-01

    In desert sunny clear-sky regions solar penetration can become excessive. This can cause non-uniform daylight distribution, glare and high solar heat gain, affecting both visual and thermal comfort. Shading devices, such as solar screens, were usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space under the desert sunny clear-sky. The larger aim is to arrive at efficient solar screen designs that suit the different orientations.The study was divided into three consecutive phases. In phase one, the effect of the two parameters on Daylight Availability was tested. The solar screen was axially rotated by three different angles at 10° increments. Also, the aspect ratio of the screen opening in both horizontal and vertical directions was changed systematically. Simulation was conducted using the annual Daylight Dynamic Performance Metrics (DDPMs). In phase two, the Annual Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric was evaluated for the cases that were found adequate in phase one. In the third phase, the annual solar energy transmittance through the screen was calculated for the cases that achieved acceptable performance in the two previous phases in order to identify the more energy efficient screens.Solar screens with openings having horizontal aspect ratios were found to be the most effective, while those with vertical aspect ratios were achieved the lowest performance. In the North orientation, since almost all the cases that were tested in this research provided acceptable daylighting performance, the designer now have a variety of options to choose from. Preference should be given to screen openings of horizontal aspect ratios, especially the 12:1 and 18:1 (H:V) screens that achieved the best performance where 92% of the space was " daylit" in comparison with only 53

  3. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    The desert climate is endowed by clear sky conditions, providing an excellent opportunity for optimum utilization of natural light in daylighting building indoor spaces. However, the sunny conditions of the desert skies, in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens" Very little research work addressed different design aspects of external Solar Screens and their influence on daylighting performance, especially in desert conditions, although these screens proved their effectiveness in controlling solar radiation in traditional buildings throughout history.This paper reports on the outcomes of an investigation that studied the influence of perforation percentage of Solar Screens on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room of a building in a desert location. The objective was to identify minimum perforation percentage of screen openings that provides adequate illuminance levels in design-specific cases and all-year-round.Research work was divided into three stages. Stage one focused on the analysis of daylighting illuminance levels in specific dates and times, while the second stage was built on the results of the first stage, and addressed year round performance using Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics (DDPMs). The third stage addressed the possibility of incidence of glare in specific cases where illuminance levels where found very high in some specific points during the analysis of first stage. The research examined the daylighting performance in an indoor space with a number of assumed fixed experimentation parameters that were chosen to represent the principal features of a typical residential living room located in a desert environment setting.Stage one experiments demonstrated that the screens fulfilled the

  4. How to Avoid Headlight Glare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Glass Clear and Clean Streaks, smudges, and road grime on your windows catch and refract light. This includes the inside of your windshield. Chemicals from the plastic in your car’s interior slowly build up on ...

  5. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  6. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  7. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  8. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  9. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  10. Current screens

    OpenAIRE

    Cubitt, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of screen design, including LCD, LED and DLP projection, is analysed in terms of the political economy and their aesthetics and phenomenological impacts, in association with the use of codecs as constraining as well as enabling tools in the control and management of visual data transmission.

  11. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  12. Sterols from Mytilidae Show Anti-Aging and Neuroprotective Effects via Anti-Oxidative Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yujuan Sun; Yanfei Lin; Xueli Cao; Lan Xiang; Jianhua Qi

    2014-01-01

    For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experim...

  13. 五味子-细辛药对抗哮喘活性部位筛选%Screening of the Anti-Asthma Active Sites for the Drug Partnership Containing Fructus Schisandrae and Asarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建兵; 褚裹萍; 张永煜; 邱明丰; 贾伟

    2013-01-01

    To screen the anti - asthma bioactive extracts for the drug partnership containing fructus schisan-drae and asarum. Methods; The asthma suppression effects of five extracts (the volatile oil, water extract and crude free organic acid from fructus schisandrae & the volatile oil, water extract from asarum) were studied by asthma latent pcriod in guinea pigs induced by the acetylcholine chloride and histamine phosphate. The antitussive activities of this five extracts were observed through the pre - cough time and cough times in mice by the ammonium hydroxide. Their expectorant activities were identified by determining the excreting amount of the phenol red in mice. Results-.The volatile oils both from fructus schisandrae and asarum were significantly prolonged the pre - convulsive time( PCT) of guinea pigs induced by the mixture spray of the histamine and acetylcholine chloride ( P < 0. 05 ) , while the other three extracts took no significant effect. The volatile oil, water extract and crude free organic acid from fructus schisandrae as well as the volatile oil from asarum were respectively able to prolong the cough latent period( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01) and decrease the cough frequency (P<0.01)in mice caused by the ammonia liquor,however the water extract from asarum had no significant antitussive activity. The tracheal phenol red excretion in mice was dramatically enhanced by the volatile oil,water extract and crude free organic acid from fructus schisandrae as well as the volatile oil from asarum respectively(P <0. 01) ,but the water extract from asarum took no significant effect. Conclusions; The asthma suppression extracts of the drug partnership containing fructus schisandrae and asarum may be the volatile oils both from fructus schisandrae and asarum. The antitussive and expectorant extracts of this drug partnership were possibly the volatile oil, water extract and crude free organic acid from fructus schisandrae as well as the volatile oil from asarum.%目

  14. Anti-blocking model and experimental research on vibrating screen of asphalt mixing plant%沥青搅拌设备振动筛防堵模型与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪海; 曾凡记; 程旭; 周峰

    2015-01-01

    The stability of production gradation of mixture is determined by the screening efficiency of vibrating screen of asphalt mixing plant, and the blocking sieve may result in the change of effi-ciency. To study the problem of blocking sieve, a kinematics model of vibrating screen is established and the relationships of vibration parameters, the qualities of eccentric block and vibrating screen, and equivalent rotation radius are determined by analyzing the structure, working mechanism and motion characteristics of vibrating screen;mechanical models of rigid sieve and elastic sieve are es-tablished respectively and the influence of parameters of vibrating screen, such as kinetic parame-ters, physical properties of the material, the size of vibration sieve mesh and mesh stiffness, on blocking screen is explored by analyzing the motion characteristics and dynamics of particles under the condition of blocking screen. The result shows that the blocking rate of 5 mmí5 mm rigid square-hole vibration screen is larger ( more than 10%) , and the escape ability of particles is rela-tively lower under the conventional design of frequency ( 16 Hz ) and amplitude ( 5 mm ) . There-fore, it is necessary to raise the vibration strength and to reduce the blocking rate when the mesh size is less than 6 mm;the elastic sieve of a smaller stiffness is the best solution to avoid increasing tech-nical difficulties or affecting the structure strength of equipment as a result of the increased vibration parameters.%沥青混合料搅拌设备振动筛的筛分效率决定了混合料生产级配的稳定性,堵筛会使筛分效率发生变化。为了研究堵筛问题,通过对振动筛的结构、工作机理和运动特性分析,建立了振动筛的运动学模型,确定了振动参数与偏心块质量、振动筛质量、当量转动半径等参数之间关系;通过对堵筛条件下颗粒的运动特性和动力学分析,分别建立了刚性筛网和弹

  15. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Babizhayev

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark A Babizhayev1, Leslie Burke2, Philip Micans3, Stuart P Richer4,51Innovative Vision Products, Inc., County of New Castle, Delaware, USA; 2Wise Choice Products LLC, London, England, United Kingdom; 3IAS Group, Sark, United Kingdom; 4Eye Clinic DVA Medical Center, North Chicago, Illinois, USA; 5Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois, USABackground: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™ designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops.Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance, and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years.Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9

  16. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  17. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  18. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... two steps: Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Developmental Screening Developmental screening is a short test to tell ...

  19. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Babizhayev

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark A Babizhayev1, Leslie Burke2, Philip Micans3, Stuart P Richer4,51Innovative Vision Products, Inc., County of New Castle, Delaware, USA; 2Wise Choice Products LLC, London, England, United Kingdom; 3IAS Group, Sark, United Kingdom; 4Eye Clinic DVA Medical Center, North Chicago, Illinois, USA; 5Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois, USABackground: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™ designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops.Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance, and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years.Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9

  20. 维生素K2及其配伍制剂抗实验性骨质疏松症的筛选研究%Anti-osteoporotic screening study of vitamin K2 and its compatibility of medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 何波; 杨仁华; 陆义芹; 沈志强

    2013-01-01

    (与受试品13比较,P < 0.05).受试品1及由其配伍的受试品2、4、6、8、10、12均可增加股骨和椎骨的BMD及BMC(P < 0.05,与模型组比较).受试品5和9可以增加股骨和椎骨的BMD及BMC(P < 0.05,与模型组比较),其作用与受试品1、2、4、6、8、10、12基本相当.与模型组比较,受试品3、7和11仅增加椎骨的BMD,对股骨BMD无明显影响.(2)对股骨重量和骨钙水平的影响:与模型组比较,受试品13和14显著增加股骨的湿重、干重、灰重,明显提高骨钙水平,与模型组比较,P < 0.01,且受试品14强于受试品13;受试品1及由其配伍的受试品2、4、6、8、10、12、受试品5和9均明显增加股骨的湿重、干重、灰重,同时可提高骨钙水平,且作用相当.受试品3、7和11虽然可增加股骨的湿重和干重,但对灰重尤其是骨钙水平均无明显影响.结论 在本实验条件下,14个受试品中,受试品13和14作用较强,且受试品14强于受试品13;受试品1、2、4、5、6、8、9、10、12、13具有基本相当的抗骨质疏松症作用,但均弱于受试品14;在本实验条件下,受试品3、7、11无明显作用.从组分配伍来分析,80 μg/kg的维生素K2及其配伍制剂均具有明显的增加骨密度和骨钙作用,其中配伍的维生素D3和柠檬酸钙具有明显的协同增效作用;本研究所用剂量的维生素E或辅酶Q10并不能明显提高维生素K2的抗骨质疏松作用.%To screen the anti-osteoporotic activity of 14 samples, which were consisted of vitamin K2, calcium citrate, natural vitamin E, vitamin D3, and coenzyme Q10, in osteoporotic model rats with high turnover osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy. Methods All the 14 samples were provided by the Pharmaceutical Development Company Limited of Yunnan University, including sample 1; vitamin K2 (80 g/kg), sample 2: vitamin K2 (80 g/kg) + coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg), sample 3 : vitamin K2 (50 g/kg) + calcium citrate (500 mg/kg), sample 4

  1. Anti-ulcer potential of Oxystelma esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devang J Pandya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxystelma esculentum is a perennial twiner growing near water-logged areas in the Indian subcontinent. It is used traditionally in stomach ulcers. The present work deals with the investigation of anti-ulcer potential of O. esculentum. The plant was successively extracted with solvents of varying polarities, which served as the test extracts. Anti-ulcer effect was checked in Wistar rats using aspirin- and ethanol-induced acute ulcer models. The petroleum ether extract was found to possess the most effective anti-ulcer activity. This proves the traditional claim of the plant as an anti-ulcer drug. Phytochemical screening of this extract revealed the presence of important classes of compounds like cardenolides, flavonoids, phenolics, sterols and triterpenoids. This bioactivity-guided phytochemical screening can guide further therapeutic investigations and isolation of pharmacologically active compounds from Oxystelma esculentum.

  2. Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions due to multiple alloantibodies including anti-E, anti-c and anti-Jkb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sung; Kim, Ki Uk; Jeong, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Chang, Chulhun L; Chung, Joo Seop; Cho, Goon Jae; Lee, Eun Yup; Son, Han Chul

    2003-12-01

    We report a case of two consecutive episodes of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) due to multiple alloantibodies in a 34-yr-old man who suffered from avascular necrosis of left femoral head. He received five units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) during surgery. Then the transfusion of packed RBCs was required nine days after the surgery because of the unexplained drop in hemoglobin level. The transfusion of the first two units resulted in fever and brown-colored urine, but he received the transfusion of another packed RBCs the next day. He experienced even more severe symptoms during the transfusion of the first unit. We performed antibody screening test, and it showed positive results. Multiple alloantibodies including anti-E, anti-c and anti-Jkb were detected by antibody identification study. Acute HTRs due to multiple alloantibodies were diagnosed, and the supportive cares were done for 6 days. We suggest the antibody screening test should be included in the panel of pretransfusion tests for safer transfusion, and it is particularly mandatory for the patients with multiple transfusions, pregnant women, and preoperative patients. PMID:14676451

  3. Drug screening for influenza neuraminidase inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Ailin; CAO; Hongpeng; DU; Guanhua

    2005-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) is one of the most important targets to screen the drugs of anti-influenza virus A and B. After virtual screening approaches were applied to a compound database which possesses more than 10000 compound structures, 160 compounds were selected for bioactivity assay, then a High Throughput Screening (HTS) model established for influenza virus NA inhibitors was applied to detect these compounds. Finally, three compounds among them displayed higher inhibitory activities, the range of their IC50 was from 0.1 μmol/L to 3μmol/L. Their structural scaffolds are novel and different from those of NA inhibitors approved for influenza treatment, and will be useful for the design and research of new NA inhibitors. The resuit indicated that the combination of virtual screening with HTS was very significant to drug screening and drug discovery.

  4. In vitro Anti-hepatoma Screening of 100 Commonly Used Tibetan Medicines%100种常用藏药抗肝癌的体外活性筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋萍; 徐婵; 马云瑞; 吕静南; 杨静; 汪超; 杨新洲

    2015-01-01

    To discover new anticancer drugs from Tibetan medicines, the cyclohexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from 100 commonly used Tibetan medicines collected from Huzhu County, Qinghai Province were prepared by an accelerated solvent extraction method.The MTT method was used to test the anti-hepatoma activity of the 100 Tibetan medicines against two hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721, and the preliminary cell toxicity was investigated using a human liver cell line LO-2.The results indicated that 15 of these Tibetan medicines exhibited anti-hepatoma activities against HepG2 and SMMC-7721 with IC50 values less than 150μg/mL.Among these, the ethyl acetate extracts of Delphinium caeruleum, Dracocephalum tanguticum and Ligularia przewalskii showed significant antitumor activity with IC50 values less than 50 μg/mL, yet they didn’ t show obvious toxicity against LO-2 cells.This research presented a new way to discover new anti-hepatoma drugs from Tibetan medicines.%为从藏药中发现新的抗癌药物,从青海互助县收集了100种常用藏药,采用快速溶剂萃取法制备出了各种藏药的环己烷、乙酸乙酯和甲醇提取物。选用2种肝癌细胞株HepG2和SMMC-7721,以MTT法测试了100种藏药的抗肝癌活性,选用人肝细胞株LO-2评价了藏药的体外毒性。结果表明:15种藏药材显示出抗肝癌活性,IC50值均小于150μg/mL,其中藜、天名精、三脉紫菀3种藏药的乙酸乙酯提取物显示出显著的抗肝癌活性,其IC50值均小于50μg/mL,而对正常肝细胞LO-2未显示出明显的毒性。该研究为进一步从藏药中发现新的抗癌药物提供了思路。

  5. Development of Anti-Reflection Film for LCD%液晶显示器(LCD)防反射膜的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂花

    2008-01-01

    液晶显示器(LCD)的用途从电脑显示器、笔记本电脑到液晶显示电视(LCD-TV)不断发展,市场规模持续快速增长.关于LCD高精细度、高灰度、高对比度的各种开发连续不断.LCD表面保护膜以前多使用AG(Anti-Glare)膜,后来又上市了有上述作用的、可作为表面保护模的防反射(AR=Anti-Reflection)膜.该反射膜反射率低,并且表面物性高,本文介绍了产品设计和构成技术.

  6. Preparation and Properties of UV Curable Absorbing and Anti-Glare Coating%UV固化吸光防眩涂层的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡露; 杨柱; 张小平; 邓康清; 龚露露; 姜磊

    2016-01-01

    以聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA)溶胀包裹纳米炭黑制备的复合粒子作为吸光性散射微粒,聚氨酯丙烯酸酯树脂为UV固化主体树脂,光学级聚酯(PET)薄膜为基材,采用湿法涂布方式制备了UV固化吸光防眩涂层.研究了纳米炭黑溶胀包裹比例、吸光性散射微粒含量以及涂层厚度对UV固化涂层光学性能的影响,分析了纳米炭黑溶胀包裹比例与涂层吸光度之间的关系.研究结果表明:制备的UV固化吸光防眩涂层兼具优异的防眩光和一定的吸光性能,能有效缓解液晶显示屏幕发白和晃眼等问题;随着纳米炭黑溶胀包裹比例的增大以及吸光性散射微粒含量的增加,涂层的光线透过率降低,雾度值升高,镜面光泽下降.此外,涂层吸光度与纳米炭黑溶胀包裹比例之间呈现出良好的线性关系,符合Lambert-Beer定律.

  7. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  9. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  10. 耐高渗酵母的筛选及其抗氧化能力的研究%The screen and antioxidant activity determination of anti-high hypertonicity yeast mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡; 王玉

    2012-01-01

    本文为验证高渗应激与氧化应激的相关性,以酿酒酵母为研究材料,以紫外照射法对其诱变处理并筛选出耐高渗菌株.探讨了高渗应激条件下产生的活性酵母衍生物(Live Yeast Cell Derivative,简称LYCD)的抗氧化物质的变化情况.结果表明:酵母高渗应激反应可增加LYCD中蛋白质含量;提高总抗氧化能力(T-AOC);提高超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性与谷胱甘肽(GSH)含量.说明高渗应激刺激酵母细胞形成的LYCD对细胞具有抗氧化作用.%The relationship between hypertonic and oxidative stress response of yeast was studied in this paper. Firstly, two kinds of hypertonic mutant were screened. Then the content of antioxidative substance in wild type and mutants was measured. The results showed that the content of total protein, total antioxidant capacity (T -AOC) were increased in mutants, called Live Yeast Cell Derivative ( LYCD) , compared with wild type, named yeast extract ( YE). Which indicated that the oxidative defense system of yeast was activated under hypertonic stress.

  11. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T;

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  12. 天然产物增强阿霉素抗乳腺癌作用的体外筛选%Screening of natural products enhancing doxorubicin′s anti-breast cancer effect in vit ro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雯清; 张璐璐; 刘毅清; 顾文文; 颜天华; 姜远英; 曹永兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:从植物天然产物中筛选具有增强阿霉素抗乳腺癌细胞增殖作用的活性化合物,并对两药联合后的体外抗肿瘤活性进行初步评价。方法采用M T T法研究15种单体化合物对人乳腺癌细胞MDA‐MB‐231的影响。结果小檗碱、松萝酸、鱼腥草素钠、槲皮素在50μg・mL -1时对MDA‐MB‐231细胞的抑制率分别为72%(P<0.001),74%(P<0.001),91%(P<0.001)和59%(P<0.01),且具有剂量依赖性。联合用药结果显示,小檗碱与阿霉素联用,CI值小于1。结论小檗碱、松萝酸、鱼腥草素钠、槲皮素对MDA‐MB‐231细胞的增殖活性具有抑制作用,同时,小檗碱与阿霉素联用具有协同抗肿瘤作用。%Objective To screen the active anti‐tumor compounds from natural herb products and make a preliminary assessment on the anti‐tumor activities of their combination with doxorubicin in vitro .Methods MTT method was used to test 15 monomeric compounds′anti‐tumor effects on breast cancer cells MDA‐MB‐231 in vitro .Results The inhibition rates of berberine ,usnic acid ,sodium houttuyfonate and quercetin on MDA‐MB‐231 cells were 72% (P<0 .001) ,74% (P<0 .001) ,91% (P<0 .001) and 59% (P<0 .01) at 50 μg・mL -1 in a dose‐dependent manner .Drug combination results showed that CI values of berberine com‐bined with doxorubicin was less than 1 .Conclusion Berberine ,usnic acid ,sodium houttuyfonate and quercetin inhibited the pro‐liferation of MDA‐MB‐231 cells .Drug combination results showed that berberine combined with doxorubicin had synergistic anti‐breast cancer efficacy .

  13. Suppressor Screens in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screens have proven to be a useful tool in the dissection of biological processes in plants. Specifically, suppressor screens have been widely used to study signal transduction pathways. Here we provide a detailed protocol for ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis used in our suppressor screens in Arabidopsis and discuss the basic principles behind suppressor screen design and downstream analyses. PMID:26577776

  14. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  15. Establishment of a novel cell model targeted on FGF-21 receptor for screening anti-diabetic drug candidates%筛选糖尿病候选药物FGF-21受体激动剂的新型细胞模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红梅; 王文飞; 张巧; 韩阳; 王琪; 任桂萍; 付云威; 李德山

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to establish a fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) signaling pathway targeted cell model, for screening a class of FGF-21 receptor agonists as anti-diabetic candidates. FGF-21 requires β klotho transmembrane proteins as co-receptor for the activation of tyrosine kinase FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling, thereby activating a series of intracellular signaling pathways and regulating gene transcription for glucose metabolism. Firstly a recombinant plasmid expressing co-receptor β klotho and EGFP reporter genes was constructed. After introducing the recombinant plasmid into package cells, the cell culture supernatant was used to infect 3T3-L1 cells, which were then screened for stably expressing β klotho gene. Administration of FGF-21 increased the expression of GLUT1 and stimulated GLUT 1-mediated glucose uptake. This novel cell model can be conveniently used in high-throughput drug screening of FGF-21 or FGF-21 analogues.%建立以成纤维细胞生长因子-21(fibroblast growthfactor-21,FGF-21)信号通路为靶点的药物筛选细胞模型,用于筛选FGF-21受体激动剂类的新型治疗糖尿病药物.FGF-21的生理功能主要是通过细胞表面的FGFR及辅助受体βklotho传递信号,从而激活细胞内相关调控的一系列信号通路以及基因转录来实现的.本实验将βklotho基因构建到逆转录病毒表达载体pBMN-IRES-EGFP.将该载体导入包装细胞,收集病毒上清液并感染3T3-L1细胞,筛选到稳定表达βklotho细胞系.该细胞模型在FGF-21作用下可以促进细胞葡萄糖转运蛋白-1表达及转运水平升高,从而提高细胞糖吸收能力.构建该细胞系可以方便对FGF-21及类似药物进行高通量筛选,为糖尿病药物的研究提供了一种新方法.

  16. Anti-arthritic and immunosuppressive activities of substituted triterpenoidal candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Amer M; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; Abdulla, Mohamed M; Amr, Abd El-Galil E

    2013-07-01

    We herein report the anti-arthritic and immunosuppressive activities of some synthesized substituted terpenoidal structure. Forty-four triterpenoid derivatives 1-21 containing a carboxylic, ester, amide and ketone groups attached to a triterpene moiety were conveniently synthesized and screened for their anti-arthritic and immunosuppressive activities. Synthetic triterpenoidal structures linked to a different function groups seem to be a promising approach in the search for novel leads for potent anti-arthritic and immunosuppressive agents. The detailed synthetic pathways of obtained compounds and anti-arthritic and immunosuppressive activities were reported. PMID:23603083

  17. Screening for hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomson, P R V

    1983-01-01

    In an open access screening campaign for hypertension lasting six weeks 6259 individuals were screened with a Vita-Stat blood pressure computer and an estimated 4.2% to 5.4% of new cases were detected.

  18. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  19. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  20. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  1. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  2. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  5. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  6. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis in Korea: Clinical Features, Treatment, and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Kim, Soyun; Shin, Jung-Won; Moon, Jangsup; Byun, Jung-Ick; Kim, Tae-Joon; Shin, Yong-Won; Lee, Keon-Joo; Kim, Young-Su; Park, Kyung-Il; Lee, Sang Kun; Chu, Kon

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is the most common type of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis and it often responds to treatment. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in Korea. Methods Serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with encephalitis of undetermined cause were screened for anti-NMDAR antibodies using a cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay. The patients came from ...

  7. In vivo anti-ulcer, anti-stress, anti-allergic, and functional properties of Gymnemic Acid Isolated from Gymnema sylvestre R Br

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, Lilly Baptista; Arunachalam, Aarrthy M; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kumar, Kalaivani Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background Gymnema sylvestre is a highly valued ethno pharmacologically important medicinal plant used currently in many poly-herbal formulations due to its potential antidiabetic activity and other health benefits. The present study was carried out to analyze the anti-stress, anti-allergic, and antiulcer activity of the bioactive compounds present in Gymnema sylvestre leaves. Methods The preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds from aqueous extracts revealed the presence o...

  8. After anti-racism?

    OpenAIRE

    Lentin, Alana

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Anti-racism as a political discourse and a form of collective social action has long been ignored as a serious field of research. In contrast, I envision the study of anti-racism as a vital lens on both 'race' and racism. First, the heterogeneity of anti-racism is demonstrated, spanning both pro- and anti-state-based analyses of the origins of racism. Second, a parallel discourse of 'anti-anti-racism' within the radical Left reveals the reluctance of many on the Left to id...

  9. Accessing the features of surface neuraminidase (N1) of influenza A virus presenting on the platforms for anti-NA Abs screening%对流感病毒神经氨酸酶N1亚型抗体筛选体系的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兰; 秦堃; 周剑芳; 舒跃龙; 韦红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand if the Neuraminidase (N1) of Influenza A virus at the surface of yeast-displaying system,eukaryotic expression system and the infected cells could be used for anti-NA Abs screening,their activities and bindings to five candidate Abs were assayed.Methods The surface NA expression was obtained by transfecting by recombinant NA constructors with specific tag-labels or live virus infection.The functional activity was measured by the fluorescent assay.Their bindings to the Abs were detected by flow cytometry.Results The surface NAs presenting on the yeast-displaying system and eukaryotic expression system exhibited functional NA activities as the NA at the surface of virus-infected cells which showed affinities to Ab1,4,and 5.The same bindings to Ab1 and 5 were found in the surface NA expressed by eukaryotic expression system while minor binding was observed in the yeast displayed-NA.Conclusion The epitopes of yeast-displayed NA may be different from the NAs present at eukaryotic expression system and the infected cells which more likely suitable for the screening of anti-NA Abs.%目的 比较真核表达、活病毒感染、酵母展示系统用于流感病毒神经氨酸酶(NA) N1亚型抗体筛选的差别,寻找合适的抗体筛选系统.方法 将pVRC-VN NA-HAtag质粒转染入293T,通过酵母展示获得重组NA.通过反向遗传学获得重组病毒A/Sichuan/1/2009.用荧光发光法检测NA性能,用流式细胞仪检测NA与5种候选抗体结合情况.结果 真核表达、酵母展示系统均可以使NA在表面展示,且具有与活病毒NA相似的特性.在候选的5种抗体中,真核表达以及病毒的NA可与抗体1、5结合,病毒的NA还能与抗体4结合;而酵母展示系统的NA与5种抗体均不能结合.结论 真核表达、真病毒感染系统适合NA抗体的筛选,酵母展示系统表达的NA其表面抗体识别的表位有差异.

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  11. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, F.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Serafim, W. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of 'anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like in an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to the condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance, which is associated with a screening phase. (orig.)

  12. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, F A; Serafim, W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of `anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell's equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance which is associated with {a screening phase

  13. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    in curating has emerged from a critical discourse in response to a particular "screen topos", which has relied on a Foucauldian, apparatus-theoretical mechanism of the screen as a broadcasting medium of mass entertainment. This topos, I argue, has transferred the dispositif of the screen apparatus...... to the dispositif of screen practice in curating, resulting in a medium-based curatorial discourse. With reference to the nomadic exhibition project Nordic Outbreak that I co-curated with Nina Colosi in 2013 and 2014, I suggest that the topos of the defined visual display area, frequently still known as "the screen...

  14. Evaluation of the screening test results before marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses and Treponema pallidum are parenterally and sexually transmitted infection agents. Screening test is made before marriage to pre-marital couples legally under the relevant legislation and legal procedures in our country; applicants are evaluated in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate pre-marital test results for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and Treponema pallidum.Materials and methods: To make screening test before marriage, randomized 117 patients who were applied to Kızıltepe General Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, were included in this study between January 2011 and March 2011. Of these patients, 64 were women (average age 24.7±5.7, and 55 were males (mean age 24.7±4.7. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV I/II tests of the patients were studied by macro-ELISA device (ECIQ Vitros, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA, screening of anti-Treponema pallidum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were studied by immunochromatographic rapid test (syphilis syphilis 3.0, Standard Diagnostics, inc. Korea.Results: Of the 119 patients, five patients (4.2% were positive for HBsAg (3 male and 2 female. Anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were negative in all patients.Conclusion: HBsAg test result which was obtained in present study has been found consistent with HBsAg positivity rate in our region. As a result of screening test that was done before marriage will continue to believe that the increased importance of the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 292-294.

  15. Towards perfect light coupling and absorption in nanomembranes with omni-directional anti-reflection and photonic crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Arvinder Singh

    Silicon photonics is realized as a promising platform to meet the requirements of higher bandwidth and low cost high density monolithic integration. More recent demonstrations of a variety of stretchable, foldable and transfer printed ultra-thin silicon integrated circuits have instigated the use of flexible silicon nanomembrane for practical applications. Equally impressive innovations are demonstrated in the area of flat screen displays, smart cards, eyeglasses, and wearable displays. However, the overall efficiency of a variety of optical device is limited by poor light management resulting from difficulty of light coupling, small absorption volume in thin-film nanomembrane, and glare at oblique incidence to name a few. The aim of this thesis is to present the work of micro- and nano-scale structures for out-of-plane light coupling and absorption for integrated silicon photonics and high performance solar cells and photodetectors, with maximum absorption in the functional layer and minimal front-surface reflection and minimal rear-surface transmission. Perfect absorption in a variety of semiconductor nanomembranes (NM) and atomic layers of two dimensional (2D) materials over different wavelength spectrum is realized due to the local field intensity enhancement at critical coupling to the guided resonances of a photonic crystal (PC). A judicious choice of grating parameters tailors the power diffracted in the zeorth order and higher order modes making the device work as a broadband reflector, an in-plane coupler or a combination of both reflector and an in-plane coupler. At surface normal incidence, the polarization dependence of the grating based reflector is eliminated by the use of 2D photonic crystals. The incorporation of such a reflector after the functional nanomembrane layer reduces the back-surface transmission. Effect of incident angle, polarization and incident plane misalignment dependence on the reflection of a silicon NM based reflector are

  16. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  17. Screening in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Del Poggio; Marzio Mazzoleni

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines,although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors,such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction,is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation.

  18. Screening in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  19. Design, synthesis, in vitro evaluation of tetrahydropyrimidine-isatin hybrids as potential antibacterial, antifungal and anti-tubercular agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarunkumar Nanjibhai Akhaja; Jignesh Priyakant Raval

    2012-01-01

    A series of 5-substitued-3-(5-(4-(furan-2-yl)-6-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylimino)indolin-2-one derivatives were synthesized,characterized and were screened for anti-bacterial,anti-fungal and anti-tubercular activity.

  20. Evaluation of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL test results in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, Özcan; Tekin, Alicem; Günbay, Seda Sibel; Kılıç, Dilek; KAYGUSUZ, Sedat; Ağalar, Canan; Özer, Türkan Toka

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The most frequently encountered complication in the transfusion of blood and blood products are transmitted infections from these products. Infections caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain the leading most important health problems in the transfusion of blood and blood products worldwide. Therefore, screening tests such as HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and RPR or VDRL for Treponema pallidum are mandatory tests to loo...

  1. Workshop on discomfort glare: Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterhaus, Werner; Veitch, J A

    Report on workshop presented at 27th Session of the International Commission on Illumination, Sun City, South Africa......Report on workshop presented at 27th Session of the International Commission on Illumination, Sun City, South Africa...

  2. Cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killie, M K; Kjeldsen-Kragh, J; Husebekk, A;

    2007-01-01

    -4 weeks before term. Severely thrombocytopenic newborn were transfused immediately with compatible platelets. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs. RESULTS: Compared with no screening, a programme of screening and subsequent treatment would generate between 210 and 230...... in Norway encompassing a 2.78 million population. POPULATION: Pregnant women (n = 100,448) screened for human platelet antigen (HPA) 1a and anti-HPA 1a antibodies, and their babies. METHOD: Decision tree analysis. In three branches of the decision tree, pregnant women entered a programme while in one...

  3. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Creatore, Maria I.; Gillian L Booth; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabe...

  4. The Kondo Screening Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Affleck, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Renormalization group theory of the Kondo effect predicts that an impurity spin is screened by a conduction electron spread over a large distance of order >.1 to 1 micron. This review has the following sections: 1. The Kondo effect and the screening cloud, 2. Non-observation of the Kondo cloud in conventional experiments, 3. Kondo effect in transmission through a quantum dot, 4. Observing the screening cloud in persistent current experiments, 5. Side-coupled quantum dot, 6. Conclusions

  5. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  6. Delayed Serological Transfusion Reaction After Platelet Transfusion Due to Anti-e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Deepti; Kumar, Aswin; Jothimani, Dinesh; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Delayed serological transfusion reaction (DSTR) is defined as absence of clinical signs of hemolysis and demonstration of new, clinically-significant antibodies against red blood cells after a transfusion, by either positive direct antiglobulin test or positive antibody screen with newly identified RBC alloantibody. Various delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction cases are reported after red cell transfusions. However, the incidence of DSTR after platelet transfusion due to non-Rh(D) antibodies is not much documented. We report here a case of DSTR due to anti-e Rh antibody in a multiply red cell alloimmunized female patient after single donor platelets transfusion. PMID:27408414

  7. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  8. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  9. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  10. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality, but it...... is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational...... requirements for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  11. A Study of Anti Beta-2 Glycoprotein I and Anti-Prothrombin Antibodies in Patients with Unexplained Recurrent Pregnancy Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Angad; Nangia, Anita; Sharma, Sunita; Puri, Manju

    2016-06-01

    To compare the levels of IgG and IgM anti beta-2 glycoprotein I antibodies and IgG and IgM anti prothrombin antibodies among women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses and women with at least 2 live issues. To compare the prevalence of newer anti beta-2 glycoprotein I & anti prothrombin antibodies with conventional Lupus anticoagulant & anticardiolipin antibodies. 50 women with recurrent pregnancy losses & 50 matched controls were evaluated for the presence of: Lupus anticoagulant-screened by LA sensitive aPTT& DRVV and confirmatory Staclot Assay. ELISA kits were used for detecting IgG & IgM anticardiolipin, anti beta-2 glycoprotein I & anti prothrombin antibodies. 11/50 (22 %) women in study group and none in control group had circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. 2 cases (4 %) had lupus anticoagulant. 1 case (2 %) had anticardiolipin antibody & 6 cases (12 %) were positive for anti beta-2 Glycoprotein I antibody (p value = 0.027). 3 cases (6 %) had anti prothrombin antibody. All were mutually exclusive except for one. Women with recurrent pregnancy losses should be tested for anti beta-2 Glycoprotein I antibodies & anti prothrombin antibodies in addition to conventional lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. This approach can decrease the incidence of SNAP (seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome) cases while establishing the true prevalence of antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:27065583

  12. Establishment of a Screening Model for The Anti-inflammation Inhibitors Acting on The Dimerization of MyD88 TIR%以MyD88 TIR二聚化为靶点的抗炎抑制剂筛选模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岩; 薛嬿; 姜雪; 曾宪录; 巴雪青

    2012-01-01

    molecules transmitting the inflammation signals and inducing gene expression. The present study aimed to establish a livjng-cell-fluorescence-based and high-through-put model for screening the inhibitors against the dimerization of MyD88 TIR. We constructed GFP-MyD88 TIR and RFP-MyD88 TIR plasmids, and transiently transfected them along with GFP or RFP into HeLa cells with different combinations. Under the excitation at 488 run, the cells transfected with GFP-MyD88 TIR and RFP-MyD88 TIR plasmids showed the energy transfer from GFP to RFP, which is supposed to be mediated by ihe interaction of MyD88 TIR. Nevertheless, in the cells transacted with GFP-MyD88 TIR and RFP or RFP-MyD88 TIR and GFP plasmids, FRET was obviously impaired due to the absence of MyD88 TIR dimerization. The results suggest a possibility to establish a model for screening the inhibitors against the dimerization of MyD88 TIR: select the cell line that dually expresses GFP-MyD88 TIR and RFP-MyD88 TIR, and monitor the alteration of FRET upon the adding of different compounds in the medium. Additionally, we isolated and purified recombinant proteins His-MyD88 TIR and GST-MyD88 TIR, and performed in vitro protein binding assay. This recombinant protein binding assay can be used to verify the inhibitor candidates selected from the fluorescence screening model directly blocking the interaction of MyD88 TIR or not. The fluorescence screening model plus the in. vitro verifying assay can be broadly used with commercially available compounds banks or lab-made natural products lo find effective anti-inflammalion inhibitors for therapeutic treatment of MyD88-pathway related chronic inflammation or autoimmune disorders.

  13. Aneuploidy Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashe, Jodi S

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal aneuploidy screening has changed dramatically in recent years with increases in the types of chromosomal abnormalities reliably identified and in the proportion of aneuploid fetuses detected. Initially, screening was available only for trisomies 21 and 18 and was offered only to low-risk pregnancies. Improved detection with the quadruple- and first-trimester multiple marker screens led to the option of aneuploidy screening for women 35 years of age and older. Cell-free DNA tests now screen for common autosomal trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Cell-free DNA screening is particularly effective in older women because of higher positive predictive values and lower false-positive rates. Integrated first- and second-trimester multiple marker tests provide specific risks for trisomies 21, 18, and possibly 13, and may detect an even wider range of aneuploidies. Given current precision in risk assessment, based on maternal age and preferences for screening or diagnostic tests, counseling has become more complex. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of available aneuploidy screening methods along with counseling considerations when offering them. PMID:27275786

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  15. Mammography screening in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  16. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  17. Scoliosis Screening in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    The booklet outlines New York state school policy and procedures for screening students for scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine. It is explained that screening is designed to discover spinal deformities early enough to prevent surgery. Planning aspects, including organizing a planning team for the school district, are discussed. Among…

  18. EIA screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2005-01-01

    The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....

  19. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  20. Screening for abdominalt aortaaneurisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J S; Juul, Svend; Henneberg, E W;

    1997-01-01

    In spite of increasing number of elective resections of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) the mortality or ruptured AAA is increasing. The advantages of elective operations are obvious; the lethality is 2-6% while the lethality of ruptured AAA is 75-95%. However, AAA seldom causes symptoms before...... rupture. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA takes 10 minutes per scan, and the sensitivity and specificity are high. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA is a reliable, safe and inexpensive method for screening, and screening for AAA is discussed worldwide. One point four percent of deaths among men from 65...... to 80 year of age are caused by ruptured AAA. Screening men over 65 for AAA can theoretically prevent a substantial number of deaths. Our calculations predict one prevented AAA-death per 200-300 scans for a cost of about 4000 DKK per saved year of life. However, cost-benefit analyses are based...

  1. CT-Screening for lung cancer does not increase the use of anxiolytic or antidepressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Iachina, Maria; Pedersen, Jesper Holst;

    2012-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer has recently been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, but screening may have adverse mental health effects. We calculated risk ratios for prescription of anti-depressive (AD) or anxiolytic (AX) medication redeemed at Danish pharmacies for participants in The Danish...

  2. 微生物药物筛选研究进展%Progresses in the screening of new microbial drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司书毅; 黄明玉; 张月琴

    2001-01-01

    Microbial drugs are antibiotics and other pharmacological substances from the secondary metabolites of microorganisms. Screening process includes collection of soil and ocean samples, isolation of microorganisms, fermentation, strain screening, isolation of bioactive components and structure elucidation. Producing microorganisms includes streptomyces, rare actinomycetes, bacteria, fungi, and ocean microorganisms. New strategy for screening new microbial drugs is the screening of novel anti-resistant-bacterial agents, antifungal agents, antiviral agents, antitumor substances, immunomodulators and pharmacological active substances.

  3. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Cassia uniflora Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She S Chaudhari; Sanjay R Chaudhari; Machindra J Chavan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of leaves of Cassia uniflora (C. uniflora) Mill. Methods: Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of C. uniflora (100 and 200 mg/kg, body weight) was screened for analgesic (Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing), anti-inflammatory (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and anti-arthritic (Complete Freund's Adjuvant induced arthritis). In Complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model degree of inflammation was evaluated by hind paw swelling, body weight, and biochemical parameters and supported by radiological analysis. Results: Treatment with extracts of C. uniflora showed significant (P<0.05) and dose dependant increase in paw licking time in Eddy's hot plate method. In writhing test, extracts were significantly reduced the number of writhes. A dose dependant and significant inhibition of edema was observed in carrageenan induced paw edema. Petroleum ether extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed most potent and significant activity which is supported by the results of body weight, biochemical parameters and radiological analysis in complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model. Conclusion:The extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  4. Sterols from Mytilidae Show Anti-Aging and Neuroprotective Effects via Anti-Oxidative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Sun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF. SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL, brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function.

  5. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  6. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  7. Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  8. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITIES OF DELONIX ELATA BARK EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murugananthan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delonix elata (D. elata, has long been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of arthritis pain. In the present study an attempt was made to study the effect of D. elata barks for its anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect in animal models. Barks were subjected for extraction with pet. ether, chloroform and 40% hydroalcohol successively and evaporated under rotary evaporator to get the concentrated extract. All the extracts were subjected for acute oral toxicity studies in rats and found to be safe up to the dose of 5g/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet induced granuloma method, the hydro alcohol extract of D. elata barks showed significant protection against the inflammation. In Complete Freund’s Adjuvant induced arthritis model also the hydro alcohol exhibited significant protection on day 7 onwards.

  9. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  10. Lung cancer screening: radiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Lung Cancer Screening: Radiological Aspects Multiple lung cancer screening studies are currently being conducted to study whether lung cancer screening with Computed Tomography (CT) can decrease lung cancer mortality. This thesis addresses radiological methods that can increase efficacy and efficien

  11. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  12. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  13. 升麻联合皂角刺抗肿瘤处方筛选及疗效评价的实验研究%Experimental Study on Anti-tumor Prescription Screening and Therapeutic Effects of Shengma Combined with Zao Jiao-ci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿儒; 赵贝; 杜钢军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen the anti-tumor prescription (Shengzao Fang) of Shengma (Rhizoma Cimicifugae) combined with Zao Jiao-ci (Spina Gleditsiae), and evaluate its anti-tumor effects. Methods The lung metastatic model of 4T1 breast cancer and the 4T1 subcutaneous transplanted model were established, both models of mice were randomly divided into model group, Shengma group, Zao Jiao-ci group, Shengzao Fang first group, Shengzao Fang second group and Shengzao Fang third group, 10 mice for each group. The proportion of Shengzao Fang was ascertained by their anti-tumor effects. MTT assay was used to investigate the effects of Shengzao Fang on 4T1 breast cancer. The concentration of type 1 collagen (Col-Ⅰ), platelet-activating factor (PAF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in serum from tumor-bearing mice was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects of Shengzao Fang on matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) was examined by Gelatin matrix method. Results Compared with the model group, the prescription of Shengma∶Zao Jiao-Ci=2∶1 significantly suppressed lung metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer, showing fewer lung nodes, lower lung metastasis rate and highest tumor inhibitory rate to 4T1 subcutaneous transplanted model. Although the concentration of serum Col-Ⅰ, PAF, TIMP-1, TrkA and TrkB was decreased in all treated group, the prescription of Shengma∶Zao Jiao-ci=2∶1 had the strongest activity, and its inhibitory effect on the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was strongest, too. Conclusion The prescriptions of Shengma combined with Zao Jiao-ci had different antitumor activity, the strongest activity was exhibited when shengma∶Zao Jiao-ci was 2∶1, suggesting that 2∶1 was optimization for Shengma combined with Zao Jiao-ci.%目的筛选升麻联合皂角刺(升皂方)抗肿瘤处方,评价其抗肿瘤疗效。方法建立小鼠4T1乳腺癌肺癌转移模型和4T1

  14. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  15. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keita; Takaori, Kyoichi; Traverso, L William

    2015-10-01

    Neither extended surgery nor extended indication for surgery has improved survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. According to autopsy studies, presumably 90% are metastatic. The only cure is complete removal of the tumor at an early stage before it becomes a systemic disease or becomes invasive. Early detection and screening of individuals at risk is currently under way. This article reviews the evidence and methods for screening, either familial or sporadic. Indication for early-stage surgery and precursors are discussed. Surgeons should be familiar with screening because it may provide patients with a chance for cure by surgical resection.

  16. Chemical Screening in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Colleen A; Rennekamp, Andrew J; Peterson, Randall T

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic small molecule screens in zebrafish have gained popularity as an unbiased approach to probe biological processes. In this chapter we outline basic methods for performing chemical screens with larval zebrafish including breeding large numbers of embryos, plating larval fish into multi-well dishes, and adding small molecules to these wells. We also highlight important considerations when designing and interpreting the results of a phenotypic screen and possible follow-up approaches, including popular methods used to identify the mechanism of action of a chemical compound. PMID:27464797

  17. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs in...... asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  18. Content adaptive screen image scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yao; Wang, Qifei; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient content adaptive screen image scaling scheme for the real-time screen applications like remote desktop and screen sharing. In the proposed screen scaling scheme, a screen content classification step is first introduced to classify the screen image into text and pictorial regions. Afterward, we propose an adaptive shift linear interpolation algorithm to predict the new pixel values with the shift offset adapted to the content type of each pixel. The shift offse...

  19. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  20. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL. (ACANTHACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, S.; Alagesaboopathi, C.

    1993-01-01

    The anti – inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extracts of three species of Andrographis Wall. were assayed at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in Male albino rats using carrageenin induced rat paw edema. All the extracts were screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in Carrageenin induced inflammation in rats. The maximal anti-inflammatory activity was found with the alcoholic extract of Andrographis alata Nees.

  1. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  2. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  3. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t know which people with early signs of disease will develop serious vision problems or blindness. There are two major ... for advice about glaucoma screening. Glaucoma is a serious disease that affects the health and quality of life ...

  4. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  5. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  6. Health Screenings at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackboard may not know that she is seeing differently from anyone else. Nevertheless, even mild deficiencies of sight can significantly affect a child's ability to learn. In some states these screening tests are mandated ...

  7. Screening efficiency and screen length of a linear vibrating screen using DEM 3D simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guifeng; Tong Xin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of screen length on the screening efficiency of particles is studied under various single parameter conditions including frequency,amplitude,vibration angle,and screen inclination.The Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been used to simulate the screening process.A functional relationship between screening efficiency and screen length is established.It is shown that screening efficiency and screen length have a complicated exponential relationship.Relationships between them are profoundly discussed and conclusions are easily drawn:low values of the parameters do not benefit screening; screening efficiency generally increases with screen length; screening efficiency reaches a plateau when these parameters are in range frequently encountered in practical applications.

  8. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  9. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  10. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF STEM OF C OUROUPITA GUIANENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manimegalai* and G. Rakkimuthu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Couroupita guianensis (Lecythidaceae , is a medicinal plant which is endowed with curative properties including anti- fungal, anti - biotic, anti - septic, analgesic, anti-malaria, stomach – ache, tooth - ache, scabies, gastritis, bleeding piles, dysentry and scorpion poison. The study deals with the preliminary phytochemical screening of the stem of Couroupita guianensis with various extracts such as petroleum ether, benzene, ethanol and water. This includes the powder characteristics studies, fluorescence studies and thin layer chromotgraphic studies of the stem powder. The qualitative analysis of some secondary metabolites, to ascertain medicinal claims of this widely used medicinal plant. The results showed that the moderate presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, amino acids, phenols and triterpenoids.

  11. Always on the bright side of life: anti-adhesive properties of insect ommatidia grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisker, Henrik; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-10-15

    The surface of some insect eyes consists of arrays of cuticular protuberances, which are 50-300 nm in diameter, and are termed corneal nipples or ommatidia gratings. They were widely reported to reduce the reflectance for normally incident light, contributing to camouflage by reducing glare to predators, while furthermore enhancing the intake of light, which is especially important for nocturnal insects. Our preliminary observations suggest a third function: in contrast to the rest of the body, ommatidia of various insects remain clean, even in a heavy contaminated environment. In order to prove such an anti-contamination hypothesis of these structures, we measured the adhesive properties of polymer moulds of insect ommatidia, and compared these data with control surfaces having the same curvature radii but lacking such a nanostructure. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study and force measurements using an atomic force microscope (AFM) on the eye surfaces of three different insect species, dragonfly Aeshna mixta (Odonata), moth Laothoe populi (Lepidoptera) and fly Volucella pellucens (Diptera), were undertaken. We revealed that adhesion is greatly reduced by corneal grating in L. populi and V. pellucens when compared with their smooth controls. The smooth cornea of A. mixta showed no statistically significant difference to its control. We assume that this anti-adhesive phenomenon is due to a decrease in the real contact area between contaminating particles and the eye's surface. Such a combination of three functions in one nanostructure can be interesting for the development of industrial multifunctional surfaces capable of enhancing light harvesting while reducing light reflection and adhesion. PMID:20889826

  12. Anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activities of Dolichos biflorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Ashok Suralkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The seeds of Dolichos biflorus (DB have been traditionally used in the treatment of cough and asthma. Aim: Based on the traditional claim, the present study was planned to evaluate the anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activities of DB. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of the seeds of DB was prepared by cold maceration process. DB was subjected to phytochemical screening, acute toxicity studies, mast cell-stabilizing activity using compound 48/80 and anti-allergic activity using milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia and passive paw anaphylaxis. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done by using one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett′s test. Results: The phytochemical investigation showed presence of proteins, flavonoids and glycosides. DB extract inhibited milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia and also the compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation. DB extract significantly reduced passive paw anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion : The results demonstrated that DB extract possesses anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic potentials that might be useful in the management of asthma.

  13. Fragment screening: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Andrew R; Hann, Michael M; Burrows, Jeremy N; Griffen, Ed J

    2006-09-01

    There are clearly many different philosophies associated with adapting fragment screening into mainstream Drug Discovery Lead Generation strategies. Scientists at Astex, for instance, focus entirely on strategies involving use of X-ray crystallography and NMR. However, AstraZeneca uses a number of different fragment screening strategies. One approach is to screen a 2000 compound fragment set (with close to "lead-like" complexity) at 100 microM in parallel with every HTS such that the data are obtained on the entire screening collection at 10 microM plus the extra samples at 100 microM; this provides valuable compound potency data in a concentration range that is usually unexplored. The fragments are then screen-specific "privileged structures" that can be searched for in the rest of the HTS output and other databases as well as having synthesis follow-up. A typical workflow for a fragment screen within AstraZeneca is shown below (Figure 24) and highlights the desirability (particularly when screening >100 microM) for NMR and X-ray information to validate weak hits and give information on how to optimise them. In this chapter, we have provided an introduction to the theoretical and practical issues associated with the use of fragment methods and lead-likeness. Fragment-based approaches are still in an early stage of development and are just one of many interrelated techniques that are now used to identify novel lead compounds for drug development. Fragment based screening has some advantages, but like every other drug hunting strategy will not be universally applicable. There are in particular some practical challenges associated with fragment screening that relate to the generally lower level of potency that such compounds initially possess. Considerable synthetic effort has to be applied for post-fragment screening to build the sort of potency that would be expected to be found from a traditional HTS. However, if there are no low-hanging fruit in a screening

  14. SITUASI PATEN OBAT ANTI DIABETES, ANTI HIPERTENSI, ANTI MALARIA DAN ANTI TUBERKULOSIS DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Basundari Sri Utami; Sekar Tuti; Anggita Bunga Anggraini; Mukhlissul Faatih; Siswanto Siswanto; Trihono Trihono

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakIndonesia merupakan negara berpenduduk keempat terbanyak setelah Cina, India dan Amerika. Indonesia sedang mengalami transisi epidemiologi, dimana terjadi peningkatan penyakit tidak menular (PTM), sementara penyakit menular (PM) seperti malaria, tuberkulosis dan demam dengue prevalensinya masih tinggi. Tingginya morbiditas merupakan lahan yang bagus untuk melaksanakan obat anti PM dan anti PTM yang mendapat paten karena pangsa pasarnya yang sangat luas. Sayangnya potensi pasar yang mas...

  15. Anti-addiction vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It ...

  16. Loan Sales and Screening Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Helmut; Gehrig, Thomas; Stenbacka, Rune

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effect of loan sales on the intensity of costly screening. Loan sales strengthen screening incentives when screening primarily improves the bank’s ability to identify profitable loans and when banks retain most of those profitable loans. However, loan sales dampen screening incentives when the benefit of screening primarily helps to weed out unprofitable projects. Moreover, alternative institutions of information production and the institutional market framework affect the rela...

  17. Anti-cancer activities of diospyrin, its derivatives and analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-09-01

    Natural products have played a vital role in drug discovery and development process for cancer. Diospyrin, a plant based bisnaphthoquinonoid, has been used as a lead molecule in an effort to develop anti-cancer drugs. Several derivatives/analogues have been synthesized and screened for their pro-apoptotic/anti-cancer activities so far. Our review is focused on the pro-apoptotic/anti-cancer activities of diospyrin, its derivatives/analogues and the different mechanisms potentially involved in the bioactivity of these compounds. Particular focus has been placed on the different mechanisms (both chemical and molecular) thought to underlie the bioactivity of these compounds. A brief bioinformatics analysis at the end of the article provides novel insights into the new potential mechanisms and pathways by which these compounds might exert their effects and lead to a better realization of the full therapeutic potential of these compounds as anti-cancer drugs. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The first Korean case report of anti-Gerbich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, You La; Park, Tae Sung; Cho, Sun Young; Oh, Seung Hwan; Kim, Myeong Hee; Kang, So Young; Lee, Woo-In

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we report the first Korean case of an anti-Gerbich (Ge) alloantibody to a high-incidence antigen that belongs to the Ge blood group system. The alloantibody was detected in a middle-aged Korean woman who did not have a history of transfusion. Her blood type was B+, and findings from the antibody screening test revealed 1+ reactivity in all panels except the autocontrol. The cross-matching test showed incompatible results with all 5 packed red blood cells. Additional blood type antigen and antibody tests confirmed the anti-Ge alloantibody. While rare, cases of hemolytic transfusion reaction or hemolytic disease in newborns due to anti-Ge have been recently reported in the literature. Therefore, additional further studies on alloantibodies to high-incidence antigens, including anti-Ge, are necessary in the future. PMID:23130346

  19. Anti hyperalgesic potentials of Laggera aurita in Swiss Albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Temidayo Olutoyin; Mati, Fatima Guiet

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Laggera aurita (LA), including its anti-nociceptive properties have been documented in literature. This study evaluated the anti-hyperalgesic effects of the methanolic extract of LA (MELA) using chemically and mechanically induced hyperalgesia models. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were also conducted. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose was found to be 3807.88 mg/kg, while saponins, tannins and carbohydrates were found to be present in the plant material. MELA exhibited significant analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing and Randall-Siletto tests. The 400 mg/kg dose of MELA exhibited a significant (psaponins, tannins and carbohydrates which have been previously associated with anti-hyperalgesia may be responsible for the pharmacological actions, thus authenticating the ethnomedical rationale for its anti-nociceptive uses. PMID:24374444

  20. Clinical Evaluation on Several anti- HIV Diagnostic Reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective We Joined clinical evaluation on 6 anti - HIV diagnostic reagents which was organized by National Reference Laboratory of National Center for AIDS Prevention and Control. Method 100 sera of known result and 100 sera of unknown result were detected with 6 reagents according to test procedure of the reagents. Result The crude agreement (99.5 % ) of Organon Teknika and Determine reagents were higher than that of the other reagents. No anti - HIV positive serum was detected negative with Organon Teknika and Determine reagents. The sensitivity and specificity of Organon Teknika and Determine reagents were higher than those of the other reagents. The capacity of Organon Teknika reagent to detect the mild positive serum was greater than that of the other reagent. Conclusion Organon Teknika and Determine antiHIV diagnostic reagents were qualified for anti - HIV screening test while the other 4 reagents should be improved on sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Dance on screen

    OpenAIRE

    Roichman, Limor

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores dance on screen from the artist's point of view following the making of the video GAIA - Mysterious Rhythms (20 min,Digital Betacam). The video and the thesis together form the PhD submission. The interaction of practice and theory, through a process of creative work, analysis and reflection resulted in the structuring of a model with which I claim the autonomy of dance on screen as a hybrid art form, a form which like other creative forms, such as painting, sculpture ...

  2. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-diabetic activityof Indian Bauhinia vahlii (stembark)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Das Surya Narayan; Patro Varanashi Jagannath; Dinda Subas Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic property of Bauhinia vahlii (stem bark) with preliminary phytochemical profile of the extracts. Methods: The dried whole plant material (1400 g) was packed in soxhlet apparatus and extracted successively with Pet. Ether (PE) to defat the drug, petroleum ether was removed from the powdered defatted drug which was then extracted with benzene (BE), chloroform(CE) and 95% of Ethanol (EE) as increasing polarity and all extracts screened for anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activity using carrageenan induced paw edema and streptozotacin induced diabetic respectively. The toxicity and phytochemical screening were done using standard procedure. Result: The preliminary phytochemical tests revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phytosterol, phenolic compounds, and glycoside. While carbohydrates, protein, gums and amino acids were absent. The acute toxicity study of various extracts of Bauhinia vahlii was conducted and dose of 353 mg/kg is fixed for anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic perperty. The pet ether, chloroform and ethanolic extract ofBauhinia vahlii significantly decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats at a dose of 353 mg/kg comparable to standard ibuprofen (100 mg/kg). Similarly in case of antidiabetic property, the ethanolic and chloroform extract of Bauhinia vahlii at a dose level 353 mg/kg, showed significant reduction in blood sugar level from 2 to 24 h in progressive manner comparable to standard glibenclamide (5mg/kg).

  3. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  4. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  5. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the baby is Rh-positive and the mother's antibody status is negative for anti-D, the mother is given additional RhIG. This test also may be used to help diagnose autoimmune-related hemolytic anemia ... when a person produces antibodies against his or her own RBC antigens. This ...

  6. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  7. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  8. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus...

  9. Screening and merger activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Banal-Estañol; P. Heidhues; R. Nitsche; J. Seldeslachts

    2010-01-01

    In our paper, the target of a proposed merger, by setting a reserve price, is able to screen prospective acquirers according to their (expected) ability to generate merger-specific synergies. Both empirical evidence and many merger models suggest that the difference between high and low-synergy merg

  10. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  11. Screening Pesticides for Neuropathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are routinely screened in studies that follow specific guidelines for possible neuropathogenicity in laboratory animals. These tests will detect chemicals that are by themselves strong inducers of neuropathogenesis if the tested strain is susceptible relative to the time of administration and methodology of assessment. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is the only known human neurodegenerative disease associated with pesticides and the existing...

  12. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  13. Isatin based thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potential bioactive agents: Anti-oxidant and molecular docking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haribabu, J.; Subhashree, G. R.; Saranya, S.; Gomathi, K.; Karvembu, R.; Gayathri, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new series of isatin based thiosemicarbazones has been synthesized from benzylisatin and unsubstituted/substituted thiosemicarbazides (1-5). The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, and UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1H &13C NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. Three dimensional molecular structure of three compounds (1, 3 and 4) was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Anti-oxidant activity of the thiosemicarbazone derivatives showed their excellent scavenging effect against free radicals. In addition, all the compounds showed good anti-haemolytic activity. In silico molecular docking studies were performed to screen the anti-inflammatory and anti-tuberculosis properties of thiosemicarbazone derivatives.

  14. Efficacy of selective antenatal screening for hepatitis B among pregnant women in Denmark: is selective screening still an acceptable strategy in a low-endemicity country?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    .3-0.71 were HBsAg positive. All had a risk factor for HBV infection. Only 13 (72%) were identified as HBsAg positive in the selective screening programme. 115 women (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3-3.4) were anti-HBc positive only. 95 (83%) were at risk for HBV. Only 72 of these (63%) were tested for HBsAg. The screening...

  15. Performance study of the automated immunoassay test anti-hepatitis C virus VIDAS® for the qualitative detection of antibodies anti-hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salvetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV represents a major worldwide public health problem requiring global action for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this infection. HCV is the leading cause of chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma and it is responsible for about 350,000 deaths yearly. Anti-HCV assays remain the first choice for screening HCV infection in most clinical laboratories. The anti-HCV VIDAS® (bioMérieux, Marcy L’Etoile, France test has been recently launched and we aimed to evaluate its performance compared with other widely used methods. Materials and methods: Routine anti-HCV screening of clinical samples was carried out on the ARCHITECT® i2000SR platform (Abbot Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA; out of 8876 samples tested from October 2012 to May 2013, 70 sera with low positive anti-HCV results (1≤S/CO<8 were collected. These samples were tested for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies using anti-HCV VIDAS® and INNO-LIATM HCV score assays (Innogenetics NV, Ghent, Belgium. Results and conclusions: Positive anti-HCV results were obtained in 61.4% and 41.4% of sera tested with VIDAS® and INNO-LIATM, respectively. Concordance between methods was 63.2% for ARCHITECT® and VIDAS®, 42.6% for ARCHITECT® and INNO-LIATM, and 79.4% for VIDAS® and INNO-LIATM. Anti-HCV VIDAS® demonstrated superior specificity compared to the anti-HCV test ARCHITECT®; therefore, this assay has been introduced in our routine analysis as a second level screening test to select samples to be subjected to confirmatory anti- HCV immunoblot.

  16. In silico identification of anti-cancer compounds and plants from traditional Chinese medicine database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shao-Xing; Li, Wen-Xing; Han, Fei-Fei; Guo, Yi-Cheng; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Wang, Qian; Gao, Yue-Dong; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2016-05-01

    There is a constant demand to develop new, effective, and affordable anti-cancer drugs. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a valuable and alternative resource for identifying novel anti-cancer agents. In this study, we aim to identify the anti-cancer compounds and plants from the TCM database by using cheminformatics. We first predicted 5278 anti-cancer compounds from TCM database. The top 346 compounds were highly potent active in the 60 cell lines test. Similarity analysis revealed that 75% of the 5278 compounds are highly similar to the approved anti-cancer drugs. Based on the predicted anti-cancer compounds, we identified 57 anti-cancer plants by activity enrichment. The identified plants are widely distributed in 46 genera and 28 families, which broadens the scope of the anti-cancer drug screening. Finally, we constructed a network of predicted anti-cancer plants and approved drugs based on the above results. The network highlighted the supportive role of the predicted plant in the development of anti-cancer drug and suggested different molecular anti-cancer mechanisms of the plants. Our study suggests that the predicted compounds and plants from TCM database offer an attractive starting point and a broader scope to mine for potential anti-cancer agents.

  17. Implementation of a mandatory donor RHD screening in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crottet, Sofia Lejon; Henny, Christine; Meyer, Stefan; Still, Franziska; Stolz, Martin; Gottschalk, Jochen; Neuenschwander, Kathrin; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri; Gowland, Peter; Frey, Beat M; Fontana, Stefano; Hustinx, Hein; Niederhauser, Christoph; Gassner, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Starting in 2013, blood donors must be tested at least using: (1) one monoclonal anti-D and one anti-CDE (alternatively full RhCcEe phenotyping), and (2) all RhD negative donors must be tested for RHD exons 5 and 10 plus one further exonic, or intronic RHD specificity, according to the guidelines of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross (BTS SRC). In 2012 an adequate stock of RHD screened donors was built. Of all 25,370 RhD negative Swiss donors tested in 2012, 20,015 tested at BTS Berne and 5355 at BTS Zürich, showed 120 (0.47%) RHD positivity. Thirty-seven (0.15%) had to be redefined as RhD positive. Routine molecular RHD screening is reliable, rapid and cost-effective and provides safer RBC units in Switzerland. PMID:24679597

  18. Phytochemical Characterization and in-vivo Anti-Malaria Activity of Lantana camara Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Baba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic multi-drug resistant strains of Plasmodium to the existing anti-malaria has increase the global threat of malaria, couple with the wide medicinal application of Lantana camara in different countries and the literature of its use as anti-microbial, antifungal and insecticidal agents, and the quest for alternative anti-malaria this work look into the phytochemical screening, characterization and the In-vivo anti-malaria activity of the Lantana camara leaf extracts. The leaf extracts from plant were screened for phytochemicals and further FTIR characterized to correlate the routine qualitative phytochemical screening. In-vivo anti-plasmodia screening was carried out using 24 Swiss albino mice under laboratory conditions. The effectiveness of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the plant (L. camara was compared with standard drug Chloroquine. The result indicated the presence of Alkaloids, Cardiac glycosides and Saponins in the Petroleum ether, aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Carbohydrate in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts, while Flavonoids and steroids in petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts. Tannins and terpenoids were present in aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively. The identified phytochemicals correlate with FTIR spectral analysis from the identified characteristic functional groups. In-vivo study showed that Chloroquine was 83% effective in clearing the parasites, while aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 38 and 76% effective respectively. The curative capacity indicated possible concentration and time-dependency. The ethanolic extract showed higher level of anti-malaria potential and has indicated some level of protection.

  19. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  20. Anti-nutritional Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogen are as important as nutritional content of any edible plant part. The anti-nutritional factors can be defined as those substances generated in natural food substances by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms (e.g. inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of the digestive process or metabolic utilization of feed) which exert effects contrary to optimum nutrition. Hence, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogens present in edibles with the methods in the chapter would be helpful. PMID:26939264

  1. Anti-biofilm, anti-hemolysis, and anti-virulence activities of black pepper, cananga, myrrh oils, and nerolidol against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayeon; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Il; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2014-11-01

    The long-term usage of antibiotics has resulted in the evolution of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Unlike antibiotics, anti-virulence approaches target bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability, which may be less prone to develop drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that produces diverse virulence factors, such as α-toxin, which is hemolytic. Also, biofilm formation of S. aureus is one of the mechanisms of its drug resistance. In this study, anti-biofilm screening of 83 essential oils showed that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and their common constituent cis-nerolidol at 0.01 % markedly inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation. Furthermore, the three essential oils and cis-nerolidol at below 0.005 % almost abolished the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that black pepper oil down-regulated the expressions of the α-toxin gene (hla), the nuclease genes, and the regulatory genes. In addition, black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and cis-nerolidol attenuated S. aureus virulence in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This study is one of the most extensive on anti-virulence screening using diverse essential oils and provides comprehensive data on the subject. This finding implies other beneficial effects of essential oils and suggests that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils have potential use as anti-virulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infections.

  2. Seropositivity of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in preoperative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Karaayak Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV viruses pose a serious occupational risk for the healthcare workers especially those in emergency services, laboratories and surgery wards. Vaccination and establishment of the strict biosafety procedures are the main principles to prevent blood-borne infections in healthcare workers. Additionally, serological screening of the preoperative patients could decrease the risk for exposure. In this study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV 1/2 in preoperative patients. Methods: Hospital automation records were evaluated retrospectively for 4.367 patients who were scheduled for surgery and scanned for anti-HIV 1/2, HBsAg and anti-HCV as preoperative procedures in the preparation period of operation between January 2012 and December 2012. Results: HBsAg positivity rate was found in 7.7% (n=336, anti-HCV positivity rate was found in 2.3% (n=101. A two (0.05% of five patients were positive for anti-HIV 1/2 was found positive verification test and the other three samples were accepted as false positive test results. Conclusion: All healthcare workers must be trained about occupational diseases and vaccinated against Hepatitis B. Universal precautions must be strictly followed particularly in the operating room. In addition, all patients should be considered as potential carriers regarded as a carrier of the potential for infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 449-452

  3. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents Click ... the World from Spinning / Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Fall 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 3 Page ...

  4. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  5. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  6. Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening Page Content Article Body Before you bring your ... from the hospital. Why do newborns need hearing screening? Babies learn from the time they are born. ...

  7. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  8. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... should know? How is it used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy ...

  9. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  10. Drug Screening in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Susan Givens

    2016-01-01

    Gestational substance exposure continues to be a significant problem. Neonates may be exposed to various substances including illicit drugs, prescription drugs, and other legal substances that are best not used during pregnancy because of their potential deleterious effects as possible teratogens or their potential to create dependence and thus withdrawal in the neonate. Screening the newborn for gestational substance exposure is important for both acute care and early intervention to promote the best possible long-term outcomes. This column provides insight into what is known about the extent of substance use by pregnant women, an overview of neonatal biologic matrices for drug testing, and a discussion of the legal implications of neonatal substance screening. PMID:27636697

  11. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  12. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...... trials underway in Europe and in the USA. Our purpose is to update the readers on recent progress in medical knowledge in this field....

  13. Blood Screening for Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Hourfar, Michael Kai; Themann, Anna; Eickmann, Markus; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Laue, Thomas; Seifried, Erhard; Schmidt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), could threaten blood safety. We analyzed 10,272 blood donor samples with a minipool nucleic acid amplication technique. Analytical sensitivity of the method was 804 geq/mL and 444 geq/mL for generic influenza primers and influenza (H5N1) subtype–specific primers. This study demonstrates that such screening for influenza viruses is feasible.

  14. Screening for helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Jaime Correia; Thomas, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to assess whether a screening programme for Helicobacter pylori will be both successful and cost-effective. Method: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness; MEDLINE; EMBASE; SilverPlatter, Biological Abstracts and Science Citation Index-Expanded. We used the search terms Helicobacter pylori and (diagnos$ or identif$ or find$) and (syst...

  15. Screening Devices at School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene

    2011-01-01

    it as a “screening device”. It is a “device” in the sense that it distributes agency, and it “screens” in the word’s multiple meanings: “projecting” as in creating a viewer position;“sifting” and “systematizing” as in discriminating “knowledge” from mere “opinionings”; and “protecting” teachers from noise. Using...

  16. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    humanities. The Anti-Landscape provides an interdisciplinary approach that moves beyond the false duality of nature vs. culture, and beyond diagnosis and complaint to the recuperation of damaged sites into our complex heritage. Collection of essays based on a conference held at SDU in 2011....

  17. Screened Anode N2 Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry, M. Montaser Foad

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of screening the discharge channel on the output energy is presented. It has been found that a screened anode nitrogen laser generates higher output energy than that of a screened cathode, and also higher than that when both cathode and anode are unshielded at higher pressures.

  18. What Screening Tests Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Related Links Stay Informed Cancer Home What Screening Tests Are There? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... packs a day for 15 years. Risks of Screening Lung cancer screening has at least three risks— ...

  19. Weak bond screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  20. Anti- CC-Groups and Anti-PC-Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Russo

    2007-01-01

    subgroup H of G. An anti-PC group G is a group in which each nonfinitely generated subgroup K has the quotient group G/coreG(NG(K which is a polycyclic-by-finite group. Anti-CC groups and anti-PC groups are the subject of the present article.

  1. SITUASI PATEN OBAT ANTI DIABETES, ANTI HIPERTENSI, ANTI MALARIA DAN ANTI TUBERKULOSIS DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basundari Sri Utami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakIndonesia merupakan negara berpenduduk keempat terbanyak setelah Cina, India dan Amerika. Indonesia sedang mengalami transisi epidemiologi, dimana terjadi peningkatan penyakit tidak menular (PTM, sementara penyakit menular (PM seperti malaria, tuberkulosis dan demam dengue prevalensinya masih tinggi. Tingginya morbiditas merupakan lahan yang bagus untuk melaksanakan obat anti PM dan anti PTM yang mendapat paten karena pangsa pasarnya yang sangat luas. Sayangnya potensi pasar yang masih luas ini hanya ditangkap oleh luar negeri. Data dari Direktorat Jendral Hak Kekayaan Intelektual (Ditjen HKI pada tahun 2010 menunjukkan pemohon paten dalam negeri yang mendapatkan persetujuan perlindungan paten (granted hanya 4,6% sedangkan dari luar negeri sebanyak 92,03%. Hal yang sangat ironis bagi Indonesia yang merupakan negara dengan potensi bahan dasar obat alam dan keanekaragaman hayati terbanyak ketiga setelah Brazil dan Cina. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengevaluasi situasi paten obat yang terdaftar di Direktorat Paten, Ditjen HKI, Kementerian Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia RI dalam 7 tahun terakhir (tahun 2005 sampai 2011 untuk PM (malaria dan tuberkulosis dan PTM (hipertensi dan diabetes. Metode observasional dengan penelusuran dokumen paten dari alamat web instansi terkait. Hasilnya Indonesia hanya mendaftarkan 4,9% dari seluruh paten yang didaftarkan di Dirjen HKI dari tahun 2005 sampai dengan 2011, sebagai berikut untuk obat anti-hipertensi 3,4% dari 89 paten, anti-diabetes hanya 4,8% dari 250 paten, anti malaria 21,1% dari 18 paten anti-tuberkulosis 7,1% dari 14 paten. Sebagian besar paten yang didaftarkan oleh pendaftar Indonesia merupakan paten obat ekstrak herbal atau komposisinya. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah paten obat untuk PTM dan PM di Indonesia masih didominasi paten luar negeri.Kata Kunci : Situasi paten, obat, Ditjen HKI, IndonesiaAbstractIndonesia is the fourth most populous country after China, India and America. There

  2. Preparation of Anti-Idiotypic Antibody against Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaoquanLi; JunPeng; ZhongxiangNiu; XunheYin; FaxiaoLiu

    2005-01-01

    To generate monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (mAb2) against avian influenza virus subtype H9 (H9 AIV), BALB/c mice were immunized with purified chicken anti-H9-AIV IgG and the splenocytes of immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells NS-1. Hybridoma cells were screened by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with both chicken and rabbit anti-H9-AIV IgG as coating antigens. One hybridoma cell clone secreting monoclonal antibody against idiotypes shared by both chicken and rabbit anti-H9-AIV IgG was established. Experiments demonstrated the mAb2 was able to inhibit the binding of hemagglutinin to anti-H9-AIV IgG and to induce chickens to generate hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, indicating this anti-species-sharing-idiotypic antibody bore the internal image of hemagglutinin on avian influenza virus. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):155-157.

  3. Preparation of Anti-Idiotypic Antibody against Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoquan Li; Jun Peng; Zhongxiang Niu; Xunhe Yin; Faxiao Liu

    2005-01-01

    To generate monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (mAb2) against avian influenza virus subtype H9 (H9 AIV),BALB/c mice were immunized with purified chicken anti-H9-AIV IgG and the splenocytes of immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells NS-1. Hybridoma cells were screened by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with both chicken and rabbit anti-H9-AIV IgG as coating antigens. One hybridoma cell clone secreting monoclonal antibody against idiotypes shared by both chicken and rabbit anti-H9-AIV IgG was established. Experiments demonstrated the mAb2 was able to inhibit the binding of hemagglutinin to anti-H9-AIV IgG and to induce chickens to generate hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, indicating this anti-species-sharing-idiotypic antibody bore the internal image of hemagglutinin on avian influenza virus. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):155-157.

  4. Glycosaminoglycan analogs as a novel anti-inflammatory strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, India C.; Soares, Adriano; Hantson, Jennifer; Teixeira, Mauro; Sachs, Daniela; Valognes, Delphine; Scheer, Alexander; Schwarz, Matthias K.; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Shaw, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Heparin, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), has both anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. The clinical use of heparin against inflammation, however, has been limited by concerns about increased bleeding. While the anti-coagulant activity of heparin is well understood, its anti-inflammatory properties are less so. Heparin is known to bind to certain cytokines, including chemokines, small proteins which mediate inflammation through their control of leukocyte migration and activation. Molecules which can interrupt the chemokine-GAG interaction without inhibiting coagulation could therefore, represent a new class of anti-inflammatory agents. In the present study, two approaches were undertaken, both focusing on the heparin-chemokine relationship. In the first, a structure based strategy was used: after an initial screening of potential small molecule binders using protein NMR on a target chemokine, binding molecules were optimized through structure-based design. In the second approach, commercially available short oligosaccharides were polysulfated. In vitro, these molecules prevented chemokine-GAG binding and chemokine receptor activation without disrupting coagulation. However, in vivo, these compounds caused variable results in a murine peritoneal recruitment assay, with a general increase of cell recruitment. In more disease specific models, such as antigen-induced arthritis and delayed-type hypersensitivity, an overall decrease in inflammation was noted, suggesting that the primary anti-inflammatory effect may also involve factors beyond the chemokine system. PMID:23087686

  5. A murine macrofilaricide pre-clinical screening model for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday, Alice; Guimaraes, Ana F.; Tyrer, Hayley E.; Metuge, Haelly Mejane; Patrick, Chounna Ndongmo Winston; Arnaud, Kengne-Ouafo Jonas; Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita; Forsbrook, George; Steven, Andrew; Cook, Darren; Enyong, Peter; Wanji, Samuel; Taylor, Mark J; Joseph D Turner

    2014-01-01

    Background New drugs effective against adult filariae (macrofilaricides) would accelerate the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Anti-Onchocerca drug development is hampered by the lack of a facile model. We postulated that SCID mice could be developed as a fmacrofilaricide screening model. Methods The filaricides: albendazole (ABZ), diethylcarbamazine (DEC), flubendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM) and the anti-Wolbachia macrofilaricide, minocycline (MIN) were tested in Brug...

  6. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial : the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Jong, Pim A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein; Scholten, Ernst; Lammers, Jan-Willem; van Ooijen, Peter; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial (NEL

  7. Overdiagnosis in screening mammography in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Blichert-Toft, Mogens;

    2013-01-01

    To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography.......To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography....

  8. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  9. Routine noninvasive prenatal screening for fetal RHD in plasma of RhD-negative pregnant women-2 years of screening experience from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banch Clausen, F; Steffensen, R; Christiansen, M;

    2014-01-01

    were seropositive for RhD were not detected in 11 pregnancies (0.087%). The sample uptake percentage was 84.2%, and the compliance for prenatal anti-D administration was 93.2%. CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity, maintained over 2 years, underlines the reliability of routine prenatal fetal RHD screening...

  10. Increased levels of anti-glycan antibodies in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirche TO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA have been suggested as a screening tool to detect CD in CF. Recently, several new anti-glycan antibodies have been reported in CD. Materials and methods The sera of 119 CF patients of various age groups were prospectively screened for ASCA type IgG (gASCA, anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (ALCA, anti-chitobioside carbohydrate IgA antibodies (ACCA, and anti-mannobioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (AMCA. The frequency of these anti-glycan antibodies was then compared in patients with CD, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis and healthy volunteers. Results A significant number of CF patients were positive for gASCA (51.3% [41.6-60.6] and up to three other anti-glycan antibodies concurrently. Serum levels of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and CD were not related to parameters of inflammation. Despite the well-documented difference in clinical course between male and female CF patients no gender difference of anti-glycan antibodies was found. In contrast, there was a significant positive correlation between anti-glycan markers and age in CF patients. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate for the first time the increased frequency of a panel of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and provide a link between the presence of these serological biomarkers and patient's age. Anti-glycan antibody profiling may therefore become a valuable tool in the care of patients with CF.

  11. Production of Anti-Cancer Agent Using Microbial Biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhyun Roh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biotransformation is a great model system to produce drugs and biologically active compounds. In this study, we elucidated the fermentation and production of an anti-cancer agent from a microbial process for regiospecific hydroxylation of resveratrol. Among the strains examined, a potent strain showed high regiospecific hydroxylation activity to produce piceatannol. In a 5 L (w/v 3 L jar fermentation, this wild type Streptomyces sp. in the batch system produced 205 mg of piceatannol (i.e., 60% yields from 342 mg of resveratrol in 20 h. Using the product, an in vitro anti-cancer study was performed against a human cancer cell line (HeLa. It showed that the biotransformed piceatannol possessed a significant anticancer activity. This result demonstrates that a biotransformation screening method might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the identification of anti-cancer drugs.

  12. ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tamil Jothi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis were screened for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity. The analgesic activity was performed by two thermal models. One is hot plate method and another one is tail flick method. The two extracts of Tecomaria capensis leaves have showed analgesic activity in both methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by two methods. One is carrageenan induced paw edema method (in-vivo and other is HRBC stabilization method (in-vitro. In both methods ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-ulcer activity was done by aspirin induced method. In this, various biochemical parameters like ulcer index, gastric juice, pH, free acidity, total acidity and percentage protection has been investigated. Further, histopathological studies have also been examined. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts have showed anti-ulcer activity. In all the activities ethyl acetate showed a comparable activity to that of standard.

  13. Anti-Microtubule Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Stefan; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule drugs that target microtubules (MTs), many of them natural products, have long been important tools in the MT field. Indeed, tubulin (Tb) was discovered, in part, as the protein binding partner of colchicine. Several anti-MT drug classes also have important medical uses, notably colchicine, which is used to treat gout, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), and pericarditis, and the vinca alkaloids and taxanes, which are used to treat cancer. Anti-MT drugs have in common that they bind specifically to Tb in the dimer, MT or some other form. However, their effects on polymerization dynamics and on the human body differ markedly. Here we briefly review the most-studied molecules, and comment on their uses in basic research and medicine. Our focus is on practical applications of different anti-MT drugs in the laboratory, and key points that users should be aware of when designing experiments. We also touch on interesting unsolved problems, particularly in the area of medical applications. In our opinion, the mechanism by which any MT drug cures or treats any disease is still unsolved, despite decades of research. Solving this problem for particular drug-disease combinations might open new uses for old drugs, or provide insights into novel routes for treatment. PMID:27193863

  14. Clinical characteristics of children with positive anti-SSA/SSB antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lin, Yu-Tsan; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Wang, Li-Chieh; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize the manifestations of clinical symptoms and signs, primary rheumatic diseases, and other autoantibodies in pediatric patients with positive anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies. Subjects under age 18 with positive anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies were screened and enrolled in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. Data were collected via medical records,including age, gender, onset of the primary rheumatic disease, clinical symptoms and signs, and the medication used. Schirmer test for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) screening was performed in all enrolled patients. Among twenty enrolled subjects, seventeen of them had systemic lupus erythematosus; four of them were diagnosed as SS with positive Schirmer test. In addition to antinuclear antibodies and anti-DNA antibodies, other common autoantibodies were anti-RNP antibodies (50 %) and anti-Sm antibodies(30 %). The most common symptoms were arthritis (60 %)followed by malar rash (40 %). In conclusion, we observed that a low proportion of childhood SS (4/20) exists in our patients with positive SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies. It is suggested that clinicians should focus more on the clinical symptoms in these patients, rather than undertaking invasive diagnostic interventions to rule out Sjögren's syndrome.

  15. Anti-D auto-immunization in a patient with weak D type 4.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchari, M; Chakroun, T; Abdelkefi, S; Romdhane, H; Houissa, B; Jemni Yacoub, S

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old patient with blood group O+C-c+E-e+K-, followed for a myelodysplasic syndrome and treated by regular pheno-identical and compatible (RBCs) transfusion since December 2007. In June 2009, a positive crossmatch was found with 2 RBCs O+C-c+E-e+K-. A positive anti-body screening with a positive autocontrol was detected and anti-D was unidentified in the patient's serum. The DAT was positive (IgG) and elution identified an anti-D. The following assumptions were then made: it could be a partial D phenotype with anti-D alloantibodies or RH: 1 phenotype with an anti-D auto-antibodies. Molecular analysis by multiplex PCR and sequencing have depisted a weak D type 4.0 phenotype. In October 2009, over three months of RH:-1 RBC transfusion, the antibody screening and DAT (IgG) remained positive, and an eluate made from the patient's erythrocytes contained an anti-D. All these funding confirmed the autoimmune nature of the anti-D. This case report illustrates the importance of a well-conducted and immunohematological laboratories test in order to distinguish between auto- or allo-immune of anti-D in a RH: 1 poly-transfused patients. This distinction is of great importance for transfusion support. PMID:24365172

  16. To screen or not to screen: What factors influence complex screening decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Catena, Andrés; van der Pligt, Joop

    2016-06-01

    Contrary to people's intuitions, many screenings can have both benefits (e.g., lives saved) and harms (e.g., unnecessary treatments). Statistical information is often provided to ensure informed decision making. However, few theoretical models have addressed the role of comprehension of such information in screening decisions. In an experiment, we studied how cognitive skills, emotions, and a priori beliefs about screening affect comprehension of the evidence of benefits and harms from screening and intentions to get screened. Young adults (N = 347) received information about a disease for which a screening test was available and numerical information about the benefits and harms from screening. Results showed that comprehension and perceptions of benefits are central to decisions; however, lay perceptions of harms along the screening cascade require further study. Numeracy, science literacy, and emotions can promote informed decision making by facilitating comprehension of the evidence. At the same time emotions and beliefs resulting from persuasive campaigns can have strong effects on screening intentions beyond the available evidence. To apply to screening procedures where informed decision making is recommended, theoretical models of screening decisions need to include comprehension of benefits and harms, and account for how cognitive skills, emotions, and beliefs influence comprehension and decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27295468

  17. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC STEM EXTRACTS OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA LINN. IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tailor Chandra Shekhar; Bahuguna Y M; Singh Vijender

    2010-01-01

    In the present Study of Ethanolic extract of Stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn.(Rubiaceae) was screened for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema rats. The effect was assessed by Difference in paw oedema volume, before & after the low & high dose administration of the extract in Rats. Ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia stem (20 & 40 mg./kg./ml.) were administered orally. Anti-inflammatory effects were compared with Standard drug- Indomethacin (10mg./kg/ml.). These observ...

  18. Use of biomarkers in the discovery of novel anti-schizophrenia drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by a diverse symptomatology that often includes positive, cognitive and negative symptoms. Current anti-schizophrenic drugs act at multiple receptors, but little is known about how each of these receptors contributes to their mechanisms of action. Screening of novel...... anti-schizophrenic drug candidates targeting single receptors will be based on biomarker assays that measure signalling pathways, transcriptional factors, epigenetic mechanisms and synaptic function and translate these effects to behavioural effects in animals and humans. This review discusses current...

  19. Excitons and Two-dimensional Screening: Critical Screening Lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguy, Christian

    2001-01-01

    A beautiful and intriguing relationship has recently been proposed to express the critical screening lengths associated with the apparition of new bound states for the two-dimensional statically screened Coulomb potential. Semiclassical quantum theory show that this relationship is unfortunately not strictly exact. These results are confirmed by a variational calculation, which provides upper bounds for the critical screening lengths in the case $l \\geq 1$.

  20. Molecular screening in galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Singh, R.; Fernhoff, P.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Classical galactosemia (G/G) is caused by the absence of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) activity while the Duarte allele produces partial impairment and a specific biochemical phenotype. Cloning and sequencing of the human GALT gene has enabled the identification of prevalent mutations for both Classical and Duarte alleles. The G allele is caused by a Q188R codon mutation in exon 6 in 70% of a Caucasian population while the D allele is caused by an N134D codon mutation in exon 10. Since the Q188R sequence creates a new Hpa II site and the N314D sequence creates a new Sin I site, it is relatively easy to screen for both mutations by multiplex PCR and restriction digest. Here we describe a method for detection of new mutations producing impaired GALT. Patient DNAs are subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis of their 11 GALT exons. Direct sequencing of the exons targeted by SSCP has revealed many codon changes: IVSC 956 (a splice acceptor site loss), S135L, V151A, E203K, A320T, and Y323D. Two of these codon changes, V151A and S135L, have been confirmed as mutations by finding impaired GALT activity in a yeast expression system. We conclude that molecular screening of GALT DNA will clarify the structural biology of GALT and the pathophysiology of galactosemia.

  1. Substation noise screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maybee, Nigel; Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: nigel.maybee@hfpacoustical.com; Chow, Vincent [Altalink Management Ltd. (Canada)], email: Vincent.Chow@AltaLink.ca

    2011-07-01

    Alberta noise regulations require energy-related facilities to conduct predictions on sound levels, especially for large and medium noise sources. This is usually done with well-known modelling software, but that can be disadvantageous when assessing the noise impact of smaller noise sources, such as transformer substations. This paper focuses on the development of a spreadsheet substation noise screening tool to assess the noise impact of a small transformer substation with precision and ease-of-use. Three aspects must be considered: transformer sound levels, which can be provided by the manufacturer or extracted from accepted sound level references; sound power calculations, which depend on the substation size and operating regime; and sound propagation calculations, which take into account the distance of the receptor from the substation and sound absorption by the air and ground. Comparison of results obtained with this tool with results generated by standard sound modelling software shows the utility, accuracy and ease-of-use of this screening method for assessing the noise impact of transformer substations.

  2. Celiac disease during pregnancy: to screen or not to screen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Rachel; Sheiner, Eyal

    2009-01-01

    Permanent intolerance to gluten, known as celiac disease, affects both fertility and pregnancy outcomes when left untreated. Recent research on celiac disease and reproduction urge increased screening for celiac disease. While this may be beneficial for couples facing idiopathic infertility or those from particular risk groups, screening involves its own risks and expenses, and has not been consistently proven effective for the general population while pregnant. The present editorial discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of screening during pregnancy and examines when screening may be helpful. PMID:18818937

  3. Fragment Screening of Human Aquaporin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet To

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are membrane proteins that enable water transport across cellular plasma membranes in response to osmotic gradients. Phenotypic analyses have revealed important physiological roles for AQPs, and the potential for AQP water channel modulators in various disease states has been proposed. For example, AQP1 is overexpressed in tumor microvessels, and this correlates with higher metastatic potential and aggressiveness of the malignancy. Chemical modulators would help in identifying the precise contribution of water channel activity in these disease states. These inhibitors would also be important therapeutically, e.g., in anti-cancer treatment. This perceived importance contrasts with the lack of success of high-throughput screens (HTS to identify effective and specific inhibitors of aquaporins. In this paper, we have screened a library of 1500 “fragments”, i.e., smaller than molecules used in HTS, against human aquaporin (hAQP1 using a thermal shift assay and surface plasmon resonance. Although these fragments may not inhibit their protein target, they bound to and stabilized hAQP1 (sub mM binding affinities (KD, with an temperature of aggregation shift ΔTagg of +4 to +50 °C in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chemically expanded versions of these fragments should follow the determination of their binding site on the aquaporin surface.

  4. Prescription Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Prescription Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines Prescription Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines How do prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs work? Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (also called NSAIDs) stop cyclooxygenase ...

  5. Antenatal haemoglobinopathy screening in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ling; Kidson-Gerber, Giselle

    2016-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathy screening should be performed in women with microcytic indices, women from high risk ethnic populations and those with unexplained anaemia. Early testing of women and their partners expedites appropriate management prior to and during pregnancy. Haemoglobinopathy screening is a multistep process beginning with a full blood count, ferritin assay, screening tests for haemoglobinopathies (ie, haemoglobin electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis) and assessment of clinical risk. Iron deficiency may obscure the diagnosis of β-thalassaemia trait. If possible, haemoglobinopathy testing should be performed when the woman is iron-replete. Genetic testing can be offered on the basis of the combined risk of the couple; but turnaround times are lengthy at present, hence the emphasis on early pregnancy or pre-conception screening. Screening processes vary between states and local health districts; a uniform approach to screening and genetic testing with a national registry to record results would improve management of this growing problem. PMID:27031395

  6. Ethics of dental health screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Taha, Farheen

    2016-01-01

    Screening is the detection of disease at a point in its natural history when it is not yet symptomatic. In the natural history of dental caries, for example, the incipient lesions are at a reversible stage, which is a pre-symptomatic or an unrecognised symptomatic disease. Ideally, this is the stage during which screening should identify the risk of dental caries; however, presently, the so-called dental screening employed identifies the clinical cavitation of the tooth, which is very obvious to the individual. The individual already knows that he/she has dental caries and needs treatment, which the screening personnel (dental doctor) explains again during the screening procedure. Is it ethical to call such an event screening? The mushrooming of dental teaching hospitals has promoted regular screening of dental diseases among the communities and schoolchildren through their community dentistry-related activities. More often, it is a dental "check-up" that is carried out on the pretext of screening for dental diseases. Though the basic intention of this activity is to promote awareness of dental diseases and promote good health, there is also a hidden agenda to it. An artificial demand for dental care is created that is easily capitalised on by the dental teaching institutions to enhance its clinical activity. Dental screening is doing more harm than good as patients are made aware of the diseases for which they may not be able to afford treatment. This narrative review gives an account of the scientific evidence on screening for oral diseases, the current practices in screening and the ethical dilemmas of dental screening programmes. PMID:27474698

  7. Push for the Second Screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    Users’ perception of the relation between the TV screen and a secondary screen (e.g. smartphone or tablet) is examined empirically in a pilot project through a low-fi prototype and interviews. Early observations indicate that the user value/acceptance of push-messages delivered to the second screen...... during the TV viewing depends on a number of interwoven factors such as TV-genre, rhythm and number of messages, semantic correlation and user’s general media habits....

  8. Electromagnetic pollution. Screens accused

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, J.

    1996-04-01

    A recent experiment carried out by M. Bastide (Montpellier University, France) has shown an important increase of mortality, immunosuppression and morphological changes for chicks embryos when submitted to the very low frequency electromagnetic field of a personal computer screen during incubation. Similar effects on pregnant women working in front of cathode ray tubes have never been demonstrated. The paper gives an overview of the epidemiological studies carried out so far to determine the possible noxious effects of electromagnetic fields on public health. In particular, EdF (Electricite de France) has started three different inquiries involving 400000 workmens from electric power industry in order to determine some possible correlation between the exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of leukemias, brain tumors and melanomas. William Dab, from EdF Medical Studies Service indicates that only a very small relation with the occurrence of brain tumors and acute myeloid leukemias have been shown so far. (J.S.). 4 refs., 2 photos.

  9. Congenital Cataract Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  10. Comments on Gaugino Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy; Hook, Anson; Wecht, Brian

    2012-02-15

    Gauge mediated models of supersymmetry breaking often exhibit 'gaugino screening,' where to leading order in F, gaugino masses are unaffected by higher dimensional Kahler potential interactions between the supersymmetry breaking spurion and the messengers. We provide a derivation of this phenomenon which utilizes the gaugino counterterm originally proposed in the context of anomaly mediation by Dine and Seiberg. We argue that this counterterm is present when there are non-zero messenger F-terms, and can cancel the leading order Feynman diagram contribution to the gaugino mass. We provide a nontrivial check of the regulator independence of our results by performing the computation using both dimensional reduction and Pauli-Villars. This analysis reconciles an apparent contradiction between diagrammatics and analytic continuation into superspace.

  11. Congenital cataract screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  12. Congenital Cataract Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  13. Frequency of anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5b,-5a and anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (anti-HPA-1a,-3a,-4a alloantibodies in multiparous women of African descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccheaus A Jeremiah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Justina E Oburu2, Osaro Erhabor1, Fiekumo I Buseri1, Teddy C Adias31Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; 2Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 3Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Human platelet antibodies are often implicated in some disease conditions, such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP and platelet refractoriness. The frequencies of these alloantibodies have not been reported in Nigeria and West Africa.Methods: Screening for allontibodies to human platelet antigens (HPA was undertaken using the GTI PakPlus® qualitative solid phase ELISA reagent. Platelet count was done using the ICSH approved procedure using 1% ammonium oxalate reagent.Study design: A cross-section of apparently healthy adult Nigerian multiparous non-pregnant women, who were staff of a tertiary health facility in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were screened for alloantibodies to human platelet antigens.Results: Of the one hundred (100 women screened, the prevalence of anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (anti-HPA-Ia,-3a,-4a was zero percent (0%, anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5b accounted for 30% of results, while anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5a was 18%. Parity was found to exert significant influence on the development to HPA antibodies (Fisher’s Exact Test = 11.683, P < 0.05; 13.577, P < 0.01. The platelet count of the women did not appear to exert any influence on the development of the antibodies (P > 0.05.Conclusion: This study has observed a high prevalence of anti-HPA-5b in our sample population. The prevalence of alloantibodies to HPA antigens was found to associate strongly with parity. These results indicate that there is a

  14. Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is the body's first response to infection or injury and is critical for both innate and adaptive immunity. It can be considered as part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. The search for natural compounds and phytoconstituents that are able to interfere with these mechanisms by preventing a prolonged inflammation could be useful for human health. Here, the anti-inflammatory properties of plant-based drugs are put together with both in vitro and acute (carrageenan, egg albumin and croton oil) and chronic (cotton pellet) in vivo models. PMID:26939273

  15. Anti-Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstein, Roland; Cooter, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a mechanism that may implement first-best effort in simultaneous teams. Within the framework of this mechanism, each team members is obliged to make a fixed, non-contingent payment, and chooses his individual effort. After the output is produced, each team member receives a gross payment that equals the actual team output. We demonstrate that a Nash equilibrium exists in which each team member chooses first-best effort. We call this mechanism ?Anti-Sharing? since it solves ...

  16. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system. PMID:26519842

  17. Anti-diarrheal constituents of Alpinia oxyphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junqing; Wang, Sheng; Li, Yonghui; Xu, Peng; Chen, Feng; Tan, Yinfeng; Duan, Jinao

    2013-09-01

    Isolation, screening and in vivo assays have been used for evaluating anti-diarrhea bioactive of Alpinia oxyphylla. Preliminary experimental results showed that 95% ethanol extract and 90% ethanol elution significantly extended the onset time of diarrhea and reduced the wet feces proportion, however 50% ethanol election had no effect on diarrhea. Chemical analysis results displayed that Nootkatone, Tectochrysin and yakuchinone A may be bioactive ingredients for curing diarrhea. Duodenum in vitro experiment showed that Tectochrysin 50, 100 μM reduces carbachol-induced contraction, while yakuchinone A and Nootkatone had no effect. Bioinformatic computational method as molecular docking has been complementary to experimentally work to explore the potential mechanism. The study of pathogenesis of diarrhea in humans and animal models suggested that Na(+)/H(+) exchanger3 (NHE3) and aquaporin4 (AQP4) are causative agents of diarrhea. The analysis was done on the basis of scoring and binding ability and the docking analysis showed that Tectochrysin has maximum potential against NHE3 (PDB ID: 2OCS) and AQP4 (PDB ID: 3GD8). Tectochrysin indicated minimum energy score and the highest number of interactions with active site residues. These results suggested that A. oxyphylla might exhibit its anti-diarrhea effect partially by affecting the proteins of NHE3 and AQP4 with its active ingredient Tectochrysin. PMID:23583435

  18. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Nithya; Henry, Nittin; Rafi, Aboobacker Mohamed; Innah, Susheela J

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult) but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult) or O cord (Oicord) cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted.

  19. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Mohanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult or O cord (Oicord cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted.

  20. Potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandare, Amol M; Kshirsagar, Ajay D; Vyawahare, Neeraj S; Hadambar, Avinash A; Thorve, Vrushali S

    2010-12-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. (ANE) nut was screened for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant potential. Three doses of ANE (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg orally) were tested for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Evaluation of analgesic activity of ANE was performed using hot plate and formalin test in mice. ANE showed maximum increase in hot plate reaction time (56.27%, pAreca catechu could be considered as a potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. PMID:20849907

  1. Cloning and expression of cDNA for anti-müllerian hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, J Y; Benarous, R; Guerrier, D.; Josso, N; Kahn, A.

    1986-01-01

    Messenger RNA, prepared from fetal bovine testicular tissue, was used to construct a cDNA library in lambda gt11 phage. The library was screened with an antibody probe directed against bovine anti-Müllerian hormone and three positive clones were isolated. Cross-hybridizing cDNA inserts carried by clones 4 and 5 (1.2 and 0.08 kilobases long, respectively) code for a fragment of authentic anti-Müllerian hormone, as shown by the ability of the anti-epitope antibodies eluted from fusion protein 4...

  2. Women's attitude towards prenatal screening for red blood cell antibodies, other than RhD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Schoot CE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 1998 all Dutch women (± 200,000/y are screened for red cell antibodies, other than anti-RhesusD (RhD in the first trimester of pregnancy, to facilitate timely treatment of pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN. Evidence for benefits, consequences and costs of screening for non-RhD antibodies is still under discussion. The screening program was evaluated in a nation-wide study. As a part of this evaluation study we investigated, according to the sixth criterium of Wilson and Jüngner, the acceptance by pregnant women of the screening program for non-RhD antibodies. Methods Controlled longitudinal survey, including a prenatal and a postnatal measurement by structured questionnaires. Main outcome measures: information satisfaction, anxiety during the screening process (a.o. STAI state inventory and specific questionnaire modules, overall attitude on the screening program. Univariate analysis was followed by standard multivariate analysis to identify significant predictors of the outcome measures. Participants: 233 pregnant women, distributed over five groups, according to the screening result. Results Satisfaction about the provided information was moderate in all groups. All screen- positive groups desired more supportive information. Anxiety increased in screen- positives during the screening process, but decreased to basic levels postnatally. All groups showed a strongly positive balance between perceived utility and burden of the screening program, independent on test results or background characteristics. Conclusion Women highly accept the non-RhD antibody screening program. However, satisfaction about provided information is moderate. Oral and written information should be provided by obstetric care workers themselves, especially to screen-positive women.

  3. Management of Toxoplasma gondii screening in pregnancy: light and shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Paschale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy through comparing the data obtained from Italian and foreign women. 3074 women, 2465 Italians (80.2% and 609 foreigners (19.8% had undergone screening for serological detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in the years 2005-2007. 85.0% of the Italian women and 84.1% of the foreign women had the first blood test in the first trimester of pregnancy (difference not statistically significant.Among anti-Toxoplasma negative women average of blood tests during pregnancy was 3.69 for the Italians and 3.42 for the foreigners (p <0.01. 32.2% of Italian and 28.3% of foreign women were subjected to five or more blood tests (difference not statistically significant. Considering the trimester of pregnancy, the percentage of Italian and foreign women tested at least once in every trimester was respectively 58.0% and 45.2% (p <0.01. In conclusion, our data show that on the one hand the screening is active in controlling women within the first trimester of pregnancy, while on the other it appears weak in fully implementing the follow up, as indicated by the legislation currently in force. In addition, foreign women undergo fewer tests covering all trimesters compare to Italian women. This problem should be taken into account in terms of health policy.

  4. Screening for autoantibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and a matched control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Høyer-Madsen, M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B;

    1990-01-01

    Primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS) is a non-articular rheumatic condition characterized by chronic muscular pain. We have performed screening for autoantibodies in 20 women with PFS and in 19 age-matched healthy women. Fifty-five percent of the PFS patients had anti-smooth muscle antibodies and ...

  5. Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in Daily Clinical Practice: Prevalence in Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. Avery

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD, patients are screened for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA. ANA, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, have a poor specificity. This hampers interpretation of positive results in clinical settings with low pretest probability of SARD. We hypothesized that the utility of positive ANA IIF results increases from primary to tertiary care. We retrospectively determined ANA, anti-ENA, and anti-dsDNA antibody prevalence in patient cohorts from primary (n=1453, secondary (n=1621, and tertiary (n=1168 care settings. Results reveal that from primary care to tertiary care, ANA prevalence increases (6.2, 10.8, and 16.0%, resp.. Moreover, in primary care low titres (70% versus 51% and 52% in secondary and tertiary care, resp. are more frequent and anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities are less prevalent (21% versus 39% in secondary care. Typically, in tertiary care the prevalence of anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities (21% is lower than expected. From this descriptive study we conclude that positive ANA IIF results are more prone to false interpretation in clinical settings with low pretest probabilities for SARD, as in primary care. Whether alternative approaches, that is, immunoadsorption of anti-DFS70 antibodies or implementation of anti-ENA screen assays, perform better, needs to be determined.

  6. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and former heavy smokers. Current smokers whose LDCT scan results show possible signs of cancer may be more likely to quit smoking. A Guide is available for patients and doctors to learn more about the benefits and harms of low-dose helical CT screening for lung cancer. Screening with chest x- ...

  7. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  8. Non-participation in screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bjerregaard, Beth;

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history.......To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history....

  9. Congenital hypothyroidism missed on screening.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, G. A.; Carson, D. J.; Reid, M. M.(Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK); Hutchinson, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Three patients with congenital hypothyroidism missed on routine screening due to normal low thyrotrophin concentrations in the neonatal period presented in later childhood. Clinicians should remain aware of hypothyroidism as a cause of morbidity in early childhood despite a national screening programme.

  10. Screening College Students for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigel, Harris C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes one college's mandatory mass cholesterol screening for new students. Each year, over 30 beginning students with unknown hypercholesterolemia were detected. The program suggests that mass screening efficiently and economically identifies students who would benefit from cholesterol reduction, a modifiable risk in coronary artery disease.…

  11. Singularities in Speckled Speckle: Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, David A

    2008-01-01

    We study screening of optical singularities in random optical fields with two widely different length scales. We call the speckle patterns generated by such fields speckled speckle, because the major speckle spots in the pattern are themselves highly speckled. We study combinations of fields whose components exhibit short- and long-range correlations, and find unusual forms of screening.

  12. Beam tests of phosphorescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve phosphorescent screens were beam tested for linearity, uniformity, low radiation damage and a suitable emitted wavelength for use with television cameras. One screen was chosen for the construction of several intercepting profile monitors which were used during the SLC Ten Sector Tests to measure the emittance and wakefield effects of a damped electron beam

  13. A Journey Under the Sea: The Quest for Marine Anti-Cancer Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Darwiche

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The alarming increase in the global cancer death toll has fueled the quest for new effective anti-tumor drugs thorough biological screening of both terrestrial and marine organisms. Several plant-derived alkaloids are leading drugs in the treatment of different types of cancer and many are now being tested in various phases of clinical trials. Recently, marine-derived alkaloids, isolated from aquatic fungi, cyanobacteria, sponges, algae, and tunicates, have been found to also exhibit various anti-cancer activities including anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, inhibition of topoisomerase activities and tubulin polymerization, and induction of apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Two tunicate-derived alkaloids, aplidin and trabectedin, offer promising drug profiles, and are currently in phase II clinical trials against several solid and hematologic tumors. This review sheds light on the rich array of anti-cancer alkaloids in the marine ecosystem and introduces the most investigated compounds and their mechanisms of action.

  14. A journey under the sea: the quest for marine anti-cancer alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rita; Darwiche, Nadine; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala

    2011-01-01

    The alarming increase in the global cancer death toll has fueled the quest for new effective anti-tumor drugs thorough biological screening of both terrestrial and marine organisms. Several plant-derived alkaloids are leading drugs in the treatment of different types of cancer and many are now being tested in various phases of clinical trials. Recently, marine-derived alkaloids, isolated from aquatic fungi, cyanobacteria, sponges, algae, and tunicates, have been found to also exhibit various anti-cancer activities including anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, inhibition of topoisomerase activities and tubulin polymerization, and induction of apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Two tunicate-derived alkaloids, aplidin and trabectedin, offer promising drug profiles, and are currently in phase II clinical trials against several solid and hematologic tumors. This review sheds light on the rich array of anti-cancer alkaloids in the marine ecosystem and introduces the most investigated compounds and their mechanisms of action. PMID:22113577

  15. Optimal screening for genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nævdal, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Screening for genetic diseases is performed in many regions and/or ethnic groups where there is a high prevalence of possibly malign genes. The propagation of such genes can be considered a dynamic externality. Given that many of these diseases are untreatable and give rise to truly tragic outcomes, they are a source of societal concern, and the screening process should perhaps be regulated. This paper incorporates a standard model of genetic propagation into an economic model of dynamic management to derive cost benefit rules for optimal screening. The highly non-linear nature of genetic dynamics gives rise to perhaps surprising results that include discontinuous controls and threshold effects. One insight is that any screening program that is in place for any amount of time should screen all individuals in a target population. The incorporation of genetic models may prove to be useful to several emerging fields in economics such as genoeconomics, neuroeconomics and paleoeconomics.

  16. Optimal screening for genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nævdal, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Screening for genetic diseases is performed in many regions and/or ethnic groups where there is a high prevalence of possibly malign genes. The propagation of such genes can be considered a dynamic externality. Given that many of these diseases are untreatable and give rise to truly tragic outcomes, they are a source of societal concern, and the screening process should perhaps be regulated. This paper incorporates a standard model of genetic propagation into an economic model of dynamic management to derive cost benefit rules for optimal screening. The highly non-linear nature of genetic dynamics gives rise to perhaps surprising results that include discontinuous controls and threshold effects. One insight is that any screening program that is in place for any amount of time should screen all individuals in a target population. The incorporation of genetic models may prove to be useful to several emerging fields in economics such as genoeconomics, neuroeconomics and paleoeconomics. PMID:25203815

  17. Health economic analysis of screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krauth, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article health economic implications of screening are analysed. First, requirements screening programmes should fulfil are derived, and methodical standards of health economic evaluation are outlined. Using the example of newborn hearing screening, it is then examined if empirical studies meet the methodical requirements of health economic evaluation. Some deficits are realised: Health economic studies of newborn hearing screening are not randomised, most studies are even not controlled. Therefore, most studies do not present incremental, but only average cost-effectiveness ratios (i.e. cost per case identified. Furthermore, evidence on long-term outcomes of screening and early interventions is insufficient. In conclusion, there is a need for controlled trials to examine differences in identified cases, but particularly to examine long-term effects.

  18. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  19. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  20. Metabolomics-Based Screening of Biofilm-Inhibitory Compounds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Burdock Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixiang Lou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Screening of anti-biofilm compounds from the burdock leaf based on metabolomics is reported here. The crystal violet assay indicated 34% ethanol elution fraction of burdock leaf could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1 mg·mL−1. Then, the chemical composition of burdock leaf fraction was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS and 11 active compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, ursolic acid, rutin, cynarin, luteolin, crocin, benzoic acid, and Tenacissoside I were identified. Lastly, UPLC-MS analysis was employed to obtain the metabolic fingerprints of burdock leaf fractions before and after inhibiting the biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic fingerprints were transformed to data, analyzed with PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis and the peaks whose area was significantly changed were found out. Thus, 81 compounds were screened as potential anti-biofilm ingredients. Among them, rutin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were identified and confirmed as the main anti-biofilm compounds in burdock leaf. The study provided basic anti-biofilm profile data for the compounds in burdock leaf, as well as provided a convenient method for fast screening of anti-biofilm compounds from natural plants.

  1. Metabolomics-Based Screening of Biofilm-Inhibitory Compounds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Burdock Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Tang, Yuxia; Song, Xinyi; Wang, Hongxin

    2015-01-01

    Screening of anti-biofilm compounds from the burdock leaf based on metabolomics is reported here. The crystal violet assay indicated 34% ethanol elution fraction of burdock leaf could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1 mg·mL(-1). Then, the chemical composition of burdock leaf fraction was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and 11 active compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, ursolic acid, rutin, cynarin, luteolin, crocin, benzoic acid, and Tenacissoside I) were identified. Lastly, UPLC-MS analysis was employed to obtain the metabolic fingerprints of burdock leaf fractions before and after inhibiting the biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic fingerprints were transformed to data, analyzed with PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) and the peaks whose area was significantly changed were found out. Thus, 81 compounds were screened as potential anti-biofilm ingredients. Among them, rutin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were identified and confirmed as the main anti-biofilm compounds in burdock leaf. The study provided basic anti-biofilm profile data for the compounds in burdock leaf, as well as provided a convenient method for fast screening of anti-biofilm compounds from natural plants. PMID:26370951

  2. Universal hearing screening vs targetted hearing screening: Make a choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Vishwakarma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS is mandatory in all developed country and is setting the trend in developing country too. Due to a large population, lack of education, less professionals, and limited access to such facilities in India few places targeted hearing screening (THS is coming up. However, the comparison between UNHS and THS is less investigated till date. Aim of the Study: This study aimed to investigate the comparison between two hearing screening program that is UNHS and THS in the Indian context. Methods: In UNHS all the infants were screened at Tertiary Centre and for THS only infant with high-risk factors were screened at Advanced Audiological Centre. Further, all referral, screening, and diagnostic data were included in data analysis of both hearing screening program. Result: UNHS was difficult due to some system failure and a lot of time was wasted doing the different procedure. However, THS was much easier and false-positive and negative were lesser. Conclusion: In a vast population country with lack of manpower for the fi eld, it is important to have an alternative approach to the system for better outcome of the program.

  3. Bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus L. and their semi-synthetic derivatives as promising anti-Helicobacter pylori, anti-malarial and anti-leishmanial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Celeste; Bizzarri, Bruna; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Carradori, Simone; Mollica, Adriano; Luisi, Grazia; Granese, Arianna; Alcaro, Stefano; Costa, Giosuè; Basilico, Nicoletta; Parapini, Silvia; Scaltrito, Maria Maddalena; Masia, Carla; Sisto, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Crocus sativus L. is known in herbal medicine for the various pharmacological effects of its components, but no data are found in literature about its biological properties toward Helicobacter pylori, Plasmodium spp. and Leishmania spp. In this work, the potential anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic effects of crocin and safranal, two important bioactive components in C. sativus, were explored, and also some semi-synthetic derivatives of safranal were tested in order to establish which modifications in the chemical structure could improve the biological activity. According to our promising results, we virtually screened our compounds by means of molecular modeling studies against the main H. pylori enzymes in order to unravel their putative mechanism of action.

  4. Anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activity of earthworm extracts as potential new anti-aging agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurhazirah Azmi; Puziah Hashim; Dzulkifly M Hashim; Normala Halimoon; Nik Muhamad Nik Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether earthworms of Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Eudrilus eugeniae extracts have elastase, tyrosinase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity.Methods:activity and compared with the positive controls. It was also evaluated for whitening and anti-wrinkle capacity.Results:The earthworms extract was screened for elastase, tyrosinase and MMP-1 inhibitory and excellent MMP-1 inhibition compared to N-Isobutyl-N-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)-glycylhydroxamic acid.Conclusions:Earthworms extract showed effective inhibition of tyrosinase, elastase and MMP-1 The extract showed significantly (P<0.05) good elastase and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Therefore, this experiment further rationalizes the traditional use of this worm extracts which may be useful as an anti-wrinkle agent.

  5. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  6. [Toxicologic blood emergency screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected. PMID:20348049

  7. Beam screen issues

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E

    2011-01-01

    In the High Energy LHC (HE-LHC), a beam energy of about 16.5 TeV is currently contemplated. The beam screen issues linked to the use of 20 T dipole magnets instead of 8.33 T are discussed, with a particular emphasis on two mechanisms, the magneto-resistance and the anomalous skin effect, assuming the nominal machine and beam parameters. The magneto-resistance effect always leads to an increase of the material resistivity (as the mean free path in the presence of a transverse magnetic field becomes smaller). As concerns the anomalous skin effect, the anomalous increase of surface resistance of metals at low temperatures and high frequencies is attributed to the long mean free path of the conduction electrons: when the skin depth becomes much smaller than the mean free path, only a fraction of the conduction electrons moving almost parallel to the metal surface is effective in carrying the current and the classical theory breaks down.

  8. The evolution of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    Botany is usually considered to be the gentlest of sciences with botanists being regarded as people who study relatively safe specimens, compared with, for example, anthropologists or microbiologists. However, botanists have their moments, particularly when collecting new species. The great botanists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries risked their lives in collecting and bringing back species, which we now take for granted, and Robert Brown was one of these adventurers, a young Scot who accompanied Sir Joseph Banks to New Holland. It was not, however, for his adventurous lifestyle that Brown is remembered but for his startling observation of the movements of pollen grains on a microscope slide. He noted that the pollen grains were in perpetual agitated motion, without purpose or direction but full of energy. This motion, called Brownian motion, arises from the movement of molecules, and Brownian motion is the term that has been applied to much of healthcare, including many screening programmes, which have in the past been marked more by the amount of energy and activity than by a clear sense of direction or positive achievement.

  9. Touch/Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 Bernard Stiegler posed “the tragic question of cinema” as that of the germ of regres-­‐‑ sion to television and pornography it has always contained, just as in 1944 Adorno and Hork-­‐‑ heimer argued that Enlightenment reason has always contained a germ of regression making possible a prostitution of theory leading only to the threat of fascism. If comparable threats attend Stiegler’s cinematic question, then this implies the need for an account of this potential for regression, that is, an account of the relationship between desire, technology and knowledge. Tracing the aporias of the origin of desire and trauma in psychoanalysis is one crucial way to pursue this account. Exiting these aporias depends on recognizing that the origin of desire has for human beings always been technical, and hence that the instruments of desire form its conditions and condition its forms. By thus analysing the staging of desire and the setting of fantasy it becomes possible to reflect, for example, on what it means that for Genet fascism was theatre, that for Syberberg Hitler was cinema, and that for Stiegler the new prostitution of the tele-­‐‑visual graphic is digital and algorithmic. Hence arises the potentially tragic question of the possibility or otherwise, in the age of the ubiquitous screen, of a new cinematic invention and a new cinematic practice.

  10. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Sushkov, Sergey V.; Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing ``the emergence of time''. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.

  11. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Starobinsky, Alexei A; Volkov, Mikhail S

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a $\\Lambda$-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the $\\Lambda$-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the $\\Lambda$-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing "the emergence of time". Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyze the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are...

  12. Data Quality Screening Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Richard; Lynnes, Christopher; Hearty, Thomas; Won, Young-In; Fox, Peter; Zednik, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    A report describes the Data Quality Screening Service (DQSS), which is designed to help automate the filtering of remote sensing data on behalf of science users. Whereas this process often involves much research through quality documents followed by laborious coding, the DQSS is a Web Service that provides data users with data pre-filtered to their particular criteria, while at the same time guiding the user with filtering recommendations of the cognizant data experts. The DQSS design is based on a formal semantic Web ontology that describes data fields and the quality fields for applying quality control within a data product. The accompanying code base handles several remote sensing datasets and quality control schemes for data products stored in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), a common format for NASA remote sensing data. Together, the ontology and code support a variety of quality control schemes through the implementation of the Boolean expression with simple, reusable conditional expressions as operands. Additional datasets are added to the DQSS simply by registering instances in the ontology if they follow a quality scheme that is already modeled in the ontology. New quality schemes are added by extending the ontology and adding code for each new scheme.

  13. Anti-cartilage antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J

    1979-08-01

    Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change.

  14. What's the Point? Anti-Racism and Students' Voices against Islamophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housee, Shirin

    2012-01-01

    In a climate of Islamophobic racism, where media racism saturates our TV screens and newspapers, where racism on the streets, on campus, in our community become everyday realities, I ask, what can we--teachers, lecturers and educationalists--do in the work of anti-racism in education? This article examines classroom debates on Islamophobia by…

  15. Genome Mining for antibiotics biosynthesis pathways with antiSMASH 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Tilmann; Kim, Hyun Uk; Blin, Kai;

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are the most important source of natural products with antimicrobial or antitumor activity. These natural products are the main source for anti-­‐infectives; 80% of antibiotics currently in medical use are derived from this class of compounds. In the past, functional screenings...

  16. Anti-HIV-1 activities of the extracts from the medicinal plant Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.;

    2009-01-01

    As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources e.g. Ixora undulata, Paulownia tomentosa, Fortunella margarita, Aegle marmelos and Erythrina abyssinica, the different organic and aqueous extracts of Linum grandiflorum leaves and seeds were evaluated in vitro by the microculture ...

  17. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  18. Use of biomarkers in the discovery of novel anti-schizophrenia drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Thomsen, Morten S.; Hansen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by a diverse symptomatology that often includes positive, cognitive and negative symptoms. Current anti-schizophrenic drugs act at multiple receptors, but little is known about how each of these receptors contributes to their mechanisms of action. Screening of novel...

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of novel pyrazole analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra Kumar, R; Arif, Ibrahim A; Ahamed, Anis; Idhayadhulla, Akbar

    2016-09-01

    A new sequence of pyrazole derivatives (1-6) was synthesized from condensation technique under utilizing ultrasound irradiation. Synthesized compounds were characterized from IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, Mass and elemental analysis. Synthesized compounds (1-6) were screened for antimicrobial activity. Among the compounds 3 (MIC: 0.25 μg/mL) was exceedingly antibacterially active against gram negative bacteria of Escherichia coli and compound 4 (MIC: 0.25 μg/mL) was highly active against gram positive bacteria of Streptococcus epidermidis compared with standard Ciprofloxacin. Compound 2 (MIC: 1 μg/mL) was highly antifungal active against Aspergillus niger proportionate to Clotrimazole. Synthesized compounds (1-6) were screened for anti-inflammatory activity and the compound 2-((5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)(4-nitrophenyl)methyl)hydrazinecarboxamide (4) was better activity against anti-inflammatory when compared with standard drugs (Diclofenac sodium). Compounds (2, 3 and 4) are the most important molecules and hence the need to develop new drugs of antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:27579011

  20. Comparison of regional screening methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rowe, M.D.

    1979-09-01

    This report describes results of tests of different regional screening methods applied to data from western Maryland and the western United States. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether or not different regional screening methods produce different results, and to obtain some understanding of the nature of any differences found. Methods tested include Exclusionary Screening, Weighting Summation, Power Law, and Decision Analysis; weighting methods used include Categorization, Rating, Metfessel Allocation, Indifference Tradeoff, Churchman-Ackoff, and Decision Analysis. Results show that different methods do, indeed, produce different results, and that choice of decision rule is most important to results. Exclusionary Screening, in particular, can force decision tradeoffs that decision makers would not make were they to evaluate them directly. Nevertheless, differences in regional screening results do not necessarily mean differences in quality of the final site decision. The final result can depend on the skill with which the stages of the siting process following screening are conducted. The function of screening is to ease the task in those following stages by selecting candidate areas having high probability of containing suitable candidate sites. 32 refs., 32 figs., 43 tabs.