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Sample records for anthropometry

  1. METERNAL ANTHROPOMETRY DETEMINES PREGNANCY OUTCOME

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    Rupa L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Placenta is a transient vital organ of pregnancy and one of the most sensitive determinants of birth weight and pregnancy complications. Placental morphology and pregnancy outcome are influenced by maternal genetic, socio - economic and psychological make - up , and nutritional status in childhood and thereafter. Variation in these factors will lead to adverse pregnancy outcome. Hence, the study assessed the influence of maternal anthropometry: weight and, height on placental morphometry: weight, volume and surf ace area, and birth weight. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The study was conducted on 391 placentae of singleton newborn from a teaching hospital of North Karnataka, India. Data was collected from August 2012 to January 2013 by using standard operating procedures i n a pre - designed and pre - tested proforma. Maternal anthropometry cumulative distribution is described with figures. Analysis of variance is used to study the differences in means of placental morphometry in different groups of maternal anthropometry. RESUL TS : The Means and standard deviations of placental morphometry; weight, volume, surface area and thickness were 440 ± 100gm, 386 ±101 ml, 230 ±50 cm sq , and 2.1±0.4cm respectively . Mean and standard deviations of b irth weight and were 2700 ±500 gm. Maternal pre - pregnancy weight followed moderately normal distribution with mean 48.4 and SD 8.9 kg. Mean birth weight ( p<0.001 and placental morphometry [weight ( p<0.001 , volume ( p<0.001 and surface area ( p<0.05 ] increased consistently with the increasing mater nal pre - pregnancy weight. Gestational weight gain was significantly related with birth weight ( p<0.01 however, placental morphometry did not exhibit any significant difference with weight gain. Maternal height followed moderately normal distribution with mean maternal height 153.9 cm with SD of 6.7. Means of birth weight ( p<0.05 increased consistently with the increasing maternal height, however, placental

  2. Optics in gait analysis and anthropometry

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    Silva Moreno, Alejandra Alicia

    2013-11-01

    Since antiquity, human gait has been studied to understand human movement, the kind of gait, in some cases, can cause musculoskeletal disorders or other health problems; in addition, also from antiquity, anthropometry has been important for the design of human items such as workspaces, tools, garments, among others. Nowadays, thanks to the development of optics and electronics, more accurate studies of gait and anthropometry can be developed. This work will describe the most important parameters for gait analysis, anthropometry and the optical systems used.

  3. "Oriental anthropometry" in plastic surgery

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    Senna-Fernandes Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points′ (acupoints locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry" (OA. Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS. Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational study based on aesthetic surgeries performed in private clinic. This study was based on 106 cases, comprising of 102 women and 4 men, with ages varying from 07 to 73 years, and with heights of between 1.34 m and 1.80 m. Patients were submitted to aesthetic surgical planning by relating aesthetic-loci to conventional surgical marking, including breast surgeries, abdominoplasty, rhytidoplasty, blepharoplasty, and hair implant. The aesthetic-surgical-outcome (ASO of the patients was assessed by a team of plastic surgeons (who were not involved in the surgical procedures over a follow-up period of one year by using a numeric-rating-scale in percentage (% terms. A four-point-verbal-rating-scale was used to record the patients′ opinion of therapeutic-satisfaction (TS. Results: ASO was 75.3 ± 9.4% and TS indicated that most patients (58.5% obtained "good" results. Of the remainder, 38.7% found the results "excellent", and 2.8% found them "fair". Discussion and Conclusion : The data suggested that the use of aesthetic-loci may be a useful tool for PS as an anatomical reference for surgical marking. However, further investigation is required to assess the efficacy of the OA by providing the patients more reliable balance and harmony in facial and body contours surgeries.

  4. ASSOCIATION OF PLACENTAL MORPHOMETRY WITH NEWBORN ANTHROPOMETRY

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    Rupa L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The fetal growth is the outcome of the maternal nutrient stores and efficient transport across the placenta. Hence, any variation in the placenta leads to disproportionate fetal growth leading to long term risk of chronic diseases in the newborn. This stud y was designed to explore influence of placental morphometry on newborn anthropometry . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study was conducted on 391 placentae of singleton newborn from a teaching hospital of North Karnataka, India. Data was collected from August 2 012 to January 2013 by using standard operating procedures in a pre - designed and pre - tested proforma. The distributions of placental morphology and newborn anthropometry are mentioned with their percentiles and Box plots. Analysis of variance is used to st udy the differences in means of placental morphometry in different groups of newborn anthropometry. RESULTS : The Means and standard deviations of placental morphometry; weight, volume, surface area and thickness were 440±100gm, 386±101 ml, 230±50 cm sq , an d 2.1±0.4cm respectively. Mean and standard deviations of birth weight and newborn length were 2700±500 gm. 46.6±2.5cm. Placental morphometry and newborn anthropometry increased significantly with gestation. CONCLUSIONS : This study infers that suboptimal g rowth of placenta leads to adverse pregnancy outcome.

  5. Anthropometry of young competitive sport rock climbers

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, P.; Joubert, L; Lish, A; Van der Mast, J.; Wilkins, B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Adult elite competitive rock climbers are small in stature with low body mass and very low body fat percentage. These characteristics have generated concern that young climbers may attempt body mass reduction to extreme levels with adverse consequences for health and performance. No published anthropometry data for young competitive climbers exist.

  6. Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility Spring 2016 Internship

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    Boppana, Abhishektha

    2016-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at Johnson Space Center supports the Space Human Factors Engineering portfolio of the Human Research Program. ABF provides capability to verify the accommodation and comfort of crewmembers through anthropometry and biomechanics analyses. Anthropometric measurements are derived from three-dimensional (3D) whole body scan images. The scans are currently taken by a Human Solutions Vitus 3D Laser Scanning System. ABF has purchased a 3dMD photogrammetry scanner system to speed up the process of collecting 3D scans. The photogrammetry scanner system features a faster data collection time, as well as fewer holes in the scans. This internship was mainly focused on developing calibration, measurement, data acquisition, and analysis processes for the new system. In addition, I also participated in a project to validate the use of a pressure mat sensor on the shoulder during in-suit testing. My duties for the scanner validation project started with identifying and documenting a calibration process. The calibration process proved vital to using the system as the quality of the scans was directly related to the success of the calibration. In addition, the calibration process suggested by the system vendor required the user to hold a large calibration board at precise locations. To aid in this, I built a calibration stand which held a calibration board at constant positions throughout numerous calibration process. The calibration process was tested extensively until proven acceptable. The standardized process reduced calibration time from over 10 minutes to just below three minutes. As a result, the calibration process could be completed painlessly and precisely, and scan quality was constant between sessions. After standardizing the calibration process, I proceeded to modify the locations of the cameras in order to capture the full volume of a person. The scanning system needed to capture a full T-pose of a person in one scan

  7. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

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    Subarna Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results:Large for gestational age (LGA babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA group (P < 0.001. Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05. However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01. Conclusion:The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies.

  8. Optimisation of vehicle passive safety for occupants with varying anthropometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Haaster, R. van; Michaelsen, L.; Hoffmann, R.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been devloped to generate models representing subjects of varying anthropometry. This method has been applied to crash-dummy models, and will in the future also be applied to human body models. The 1st step of the method is to generate a set of target anthropomethry parameters from a re

  9. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Suzet de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Gilmario Ricarte Batista; Jose Fernandes Filho; Maria Irany knackfuss

    2008-01-01

    The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males) athlet...

  10. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  11. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study, the authors investigated whether anthropometry is associated with prostate cancer risk. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self- administered questionnaire on diet, anthropometry, and other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-

  12. Comparative Assessment of Fetal Malnutrition by Anthropometry and CAN Score

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    Achappa Basavaprabhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fetal malnutrition (FM implies soft tissue wasting at birth with significant postnatal consequences and morbidity, and is identified by clinical assessment (CAN score and anthropometry. Noprevious studies have been done to study all these parameters and evolve a screening method. The aim of this study was identifying the incidence of FM using CAN score and compare the nutritional assessment with anthropometry and evolve a screening tool for rapid assessment of FM. Methods: Prospective study in Government district maternity hospital. 300 term newborns were assessed byCAN score and anthropometry recorded. The newborns were classified as per weight for age. Ponderal index (PI, Body mass index (BMI and midarm circumference/head circumference ratio (MAC/HC calculated andcompared to CAN Score for accuracy in identifying FM. Findings: Incidence of FM was 24%. Newborns identified malnourished by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were evaluated by CAN score and significant number of them (31/78 in PI, 60/121 in BMI, 51/81 in MAC/HC were foundwell nourished. Similarly those recognized as normal by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were malnourished by CAN score(25/222 in PI, 11/179 in BMI, 42/219 in MAC/HC with statistical significance(0.0001. BMI had the highest sensitivity and 11 neonates with normal BMI had low CAN score ann 9 of them had normal PI also making a combination of BMI and PI a good indicator of normal nutrition.Conclusion: FM is best identified by CAN Score. BMI is the best screening tool for malnutrition and when coupled with PI will identify most normally nourished newborns.

  13. Young Children's Screen Activities, Sweet Drink Consumption and Anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso;

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children’s screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages...... children, both on their consumption of sugary drinks and on an increase in BMI and central obesity. Our findings suggest that television viewing seems to have a stronger effect on food habits and anthropometry than other screen activities in this age group....

  14. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males athletes from the aforementioned teams. We used a high-precision scale and stadiometer to verify anthropometric characteristics and Heath & Carter's method to evaluate somatotype. The men's team obtained the following mean results: Age=16.71; height=195.9cm; body weight=87.7kg; endomorphy=1.26; mesomorphy=3.18 and ectomorphy=3.8; while the women's results were: Age=15.9; height=181.6cm; body weight=67.4kg; endomorphy=3.09; mesomorphy=2.21 and ectomorphy=3.88. We can conclude from the results that the teams in question have similar characteristics to those of the high-performance adult teams, and exhibit a predominance of the ectomorphic component of the somatotype. This finding is of great importance, given the current demands of high-performance volleyball, and shows us the high level of the group studied.

  15. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Cabral

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males athletes from the aforementioned teams. We used a high-precision scale and stadiometer to verify anthropometric characteristics and Heath & Carter’s method to evaluate somatotype. The men’s team obtained the following mean results: Age = 16.71; height = 195.9cm; body weight = 87.7kg; endomorphy = 1.26; mesomorphy = 3.18 and ectomorphy = 3.8; while the women’s results were: Age = 15.9; height = 181.6cm; body weight = 67.4kg; endomorphy = 3.09; mesomorphy = 2.21 and ectomorphy = 3.88. We can conclude from the results that the teams in question have similar characteristics to those of the high-performance adult teams, and exhibit a predominance of the ectomorphic component of the somatotype. This finding is of great importance, given the current demands of high-performance volleyball, and shows us the high level of the group studied.

  16. Landscape Architecture-Anthropometry Relationship: The Case of Istanbul

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    A. B. Korkut

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape architecture which is a discipline of ecological data based physical planning aims functional and aesthetical space design fitting for human activities and needs in cities. In Landscaping, ergonomic, anthropometry studies which have much in common, the aim is to perform studies to improve the physical space design at a maximum level in terms of comfort, health and safety.All environments and accessories used by people must comply with anthropometric data and, accordingly, it must be ensured that people move free from any dangers and comfortably in any environment, improving of the life quality must be the principle aim (Yörük et al., 2006. In this respect, it is of high importance that landscaping components and accessories used within the city are designed in accordance with the anthropometric measurements.This study is conducted on the İstanbul example in order to determine the conformity of landscaping elements widely used in our cities to anthropometric data. Therefore, regions of wide use in İstanbul are selected as research zones, current structural and plantal applications are examined in accordance with anthropometric data. According to the acquired data, along with the designs and applications fit to human use, those that are not fit to these measurements and especially disadvantageous in terms of safety are detected and suggestions are presented thereto.

  17. Anthropometry of Arm: Nutritional Risk Indicator in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Patricia; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Orsini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the correlation between clinical data, nutritional, respiratory and functional parameters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This is a descriptive study of 111 ALS patients [91 spinal onset (GS) and 20 bulbar onset (GB)] carried on using nutritional and respiratory parameters and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS). ALSFRS was analyzed in the main domains (D1, D2 and D3). Forced vital capacity and anthropometric measurements, there was significant association for GS and GB, and in GS there was positive correlation with midarm circumference (MAC) (r=0.30; P=0.020), midarm muscle circumference (r=0.29; P=0.026), arm muscle area (r=0.28; P=0.033) and protein-caloric malnutrition score (r=0.27; P=0.039), while for GB only with body weight (r=0.64; P=0.024). On correlation of nutritional parameters and ALSFRS for GS patients we observed that MAC and %MAC presented positive association with both issues of D1 and D2. For GB, the total score in addition to correlate positively with anthropometric parameters related to lean body mass also presented negative association with a parameter associated with body fat. In summary, it is suggested that the application of anthropometry of arm could be useful in routine monitoring of ALS patients. PMID:26788263

  18. Automated Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Using Optical Imaging and Foot Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Hafeez-U R; Spruce, Michelle; Alty, Stephen R; Dudley, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    A large proportion of individuals who live with type-2 diabetes suffer from plantar sensory neuropathy. Regular testing and assessment for the condition is required to avoid ulceration or other damage to patient's feet. Currently accepted practice involves a trained clinician testing a patient's feet manually with a hand-held nylon monofilament probe. The procedure is time consuming, labor intensive, requires special training, is prone to error, and repeatability is difficult. With the vast increase in type-2 diabetes, the number of plantar sensory neuropathy sufferers has already grown to such an extent as to make a traditional manual test problematic. This paper presents the first investigation of a novel approach to automatically identify the pressure points on a given patient's foot for the examination of sensory neuropathy via optical image processing incorporating plantar anthropometry. The method automatically selects suitable test points on the plantar surface that correspond to those repeatedly chosen by a trained podiatrist. The proposed system automatically identifies the specific pressure points at different locations, namely the toe (hallux), metatarsal heads and heel (Calcaneum) areas. The approach is generic and has shown 100% reliability on the available database used. The database consists of Chinese, Asian, African, and Caucasian foot images. PMID:26186748

  19. Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Anthropometry in European Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientzek, A.; Diaz, M.J.T.; Castano, J.M.H.; Amiano, P.; Arriola, L.; Overvad, K.; Ostergaard, J.N.; Charles, M.A.; Fagherazzi, G.; Palli, D.; Bendinelli, B.; Skeie, G.; Borch, K.B.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Hollander, de E.L.; May, A.M.; Ouden, den M.E.M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Valanou, E.; Soderberg, S.; Franks, P.W.; Brage, S.; Vigl, M.; Boeing, H.; Ekelund, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women. Methods: 2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits

  20. Comparison of Anthropometry to Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A New Prediction Equation for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Swan, Pamela D.; DeSimone, Rosemarie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of three recommended anthropometric equations for women and then develop an updated prediction equation using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The percentage of body fat (%BF) by anthropometry was significantly correlated (r = .896-. 929; p [is less than] .01) with DXA, but each equation…

  1. Anthropometry and body composition in soccer and volleyball players in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2007-06-01

    50 sedentary males and 128 sports persons (volleyball=82, soccer=46) of 20-24 years were selected from West Bengal, India, to evaluate and compare their anthropometry and body composition. Skinfolds, girth measurements, body fat percentage (%fat), and endomorphy were significantly higher among sedentary individuals, but lean body mass (LBM) and mesomorphy were significantly (pSoccer and volleyball players were found to be ectomorphic mesomorph, whereas sedentary subjects were endomorphic mesomorph. The soccer and volleyball players had higher %fat with lower body height and body mass than their overseas counterparts. %fat exhibited a significant correlation with body mass index (BMI) and thus prediction equations for %fat from BMI were computed in each group. The present data will serve as a reference standard for the anthropometry and body composition of Indian soccer and volleyball players and the prediction norms for %fat will help to provide a first-hand impression of body composition in the studied population. PMID:17704629

  2. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J;

    2015-01-01

    Overweight, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have become increasing problems during the past decade. Increased sedentary behaviour may change the body composition (BC) by increasing the fat mass relative to the lean mass (LM). These changes may influence bone health to describe how...... anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed...... by multilevel regression analyses. Of the invited children, 742/800 (93 %) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92 %) participated at follow-up. Mean (range) of age at baseline was 9.5 years (7.7-12.1). Height, BMI, LM and BF % predicted bone mineral accrual and bone size positively and independently...

  3. Anthropometry in Klinefelter syndrome - multifactorial influences due to CAG length, testosterone treatment and possibly intrauterine hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Simon; Skakkebæk, Anne; Trolle, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    .47)(p<0.02 for all), as well as total fat mass (0.74), abdominal fat mass (0.67) and total body fat percentage (0.84) was increased in KS males (p<0.001 for all), while bitesticular volume was reduced (4.6). AR CAG repeat length was comparable in KS and controls, and among KS CAG correlated to arm...... body composition in KS and relate findings to biochemistry and X-chromosome related genetic markers. Design, setting and participants: 73 KS males referred to our clinic and 73 age-matched controls underwent comprehensive measurements of anthropometry and body composition in a cross-sectional, case......-controlled study. Furthermore, genetic analysis for parental origin of the supernumerary X-chromosome, skewed X-chromosome inactivation and androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat length was done. Main outcome measure: Anthropometry and body composition in KS and the effect of genotype hereon. Results: KS males were...

  4. Relationships of Leptin and Anthropometry, Physical Work Capacity, Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yanbai; Wang, Hongli; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women gain abdominal and visceral fat during the menopausal period. Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that is involved in metabolic disturbance disease. However, few studies have investigated the associations between leptin and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of serum leptin and anthropometry, physical work capacity and MS in sixty Chinese postmenopausal women. Factor analysis extracted fi...

  5. Relationships Between Legs Bone Mineral Density, Anthropometry and Jumping Height in Prepubertal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jürimäe, Toivo; Hurbo, Tanya; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how the legs bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by anthropometry and vertical jumping height in prepubertal children. In total, 64 8–11-year-old schoolchildren (27 boys and 37 girls) were studied. All children were at Tanner stage 1. The subjects’ height and body mass were measured and BMI calculated. The following anthropometric parameters directly connected with leg were measured: skinfolds – front thigh and medial calf; girths – glut...

  6. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Y. Q. Low; Lacy, Kathleen E.; Robert McBride; Russell S. J. Keast

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was a...

  7. Hypertension and anthropometry measurement on academic staff at public universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Ilya Zulaikha; Abdullah, Mohammad Nasir; Baharuddin, Mohd Sapuan; Arul, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension or most commonly known as high blood pressure is a non-communicable disease affecting to health of people with non-detectible cause (primary) and some with determined causes (secondary). The prevalence of hypertension morbidity was very high globally, the consequences of the disease if not been treated is death. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hypertension and anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and body mass index among academic staff in public universities in Malaysia. The design for this study was cross-sectional and the method for data collection was mailed questionnaire. The initial sample size for this study was 189, therefore, 500 questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected academicians in public universities, colleges and polytechnics in Malaysia. However, only 101 questionnaires were returned and were analysed in this study. The target population were academicians which includes lecturers and senior lecturers in public universities in Malaysia. The methods of analysis employed was logistic regression and frequency analysis. It was found that weight, height and body mass index (BMI) have no significant relationship with hypertension but based on the Crude Odd Ratio, all these three anthropometry measures showed that there were protective risk of hypertension among lecturers and senior lecturers in public university, Malaysia. In a nutshell, there were no evidence to conclude that anthropometry measurements can affect hypertension status among academic staff at public university.

  8. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  9. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption. PMID:27120614

  10. The influence of age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on career attainment outcomes in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; Morley, David; O'hara, John; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the influence of annual-age category, relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on the career attainment outcomes of junior rugby league players originally selected for a talent identification and development (TID) programme. Junior rugby league players (N = 580) were grouped retrospectively according to their career attainment level (i.e., amateur, academy and professional). Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds), maturational (age at peak height velocity; PHV) and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed, estimated[Formula: see text]) characteristics were assessed at the Under 13s, 14s and 15s annual-age categories. Relative age (Q2 = 8.5% vs. Q4 = 25.5%) and playing position (Pivots = 19.5% vs. Props = 5.8%) influenced the percentage of players attaining professional status. Anthropometry and fitness had a significant effect on career attainment at the Under 14 (P = 0.002, η(2) = 0.16) and 15 (P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.12) annual-age categories. Findings at the Under 14s showed future professional players were significantly later maturing compared to academy and amateur players. Findings suggest that relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness can influence the career attainment of junior rugby league players. TID programmes within rugby league, and other related team sports, should be aware and acknowledge the factors influencing long-term career attainment, and not delimit development opportunities during early adolescence. PMID:26512761

  11. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y. Q. Low

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8 sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01. When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01. Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  12. Influence of maturation on anthropometry and body composition in Japanese junior high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunaga, Yuko; Takai, Yohei; Yoshimoto, Takaya; Fujita, Eiji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine maturity-related differences in anthropometry and body composition in Japanese youth within a single year. Methods Two hundred and ten Japanese youth aged from 13 to 13.99 years participated in this study. Their maturity status was assessed using a self-assessment of stage of pubic hair development. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate percent body fat and lean body mass (LBM). Muscle thickness of the anterior thigh, posteri...

  13. Breastfeeding During Early Infancy is Associated with Higher Weight-Based World Health Organization Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libraty, Daniel H; Capeding, Rosario Z; Obcena, Anamae; Brion, Job D; Tallo, Veronica

    2013-06-28

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry established reference anthropometric standards for the growth of healthy infants and children. As part of a prospective clinical study of dengue virus infections in infants, we measured the length and weight of healthy infants in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines at two scheduled study visits. We examined the correlation between breastfeeding and WHO anthropometric z scores during early infancy in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines. We found that breastfeeding status and the frequency of breastfeeding during early infancy positively correlated with weight-based WHO anthropometric z scores. PMID:24416089

  14. Impact of hemodialysis on dual X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance measurements, and anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Hansen, T B; Høgsberg, I M;

    1996-01-01

    Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performs noninvasive assessment of bone and soft tissue with high precision. However, soft tissue algorithms assume that 73.2% of the lean body mass is water, a potential source of error in fluid retention. We evaluated DXA (model QDR-2000; Hologic Inc, Waltham, MA......), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and simple anthropometry in 19 patients (9 women and 10 men, mean age 46 y) before and after hemodialysis, removing 0.9-4.3 L (x: 2.8L) of ultrafiltrate. The reduction in fat-free mass (FFM) measured by DXA was highly correlated with the ultrafiltrate, as determined...

  15. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male...... elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball......). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks...

  16. The effects of foot morphology and anthropometry on unipodal postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica C. Alonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The maintenance of posture is a constant challenge for the body, as it requires rapid and accurate responses to unforeseen disturbances, which are needed to prevent falls and maintain balance. The purpose of the present study was to compare different types of plantar arch in relation to postural balance, and analyze the relationships between variations the plantar arch and anthropometric characteristics of the feet with unipedal static balance. We evaluated 100 men and women between the ages of 20 and 40 years old, to determine anthropometry and posturography with a force platform. There was a weak correlation between plantar arches and anthropometric measurements and postural balance, except for the length of the male foot, which showed a correlation between increased size and poorer static balance. We conclude that the type of plantar arch does not influence postural balance, and of the anthropometric factors, only foot length was related to postural balance.

  17. Quantification of ln-Flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Amick, R.; Rajulu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data to assess the impact of changes in body shape and size. For developing future planetary and reduced-gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry and body posture to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain data on these changes, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for preflight, in-flight, and post-flight conditions needs to be collected. Once these data have been collected, pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight anthropometric values will be compared, yielding microgravity factors. The neutral body posture (NBP) will also be measured, to determine body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress but has been completed for 6 out of 9 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes were collected during Skylab 4, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle mission STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab 4, ASTP, and the STS-57 studies found that, according to photographs, a distinct NBP exists. The still photographs showed a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulders abducted; in addition, the knees are flexed, with noticeable hip flexion, and the foot

  18. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  19. The connection between anthropometry and gait harmony unveiled through the lens of the golden ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Bini, Fabiano; Fusco, Augusto; Paolucci, Stefano; Marinozzi, Franco

    2016-01-26

    In nature, many systems have a harmonic organization due to their fractal structure related to an irrational number called golden ratio. That is a constant proportion found in phases of human gait cycle, and is also found in the lengths of human body segments. In this study we tested if artificial alterations in anthropometric proportions may alter gait proportions. Twenty healthy subjects (29.15±5.66years) were enrolled in this study and asked to walk normally and with special shoes altering their anthropometric proportions. Further, to test if the relationship between gait phases and anthropometry could be due to the pendular mechanism of walking, subjects were also asked to walk with extra masses located on their shanks. Results showed that the artificial alteration of body segment proportions affected the gait ratio based on the proportion of time between stance and swing (p=0.015). Conversely, no changes occurred during walking in weighted condition (p=0.394). These results confirm the connection between anthropometric proportions and gait ratio, and suggest the idea that humans may have evolved into the actual anthropometric proportions for favoring a walking having a golden ratio based harmony, but research is required to verify this hypothesis.

  20. The science of badminton: game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual fitness and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomsoupha, Michael; Laffaye, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Badminton is a racket sport for two or four people, with a temporal structure characterized by actions of short duration and high intensity. This sport has five events: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, each requiring specific preparation in terms of technique, control and physical fitness. Badminton is one of the most popular sports in the world, with 200 million adherents. The decision to include badminton in the 1992 Olympics Game increased participation in the game. This review focuses on the game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual attributes and biomechanics of badminton. Players are generally tall and lean, with an ectomesomorphic body type suited to the high physiological demands of a match. Indeed, a typical match characteristic is a rally time of 7 s and a resting time of 15 s, with an effective playing time of 31%. This sport is highly demanding, with an average heart rate (HR) of over 90% of the player's maximal HR. The intermittent actions during a game are demanding on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems: 60-70% on the aerobic system and approximately 30% on the anaerobic system, with greater demand on the alactic metabolism with respect to the lactic anaerobic metabolism. The shuttlecock has an atypical trajectory, and the players perform specific movements such as lunging and jumping, and powerful strokes using a specific pattern of movement. Lastly, badminton players are visually fit, picking up accurate visual information in a short time. Knowledge of badminton can help to improve coaching and badminton skills.

  1. Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gil Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players.  mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.

  2. Design of Lesehan Chair by Using Kansei Engineering Method And Anthropometry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi, A. T.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Sari, A. D.; Kurnia, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY) is known as city for academic. Many people come to get some education in college. They live in boarding house with some supporting facilities. The most common facilities is low table which lead students have to sit on the floor while studying on table which could cause higher risk of back pain and musculoskeletal disorder. To identify the solution to reduce back pain and musculoskeletal risk, it is needed to design a lesehan chair which also appropriate to customer needs. Kansei engineering method was used with a total of 30 respondents participated, 15 kansei words collected, and 12 kansei words selected by doing validation and reliability test. The result of this study showed that quality, aesthetics, and comfort level influence the design of lesehan chair. A design of lesehan chair was created by considering the suitable concept and merging it with the physical design and its anthropometry measurement. In this case, marginal homogeneity test is needed to identify the differences between each kansei words attribute and the design or product recommendation. The marginal homogeneity test results show that the design and product recommendation has fulfilled customer's desires and needs. For further research, it is needed to analyse and evaluate the posture of lesehan chair users in order to develop and improve its performance.

  3. Vertical normal modes of human ears: Individual variation and frequency estimation from pinna anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Parham; Takemoto, Hironori; Nishimura, Ryouichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Beyond the first peak of head-related transfer functions or pinna-related transfer functions (PRTFs) human pinnae are known to have two normal modes with "vertical" resonance patterns, involving two or three pressure anti-nodes in cavum, cymba, and fossa. However, little is known about individual variations in these modes, and there is no established model for estimating their center-frequencies from anthropometry. Here, with geometries of 38 pinnae measured, PRTFs were calculated and vertical modes visualized by numerical simulation. Most pinnae were found to have both Cavum-Fossa and Cavum-Cymba modes, with opposite-phase anti-nodes in cavum and either fossa or cymba, respectively. Nevertheless in both modes, fossa involvement varied substantially across pinnae, dependent on scaphoid fossa depth and cymba shallowness. Linear regression models were evaluated in mode frequency estimation, with 3322 measures derived from 31 pinna landmarks. The Cavum-Fossa normal mode frequency was best estimated [correlation coefficient r = 0.89, mean absolute error (MAE) = 257 Hz or 4.4%] by the distance from canal entrance to helix rim, and cymba horizontal depth. The Cavum-Cymba normal mode frequency was best estimated (r = 0.92, MAE = 247 Hz or 3.2%) by the sagittal-plane distance from concha floor to cymba anterior wall, and cavum horizontal depth. PMID:27586714

  4. Anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary pattern of patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajifdar B

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary characteristics of 114 patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD were evaluated. There were 91 (80% men and the mean age was 56 +/- 9 years. The body mass index was near normal (24.4 +/- 3.4, but the waist: hip ratio was high (0.94 +/- 0.06 suggesting central obesity. This was well in accordance of the step II recommendations of the NCEP guidelines as regards their caloric intake and its break-up in terms of carbohydrate, protein and fat (including saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids content. Their daily cholesterol intake (31 +/- 32 mg/day, range 4-180 was very low. The total cholesterol (212 +/- 37 mg% was marginally elevated, HDL cholesterol (33 +/- 7.5 mg% was low, LDL cholesterol (148 +/- 39 mg% was high and the total: HDL ratio (6.8 +/- 2.0 was significantly abnormal. The serum triglyceride level (154 +/- 68 mg% was on the higher side of normal. These observations give further credence to the recently evolving view that there are different and hitherto unrecognised risk factors of IHD in Indians, who seem to have the highest incidence of IHD amongst all ethnic groups of the world despite consuming a diet low in fat and cholesterol content.

  5. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  6. Correlation between motor performance scales, body composition, and anthropometry in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Erhan; Topcu, Yasemin; Karakaya, Pakize; Bayram, Meral Torun; Sahin, Ebru; Gunduz, Nihan; Yis, Uluc; Peker, Ozlen; Kurul, Semra Hiz

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition, anthropometry, and motor scales in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Twenty six patients with DMD were evaluated by Expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMSE), gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and anthropometric measurements. Seventeen healthy children served as control group. There were 26 patients with a mean age of 9.5 ± 4.8 years. Ages and anthropometric measurements did not differ between groups. Of the 26 patients, nine were level I, seven were level II, two were level III, seven were level IV, and one was level V, according to the GMFCS. Despite the similar percentage of total body water, extracellular water/intracellular water ratio was significantly elevated in DMD patients (p = 0.001). Increased values of fat percentage and body fat mass index (BFMI) correlated positively with elevated GMFCS levels (r = 0.785 and 0.719 respectively). Increased fat-free mass index (FFMI) correlated negatively with elevated GMFCS levels (r = -0.401). Increased fat percentage and BFMI correlated negatively with HFMSE scores (r = -0.779 and -0.698, respectively). Increased values of FFMI correlated positively with HFMSE scores. There was also a negative correlation between increased skin fold measurements from triceps and scapula and HFMSE scores (r = -0.618 and -0.683, respectively). Increased skin fold values from the same regions correlated positively with elevated GMFCS levels (r = 0.643 and 0.712, respectively). Significant body composition changes occur in patients with DMD. Anthropometric and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyses measurements show good correlation between motor function scales. These results may also be helpful to evaluate the effects of new treatment strategies. PMID:22975832

  7. Body composition in neonates: relationship between measured and derived anthropometry with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Winston W K; Walters, Jocelyn C; Hockman, Elaine M

    2004-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between measured and derived anthropometric measurements with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean and fat mass at 3.0 +/- 2.8 (SD) days in 120 neonates with birth weights appropriate (AGA; n=74), large (LGA; n=30); or small (SGA, n=16) for gestational age. Anthropometric measurements, including total body weight and length, and regional measurements, including circumferences of head, chest, abdomen, midarm, and midthigh and dynamic skinfold thickness (15 and 60 s) at tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, and midthigh, were performed. Derived anthropometry included muscle and fat areas, and ratios were calculated from direct measurements. The skinfold thickness measurements between 15 and 60 s were highly correlated (r=0.973-0.996, p circumferences of trunk and extremities, the four skinfolds, and the ratios of weight to length and its higher powers. Weight and length accounted for >97% of the variance of lean mass in AGA and SGA infants and 46% of the variance in LGA infants and for 80, 82, and 84% of the variance of fat mass in SGA, AGA, and LGA infants, respectively, whereas midarm:head circumference ratio and arm muscle and fat areas are the most important derived anthropometry in the prediction for body composition. They independently accounted for up to 16.5 and 10.2%, respectively, of the variance in body composition depending on the state of in utero growth. Thus, total body weight and length and some selected regional and derived anthropometry accounted for the vast majority of the variance of body composition. PMID:15371563

  8. Maternal blood lead concentration, diet during pregnancy, and anthropometry predict neonatal blood lead in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D.; Gomez, Marta; Ravenscroft, Julia; Parsons, Patrick J.; Aydermir, Aida; Samelson, Renee

    2003-01-01

    To determine the influences of maternal diet and nutrition during pregnancy on the blood lead level of neonates, we conducted a study of mother-infant pairs from lower socioeconomic circumstances living in Albany County, New York. Maternal blood lead (MBPb), anthropometry, and diet were assessed in each trimester. Neonates' blood lead (NBPb) levels were low (geometric mean = 1.58 micro g/dL), and none had elevated blood lead. More than 50% of the mothers had intakes below the recommended diet...

  9. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Jensen, Signe Marie; Christensen, Line B;

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99...... healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross...

  10. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate G; Opar, David A; Livingstone, Steuart G; Cordy, Justin T; Bird, Stephen R; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in elite junior, sub-elite senior, and elite senior Australian Football (AF) players. Nineteen experienced elite senior (≥4 years Australian Football League [AFL] experience), 27 inexperienced elite senior (Football players' FFSTM are different between playing levels, which are likely because of training and partly explain the observed differences in performance between playing levels highlighting the importance of optimizing FFSTM in young players.

  11. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P < .001]). Relative to baseline, within-group mean changes from WPC were significant for appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition (P < .001). In the SPI group, mean changes were significant, relative to baseline, for all variables except lean muscle (P = .37). According to this 12-week study, WPC preloads conducted 30 minutes prior to the ad libitum main meal exerted stronger beneficial effects than did SPI preloads on appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men.

  12. An overview of Space Shuttle anthropometry and biomechanics research with emphasis on STS/Mir recumbent seat system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, Glenn K.; Stoycos, Lara E.

    1994-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) at JSC conducts multi-disciplinary research focusing on maximizing astronaut intravehicular (IVA) and extravehicular (EVA) capabilities to provide the most effective work conditions for manned space flight and exploration missions. Biomechanics involves the measurement and modeling of the strength characteristics of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of torque wrench capability during weightlessness, optimization of foot restraint, and hand hold placement, measurements of the strength and dexterity of the pressure gloved hand to improve glove design, quantification of the ability to move and manipulate heavy masses (6672 N or 1500 lb) in weightlessness, and verification of the capability of EVA crewmembers to perform Hubble Space Telescope repair tasks. Anthropometry is the measurement and modeling of the dimensions of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of 14 anthropometric parameters of every astronaut candidate, identification of EVA finger entrapment hazards by measuring the dimensions of the gloved hand, definition of flight deck reach envelopes during launch and landing accelerations, and measurement of anthropometric design parameters for the recumbent seat system required for the Shuttle/Mir mission (STS-71, Spacelab M) scheduled for Jun. 1995.

  13. Relationships between legs bone mineral density, anthropometry and jumping height in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Toivo; Hurbo, Tanya; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how the legs bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by anthropometry and vertical jumping height in prepubertal children. In total, 64 8-11-year-old schoolchildren (27 boys and 37 girls) were studied. All children were at Tanner stage 1. The subjects' height and body mass were measured and BMI calculated. The following anthropometric parameters directly connected with leg were measured: skinfolds--front thigh and medial calf girths--gluteal, thigh, mid-thigh, calf and ankle; lengths--iliospinale height, trochanterion height, trochanteriontibiale laterale, tibiale-laterale height and tibiale mediale-spyrion tibiale; and breadths--biiliocristal, foot length and biepicondylar femur. Total body and legs fat mass and fat %, lean body mass (LBM) and both legs BMD were measured by DXA. Maximal jumping height was measured on the contact mat. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that body height in boys (54.6%; R2 x 100) and body mass in girls (57.3%) were the most important basic anthropometric parameters that influenced BMD in legs. From the measured skinfolds, that of the front thigh characterized legs BMD by 24.9-35.6%. From the girths, the most important parameter to characterize legs BMD was that of calf (50.0-59.1%). Tibiale laterale height was the only length parameter which was highly related with legs BMD (51.1-54.5%). Biepicondylar femur was the most important breadth parameter which characterized legs BMD (51.0-54.8%). Femur breadth and tibiale-laterale height were selected (68.7%) in boys, and tibiale-laterale height and front thigh skinfold thickness (66.0%) in girls when all measured leg anthropometric parameters were analyzed together. From the body composition parameters, the most important parameter to characterize legs BMD was legs LBM (48.9-59.5%). Jumping height did not correlate with legs BMD in any studied groups. In summary, the present study demonstrated that legs LBM together with tibiale

  14. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  15. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  16. Estimation of CT-Derived Abdominal Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Depots from Anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Sophie V.; Therese Tillin; Andrew Wright; John Heasman; Joseph Willis; Godsland, Ian F.; Nita Forouhi; Peter Whincup; Hughes, Alun D.; Nishi Chaturvedi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. DESIGN: 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70 ± 7 years) underwent anthropom...

  17. Modeling the Impact of Space Suit Components and Anthropometry on the Center of Mass of a Seated Crewmember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Christopher; Margerum, Sarah; Ferrer, Mike; Morency, Richard; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The Crew Impact Attenuation System (CIAS) is the energy-absorbing strut concept that dampens Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) landing loads to levels sustainable by the crew. Significant COM variations across suited crew configurations would amplify the inertial effects of the pallet and potentially create unacceptable crew loading during launch and landing. The objective of this study was to obtain data needed for dynamic simulation models by quantifying the effects of posture, suit components, and the expected range of anthropometry on the COM of a seated individual. Several elements are required for the COM calculation of a suited human in a seated position: anthropometry, body segment mass, suit component mass, suit component location relative to the body, and joint angles defining the seated posture. Three-dimensional (3D) human body models, suit mass data, and vector calculus were utilized to compute the COM positions for 12 boundary manikins in two different seated postures. The analysis focused on two objectives: (1) quantify how much the wholebody COM varied from the smallest to largest subject and (2) quantify the effects of the suit components on the overall COM in each seat configuration. The location of the anterior-posterior COM varied across all boundary manikins by about 7 cm, and the vertical COM varied by approximately 9 to 10 cm. The mediolateral COM varied by 1.2 cm from the midline sagittal plane for both seat configurations. The suit components caused an anterior shift of the total COM by approximately 2 cm and a shift to the right along the mediolateral axis of 0.4 cm for both seat configurations. When the seat configuration was in the standard posture the suited vertical COM shifted inferiorly by as much as 1 cm, whereas in the CEV posture the vertical COM had no appreciable change. These general differences were due to the high proportion of suit mass located in the boots and lower legs and their corresponding distance from the body COM

  18. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  19. Intraoperative study on anthropometry and gender differences of the proximal tibial plateau at the arthroplasty resection surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Yu Jiakuo; Gong Xi; Chen Lianxu; Wang Yongjian; Wang Jian; Wang Haijun

    2014-01-01

    Background The tibial plateau is asymmetric with a larger medial plateau.We observed from clinical practice that the shape of the tibial plateau does not always present a larger medial plateau.Tibial plateau also showed other shapes.The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data of the proximal tibia in a large group of Chinese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and to investigate the morphology of the resected proximal tibial surface and its gender differences.Methods A total of 822 knees (164 males,658 females) from the Chinese population were measured intraoperatively for medial anteroposterior (MAP) and lateral anteroposterior (LAP) dimensions of the resected proximal tibial surface.The difference of MAP and LAP (DML) was also calculated as MAP minus LAP.We then classified the data into three groups based on the DML (<-2,-2 to 2,and >2 mm) to analyze the morphology of the proximal tibia and its distribution between male and female.Results The shape of proximal tibial plateau was of three types:larger medial plateau type,symmetric type,and larger lateral plateau type.There were significant differences between males and females in relation to the shape distribution of the proximal tibial plateau (P <0.05).Most of the proximal tibial plateau was asymmetric,with 517 of 822 (62.9%) tibia having a DML >2 mm and 120 of 822 (14.6%) tibia having a DML<-2 mm.Only 185 of 822 (22.5%) tibia had a DML between-2 and 2 mm.Conclusion The results of this study can be used as a guideline to design tibial components with different DMLs to better match the different anthropometry of the resected tibial surface.

  20. Predicting volumes of metabolically important whole-body adipose tissue compartments in overweight and obese adolescents by different MRI approaches and anthropometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI approaches and anthropometric measures as predictors for metabolically relevant whole-body adipose tissue (AT) compartments in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods: Forty adolescents (22 males, age 11.4–16.1 years) were included with a BMI above the 90th percentile. Volumes of whole-body AT compartments, i.e. total AT (TAT), subcutaneous AT (SCAT) and visceral AT (VAT), were determined using a breath-hold T1-weighted-FSE-MR-sequence and semi-automated segmentation serving as the gold standard. SCAT, VAT and TAT was estimated by either axially oriented single-slices or 5-slice-stacks centred at specific anatomic landmarks (umbilicus, head of femur and humerus). Furthermore, anthropometric measures were also evaluated as predictors of whole-body AT compartments. Results: Strong correlations were found for both genders between TAT/SCAT and single-slice evaluation (e.g. whole-body SCAT-SCAT at umbilicus level: r = 0.91 (m), r = 0.92 (f)) or anthropometry (SCAT-BMI: r = 0.93 (m, f)). VAT was correlated to VAT at umbilicus (r = 0.71 (m), r = 0.94 (f)) but only weakly to anthropometry. Conclusions: Anthropometric measures and single-slice MRI can accurately predict TAT/SCAT which cannot be improved by evaluation of 5-slice stacks. Prediction of VAT by 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI protocols seems only to be accurate in females. Anthropometry cannot be reliably used for prediction of VAT in both genders. Thus, MRI seems to be necessary for quantification of VAT in overweight/obese adolescents of both genders.

  1. Value of bioimpedance analysis and anthropometry for complication prediction in children with malignant and non-malignant diseases after hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Tseytlin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is widely used in the treatment of malignant and autoimmune diseases. Various complications often develop during the post-transplantation period that can significantly impair the clinical outcomes, so the ability to predict therisk of severe complications is of great practical importance. Predictive value of some anthropometric indices and bioimpedance analysis(BIA measured before conditioning to assess the risks of serious complications and graft hypofunction in the early post-transplant period(100 days were analyzed. Anthropometry and BIA used in a comprehensive assessment of nutritional status in order to optimize the nutritional support of these patients. 101 patients were examined before conditioning and at different times during the early post-transplant period: 50 children (5–17 years of age were examined using BIA and anthropometry, 61 children (6 months – 4 years of age – using only anthropometry without BIA due to age restrictions. The prognostic value of the phase angle (FA, ratio of the active cell mass to lean body mass (ACM/LBM and shoulder muscle circumference (SMC was shown. Thus, in patients with FA ≤ 4, ACM/LBM < 0.45 and SMC ≤ 10th percentile before conditioning risk of severe complications during early post-transplant period was significantly higher (p < 0.05. Also, in patients with FA ≤ 4 and ACM/LBM < 0.45 a significantly higher risk of graft hypofunction developing was observed (p < 0.05.

  2. The Sex and Race Specific Relationship between Anthropometry and Body Fat Composition Determined from Computed Tomography: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Mongraw-Chaffin

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race.CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity.Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028, waist circumference (p<0.001, waist to hip ratio (p<0.001, and waist to height ratio (p = 0.05 differed by sex, with a steeper slope for men. That is, across the range of these anthropometric measures the rise in visceral fat is faster for men than for women. Additionally, there were differences by race/ethnicity in the relationship with height (p<0.001, weight (p<0.001, waist circumference (p<0.001, hip circumference (p = 0.006, and waist to hip ratio (p = 0.001 with the Hispanic group having shallower slopes. For subcutaneous fat, interaction by sex was found for all anthropometric indices at p<0.05, but not for race/ethnicity.The relationship between anthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used.

  3. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ric Lovell

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's, representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2 were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug. Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT], Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ, sprint (10 & 20m, and agility (T-Test performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83 more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56 and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13. Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4 that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57, and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72 in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45 and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46. The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and

  4. Comparison of Organ Dosimetry for Astronaut Phantoms: Earth-Based vs. Microgravity-Based Anthropometry and Body Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, Mary; Bahadon, Amir; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use NASA radiation transport codes to compare astronaut organ dose equivalents resulting from solar particle events (SPE), geomagnetically trapped protons, and free-space galactic cosmic rays (GCR) using phantom models representing Earth-based and microgravity-based anthropometry and positioning. Methods: The Univer sity of Florida hybrid adult phantoms were scaled to represent male and female astronauts with 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile heights and weights as measured on Earth. Another set of scaled phantoms, incorporating microgravity-induced changes, such as spinal lengthening, leg volume loss, and the assumption of the neutral body position, was also created. A ray-tracer was created and used to generate body self-shielding distributions for dose points within a voxelized phantom under isotropic irradiation conditions, which closely approximates the free-space radiation environment. Simplified external shielding consisting of an aluminum spherical shell was used to consider the influence of a spacesuit or shielding of a hull. These distributions were combined with depth dose distributions generated from the NASA radiation transport codes BRYNTRN (SPE and trapped protons) and HZETRN (GCR) to yield dose equivalent. Many points were sampled per organ. Results: The organ dos e equivalent rates were on the order of 1.5-2.5 mSv per day for GCR (1977 solar minimum) and 0.4-0.8 mSv per day for trapped proton irradiation with shielding of 2 g cm-2 aluminum equivalent. The organ dose equivalents for SPE irradiation varied considerably, with the skin and eye lens having the highest organ dose equivalents and deep-seated organs, such as the bladder, liver, and stomach having the lowest. Conclus ions: The greatest differences between the Earth-based and microgravity-based phantoms are observed for smaller ray thicknesses, since the most drastic changes involved limb repositioning and not overall phantom size. Improved self-shielding models

  5. Critical anthropometry for menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Villena, A

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if any anthropometric measurements, including weight, height, and upper arm circumference, or the calculated body mass index observed at the time of menarche may be used as a threshold for menarche. The sample was randomly selected from 1133 girls aged 10-18 years from two groups, one residing in Lima, Peru, at 150 m above sea level, and the second in Cerro de Pasco, Peru, at 4340 m above sea level. For the purpose of this study, all girls who reached menarche at least 1 month before the study (n = 93) were considered as cases (girls at menarche); 88 girls without menarche at the time of the study were randomly matched by age and place of residence, and designated as controls. All subjects came from the same low socioeconomic status. Body weight at menarche was 44.6 +/- 5.09 kg (mean +/- SD; coefficient of variation [CV], 11.4%). Height at menarche was 151.6 +/- 5.5 cm (CV, 3.7%). Body mass index, defined as weight/height2.15, was 18.26 +/- 1.96 kg/m2.15 at menarche (CV, 10.7%). Upper arm circumference at menarche was 21.8 +/- 1.6 cm (CV, 7.3%). The logistic regression analysis showed that any of the four anthropometric measurements analyzed were critical for menarche; i.e., any of the four could be used as a threshold for menarche. Data from the present study do not support the hypothesis that there are anthropometric markers that are critical for menarche.

  6. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the ‘Gold Standard’ Tarnished?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Beth; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Mountain, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Methods and Results 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:27622523

  7. Effect of Sesame Oil on Diuretics or ß-blockers in the Modulation of Blood Pressure, Anthropometry, Lipid Profile, and Redox Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D.; Rao, M. Ramakrishna; Sambandam, G.; Pugalendi, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sesame oil in hypertensive patients who were on antihypertensive therapy either with diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide) or ß-blockers (atenolol). Thirty-two male and 18 female patients aged 35 to 60 years old were supplied sesame oil (Idhayam gingelly oil) and instructed to use it as the only edible oil for 45 days. Blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were measured at baseline and after 45 days of sesame oil substitution. Substitution of sesame oil brought down systolic and diastolic blood pressure to normal. The same patients were asked to withdraw sesame oil consumption for another 45 days, and the measurements were repeated at the end of withdrawal period. Withdrawal of sesame oil substitution brought back the initial blood pressure values. A significant reduction was noted in body weight and body mass index (BMI) upon sesame oil substitution. No significant alterations were observed in lipid profile except triglycerides. Plasma levels of sodium reduced while potassium elevated upon the substitution of sesame oil. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) decreased while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, ß-carotene, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were increased. The results suggested that sesame oil as edible oil lowered blood pressure, decreased lipid peroxidation, and increased antioxidant status in hypertensive patients. PMID:17876372

  8. Estimation of CT-derived abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots from anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie V Eastwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. DESIGN: 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70 ± 7 years underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. RESULTS: South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference, model fit was better in men (R(2 range 0.59-0.71 than women (range 0.35-0.59. Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R(2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively. For basic SAT equations, R(2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. CONCLUSION: We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available.

  9. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Østergaard, Jane N;

    2016-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......-noncase study included 11,048 men and women from cohorts in the European Diet, Obesity and Genes study; 5552 were cases, defined as individuals with the greatest BW gain during follow-up, and 6548 were randomly selected, including 5496 noncases. We selected 4 genes [CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (CEBPB...

  10. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyi O. Toriola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa.Setting: A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used.Results: Body mass index (BMI classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal bodyweight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years’ measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH, boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of -0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ, bent arm hang (BAH and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders.Conclusion: Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the participating

  11. An Okinawan-based Nordic diet improves anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life in Scandinavian patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassan Darwiche

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our hypothesis was that a modified diet would improve blood glucose control with beneficial impact on weight management and overall health in established diabetes. Objective: This prospective interventional study investigated the clinical effect of an Okinawan-based Nordic diet on anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in Scandinavian type 2 diabetes patients. Design: Food was prepared and delivered to 30 type 2 diabetes patients. Clinical information along with data on HRQoL, blood samples, and urine samples were collected during 12 weeks of diet interventions, with follow-up 16 weeks after diet completion. Results: After 12 weeks of dietary intervention, a reduction in body weight (7% (p<0.001, body mass index (p<0.001, and waist circumference (7.0 cm (p<0.001 was seen. Improved levels of proinsulin (p=0.005, insulin (p=0.011, and fasting plasma glucose (p<0.001 were found already after 2 weeks; these improved levels remained after 12 weeks when lowered levels of C-peptide (p=0.015, triglycerides (p=0.009, total cholesterol (p=0.001, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p=0.041 were also observed. Insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was lowered throughout the study, with a 20% reduction in hemoglobin A1c levels (p<0.001 at week 12, despite reduced anti-diabetes treatment. Lowered systolic blood pressure (9.6 mmHg (p<0.001, diastolic blood pressure (2.7 mmHg (p<0.001, and heart and respiratory rates (p<0.001 were accompanied by decreased cortisol levels (p=0.015 and improvement in HRQoL. At follow-up, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were found (p=0.003. Conclusion: This interventional study demonstrates a considerable improvement of anthropometric and metabolic parameters and HRQoL in Scandinavian type 2 diabetes patients when introducing a modified Okinawan-based Nordic diet, independently of exercise or other interventions. Through

  12. Foot Anthropometry and Morphology Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; NIKOLIĆ, VASILIJE; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-01-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in ...

  13. Antropometria como ferramenta de avaliação do estado nutricional coletivo de adolescentes Anthropometry as a tool for assessing the nutritional status of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A antropometria tem sido apontada como o parâmetro mais indicado para avaliar o estado nutricional coletivo. A avaliação nutricional coletiva de adolescentes possui uma dinâmica muito peculiar por se tratar de um momento de intensas mudanças fisiológicas e psicossociais, diretamente associadas à dinâmica nutricional deste grupo. O acompanhamento dessa dinâmica e de suas variáveis intervenientes e interativas é, portanto, um tema de discussão extremamente relevante. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar as aplicações de parâmetros antropométricos à avaliação do estado nutricional de adolescentes. Conclui-se que, enquanto não houver metodologia simples de avaliação da composição corporal, para estudos epidemológicos deve-se manter o uso do índice de massa corporal, associado ou não às variáveis de dobra cutânea e perímetros. Apesar das dificuldades e limitações, as evidências apontam para uma fundamental incorporação das informações sobre a maturação sexual à avaliação do estado nutricional coletivo de adolescentes. Além disso, as investigações devem atentar mais aos parâmetros de definição da população que estará sendo estudada, cuidando, para permitir a comparação entre os estudos.Anthropometry is considered the most appropriate tool for assessing the nutritional status of groups of people. The nutritional assessment of adolescents has a very peculiar dynamic because adolescence is a period of intense physiological and psychosocial changes which are directly related to the nutritional dynamic of this group. The monitoring of this dynamic and its intervening and interactive variables is an extremely relevant discussion theme. This review aims to present the applications of anthropometric indicators in the assessment of the nutritional status of adolescents. While ways to determine body composition are not readily available for epidemiological studies, the use of body mass index alone or

  14. Analysis of bone microarchitecture related to anthropometry in climateric women Análisis de la microarquitectura ósea relacionada con la antropometría en mujeres postmenopáusicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giolo De Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is one of the most important public health problems involving a high percentage of costs in the medical care system. Reliable diagnostic techniques for an early detection of bone deterioration and studies of factors that influence its development in menopausal women are crucial. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between bone microarchitecture and anthropometry in climacteric women. Methods: Women were recruited at the Menopause Clinic, University Hospital of FMRP/USP, and submitted to anthropometry and to the evaluation of bone quality (Ultrasound Bone Profile Index, UBPI and quantity (Amplitudedependent Speed of Sound, AD-SoS- by phalangeal quantitative osteosonography (DBM Sonic BP. Descriptive analysis of the data was reported and a multiple linear regression was performed using the software SAS® 9.0. Results: 71 patients aged 58 ± 7 y were studied: 28% had BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m², 35% BMI 24.9-29.9 and 37% BMI > 30. Mean AD-SoS was 2059 ± 79 m/s and mean UBPI was 0.67 ± 0.13. Considering AD-SoS the dependent variable, there was no statistically significant relationship between age (p = 0.20, BMI (p = 0.76, fat mass by bioelectrical impedance (p = 0.42 and by anthropometry (p = 0.95. The variables had very low effect on the UBPI when it was considered the dependent variable. Conclusions: The relation between bone microarchitecture and the anthropometry of the women studied shows that, the greater the bone quantity, the better the anthropometric parameters, without statistically significance. This work was a cross-sectional study on a small sample that needs to be validated in a prospective design.Introducción y objetivo: La osteoporosis es uno de los problemas más importantes de la Salud Pública e involucra un elevado porcentaje de los costos del Sistema de Salud. Es decisiva la aplicación de técnicas confiables de diagnóstico para la detección precoz del deterioro óseo y estudios de los

  15. Association between early onset of menarche and anthropometry measurements among adolescent girls in China%中国青春期女生月经初潮较早与形态发育的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳益德; 马军; 付连国; 王海俊; 董彬; 宋逸; 尚晓瑞; 刘芳宏; 张子龙

    2013-01-01

    超重肥胖密切相关.%Objective To explore the association between early menarche with anthropometry measurements among adolescent girls in China.Methods Research material was selected from the data of 2010 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health.Probability unit regression method was used to calculate the age of 10th percentile(P10) at menarche and menarche age before the P10 was defined as early menarche(9.0-11.6 years old).A total of 1072 girls with early menarche were screened.Each girl with early menarche was frequency matched with two girls who hadn't achieved menarche and with the age difference less than 0.1 yr and from the same urban or rural locations.A total of 2144 girls without menarche were screened.Participants' data of height,weight,sitting height,chest circumference,body mass index (BMI) and height and sitting height index were analyzed.t test and wilcoxon test were used to analyze the anthropometry measurements differences between the two groups,Chi square test was used to analyze the differences of overweight and obesity between the two groups.Multilevel model was used to explore the association between early menarche with anthropometry measurements and overweight and obesity.Results A total of 1072 girls with early menarche and 2144 girls without menarche.Early menarche girls' height,sitting height,chest circumference,weight and BMI were (151.42 ± 7.46) cm,(80.86 ± 4.21) cm,(73.88 ±7.72) cm,(44.32 ±9.35) kg,and (19.18 ±3.03) kg/m2,while they were (144.86 ±7.55)cm,(76.96 ± 4.05) cm,(67.25 ± 6.94) cm,(36.07 ± 7.88) kg and (16.64 ± 2.48) kg/m2 in girls without menarche.The difference between two groups were significant (Z values were-22.20,-23.69,-24.38,-23.12,-20.17,-6.33 respectively with all P values < 0.01).Multilevel analysis results showed that in 9.0-11.6 years old girls early menarche was associated with anthropometry measurements (all P values < 0.05).Compared with girls without menarche,girls with early menarche had a relative higher

  16. Anthropometry of Korean female industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J E; Malzahn, D E; Eyada, O K; Kim, C H

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Korean female workers in the garment industry. The data was collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilized equipment from other countries. A set of 23 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 101 workers (aged 18-28 years). The anthropometric measurements are presented and compared with those of the Western and Japanese female. The results indicate that the body dimensions of the Korean female are different from those of both the Western and the Japanese female. The ratio of sitting height to standing height for the Korean female is closer to that of the Western female than it is the Japanese female.

  17. Anthropometry and Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DEPORTISTAS UNIVERSITARIOS DE FÚTBOL Y BALONCESTO: ANTROPOMETRÍA Y COMPOSICIÓN CORPORAL Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gil Gómez

    2011-01-01

    measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.

    Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players.  mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.

    Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.

    Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.

  19. Composição corporal de idosas diabéticas tipo 2: antropometria vs absorcimetria de raios-X de dupla energia Body composition of elderly women with type 2 diabetes: anthropometry vs dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waléria Christiane Rezende Fett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar a antropometria ao exame de Raios-x de dupla varredura para estimativa da composição corporal de idosas diabéticas tipo 2. Métodos A composição corporal de 51 voluntárias de 60 a 70 anos de idade e índice de massa corporal de 19 a 43kg/m² foi avaliada pelas medidas antropométricas das dobras cutâneas do tríceps, suprailíaca e coxa e associadas ao exame de Raios-x de dupla varredura, considerado o padrão ouro. Os intervalos de concordância de Bland e Altman foram os valores do desvio-padrão do coeficiente de variação do exame de Raios-x de dupla varredura e os valores da antropometria deviam estar nessa faixa. Foram comparadas as médias (teste t de Student e feita a correlação de Pearson. Resultados Os intervalos de concordância foram os seguintes: peso (kg Média (M=0,3, Desvio-Padrão (DP=0,1, massa corporal magra (kg M=3,0, DP=1,9, massa corporal gorda (kg M=5,0, DP=3,1, percentual de gordura corporal (%GC M=5,0, DP=3,1. As médias entre os métodos eram iguais e estavam dentro do intervalo de concordância; em média, a antropometria superestimava a massa corporal magra em 2,31kg, e subestimava a massa corporal gorda e o percentual de gordura corporal em -0,93 kg e -2,7% respectivamente; a correlação entre as estimativas eram significativas (P, r=0,99; MCM, r=0,79; MCG, r=0,93; %GC, r=0,72; pObjective This study aimed to compare anthropometry with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for estimating the body composition of elderly women with type 2 diabetes. Methods The body composition of 51 volunteers aged 60 to 70 years, with body mass indices ranging from 19 and 43kg/m², was determined by anthropometry (triceps, suprailiac and thigh skinfold thicknesses and dual-energy X-ray, which is considered the gold standard. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement were the standard deviations of the dual-energy X-ray coefficient of variation and the anthropometric values should be in this range. The means were

  20. Design of workplace for tractor operator based on anthropometry%基于人体测量学的拖拉机驾驶员工作空间设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立友; 吴依伟; 周志立

    2016-01-01

    To deal with the problems of handling, comfort, convenience and safety for tractor operators in contemporary Chinese tractor operator workpace design, this paper describes the design principles of tractor operator workpace based on anthropometry. Referring to anthropometric data in “Human dimensions of Chinese adults” (GB/T 10000-1988), the 28 body dimensions of Chinese adult males needed in tractor operator workpace design and the values of the mean and standard deviation, and the 5th and 95th percentile values for each body dimension were presented. The simplied biomechanical model of seated tractor operator was built considering the Chinese operator’s driving habits, and the model consisted of the straight links which stood for bones and the joints which stood for major articulations. The numerical relationship between standard anthropometric dimensions and link lengths was established, and the comfortable range of angles and the values used in design were determined. The design and layout scheme of seat and controls in operator workspace was developed with the seating reference point, and therefore the expressions of locating seat and controls were deduced. Then the design theoretical values of components’ locations were computed. The location of the instrument panel should have an inclination angle not more than 45° and a distance of less than 700 mm from the ellipse center of operator’ eyes considering the 95th percentile value in seated posture of operator. In order to accommodate tractor operator stature from 5th to 95th percentile, the provision of 112 mm horizontal and 78 mm vertical adjustment in seat is desirable. Five Chinese tractors, named T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, were selected as the models, and T1 was chosen to be compared in respect of existing workpace dimensions on the basis of design theoretical values of components. It was found that for the T1, its backrest width and angle deviate from the theoretical values were 130 mm and 15

  1. Reliability of 3D laser-based anthropometry and comparison with classical anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnapfel, Andreas; Ahnert, Peter; Loeffler, Markus; Broda, Anja; Scholz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometric quantities are widely used in epidemiologic research as possible confounders, risk factors, or outcomes. 3D laser-based body scans (BS) allow evaluation of dozens of quantities in short time with minimal physical contact between observers and probands. The aim of this study was to compare BS with classical manual anthropometric (CA) assessments with respect to feasibility, reliability, and validity. We performed a study on 108 individuals with multiple measurements of BS and CA to estimate intra- and inter-rater reliabilities for both. We suggested BS equivalents of CA measurements and determined validity of BS considering CA the gold standard. Throughout the study, the overall concordance correlation coefficient (OCCC) was chosen as indicator of agreement. BS was slightly more time consuming but better accepted than CA. For CA, OCCCs for intra- and inter-rater reliability were greater than 0.8 for all nine quantities studied. For BS, 9 of 154 quantities showed reliabilities below 0.7. BS proxies for CA measurements showed good agreement (minimum OCCC > 0.77) after offset correction. Thigh length showed higher reliability in BS while upper arm length showed higher reliability in CA. Except for these issues, reliabilities of CA measurements and their BS equivalents were comparable. PMID:27225483

  2. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias;

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer......, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment...... positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight...

  3. ANTHROPOMETRY TO IDENTIFY HIGH VISCERAL FAT AREA IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Pitanga, Francisco José; Seara Pitanga, Cristiano Penas; Calçada Dias Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugénio; Cristina Beck, Carmem; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Helena

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la evaluación de la distribución de la grasa corporal por antropometría puede servir para identificar el exceso de grasa visceral. Este diagnóstico permitirá la aplicación de medidas específicas para prevenir y tratar el exceso de grasa visceral en mujeres posmenopáusicas. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar diferentes indicadores antropométricos e identificar los mejores puntos de corte para discriminar sujetos con alta área de grasa visceral (AAGS) en mujeres posmenopáusicas. Métodos: estudio transversal con una muestra de 255 mujeres posmenopáusicas. Se construyeron diferentes curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) y las áreas bajo ellas comparadas en términos del índice de conicidad (índice C), el índice de masa corporal (IMC), razón cintura-cadera (RCC), circunferencia de la cintura (CC), relación cintura-estatura (RCEst) y AAGS. La sensibilidad y la especificidad identificaron los mejores puntos de corte entre los diferentes indicadores antropométricos para discriminar sujetos con AAGS. El intervalo de confianza se fijó en 95%. Resultados: las zonas estadísticamente significativas bajo la curva ROC se encontraron para todos los indicadores antropométricos analizados. Fueron sugeridos los siguientes puntos de corte, con sus respectivas sensibilidades y especificidades, para discriminar sujetos con AAGS: índice C (1,19; 75,00%–74,77%); IMC (27,3 kg / m2; 81,08%–80,37%); RCC (0,98; 90,54%-83,18%); CC (85 cm; 85,14%-81,31%); y RCEst (0,55; 80,41%–80,37%). Conclusión: estos resultados demuestran que los indicadores antropométricos identifican bien a las mujeres postmenopáusicas con AAGS y pueden ser utilizados en lugar de los exámenes más sofisticados para detectar altos niveles de grasa visceral.

  4. Anthropometry of love: height and gender asymmetries in interethnic marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belot, Michèle; Fidrmuc, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Both in the UK and in the US, we observe puzzling gender asymmetries in the propensity to outmarry: Black men are more likely to have white spouses than Black women, but the opposite is true for Chinese: Chinese men are half less likely to be married to a White person than Chinese women. We argue that differences in height distributions, combined with a simple preference for the husband to be taller than the wife, can help explain these ethnic-specific gender asymmetries. Blacks are taller than Asians, and we argue that this significantly affects their marriage prospects with whites. We provide empirical support for this hypothesis using data from the Millennium Cohort Study. Specifically, we find that ethnic differences in propensity to intermarry with Whites shrink when we control for the proportion of suitable partners with respect to height.

  5. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...

  6. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-07-15

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings. PMID:27370791

  7. Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring.

  8. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2.5% of the total student population. For sample selection, a multi-stage sampling design was chosen that combined multi-cluster and simple random sampling methods. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness at two sites (triceps and subscapular). Anthropometric indices derived were body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area. The WHO reference standards (2007) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2 data were used for comparison. Compared to WHO reference standards, the median height of Bahraini children and adolescents in the age range of 6 to 18 years was close to the 25th percentile or lower, while the median BMI during adolescent years was comparable in boys, but higher than WHO standards in girls, reaching the 75th percentile. The cutoff values of BMI for overweight/obesity status (85th and 95th percentile) were higher by 3-6 kg/m2 compared to WHO standards. While skin fold thicknesses were also higher in Bahraini adolescents compared to their American counterparts (NHANES 2), arm muscularity was substantially lower. Current study findings for BMI as well as skin fold thicknesses suggest an increased trend toward adiposity among Bahraini adolescents, especially in girls, which puts this age group at a high risk of adult obesity and its consequences. A need for urgent intervention program is emphasized. (author)

  9. Are age, anthropometry and components of metabolic syndrome-risk factors interrelated with lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with erectile dysfunction? A prospective study%年龄、人体测量学和代谢综合征危险因素是否与勃起功能障碍病人的下尿路症状相关?一项前瞻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Seung Paick; Ji-Hyun Yang; Soo-Woong Kim; Ja-Hyeon Ku

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of metabolic profiles on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: A total of 75 impotent men aged 25-75 years old (mean 58.1 years) were included in the study on a prospective basis. Patients were evaluated with a complete history, physical examination, anthropometry and metabolic profiles. LUTS were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results:Overall, there was no correlation between the IPSS and continuous parameters. However, when continuous variables were categorized, some parameters were significantly associated with LUTS. Patients with triglyceride level of 150 mg/Dl or higher had more severe symptoms than those with tiglyceride levels less than 150 mg/Dl (19.4 ± 2.4vs. 14.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.033). When 40 mg/Dl was chosen as the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol cut-off level, the IPSS was significantly different between the two groups divided by 40 mg/Dl (19.4 ± 2.6 for HDL-cholesterol < 40 mg/Dl vs. 14.4 ± 1.0 for HDL-cholesterol ≥ 40 mg/Dl, P = 0.042). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCC) of triglyceride was 65.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.6%-82.3%; P = 0.034)for severe LUTS. However, the AUROCC for 'HDL-cholesterol' was not significant (area, 65.4%; 95% CI, 48.2%-82.7%;P = 0.062). No other factors were determined to be significant in this regard. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that some metabolic profiles might influence LUTS in men with ED.

  10. Pregnant outcomes and neonatal anthropometry in women with abnormal glucose challenge test and normal oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy%单纯葡萄糖筛查试验异常对妊娠结局和新生儿体质指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海天; 王子莲; 胡明晶; 李铭岚; 祝文晶; 刘斌

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT) on pregnancy outcomes and neonatal anthropometric data in women with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).Methods Totally 214 women who delivered in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from November 2006 to December 2007 were enrolled.50 g GCT was performed at 24-28 weeks of gestation and 75 g OGTT would be followed if GCT≥7.8 mmol/L.Those patients,whose OGTT results below the following criteria (5.3 mmoL/L,10.0 mmol/L,8.6 mmol/L,7.8 mmol/L),were classified as normal OGTT.Altogether,116 of the 214 women with abnormal GCT and normal OGTT were collected as the study group and the rest 98 women with normal GCT as the control group.The pregnant outcomes of the two groups were analyzed.The neonatal anthropometry,including birth weight,body length,head circumference and shoulder circumference,were recorded.Other neonatal anthropometric data,such as upper arm circumference,tricep skinfold thickness and hypodermic fat thickness of abdomen were measured by a tape measure within 24 hours after birth.Results (1) Pregnant outcomes:No significant difference was found in the rate of assisted vaginal delivery,polyhydramnios,premature rupture of membranes and fetal distress between the study and control group[10.3% (12/116) vs 4% (4/98),5.2% (6/116) vs 10% (10/98),13.8% (16/116) vs 17% (17/98),20.7% (24/116) vs 13% (13/98),P >0.05,respectively],but the rate of cesarean section,spontaneous vaginal delivery and large for gestational age babies in the study group were different from those of the control[72.4% (84/116) vs 51% (51/98),17.2%(20/116) vs 45% (44/98),25.9% (30/116) vs 6% (6/98),P <0.05,respectively].(2)Neonatal anthropometry:The birth weight of the study group was significantly higher than that of the control group[(3.4 ±0.4) kg vs (3.3±0.4) kg,P <0.05],but no significant difference was shown in any other neonatal anthropometric results between the study and

  11. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study Referencias antropométricas de los adolescentes bolivianos de 12 a 18 años: estatura, peso, circunferencia del brazo, muñeca y abdominal, índice de masa corporal: Percentiles de adolescentes bolivianos (PAB del estudio MESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baya Botti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policymaking at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP and Charts(BAC where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time.La antropometría es una herramienta clínica importante para el seguimiento individual de los pacientes así como para la planificación de políticas públicas. En Bolivia no existen referencias antropométricas nacionales para adolescentes. El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue de desarrollar percentiles y diagramas de crecimiento para peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, circunferencia de muñeca, brazo y abdominal de adolescentes bolivianos. Los datos antropométricos en el estudio MESA (Síndrome metabólico en adolescentes bolivianos fueron obtenidos a partir de 32 unidades muestrales, considerando proporcionalidad muestral con reposición. Fueron evaluados 3445 adolescentes de 12 a 18, 45% hombres; 55% mujeres, de colegios de

  12. Sex estimation using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemy, Naomi; Flavel, Ambika; Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Franklin, Daniel

    2013-09-10

    An important component of forensic investigation is the identification of deceased (and increasingly living) individuals, which is often the role of the forensic anthropologist. One of the most valuable steps towards identification is via a biological profile, developed through the application of population specific standards. In disaster victim identification scenarios, fleshed feet are often recovered in footwear; footprints are another potential source of trace evidence found at crime scenes. In medico-legal investigations, feet and footprints can be useful for extrapolating living height, it is thus expedient to determine whether sex can be estimated from the same anthropometric data. The aim of the present study is to develop accurate sex estimation standards for a contemporary Western Australian population from measurements of the feet and footprints. The sample comprises 200 adults (90 males, 110 females). Three bilateral linear measurements were taken from each foot and seven bilateral measurements were acquired from static footprints obtained using a Podograph. A precision test was first conducted to assess data accuracy and reliability. Measurement data are then analysed using a range of parametric statistical tests. Results show that males were significantly (Pclassification accuracies ranged from 71% to 91%. Although in many instances the sex bias was large (>±5%), this study provides viable alternatives for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals with accuracy equivalent to established standards developed from foot bones. PMID:23806341

  13. Development of Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry Data in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle based off of new anthropometric requirements. These requirements specify the need to account for a spinal elongation factor for anthropometric measurements involving the spine, such as eye height and seated height. However, to date there is no data relating spinal elongation to a seated posture. Only data relating spinal elongation to stature has been collected in microgravity. Therefore, it was proposed to collect seated height in microgravity to provide the Constellation designers appropriate data for their analyses. This document will describe the process in which the best method to collect seated height in microgravity was developed.

  14. Relationships between somatotype, anthropometry and physical fitness variables in untrained university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASOUD NIKBAKHT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was investigate relation Between anthropometrics and Body typeendomorph,mesomorph and Ectomorph with factors aerobic fitness, speed and power. The sample includes 45unathletic male students of Tehran University (aged 19-25 years old who forms three groups of 15 as a whole,that is, 15 ones endomorph, 15 ones mezomorph and 15 ones ectomorph. The physical fitness factor wasmeasured through a special related method designed by Heath, carter and Seldon. Physical fitness tests included:running in 60 meter; vertical jump; board jump; medicine ball throw; Harvard step test. The statistical analysis ofcorrelation coefficient has best reflected the conception that there are meaningful relationships betweenectomorph component and aerobic fitness .The relationship Between body fat, body weight and aerobic fitnesswas negative; The relationship between body weight and feet power, hand power was negative .The relationshipsbetween skin fold fat, foot power and body’s general speed were considered being as negative. Finally therelationship between girth arm and hand power was considered being as meaningful. Thus somatotype andanthropometry are two indicators for predict physical fitness of adult men.and They can also help coaches inidentifying and choosing new sport athletes.

  15. Relationships between somatotype, anthropometry and physical fitness variables in untrained university students

    OpenAIRE

    MASOUD NIKBAKHT

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigate relation Between anthropometrics and Body typeendomorph,mesomorph and Ectomorph with factors aerobic fitness, speed and power. The sample includes 45unathletic male students of Tehran University (aged 19-25 years old) who forms three groups of 15 as a whole,that is, 15 ones endomorph, 15 ones mezomorph and 15 ones ectomorph. The physical fitness factor wasmeasured through a special related method designed by Heath, carter and Seldon. Physical fitness ...

  16. Added Sugar, Macro- and Micronutrient Intakes and Anthropometry of Children in a Developing World Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni M W Maunder

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between added sugar and dietary diversity, micronutrient intakes and anthropometric status in a nationally representative study of children, 1-8.9 years of age in South Africa.Secondary analysis of a national survey of children (weighted n = 2,200; non weighted n = 2818 was undertaken. Validated 24-hour recalls of children were collected from mothers/caregivers and stratified into quartiles of percentage energy from added sugar (% EAS. A dietary diversity score (DDS using 9 food groups, a food variety score (FVS of individual food items, and a mean adequacy ratio (MAR based on 11 micronutrients were calculated. The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was also determined.Added sugar intake varied from 7.5-10.3% of energy intake for rural and urban areas, respectively. Mean added sugar intake ranged from 1.0% of energy intake in Quartile 1 (1-3 years (Q1 to 19.3% in Q4 (4-8 years. Main sources of added sugar were white sugar (60.1%, cool drinks (squash type (10.4% and carbonated cool drinks (6.0%. Added sugar intake, correlated positively with most micronutrient intakes, DDS, FVS, and MAR. Significant negative partial correlations, adjusted for energy intake, were found between added sugar intake and intakes of protein, fibre, thiamin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin E, calcium (1-3 years, phosphorus, iron (4-8 years, magnesium and zinc. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in children aged 4-8 years in Q4 of %EAS than in other quartiles [mean (95%CI % prevalence overweight 23.0 (16.2-29.8% in Q4 compared to 13.0 (8.7-17.3% in Q1, p = 0.0063].Although DDS, FVS, MAR and micronutrient intakes were positively correlated with added sugar intakes, overall negative associations between micronutrients and added sugar intakes, adjusted for dietary energy, indicate micronutrient dilution. Overweight/obesity was increased with higher added sugar intakes in the 4-8 year old children.

  17. Correlation between anthropometry and lipid profile in healthy subjects of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magna Manjareeka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases constitute one class of common contributors to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of overweight and obesity has dramatically increased in developing countries and is related to cardiovascular risk factors. Anthropometric parameters have the advantages in daily clinical practice of being a simple to measure tool with good reproducibility, especially in a developing country like India. Aim of this study is to correlate some anthropometric variables with lipid parameters in healthy subjects and to assess the anthropometric variable which best reflects the altered lipid profile. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted after the Institutional Ethical Committee Clearance. Included participants (1187 were subjected to anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist circumference (WC, and hip circumference using standard procedures on the same morning of the day, as the blood sample was collected after overnight fast and estimated for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Results: There is a weak correlation between body mass index (BMI and lipid parameters. Among all the anthropometric variables studied, WC is best correlated to lipid parameters. The mean values of lipid parameters were not significantly different in BMI <25 and BMI ≥25 groups. Conclusions: WC remains one of the simple and reliable variables which best reflects the lipid profile. In a developing country like India, where measurement of cardiovascular risk factors such as body fat saturation and lipid profile remains difficult in the rural population, WC may be used as an effective tool, without being used as a substitute.

  18. Face to Face: Anthropometry-Based Interactive Face Shape Modeling Using Model Priors

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhang; Prakash, Edmond C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new anthropometrics-based method for generating realistic, controllable face models. Our method establishes an intuitive and efficient interface to facilitate procedures for interactive 3D face modeling and editing. It takes 3D face scans as examples in order to exploit the variations presented in the real faces of individuals. The system automatically learns a model prior from the data-sets of example meshes of facial features using principal compon...

  19. [Social stratification and nutritional anthropometry in children under 15 years old La Escalera, Lara State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.

  20. Maternal intake of energy, macronutrients and fiber during pregnancy, and relation to maternal anthropometry

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background: The evidence for a relationship between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and future health of her unborn child is now ample. The different factors that may link fetal development and growth to later health of the fetus are currently gaining increasing attention. Composition of maternal gestational weight gain may be one of the factors that have an impact on this relationship. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether maternal intake of energy, ma...

  1. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  2. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-01-01

    regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings.......4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6...... that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions...

  3. Anthropometry, somatotypes, and aerobic power in ballet, contemporary dance, and dancesport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liiv, Helena; Wyon, Matthew A; Jürimäe, Toivo; Saar, Meeli; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2013-12-01

    This study compared anthropometric variables, somatotypes, and aerobic capacity between three groups of dancers: classical ballet dancers (M 33, F 56), contemporary dancers (M 28, F 109), and dancesport dancers (M 30, F 30). The assumption was that different functional requirements should produce differences in the anthropometric and aerobic capacity variables among the three groups. Anthropometric data for body mass index (BMI) and somatotypes were measured. Body fat percentage was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximal oxygen consumption and aerobic power were measured during an incremental treadmill test until exhaustion. Dancesport athletes were taller compared with same gender contemporary dancers (p<0.05). Female ballet dancers had a lower body mass and BMI compared with their contemporary dance and dancesport equivalents (p<0.001). There was significant difference between dance styles in endomorphy (F2,221 = 8.773, p<0.001) and mesomorphy (F2,221 = 21.458, p<0.001) scores. Dancesport dancers had significantly greater VO2max values (p<0.01). It was concluded that female contemporary dancers are generally more muscular than their ballet counterparts, while dancesport dancers are taller and heavier, less muscular, with slightly greater adioposity compared to the classical ballet dancers. Ballet dancers had the lowest body fat percentage, weight, and BMI values. Dancesport dancers had greater aerobic capacity than the ballet dancers. Based on this study, we conclude that dancers in these three styles differ in some aspects of anthropometric variables, somatotypes, and aerobic capacity, but we cannot say is it because of the training or selection or both. PMID:24337032

  4. Estimation of stature from maxillo-facial anthropometry in a central Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchankumar P Wankhede

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For establishing identity, stature is an important parameter in medico-legal and forensic examination. Aims: To estimate stature from facial parameters. Setting and Design : Prospective study conducted from December 2007 to September 2008 in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Nagpur. Materials and Methods: A total of 470 healthy medical students were taken, comprising 260 males and 210 females in the age group of 18 to 24 years. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using regression analysis and correlation coefficient. Results: The average height of males and females was 170.97 (± 6.80 cm and 156.89 (± 5.89 cm respectively. It was observed that in males the total facial height had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19 and had standard error of ±6.68 cm. In females, nasal height had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19 and had standard error of ±5.78 cm . Conclusion: It can be stated that percutaneous facial dimensions are not good predictors of accurate stature estimation and can be used when other parameters are not available

  5. The Relationship between Anthropometry and Split Performance in Recreational Male Ironman Triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between anthropometric variables and total race time including split times in 184 recreational male Ironman triathletes. Methods Body mass, body height, body mass index, lengths and circumferences of imbs, thicknesses of skin-folds, sum of skin-fold thicknesses, and percent body fat were related to total race time including split times using correlation analysis and effect size. Results A large effect size (r>0.37 was found for the association between body mass index and time in the run split and between both the sum of skin-folds and percent body fat with total race time. A medium effect size (r=0.24–0.36 was observed in the association between body mass and both the split time in running and total race time, between body mass index and total race time, between both the circumferences of upper arm and thigh with split time in the run and between both the sum of skin-folds and percent body fat with split times in swimming, cycling and running. Conclusions The results of this study showed that lower body mass, lower body mass index and lower body fat were associated with both a faster Ironman race and a faster run split; lower circumferences of upper arm and thigh were also related with a faster run split.

  6. Caucasian children's fat mass: routine anthropometry v. air-displacement plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Huybrechts, Inge; Bammann, Karin; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis; Peeters, Maarten; Sioen, Isabelle; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2013-04-28

    The present paper will use fat mass percentage (FM%) obtained via BOD POD® air-displacement plethysmography (FMADP%) to examine the relative validity of (1) anthropometric measurements/indices and (2) of FM% assessed with equations (FMeq%) based on skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). In 480 Belgian children (aged 5-11 years) weight, height, skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular), body circumferences (mid-upper arm, waist and hip), foot-to-foot BIA (Tanita®) and FMADP% were measured. Anthropometric measurements and calculated indices were compared with FMADP%. Next, published equations were used to calculate FMeq% using impedance (equations of Tanita®, Tyrrell, Shaefer and Deurenberg) or skinfold thickness (equations of Slaughter, Goran, Dezenberg and Deurenberg). Both indices and equations performed better in girls than in boys. For both sexes, the sum of skinfold thicknesses resulted in the highest correlation with FMADP%, followed by triceps skinfold, arm fat area and subscapular skinfold. In general, comparing FMeq% with FMADP% indicated mostly an age and sex effect, and an increasing underestimation but less dispersion with increasing FM%. The Tanita® impedance equation and the Deurenberg skinfold equation performed the best, although none of the used equations were interchangeable with FMADP%. In conclusion, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness is recommended as marker of FM% in the absence of specialised technologies. Nevertheless, the higher workload, cost and survey management of an immobile device like the BOD POD® remains justified.

  7. Nutrition-related hair signs in Zairian preschool children and associations with anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, I; Van den Broeck, J

    1995-01-01

    To assess prevalence of hair dyspigmentation, decurling, thinness and frailty, a random sample of more than 4,000 preschoolers, representative for a large area in Northern Zaire, was examined clinically and anthropometrically. Isolated dyspigmentation, isolated thinness and the combination of both were the most frequent signs (> 5%). Prevalence of hair signs did not differ according to sex or season. Peak prevalence was found between ages 6 and 18 months, suggesting a relationship with weaning. Most hair signs, studied separately or as combinations, increased gradually with lowering weight-for-age (WFA) or weight-for-height but not with height-for-age. Isolated dyspigmentation, however, was unrelated to WFA or marasmus. All signs occurred also in children with 'normal' WFA (SD > -2). In these children, hair signs were associated with the presence of clinical muscle wasting.

  8. [ABDOMINAL BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS AND ANTHROPOMETRY FOR PREDICTING METABOLIC SYNDROME IN MIDDLE AGED MEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vázquez, Rosalía; Millán Romero, Ángel; Barbancho, Miguel Ángel; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: la obesidad central tiene una gran relación con el síndrome metabólico. Estudiar la relación de la grasa del tronco, el índice de grasa visceral y las medidas antropométricas con el síndrome metabólico. Métodos: diseño: transversal descriptivo y correlacional. Participaron 75 varones, voluntarios, de distintas profesiones, que accedieron a un reconocimiento médico- laboral, con un rango de edad de 21 a 59 años. Mediciones de peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, perímetro abdominal, perímetro glúteo, índice cintura-cadera y grasa de tronco y nivel de grasa visceral mediante bioimpedanciometría (Tanita AB-140-ViScan) y parámetros bioquímicos: glucosa, colesterol total y triglicéridos. Así mismo, se midió la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Se comparan los estados de síndrome metabólico, sobrepeso y obesidad. Resultados: existen correlaciones de las medidas antropométricas con la de grasa de tronco y el nivel de grasa visceral, así como con los parámetros bioquímicos (p < 0,001). Un análisis de curvas ROC muestra que los puntos de corte a partir de los cuales se puede presentar el síndrome metabólico son de 32,7% de grasa de tronco y de 13 para el nivel de grasa visceral, con una alta sensibilidad y especificidad. Se obtienen los mismos puntos de corte para el estado de obesidad y síndrome metabólico. Conclusiones: la grasa de tronco y los niveles de grasa visceral son muy sensibles y específicos para la detección del síndrome metabólico y la obesidad, aunque no superan a las variables e índices antropométricos. En la condición de sobrepeso, la grasa de tronco y visceral son medidas algo más predictivas que las variables antropométricas.

  9. Body composition analysis in older adults with dementia. Anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camina Martín, M A; de Mateo Silleras, B; Redondo del Río, M P

    2014-11-01

    In clinical practice, geriatric nutritional assessment usually includes nutritional screening, a simple anthropometric assessment, measurement of various biochemical parameters, such as serum albumin, and sometimes (not always) body composition analysis (BCA). However, there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed malnutrition in patients with dementia. Several factors contribute to this situation; probably, the most notable is the methodology used to assess body composition (BC). In this regard, for BCA, techniques are needed that are noninvasive, affordable, safe, simple and that require the minimum possible collaboration by the elderly patient. Consequently, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used as indicators of overall and central adiposity, respectively; however, there is no consensus on the cutoffs for the elderly, and changes in BC (especially muscle-mass depletion) are masked by normal values of BMI and WC. Bioimpedance analysis is a simple, cost-effective and precise method for BCA, provided that cross-validated equations are used. Its main disadvantage is that it is highly sensitive to changes in body water (overhydration or dehydration), leading to substantial errors in BC estimates. However, using Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis errors are minimized, as there is no need for the subject to be normally hydrated and it does not require the use of predictive models. PMID:25117995

  10. Insulin Like Growth Factor System: How Does it Affect Neonatal Anthropometry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kacar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aims to clarify the role of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, ghrelin, and insulin in fetal growth. Material and Method: Based on Turkish standards, 14 newborns were defined as small for gestational age (SGA, 33 newborns were described as appropriate for gestational age (AGA, and 13 newborns were identified as large for gestational age (LGA. IGF-1, IGFBP-3, ghrelin, and insulin levels were measured in umbilical cord and maternal serum. Results: The LGA group had significantly higher levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, ghrelin, and insulin in umbilical cord and maternal serum than the SGA group. Umbilical cord and maternal serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 correlated significantly and positively with body weight, body length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference of the neonates. Discussion: Based on the findings of the present study, it may be postulated that insulin like growth factor system has a role in fetal growth.

  11. Correlation between anthropometry and lipid profile in healthy subjects of Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Magna Manjareeka; Sitikantha Nanda; Jayanti Mishra; Soumya Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases constitute one class of common contributors to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of overweight and obesity has dramatically increased in developing countries and is related to cardiovascular risk factors. Anthropometric parameters have the advantages in daily clinical practice of being a simple to measure tool with good reproducibility, especially in a developing country like India. Aim of this study is to correlate some anthropometric variables...

  12. Nutrition-related hair signs in Zairian preschool children and associations with anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, I; Van den Broeck, J

    1995-01-01

    To assess prevalence of hair dyspigmentation, decurling, thinness and frailty, a random sample of more than 4,000 preschoolers, representative for a large area in Northern Zaire, was examined clinically and anthropometrically. Isolated dyspigmentation, isolated thinness and the combination of both were the most frequent signs (> 5%). Prevalence of hair signs did not differ according to sex or season. Peak prevalence was found between ages 6 and 18 months, suggesting a relationship with weaning. Most hair signs, studied separately or as combinations, increased gradually with lowering weight-for-age (WFA) or weight-for-height but not with height-for-age. Isolated dyspigmentation, however, was unrelated to WFA or marasmus. All signs occurred also in children with 'normal' WFA (SD > -2). In these children, hair signs were associated with the presence of clinical muscle wasting. PMID:8650734

  13. The association between maternal dietary micronutrient intake and neonatal anthropometry - secondary analysis from the ROLO study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients are necessary for fetal growth. However increasingly pregnant women are nutritionally replete and little is known about the effect of maternal micronutrient intakes on fetal adiposity in mothers with increased BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the association of maternal dietary micronutrient intake with neonatal size and adiposity in a cohort at risk of macrosomia.

  14. Anthropometry-based equations overestimate the urea distribution volume in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Stegeman, CA; de Jong, PE; Huisman, P.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Protein intake in hemodialysis patients can be estimated indirectly from the protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA) during the interdialytic period. A reliable estimate of the patient's urea distribution volume (UDV) is required to assess protein intake from PNA values. UD

  15. Food intake, nutritional anthropometry and blood chemical parameters in 3 selected Dutch schoolchildren populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der F.; Kromhout, D.

    1978-01-01

    The major health problems in populations of economically developed countries at the present time are of a chronic nature with, as their main clinical characteristic, the frequently occurring premature coronary heart disease. When food intake data are to be evaluated, it would be incorrect in this si

  16. Nutrient-rich foods in relation to various measures of anthropometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Nutrient quality systems, for example the nutrient-rich foods (NRF) index, measure the nutrient quality of individual foods and may be used to assess the nutrient density of the overall diet. It is not yet known whether the NRF index is helpful in weight management. We hypothesize that a

  17. Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Coordination of Young Figure Skaters of Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaert, M; Deconinck, F; Pion, J; Lenoir, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify anthropometric, physical, coordinative and ice-skating specific characteristics that discriminate young elite ice skaters from non-elite skaters and their non-skating peers. 32 skaters aged 9-12 years old (11 elites and 21 non-elites) voluntarily participated in the study. They were submitted to 5 anthropometric, 7 physical, 3 coordination and 5 ice-skating specific tests. Reference values of a representative healthy non-skating sample were taken from the Flemish Sports Compass dataset. Figure skaters appeared to be predominantly average mature (93.8%), were lighter and leaner than the reference sample, and demonstrated better physical characteristics and motor coordination. There was no difference between the elite and non-elite group regarding maturity status and anthropometric or physical parameters. Still, elite skaters scored better than non-elites on the coordination tests jumping sideways and tended to do so on the moving sideways test. Profiles of figure skaters differ clearly from a reference population, while non-sport-specific motor coordination tests allow discrimination between elite and non-elite skaters. The relevance of these findings with respect to talent detection and identification in young ice skaters are discussed. PMID:27116350

  18. Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Gil Gómez; Pablo Juan Verdoy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommend...

  19. Prediction equation for lower limbs lean soft tissue in circumpubertal boys using anthropometry and biological maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Valente-dos-Santos

    Full Text Available Lean soft tissue (LST, a surrogate of skeletal muscle mass, is largely limited to appendicular body regions. Simple and accurate methods to estimate lower limbs LST are often used in attempts to partition out the influence of body size on performance outputs. The aim of the current study was to develop and cross-validate a new model to predict lower limbs LST in boys aged 10-13 years, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the reference method. Total body and segmental (lower limbs composition were assessed with a Hologic Explorer-W QDR DXA scanner in a cross-sectional sample of 75 Portuguese boys (144.8±6.4 cm; 40.2±9.0 kg. Skinfolds were measured at the anterior and posterior mid-thigh, and medial calf. Circumferences were measured at the proximal, mid and distal thigh. Leg length was estimated as stature minus sitting height. Current stature expressed as a percentage of attained predicted mature stature (PMS was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Backward proportional allometric models were used to identify the model with the best statistical fit: ln (lower limbs LST  = 0.838× ln (body mass +0.476× ln (leg length - 0.135× ln (mid-thigh circumference - 0.053× ln (anterior mid-thigh skinfold - 0.098× ln (medial calf skinfold - 2.680+0.010× (percentage of attained PMS (R = 0.95. The obtained equation was cross-validated using the predicted residuals sum of squares statistics (PRESS method (R2PRESS = 0.90. Deming repression analysis between predicted and current lower limbs LST showed a standard error of estimation of 0.52 kg (95% limits of agreement: 0.77 to -1.27 kg. The new model accurately predicts lower limbs LST in circumpubertal boys.

  20. Stature and gender determination and their correlation using odontometry and skull anthropometry

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Gupta; Kiran Kumar; Devi Charan Shetty; Vijay Wadhwan; Anshi Jain; Kaveri Surya Khanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: When the body has been mutilated, it is common to have the extremities or head amputated from the trunk. In concern with forensic odontology, an estimate must have been made based on the correlation of osteometry along with odontometry in determining sex, race and stature. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate and correlate height and gender from odontometry and anthropometric data of the skull. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of...

  1. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan T. Ramlal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, arm muscle area (AMA, arm fat area (AFA, and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

  2. Free Amino Acids in Human Milk and Associations with Maternal Anthropometry and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Bruun, Signe; Pedersen, Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Free glutamic acid has an appetite regulating effect and studies with infant formula have suggested that free amino acids (FAA), especially glutamic acid, can downregulate intake. The content of glutamic acid and glutamine is high in breast milk but varies considerably between mothers...

  3. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L r = -0.186 (p Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction.

  4. Estimation of stature from anthropometry of hand: an interesting autopsy based study in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Ban Goswami

    2016-06-01

    Results: The mean age of the male and female study subjects was38.472+/-13.28 years and 34.728+/-10.33 years respectively. Male to female ratio was 1:1. Mean stature in male subjects was 163.5+/-5.21 cm. Mean stature in female subjects was 155.69+/-10.12 cm. In male study subjects, mean hand length on right side was more than mean hand length on left side. In female study subjects, mean hand length on right side was more than on left side. In male study subjects, hand breadth (HB on right side was more than on left side. Average HB in male subjects was 8.39+/-0.203 cm. In female study subjects, hand breadth on right side was more than on left side. Conclusions: The findings of the present study can be used as baseline information for other population based studies in the study area. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1873-1878

  5. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Soares; Ivan Silveira de Avelar; Sara Rosa de Sousa Andrade; Marcus Fraga Vieira; Maria Sebastiana Silva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p

  6. Impaired Fasting Glucose and Associated Anthropometry among Students of a Medical College in Coastal Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha S. Vargese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: India being the diabetic capital need to emphasize on preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of diabetes and thus reduce the burden on health services and resources of the country. The identification of high risk group like those with impaired fasting glucose stresses the need for simple interventional measures to bring down the diabetic community in the country. Aim and Objectives: Medical students have a busy schedule for their studies due to huge syllabus and they generally do not have much physical exercise which emphasizes the need to identify the risk factors for diabetes and also to sensitize them on the need to identify the prediabetics in the community. So the study was carried out to determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and the associated anthropometric measurements among medical students in a rural area in Kerala, India. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was done to assess the fasting blood glucose using a glucometer and anthropometric measurements like waist circumference ,waist hip ratio and body mass index among the students of a medical school in coastal Kerala India. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data after obtaining informed consent. Results: The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was found to be very high 55(21.6% among the study group, significantly higher among males 43(51.8% (p=0.000 and body mass index was significantly associated (p=0.044 with impaired fasting glucose which was consistent with many other studies. Conclusion: The study throws light on the fact that the prevalence of prediabetes and anthropometric risk factors are high among youth and highlights the need for immediate measures to identify the risk group right from the young age and initiate simple interventional measures to reduce the diabetic load in the community.

  7. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p<0.001. The bioimpedance variables also presented significant higher values in this group. Significant difference was found in the confidence interval of the vector analysis performed for both the patients and healthy individuals (p<0.0001. The tolerance intervals showed that 55.20% of the patients were dehydrated, 10.30% presented visible edema, and 34.50% were within normal levels of hydration. Bioimpedance and vector analysis revealed that 52% of the patients presented decreased cell mass while 14.00% presented increased cell mass. CONCLUSIONS: the differences in the body composition of patients and healthy individuals were revealed through bioimpedance and vector analysis but not through their measures of arm circumference and arm muscle area.

  8. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF CHILD ANTHROPOMETRY INDICES (WEIGHT-HEIGHTAND MORTALITY RISK IN TODDLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M REJALI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malnutrition is a major determinant of mortality risk in infant and children so it is important to determine the mortality of a given degree of malnutrition assassed by anthropometric indices. Two Indices that may be employed to evaluate the accuracy of a screening test are sensitivity and specificity.
    Method: This study selected 1498 children between the years 1369 (1990 and 1371 (1992 in rural area of shahreza and followed them from birth to 1372 (1993. mode of their selection was cluster random sampling. the data of weight, hight and all deaths were recorded by a questionair. two methods centile and Z-score to evaluate the accuracy were used for analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of wt/age and wt/ht and ht/age are illustrated and compared.
    Result: By centile method senstivity of malnutrition for 3 indicators were 75,94 and 56 percent respectively and specificity were 18,6 and 33 percent.
    By Z-score method sensitivity were 40.4, 25 and 19.3 percent for 3 Indicators were 93.8,78.9 and 97.4 percent.
    Discussion: Sensitivity and specificity are two indices that be employed to evaluate the accuracy of a screening test to identify children at high risk to mortality.

  9. Seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya; Pt. 4/5 : Food consumption and anthropometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Klaver, W.; Niemeijer, R.

    1991-01-01

    This is Part 4/5 of a series concerned with seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya. Household surveys were carried out in six locations in Kwale and Kilifi Districts in 1985-1987. The present report deals with food consumption and the nutritional condition of the study population. Results show

  10. Seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya; Pt. 4/5: Food consumption and anthropometry

    OpenAIRE

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Klaver, W.; Niemeijer, R.

    1991-01-01

    This is Part 4/5 of a series concerned with seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya. Household surveys were carried out in six locations in Kwale and Kilifi Districts in 1985-1987. The present report deals with food consumption and the nutritional condition of the study population. Results show that the average energy intake in the sampled households is substantially lower than the reference requirements. However, energy intake differs according to research area, income class and season....

  11. Body fat in normal adults estimated by oxygen-18- and deuterium-dilution and by anthropometry: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W W; Cochran, W J; Klish, W J; Smith, E O; Lee, L S; Fiorotto, M L; Klein, P D

    1988-03-01

    We estimated body fat in 20 normal adults (10 males and 10 females) from 18O- and 2H-dilution spaces and from the equations of Durnin & Womersley and Pollock, Schmidt & Jackson based on skinfold thickness measurements. Differences between methods for body fat estimation were found to be sex-dependent: subsequent analyses indicated significant differences between methods within each sex. Regardless of sex, the highest fat estimates were obtained with the 18O-dilution method, followed by those obtained with the 2H-dilution method or the Durnin & Womersley equation. The lowest fat estimates were obtained using the Pollock, Schmidt & Jackson equation. The 18O-dilution method and the Durnin & Wormersley anthropometric method are both suitable and appropriate for body fat estimation in adults studied under field conditions. PMID:3289914

  12. Crescimento e antropometria em pacientes com paralisia cerebral hemiplégica Growth and anthropometry in hemiplegic cerebral palsy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Marise Bueno Zonta; Fábio Agert; Muzzolon, Sandra Regina B.; Sérgio Antonio Antoniuk; Neiva Isabel R. Magdalena; Isac Bruck; Lúcia Helena C. dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar o crescimento linear, o perímetro cefálico e as diferenças antropométricas entre o lado envolvido e o não-envolvido de 24 crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC) hemiplégica, comparados à média para a idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostragem consecutiva de crianças com PC, classificadas clinicamente como hemiplegia espástica. As medidas antropométricas incluíram: peso, estatura, perímetro cefálico, comprimento total de membro superior, comprimento da mão, largura da p...

  13. Crescimento e antropometria em pacientes com paralisia cerebral hemiplégica Growth and anthropometry in hemiplegic cerebral palsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Bueno Zonta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o crescimento linear, o perímetro cefálico e as diferenças antropométricas entre o lado envolvido e o não-envolvido de 24 crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC hemiplégica, comparados à média para a idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostragem consecutiva de crianças com PC, classificadas clinicamente como hemiplegia espástica. As medidas antropométricas incluíram: peso, estatura, perímetro cefálico, comprimento total de membro superior, comprimento da mão, largura da palma da mão, comprimento total do membro inferior, comprimento do pé e a circunferência dos membros (braço, coxa e panturrilha. As diferenças antropométricas entre os dimídios foram calculadas em centímetros e como porcentagem de encurtamento, comparando o lado envolvido com o não-envolvido. Dois referenciais populacionais, tabelas de crescimento e o software ABase®, desenvolvido para sistema PalmOS, foram comparados na classificação das medidas do comprimento da mão e do pé. A análise estatística utilizou o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman para avaliar a associação entre variáveis quantitativas e o teste não-paramétrico de Wilcoxon para comparar as medidas do lado envolvido e não-envolvido. RESULTADOS: As médias de peso, estatura e perímetro cefálico se mostraram dentro dos limites normais para a idade e 21% dos pacientes apresentaram microcefalia. A discrepância entre os dimídios foi evidente em todos os casos, sendo maior na largura e comprimento da mão. Houve correlação da dis observada entre os membros superiores e inferiores no lado envolvido (r=0,48 e a discrepância aumenta com a idade (r=0,44. CONCLUSÕES: O maior comprometimento no crescimento das crianças com paralisia cerebral estudadas ocorreu nos membros envolvidos pela hemiplegia e, em menor proporção, no perímetro cefálico.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the linear growth, the head circumference and the anthropometric differences between involved and non-involved sides of 24 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, comparing them to standard values for age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 24 consecutive children with cerebral palsy clinically classified as spastic hemiplegia. The anthropometric measures included: weight, lenght, head circumference, total upper limb length, hand length, palm width, total lower limb length, foot length, and limb circumference of upper-arm, thigh and calf. The anthropometric differences between both sides were calculated in centimeters and a comparison of the involved and non-involved sides was made. Two different reference values were used to compare the measures of hand and foot length: growth charts and the software ABase® (a PalmOS-based software. The Spearman's correlation coefficient was estimated for the association between quantitative variables and the Wilcoxon non-parametric test was used for age comparisons between involved and noninvolved sides. RESULTS: The mean values of weight, length and head circumference were within the normal range for age and 21% of the children presented microcephaly. Discrepancy was noted between both sides in all cases, being the largest discrepancy in hand length and width. There was a positive correlation between the discrepancy observed in superior and inferior affected limbs (r=0.48, and discrepancy increases with age (r=0.44. CONCLUSION: Growth impairment in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was observed on the affected limbs and in smaller proportion in head circumference.

  14. Potassium per kilogram fat-free mass and total body potassium: predictions from sex, age, and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ingrid; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Peltonen, Markku; Sjöström, Lars

    2003-02-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) is located mainly intracellularly and constitutes an index of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim was to examine whether TBK and the TBK-to-FFM ratio (TBK/FFM) can be estimated from sex, age, weight, and height. A primary study group (164 males, 205 females) and a validation group (161 and 206), aged 37-61 yr, were randomly selected from the general population. TBK was determined by whole body counting, and FFM was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; FFM(DEXA)). The primary study group was used to construct sex-specific equations predicting TBK and TBK/FFM from age, weight, and height. The equations were used to estimate TBK and TBK/FFM in the validation group. The estimates were compared with measured values. TBK in different age ranges was predicted, with errors ranging from 5.0 to 6.8%; errors for TBK/FFM ranged from 2.7 to 4.8%, respectively. By adding FFM(DEXA) as a fourth predictor, the error of the TBK prediction decreased by approximately two percentage units. In conclusion, TBK and TBK/FFM can be meaningfully estimated from sex, age, weight, and height.

  15. Sex differences in body anthropometry and composition in individuals with and without diabetes in the UK Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Sanne A.E.; Huxley, Rachel R.; Woodward, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Type I and II diabetes are associated with a greater relative risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in women than in men. Sex differences in adiposity storage may explain these findings. Methods A cross-sectional study of 480 813 participants from the UK Biobank without history of CVD was conducted to assess whether the difference in body size in people with and without diabetes was greater in women than in men. Age-adjusted linear regression analyses were used to obtain the mean di...

  16. Long-term adherence to the New Nordic Diet and the effects on body weight, anthropometry and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Crone, Charlotte; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    The New Nordic Diet (NND) has induced weight loss in a 26-week controlled intervention. We aim to investigate whether high compliance and satisfaction can be maintained after the active intervention is discontinued thereby maintaining the health effects.......The New Nordic Diet (NND) has induced weight loss in a 26-week controlled intervention. We aim to investigate whether high compliance and satisfaction can be maintained after the active intervention is discontinued thereby maintaining the health effects....

  17. [Effect of refeeding on the body composition of females with restrictive anorexia nervosa; anthropometry versus bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Redondo del Río, Paz; Camina Martín, Alicia; Soto Célix, María; Alonso Torre, Sara R; Miján de la Torre, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la composición corporal en un grupo de pacientes desnutridas con anorexia nerviosa, respecto de controles sanas, antes y después del soporte nutricional, mediante antropometría y bioimpedancia. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo. Se realizó una antropometría completa y un análisis de bioimpedancia a 12 mujeres con anorexia nerviosa restrictiva (24,5 años) al ingreso hospitalario y semanalmente durante la realimentación. El grupo control estuvo formado por 24 mujeres sanas (21 años). Se aplicaron los test t-Student, U-Mann-Whitney, t-Student para medidas repetidas o Wilcoxon. La concordancia entre antropometría y BIA se analizó mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase y Bland-Altman. Resultados: Las pacientes mejoraron significativamente todos los índices de composición corporal a lo largo de la estancia hospitalaria, aunque sus valores al alta siguieron siendo menores que los de las controles. La media de peso ganado fue 5,22 kg (DE: 1,42), de los que el 51,4% fueron masa grasa, con distribución central preferentemente. En las controles la ecuación de BIA que mejor concuerda con antropometría es la de Sun (CCI = 0,896); en las pacientes la concordancia fue más débil, al ingreso y al alta. Conclusiones: La realimentación produce una ganancia ponderal, fundamentalmente a expensas de masa grasa, con distribución central; no se consigue restablecer el estado nutricional. La concordancia entre antropometría y bioimpedancia para el estudio de la composición corporal es aceptable, especialmente en sujetos sanos. Se recomienda emplear antropometría, si no se dispone de BIA vectorial o algún método gold estandard para el análisis de la composición corporal, en casos de alteraciones importantes en la composición corporal y/o el balance hídrico.

  18. A Contrast between Mothers' Assessments of Child Malnutrition and Physical Anthropometry in Rural Mexico: A Mixed Methods Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Bernardo; Martinez-Andrade, Gloria; Huerfano, Nazly; Ryan, Gery W.; Martinez, Homero

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare mothers' assessments of nutritional status with anthropometric measures and gain further insights into mothers' reasons for their judgment. Design: Each mother was asked to assess the nutritional status of her child and 2 other children and to compare all 3. Rates for "hits" and "misses" between mothers' assessment and…

  19. A subjective framework for seat comfort based on a heuristic multi criteria decision making technique and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahtabar, Hamed

    2010-12-01

    Consumer expectations for automobile seat comfort continue to rise. With this said, it is evident that the current automobile seat comfort development process, which is only sporadically successful, needs to change. In this context, there has been growing recognition of the need for establishing theoretical and methodological automobile seat comfort. On the other hand, seat producer need to know the costumer's required comfort to produce based on their interests. The current research methodologies apply qualitative approaches due to anthropometric specifications. The most significant weakness of these approaches is the inexact extracted inferences. Despite the qualitative nature of the consumer's preferences there are some methods to transform the qualitative parameters into numerical value which could help seat producer to improve or enhance their products. Nonetheless this approach would help the automobile manufacturer to provide their seats from the best producer regarding to the consumers idea. In this paper, a heuristic multi criteria decision making technique is applied to make consumers preferences in the numeric value. This Technique is combination of Analytical Hierarchy Procedure (AHP), Entropy method, and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). A case study is conducted to illustrate the applicability and the effectiveness of the proposed heuristic approach.

  20. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Celbis, Osman [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Malatya (Turkey); Harma, Ahmet [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya (Turkey); Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya University Health Sciences Institute, Department of Anatomy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 {+-} 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 {+-} 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 {+-} 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 {+-} 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  1. Can maximal aerobic running speed be predicted from submaximal cycle ergometry in soccer players? The effects of age, anthropometry and positional roles

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelis T. Nikolaidis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering maximal aerobic running speed (MAS) as a useful tool to evaluate aerobic capacity and monitor training load in soccer, there is an increasing need to develop indirect assessment methods of MAS, e.g., submaximal tests. The aim of this study was to examine the prediction of MAS from the physical working capacity (PWC) in heart rate (HR) 170 beat/min test (PWC170). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on adolescent (n = 67) and adult soccer players (...

  2. [Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in rural and urban adolescents of southern Spain, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and physical and sedentary activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana-María; Moral-García, José-Enrique; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La dieta mediterránea es uno de los modelos más saludables de dieta. Los patrones alimentarios mediterráneos están sufriendo un deterioro que puede afectar especialmente a niños y adolescentes. Objetivo: Determinar la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea de los adolescentes del sur de España y su relación con el área de residencia, sexo, edad, satisfacción con la vida, características antropométricas y hábitos de actividad física y sedentaria. Métodos: Un total de 1.973 adolescentes (11-18 años) del sur de España participaron en este estudio descriptivo transversal. El punto de corte entre poblaciones rurales y urbanas fue 10.000 habitantes. La adherencia a la dieta mediterránea fue calculada a partir del cuestionario KIDMED. Satisfacción con la vida, actividad física y sedentarismo también mediante cuestionarios fiables y válidos. Índice de masa corporal y % de grasa corporal fueron medidos utilizando el analizador corporal TANITA BC-420-S. Resultados: El 30,9% de los adolescentes reportó una dieta de calidad óptima, porcentaje superior en poblaciones rurales (P dieta mediterránea llevaban un estilo de vida más saludable y mostraron mayor satisfacción con sus vidas.

  3. Relationships between anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness indices and physical activity levels in different age and sex groups in rural Senegal (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Bénéfice, Eric; Mbaye Ndiaye, Gnagna

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high level of activity is commonplace in traditional subsistence societies. Physiological characteristics of individuals, including body composition and physical fitness, could be limiting factors when performing daily tasks. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, nutritional status and physical activity patterns, so as to test the hypothesis that these relationships are less straightforward in children than in adults. STUDY DESIG...

  4. Cross-calibration of Lunar DPX-IQ and DPX dual-energy x-ray densitometers for bone mineral measurements in women: effect of body anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarelainen, J; Honkanen, R; Vanninen, E; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Niskanen, L; Jurvelin, J S

    2005-01-01

    When dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) instruments are replaced, it is essential to determine if systematic differences in measurements occur. As a part of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study (N=14,220), a group of women, aged 36 to 69 yr underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2 to L4 (n=89) and proximal femur scans (n=88) by the Lunar DPX and DPX-IQ, respectively, during the same visit. A high linear association (r from 0.944 to 0.989, p<0.001) between the two scanners was established for lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD). The average DPX values for BMD were 1.1% and 2.0% higher than those of DPX-IQ for the lumbar spine (p<0.001) and Ward's triangle (p=0.001), respectively. Femoral neck BMD values by the DPX were 1.4% lower (p<0.001) compared to DPX-IQ. The difference between trochanter BMD results (0.1%) was not significant (p=0.809). In the femoral neck and trochanter, but not in the lumbar spine or Ward's triangle, the differences in BMD values of the two machines were found to depend on body mass index. After linear formulas based on simple and multivariate linear regression analyses were calculated, the differences were negligible, enabling objective comparison of longitudinal measurements.

  5. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvalán Camila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. Results We found a direct correlation (p Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children.

  6. Are unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy distinguished by differences in anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength in elite female basketball players?

    OpenAIRE

    Gaida, J; Cook, J.; Bass, S; Austen, S.; Kiss, Z

    2004-01-01

    Background: Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into ...

  7. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometry for the determination of body composition in rats: effects of high-fat and high-sucrose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Neto Angéloco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the impedance of Wistar rats treated with high-fat and high-sucrose diets and correlate their biochemical and anthropometric parameters with chemical analysis of the carcass. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed a standard (AIN-93, high-fat (50% fat or high-sucrose (59% of sucrose diet for 4 weeks. Abdominal and thoracic circumference and body length were measured. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine resistance and reactance. Final body composition was determined by chemical analysis. RESULTS: Higher fat intake led to a high percentage of liver fat and cholesterol and low total body water in the High-Fat group, but these changes in the biochemical profile were not reflected by the anthropometric measurements or bioelectrical impedance analysis variables. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance analysis changes were not observed in the High-Sucrose group. However, a positive association was found between body fat and three anthropometric variables: body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference. CONCLUSION: Bioelectrical impedance analysis did not prove to be sensitive for detecting changes in body composition, but body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference can be used for estimating the body composition of rats.

  8. The anthropometry of children and adolescents may be influenced by the prenatal smoking habits of their grandmothers: A longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Gregory, Steven; Miller, Laura L; Pembrey, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previously, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we have shown different sex-specific birth anthropometric measurements contingent upon whether or not prenatal smoking was undertaken by paternal grandmother (PGM±), maternal grandmother (MGM±), and the study mother (M±). The findings raised the question as to whether there were long-term associations on the growth of the study children over time. Methods Measures of weight, height, body mass index, waist ...

  9. New anthropometry-based age- and sex-specific reference values for urinary 24-hour creatinine excretion based on the adult Swiss population (epublish)

    OpenAIRE

    Forni Ogna V.; Ogna A.; Vuistiner P.; Pruijm M.; Ponte B.; Ackermann D.; Gabutti L.; Vakilzadeh N.; Mohaupt M; Martin P.Y.; Guessous I.; Péchère-Bertschi A.; Paccaud F.; Bochud M; Burnier M

    2015-01-01

    Background Urinary creatinine excretion is used as a marker of completeness of timed urine collections, which are a keystone of several metabolic evaluations in clinical investigations and epidemiological surveys. The current reference values for 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rely on observations performed in the 1960s and 1970s in relatively small and mostly selected groups, and may thus poorly fit to the present-day general European population. The aim of this study was to establish ...

  10. New anthropometry-based age- and sex-specific reference values for urinary 24-hour creatinine excretion based on the adult Swiss population

    OpenAIRE

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Ogna, Adam; Vuistiner, Philippe; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belen; Ackermann, Daniel; Gabutti, Luca; Vakilzadeh, Nima; Mohaupt, Markus; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Guessous, Idris; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred; Bochud, Murielle; Burnier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Urinary creatinine excretion is used as a marker of completeness of timed urine collections, which are a keystone of several metabolic evaluations in clinical investigations and epidemiological surveys. METHODS: We used data from two independent Swiss cross-sectional population-based studies with standardised 24-hour urinary collection and measured anthropometric variables. Only data from adults of European descent, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.7...

  11. New anthropometry-based age- and sex-specific reference values for urinary 24-hour creatinine excretion based on the adult Swiss population.

    OpenAIRE

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Ogna, Adam; Vuistiner, Philippe; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belen; Ackermann, Daniel; Gabutti, Luca; Vakilzadeh, Nima; Mohaupt, Markus; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Guessous, Idris; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred; Bochud, Murielle; Burnier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Urinary creatinine excretion is used as a marker of completeness of timed urine collections, which are a keystone of several metabolic evaluations in clinical investigations and epidemiological surveys. The current reference values for 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rely on observations performed in the 1960s and 1970s in relatively small and mostly selected groups, and may thus poorly fit to the present-day general European population. The aim of this study was to establ...

  12. Patient-generated subjective global assessment and classic anthropometry: comparison between the methods in detection of malnutrition among elderly with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo dos Santos, Carolina; de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Carla; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia; Lanes Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Los estudios comparativos entre los métodos de evaluación nutricional en oncología son necesarios para identificar los medios más adecuados y las relaciones entre los diferentes instrumentos. Objetivos: Comparar el diagnóstico nutricional obtenido por la Valoración Subjetiva Global-Generada por el Paciente (PG-SGA) con mediciones antropométricas objetivas en el tratamiento oncológico sometido ancianos y evaluar la concordancia entre los métodos de detección de la desnutrición. Métodos: Estudio transversal de los ancianos con edad mayor o igual a 60 en tratamiento oncológico. El PG-SGA se realizó y evaluó los parámetros antropométricos: peso, talla, Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), circunferencia del brazo, circunferencia muscular del brazo, área muscular del brazo corregida, brazo área de grasa, circunferencia de la pantorrilla, circunferencia de la cintura, circunferencia de la cadera, la cinturacadera y pliegue tricipital. Desde un recordatorio de 24 horas se estimaron los consumos de energía y macronutrientes. Resultados: Se evaluaron un total de 96 ancianos. El PG-SGA identificó 29,2% con desnutrición moderada o sospecha de la desnutrición y el 14,6% con desnutrición severa. De las personas mayores evaluados, el 47,9% necesitó una intervención nutricional crítico. Parámetros antropométricos y el consumo de energía y macronutrientes mostraron diferencias significativas en función de la clasificación subjetiva de la PG-SGA. Prevalencia de la desnutrición varió de 43,8% a 61,4%, en función del instrumento utilizado. El método más consistente con el diagnóstico de desnutrición proporcionada por el PG- -SGA fue el índice de masa corporal (kappa = 0,54, IC: 0,347 hasta 0,648). Conclusiones: El PG-SGA mostró una correlación significativa con las mediciones antropométricas y con el consumo de alimentos tanto para la clasificación categórica, así como para el sistema de puntuación. El diagnóstico de la malnutrición mostró prevalencia variable en función del método, y ninguno era equivalente a la PG-SGA.

  13. Analysis of back panel structure based on 3-D anthropometry%基于三维人体测量的上衣后片结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱露露; 王宏付; 胡潮江

    2014-01-01

    通过非接触式三维人体扫描系统(德国VITUS SMART XXL)对200名在校女大学生进行人体测量,获得与人体背部结构有关的数据,运用SPSS数据统计软件对不同的背部形状(主要是肩胛骨形状)进行聚类,然后在人台上建立不同种类的肩胛骨形状模型,以此进行立体裁剪得出人体背部纸样,通过测量每个样板的增量,分析不同肩胛骨高状态下衣片的增加以及重要工艺点的位移变化,总结其平面结构的变化规律,对特殊体型的成衣样板结构修正具有重要指导意义.

  14. Effects on anthropometry and appetite of vitamins and minerals given in lipid nutritional supplements for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnouris...

  15. Anthropometry in 5- to 9-Year-Old Greenlandic and Ukrainian Children in Relation to Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Vrijheid, Martine;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In some animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances are suggested to induce weight gain. Human epidemiological studies investigating these associations are sparse. OBJECTIVE: We examined pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFO...

  16. The Investigation on Somatotype of College Students of Zhuang Nationality by Heath-Carter Method Anthropometry%壮族大学生Heath-Carter法体型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世宁; 浦洪琴; 周庆辉; 唐军; 肖钜文

    2002-01-01

    目的:探讨壮族大学生的体型特征.方法:用Heath-Carter人体测量法对472名(男272,女200)19~21岁的壮族大学生进行了体型评定.结果:壮族大学生男、女的平均体型值为2.2-3.9-3.1和3.8-3.4-2.7;男女间SAD值为1.70,T为6.9.结论:壮族大学生男、女分别属偏外胚层的中胚层体型和偏中胚层的内胚层体型.壮族大学生男、女性的体型有非常显著性差异(P<0.01).与国内外资料相比,壮族大学生的内、中因子值偏低,外因子值相差不大.

  17. SOMATOTYPE RESEARCH ON THE ADULT OF ZHUANG NATIONALITY BY HEATH-CARTER ANTHROPOMETRY%壮族成人Heath-Carter法体型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世宁; 浦洪琴; 凌雁武; 韦红霞

    2002-01-01

    目的:探讨壮族成人的体型特征.方法:用Heath-Carter人体测量法对554名(男273,女281)20~60岁的壮族人进行了体型评定.结果:壮族成人男女的平均体型值为1.8-3.7-3.4和3.3-3.2-2.9;男女间SAD值为1.59,T为8.5.壮族成人男女性的体型比较有非常显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:壮族成人男女分别属偏外胚层的中胚层体型和三胚层中间型体型.壮族成人男女性的体型比较有明显的差别.与国内外资料相比,壮族的内、中因子值偏低,外因子值偏高.

  18. SOMATOTYPE OF DONG NATIONALITY ADULT STUDIED WITH THE HEATH-CARTER ANTHROPOMETRY METHOD%侗族成人Heath-Carter法体型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世宁; 浦洪琴; 庞祖荫

    2004-01-01

    为探讨我国侗族成人的体型特征,本文采用Heath-Carter人体测量法对广西壮族自治区三江侗族自治县林溪乡515例(男254,女261)20-60岁的土著侗族成人进行了体型评定.结果表明:1)侗族成人男女的平均体型值分别为2.2-4.5-2.4和4.3-4.2-1.5,侗族成人男女分别属均衡的中胚层体型和内胚层一中胚层均衡体型;2)侗族成人男女间SAD值为2.33,T为11.9,男女间的体型有非常显著性差异(P<0.001);3)与国内、外资料相比,侗族男女的内、中因子值和男性外因子值居中,女性外因子值最低.

  19. A Longitudinal Study Investigating the Stability of Anthropometry and Soccer-Specific Endurance in Pubertal High-Level Youth Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Deprez, Martin Buchheit, Job Fransen, Johan Pion, Matthieu Lenoir, Renaat M. Philippaerts, Roel Vaeyens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the evolution and stability of anthropometric and soccer-specific endurance characteristics of 42 high-level, pubertal soccer players with high, average and low yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1 baseline performances over two and four years. The rates of improvement were calculated for each performance group, and intra-class correlations were used to verify short- and long-term stability. The main finding was that after two and four years, the magnitudes of the differences at baseline were reduced, although players with high YYIR1 baseline performance still covered the largest distance (e.g., low from 703 m to 2126 m; high from 1503 m to 2434 m over four years. Furthermore, the YYIR1 showed a high stability over two years (ICC = 0.76 and a moderate stability over four years (ICC = 0.59, due to large intra-individual differences in YYIR1 performances over time. Anthropometric measures showed very high stability (ICCs between 0.94 to 0.97 over a two-year period, in comparison with a moderate stability (ICCs between 0.57 and 0.75 over four years. These results confirm the moderate-to-high stability of high-intensity running performance in young soccer players, and suggest that the longer the follow-up, the lower the ability to predict player’s future potential in running performance. They also show that with growth and maturation, poor performers might only partially catch up their fitter counterparts between 12 and 16 years.

  20. Antropometria de atletas culturistas em relação à referência populacional Anthropometry of body builders in relation to the population standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naílza MAESTÁ

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Atletas de culturismo têm como alvo de treinamento a hipertrofia muscular e a redução da adiposidade. A falta de referências antropométricas apropriadas pode levar esses indivíduos a serem erroneamente considerados em situação de sobrepeso ou desnutrição. Portanto, objetivamos comparar a composição corporal de atletas de culturismo com os padrões populacionais. Foram avaliados 36 atletas, de ambos os sexos, 26 do sexo masculino (27,2 ± 7,2 anos e 10 do sexo feminino (30,0 ± 6,1 anos, por ocasião da competição nacional, quanto aos indicadores antropométricos de peso, estatura, índice de massa corpórea, pregas cutâneas, adiposidade corpórea e circunferência muscular do braço. Os resultados foram referidos quanto à posição percentual ou de desvios-padrão (pelo escore Z tendo como referências padrões populacionais locais. Como resultado, encontramos que os indicadores com menor contraste com os padrões adotados foram peso e estatura e os maiores contrastes foram encontrados na circunferência muscular do braço para os homens, e pregas cutâneas tricipital para as mulheres. Pelo indicador muscular todos foram classificados como obesos ou sobrepeso, enquanto que pela prega cutânea tricipital e adiposidade corpórea, a desnutrição esteve presente em 100,0% das mulheres e 88,5% dos homens. Fica evidenciada a inadequação da utilização do padrão antropométrico populacional para a classificação nutricional de atletas de força, em particular culturistas, sendo assim necessário o estabelecimento de padrões próprios para esse tipo de treinamento (modalidade.Body builders have as their training goals the maximum muscle hypertrophy with minimum adiposity. However, the scarcity of specific standards implies often in framing wrongly those athletes either as overweight (by their BMI or energy malnourished (by their fat stores. The objective of this study was to compare the body composition of body builders with population standards. Thirty-six adults, 26 male (27.2 ± 7.2 years and 10 female (30 ± 6.1 years nationwide competitive body builders, were assessed considering weight, height, body mass index, adiposity, arm and leg circumferences and skinfolds. The data were referred either as percentile or standard deviations (Z score of population standards. Body weight and height were among the closest values from the populational mean whereas upper arm muscle circumference (for men and body adiposity (for women were the farterest. By using fat parameters as indicators of their protein-energy status, the undernourishment was found in 88.5% of men and 100.0% of women. Thus, it seems that body builders deserve their own anthropometric standards to avoid nutritional status misplacements.

  1. Associations Between Anthropometry, Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Troy, Jesse D.; Hartge, Patricia; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Oken, Martin M.; Colditz, Graham A.; MECHANIC, LEAH E.; Lindsay M. Morton

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies of lifestyle and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are conflicting, and some are inconsistent with case-control studies. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was used to evaluate risk of NHL and its subtypes in association with anthropometric factors, smoking, and alcohol consumption in a prospective cohort study. Lifestyle was assessed via questionnaire among 142,982 male and female participants aged 55–74 years enrolled in the PLCO Trial dur...

  2. Associations between anthropometry, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Jesse D; Hartge, Patricia; Weissfeld, Joel L; Oken, Martin M; Colditz, Graham A; Mechanic, Leah E; Morton, Lindsay M

    2010-06-15

    Prospective studies of lifestyle and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are conflicting, and some are inconsistent with case-control studies. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was used to evaluate risk of NHL and its subtypes in association with anthropometric factors, smoking, and alcohol consumption in a prospective cohort study. Lifestyle was assessed via questionnaire among 142,982 male and female participants aged 55-74 years enrolled in the PLCO Trial during 1993-2001. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During 1,201,074 person-years of follow-up through 2006, 1,264 histologically confirmed NHL cases were identified. Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 20 and 50 years and at baseline was associated with increased NHL risk (P(trend) or =30 vs. 18.5-24.9, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.54). Smoking was not associated with NHL overall but was inversely associated with follicular lymphoma (ever smoking vs. never: hazard ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.85). Alcohol consumption was unrelated to NHL (drinks/week: P(trend) = 0.187). These data support previous studies suggesting that BMI is positively associated with NHL, show an inverse association between smoking and follicular lymphoma (perhaps due to residual confounding), and do not support a causal association between alcohol and NHL. PMID:20494998

  3. Short Bi-Iliac Distance in Prenatal Ullrich-Turner Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Ulla B.; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Keeling, Jean W.;

    2002-01-01

    prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography......prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography...

  4. Ecologia humana e antropometria nutricional de adultos Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brasil Human ecology and nutritional anthropometry of adult Xavánte Indians in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia A. Gugelmin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa analisar comparativamente o perfil ecológico-humano e o antropométrico de duas comunidades indígenas Xavánte - Etéñitépa (ou Pimentel Barbosa e São José - de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados respectivamente em 1994 e 1998/1999. A pesquisa envolveu caracterização dos padrões de alocação de tempo e de antropometria de adultos acima de 20 anos de idade. Os Xavánte de Etéñitépa despendem mais tempo em atividades ligadas à horticultura, pesca, caça e coleta; os de São José exercem mais funções remuneradas e extra-aldeia, em que há, em geral, menor atividade física. Os valores médios de estatura das duas comunidades são próximos, mas há diferenças marcantes quanto à massa corporal e ao IMC (Índice de Massa Corporal. O grupo de São José exibiu valores de IMC superiores aos de Etéñitépa em quase todas as faixas etárias. Em São José há prevalência de obesidade em homens (24,6% e mulheres (41,3%; em Etéñitépa, os valores foram respectivamente de 2,5% e 4,8%. Sugere-se que o perfil nutricional diferenciado resulta, em muito, de diferentes trajetórias de interação social, política e econômica com a sociedade nacional envolvente.This study compares anthropometric and ecological profiles of two Xavánte indigenous communities in Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. The research describes time allocation patterns and involves an anthropometric survey (including body mass, stature, and BMI in adults over 20 years of age. Data from Etéñitépa (also known as Pimentel Barbosa were collected in 1994. Field work at São José was conducted in 1998 and 1999. Compared with the São José group, Xavánte in Etéñitépa do more subsistence activities like farming, fishing, hunting, and gathering. The São José Xavánte do more paid work and generally engage in less physical activity. Average stature in the two communities is similar, but there are major differences in mean body mass and BMI. The São José group has average BMI values well over those of the Etéñitépa group in practically all age brackets. Obesity prevalence rates were high in both men (24.6% and women (41.3% in São José, while in Etéñitépa the rates were only 2.5% and 4.8%, respectively. The authors conclude that the different nutritional profiles in the two communities result from specific patterns of social, political, and economic interactions with Brazilian society.

  5. Anthropometry, body image, self-esteem and dietary quality of Brazilian female flamenco dancers. Antropometría, imagen corporal, autoestima y calidad de la dieta de brasileñas practicantes de baile flamenco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sayumi Nakamura

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the nutritional profile, the body image perception and self-esteem of 17 Brazilian adult female flamenco dancers. The methods used were: Body Mass Index (BMI, fat percentage, waist circumference, the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale for body perception and the Rosemberg Scale for self-esteem. Food intake was classified by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. The average values found were: age 39.2 ± 8.3 years, practice time of 16 ± 11.5 months and 2.2 ± 0.9 hours a week. Although the majority of women (76.5% had an adequate BMI, 88.2% they showed a high percentage of fat. The BMI was related to the percentage of fat (r=0,681; IC [0.298-0.875] and associated with the current silhouette (p=0.018. Even though all dancers had a high self-esteem, 64.7% were not satisfied with their body. Underreporting was identified in 41.2% of the cases and it was not related to self-esteem or BMI. According to the HEI, the diet of 88.2% was classified as healthy. It was concluded that the women correctly evaluate their BMI and, despite their high self-esteem, they are not fully satisfied with their body.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar el perfil nutricional, la percepción de la imagen corporal y la autoestima de 17 brasileñas adultas practicantes de flamenco. Los métodos utilizados fueron: índice de masa corporal (IMC, circunferencia abdominal y porcentaje de grasa corporal, la Escala de Siluetas de Stunkardt para la percepción corporal y la Escala de Rosemberg para la autoestima. La ingesta de alimentos fue clasificada según el Índice de Calidad de la Dieta (ICD. Los valores promedios encontrados fueron: edad de 39,2 ± 8,3 años, tiempo de practica de 16 ± 11,5 meses y 2,2 ± 0,9 horas/semanales. La mayoría (76,5% fue clasificada como eutrófica, sin embargo 88,2% presentaron porcentaje de grasa elevado. El IMC está correlacionado con el porcentaje de grasa (r=0,681; IC [0,298-0,875] y asociado a la silueta actual (p=0,018. Aunque todas las practicantes presentaron elevada autoestima, se encontró que 64,7% presentaron insatisfacción corporal. El consumo energético habitual fue subestimado en 41,2% de la muestra y no se correlacionó a la autoestima o al IMC. La dieta del 88,2% de la muestra fue calificada como sana según el ICD. Se concluyó que las mujeres se autoevalúan correctamente según el IMC y que, aunque presenten elevada autoestima, hay insatisfacción corporal.

  6. Associação entre a antropometria e a leptina circulante nos compartimentos materno, fetal e placentário, na gravidez normal Association between anthropometry and circulating leptin in maternal, fetal and placental compartments, in healthy pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cipriano Castro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a importância da leptina materna e fetal circulantes na gestação saudável por meio da avaliação de sua associação com variáveis antropométricas materna, placentária e fetal ao nascimento e as relações entre os compartimentos avaliados. MÉTODOS: em estudo transversal foi incluída amostra de 33 gestações únicas, a termo, com fetos saudáveis. As variáveis avaliadas foram idade materna, peso materno, índice de massa corporal, peso do recém-nascido, peso placentário e índice placentário. Amostras de sangue materno foram obtidas imediatamente antes do parto e em sangue do cordão umbilical ao nascimento. A dosagem da leptina sérica foi realizada por meio de radioimunoensaio convencional. As relações entre as concentrações de leptina sérica materna e da artéria e veia umbilicais com as variáveis de estudo foram verificadas através da regressão linear. RESULTADOS: a leptina foi detectada no sangue de todas as 33 gestantes e seus respectivos recém-nascidos, sendo a concentração no sangue materno (17,1±1,77 ng/ml superior à dos vasos umbilicais (veia 9,0±1,16 ng/mL; artéria 8,2±1,02 ng/mL, pPURPOSE: to evaluate the importance of circulating maternal and fetal leptin in the healthy gestation, using its association with maternal, placental and fetal anthropometric variables, obtained at birth, and the relationship between the evaluated compartments. METHODS: in a transversal study a population of 33 single, healthy and term gestations was studied. The evaluated variables were maternal age, maternal weight, body mass index (BMF, weight of the newborn, placental weight, and placental index. Samples of maternal blood were immediately obtained before birth and from fetal umbilical cord blood at birth. Determination of serum leptin was performed using conventional radioimmunoassay. The relationships between serum leptin concentrations in maternal blood, umbilical artery and vein and the studied variables were assessed through linear regression. RESULTS: leptin levels were detected in the blood of all 33 pregnant women and their respective newborns, with maternal blood concentration (17.1±1.77 ng/mL higher than that of umbilical vessels (vein: 9.0±1.16 ng/mL; artery: 8.23±1.02 ng/mL, p<0.0001. Leptin concentrations in the maternal blood were correlated with leptin concentrations in fetal blood (artery: coef. 0.63, p=0.037; vein: coef. 0.72, p=0.006. Regarding the anthropometric variables, leptin measured in the maternal blood was associated with initial and final maternal BMF (coef. 1.13; p=0.002; coef. 1,18, p=0.001 and cord leptin levels were correlated with the fetal weight at birth (vein: coef. 0.007, p=0.02; artery: coef. 0.006, p=0.02. CONCLUSION: there was a correlation between maternal and fetal leptin production and probably by the action of similar stimuli during gestation. Serum leptin was associated with the weight of the compartment where it circulates.

  7. É possível prever o comprimento de tendões flexores do joelho por antropometria? It is possible to predict the length of knee flexor tendons by anthropometry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Stieven Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os dados de antropometria e prática esportiva com as dimensões dos tendões flexores do joelho, de forma prospectiva, a fim de criar uma regra para pré-determinar suas dimensões. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados os dados gerais e antropométricos de 30 pacientes submetidos à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior e correlacionados com os dados de comprimento e diâmetro dos tendões flexores do joelho. Os dados coletados foram: altura, peso, idade, joelho acometido, índice de massa corporal, nível esportivo, comprimento do fêmur, comprimento da tíbia, circunferência da coxa, circunferência do joelho. As correlações foram feitas pelo coeficiente de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação estatisticamente significante apenas com a altura e comprimento da tíbia versus comprimento do músculo semitendíneo e grácil. Pelo método da regressão linear simples as relações podem ser expressas nas seguintes equações: comprimento do semitendíneo = -2,276 + 0,177 x altura; comprimento do semitendíneo = 13,048 + 0,46 x comprimento da tíbia; comprimento do grácil = -9,413 + 0,207 x altura; comprimento do grácil = 7,036 + 0,583 x comprimento da tíbia. CONCLUSÃO: É possível a previsão do comprimento dos tendões flexores do joelho através de equações de regressão antes do procedimento cirúrgico.OBJECTIVE: To compare the anthropometric data and the sportive way of life with the hamstring tendons dimensions, prospectively, in order to create a rule to predetermine its dimensions. METHODS: General and anthropometric data were collected from 30 patients that were submitted to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. These data were correlated to the diameter and length of the hamstring tendons. The data collected were: height, weight, age, knee lesion side, body mass, sportive training level, femoral length, tibia length, thigh circumference, and knee circumference. The correlation was made by Pearson coefficient. RESULTS: Statistic significant correlation occurred only with height and tibia length versus the gracilis and semitendinous tendon length. Using linear regression the relations found could be expressed with the following formulas: semitendinous length = -2,276 + 0,177 x height; semitendinous length = 13,048 + 0,46 x tibia height; gracilis length = -9,413 + 0,207 x height; gracilis length = 7,036 + 0,583 x tibia height. CONCLUSION: It is possible to predetermine hamstring tendons length through linear regression formulas before surgical intervention.

  8. 湘西大学生Heath-Carter法体型研究%The investigation on somatotype of college students in the western district of human by Heath-Carter method anthropometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大元; 张惠娟; 朱耀峰; 吴国运; 梁成青

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨湘西大学生的体型特征.方法 用Heath-Carter人体测量法对吉首大学医学生进行体型评定.结果 湘西男女大学生的平均体型值分别为2.74-4.37-3.05和4.92-3.96-2.85,男女生之间的体型存在着明显差异.结论 男生骨骼肌比较发达,体脂含量少,体型属均衡的中胚层体型;女生皮脂发育比较丰满,体型属偏中胚层的内胚层体型.

  9. Medidas antropométricas segundo aptidão cardiorrespiratória em militares da ativa, Brasil Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness of military men in active duty, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Almeida Magalhães Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as diferenças no índice de massa corporal (IMC e no perímetro da cintura segundo a aptidão cardiorrespiratória em militares do sexo masculino. MÉTODOS: A amostra constituiu-se de 50.523 homens da ativa do exército brasileiro. Os dados antropométricos (massa corporal, estatura e perímetro da cintura e de consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max, estimado por meio do teste de corrida de 12 minutos, foram obtidos no teste de aptidão física do ano 2001. RESULTADOS: A idade variou de 18 a 52 anos, porém foi composta em sua maioria por indivíduos jovens (média + DP = 25,8 + 6,6 anos de idade. A faixa de aptidão cardiorrespiratória variou de 22,2 a 82,5 mL O2.kg-1.min-1. Os valores médios do perímetro da cintura foram significativamente menores nos grupos de melhor aptidão cardiorrespiratória, quando comparados com os grupos com menor aptidão (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference according to cardiorespiratory fitness in active military men. METHODS: The study sample comprised 50,523 active military men of the Brazilian army. Anthropometric measures (body mass, height, and waist circumference and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max information, estimated in a 12-min run, were obtained in a fitness test in 2001. RESULTS: Subjects' age ranged between 18 and 52 years, but most were young (mean + SD 25.8 + 6.6 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness varied from 22.2 to 82.5 mL.O2.kg-1.min-1. Waist circumference mean values were significantly lower in those subjects in the highest fitness level compared to those in the lowest level (p<0.001 even after adjusting for age, BMI, and both together. CONCLUSIONS: For the same BMI, military men with better cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly lower waist circumference measures compared to those with lower fitness. These findings suggest that military with better physical fitness have lower abdominal fat accumulation.

  10. Antropometría y composición corporal en personas mayores de 60 años. Importancia de la actividad física Anthropometry and body composition in elderly people. Importance of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliodoro Alemán-Mateo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Medir los indicadores antropométricos de composición corporal por bioimpedancia eléctrica y la actividad física, así como la glucosa sanguínea y la presión arterial en personas mayores de 60 años de una región rural. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Por muestreo intencional no probabilístico se seleccionaron 54 sujetos mayores de 60 años, quienes se sometieron al protocolo estandarizado para las mediciones antropométricas y composición corporal por bioimpedancia eléctrica (BIE y actividad física mediante el cuestionario de actividades. Asimismo, se midió la presión arterial y se realizó la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Los valores promedio se analizaron por sexo mediante la prueba t de Student, y la asociación de la actividad física y la composición corporal con otras variables, por regresión lineal simple y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS. La actividad física correlacionó negativamente con el porcentaje de grasa (r= -0.36; p= 0.007; la presión arterial diastólica (r= -0.36; p= 0.006 y sistólica (r= -0.32; p= 0.018 y el índice de masa corporal, con la glucosa posdosis (r= 0.31; p= 0.024. CONCLUSIONES. La actividad física en este grupo de personas puede tener un impacto favorable respecto a los indicadores de salud tan importantes que se mencionaron.OBJECTIVE. To measure anthropometric indicators of body composition by electric bioimpedence, as well as physical activity, blood glucose and arterial pressure in rural people over 60 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 54 subjects over 60 years old were selected by intentional non-probabilistic sampling. They were subjected to a standardized protocol to measure anthropometric indicators, body composition by electric bioimpedance (EBI, and physical activity was determined by an activity questionnaire. Arterial pressure and glucose tolerance levels were also measured. Analysis included Student's t test to detect differences by sex and the association of physical activity, body composition and other variables by simple linear regression and Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS. Physical activity correlated negatively with percent fat (r= -0.36; p= 0.007 and diastolic (r= -0.36; p= 0.006 and systolic blood pressure (r= -0.32; p= 0.018, and body mass index with post dose glucose (r= 0.31; p= 0.024. CONCLUSIONS. Physical activity in this age group may have a favorable impact with respect to the mentioned health indicators.

  11. The SHOX gene and the short stature. Roundtable on diagnosis and treatment of short stature due to SHOX haploinsufficiency: how genetics, radiology and anthropometry can help the pediatrician in the diagnostic process Padova (April 20th, 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Tosetto, Ilaria; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Antoniazzi, Franco; Clementi, Maurizio; Toffolutti, Tiziana; Facchin, Paola; Monti, Elena; Pisanello, Lorena; Tonini, Giorgio; Greggio, Nella A

    2012-08-01

    The growth of the human body depends from a complex interaction between nutritional, environmental and hormonal factors and by a large number of different genes. One of these genes, short stature homeobox (SHOX), is believed to play a major role in growth. SHOX haploinsufficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of conditions, all characterized growth failure such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, Turner syndrome, short stature with subtle auxological and radiological findings and the so called "idiopathic short stature" (short stature with no specific findings other than growth failure). The document was prepared by a multidisciplinary team (paediatric endocrinologists, paediatrician, radiologist, geneticist and epidemiologist) to focus on the investigation of children with suspected SHOX- deficiency (SHOX-D) for an early identification and a correct diagnostic work - up of this genetic disorder. On the basis of a number of screening studies, SHOX-D appears to be a relatively frequent cause of short stature. The following recommendations were suggested by our multidisciplinary team: (i) a careful family history, measurements of body proportions and detection of any dysmorphic features are important for the suspect of a genetic disorder ,(ii)the presence of any combination of the following physical findings, such as reduced arm span/height ratio, increased sitting height/height ratio, above average BMI, Madelung deformity, cubitus valgus, short or bowed forearm, dislocation of the ulna at the elbow, or the appearance of muscular hypertrophy, should prompt the clinician to obtain a molecular analysis of the SHOX region, (iii) it is of practical importance to recognise early or mild signs of Madelung deformity on hand and wrist radiographs, (iv) growth hormone ,after stimulation test, is usually normal. However, treatment with rhGH may improve final adult height; the efficacy of treatment is similar to that observed in those treated for Turner syndrome. PMID:23304810

  12. Cálculo do erro técnico de medição em antropometria Cálculo del error técnico en la medición de antropometria Technical error of measurement in anthropometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Adão Perini

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As medidas antropométricas estão sendo amplamente utilizadas para o acompanhamento e desenvolvimento de crianças, na verificação das adaptações em resposta ao treinamento, na seleção de atletas e em estudos de caracterização étnica, entre várias outras áreas. O controle da qualidade dessas medidas vai resultar em dados mais confiáveis e medidas antropométricas mais precisas. O propósito do presente estudo é difundir a estratégia para a obtenção do erro técnico de medição (ETM, segundo a metodologia de Kevin Norton e Tim Olds (2000, e avaliar o desempenho de estagiários de laboratório. Três antropometristas iniciantes do Laboratório de Fisiologia do Exercício (Labofise da Universidade do Brasil foram avaliados. Eles realizaram as medidas de dobras cutâneas (Cescorf, 0,1mm em nove diferentes pontos antropométricos de 35 voluntários (25,45 ± 9,96 anos. Para as medidas, foi adotada a padronização da International Society for Advancement in Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Para a verificação do ETM intra-avaliador, as medidas foram realizadas nos mesmos voluntários em dois dias diferentes; e, para a obtenção do ETM interavaliador, as medidas foram feitas em um mesmo grupo de voluntários, no mesmo dia, pelos três antropometristas. Os resultados apontaram ETMs não aceitáveis apenas para dois avaliadores na análise intra-avaliador. Os demais ETMs alcançaram resultados aceitáveis. Os ETMs não aceitáveis demonstram a necessidade de treinamento técnico dos antropometristas, de modo a minimizar a variabilidade constatada.Las medidas antropométricas están siendo ampliamente utilizadas para el acompañamiento y el desenvolvimiento de niños, en la verificación de las adaptaciones en respuesta a entrenamiento, en la seleción de atletas y en estudios de caracterización étnica, entre várias otras áreas. El control da la calidad de esas medidas va a resultar en datos mas confiables y medidas antropométricas mas precisas. El propósito del presente estudio es el de difundir la estrategia para la obtención del error técnico de medición (ETM, siguiendo la metodología de Kevin Norton y Tim Olds (2000 y evaluar el desempeño de empleados de laboratorio. Tres antropometristas del Laboratorio de Fisiologia del Ejercicio (Labofise de la Universidad del Brasil fueron evaluados. Ellos realizaron las medidas de pliegues cutáneos (Cescorf, 0.1mm en nueve diferentes puntos antropométricos de 35 voluntarios (25,45 ± 9,96 años. Para las medidas, fue adoptada la padronización de la International Society for Advancement in Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Para la verificación del ETM intra-evaluador, las medidas fueron realizadas en los mismos voluntarios en dos días diferentes; y, para la obtención del ETM inter-avaliador, las medidas fueron hechas en un mismo grupo de voluntarios, en el mesmo dia, por los tres antropometristas. Los resultados apuntaron ETMs no aceptables apenas para dos evaluadores en el análisis intra-evaluador. Los demás ETMs alcanzaron resultados aceptables. Los ETMs no aceptables demostraron la necesidad de entrenamiento técnico de los antropometristas, de modo de minimizar la variabilidad constatada.The anthropometrical measurements have been widely utilized to follow children's development, in the verification of the adaptations to the physical training in the athletes' selection, in studies of ethnic characterization, among others. The control of the precision and accuracy of the measurements will result in more reliable data. The objective of the present study was to diffuse the strategies to compute the technical error of measurement (TEM according to Kevin Norton's and Tim Olds methodology (2000 and to analyze the laboratory' trainees performance. Three beginner observers (anthropometrists of the Exercise Physiology Laboratory (Labofise of the University of Brazil were analyzed. They accomplished measures of skin folds thickness (Cescorf, 0.1 mm in nine different anthropometric points in 35 volunteers (25.45 ± 9.96 years. To accomplish the measures the International Society for Advancement in Kinanthropometry (ISAK was adopted. For the TEM intra-evaluator verification, the measures were accomplished in the same volunteers in two different days and, to obtain the inter-observers TEM, the measures were accomplished in a same group of volunteers, in the same day by the three evaluators. The results indicated not acceptable TEMs only for two evaluators in the intra-evaluator analysis. The other TEMs reached acceptable results. Not acceptable TEMs demonstrated the need of technical training of evaluators in order to minimize the variability verified.

  13. EVALUASI DATA ANTROPOMETRI ANAK-ANAK USIA 4-6 TAHUN DI JAWA TIMUR DAN APLIKASI PADA PERANCANGAN FASILITAS BELAJAR DI SEKOLAH

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Herawati; Theresia Amelia Pawitra

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometry data realy important towards learning facilities design. Comfortness and functional of table an chair have correlation with physical structure of the user. Many study for 6-18 years old in anthropometry data, but for 4-6 years old children there’s no specific anthropometry data.in this research, anthropometry data for 4-6 years old child were analyze and applied to the school facilities design. 550 children from 50 schools in East Java were measured, they consist of 259 girls an...

  14. 75 FR 1789 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Jackson Heart Study (JHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ..., psychosocial inventories, medical history, anthropometry, resting and ambulatory blood pressure, phlebotomy and... hypertrophy, and responses to stress, racism, and discrimination as well as new components such as...

  15. 75 FR 17744 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; the Jackson Heart Study (JHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Exam 1 that included demographics, psychosocial inventories, medical history, anthropometry, resting... carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy, and responses to stress, racism,...

  16. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher;

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition...

  17. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk : a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Mckay, James D.; Canzian, Federico; Wilkening, Stefan; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnes; Linseisen, Jakob; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Georgila, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Sala, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hallmans, Goran; Lenner, Per; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay Tee; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study on

  18. Antropometria de escolares ao ingresso no ensino fundamental na cidade de Belém, Pará, 2001 School aged anthropometry when enrolling in the first grade of elementary school in the city of Belém, Pará, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Domingues das Neves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: realizar a antropometria em escolares da primeira série da rede pública estadual em Belém, Pará, como instrumento de vigilância nutricional e estudar as associações entre o estado nutricional e características biológicas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados nutricionalmente 793 escolares, pelos escores z de estatura/idade e peso/estatura, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde. As variáveis biológicas e socioeconômicas foram: sexo, idade, naturalidade, idade de ingresso da criança na escola e escolaridade materna. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado ao relacionar o estado nutricional com as variáveis. RESULTADOS: em 637 escolares observamos 16,6% de baixa estatura e risco de baixa estatura, 4,5% de desnutrição e risco de desnutrição, 7,4% de sobrepeso e obesidade. Não houve associação significante entre estado nutricional e sexo. A maioria das crianças nasceu na capital, ingressou tardiamente na escola e tinham mães com escolaridade >4 anos. Observou-se correlação significante entre obesidade e baixa estatura com menor escolaridade materna; risco de desnutrição e baixa estatura com o ingresso escolar tardio; e obesidade e estatura normal com o ingresso regular. CONCLUSÕES: a menor escolaridade materna e o ingresso tardio escolar estão associados à presença de desvios nutricionais. A vigilância nutricional escolar é importante para avaliar, tratar e prevenir os riscos para saúde e nutrição infantil.OBJECTIVES: to perform anthropometric measurements in elementary school students of the public school system of the State of Belém, Pará, as a tool for nutritional surveillance and to study associations between nutritional status and biological, social and economic characteristics. METHODS: 793 students were assessed for their nutritional status, by z scores of height/age and weight /height according to the World Health Organization criteria. Biological, social and economic variables were: gender, age, place of birth, age of school enrolment and maternal education level. The chi square test was used to relate nutritional status to variables. RESULTS: of the 637 students assessed, 16.6% were of low stature or in risk of low stature, 4.5% malnourished or in risk of malnourishment, 7.4% were overweight or obese. There was no significant association between nutritional status and gender. The majority of the children was born in the capital, was enrolled late in school and had mothers with education level of >4 years. There was a significant correlation between obesity and low stature with low maternal education level; malnutrition risk and low stature with late school enrolment; and obesity and normal stature with regular enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: low maternal school level and late school enrollment are associated to nutritional problems. School nutritional surveillance is important to assess, treat and prevent children's health and nutrition risks.

  19. Composição corporal de idosas diabéticas tipo 2: antropometria vs absorcimetria de raios-X de dupla energia Body composition of elderly women with type 2 diabetes: anthropometry vs dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Waléria Christiane Rezende Fett; Carlos Alexandre Fett; Júlio Sergio Marchini; Júlio Cesar Moriguti; Eduardo Ferrioli

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo Comparar a antropometria ao exame de Raios-x de dupla varredura para estimativa da composição corporal de idosas diabéticas tipo 2. Métodos A composição corporal de 51 voluntárias de 60 a 70 anos de idade e índice de massa corporal de 19 a 43kg/m² foi avaliada pelas medidas antropométricas das dobras cutâneas do tríceps, suprailíaca e coxa e associadas ao exame de Raios-x de dupla varredura, considerado o padrão ouro. Os intervalos de concordância de Bland e Altman foram os valores d...

  20. STUDY ON BODY FAT DENSITY PREDICTION BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanth Reddy Ainala,; Nawaf Aljohani; Kaushik Roy; Xiaohong Yuan; Huiming A. Yu

    2015-01-01

    For a human body to function properly it is essential to have a certain amount of body fat. Fat serves to manage body temperature, pads and protects the organs. Fat is the fundamental type of the body's vitality stockpiling. It is important to have a healthy amount of body fat. Overabundance of fat quotient can build danger of genuine wellbeing issues. Anthropometry is a broadly accessible and basic strategy for the appraisal of body composition. Anthropometry measures are weight,...

  1. HUBUNGAN GANGGUAN GIZI ANAK BALITA BERDASARKAN INDEKS ANTROPOMETRI TUNGGAL DAN KOMBINASI DENGAN MORBIDITAS DAN IMPLIKASINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekti Widodo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Under weight, stunting and wasting are single anthropometry index that are not enough to predict prevalence of under nutrition. Using underweight as indicator to calculate prevalence of under nutrition can be under estimate or over estimate because of underweight is the result of stunting and wasting, not because of the sum of stunting and wasting. Objectives: The aim of this data analysis was to compare the relationship of prevalence of children under five under nutrition with morbidity between single and composite indices. Methods: The source of data from Health Research Basic (Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2007/2008. Under five year nutritional status was analysis with WHO Anthro 2009 software. The statistically analysis conducted with X2 statistical test. Results: The prevalence of severe malnutrition (z-score <-3 SD, WH0-2005 based on single anthropometry index for underweight (weight/age was 4.8%, stunting (height/age was 18.8%, and wasting (weight/height was 6.2%, however based on combination indices, the prevalence of severe malnutrition was 25.5%. The severe and moderate malnutrition (z-score <-2 SD, WH0-2005 based on single anthropometry indices was 19.0%, stunting was 37.0%, and wasting was 14.4%, whereas based on combination indeces the prevalence of severe malnutrition and mild malnutrition was 50.1%. The risk of upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, and measles was higher (odd ratio: 1.1- 1.4 on children with combination indices than single anthropometry indices. Conclusions: Composite anthropometry analyses could explain under five children that severely and totally malnourished. Based on combination indices one out of four under five children was severely malnourished and one out of two children was malnutrition. The morbidity was higher on children with composite indices than single anthropometry indices.   Keywords: composite indices, anthropometry, severe-malnourished prevalence

  2. Reliability and intermethod agreement for body fat assessment among two field and two laboratory methods in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, Juan P; Mesana, Maria I; Poortvliet, Eric; Ortega, Francisco B; Polito, Angela; Nagy, Eniko; Widhalm, Kurt; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge about reliability and intermethods agreement for body fat (BF) is of interest for assessment, interpretation, and comparison purposes. It was aimed to examine intra- and inter-rater reliability, interday variability, and degree of agreement for BF using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod-Pod), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements in European adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents (25 females) from Zaragoza and 30 (14 females) from Stockholm, aged 13-17 years participated in this study. Two trained raters in each center assessed BF with Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry (DXA only in Zaragoza). Intermethod agreement and reliability were studied using a 4-way ANOVA for the same rater on the first day and two additional measurements on a second day, one each rater. Technical error of measurement (TEM) and percentage coefficient of reliability (%R) were also reported. No significant intrarater, inter-rater, or interday effect was observed for %BF for any method in either of the cities. In Zaragoza, %BF was significantly different when measured by Bod-Pod and BIA in comparison with anthropometry and DXA (all P Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry are reliable for %BF repeated assessment within the same day by the same or different raters or in consecutive days by the same rater. Bod-Pod showed close agreement with BIA as did DXA with anthropometry; however, Bod-Pod and BIA presented higher values of %BF than anthropometry and DXA.

  3. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-10-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the "Hand Photo Anthropometry Set," we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers' hands. PMID:24696802

  4. Quality Assurance for Accuracy of Anthropometric Measurements in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: [Errare humanum est = to err is human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mony, Prem K; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Gajendran, Jayachitra K; Vaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry involves the external measurement of morphologic traits of human beings. High quality anthropometric measurements are fundamental to clinical and epidemiological research. The measurements for each method have inherent variations, either due to biologic variation or due to error in measurement. Errors in measurement cannot be avoided completely but they can be minimized to a large extent. We define methods to estimate measurement error in anthropometry, offer guidelines for acceptable error, and suggest ways to minimize measurement error; thereby improving anthropometry quality in health assessments. We propose that special attention be paid to the following six key parameters for quality assurance of anthropometric measurements: (i) Identification of certified lead anthropometrist and trainer, (ii) manual of standard operating procedures, (iii) choice of robust equipment, (iv) equipment calibration, (v) standardization training and certification, and (vi) measurements resampling.

  5. Variations In Gait Patterns Of Runners: Relationship To Anthropometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelsberg, S.; Tauber, C.; Au, J.; Pugh, J.

    1983-07-01

    High-speed computerized motion analysis was used to assess the running parameters of a group of runners. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the group of runners in an effort to provide possible correlations between running style, speed, and anthropometry. The most consistent correlation was between speed and stride length. Femur length and stride length was only highly correlated for the runners at the fastest speeds. The faster runners also had a gait pattern characterized by significantly lower ground contact time than that of the slower runners. Of prime importance in running is behavior of the body during float phase, and mediated by anthropometry and the biomechanical characteristics of the stance phase.

  6. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR] in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. METHODS: Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. RESULTS: Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.85, by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2 = 0.69, or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2 = 0.91. Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2 = 0.58 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.53 or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH-vitamin D(3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2 = 0.35. Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2 = 0.68 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.65 or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3; R(2 = 0.58. Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2 = 0

  7. Bone mineral density and body composition in Noonan's syndrome: effects of growth hormone treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, C.; Span, J.P.T.; Rijn, R.R. van; Gomes-Jardin, E.; Kuijk, C. van; Otten, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in children with Noonan's syndrome (NS) before and during growth hormone (GH) treatment. Sixteen children (12 boys, 4 girls) with NS aged 5.8-14.2 (mean 10.0) years were studied for 2 years. Anthropometry, BMD measurements by radiographic a

  8. A comparison of cardiometabolic risk factors in households in rural Uganda with and without a resident with type 2 diabetes, 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Gregg, Edward W.;

    2015-01-01

    “nondiabetic household”). We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hypertension, anthropometry, aerobic capacity, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, and diabetes-related knowledge of people without diagnosed T2D living in diabetic and nondiabetic households. Results People...

  9. Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

  10. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  11. EVALUASI DATA ANTROPOMETRI ANAK-ANAK USIA 4-6 TAHUN DI JAWA TIMUR DAN APLIKASI PADA PERANCANGAN FASILITAS BELAJAR DI SEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Herawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry data realy important towards learning facilities design. Comfortness and functional of table an chair have correlation with physical structure of the user. Many study for 6-18 years old in anthropometry data, but for 4-6 years old children there’s no specific anthropometry data.in this research, anthropometry data for 4-6 years old child were analyze and applied to the school facilities design. 550 children from 50 schools in East Java were measured, they consist of 259 girls and 291 boys. Average weight of the boys is 21.40kg with 9.23 standard deviation; the girls average weight is 19,91kg with 5.5 standard deviation. From the body dimension gathered from this research could be applied in desigining learning facilities, such as computer table and chair. Another body dimension also used to determine seat’s width, back support’s height, etc, considering the percentile which is appropriate for each adjustment.

  12. Web-based targeted nutrition counselling and social support for patients at increased cardiovascular risk in general practice: randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Bakx, J.C.; Akkermans, R.; Hoogen, van den H.; Godwin, M.; Rosser, W.; Staveren, van W.A.; Weel, van C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Using the Internet may prove useful in providing nutrition counselling and social support for patients with chronic diseases. Objective: We evaluated the impact of Web-based nutrition counselling and social support on social support measures, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum chol

  13. Association between age at menarche and early-life nutritional status in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, A.M.; Willekens, F.J.C.; Baqui, A.H.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.; Hutter, I.

    2008-01-01

    Age at menarche is associated with anthropometry in adolescence. Recently, there has been growing support for the hypothesis that timing of menarche may be set early in life but modified by changes in body size and composition in childhood. To evaluate this, a cohort of 255 girls aged

  14. Modelling Developmental Changes in Repeated-Sprint Ability by Chronological and Skeletal Ages in Young Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Martins, R. A.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Cyrino, E. S.; Sherar, L. B.; Vaeyens, R.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of chronological (CA) and skeletal ages (SA), anthropometry, aerobic endurance and lower limb explosive strength on developmental changes in repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players aged 11-17 years. Participants were annually followed over 5 years, resul

  15. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  16. Physical Education, Sports and the Sciences: Papers Presented in Honor of H. Harrison Clarke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhoff, Jan, Ed.

    The papers included in this publication encompass research studies in physical fitness, the physiology of exercise, anthropometry, motor learning, teaching methodology, and personality. Many of these papers accentuate physical components; others identify different variables in the composite of personality such as the mental, social, and emotional…

  17. Calf muscle volume estimates: Implications for Botulinum toxin treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Thomsen, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    An optimal botulinum toxin dose may be related to the volume of the targeted muscle. We investigated the suitability of using ultrasound and anthropometry to estimate gastrocnemius and soleus muscle volume. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle thickness was measured in 11 cadaveric human legs, using...

  18. Evaluation of a Family-Centred Children's Weight Management Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinks, Annette; English, Sue; Coufopoulos, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct an in-depth quantitative and qualitative evaluation of a family-based weight loss and healthy life style programme for clinically obese children in England. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed method case study evaluation used included obtaining pre and post measurements of anthropometry and a…

  19. A multinational deployment of 3D laser scanning to study craniofacial dysmorphology in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeff; Wernert, Eric; Moore, Elizabeth; Ward, Richard; Wetherill, Leah F.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Craniofacial anthropometry (the measurement and analysis of head and face dimensions) has been used to assess and describe abnormal craniofacial variation (dysmorphology) and the facial phenotype in many medical syndromes. Traditionally, anthropometry measurements have been collected by the direct application of calipers and tape measures to the subject's head and face, and can suffer from inaccuracies due to restless subjects, erroneous landmark identification, clinician variability, and other forms of human error. Three-dimensional imaging technologies promise a more effective alternative that separates the acquisition and measurement phases to reduce these variabilities while also enabling novel measurements and longitudinal analysis of subjects. Indiana University (IU) is part of an international consortium of researchers studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Fetal alcohol exposure results in predictable craniofacial dysmorphologies, and anthropometry has been proven to be an effective diagnosis tool for the condition. IU is leading a project to study the use of 3D surface scanning to acquire anthropometry data in order to more accurately diagnose FASD, especially in its milder forms. This paper describes our experiences in selecting, verifying, supporting, and coordinating a set of 3D scanning systems for use in collecting facial scans and anthropometric data from around the world.

  20. Sport selection in under-17 male roller hockey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J.; Vaz, Vasco; Simoes, Filipe; Carvalho, Humberto M.; Valente-Dos-Santos, Joao; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Pereira, Vanildo; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of 32 international and 41 local under-17 (U-17) (14.516.5 years) roller hockey players were considered in the context of discrimination by competitive level using training history, anthropometry, skeletal maturation, and several laboratory and field performance tests. More internati

  1. The role of diabetes co-morbidity for tuberculosis treatment outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George;

    2012-01-01

    Due to the association between diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), diabetes may threaten the control of TB. In a prospective cohort study nested in a nutrition trial, we investigated the role of diabetes on changes in anthropometry, grip strength, and clinical parameters over a five months...

  2. Pesticide exposure and blood endosulfan levels after first season spray amongst farm workers in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalvie, M.A.; Africa, A.; Solomons, A.; London, L.; Brouwer, D.; Kromhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated serum endosulfan changes resulting from occupational exposure to the pesticide on farms. Eight applicators and 17 non-applicators were tested (serum endosulfan, anthropometry, short exposure questionnaire) before and after the first day of seasonal spraying. Task-based job exp

  3. Challenges in collating spirometry reference data for South-Asian children: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lum, S.; Bountziouka, V.; Quanjer, P.; Sonnappa, S.; Wade, A.; Beardsmore, C.; Chhabra, S. K.; Chudasama, R. K.; Cook, D. G.; Harding, S; Kuehni, C E; K.V.V. Prasad; Whincup, P H; Lee, S.; Stocks, J

    2016-01-01

    The dataset contains a collation of anthropometry and spirometry data from healthy South Asian subjects recruited from 8 centres (5 UK and 4 India; n=8303). All data are anonymised and reported in the manuscript entitled “Challenges in collating spirometry reference data for South-Asian children: an observational study” published in PLOS One.

  4. Relation of height, body mass, energy intake, and physical activity to risk of renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were used to investigate the association between anthropometry, energy intake, and physical activity and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years wh

  5. IGF-I at 9 and 36 months of age — relations with body composition and diet at 3 years — the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Larnkjær, A.; Pedersen, D.;

    2014-01-01

    the prospective cohort study, SKOT, were examined at 9 and 36 months with anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance (36 months), 7-day food records and blood analysis of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 by chemiluminescent immunometric assay. Results IGF-I at 36 months (n = 229) was positively correlated with 9 months values...

  6. Assessing the differences between numerical methods and real experiments for the evaluation of reach envelopes of the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Delangle, Mathieu; Poirson, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    The use of static human body dimensions to assess the human accessibility is an essential part of an ergonomic approach in user-centered design. Assessments of reach capability are commonly performed by exercising external anthropometry of human body parts, which may be found in anthropometric databases, to numerically define the reach area of an intended user population. The result is a reach envelope determined entirely by the segment lengths, without taking into account external variables, as the nature of the task or the physical capacities of the subject, which may influence the results. Considering the body as a simple assembly of static parts of different anthropometry is limiting. In this paper, the limit of validity of this approach is assessed by comparing the reach envelopes obtained by this method to those obtained with a simple two-dimensional experimental reaching task of a panel of subjects. Forty subjects experimentally evaluated the reach, first with the body constrained and second unconstrai...

  7. Assessment of mesh simplification algorithm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael; Nicolier, Frederic; Foufou, S.; Truchetet, Frederic; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi A.

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, medical geneticists have employed visual inspection (anthroposcopy) to clinically evaluate dysmorphology. In the last 20 years, there has been an increasing trend towards quantitative assessment to render diagnosis of anomalies more objective and reliable. These methods have focused on direct anthropometry, using a combination of classical physical anthropology tools and new instruments tailor-made to describe craniofacial morphometry. These methods are painstaking and require that the patient remain still for extended periods of time. Most recently, semiautomated techniques (e.g., structured light scanning) have been developed to capture the geometry of the face in a matter of seconds. In this paper, we establish that direct anthropometry and structured light scanning yield reliable measurements, with remarkably high levels of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, as well as validity (contrasting the two methods).

  8. Repeated-measure validation of craniofacial metrics from three-dimensional surface scans: application to medical genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Eric A.; Corner, Brian D.; Li, Peng; Beecher, Robert M.; Deutsch, Curtis

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, medical geneticists have employed visual inspection (anthroposcopy) to clinically evaluate dysmorphology. In the last 20 years, there has been an increasing trend towards quantitative assessment to render diagnosis of anomalies more objective and reliable. These methods have focused on direct anthropometry, using a combination of classical physical anthropology tools and new instruments tailor-made to describe craniofacial morphometry. These methods are painstaking and require that the patient remain still for extended periods of time. Most recently, semiautomated techniques (e.g., structured light scanning) have been developed to capture the geometry of the face in a matter of seconds. In this paper, we establish that direct anthropometry and structured light scanning yield reliable measurements, with remarkably high levels of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, as well as validity (contrasting the two methods).

  9. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  10. Common Genetic Components of Obesity Traits and Serum Leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Benyamin, Beben; Visscher, Peter M;

    2008-01-01

    To estimate common and distinct genetic influences on a panel of obesity-related traits and serum leptin level in adults. In a cross-sectional study of 625 Danish, adult, healthy, monozygotic, and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs of both genders, we carried out detailed anthropometry (height, weight...... components, which suggests that it is important to distinguish between the different phenotypes in the search for genes involved in the development of obesity.Obesity (2008) doi:10.1038/oby.2008.440.......To estimate common and distinct genetic influences on a panel of obesity-related traits and serum leptin level in adults. In a cross-sectional study of 625 Danish, adult, healthy, monozygotic, and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs of both genders, we carried out detailed anthropometry (height, weight...

  11. Skeletal phenotypes in adult patients with osteogenesis imperfecta-correlations with COL1A1/COL1A2 genotype and collagen structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, J D; Folkestad, L; Harsløf, T;

    2016-01-01

    with the underlying biochemical and molecular abnormalities. INTRODUCTION: OI is a hereditary disease characterized by compromised connective tissue predominantly caused by mutations in collagen type 1 (COL-1) encoding genes. Widespread symptoms reflect the ubiquity of COL-1 throughout the body. The purpose...... of this study was to improve our understanding of clinical manifestations by investigating anthropometry and skeletal phenotypes (DXA, HRpQCT) in an adult OI population and compare the findings to underlying COL-1 genotype and structure. METHODS: The study comprised 85 OI patients aged 45 (19-78) years......, Sillence type I (n = 58), III (n = 12), and IV (n = 15). All patients underwent DXA, HRpQCT, spine X-ray, biochemical testing, and anthropometry. COL1A1 and COL1A2 were sequenced and 68 OI causing mutations identified (46 in COL1A1, 22 in COL1A2). Analysis of COL-1 structure (quantitative...

  12. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  13. Chediak-Higashi syndrome in accelerated phase masquerading as severe acute malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Karande, Sunil; Agarwal, Shruti; Gandhi, Bhaumik; Muranjan, Mamta

    2014-01-01

    A toddler presented with poor appetite, weight loss and frequent respiratory tract infections for the past 6 months, fever and increasing paleness for the past 2 months and bilateral pedal oedema for the past 1 month. Anthropometry confirmed severe acute malnutrition. Clinical and laboratory evaluation revealed that the child also had hypopigmented hair and skin, splenohepatomegaly, pancytopenia and hypoalbuminaemia. The coexistence of hypopigmentation and suspected low immunity prompted us t...

  14. Alternative Methods of Nutritional Status Assessment in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jorga, Jagoda; Marinković, Jelena; Kentrić, Brana; Hetherington, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the validity of the silhouette rating scale and reported values of height and weight in assessing weight status in a group of adolescents. 245 adolescents, students of the Belgrade elementary school, aged 11–14 (12.33±0.50), were involved. Weight status was assessed by anthropometry, self- -reported height and weight and by figure rating scale. From the results obtained significant differences emerged as a function ...

  15. Anthropométrie au cours de la vie, traitement hormonal de la ménopause, dépistage et risque d'adénomes et cancers colorectaux : une étude prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Morois, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background  Colorectal cancer, the second most common cancer in French women, mostly develops from precancerous lesions, the adenomas. Factors associated with adult obesity are multiple, including early life events, the socio-economic level, and eating habits; obesity has also been, in turn, quite consistently associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, associations between specific anthropometric components or lifetime anthropometry and colorectal tumours according to the adenoma-carci...

  16. Individually Tailored Screening of Susceptibility to Sarcopenia Using p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism, Phenotypes, and Conventional Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Di Renzo; Santo Gratteri; Francesca Sarlo; Andrea Cabibbo; Carmen Colica; Antonino De Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. p53 activity plays a role in muscle homeostasis and skeletal muscle differentiation; all pathways that lead to sarcopenia are related to p53 activities. We investigate the allelic frequency of the TP53 codon 72 in exon 4 polymorphism in the Italian female population and the association with appendicular skeletal muscle mass index in normal weight (NW), normal weight obese (NWO), and preobese-obese (Preob-Ob) subjects. Methods. We evaluated anthropometry, body composition, ...

  17. The status of diabetes care in Mexican population: are we making a difference? Results of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 El cuidado de la diabetes en población mexicana: ¿estamos siguiendo la estrategia correcta? Resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Clicerio González-Villalpando; Ruy López-Ridaura; Julio César Campuzano; María Elena González-Villalpando

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Examine clinical indicators to evaluate diabetes care in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diabetics (self reported, with therapy) were examined with standardized questionnaires, anthropometry, glucose, lipids and glycohemoglobin. Data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: There were 2 644 patients, 677 cases without access to medical care (73% women), most lived in rural communities and spoke aboriginal dialect. Prevalence of obesity for private access group was 21.2%, for other or no...

  18. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis: the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Veena, S. R.; Krishnaveni, G.V.; Karat, S. C.; Osmond, C.; Fall, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation...

  19. Tools in the assessment of sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C.; Fielding, R.; de Visser, M; van Loon, L.J.; Rolland, Y.; Orwoll, E.; Reid, K.; Boonen, S.; Dere, W.; Epstein, S.; Tsouderos, Y; Sayer, A.A.; Rizzoli, R.; Reginster, J.Y.; Kanis, J A

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation)...

  20. Development of statistical methodologies applied to anthropometric data oriented towards the ergonomic design of products

    OpenAIRE

    Vinué Visús, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics is the scientific discipline that studies the interactions between human beings and the elements of a system and presents multiple applications in areas such as clothing and footwear design or both working and household environments. In each of these sectors, knowing the anthropometric dimensions of the current target population is fundamental to ensure that products suit as well as possible most of the users who make up the population. Anthropometry refers to the study of the meas...

  1. Einfluss krankheitsassoziierter Mangelernährung auf Körperzusammensetzung und Prognose

    OpenAIRE

    Pirlich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is a frequent clincal problem with severe medical and economic impact. This work summarizes studies on body composition analysis, risk factors, prevalence and prognostic impact of malnutrition. The diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with chronic liver disease is hampered by hyperhydration and requires body composition analysis. Using four different methods for body composition analysis (total body potassium counting, anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analy...

  2. Web-Based Targeted Nutrition Counselling and Social Support for Patients at Increased Cardiovascular Risk in General Practice: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Verheijden, Marieke; Bakx, J Carel; Akkermans, Reinier; van den Hoogen, Henk; Godwin, N Marshall; Rosser, Walter; Staveren, Wija; van Weel, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Background Using the Internet may prove useful in providing nutrition counselling and social support for patients with chronic diseases. Objective We evaluated the impact of Web-based nutrition counselling and social support on social support measures, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol in patients at increased cardiovascular risk. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial among patients with increased cardiovascular risk in Canadian family practices. During 8 month...

  3. Correlation of severity of hyperandrogenism with ovarian stroma to area ratio and stromal echogenicity in polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Gupta; Harsha Gaikwad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrine disorders of reproductive age group. Rotterdam consensus although includes ovarian volume in diagnosis of PCOS but its ovarian stroma area that corresponds histological and thus its clinical features. Methods: A prospective study conducted on 55 PCOS cases and 55 age and weight matched healthy volunteers. Detailed medical, menstrual history and examination for clinical hyperandrogenism and anthropometry was done. Fas...

  4. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based....... This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace...

  5. Nutrient intakes from complementary foods consumed by young children (aged 12-23 months) from North Wollo, northern Ethiopia : the need for agro-ecologically adapted interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, K.; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Mouquet Rivier, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterize current feeding practices and to evaluate the adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of young children in subsistence farming rural households in North Wollo, Ethiopia. Design: A cross-sectional study examining sociodemographic status, anthropometry, breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices using two in-home nonconsecutive 24 h recalls. Settings: Two rural villages in the highlands and lowlands of Gobalafto district, North Wollo. Subjects: Seventy-six you...

  6. Analisis Antropometri terhadap Ruang Kendali Traktor Roda Empat buatan Jepang 'K' dan Eropa 'N'

    OpenAIRE

    Rhamdani Mardiansyah; Mad Yamin

    2012-01-01

    Four-wheeled tractor is one of the most important agricultural machine tools that used in activity of soil tillage. Most of the four wheeled tractor in Indonesia specially designed not for local operators because the design mostly followed by average size operators from the country that create the tractor, especially in the workstation design. Ergonomics approaching of anthropometry analysis have intended to determine safety and comfort level of operator duringoperation the tractor. Anthropom...

  7. “Oriental anthropometry” in plastic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Senna-Fernandes Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Background : According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points′ (acupoints) locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry" (OA). Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS). Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational ...

  8. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal

  9. Are Korean Patients Different from Other Ethnic Groups in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon; Kim, Kang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical re...

  10. Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men results in sustained and clinically meaningful weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, AA; Doros, G

    2013-01-01

    Summary What is already known about this subject Hypogonadism is associated with increased fat mass and reduced muscle mass, which contributes to obesity and health risks, such as cardiovascular disease. Testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men improves muscle mass and reduces fat mass; however, many of these studies are of short duration. Thus, the long-term effects of testosterone on body anthropometry are not known. What this study adds Long-term testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men,...

  11. Sarcopenia: clinical evaluation, biological markers and other evaluation tools

    OpenAIRE

    Pahor, M.; Manini,, Claudia; CESARI, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by a lower skeletal muscle quantity, higher fat accumulation in the muscle, lower muscle strength, and lower physical performance. The most commonly used, low cost and accessible methods to assess skeletal muscle mass include dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT) and creatinine excretion are the most specific golden standards for assessing mus...

  12. Influence of Adiposity-Related Genetic Markers in a Population of Saudi Arabians Where Other Variables Influencing Obesity May Be Reduced

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, Khalid K; Tom G Richardson; Imran Ali Khan; Rabbani Syed; Abdul Khader Mohammed; Boustred, Christopher R; Gaunt, Tom R.; Waleed Tamimi; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Day, Ian N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Large scale studies in Europeans have clearly identified common polymorphism affecting BMI and obesity. We undertook a genotype study to examine the impact of variants, known to influence obesity, in a sample from the Saudi Arabian population, notable for its profound combination of low mean physical activity indices and high energy intake. Anthropometry measures and genotypes were obtained for 367 Saudis, taken from King Saud University and Biomarker Screening Project in Riyadh (Riyadh Cohor...

  13. Reduced Efficacy of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Malnourished Children▿

    OpenAIRE

    Danquah, Ina; Dietz, Ekkehart; Zanger, Philipp; Reither, Klaus; Ziniel, Peter; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment in infants with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) reduces malaria episodes by 20 to 59% across Africa. This protective efficacy, however, may be affected by the high frequency of malnutrition in African infants. We analyzed the impact of malnutrition as defined by anthropometry on the incidence of malaria and on the protective efficacy of IPTi in a cohort of 1,200 children in northern Ghana, where malaria is hyperendemic. These children received IPTi-SP or ...

  14. Obesity coexists with malnutrition?: adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Driemeyer Correia Horvath; Mariana Laitano Dias de Castro; Natália Kops; Natasha Kruger Malinoski; Rogério Friedman

    2014-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (gl...

  15. Functional Capacity of Oldest Old Living in a Long-stay Institution in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Fabiano Moura; Costa, Susana Ortiz; Pereira de Freitas, Jeter; Pinto, Adriana da Costa Rocha; Vigário, Patrícia dos Santos; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] A significant increase in the number of oldest old has occurred worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize the functional capacity of the oldest old residents in a long-stay institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Subjects and Methods] All participants were evaluated according to the following metrics: anthropometry, body composition (bioelectrical impedance), handgrip strength, balance (Berg scale and stabilometry), ankle mobility (electrogoniometry), physical capacity (s...

  16. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Trabka Bartosz; Zubrzycki Igor Z.; Ossowski Zbigniew; Bojke Olgierd; Clarke Anna; Wiacek Magdalena; Latosik Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST) on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL...

  17. Correlation of Trochanter-Shaft Angle in Selection of Entry Site in Antegrade Intramedullary Femoral Nail

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhwani, O.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Selection of entry point for nail insertion is controversial and lack firm anatomical basis. The study is done to analyze the proximal anthropometry of femur and measure the Trochanter-Shaft Angle to find its relation and significance in selection of entry point for antegrade uniplanar femoral nail. Materials and Methods. Study involves the measurement of trochanter-shaft angle and other anthropometric measurements on 50 dry femora and on digital radiogram. Results. Trochanter-Sha...

  18. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    M Margaret Weigel; Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Marcia Racines; William Cevallos

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry,...

  19. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Nissensohn; Almudena Sánchez-Villegas; Ortega, Rosa M.; Javier Aranceta-Bartrina; Ángel Gil; Marcela González-Gross; Gregorio Varela-Moreiras; Lluis Serra-Majem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participant...

  20. Social and psychological factors affecting eating habits among university students in a Malaysian medical school: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ganasegeran Kurubaran; Al-Dubai Sami AR; Qureshi Ahmad M; Al-abed Al-abed AA; AM, Rizal; Aljunid Syed M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating ha...

  1. CORRELATION BETWEEN PENIS LENGTH AND ANTHOPOMETRY OF 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Doddy Kurnia Indrawan; Bikin Suryawan; Lanang Sidiartha; Arimbawa *

    2013-01-01

    Short penis still a problem for parents. Penis lenght is associated with  weight and considered abnormal in obese children. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between penis length and the anthropometry children aged 5 years. A cross sectional study was conducted, at the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, Medical Faculty of Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during October 2010, at TK Sayang Ibu Sanglah Hospital. The calculation of the sam...

  2. Spacesuit Glove-Induced Hand Trauma and Analysis of Potentially Related Risk Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Chacqueline M.; Norcross, Jason; Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. Glove injuries, both anecdotal and recorded, have been reported during EVA training and flight persistently through NASA's history regardless of mission or glove model. Theories as to causation such as glove-hand fit are common but often lacking in supporting evidence. Previous statistical analysis has evaluated onycholysis in the context of crew anthropometry only. The purpose of this study was to analyze all injuries (as documented in the medical records) and available risk factor variables with the goal to determine engineering and operational controls that may reduce hand injuries due to the EVA glove in the future. A literature review and data mining study were conducted between 2012 and 2014. This study included 179 US NASA crew who trained or completed an EVA between 1981 and 2010 (crossing both Shuttle and ISS eras) and wore either the 4000 Series or Phase VI glove during Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit EVA training and flight. All injuries recorded in medical records were analyzed in their association to candidate risk factor variables. Those risk factor variables included demographic characteristics, hand anthropometry, glove fit characteristics, and training/EVA characteristics. Utilizing literature, medical records and anecdotal causation comments recorded in crewmember injury data, investigators were able to identify several risk factors associated with increased risk of glove related injuries. Prime among them were smaller hand anthropometry, duration of individual suited exposures, and improper glove-hand fit as calculated by the difference in the anthropometry middle finger length compared to the baseline EVA glove middle finger length.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    María-Jesús Oliveras-López; Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto; Patricia Bolaños-Ríos; Francisco De la Cerda; Franz Martín; Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometri...

  4. Associations between health behaviours and health related fitness.

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, R. J.; Bouchard, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine relations between health behaviours and health related fitness. METHODS: Subjects were a convenience sample of 350 healthy adults (172 men, 178 women). Covariance analysis adjusted data for significant influences of age and socioeconomic status. Obesity was assessed by anthropometry and body density. Cardiovascular fitness was assessed and various metabolic measurements were made. Questionnaires on physical activity and health related behaviours were completed. RESULTS: ...

  5. 体位の成長と経済発展―明治期山梨県学校身体検査記録の分析―

    OpenAIRE

    斎藤, 修

    2003-01-01

    In historical anthropometry attention has been paid to the negative impact of urbanisation on the disease environment. By adopting children's growth, rather than final height, as an anthropometric measure and taking into consideration the negative effects of both women's workload and urban penalty on their growth, this article makes extensive use of data collected by Yamanashi prefecture for the physical status of school children between 1902 and 1906. It is revealed that at the youngest scho...

  6. Dietary Re-education, Exercise Program, Performance and Body Indexes Associated with Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Julio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study observed the effect of a dietary re-education plus regular physical activity on body composition, risk factors and physical test performance of sedentary overweight/obese women and to correlate these variables one with each other. Fifty women (36 ± 10 yrs; 31 ± 6 body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 volunteered for the study. Body compositions were obtained by anthropometry and bioimpedance and some body indexes were established. One-repetition maximum (1-RM and treadmill VO2max tests were carried out and blood samples were obtained for lipid, glucose and uric acid analyses before (T1 and after two months of intervention (T2. Diet was established by indirect calorimetry. Body fat, glucose, uric acid, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced. The 1-RM and VO2max tests were significantly increased. Neck circumference (NC was correlated with body composition, back muscle 1-MR, HDL and LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, uric acid, and resting energy expenditure. BMI was found to be significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio, circumference sum, and body fat percentage by anthropometry and bioimpedance. Body fat percentage determined by bioimpedance and anthropometry was significantly correlated with arm fat area and arm fat area corrected respectively, and both with BMI at T1 and T2. This study suggests that a dietary reeducation plus physical activity around 200 min/week improved body composition and the health of these women. Many anthropometry measurements have correspondence to risk factors and NC could be a simple approach to reflect these results, without other more complex techniques.

  7. Vitamin D Status in Malaysian Men and Its Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kok-Yong Chin; Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana; Suraya Ibrahim; Isa Naina Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health problem. The data on vitamin D status in Malaysian men is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status among Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia and its associating factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 men aged 20 years and above, residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their age, ethnicity, body anthropometry and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were recorded. Their fasting blood was collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  8. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PR ESCHOOL CHILDREN IN SLUMS OF DIBRUGARH TOWN.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajanta; Alak

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study had been carried out in the urban slums of Dibrugarh during July, 2007 to June, 2008 and a total of 316 preschool children (aged one to five years) had been included in the study. The nutritional sta tus of the study subjects had been assessed by anthropometry and for this Z- score approach is uti lized. In order to compare the prevalence of malnutrition in different categories, z-test for testing the difference between two propo...

  9. Relationship between aerobic capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Thai men and women with normolipidemia and dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wichitsranoi, Jatuporn; Ladawan, Suphannika; Sirijaichingkul, Suchart; Settasatian, Nongnuch; Leelayuwat, Naruemon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This research aimed to investigate the relationship between aerobic capacity (VO2,peak) and cardiovascular risk factors in normolipidemic and dyslipidemic Thai men and women. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 104 dyslipidemic and 100 healthy participants. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipid and blood glucose levels. Anthropometry, blood pressure, and body composition were measured before exercise. Each subject underwent exercise testing to determine VO2, peak. Heart rate...

  10. Blood pressure and its associated factors among primary school children in suburban Selangor, Malaysia: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy; Chew, Wai F.; Veronica Poulsaeman; Boo, Nem Y.; Kong B Choo; Sook F Yap

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the relationship of blood pressure (BP) with adiposity indicators, dietary habits, physical activity, and sleep in school children in Malaysia. We aimed to study about the distribution of BP and its associated factors in primary school children. Materials and Methods: A survey was carried out on a random sample of 335 children in five primary schools. BP was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Anthropometry was done by standard methods. Demographic info...

  11. Klinefelter's syndrome in adolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliffe, S G; Bancroft, J.; Axworthy, D; McLaren, W.

    1982-01-01

    Twelve boys with Klinefelter's syndrome (47,XXY) identified by sex chromatin screening at birth were examined at between ages 16 and 18 years, together with 12 controls matched for social class and birth order from the same newborn population. Physical examination, psychometric assessment, personality, and degree of psychosexual development were assessed without knowledge of the karyotype. Anthropometry showed increased leg length and decreased head circumference in the XXY boys. Gynaecomasti...

  12. Nutrition and Iron Status of 1-Year Olds following a Revision in Infant Dietary Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Thorisdottir, Asa V.; Inga Thorsdottir; Gestur I. Palsson

    2011-01-01

    A previous study showed low iron status in 12-month-old Icelandic infants associated most strongly with cow's milk intake and growth. Infant dietary recommendations were revised in 2003. This study investigated nutrition and iron status in a new infant cohort. Subjects/Methods. Randomly selected infants were prospectively investigated for diet, anthropometry, and iron status (n = 110–141). Results. Breastfeeding initiation rate was 98%; 38% of 5-month olds were exclusively and 20% of 12-month...

  13. Developing Prediction Equations and a Mobile Phone Application to Identify Infants at Risk of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Santorelli; Petherick, Emily S.; John Wright; Brad Wilson; Haider Samiei; Noël Cameron; William Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advancements in knowledge of obesity aetiology and mobile phone technology have created the opportunity to develop an electronic tool to predict an infant’s risk of childhood obesity. The study aims were to develop and validate equations for the prediction of childhood obesity and integrate them into a mobile phone application (App). Methods and Findings: Anthropometry and childhood obesity risk data were obtained for 1868 UK-born White or South Asian infants in the Born ...

  14. DNA damage in children and adolescents with cardiovascular disease risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mariele Kliemann; Daniel Prá; Luiza L. Müller; Liziane Hermes; Jorge A Horta; Miriam B. Reckziegel; Miria S. Burgos; Sharbel W. Maluf; Silvia I.R. Franke; Juliana da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is related to lifestyle (e.g. diet, physical activity and smoking) as well as to genetic factors. This study aimed at evaluating the association between CVD risk factors and DNA damage levels in children and adolescents. Anthropometry, diet and serum CVD risk factors were evaluated by standard procedures. DNA damage levels were accessed by the comet assay (Single cell gel electrophoresis; SCGE) and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) ass...

  15. Feasibility of Development of a Cohort in a Rural Area of Sub-Himalayan Region of India to Assess the Emergence of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj; Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar Raina; Satya Bhushan; Vishav Chander; Sushant Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rural area of India is facing epidemiological transitions due to growth and development, warranting a longitudinal study to assess the development of CVDs risk factors. Objective. Feasibility of setting up a rural cohort for the assessment and development of biochemical risk factors for CVDs. Methodology. In Himachal Pradesh, house-to-house surveys were carried out in six villages for anthropometry and assessment of lipid profile. All the information was stored in specifically d...

  16. In vivo analysis of thoracic mechanical response variability under belt loading: Specific behavior and relationship to age, gender and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    POULARD, David; BERMOND, François; Bruyere-Garnier, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic injuries are a major cause of mortality in frontal collisions, especially for elderly female and obese people. Car occupant individual characteristics like age, gender and Body Mass Index (BMI) are known to influence human vulnerability tolerance in crashes. The objective of the this study was to perform in vivo test experiments to quantify the influence of subject characteristics in terms of age, gender and anthropometry and on thorax mechanical response variability under belt loadi...

  17. The ANIBES Study on Energy Balance in Spain: Design, Protocol and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Ruiz; José Manuel Ávila; Adrián Castillo; Teresa Valero; Susana del Pozo; Paula Rodriguez; Javier Aranceta Bartrina; Ángel Gil; Marcela González-Gross; Ortega, Rosa M.; Lluis Serra-Majem; Gregorio Varela-Moreiras

    2015-01-01

    Energy Balance (EB) is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption) may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be “dynamic” and not “static”. There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance”) Stu...

  18. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Dorgan, Joanne F; Klifa, Catherine; John A. Shepherd; Egleston, Brian L.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Himes, John H.; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Snetselaar, Linda G; Stevens, Victor J.; Barton, Bruce A; Robson, Alan M.; Lasser, Norman L.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Hylton, Nola M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of height, adiposity and body fat distribution with percentage dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 174 healthy women, 25 to 29 years old. Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy...

  19. Sex-specific genetic effects influence variation in body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Zillikens, Carola; Yazdanpanah, Mojgan; Pardo Cortes, Luba; Rivadeneira Ramirez, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii; Oostra, Ben; Uitterlinden, André; Pols, Huib; Tikka-Kleemola, Päivi

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Despite well-known sex differences in body composition it is not known whether sex-specific genetic or environmental effects contribute to these differences. Methods: We assessed body composition in 2,506 individuals, from a young Dutch genetic isolate participating in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry. We used variance decomposition procedures to partition variation of body composition into genetic and environ...

  20. Measurements of body protein for clinical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body protein (nitrogen) is determined by bilaterally irradiating the body with neutrons using Pu-Be sources and measuring the resultant 10.8 MeV gamma rays from the reaction 14N(n,8) 15N. In the authors lab the whole body can be scanned or separate segments of the body can be measured independently. A nitrogen index has been developed based on body size and is used as a predictor of normal total body nitrogen (TBN). They have found that TBN, when normalized to body size in this way, provides a reliable index of protein status which cannot be accurately determined by body weight, anthropometry, or body potassium measurements. Changes in body composition with age were studied by measuring the composition of 56 healthy female volunteers aged 20-80. Measurements were made for K(40K), Ca and N. It was shown that protein and bone mineral decrease with age but that this is not reflected in K or anthropometry measurements. Results of other studies to be presented include: body protein measurements pre and post TPN (total parenteral nutrition), nutritional status of patients on long term CAPD (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) and changes in body composition as a result of TPN in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy. Clinical results show that indirect measurements of body protein based on weight, potassium, or anthropometry, do not give an accurate measure of body protein. For an accurate measurement, direct measurement of body protein is necessary

  1. Fetal growth and cardiovascular risk factors in Jamaican schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, T. E.; Wilks, R. J.; Bennett, F. I.; Simeon, D.; Osmond, C.; Allen, M.; Chung, A. P.; Scott, P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine relation between schoolchildren's blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin level, and cholesterol concentration and their anthropometry, socioeconomic status, and birth measurements. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study. SETTING--27 schools closest to University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. SUBJECTS--2337 children aged 6-16 years who were born at university hospital were recruited, and their birth records were recovered: 1610 had suitable records, 659 had records including birth length, and 610 of these were prepubertal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin level, serum cholesterol concentration, anthropometry at birth, current anthropometry, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS--Multiple regression analysis showed that children's systolic blood pressure was inversely related to their birth weight (P < 0.0001) and directly related to their current weight. Glycated haemoglobin level was higher in children with thicker triceps skinfolds (P < 0.001) and who had been shorter at birth (P = 0.003). Serum cholesterol concentration was inversely related to current height (P = 0.001) and to length at birth (P = 0.09) and was directly related to triceps skinfold thickness and higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--Blood pressure in childhood was inversely related to birth weight and directly to current weight. Glycaemic control and serum cholesterol were related to short length at birth, height deficit in childhood, and childhood obesity. PMID:8563535

  2. Maternal Characteristics Determine Stunting in Children of Less than Five Years of Age Results from a National Probabilistic Survey

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    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition and some variables are the main determining factors of birthweight and delayed intrauterine growth of children.Objective: To explore the association between the mothers’ biological and sociodemographic characteristics, and the anthropometry status in children under five years of age.Design: The population consisted of a sub-sample of 1,047 mother-and-child selected pairs from the probabilistic National Nutrition Survey, carried out in Mexico. Mother-and-child pairs included mothers aged 12 to 49 years, with children under five years of age. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history, 24-hour recall dietary intake, and the women and children’s anthropometry were collected. The association between maternal characteristics and children’s anthropometry status was assessed using multiple logistic regression models.Result: Nearly 16.7% of the children 2y. The height/age of the children was severely affected by maternal height and birth order. In addition, the interaction between socioeconomic level and maternal schooling had a marginal effect (p = 0.09 in the ≤2y group. On the other hand, whether the family received social services and the interaction between maternal height and a dichotomy urbanism variable were significant ( p = 0.05 and (p 2y group.Conclusion: Some biological and socioeconomic characteristics among mothers have a negative effect on their children’s attained size, especially in the period between 2 and 5 years of age.

  3. PROFIL TINGGI BADAN ANAK USIA BARU MASUK SEKOLAH (TBABS DI BEBERAPA KABUPATEN/KOTA DI INDONESIA: Analisis Data Riskesdas 2007

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    Hermina Hermina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of nutrition indicator is determined by good quality of human resource reflected by anthropometry such as body height. Objectives: The aim of th1s analysis is to measure the height of pre-elementary school children in rural and urban Indonesia. Methods: Data source of this analysis is Riskesdas Data (2007. Analytic unit of this study was house hold who had new prelimenary school children. (6-7 years old. Variable which was anthropometry data, height for age and sex, was analysed using software anthropometry plus WHO 2007 as standard reference. Other variables were social economic, head of family's job, living place (rural or urban and income expenditure per-capita (kuintil. Results: This result shows that prevalence of pre-elementary school children having stunted is 28.4%. Whereas having normal height standard (WHO 2007 is 90.4%. There is no significant difference between boys and girls' height. However, children's height in rural and urban are different signicantly. More short pre-elementary students are found in rural than urban area. No significant relationship is found beetwen house hold social economic status and children's height. Conclusions: Prevalence of pre-elementary school children having stunted is 28.4%. More short pre-elementary students are found in rural than urban area.  Keywords: height, stunted, pre-elementary school children, social-economic, rural-urban

  4. Reliability of measurements performed by community-drawn anthropometrists from rural Ethiopia.

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    Berhan Ayele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is an important risk factor for childhood mortality, and remains a major problem facing many developing countries. Millennium Development Goal 1 calls for a reduction in underweight children, implemented through a variety of interventions. To adequately judge the impact of these interventions, it is important to know the reproducibility of the main indicators for undernutrition. In this study, we trained individuals from rural communities in Ethiopia in anthropometry techniques and measured intra- and inter-observer reliability. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We trained 6 individuals without prior anthropometry experience to perform weight, height, and middle upper arm circumference (MUAC measurements. Two anthropometry teams were dispatched to 18 communities in rural Ethiopia and measurements performed on all consenting pre-school children. Anthropometry teams performed a second independent measurement on a convenience sample of children in order to assess intra-anthropometrist reliability. Both teams measured the same children in 2 villages to assess inter-anthropometrist reliability. We calculated several metrics of measurement reproducibility, including the technical error of measurement (TEM and relative TEM. In total, anthropometry teams performed measurements on 606 pre-school children, 84 of which had repeat measurements performed by the same team, and 89 of which had measurements performed by both teams. Intra-anthropometrist TEM (and relative TEM were 0.35 cm (0.35% for height, 0.05 kg (0.39% for weight, and 0.18 cm (1.27% for MUAC. Corresponding values for inter-anthropometrist reliability were 0.67 cm (0.75% for height, 0.09 kg (0.79% for weight, and 0.22 kg (1.53% for MUAC. Inter-anthropometrist measurement error was greater for smaller children than for larger children. CONCLUSION: Measurements of height and weight were more reproducible than measurements of MUAC and measurements of larger children were more

  5. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-03-28

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in an independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at two weeks of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable, and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations was assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week two but not at birth. Compared with the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0·01 kg with 2 sd limits of agreement (LOA) (0·18, -0·20). Prediction explained 88·9 % of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to the Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared with simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population- and age-appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  6. Methods to quantify soft tissue-based cranial growth and treatment outcomes in children: a systematic review.

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    Sander Brons

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Longitudinal assessment of cranial dimensions of growing children provides healthcare professionals with information about normal and deviating growth as well as treatment outcome. OBJECTIVE: To give an overview of soft tissue-based methods for quantitative longitudinal assessment of cranial dimensions in children until age 6 years and to assess the reliability of these methods in studies with good methodological quality. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL were searched. A manual search was performed to check for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION: Primary publications on facial growth and treatment outcomes in children younger than age 6 years were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent data extraction was performed by two observers. A quality assessment instrument was used to determine methodological quality. Methods used in studies with good methodological quality were assessed for reliability expressed as the magnitude of the measurement error and the correlation coefficient between repeated measurements. RESULTS: In total, 165 studies were included, forming three groups of methods: head circumference anthropometry, direct anthropometry, and 2D photography and 3D imaging techniques (surface laser scanning and stereophotogrammetry. In general, the measurement error was below 2 mm, and correlation coefficients were very good. CONCLUSION: Various methods for measuring cranial dimensions have shown to be reliable. Stereophotogrammetry is the most versatile method for quantitative longitudinal assessment of cranial dimensions and shapes in children. However, direct anthropometry continues to be the best method for routine clinical assessments of linear cranial dimensions in growing children until age 6 years.

  7. The relationship model of technical and tactical and morpho-functional characteristics of highly skilled swimmers specializing in 50 m butterfly

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    Оlena Politko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: development of model of the technical and tactical actions, morpho-functional characteristics of highly qualified athletes-swimmers specializing in the 50m butterfly way. Material & Methods: the analytical synthesis of scientific literature data, filming of competitive activity, getting of timing, anthropometry, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: developed model of technical and tactical actions, morphofunctional characteristics of highly qualified swimmers and determined the most important factors affecting athletic performance. Conclusions: the identification and assessment of the most important for the success of sports perfection indicators will allow to draw conclusions about the correctness of the training process according to chosen swimming specialization.

  8. Effects of exercise and group counselling on body composition and VO(2max) in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya; Birkebaek, Camilla; Ravn, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with an increased waist circumference and with lower cardio-respiratory fitness as a consequence of obesity, which may be improved by physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of high-intensity aerobic training combined...... with group counselling sessions on anthropometry and cardio-respiratory fitness in women with PCOS. DESIGN: Seventeen sedentary, overweight women with PCOS were randomized in a cross-over design to 16 weeks of intervention: Eight weeks high intensity aerobic exercise was followed by eight weeks group...

  9. Methods of 3D data applications to inform design decisions for physical comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    is enhanced when there is sufficient knowledge of human factors. The majority of these studies focus only on the acquirement and presentation of anthropometric data. This paper examines the incorporation of anthropometry in the design of external-ear devices. The aim of this paper is to provide different...... methods to support design applications (ways of analysis) of 3-dimensional head and ear data with a focus on external ear products. 200 persons representing the Danish population were scanned. The 3-d data was collected, refined and analysed. A matrix containing 29 new ear dimensions was generated...

  10. Anthropometric characteristics, high prevalence of undernutrition and weight loss: impact on outcomes in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after spinal fusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, Roslyn C

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal anthropometry including comparably lower weight and body mass index (BMI) in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) population is increasingly recognised, however, no study has examined postoperative weight loss or its clinical relevance in these relatively thin patients. This study aimed to assess perioperative nutritional status as well as clinically severe involuntary weight loss and its impact on outcomes in patients with AIS undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF). A further objective was to compare preoperative anthropometric measurements of the current AIS cohort with healthy controls.

  11. STATUS ANTROPOMETRI DENGAN BEBERAPA INDIKATOR PADA MAHASISWA TPB-IPB

    OpenAIRE

    Wilda Yunieswati; Dodik Briawan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to analyze the anthropometry status, and body fat percentage of first year students in IPB. The subjects of this study were 117 IPB first year students. The result shows that most of the male subjects has a normal body mass index (75.0%), normal waist circumference (87.5%) and normal waist-hip-ratio (93.8%). Most of the male subjects has a normal body fat percentage (37.5%). In the meanwhile, most of the female subjects has normal body mass index (83.2%...

  12. Food Availability en Route to School and Anthropometric Change in Urban Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rossen, Lauren M.; Curriero, Frank C.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele; Pollack, Keshia M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined food availability along children’s paths to and from elementary school, and associations with change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 1 year. Secondary data from 319 children aged 8–13 years from the “Multiple Opportunities to Reach Excellence” Project was used. Child anthropometry and demographic variables were obtained at baseline (2007) and 1 year follow-up. Food outlet locations (n = 1,410) were obtained from the Baltimore City Health Department an...

  13. Risiko Ergonomi Ketidaksesuaian Desain dan Ukuran Tempat Duduk Sepeda Motor terhadap Antropometri pada Mahasiswa

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    Zulkifli Djunaidi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transportasi merupakan hal yang sangat dibutuhkan dalam menunjang pembangunan nasional. Belum baiknya sistem transportasi massal di Indonesia, membuat masyarakat lebih memilih menggunakan kendaraan pribadi, seperti sepeda motor yang praktis dan ekonomis untuk digunakan. Namun, dalam menggunakan sepeda motor, aspek ergonomi dan kenyamanan bagi pengendara perlu untuk diperhatikan. Desain dan ukuran tempat duduk sepeda motor yang tidak sesuai dengan antropometri duduk statis pengendara dapat menimbulkan kelelahan pada pengendara dan mengakibatkan terjadinya kecelakaan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui risiko ergonomi dari ketidaksesuaian antara desain dan ukuran tempat duduk sepeda motor dengan antropometri duduk statis. Untuk menganalisis risiko ergonomi, dilakukan penelitian dengan desain deskriptif analitik pada mahasiswa di sekitar lingkungan kampus Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia pada bulan Oktober sampai dengan Desember 2009. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 100 orang responden, dibagi menjadi 50 orang laki-laki dan 50 orang perempuan. Sampel responden dipilih dengan metode cluster random sampling, sedangkan tipe sepeda motor dipilih berdasarkan yang paling banyak digunakan dengan metode simple stratified random sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat ketidaksesuaian antara ukuran tempat duduk sepeda motor dengan antropometri duduk statis pada mahasiswa. Adanya ketidaksesuaian tersebut dapat mengakibatkan risiko ergonomi pada pengendara dan terjadinya kecelakaan lalu lintas. Ergonomic Risks of Incompatibility of Design and Size of Motorcycle Seat againts Anthropometry among College Students Transportation is something needed most to support national development. Bad mass transportation system in Indonesia, makes people prefer to use private vehicles, such as motorcycle which is practical and economical to use. However, riders need to consider ergonomic and comfortability aspects in using motorcycle

  14. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte;

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...... was to investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated....

  15. Wearing complete dental prostheses - Effects on perioral morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Philipp; Thompson, Geoffrey A.; Güntsch, Arndt; Peisker, Andre; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Djedovic, Gabriel; Rieger, Ulrich M.; Beuer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background To adequately perform rehabilitation of edentulous patients by a complete removable dental prosthesis (CRDP) is from basic interest to dentists to understand the morphologic changes caused by re-establishment of a physiologic jaw relationship. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs may help elucidate such changes. Material and Methods Photographs of 31 edentulous patients were compared in relaxed lip closure and after insertion of a CRDP in stable occlusion. 2232 anthropometric distances were raised. Eighteen anthropometric indices reflecting the perioral morphology and its integration in the vertical facial harmony were investigated. Results The intercanthal – mouth width index (pDentures, removable dentures, anthropometry, perioral morphology. PMID:27031069

  16. Dynamics of lipid metabolism under the physical activity influence

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimov E.I.; Elnikova M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The results of influence of the physical loading are considered on the state of lipid exchange for practically healthy people and patients with a general metabolic syndrome. In research 38 sportsmen in age 22 - 27 years and 20 patients (women and men) took part by age of 35-47лет. Influence of physical exercises was estimated on the indexes of biochemical composition of blood, anthropometry, arteriotony. The complex of physical exercises was used in common with a dietotherapy during 4 months....

  17. Discordant Risk: Overweight and cardiometabolic risk in Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Adair, Linda S.; Meigs, James B.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Herring, Amy; Yan, Shengkai; Zhang, Bing; Shufa, Du; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent US work identifies “metabolically healthy overweight” and “metabolically at risk normal weight” individuals. Less is known for modernizing countries with recent increased obesity. Fasting blood samples, anthropometry and blood pressure from 8,233 adults aged 18–98 in the 2009 nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey, were used to determine prevalence of overweight (Asian cut point, BMI≥23 kg/m2) and five risk factors [pre-diabetes/diabetes (HbA1c≥5.7%) inflammation (hsCRP ≥3 mg/L),...

  18. Nutritional status, hospitalization and mortality among patients with sickle cell anemia in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, S.E.; Makani, J.; Fulford, A J; Komba, A. N.; Soka, D; Williams, T.N.; Newton, C R; Marsh, K.; Prentice, A M

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundReduced growth is common in children with sickle cell anemia, but few data exist on associations with long-term clinical course. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition at enrolment into a hospital-based cohort and whether poor nutritional status predicted morbidity and mortality within an urban cohort of Tanzanian sickle cell anemia patients.Design and MethodsAnthropometry was conducted at enrolment into the sickle cell anemia cohort (n = 1,618; ages 0.5-48 ye...

  19. On the investigation of possible remains of Field Marshal Iosif Gurko and his wife Maria (Salias de Turnemir found in their former estate Sakharovo (Tver Region, Russia

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    Andrei V Zinoviev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Two skeletons, found in the tomb of the former estate Sakharovo near the city of Tver, were investigated. Although fragmentary and lacking skulls, according to age of death and anthropometry they could have belonged to Field Marshal Iosif Vladimirovich Gurko (1828-1901 and his wife Maria Andreevna (Salias de Turnemir (1838-1906. Further investigations are necessary to locate clavicles of the male skeleton. Fused fracture of one of them can strengthen the idea of the male skeleton belonging to Field Marshal, who broke the clavicle during manoeuvres of 1874.

  20. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  1. The ANIBES Study on Energy Balance in Spain: Design, Protocol and Methodology

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    Emma Ruiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy Balance (EB is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be “dynamic” and not “static”. There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance” Study was to carry out an accurate updating of food and beverage intake, dietary habits/behaviour and anthropometric data of the Spanish population (9–75 years, n = 2009, as well as the energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. Anthropometry measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, % body fat, % body water were obtained; diet was evaluated throughout a three-day dietary record (tablet device accompanied by a 24 h-dietary recall; physical activity was quantified by questionnaire and accelerometers were also employed. Finally, information about perception and understanding of several issues related to EB was also obtained. The ANIBES study will contribute to provide valuable useful data to inform food policy planning, food based dietary guidelines development and other health oriented actions in Spain.

  2. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

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    Neha A Kajale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A, 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg (median [IQR]. Android fat % (central obesity increased (P 0.1. Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  3. The National WIC Evaluation: evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children. I. Background and introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, D; Horvitz, D G; Seaver, W B; Alvir, J M; Garbowski, G C; Leighton, J; Sloan, N L; Johnson, S S; Kulka, R A; Shanklin, D S

    1988-08-01

    The Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) aims to improve the nutrition and health of low-income, nutritionally at-risk pregnant women and preschool children with supplemental food, nutrition education, and coordination of health care. Started in 1972, it recently served greater than 3.4 million persons monthly and at a cost of $1.66 billion annually. The National WIC Evaluation (NWE) consisted of four studies: The historical study estimated changes in birth outcome attributable to WIC from 1972 to 1980 in 19 states and the District of Columbia from WIC program data and vital statistics. The longitudinal study of pregnant women compared dietary intake, weight gain, anthropometry, duration of gestation, birth weight, and infant length and head circumference between a representative national sample of WIC participants and economically comparable women. The cross-sectional study of preschool children related WIC to dietary intake, anthropometry, and psychological development. The food expenditures study estimated the impact of WIC on family grocery and other food expenditures. PMID:3400624

  4. Impact of ethnic conflict on the nutritional status and quality of life of suburban villagers in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Taro; Nakazawa, Minato; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Kamei, Kiseko; Sato, Kanae; Bakote'e, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the health and nutritional status and quality of life (QOL) of suburban villagers in the Solomon Islands 3 y after the 1998-2003 ethnic conflict. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a small community located 50 km east of the capital city (n=206, 87 adults and 119 children). A health survey involving urine analysis, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements was conducted to assess health and nutritional status and child growth. Simultaneously, 57 non-randomly selected adults participated in the QOL questionnaire survey. Results of anthropometry show that participants had good health and nutritional status (mean BMIs: 22.8 and 21.7 for men and women, respectively) and 73% of boys and 83% of girls were judged `normal body size' based on their BMI values. Urinalysis revealed that 88% of the participants were healthy and indicated that they consumed considerable amounts of purchased food such as rice and tinned meat. These findings suggest that the population's lifestyle had essentially recovered from the ethnic conflict. However, possible consequences of the ethnic conflict on the QOL scores were observed in the environmental domain. This study found a positive association between body fat and QOL. This could be interpreted in terms of the traditionally positive view of large bodies in the South Pacific and as resulting from unstable social conditions prevailing after the ethnic conflict. PMID:20924144

  5. Studi Ergonomi pada Penyimpanan Lahan Sawah Lebak Menggunakan Alat Tradisional Tajak di Kabupaten Banjar Kalimantan Selatan

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    Indya Dewi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional local farmers in South Kalimantan conventionally do the field preparation by using a traditional tool named “tajak”. This typical traditional tool is very appropriate for land preparation in marshland field which is enabling to cultivate without raising the pirit (FeS2 layer. However, it is quite difficult, hard and dangerous to operate tajak, and it’s difficult to learn by a novis operator as well. Therefore, ergonomics study will be beneficial to develop more convenient, safe and effective tajak. The result of workload analysis revealed that tajak operation is an “extremey hard” workload, whichs the avarage of IRHR is 2.14. The workload level of tajak operation is indicatively by workload intencity and swing elevation. Regarding the Total energy cost per weight (TEC’ and hours of work (JOK, the tajak operation consumes 5.36 kcal/kg.hour and need 61.07 hour/ha in average. Anthropometri and motion study analysed revealed that the dimentional suitability of tajak tool is strongly related to shoulders and waist heightly, arms length, and hands grips diameter. Based on the result of tajak anthropometri and motion analyses, for better design of tajak’s handle was recommended 75.70 cm.

  6. Analisis Antropometri terhadap Ruang Kendali Traktor Roda Empat buatan Jepang 'K' dan Eropa 'N'

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    Rhamdani Mardiansyah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four-wheeled tractor is one of the most important agricultural machine tools that used in activity of soil tillage. Most of the four wheeled tractor in Indonesia specially designed not for local operators because the design mostly followed by average size operators from the country that create the tractor, especially in the workstation design. Ergonomics approaching of anthropometry analysis have intended to determine safety and comfort level of operator duringoperation the tractor. Anthropometry analysis includes observation natural range of movements (ROM from Jetis’s farmers in operation the control device toward workstationof tractor made in Japan ‘K’ and Europe ‘N’.This analysis alsodetermine optimum range of control devices was controlled by the hands or feet operator. The result revealed that a positions of the control device in tractor made in Japan ‘K’ were situated inside the functional reach envelope operator of a 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male Jetis’s farmers. According to analysis result, the tractor made in Japan ‘K’ is more compatible for Jetis’s farmers than tractor made in Europe ‘N’.

  7. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%)

  8. Lessons from the Bone Chapter of the Malaysian Aging Men Study

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    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Male osteoporosis in Malaysia is a largely neglected problem. Therefore, a bone health study in men using quantitative ultrasonometry was launched as part of the Malaysian Aging Men Study in 2009–2012. This review aimed to summarize the findings of the aforementioned bone health study. The study examined the bone health of Chinese and Malaysian men aged 20 years and above living in Kuala Lumpur using a quantitative ultrasound device. Participants answered a questionnaire on their demographic details and physical activity status. Body anthropometry of the participants was measured and their blood collected for biochemical analysis. Results showed that a significant proportion of the Malaysian Chinese and Malay men had suboptimal bone health indicated by calcaneal speed of sound and vitamin D status. Age-related decline of the calcaneal speed of sound in these men was gradual and biphasic without ethnic difference. Body anthropometry such as height, weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage contributed to the variation of the calcaneal speed of sound in Malaysian men. Age-related changes in testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and thyroid stimulating hormone also influenced the calcaneal speed of sound in these men. This study serves as a reminder that male osteoporosis in Malaysia should be an issue of concern. It is also a basis for a more comprehensive study on bone health in men in the future.

  9. Prenatal pesticide exposure and PON1 genotype associated with adolescent body fat distribution evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinggaard, J; Wohlfahrt-Veje, C; Husby, S; Christiansen, L; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T K; Grandjean, P; Main, K M; Andersen, H R

    2016-07-01

    Many modern pesticides have endocrine disrupting abilities and early-life exposure may affect growth and disease risk later in life. Previously, we reported associations between prenatal pesticide exposure and higher childhood body fat content measured by anthropometry. The associations were affected by child PON1 Q192R genotype. We aimed to study whether prenatal pesticide exposure was still associated with body fat content and distribution in the children at puberty and the potential impact of both maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype. In this prospective cohort study of 247 children born by occupationally exposed or unexposed women (greenhouse workers and controls) two follow-up examinations (age 10-15 and 11-16 years) including simple anthropometry, skinfold measurements, pubertal staging and blood sampling were performed. Total and regional fat% was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at age 10-15. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with increased total, android, and gynoid fat percentage (DXA) at age 10-15 years after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic status, and puberty (all β = 0.5 standard deviation score (SDS) p android-gynoid ratio: β = 0.1, both p android fat deposition, independent of puberty. Girls appeared more susceptible than boys. Furthermore, the association depended on maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype.

  10. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether there are significant differences between two- and four-compartment model estimates of body composition, whether these differences are associated with aqueous and mineral fractions of the fat-free mass (FFM); and whether the differences are retained in equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and bioelectric resistance. Body composition was estimated in 98 men and women aged 65-94 y by using a four-compartment model based on hydrodensitometry, 3H2O dilution, and dual-photon absorptiometry. These estimates were significantly different from those obtained by using Siri's two-compartment model. The differences were associated significantly (P less than 0.0001) with variation in the aqueous fraction of FFM. Equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and resistance, when calibrated against two-compartment model estimates, retained these systematic errors. Equations predicting body composition in elderly people should be calibrated against estimates from multicompartment models that consider variability in FFM composition

  11. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Horan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI, remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142 and intervention group (n = 138, who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  12. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  13. Lessons from the Bone Chapter of the Malaysian Aging Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Male osteoporosis in Malaysia is a largely neglected problem. Therefore, a bone health study in men using quantitative ultrasonometry was launched as part of the Malaysian Aging Men Study in 2009–2012. This review aimed to summarize the findings of the aforementioned bone health study. The study examined the bone health of Chinese and Malaysian men aged 20 years and above living in Kuala Lumpur using a quantitative ultrasound device. Participants answered a questionnaire on their demographic details and physical activity status. Body anthropometry of the participants was measured and their blood collected for biochemical analysis. Results showed that a significant proportion of the Malaysian Chinese and Malay men had suboptimal bone health indicated by calcaneal speed of sound and vitamin D status. Age-related decline of the calcaneal speed of sound in these men was gradual and biphasic without ethnic difference. Body anthropometry such as height, weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage contributed to the variation of the calcaneal speed of sound in Malaysian men. Age-related changes in testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and thyroid stimulating hormone also influenced the calcaneal speed of sound in these men. This study serves as a reminder that male osteoporosis in Malaysia should be an issue of concern. It is also a basis for a more comprehensive study on bone health in men in the future. PMID:27231930

  14. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  15. Biofidelity Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid III 6 Year-Old ATD Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Laura C; Bing, Julie; Bolte, John H

    2016-09-01

    Incomplete instrumentation and a lack of biofidelity in the extremities of the 6 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) pose challenges when studying regions of the body known to interact with the vehicle interior. This study sought to compare a prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg (ATD-LE), with a more biofidelic ankle and tibia load cell, to previously collected child volunteer data and to the current Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD (HIII). Anthropometry, range of motion (ROM), and stiffness measurements were taken, along with a dynamic evaluation of the ATD-LE using knee-bolster airbag (KBA) test scenarios. Anthropometry values were similar in eight of twelve measurements. Total ankle ROM was improved in the ATD-LE with no bumper compared to the HIII. The highest tibia moments and tibia index values were recorded in KBA scenarios when the toes were positioned in contact with the dashboard prior to airbag deployment, forcing the ankle into axial loading and dorsiflexion. While improvements in the biofidelity of the ATD-LE are still necessary, the results of this study are encouraging. Continued advancement of the 6 year-old ATD ankle is necessary to provide a tool to directly study the behavior of the leg during a motor vehicle crash.

  16. [Nutritional screening tool versus anthropometric assessment in hospitalized children: which method is better associated to clinical outcomes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Costa, María Verónica; Alberici Pastore, Carla

    2015-03-01

    Hospitalization contributes to worsening of the nutritional status and malnutrition is associate to increase in morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to asses nutritional status/risk using anthropometry and the Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids), comparing their results to clinical outcomes. For that propose, was conducted an observational longitudinal study with children up to one month of life, hospitalized in Pediatric ward of a teaching hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by Body Mass Index for age and weight for age. Nutritional risk was classified as high, intermediate or low. The length of stay, clinical outcome and complications were taken of the medical records. This project was approved by the Ethics Committee on Research. Were evaluated 181 children, from both sexes. The median age was 8.8 (IQR 3.3; 26.9) months and the median length of stay was 7 (IQR 4; 10) days. There was 20.8% of malnutrition in children younger than one year. Most of the children (55.3%) were classified as in intermediate nutritional risk. The length of stay was associated to nutritional risk, while anthropometry was associated to only in those younger than one year. There were five infectious complication, not associated to nutritional status/risk. Therefore, nutritional risk was significantly associated to length of stay, showing that STRONGkids was a better method compared to anthropometric nutritional assessment to predict this outcome. PMID:26320301

  17. Biofidelity Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid III 6 Year-Old ATD Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Laura C; Bing, Julie; Bolte, John H

    2016-09-01

    Incomplete instrumentation and a lack of biofidelity in the extremities of the 6 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) pose challenges when studying regions of the body known to interact with the vehicle interior. This study sought to compare a prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg (ATD-LE), with a more biofidelic ankle and tibia load cell, to previously collected child volunteer data and to the current Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD (HIII). Anthropometry, range of motion (ROM), and stiffness measurements were taken, along with a dynamic evaluation of the ATD-LE using knee-bolster airbag (KBA) test scenarios. Anthropometry values were similar in eight of twelve measurements. Total ankle ROM was improved in the ATD-LE with no bumper compared to the HIII. The highest tibia moments and tibia index values were recorded in KBA scenarios when the toes were positioned in contact with the dashboard prior to airbag deployment, forcing the ankle into axial loading and dorsiflexion. While improvements in the biofidelity of the ATD-LE are still necessary, the results of this study are encouraging. Continued advancement of the 6 year-old ATD ankle is necessary to provide a tool to directly study the behavior of the leg during a motor vehicle crash. PMID:26864538

  18. Nutritional status, socio-economic and hygienic condition of school aged children of a village of Pune District, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puranik SS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human body measurements, such as weight, height and size; including skin fold thickness, circumference, lengths, and breadths. Anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children and adults. Anthropometric data for children reflect general health status, dietary adequacy and growth and development over time. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and analyze the magnitude and causes of nutritional and health problems of the village. Method: Anthropometric reference data of 100 children between 7-14 years of age from a small village situated 30 km from Pune. Using this data BMI i.e. Body Mass Index was calculated which helps in determining whether an individual is overweight or underweight. Result: The overall study helped us to find out the socioeconomic condition, hygienic condition as well as nutritional status of children. All the anthropometric measurements of the girls and boys in 7-14 years age group was found to be significantly normal. Conclusion: The hygienic condition of the village was good enough and in turn BMI data shows that the socioeconomic condition of the village was also good.

  19. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156

  20. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Kin Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orang Asli (aborigine children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC, Kato-Katz (KK, and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33 of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33 of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97% were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.

  1. Nutrient Intake in Italian Infants and Toddlers from North and South Italy: The Nutrintake 636 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed a cross-sectional study to compare the intake of energy, macronutrients, fiber, sodium and iron and the anthropometric status of infants and toddlers living in North (Milano and South Italy (Catania. Nutrient intake was evaluated using a 7-day weighed food record. Out of 400 planned children aged 6 to 36 months, 390 (98% were recruited, 189 in Milano and 201 in Catania. The mean (standard deviation age was 17 (9 months in Milano and 17 (10 months in Catania. Anthropometry, energy intake and macronutrient intake were similar in Milano and Catania. However, iron intake was 27% lower and fiber intake 16% higher in Milano than in Catania. Despite normal anthropometry and energy intake, in the pooled sample there was a high intake of proteins, simple carbohydrates, saturated fats and sodium, and a low intake of iron and fiber compared to Italian reference values. This is the first study to report the macro- and micro-nutrient intake of children aged <12 months using the 7-day weighed food record and one of the very few studies that have employed such reference method in children from the general population.

  2. Do human parents face a quantity-quality tradeoff?: evidence from a Shuar community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward H; Barrett, H Clark; Price, Michael E

    2006-07-01

    A number of evolutionary theories of human life history assume a quantity-quality tradeoff for offspring production: parents with fewer offspring can have higher biological fitness than those with more. Direct evidence for such a tradeoff, however, is mixed. We tested this assumption in a community of Ecuadorian Shuar hunter-horticulturalists, using child anthropometry as a proxy for fitness. We measured the impact of household consumer/producer (CP) ratio on height, weight, skinfold thicknesses, and arm and calf circumferences of 85 children and young adults. To control for possible "phenotypic" correlates that might mask the effect of CP ratio on anthropometry, we also measured household garden productivity, wealth, and social status. Regression models of the age-standardized variables indicated a significant negative impact of CP ratio on child growth and nutrition. The age-standardized height and weight of children in households with the largest CP ratio (10) were 1.38 and 1.44 standard deviations, respectively, below those of children in households with the smallest CP ratio (2). Surprisingly, garden productivity, wealth, and status had little to no effect on the fitness proxies. There was, however, an interesting and unexpected interaction between status and sex: for females, but not males, higher father status correlated significantly with higher values on the proxies. PMID:16365856

  3. Physics-based Simulation of Human Posture Using 3D Whole Body Scanning Technology for Astronaut Space Suit Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years high precision three-dimensional (3D) full body laser scanners have been developed to be used as a powerful anthropometry tool for quantification of the morphology of the human body. The full body scanner can quickly extract body characteristics in non-contact fashion. It is required for the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) to have capabilities for kinematics simulation of a digital human at various postures whereas the laser scanner only allows capturing a single static posture at each time. During this summer fellowship period a theoretical study has been conducted to estimate an arbitrary posture with a series of example postures through finite element (FE) approximation and found that four-point isoparametric FE approximation would result in reasonable maximum position errors less than 5%. Subsequent pilot scan experiments demonstrated that a bead marker with a nominal size of 6 mm could be used as a marker for digitizing 3-D coordinates of anatomical landmarks for further kinematic analysis. Two sessions of human subject testing were conducted for reconstruction of an arbitrary postures from a set of example postures for each joint motion for the forearm/hand complex and the whole upper extremity.

  4. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morales-Suárez-Varela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5-15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry.This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013 was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5-15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians.The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013 in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses was low, especially vegetables (32.9%. Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001. Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends.When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013, we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population's anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life.

  5. Relating Linear and Volumetric Variables Through Body Scanning to Improve Human Interfaces in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Ferrer, Mike A.; Young, Karen S.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Designing space suits and vehicles for the diverse human population present unique challenges for the methods of traditional anthropometry. Space suits are bulky and allow the operator to shift position within the suit and inhibit the ability to identify body landmarks. Limited suit sizing options also cause variability in fit and performance between similarly sized individuals. Space vehicles are restrictive in volume in both the fit and the ability to collect data. NASA's Anthropometric and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) has utilized 3D scanning to shift from traditional linear anthropometry to explore and examine volumetric capabilities to provide anthropometric solutions for design. Overall, the key goals are to improve the human-system performance and develop new processes to aid in the design and evaluation of space systems. Four case studies are presented that illustrate the shift from purely linear analyses to an augmented volumetric toolset to predict and analyze the human within the space suit and vehicle. The first case study involves the calculation of maximal head volume to estimate total free volume in the helmet for proper air exchange. Traditional linear measurements resulted in an inaccurate representation of the head shape, yet limited data exists for the determination of a large head volume. Steps were first taken to identify and classify a maximum head volume and the resulting comparisons to the estimate are presented in this paper. This study illustrates the gap between linear components of anthropometry and the need for overall volume metrics in order to provide solutions. A second case study examines the overlay of the space suit scans and components onto scanned individuals to quantify fit and clearance to aid in sizing the suit to the individual. Restrictions in space suit size availability present unique challenges to optimally fit the individual within a limited sizing range while maintaining performance. Quantification of the clearance and

  6. DNA methylation of the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region and adiposity distribution in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Rae-Chi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 and H19 imprinted genes control growth and body composition. Adverse in-utero environments have been associated with obesity-related diseases and linked with altered DNA methylation at the IGF2/H19 locus. Postnatally, methylation at the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR has been linked with cerebellum weight. We aimed to investigate whether decreased IGF2/H19 ICR methylation is associated with decreased birth and childhood anthropometry and increased contemporaneous adiposity. DNA methylation in peripheral blood (n = 315 at 17 years old was measured at 12 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs, analysed as Sequenom MassARRAY EpiTYPER units within the IGF2/H19 ICR. Birth size, childhood head circumference (HC at six time-points and anthropometry at age 17 years were measured. DNA methylation was investigated for its association with anthropometry using linear regression. Results The principal component of IGF2/H19 ICR DNA methylation (representing mean methylation across all CpG units positively correlated with skin fold thickness (at four CpG units (P-values between 0.04 to 0.001 and subcutaneous adiposity (P = 0.023 at age 17, but not with weight, height, BMI, waist circumference or visceral adiposity. IGF2/H19 methylation did not associate with birth weight, length or HC, but CpG unit 13 to 14 methylation was negatively associated with HC between 1 and 10 years. β-coefficients of four out of five remaining CpG units also estimated lower methylation with increasing childhood HC. Conclusions As greater IGF2/H19 methylation was associated with greater subcutaneous fat measures, but not overall, visceral or central adiposity, we hypothesize that obesogenic pressures in youth result in excess fat being preferentially stored in peripheral fat depots via the IGF2/H19 domain. Secondly, as IGF2/H19 methylation was not associated with birth size but negatively with early childhood HC, we

  7. The Interactive Association of General Obesity and Central Obesity with Prevalent Hypertension in Rural Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhong; Wan, Liping; Wang, Zengwu; Wang, Xin; Di, Zhaoxin; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the interactive association between obesity with different anthropometry indices and prevalence of hypertension in rural Lanzhou. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Lanzhou from April to July in 2013. The available information of 1275 rural residents aged more than 35 years was collected with a unified questionnaire and their blood pressure and anthropometry indices were measured in the field. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.1. A generalized estimate equation (GEE) linear model was used to determine the association between obesity with different indexes and hypertension. Results There was a moderate prevalence of general obesity (~11%) and very high prevalence of central obesity (53.2~67%) among the adults of rural Lanzhou. The prevalence of hypertension approximated 28%. GEE linear models showed that obesity with any one of anthropometry indices was associated significantly with the increased prevalence of hypertension among both males and females. In females, general obesity increased the prevalence of hypertension by 37% (0.37, 95%CI: 0.27,0.47) but in males by 23% (0.23, 95%CI: 0.12,0.35). The hypertensive effect of all central obesity was much lower than that of general obesity but approximately comparable to that of overweight. In addition, the interactions of the classified body mass index (BMI) and central obesity showed that when general obesity or overweight coexisted with any one of central obesity, the prevalence of hypertension was increased significantly, and this effect was a little higher than the corresponding main effect of general obesity or overweight in females but was much higher in males. In addition, general obesity or overweight which did not coexist with central obesity was not significantly associated with the increased prevalence of hypertension, nor were the other situations of central obesity in the normal weight or underweight except for the situation of central obesity with waist

  8. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong;

    2014-01-01

    . Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616). Cognitive performance was assessed...... using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0......BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects...

  9. Impact of TCF7L2 rs7903146 on insulin secretion and action in young and elderly Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegner, Lise; Hussain, Meena S; Pilgaard, Kasper;

    2008-01-01

    nondiabetic T-allele carriers had increased peripheral insulin sensitivity (P = 0.03). Young T-allele carriers had impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity (P = 0.04) independent of plasma insulin levels. TCF7L2 gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was not explained by genotype, sex, aerobic...... capacity, birth, or adult anthropometry and was not associated with in vivo glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The rs7903146 T-allele associates with hepatic insulin resistance and diminished glucose-stimulated plasma insulin secretion. Our study does not provide evidence of a role of TCF7L2 gene expression......OBJECTIVE: We investigated the regulation and metabolic effects of TCF7L2 gene expression in human sc fat and skeletal muscle and the impact of the TCF7L2, rs7903146, T-allele on gene expression and measures of glucose metabolism including insulin secretion and peripheral and hepatic insulin action...

  10. Assessment of energy balance against the nutritional status of women carriers in the brickfields of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Bijetri; Sen, Devashish

    2016-09-01

    The Indian brick industry is an unorganized sector in which large numbers of migrant women workers are employed. A survey was conducted on 62 women workers working in different brickfields of West Bengal to assess their physiological workload, nutritional profile, total energy expenditure and energy balance. Energy intake was calculated using physiological fuel values of carbohydrate, fat and protein. From the results it is seen that 13% of the sample population falls under severe (grade III) chronic energy deficiency. The average daily consumption of the workers was comparatively lower than their daily energy expenditure, considering the nature of the job which falls under heavy to extremely heavy categories. This negative energy balance is effectively observed in the nutritional anthropometry data. Thus, an immediate ergonomics intervention with better nutrition should be implemented to improve the health status of the workers so they can safely continue to work for a longer period. PMID:27092582

  11. One Year Sustain ability of Risk Factor Change from a 9-Week Workplace Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effect of a 9-week diet and physical activity intervention provided in the workplace by a group education session where personal dietary and physical activity goals were proposed. Measurements of anthropometry, fasting blood lipids, glucose and insulin, assays for antioxidant activity (AOA) and questionnaires were completed at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks in 50 healthy workers (50% male, mean age 46y). Followup measurements in 39 (56% male) were possible at 52 weeks. At week 3 a group dietary and physical activity motivational seminar was held. At week 6, half the group were supplied daily kiwifruit for 3 weeks with cross over at week 9 until week 12. Compared to baseline, lipid, glucose, insulin and AOA measurements were improved at 12 and 52 weeks. Body measurements did not change. Group diet and physical activity advice reinforced over 9 weeks is associated with a sustained improvement in cardiovascular risk factors at 52 weeks.

  12. Nutritional status and cognitive performance of mother-child pairs in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean ± standard deviation age of the mothers was 29 ± 6 years and family size was 7.0 ± 2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI child health but also cognitive function.

  13. Facial expression reconstruction on the basis of selected vertices of triangle mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peszor, Damian; Wojciechowska, Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Facial expression reconstruction is an important issue in the field of computer graphics. While it is relatively easy to create an animation based on meshes constructed through video recordings, this kind of high-quality data is often not transferred to another model because of lack of intermediary, anthropometry-based way to do so. However, if a high-quality mesh is sampled with sufficient density, it is possible to use obtained feature points to encode the shape of surrounding vertices in a way that can be easily transferred to another mesh with corresponding feature points. In this paper we present a method used for obtaining information for the purpose of reconstructing changes in facial surface on the basis of selected feature points.

  14. Force production in the rugby union scrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, K L; Wilson, B D

    2000-04-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between anthropometric, strength and power characteristics of rugby forwards, their body position when scrummaging, and their ability to apply force when scrummaging. Force applied to an instrumented scrum machine was measured for 56 players, both individually and as scrum packs. Measurements of body position for individuals were made by digitizing videotape records of the trials. Forty players subsequently had their anthropometry assessed and completed several strength and power tests. Body mass, each component of somatotype, maximal anaerobic power developed on a cycle ergometer, and isokinetic knee extension strength correlated significantly with individual scrummaging force. A regression model (P scrum pack to develop technique and coordination as a unit to maximize scrummaging force. PMID:10824640

  15. Life style and nutritional status in university students: a descriptive, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Córdoba Adaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifestyle is the set of behaviors that an individual practices consciously and voluntarily in the course of his or her life. The assessment of nutritional status by anthropometry can lead to the adoption of preventive measures for health. This is especially important in young people, as many authors have noted that the university population is particularly vulnerable for risky customs and habits. Aim. The purpose of this study is to assess and relate lifestyle with nutritional status of university students. Design. Observational descriptive, cross-sectional. Nutritional status was evaluated and the FANTASTIC questionnaire was applied. Results. 88.1% of students have a healthy lifestyle and 65% were classified as normal according to body mass index. Conclusion. The study found that there is a relationship between lifestyle and nutritional status. On the other hand risk behaviors were identified in the dimensions of nutrition, tobacco smoking, sleep and stress.

  16. Assessment of energy balance against the nutritional status of women carriers in the brickfields of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Bijetri; Sen, Devashish

    2016-09-01

    The Indian brick industry is an unorganized sector in which large numbers of migrant women workers are employed. A survey was conducted on 62 women workers working in different brickfields of West Bengal to assess their physiological workload, nutritional profile, total energy expenditure and energy balance. Energy intake was calculated using physiological fuel values of carbohydrate, fat and protein. From the results it is seen that 13% of the sample population falls under severe (grade III) chronic energy deficiency. The average daily consumption of the workers was comparatively lower than their daily energy expenditure, considering the nature of the job which falls under heavy to extremely heavy categories. This negative energy balance is effectively observed in the nutritional anthropometry data. Thus, an immediate ergonomics intervention with better nutrition should be implemented to improve the health status of the workers so they can safely continue to work for a longer period.

  17. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Visscher, P M; Erbas, B;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition in women and men, and to assess the impact of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 325 female and 299 male like-sex healthy twin pairs, on average 38 y old (18-67 y......), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program....... Further, these variance components were analysed as linear functions of age. RESULTS: In both women and men genetic contributions were significant for all phenotypes. Heritability for body mass index was 0.58 and 0.63; for body fat%, 0.59 and 0.63; for total skinfolds, 0.61 and 0.65; for extremity...

  18. Association between socioeconomic vulnerability and height with obesity in low-income Chilean children in the transition from preschool to first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Juliana; Orellana, Yasna; Leyton, Bárbara; Taibo, Marcela; Vio, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the percentage of obesity among lower-income Chilean children 4-6 years of age, by socioeconomic vulnerability (family score assessing the children's risk of becoming poor) and height. The sample included 17,080 children with anthropometry at 4, 5, and 6 years of age, and three categories of socioeconomic vulnerability. Body mass index Z-score (BMI Z), % obesity, height/age Z-score (HAZ) by socioeconomic vulnerability/sex, the effect of socioeconomic vulnerability on BMI Z and HAZ by age/sex, and BMI Z and % obesity at 4-6 years, according to initial height, were determined. Between 4-6 years, % obesity is very high, especially among the less-vulnerable and taller children. Preventive measures should prioritize this group.

  19. Model characteristics of the structure physical training fighters qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryimakov O.O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studied the structure of the relationship of physical fitness level fighters with physical disabilities and special performance. It is studied 147 athletes Ukraine qualifications in Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling, judo. Applied the methods of anthropometry kaliperometrii, teacher testing, testing of a special performance. It is shown that the qualification defines the relationship and the relationship of morphometric and speed-power performance, the level of special performance athletes. With the advanced training of fighters increased level of speed, force readiness, increase the size Spigot neck, hips, chest, shoulders, reduced the percentage of fat component, increases muscular component, the index increased muscle development. Morphometric parameters with the most skilled fighters and cross-linked Spigot size of the body of the speed and power - explosive power, strength and speed-strength endurance, speed.

  20. Dietary information after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer; Kostveiledning etter straalebehandling for kreft i hode- og halsregionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevik, A.; Almendingen, K.; Dotterud, M. [Norske Radiumhospital, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    After completed radiotherapy, 24 in-patients and 25 out-patients were randomized to either tailored dietary information and instruction by a clinical nutritionist or regular dietary information from a nurse. At the six weeks followup examination the incidence of malnutrition, as evaluated by anthropometry and routine blood analyses, was lower among the patients who had been given intensive information than those who had received regulation information. Out-patients lost more weight than in-patients did. The in-patients randomized to intensive dietary information were the only ones who did not lose weight. This study indicates a beneficial effect of intensive dietary advise in order to improve nutritional status after radiation treatment. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  2. Nutritional status of cancer patients given different treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, K; Roy, R K; Vijayalakshmi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2004-08-01

    The nutritional status of 91 cancer patients was assessed at the time of diagnosis and follow-up assessments were carried out at the third and sixth week after initiating different treatment modalities to study the effect of type and duration of treatment on nutritional status. Parameters assessed were anthropometry, biochemical status and clinical signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiencies. Treatment modalities studied were radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemotherapy+radiotherapy, and combined treatment modality (surgery+radiotherapy+chemotherapy). The nutritional status of male patients was affected most by chemotherapy+radiotherapy while females were affected most with radiotherapy. Biochemical parameters showed a marginal decline in total serum protein and serum albumin concentrations. Haemoglobin concentrations declined substantially with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The lymphocyte count decreased substantially irrespective of the treatment modality. Clinical examination revealed increased incidences of deficiency signs and symptoms in all patients during follow-up irrespective of treatment modality.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic risk, and inflammation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulos, Antonios D; Douda, Helen T; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4  ±  0.4 years). Data was obtained for children's anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, without gender differences. Subjects with low fitness showed significantly higher MetS risk (P strategies aiming at reducing obesity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood might contribute to the prevention of the MetS in adulthood. PMID:22315623

  4. Vitamin D status and association to bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish school children: preliminary results from the Opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.;

    2013-01-01

    conducted and anthropometry, puberty stage, intake of dietary supplements and physical activity was measured. Whole body DXA scans were performed and total body less head (TBLH) DXA values were used in data analyses. Results: Serum 25(OH)D ranged from 15.2 to 132 nmol/l, with mean of 60.7±18.7 nmol...... for bone area (BA), age, height, weight, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and physical activity. Likewise, no associations were found between serum 25(OH)D and BA or BMD. Conclusion: A substantial number of Danish children did not reach the recommended level of 25(OH)D (>50 nmol/l) during autumn. Despite......Background: Low vitamin D concentrations among children and adolescents at northern latitudes are frequently observed. Also, inverse associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and PTH concentrations have been found in children of different ages. More studies on the link between vitamin D...

  5. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    Background: Birth weight and high weight gain the first years of life is associated with later body composition and increased risk of obesity. A detailed description of body composition at 3 years of age and factors related to the distribution of fat and fat-free mass is interesting, since body......D study was to look at which factors were related to body composition at 3 years of age with a special focus on factors related to later obesity risk. A methodological objective was to be able to predict body composition by using bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry. Secondly, an objective...... was to identify growth periods with relation to body composition at 3 years and whether the impact of growth was modified by nutrition. A third objective was to examine the relation between IGF-I levels at 9 and 36 months and body composition at 3 years. Since the IGF-I level was expected to be affected...

  6. The organization of classes by physical education of students of higher educational institutions taking into account their interests and individual physical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Novitskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the definition of criteria of an assessment of specific features of physical development and adequate to it norms of the motive activity. Material and Methods: the analytical synthesis of data of literature, clinical anthropometry of the investigated contingent, the use of sign semantic spaces, methods of an assessment of a biological age. Results: the nature of creation of standards is considered for a control of the level of physical development and an assessment of physical fitness of students. Conclusions: the organization of classes by physical training in HEI has to be based on the accounting of individual physical development, the available level of physical fitness and the current physical state

  7. Several Conventional Risk Markers Suggesting Presence of Albuminuria Are Weak Among Rural Africans With Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B.; Nordin, Lovisa S.; Thomsen, Jakúp A.;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate risk markers indicating the presence of albuminuria in patients with hypertension in rural sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Urine albumin-creatinine ratio, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), blood pressure, anthropometry, and other patient...... characteristics including medications were assessed. We identified 160 patients with hypertension, of whom 68 (42.5%) were co-diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). Among the included participants, 57 (35.6%) had albuminuria (microalbuminuria [n=43] and macroalbuminuria [n=14]). A backward multivariate logistic...... regression model identified age (per 10-year increment) (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.95), HbA1c >53 compared with treatment with dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.09-6.16) as the variables...

  8. Analysis of measured data of human body based on error correcting frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Aiyan; Peipei, Gao; Shang, Xiaomei

    2014-04-01

    Anthropometry is to measure all parts of human body surface, and the measured data is the basis of analysis and study of the human body, establishment and modification of garment size and formulation and implementation of online clothing store. In this paper, several groups of the measured data are gained, and analysis of data error is gotten by analyzing the error frequency and using analysis of variance method in mathematical statistics method. Determination of the measured data accuracy and the difficulty of measured parts of human body, further studies of the causes of data errors, and summarization of the key points to minimize errors possibly are also mentioned in the paper. This paper analyses the measured data based on error frequency, and in a way , it provides certain reference elements to promote the garment industry development.

  9. Representing older and disabled people in virtual user trials: data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyi, D E; Sims, R E; Porter, J M; Marshall, R; Case, K

    2004-09-01

    A database was developed to support the creation of a computer-based tool which will support design teams in evaluating the usability of a design during early prototyping and indicate which individuals are effectively excluded or designed out. Methods are described for the collection of multivariate data on 100 real individuals covering a range of physical characteristics and capabilities. These data were tested to ensure a breadth of representation of individuals (particularly older and disabled people) in terms of anthropometry, joint constraints, postural capabilities and task behaviours. The concept of the design tool itself is explored by conducting virtual user trials in the computer-aided design environment. The novel approach of the research encourages empathy with individual users and allows generic abilities, such as bending, reaching and lifting to be assessed.

  10. One Year Sustainability of Risk Factor Change from a 9-Week Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. Rush

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of a 9-week diet and physical activity intervention provided in the workplace by a group education session where personal dietary and physical activity goals were proposed. Measurements of anthropometry, fasting blood lipids, glucose and insulin, assays for antioxidant activity (AOA and questionnaires were completed at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks in 50 healthy workers (50% male, mean age 46y. Followup measurements in 39 (56% male were possible at 52 weeks. At week 3 a group dietary and physical activity “motivational seminar” was held. At week 6, half the group were supplied daily kiwifruit for 3 weeks with cross over at week 9 until week 12. Compared to baseline, lipid, glucose, insulin and AOA measurements were improved at 12 and 52 weeks. Body measurements did not change. Group diet and physical activity advice reinforced over 9 weeks is associated with a sustained improvement in cardiovascular risk factors at 52 weeks.

  11. Dynamics of lipid metabolism under the physical activity influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov E.I.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of influence of the physical loading are considered on the state of lipid exchange for practically healthy people and patients with a general metabolic syndrome. In research 38 sportsmen in age 22 - 27 years and 20 patients (women and men took part by age of 35-47лет. Influence of physical exercises was estimated on the indexes of biochemical composition of blood, anthropometry, arteriotony. The complex of physical exercises was used in common with a dietotherapy during 4 months. It is set that a complex causes regression of pathological displays. Physical activity has an unidirectional effect on lipid metabolism both in athletes and persons suffering from metabolic disorders.

  12. Family involvement in the treatment of childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Helle Nergaard; Madsen, Svend Aage Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of a family-based childhood obesity treatment on anthropometry and predictors of dropout and successful weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 18-month treatment consisted of a intensive period (IP) including physical exercise......, nutritional guidance, family psychotherapy, child group sessions and a 1-year follow-up (FU). RESULTS: One hundred children (10-12 years old, >140% of median weight-for-height) participated. The 81 children completing the IP decreased significantly from 2.9 to 2.6 body mass index (BMI) standard deviation...... score (SDS) units (p children completing the FU had a further decrease of 0.2 BMI SDS units (p = 0.003). Weight loss was less in children from immigrant families. Drop-out was higher if the mother...

  13. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z-scores...... (WAZ) from 0 to 5, 5 to 9, 9 to 18 and 18 to 36 months were analysed for relations with body composition (anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance) at 3 years by multivariate regression analysis. BWZ and change in WAZ from 0 to 5 months were positively associated with BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat...

  14. Assessment of anthropometric methods in headset design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2012-01-01

    process once prototypes are developed and tested. Current databases for anthropometric data e.g. Peoplesize Software [Peoplesize 2008] lack data regarding useful ear dimensions of the external ear area. This paper examines the incorporation of anthropometry in the design of external-ear devices, resulting...... in a faster development process and better quality products. Anthropometric dataset have been acquired through existing databases and a series of anthropometric methods performed on population samples. The context of the study is to assess the methods to collect data utilising a case study from the ear...... industry. The intention of this approach is to investigate and evaluate the methods leading to a recommendation of their usage during the different phases of the product development process. The current study explores the complicated relationships between comfort, technology and humans through...

  15. Weight Management in Phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Julio César; van Rijn, Margreet; van Dam, Esther;

    2016-01-01

    and frequency and severity of associated metabolic comorbidities. The main objectives of this review are to suggest proposals for the minimal standard and gold standard for the assessment of weight management in PKU. While the former aims to underline the importance of nutritional status evaluation in every...... specialized clinic, the second objective is important in establishing an understanding of the breadth of overweight and obesity in PKU in Europe. KEY MESSAGES: In PKU, the importance of adopting a European nutritional management strategy on weight management is highlighted in order to optimize long....... It is becoming evident that in addition to acceptable blood phenylalanine control, metabolic dieticians should regard weight management as part of routine clinical practice. SUMMARY: It is important for practitioners to differentiate the 3 levels for overweight interpretation: anthropometry, body composition...

  16. Evaluation of adipose tissue mass with anthropometric and visualization methods; its relation to the components of the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Markova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed an estimation of body fat using ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and anthropometry in 60 patients with different types of body weight (BW. Correlation of waist circumference (WC, thickness of subcutaneous fat and visceral fat with components of the metabolic syndrome was studied comparatively between ultrasound and MRI measurements. We noted a preferential increase in the thickness of visceral fat compared with subcutaneous with increasing degree of BW. Significant increase in adipose tissue and the development of metabolic disorders occurs in overweight, making it the state close to obesity. During a routine ultrasound of the abdomen it is advisable to determine the thickness of subcutaneous and visceral fat separately.

  17. Genetics of dietary habits and obesity - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2010-01-01

    influences on dietary intake in adults and the interplay between diet, genes and obesity. The focus of the thesis was to investigate the genetic and environmental influence on habitual diet and obesity as well as the association between habitual diet and anthropometry. The thesis is based on structural....... The study showed, however, consistent positive associations between intake of sugar-sweetened soft drink and BMI, FMI and waist circumference in men. Gene-environment interaction models showed that while high physical activity is associated with a down-regulation of genes predisposing to obesity......Obesity has become a major health concern due to the increased risk of co-morbidities, resulting in decreased quality of life, stigmatization, reduced working ability and early death. This causes a great challenge for the health care systems and results in increased direct costs related...

  18. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro;

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors.This study generated a...... healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European...... Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier...

  19. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  20. REVIEW: Development of methods for body composition studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Sören; Thomas, Brian J.

    2006-07-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease.

  1. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  2. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. PMID:24735332

  3. Socio-demographic, General Health Status and Mental Health Profile of First Year Medical Students of NHL MMC, Ahmedabad-2011 Admission Batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal A P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical education is perceived as being stressful as it is characterized by many psychological changes in students.1 The study was aimed to determine the prevalence of stress among medical students-2011 admission batch. Their physical examination, anthropometry and BP measurements were done. GHQ-12 was used as a screening instrument for assessment of Stress. A total of 152 students were studied. 30.3% students were staying in the hostel. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 14.5%.Overall prevalence of stress according to GHQ-12 was 23.7%. The main sources of stress were difficulty in keeping pace with vast portion of subject, understanding the topic, lack of recreation and sleep.

  4. Towards a detailed anthropometric body characterization using the Microsoft Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Ana; Barbosa, Filipa; Pereira, Eduardo M; Santos, Márcio Borgonovo; Seixas, Adérito; Vilas-Boas, João; Gabriel, Joaquim; Vardasca, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry has been widely used in different fields, providing relevant information for medicine, ergonomics and biometric applications. However, the existent solutions present marked disadvantages, reducing the employment of this type of evaluation. Studies have been conducted in order to easily determine anthropometric measures considering data provided by low-cost sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect. In this work, a methodology is proposed and implemented for estimating anthropometric measures considering the information acquired with this sensor. The measures obtained with this method were compared with the ones from a validation system, Qualisys. Comparing the relative errors determined with state-of-art references, for some of the estimated measures, lower errors were verified and a more complete characterization of the whole body structure was achieved. PMID:26599577

  5. A comparison of ultra-endurance cyclists in a qualifying ultra-cycling race for Paris-Brest-Paris and Race Across America-Swiss cycling marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-endurance events test the adaptation of human physiology to extreme physical and mental demands, high levels of training, motivation, and physical conditioning among participants. To understand basic differences among participants according to the severity of the race, participants in qualifying events for two ultra-endurance cycling races, differing in length and intensity, were compared on measures of anthropometry, training, and support. One race was four times longer, required supporting teams, and racers typically had little sleep, which should lead to the qualifiers being substantially more highly trained than those from the shorter race. The qualifiers in the longer race had greater intensity in training while the qualifiers in the shorter race relied more on training volume. Different strategies and types of training reflected the different demands of the races. Future studies should evaluate personality and motivational differences in ultra-endurance events and between these athletes and athletes in other sports.

  6. Meeting report: Measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints within the first years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbuckle, T.E.; Hauser, R.; Swan, S.H.;

    2008-01-01

    An international workshop tided "Assessing Endocrine-Related Endpoints within the First Years of Life" was held 30 April-1 May 2007, in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Representatives from a number of pregnancy cohort studies in North America and Europe presented options for measuring various endocrine......-sensitive endpoints in early life and discussed issues related to performing and using those measures. The workshop focused on measuring reproductive tract developmental endpoints [e.g., anogenital distance (AGD)], endocrine status, and infant anthropometry. To the extent possible, workshop participants strove...... on the genital exam. Although a number of outcome measures recommended during the genital exam have been associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, little is known about how predictive these effects are of later reproductive health or other chronic health conditions....

  7. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate...... the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men....... Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss...

  8. An intelligent active force control algorithm to control an upper extremity exoskeleton for motor recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbullah Mohd Isa, Wan; Taha, Zahari; Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Fikri Muhammad, Khairul; Abdo Hashem, Mohammed; Mahmud, Jamaluddin; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton by means of an intelligent active force control (AFC) mechanism. The Newton-Euler formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the anthropometry based human upper extremity as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. A proportional-derivative (PD) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives. An intelligent AFC algorithm is also incorporated into the PD to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. The Mamdani Fuzzy based rule is employed to approximate the estimated inertial properties of the system to ensure the AFC loop responds efficiently. It is found that the IAFC-PD performed well against the disturbances introduced into the system as compared to the conventional PD control architecture in performing the desired trajectory tracking.

  9. Screen time and adiposity in adolescents in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajous, Martín; Chavarro, Jorge; Peterson, Karen E; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Cruz-Valdéz, Aurelio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of time spent viewing television, videos and videogames with measures of fat mass [body mass index (BMI)] and distribution [triceps and subscapular skin folds (TSF, SSF)]. Design Cross-sectional validated survey, self-administered to students to assess screen time (TV, videos and videogames) and lifestyle variables. Trained personnel obtained anthropometry. The association of screen time with fat mass and distribution, stratified by sex, was modeled with multivariable linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders and correlation of observations within schools. Subjects and setting 3519 males and 5613 females aged 11 to 18 years attending urban and rural schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico Results In males, ≥5 hr/day compared with Mexico. Maturational tempo appears to affect the relationship of screen time with adiposity in boys and girls. Findings suggest obesity preventive interventions in the Mexican context should explore strategies to reduce screen time among youth in early adolescence. PMID:19232154

  10. Analysis of Alignment Influence on 3-D Anthropometric Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiuwen; LI Zhizhong; CHANG Chien-Chi; DEMPSEY Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) surface anthropometry can provide much more useful information for many applications such as ergonomic product design than traditional individual body dimension measurements. However, the traditional definition of the percentile calculation is designed only for 1-D anthropometric data estimates. The same approach cannot be applied directly to 3-D anthropometric statistics otherwise it could lead to misinterpretations. In this paper, the influence of alignment references on 3-D anthropometric statistics is analyzed mathematically, which shows that different alignment reference points (for example, landmarks) for translation alignment could result in different object shapes if 3-D anthropometric data are processed for percentile values based on coordinates and that dimension percentile calculations based on coordinate statistics are incompatible with those traditionally based on individual dimensions.

  11. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabka Bartosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL-C levels was observed in the control group. A 10-week MAST program encompassing Nordic-walking as an aerobic component, and strength exercises, induces positive changes in functional fitness, HDL-C, LDL-C and a waist/hip ratio in obese postmenopausal women. The observed changes implicate an increase in a health-related quality of life among the women administered to the physical exercise program

  12. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival...... was higher in weaned children than in partially breast fed children, both in 1 year olds (relative risk 1.41; 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.62) and in 2 year olds (1.67; 1.29 to 2.15). The mean duration of an episode of diarrhoea was 5.3 days in breast fed children compared with 6.3 days in weaned...... the weaned ones, the benefit in terms of lower morbidity may be more important for child survival in places with a high morbidity from diarrhoea and with high mortality....

  13. Dense mesh sampling for video-based facial animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peszor, Damian; Wojciechowska, Marzena

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes an approach for selection of feature points on three-dimensional, triangle mesh obtained using various techniques from several video footages. This approach has a dual purpose. First, it allows to minimize the data stored for the purpose of facial animation, so that instead of storing position of each vertex in each frame, one could store only a small subset of vertices for each frame and calculate positions of others based on the subset. Second purpose is to select feature points that could be used for anthropometry-based retargeting of recorded mimicry to another model, with sampling density beyond that which can be achieved using marker-based performance capture techniques. Developed approach was successfully tested on artificial models, models constructed using structured light scanner, and models constructed from video footages using stereophotogrammetry.

  14. Urinary phthalate excretion in 555 healthy Danish boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Frederiksen, Hanne; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2012-01-01

    Pubertal gynaecomastia is a clinical sign of an oestrogen-androgen imbalance, which occurs in 40-60% of adolescent Caucasian boys. In most cases no underlying endocrinopathy can be identified. A recent study reports higher plasma phthalate levels in Turkish boys with pubertal gynaecomastia....... Therefore, we asked whether there was an association between concurrent measures of urinary phthalate metabolites and pubertal timing as well as the presence of gynaecomastia in otherwise healthy boys. We studied a total of 555 healthy boys (age 6.07-19.83 years) as part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study....... Anthropometry and pubertal stages (PH1-6 and G1-5) were evaluated, and the presence of gynaecomastia was assessed. Non-fasting blood samples were analysed for serum testosterone and morning urine samples were analysed for the total content of 12 phthalate metabolites (MEP, MnBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP...

  15. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropome......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes...... in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...

  16. Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2012-01-01

    showed signs of impaired reproductive function (reduced genital size and altered serum hormone concentrations) at three months of age. To assess the possible long-term effects of prenatal pesticide exposure, the boys were re-examined at 6-11 years. The 94 boys (59 exposed, 35 unexposed) underwent genital...... examinations including ultrasound of testicular volumes, puberty staging (Tanner), anthropometry, and blood sampling. Only a few of the boys had reached puberty (n = 3). Among prepubescent boys, testicular volume and penile length (age- and weight-adjusted) were reduced if mothers were exposed to pesticides....... The effects were associated with the maternal exposure levels, so that high-exposed boys had smaller genitals than medium-exposed boys, who had smaller genitals than those who were unexposed. Boys of mothers in the high exposure group (n = 23) had 24.7% smaller testes (95% CI: -62.2; -10.1) and 9...

  17. A 3D anthropometric analysis of the orolabial region in Chinese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    The orolabial region undergoes considerable changes after orthognathic surgery or orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity, age, and sex-specific norms are needed during the planning of interventions in this region. In 2008 the Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg published anthropometric measurements of the lips of Chinese children, but to our knowledge such reference data for young Chinese adults are not currently available. We therefore used digital anthropometry on 3-dimensional craniofacial images acquired from 103 healthy young Chinese adults with Class I skeletal pattern. Anthropometric landmarks were identified, which provided linear and angular measurements. All orolabial measurements were significantly larger in men than women, with the exception of the labiomental angle. In contrast, there were no sex differences in the anthropometric proportions. We therefore provide what we think are the first cross-sectional norms available for young Chinese adults. These norms can be used to evaluate the morphology of the lips objectively for preoperative diagnosis, planning of treatment, and assessment of postoperative outcomes.

  18. The IDEFICS Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bammann, Karin; Siani, Alfonso;

    2011-01-01

    The European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study was set up to determine the aetiology of overweight, obesity and related disorders in children, and to develop and evaluate a tailored primary prevention programme...... included anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness, accelerometry, DNA from saliva and physiological markers in blood and urine. The built environment, sensory taste perception and other mechanisms of children's food choices and consumer behaviour were studied in subgroups. Results: Between 1507 and 2567....... The proportion of children donating venous blood, urine and saliva was 57, 86 and 88%, respectively. Conclusion: The IDEFICS cohort provides valuable data to investigate the interplay of social, environmental, genetic, physiological and behavioural factors in the development of major diet- and lifestyle...

  19. Hydro aerobics as means for physical state improvement of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamutova N.M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of organization and conducting studies were considered by using system of hydro aerobics exercises for improving physical training of female students. Sixty female students took part in the experiment. All the tested girls were divided into two groups, 30 persons each. The tested group of female students made aerobic exercises on the dry land according to a plan. The female students of experimental group made hydro aerobics exercises according to the programme. Several methods were used: anthropometry, control methods of the functional parameters of the body, testing of the physical training indicators, methods of mathematical statistics. The reliable positive improvements of cardiovascular and respiratory systems were in the experimental group of the girls. The effect of the reliable decrease of fat mass of the tested female students was exposed among anthropometrical characteristics.

  20. Muscular strength after different types of training in physically active patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlberg, M.; Svantesson, U.; Magnusson, Thomas E.;

    2008-01-01

    Physical training is important in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Optimal types of training and intensity are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on muscular strength after 6 months of endurance training (ET) and/or resistance training (RT). Twenty patients....... Vitamin E and cytokines were analyzed. Fifteen tests of muscular strength were used. Handgrip strength in females and quadriceps strength in males were significantly decreased compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls and positively associated with lung function. Sixteen patients completed...... in muscular strength after 6 months of controlled training, suggesting a physiological muscular impairment despite normal anthropometry, but associated with lung function Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  1. Gender and distance influence performance predictors in young swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor Mezzaroba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of performance in adult swimmers are constantly changing during youth especially because the training routine begins even before puberty in the modality. Therefore this study aimed to determine the group of parameters that best predict short and middle swimming distance performances of young swimmers of both genders. Thirty-three 10-to 16-years-old male and female competitive swimmers participated in the study. Multiple linear regression (MLR was used considering mean speed of maximum 100, 200 and 400 m efforts as dependent variables, and five parameters groups as possible predictors (anthropometry, body composition, physiological and biomechanical parameters, chronological age/pubic hair. The main results revealed explanatory powers of almost 100% for both genders and all performances, but with different predictors entered in MLR models of each parameter group or all variables. Thus, there are considerable differences in short and middle swimming distance, and males and females predictors that should be considered in training programs.

  2. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: Increasing incidence, decreasing surgery rate, and compromised nutritional status: A prospective population-based cohort study 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia;

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the incidence, treatment, surgery rate, and anthropometry at diagnosis of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Patients diagnosed between January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 in Eastern Denmark, Funen, and Aarhus were included from...... the two cohorts from Eastern Denmark we found higher incidence rates for IBD (5.0 and 7.2 in 1998–2000 and 2007–2009, respectively, P = 0.02) and CD (2.3 versus 3.3, P = 0.04). Furthermore, we found a significant decrease in surgery rates (15.8/100 person-years versus 4.2, P = 0.02) and an increase...... pediatric population. Conclusions: Over the past 12 years we found an increase in the incidence of IBD in children, an increasing use of IM, and decreasing 1-year surgery rates. CD patients had poor nutritional status....

  3. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2013-01-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European...... centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket...... centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1...

  4. Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

  5. Missing portion sizes in FFQ - alternatives to use of standard portions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Siersma, Volkert; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I;

    2015-01-01

    portion sizes based on information about anthropometry, sex, physical activity and age. Energy intakes computed with standard portion sizes, defined as sex-specific medians (median), or with portion sizes estimated with multinomial logistic regression (MLR), 'comparable categories' (Coca) or k...... reference, the root-mean-square errors of the mean daily total energy intake (in kJ) computed with portion sizes estimated by the four methods were (men; women): median (1118; 1061), MLR (1060; 1051), Coca (1230; 1146), KNN (1281; 1181). The equivalent biases (mean error) were (in kJ): median (579; 469......), MLR (248; 178), Coca (234; 188), KNN (-340; 218). CONCLUSIONS: The methods MLR and Coca provided the best agreement with the reference. The stochastic methods allowed for estimation of meaningful portion sizes by conditioning on information about physiology and they were suitable for multiple...

  6. Magnitude H. pylori infection and its impact on macro-nutrient assimilation and nutritional status of children under five years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic crisis has an adverse impact on health and nutrition of children. The prevalence of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) was 33.4%, and severe malnutrition was 3.1%. In addition, diarrhea is also a big problem. Severe diarrhea affected 1.94 million of under five children in 1997, up from 1.75 million in 1995. Relationship of the magnitude of H. pylori infection with diarrhea and malnutrition will be investigated in this study. The study will be carried out in 3 phases in the district of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. First year study: will include 40 severe PEM children. All subjects will be examined for H. pylori infection. Anthropometry and hematological analysis will be measured at the clinic. Dietary information, nutritional practices and the health of children will be gathered during home visits. Second year study: 34 children will be included. The mothers and their children will be asked to visit the clinic 12 times. At the clinic, the children will be treated, and the mothers will be given nutrition guidance. Home visits will be conducted for collecting nutritional practices, SES, and diarrhea infection. The examination of H. pylori infection, anthropometric measurements, and blood drawn for hematological purposes will be performed at the first visit to the clinic, and every 3 months thereafter Third year study: a total of 60 children (20 well nourished, 20 mild PEM, and 20 moderate PEM), aged 6 months to 3 years will be studied. They will be recruited in two Community Health Centres. All subjects will be examined for the magnitude of H. pylori infection, anthropometry, hematology, SES, nutrition practices and diarrheal infection. Statistical analysis will include means, SDs, correlation among variables, and covariant analysis will be made using SPSS Window software. (author)

  7. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out, contract status and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players, aged 8 to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Dieter; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this manuscript was twofold and a two-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a 'club group' or a 'drop out group'. In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age=16.2 y).Generally, club players outperformed their drop out peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and drop out players. Contract players jumped further (p=0.011) and had faster times for a 5m sprint (p=0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2869.3 + 14.6 * standing broad jump.Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future drop out players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career. PMID:25474335

  8. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout, contract status, and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players aged eight to eighteen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Dieter N; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this article was twofold, and a 2-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a "club group" or a "dropout group." In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age = 16.2 years). Generally, club players outperformed their dropout peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance, and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and dropout players. Contract players jumped further (p = 0.011) and had faster times for a 5-m sprint (p = 0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2,869.3 + 14.6 × standing broad jump. Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance, and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future dropout players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career. PMID:26010800

  9. Longitud y peso al nacer: el papel de la nutrición materna Weight and lenght at birth: The role of maternal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA GONZÁLEZ-COSSÍO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar los factores determinantes del peso (PN y la longitud al nacer (LN. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 481 mujeres con sus neonatos, y se ajustaron modelos de regresión múltiple para PN y LN de acuerdo con un modelo biológico predeterminado. Resultados. El PN del grupo por debajo de la mediana de circunferencia de pantorrilla (CP, talla o circunferencia cefálica fue 133, 92 y 96 g menor (± 35 error estándar -EE-, p de la mediana, ajustando por antecedentes obstétricos, socioeconómicos, el género y la edad gestacional del neonato. Estar por debajo de la mediana de CP o de talla se asoció con una LN 5.8 y 6.2 mm menor (± 1.9 mm EE pObjective. To identify determinants of weight (BW and length at birth (BL. Material and methods. We studied 481 mother-newborn pairs in three Mexico City hospitals. Multiple regression models were developed to identify statistically significant predictors of BW and BL with respect to a predetermined biological model. Independent variables included were: maternal anthropometry, age, smoking habits, and civil status, parental education, obstetric history, hypertension, and neonatal characteristics Results. In the group with calf circumference (CC, height and head circumference below the median BW was 133, 92 and 96g lower (± 35 standard error -SE-, p< 0.01 than the group above the median, adjusting for socioeconomic, obstetric history, and neonatal characteristics (NC. In the group below the median CC or height, BL was 5.8 or 6.2 mm (± 1.9 mm SE, p< 0.01 respectivily, adjusting for obstetric history and NC. Conclusions. Results suggest that maternal anthropometry is the most important predictor of birth size and that predictors for BW and BL differ.

  10. The role of diabetes co-morbidity for tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a prospective cohort study from Mwanza, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faurholt-Jepsen Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the association between diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, diabetes may threaten the control of TB. In a prospective cohort study nested in a nutrition trial, we investigated the role of diabetes on changes in anthropometry, grip strength, and clinical parameters over a five months follow-up period. Methods Among pulmonary TB patients with known diabetes status, we assessed anthropometry and clinical parameters (e.g. haemoglobin at baseline and after two and five months of TB treatment. A linear mixed-effects model (repeated measurements was used to investigate the role of diabetes during recovery. Results Of 1205 TB patients, the mean (standard deviation age was 36.6 (13.0 years, 40.9% were females, 48.9% were HIV co-infected, and 16.3% had diabetes. TB patients with diabetes co-morbidity experienced a lower weight gain at two (1.3 kg, CI95% 0.5; 2.0, p = 0.001 and five months (1.0 kg, CI95% 0.3; 1.7, p = 0.007. Similarly, the increase in the level of haemoglobin was lower among TB patients with diabetes co-morbidity after two (Δ 0.6 g/dL, CI95% 0.3; 0.9 p  Conclusion TB patients initiating TB treatment with diabetes co-morbidity experience delayed recovery of body mass and haemoglobin, which are important for the functional recovery from disease.

  11. STATUS ANTROPOMETRI DENGAN BEBERAPA INDIKATOR PADA MAHASISWA TPB-IPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilda Yunieswati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to analyze the anthropometry status, and body fat percentage of first year students in IPB. The subjects of this study were 117 IPB first year students. The result shows that most of the male subjects has a normal body mass index (75.0%, normal waist circumference (87.5% and normal waist-hip-ratio (93.8%. Most of the male subjects has a normal body fat percentage (37.5%. In the meanwhile, most of the female subjects has normal body mass index (83.2%, normal waist circumference (98.0% and normal waist-hip-ratio (95.0%. Most of the female subjects had a normal body fat percentage (56.0%. There was a significant correlation between body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, and percentage of body fat (p<0.05.Keywords: anthropometry status, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip-ratioABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis status antropometri dan persentase lemak tubuh pada mahasiswa TPB-IPB. Subjek penelitian yang digunakan sebanyak 117 orang mahasiswa TPB-IPB. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sebagian besar subjek laki-laki memiliki indeks massa tubuh (IMT normal (75,0%, ukuran lingkar pinggang normal (87,5% dan rasio lingkar pinggang normal (93,8%. Persen lemak tubuh pada subjek laki-laki sebagian besar memiliki persen lemak tubuh normal (37,5%. Sementara itu, sebagian besar subjek perempuan memiliki IMT normal (83,2%, ukuran lingkar pinggang normal (98,0% dan rasio lingkar pinggang normal (95,0%. Sebagian besar subjek perempuan memiliki persen lemak tubuh normal (56,0%. Terdapat hubungan bermakna antara IMT, lingkar pinggang, rasio lingkar pinggang panggul, dengan persen lemak tubuh (p<0,05.Kata kunci: indeks massa tubuh, lemak tubuh, lingkar pinggang, rasio lingkar pinggang pinggul,status antropometri

  12. Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SPEEDY study was set up to quantify levels of physical activity (PA and dietary habits and the association with potential correlates in 9–10 year old British school children. We present here the analyses of the PA, dietary and anthropometry data. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 2064 children (926 boys, 1138 girls in Norfolk, England, we collected anthropometry data at school using standardised procedures. Body mass index (BMI was used to define obesity status. PA was assessed with the Actigraph accelerometer over 7 days. A cut-off of ≥ 2000 activity counts was used to define minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA. Dietary habits were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School Children food questionnaire. Weight status was defined using published international cut-offs (Cole, 2000. Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests for continuous data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. Results Valid PA data (>500 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days was available for 1888 children. Mean (± SD activity counts per minute among boys and girls were 716.5 ± 220.2 and 635.6 ± 210.6, respectively (p Conclusion Results indicate that almost 70% of children meet national PA guidelines, indicating that a prevention of decline, rather than increasing physical activity levels, might be an appropriate intervention target. Promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in this age group is also warranted, possibly focussing on children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

  13. Modular and scalable load-wall sled buck for pure-lateral and oblique side impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A

    2012-05-11

    A considerable majority of side impact sled tests using different types of human surrogates has used a load-wall design not specific to subject anthropometry. The use of one load-wall configuration cannot accurately isolate and evaluate regional responses for the same load-wall geometry. As the anatomy and biomechanical responses of the human torso depends on the region, and anthropomorphic test devices continue to advance and accommodate regional differences, it is important to obtain specific data from sled tests. To achieve this goal, the present study designed a scalable modular load-wall consisting of the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and superior and inferior pelvis, and lower limb plates. The first five plates were connected to a vertical fixture and the limb plate was connected to another fixture. The width, height, and thickness, and the gap between plates were modular. Independent adjustments in the coronal and sagittal planes allowed region-specific positioning depending on surrogate anthropometry, example pelvis width and seated height. Two tri-axial load cells were fixed on the contralateral face of each plate of the load-wall to record impact force-time histories. The load-wall and vertical fixture design can be used to conduct side impact tests with varying vectors, pure-lateral to anterior and posterior oblique, by appropriately orienting the load-wall with respect to the surrogate. The feasibility of the design to extract region-specific biomechanical data was demonstrated by conducting pure-lateral and anterior oblique sled tests using two different surrogates at a velocity of 6.7m/s. Uses of this design are discussed for different applications.

  14. Workstation Related Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Indian Women of Different Geographical Regions

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    Inderjeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in lifestyles, nutrition, and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e.g. the obesity epidemic, and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections. Aim and Objectives: This study analyzed the variation in anthropometric dimensions and body composition parameters of working women employees of different geographical zones. Material and Methods: The study was undertaken on nine hundred forty (940 women employees of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO working in seventeen different laboratories and belonged to different states of India. The age range of studied women was between 20-60 years. Fourteen body dimensions namely stature, popliteal height, knee height, buttock to popliteal length, hip breadth, waist breadth, shoulder breadth, forearm length, arm length, eye height (sitting, sitting shoulder height, hand length, hand breadth and elbow width were measured in cm using Martin anthropometers and Martin's sliding caliper. Body composition parameters like weight, percentage body fat, fat mass and fat free mass were recorded. Results: All anthropometric parameters were found significantly different (p<0.001. Body composition variables of women were also found significantly different in all three zones but fat free mass was not significantly different. Conclusion:It can be concluded that diet, environmental conditions and living style of different regions can influence the anthropometry and body composition of the individuals, however the influence of ethnic, genetic and hereditary factor are not controlled in this study.

  15. Nutritional assessment in children with chronic kidney disease.

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    Gupta, Aditi; Mantan, Mukta; Sethi, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Growth failure is a major problem in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the onset of the condition in infancy is more likely to have an adverse impact on growth than its development in later childhood. This study was aimed to assess nutritional intake and anthropometry of children presenting with CKD in a developing country. In this cross-sectional observational study, children (1-18 years) with CKD visiting the outpatient services were enrolled. The age of onset, cause of CKD, and anthropometry were recorded. Dietary intakes from three 24 h dietary recall (2 mid-week and 1 weekend day) were recorded. A blood sample was taken from all subjects for biochemical parameters. A total of 45 children (forty males and five females) with CKD underwent nutritional assessment. The median age at assessment was 108 months (13-167). Twenty-seven (60%) subjects had CKD stage 1, 2, or 3 while the remaining 40% had CKD stage 4 or 5. Of the 45 children, 27 (60%) had moderate to severe malnutrition at assessment. The mean weight and height (standard deviation scores) were -2.77 ± 2.07 and -2.30 ± 1.38, respectively. The prevalence of growth retardation was much higher in late stages of CKD; the difference was statistically significant (P iron (mean 48.9% deficit); deficient in calcium (mean -22.2%) and had excess phosphates (mean 18.3%). There was a progressive decrease in intake of nutrients in advanced stages of CKD. There was a high prevalence of malnutrition (60%) in children with CKD, especially in higher stages of CKD. An appropriate dietary assessment and nutritional counseling should be planned for all patients with CKD to prevent complications associated with malnutrition and anemia.

  16. Association between nutritional status, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and HOMA-AD in Brazilian children

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    Ana Luiza Gomes Domingos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In children, the presence of obesity is a major risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases on the adulthood. Objective: To evaluate the association of anthropometry, body composition, clinical variables and biochemical profile with C-reactive protein and adiponectin levels, and insulin resistance in children in the municipality of Nova Era, Brazil. Methods: Nested case-control study following a crosssectional study. We evaluated 178 children, 57 of them classified as obese and 121 as normal-weight from a population of 1024 schoolchildren 6 to 10 years old: Blood samples were collected after 12-hour fast to obtain serum and plasma. We collected anthropometric and body composition measures, systolic and diastolic blood pressure data. Sexual maturation was assessed according to the stage of sexual development. We performed Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson's correlation, Spearman's test and multiple linear regression analysis. Independent variables with p < 0.05 were included in the multiple regression model. Residual analysis was performed to assess model validity. Results: Among obese children, C-reactive protein levels were associated with triacylglycerol levels and body fat percentage estimated by skinfold thickness (R²adjusted = 27.6%, p < 0.001. Adiponectin was associated with HOMA-IR, HOMA-AD and body fat percentage estimated by skinfold thickness (R²adjusted = 75.5%, p < 0.001. HOMA-AD index was associated with HOMA-IR, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and weight (R²adjusted = 90.7%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Significant associations were found between body composition, anthropometry, clinical variables, biochemical profile and adiponectin and C-reactive protein levels and insulin resistance in obese and normal-weight children.

  17. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

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    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  18. Eating habits and other risk factors: are the future health care service providers really at risk for life style disorders!

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    Shreyash Jayantilal Gandhi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence period is crucial position in the life, characterized by rapid rate of growth. It is a need to study risk factors among this group so applicability of primary prevention can be planned. It is essential to know that whether future care providers are having any risk of acquiring life style disorders as they will be the future role models of society. Objectives: To study the dietary and other risk factors for acquiring life style related disorders and to correlate various anthropometry measurements with these risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study. All medical, physiotherapy and nursing students from Government Medical College, Surat having met with age criteria of adolescent (17-19 as per WHO were included in the study. Pre tested structured self-administered questionnaire was used. It was having questions on various risk factors of acquiring life style related disorders and having anthropometry measurements to correlate. Data were entered and analyzed in MS excel. Results: Total 290 participants were enrolled, out of them 240 (82.76% were females and 50 (17.24% were males. Out of those, 153 (52.75% were having a habit of eating outside the home at least once in a week. 80 (27.5% participants reported that they never play outdoor games, 18 (6.21% reported that they never do exercise. 21 (7.24% were having BMI and #8805;25, From this total 21 participants, 17 (5.86% were females and 4 (1.38% were males. Out of total 240 females, 20 were having Waist Hip Ratio (WHR >0.85, while no male is having WHR >1. Conclusion: Primary preventive measures for dietary change should be applied among future care providers. Life style change should also be advised to reduce the risk for life style disorders. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 645-649

  19. Handgrip strength and its relation with anthropometric parameters

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    Fernando Luís Fischer Eichinger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The handgrip strength (HS is related to ADL, when reduced can lead to significant functional limitations. Its measurement allows estimating the strength general state and is a health indicator. Objective: Analyze the correlation between HS and anthropometry in box genders. Methods: This is a descriptive correlational study with 100 healthy individuals, aged between 17 and 40 years, 50 men, mean age 28.0 years (± 7.0 and 50 women, mean age 23 years (± 4.2. We evaluated HS and forearm, wrist and hand perimeter. Statistical analyzes were obtained using means, standard deviations and Pearson Correlation Test. Results: Compared to women, men had higher HS mean values on both sides. Men showed 49.0 kgf (± 8.3 on the right and 46.0 kgf (± 8.5 on the left side; while women showed 26.0 kgf (± 5.4 on the right side and 24.0 kgf (± 5.3 on the left side. Discussion: The hand perimeter was the only anthropometric data that showed a significant correlation with the HS in both genders. The forearm and wrist perimeter was only significant in men, with a slight difference between the sides; the right side prevails over the left. Although women showed no significant correlations with the HS it was noted discrepancy of force in relation to laterality, with a predominance of HS on the right side. Conclusions: We conclude that there is a correlation between HS and anthropometry, and that laterality and gender are factors influencing HS.

  20. 1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

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    Cilius Esmann Fonvig

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS, and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009 when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002. No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  1. GDM Women's Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status.

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    Junhong Leng

    Full Text Available To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55, 2.98 (1.89-4.69, and 2.93 (2.07-4.13, respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84, 2.89 (1.78-4.70, and 2.84 (1.98-4.06, respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73, 1.96 (1.24-3.09, and 1.59 (1.15-2.21, respectively].Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG.

  2. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

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    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative

  3. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa12

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    Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. Objective: We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. Methods: We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Results: Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, −1.31 cm (95% CI: −2.32, −0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [−0.56 cm (95% CI: −1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Conclusions: Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults. PMID:27335138

  4. Dual-energy X-ray performs as well as clinical computed tomography for the measurement of visceral fat.

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    Micklesfield, Lisa K; Goedecke, Julia H; Punyanitya, Mark; Wilson, Kevin E; Kelly, Thomas L

    2012-05-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We developed a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement of visceral adipose tissue (DXA-VAT) as a low cost and low radiation alternative to computed tomography (CT). DXA-VAT was compared to VAT assessed using CT by an expert reader (E-VAT). In addition, the same CT slice was also read by a clinical radiographer (C-VAT) and a best-fit anthropomorphic and demographic VAT model (A-VAT) was developed. Whole body DXA, CT at L4-L5, and anthropometry were measured on 272 black and white South African women (age 29 ± 8 years, BMI 28 ± 7 kg/m(2), waist circumference (WC) 89 ± 16 cm). Approximately one-half of the dataset (n = 141) was randomly selected and used as a training set for the development of DXA-VAT and A-VAT, which were then used to estimate VAT on the remaining 131 women in a blinded fashion. DXA-VAT (r = 0.93, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 16 cm(2)) and C-VAT (r = 0.93, SEE = 16 cm(2)) were strongly correlated to E-VAT. These correlations with E-VAT were significantly stronger (P < 0.001) than the correlations of individual anthropometry measurements and the A-VAT model (WC + age, r = 0.79, SEE = 27 cm(2)). The inclusion of anthropometric and demographic measurements did not substantially improve the correlation between DXA-VAT and E-VAT. DXA-VAT performed as well as a clinical read of VAT from a CT scan and better than anthropomorphic and demographic models. PMID:22240726

  5. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

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    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  6. A principal components approach to parent-to-newborn body composition associations in South India

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    Hill Jacqueline C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Size at birth is influenced by environmental factors, like maternal nutrition and parity, and by genes. Birth weight is a composite measure, encompassing bone, fat and lean mass. These may have different determinants. The main purpose of this paper was to use anthropometry and principal components analysis (PCA to describe maternal and newborn body composition, and associations between them, in an Indian population. We also compared maternal and paternal measurements (body mass index (BMI and height as predictors of newborn body composition. Methods Weight, height, head and mid-arm circumferences, skinfold thicknesses and external pelvic diameters were measured at 30 ± 2 weeks gestation in 571 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Paternal height and weight were also measured. At birth, detailed neonatal anthropometry was performed. Unrotated and varimax rotated PCA was applied to the maternal and neonatal measurements. Results Rotated PCA reduced maternal measurements to 4 independent components (fat, pelvis, height and muscle and neonatal measurements to 3 components (trunk+head, fat, and leg length. An SD increase in maternal fat was associated with a 0.16 SD increase (β in neonatal fat (p Conclusion Principal components analysis is a useful method to describe neonatal body composition and its determinants. Newborn adiposity is related to maternal nutritional status and parity, while newborn length is genetically determined. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms linking maternal pelvic size to fetal growth and the determinants and implications of the components (trunk v leg length of fetal skeletal growth.

  7. Muscle mass loss and intermuscular lipid accumulation were associated with insulin resistance in patients receiving hemodialysis

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    WANG Hui-ling; DING Ting-ting; LU Shi; XU Ye; TIAN Jun; HU Wei-feng; ZHANG Jin-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Background An accelerated muscle wasting was the pivotal factor for protein-energy wasting in end stage renal disease.However,very few researches have examined the skeletal muscle quantity and quality in clinical patients.This study investigated the muscle morphologic changes by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyzed the related factors in hemodialysis patients.Methods Fifty-eight patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD) were investigated and 28 healthy adults with gender and age matched were used as controls (Control).Anthropometry,cytokine factors,and laboratory data were measured.The muscle and intermuscular adipose tissues (IMAT) were analyzed via a Thigh MRI.The bicep samples were observed after HE staining.Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured and their association with muscle wasting was analyzed.Results HD patients tended to have a lower protein diet,anthropometry data,and serum albumin,but the C reactive protein and interleukin-6 increased significantly.The MRI showed that HD patients had less muscle mass and a lower muscle/total ratio,but the fat/muscle and IMAT was higher when compared to the Control group.The muscle fiber showed atrophy and fat accumulation in the biceps samples come from the HD patients.Moreover,we found that the HD patients presented with a high level of plasma fasting insulin and increased HOMA-IR which negatively correlated with the muscle/total ratio,but positively with the fat/muscle ratio.Conclusions Muscle wasting presented early before an obvious malnutrition condition emerged in HD patients.The main morphological change was muscle atrophy along with intermuscular lipid accumulation.Insulin resistance was associated with muscle wasting in dialysis patients.

  8. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

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    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term. PMID:26996228

  9. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on offspring overweight in early infancy.

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    Nan Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months old in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2011, health care records of 38,539 pregnant women had been collected, and their children had been measured body weight and length at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The independent and joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with anthropometry in the offspring were examined using General Linear Model and Logistic Regression. RESULTS: Prepregnancy BMI and maternal GWG were positively associated with Z-scores for birth weight-for-gestational age, birth length-for-gestational age, and birth weight-for-length. Infants born to mothers with excessive GWG had the greatest changes in Z-scores for weight-for-age from birth to Month 3, and from Month 6 to Month 12, and the greatest changes in Z-scores for length-for-age from birth to months 3 and 12 compared with infants born to mothers with adequate GWG. Excessive GWG was associated with an increased risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 12 months old in all BMI categories except underweight. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater weight gain and length gain of offspring in early infancy. Excessive GWG was associated with increased infancy overweight and obesity risk.

  10. The effect of exercise training modality on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

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    Damon L Swift

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Men and women (N = 150 with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic, resistance exercise (resistance, or a combination of both (combination for 9 months. Serum BDNF levels were evaluated at baseline and follow-up from archived blood samples. RESULTS: Baseline serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures (all, p>0.05. Similarly, no significant change in serum BDNF levels was observed following exercise training in the aerobic (-1649.4 pg/ml, CI: -4768.9 to 1470.2, resistance (-2351.2 pg/ml, CI:-5290.7 to 588.3, or combination groups (-827.4 pg/ml, CI: -3533.3 to 1878.5 compared to the control group (-2320.0 pg/ml, CI: -5750.8 to 1110.8. However, reductions in waist circumference were directly associated with changes in serum BDNF following training (r = 0.25, p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures at baseline. Likewise, serum BDNF measures were not altered by 9 months of aerobic, resistance, or combination training. However, reductions in waist circumference were associated with decreased serum BDNF levels. Future studies should investigate the relevance of BDNF with measures of cognitive function specifically in individuals with type-2 diabetes.

  11. Anthropometric dependence of the response of a thorax FE model under high speed loading: validation and real world accident replication.

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    Roth, Sébastien; Torres, Fabien; Feuerstein, Philippe; Thoral-Pierre, Karine

    2013-05-01

    Finite element analysis is frequently used in several fields such as automotive simulations or biomechanics. It helps researchers and engineers to understand the mechanical behaviour of complex structures. The development of computer science brought the possibility to develop realistic computational models which can behave like physical ones, avoiding the difficulties and costs of experimental tests. In the framework of biomechanics, lots of FE models have been developed in the last few decades, enabling the investigation of the behaviour of the human body submitted to heavy damage such as in road traffic accidents or in ballistic impact. In both cases, the thorax/abdomen/pelvis system is frequently injured. The understanding of the behaviour of this complex system is of extreme importance. In order to explore the dynamic response of this system to impact loading, a finite element model of the human thorax/abdomen/pelvis system has, therefore, been developed including the main organs: heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, the skeleton (with vertebrae, intervertebral discs, ribs), stomach, intestines, muscles, and skin. The FE model is based on a 3D reconstruction, which has been made from medical records of anonymous patients, who have had medical scans with no relation to the present study. Several scans have been analyzed, and specific attention has been paid to the anthropometry of the reconstructed model, which can be considered as a 50th percentile male model. The biometric parameters and laws have been implemented in the dynamic FE code (Radioss, Altair Hyperworks 11©) used for dynamic simulations. Then the 50th percentile model was validated against experimental data available in the literature, in terms of deflection, force, whose curve must be in experimental corridors. However, for other anthropometries (small male or large male models) question about the validation and results of numerical accident replications can be raised.

  12. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  13. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds

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    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; RUSO JULVE, Candelaria; LLOPIS GONZÁLEZ, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Background: The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5–15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). Methods: This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5–15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. Results: The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. Conclusion: When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population’s anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life. PMID:26056667

  14. Composição corporal e somatótipo de mulheres com sobrepeso e obesas pré e pós-treinamento em circuito ou caminhada Composición corpóral y somatotipo de mujeres con sobrepeso y obesas pré y post entrenando en circuito de caminata Body composition and somatotype in overweight and obese women pre- and post-circuit training or jogging

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    Carlos Alexandre Fett

    2006-02-01

    associate the physical performance to the muscular index calculated using two methods. METHODS: Groups: CIRC, n = 14, body mass index (BDI, kg/m² = 32 ± 8 (mean ± SD; age = 34 ± 10 years; and JOGG, n = 12, BMI = 30 ± 3; age = 38 ± 11. Training: 60 min. x 3d/week in the first month, and 60 min. x 4d/week in the second month. Assessment of the body composition: anthropometry(1,2, bio-impedance(3, and somatotype(4. It was performed one maximal repetition test (1-MR to the bench press, leg press and low-seated rowing exercises. RESULTS: The mass, the BMI, the body fat percentage by the anthropometry and bio-impedance, and the endomorphy were significantly reduced in both groups. The mesomorphy had a decrease, and the ectomorphy increased in the JOGG. The bio-impedance slim and muscular mass did not change in both groups. The muscular circumference of the arm (MCA had a significant increase in the CIRC. The result of the bio-impedance fat percentage and the anthropometry were the same and significantly correlated. The endomorphy was significantly correlated to the anthropometry fat percentage, and to the mesomorphy to the slim mass anthropometry. The ectomorphy was not correlated to the slim mass of the anthropometry. CONCLUSION: The somatotype had a good result to assess the phenotypical changes in obese women submitted to the training. Nevertheless, the endomorphy presented the best concordance, and the ectomorphy had the worst one compared to other methods. The results of the somatotype suggest that the CIRC attained the best result into this group. The bio-impedance and the anthropometry produced similar results to assess the body composition.

  15. 肝硬化患者的营养状况评估%Nutritional Assessment in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 许建明; 李素文

    2012-01-01

    目的 旨在通过运用NRS2002对122名肝硬化住院患者的营养风险评估与营养参数分析,为临床医生提供依据,早期发现和早期纠正营养不良,改善患者预后.方法 安徽医科大学第一附属医院2010年3月到10月诊断为肝硬化的住院病人122例,在住院第一天进行NRS2002营养风险评估、营养参数指标测量,分为营养不良风险组(NRS≥3)和无营养不良风险组(NRS<3),同时分析营养不良风险组与无营养不良风险组间营养参数指标的差异.结果 122例中有93例肝硬化住院患者存在营养不良风险,营养不良发生率为76%.其中营养不良风险患者中Child-Pugh A级为10人,营养不良发生率为30%(10/30);Child-Pugh B级55人,营养不良发生率为86%(55/64);Child-Pugh C级28人,营养不良发生率100%(28/28).营养不良发生率与疾病严重程度成正比.对有无营养不良风险的肝硬化病人进行比较,结果显示2组间肝硬化营养指标测定值均有显著差异.结论 NRS2002可用于肝硬化营养风险筛查,肝硬化患者营养不良程度评价需综合分析.旨在通过对122名肝硬化住院患者的营养参数分析,为临床医生提供依据,早期发现和早期纠正营养不良,改善患者预后.%Objective This study aims to assess nutritional parameters of 122 patients with liver cirrhosis and provide useful evidence for the clinician, detecting and correcting malnutrition early, improving the prognosis of patients. Methods Nutritional risk screening ( NRS2002 ), anthropometry and biochemistry parameters were examined in 122 cirrhotic patients coming from The First Affiliated Hospital of AnHui Medical University. All patients treated with fat emulsion in the period of March,2010 to October,2010 were collected and divided into two groups by NRS2002. Anthropometry and biochemistry parameters were compared between two grades. Results 122 patients completed the study. Malnutrition rate was 76%. Child-Pugh A class of

  16. Nutrition education intervention for dependent patients: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Arija Victoria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain. These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test, cognitive state (Pfeiffer test, mood status (Yesavage test, and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin. Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters. Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention. The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of

  17. Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the latest manned spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype launch and reentry spacesuit architectures were evaluated for eventual down selection by NASA based on the performance of a set of designated tasks. A consolidated approach was taken to testing, concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances and movement strategies within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. To achieve the objectives of the test, a requirement was set forth to maintain high mockup fidelity while using advanced motion capture technologies. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The mockup was constructed such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motion capture system. This paper will describe the method used to create a motion capture compatible space vehicle mockup, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, as well as the various methods for generating hardware requirements for an entire population from the resulting complex data set using a limited number of test subjects. Kinematics, hardware clearance, suited anthropometry, and subjective feedback data were recorded on fifteen unsuited and five suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly by anthropometry, in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited subjects and tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. Since the prototype spacesuits were fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average sized male, the findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes of the population to anticipate likely problem areas. This extrapolation was achieved by first performing population analysis through a comparison of suited

  18. Maternal and pregnancy related predictors of cardiometabolic traits in newborns.

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    Katherine M Morrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging

  19. Human factors for the Moon: the gap in anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Foing, Bernard H.; Rittweger, Joern; Masali, Melchiorre; Stevenin, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Since the space era began, we learned first to survive and then to live in space. In the state of the art, we know how important human factors research and development is to guarantee maximum safety and performance for human missions. With the extension of the duration of space missions, we also need to learn how habitability and comfort factors are closely related to safety and performance. Humanities disciplines such as design, architecture, anthropometry, and anthropology are now involved in mission design from the start. Actual plans for building a simulated Moon village in order to simulate and test Moon missions are now being carried out using a holistic approach, involving multidisciplinary experts cooperating concurrently with regard to the interactions among humans, technology, and the environment. However, in order to implement such plans, we need basic anthropometrical data, which is still missing. In other words: to optimize performance, we need to create doors and ceilings with dimensions that support a natural human movement in the reduced gravity environment of the Moon, but we are lacking detailed anthropometrical data on human movement on the Moon. In the Apollo missions more than 50 years ago, no anthropometrical studies were carried in hypogravity out as far as we know. The necessity to collect data is very consistent with state-of-the-art research. We still have little knowledge of how people will interact with the Moon environment. Specifically, it is not known exactly which posture, which kind of walking and running motions astronauts will use both inside and outside a Moon station. Considering recent plans for a Moon mission where humans will spend extensive time in reduced gravity conditions, the need for anthropometric, biomechanics and kinematics field data is a priority in order to be able to design the right architecture, infrastructure, and interfaces. Objective of this paper: Bring knowledge on the relevance of anthropometrical and

  20. A new dietary strategy for long-term treatment of the metabolic syndrome is compared with the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines: the MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Abete, Itziar; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Forga, Luis; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-02-01

    The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( - 1·7%; P= 0·018), BMI ( - 1·7%; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( - 1·8%; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( - 1·4%; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( - 6·9%; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( - 26·8%; P= 0·008 and - 14·0%; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9%; P= 0·011), AST (11·3%; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0%; P< 0·001) concentrations. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were increased (Control group: 34·4%; P< 0·001 and RESMENA group: 33·8%; P< 0·001), but interestingly so were the LDL-C:apoB ratio (Control group: 28·7%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 17·1%; P= 0·009) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Control group: 21·1%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 8·7; P= 0·001). Fibre was the dietary component that most contributed to the improvement of anthropometry, while body-weight loss explained changes in some biochemical markers. In conclusion, the RESMENA diet is a good

  1. Are Indian patients with juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis taller than reference population ?

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    Pulukool Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Paucity of growth retardation has been observed by us in patients with juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis (JAS in a tertiary care health centre in south India. We, therefore, undertook this pilot study to assess and compare anthropometry of patients with JAS who were 15 yr and older with that of adult onset ankylosing spondylitis (AAS and matching Indian reference population. Methods: Consecutive male patients (December 2009- October 2012 with JAS and AAS fulfilling Modified New York Criteria were selected after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demography and anthropometry were noted. Height of both patient groups as well as their parents and siblings were compared with that of the reference population. Mid-parental height and delta height were derived. Those with delta height of >8.5 cm were compared with the remaining. Multivariate logistic regression was done for variables that were found to be significant by chi-square in bivariate analysis. Similar analysis was done for BMI also. Results: There was no significant difference in anthropometric variables between JAS and AAS groups. Twenty eight of the 30 (93.33% JAS patients were taller as compared to the reference population. Twenty six (86.67% AAS patients were taller than the reference population. The mean heights of JAS (170.67 ± 6.94 cm and AAS (168.2 ± 5.94 cm patients were significantly higher than the reference value of 163.11 cm; both p0 <0.001. Logistic regression revealed that tallness in JAS was associated positively with hypermobility (OR=23.46,95%CI 1.2-447.2, p0 =0.036. No significant association was detected for height in AAS and for BMI in both JAS and AAS groups. Interpretation & conclusions: No growth retardation was seen in patients with JAS in our study. Majority of patients with JAS and AAS were taller than reference population. The difference between mean height of JAS and AAS was not significant. Larger studies involving different

  2. Personal best times in an Olympic distance triathlon and in a marathon predict Ironman race time in recreational male triathletes

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    Knechtle P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst1, Beat Knechtle1,2, Patrizia Knechtle2, Thomas Rosemann1, Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U887, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Dijon, FranceBackground: The purpose of this study was to define predictor variables for recreational male Ironman triathletes, using age and basic measurements of anthropometry, training, and previous performance to establish an equation for the prediction of an Ironman race time for future recreational male Ironman triathletes.Methods: Age and anthropometry, training, and previous experience variables were related to Ironman race time using bivariate and multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 184 recreational male triathletes, of mean age 40.9 ± 8.4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.06 m, and weight 76.3 ± 8.4 kg completed the Ironman within 691 ± 83 minutes. They spent 13.9 ± 5.0 hours per week in training, covering 6.3 ± 3.1 km of swimming, 194.4 ± 76.6 km of cycling, and 45.0 ± 15.9 km of running. In total, 149 triathletes had completed at least one marathon, and 150 athletes had finished at least one Olympic distance triathlon. They had a personal best time of 130.4 ± 44.2 minutes in an Olympic distance triathlon and of 193.9 ± 31.9 minutes in marathon running. In total, 126 finishers had completed both an Olympic distance triathlon and a marathon. After multivariate analysis, both a personal best time in a marathon (P < 0.0001 and in an Olympic distance triathlon (P < 0.0001 were the best variables related to Ironman race time. Ironman race time (minutes might be partially predicted by the following equation: (r2 = 0.65, standard error of estimate = 56.8 = 152.1 + 1.332 × (personal best time in a marathon, minutes + 1.964 × (personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon, minutes.Conclusion: These results suggest

  3. Tendência secular em estatura: uma revisão da literatura Secular height trend: a literature review

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    Gilberto Kac

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho constitui-se em uma revisão de literatura sobre tendência secular em estatura (TSE. Os principais tópicos abordados foram a definição do fenômeno, a utilização de dados históricos de estatura como estratégia alternativa no monitoramento de mudanças econômicas, as principais explicações teóricas sugeridas para a ocorrência do fenômeno, o início da antropometria militar, sua utilização no passado e no presente, e a magnitude da tendência em recrutas e na população infantil. Os principais achados revelaram que a TSE tem sido atribuída, sobretudo, a influências ambientais, em particular, a melhorias nas condições sanitárias, econômicas e sociais. As taxas médias de incremento variaram conforme a idade, o estrato sócio-econômico e o país considerado; portanto, deve-se ter cautela nas comparações interpopulacionais. A Segunda Guerra Mundial reduziu a tendência em diversos países, entre eles o Brasil, mas as taxas de incremento no pós-guerra foram ainda maiores do que as observadas no início do século. Constatou-se, por fim, que dados provenientes da antropometria militar são os mais utilizados para estimativas de TSE.This paper presents a literature review of secular height trends. The principal topics included were definition of the phenomenon, use of historical data sets on height as an alternative approach for monitoring economic changes, the main theoretical explanations of the phenomenon, the beginning of military anthropometry, and past and current use in measuring secular height trends in recruits and children. The most important results showed that the positive secular trend can be attributed to environmental influences, especially improvements in health, economic, and social conditions. The mean reported rates in height increases varied with age, socioeconomic status, and country, so one must exercise caution in drawing inferences. World War II slowed the trend in several countries

  4. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

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    Ju Young Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level mercury (Hg exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24 µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99 µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001 and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015, the duration (months of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001, and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033. In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles, dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001 and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017, were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg

  5. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  6. KAPASITAS ANGKAT BEBAN UNTUK PEKERJA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedik Santoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL for Indonesian population both males and females. The secondary objective was to develop models to predict the MAWL for Indonesian population based on anthropometric variables (sixteen variables and job related variables (lifting frequency, lifting height, vertical distance of lift. A total of 80 subjects (female students, female workers, male students, and male workers were used in this study, 20 people for each group. The subjects performed nine lifting tasks (combination of three frequencies and three lifting heights. Psychophysical methodology was used to determine MAWL. Subjects were asked to perform the lifting tasks with loads as much as they can without straining themselves and with the assumption that they work for eight hours per day. The models were developed using data from 75% of the subjects. The models were validated using the data from the other 25% of the subjects. Testing of the models revealed that general model developed for all subjects predicted lifting capacity as well as the specific models. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan MAWL (Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lift untuk orang Indonesia baik pria maupun wanita. Tujuan lain adalah menyusun suatu model yang bisa dipakai untuk memperkirakan MAWL orang Indonesia berdasarkan variabel anthropometri (16 varabel dan variabel yang berhubungan dengan pekerjaaan (frekuensi angkatan, tinggi angkatan, jarak vertikal dari angkatan. Ada 80 orang sebagai subyek dalam penelitian ini yang terdiri dari mahasiswi, mahasiswa, pekerja wanita, pekerja pria masing-masing 20 orang. Setiap orang melakukan 9 jenis pekerjaan mengangkat beban (kombinasi antara 3 frekuensi dan 3 ketinggian angkat. Metode yang digunakan dalam menentukan MAWL adalah psychophysical. Dengan metode ini, setiap subyek diminta untuk melakukan pekerjaan mengangkat barang sesuai

  7. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation during Lactation May Adversely Affect Long-Term Blood Pressure, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity of 7-Year-Old Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe;

    2009-01-01

    Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children....... Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7...... y. Diet and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed by 4-d weighed dietary records and ActiReg. The PAL value was 4% lower (P = 0.048) and energy intake (EI) of the boys was 1.1 ± 0.4 MJ/d higher (P = 0.014) in the FO group than in the OO group. Starch intake was 15 ± 6 g/d higher (P = 0...

  8. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkualp, Nevin; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. PMID:26413519

  9. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Utkualp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day.

  10. Extraction of average neck flexion angle during swallowing in neutral and chin-tuck positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdić Ervin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common but debated technique in the management of swallowing difficulties is the chin tuck swallow, where the neck is flexed forward prior to swallowing. Natural variations in chin tuck angles across individuals may contribute to the differential effectiveness of the technique. Methodology To facilitate the study of chin tuck angle variations, we present a template tracking algorithm that automatically extracts neck angles from sagittal videos of individuals performing chin tuck swallows. Three yellow markers geometrically arranged on a pair of dark visors were used as tracking cues. Results The algorithm was applied to data collected from 178 healthy participants during neutral and chin tuck position swallows. Our analyses revealed no major influences of body mass index and age on neck flexion angles during swallowing, while gender influenced the average neck angle only during wet swallows in the neutral position. Chin tuck angles seem to be independent of anthropometry and gender in healthy adults, but deserve further study in pathological populations. Conclusion The proposed neck flexion angle extraction algorithm may be useful in future studies where strict participant compliance to swallowing task protocol can be assured.

  11. [The characteristics of diagnosing homosexuality in examining a special population contingent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardenshteĭn, L M; Ermolaev, V S; Ovchinnikov, V I; Ponomarev, G N

    1995-01-01

    In social terms homosexuality is one of the most dangerous sexual perversions, for it is subject to a strong social disapproval, affects the personality core, leads to social disadaptation, growth of anxiety, development of neurotic and depressive states, suicidal inclination, is conducive to the spread of syphilis and AIDS, forms the basis for numerous crimes (violence, aggression, murder). Homosexuality virtually cannot be corrected and is carefully concealed. In single-sex groups (soldiers, students of military schools, convicts) the prevalence of homosexuality may be as high as 30 to 50%. The proposed complex method for the diagnosis of homosexuality in men has been developed on the basis of methods of sexology, anthropometry, verbal and nonverbal psychodiagnosis, multidimensional mathematical statistics. The method consists of several independent blocks representing different aspects of sexuality. It is conductive to a flexible and rapid solution of numerous practical problems from singling out a risk group in screening examinations to full expert evaluation of the sexual sphere with a resulting differential diagnosis. PMID:7638881

  12. [Factors associated with the consumption of soft drinks among Brazilian preschool children: national survey of 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Juliana Bergamo; Poblacion, Ana Paula; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-08-01

    The rising consumption of sweetened beverages such as soft drinks or artificial juices is associated with the prevalence of obesity in Brazil and around the world. This study seeks to verify the frequency of consumption of these beverages among Brazilian children aged 24-59 months and to investigate the association of soft drinks with demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Using data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children - 2006, the eating habits were obtained using the food and drink frequency questionnaire for the seven days preceding the interview, and anthropometry recorded the weight and height of children. Among preschoolers, 37.3% consumed soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. The factors significantly associated with frequent consumption of soft drinks were living in regions of higher economic development of the country, in urban areas, belonging to the higher income bracket, with mothers watching TV regularly and excess weight of the child, were associated with consumption of soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. Further studies are needed to understand the effective contribution of soft drinks on the epidemic of childhood obesity. PMID:26221802

  13. Novel Design of a Usable and Accurate Anthropometric Caliper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rousta-Nezhad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropometric kits are extensively used in workstation and product design projects, and with the advancement of technology, they have turned into highly complex and effective instruments. However, there are still many challenging problems in usability and reliability of application of these kits in real-world settings.Objectives: To identify the usability and accuracy issues with a conventional anthropometric caliper, and to propose measurable design features to enhance the functionality of the caliper.Methods: The measurement process using a conventional anthropometric caliper was systematically analyzed through detailed hierarchical task analyses. Also, six qualified anthropometry specialists performed heuristic evaluations to gain valuable insights into major usability issues in relation to the existing body measurement devices. Based on the resulting concepts, a mock-up was developed and evaluated against the desired specifications.Results: Incorrect positioning angle of the caliper, as well as applying various amounts of force by different investigators to push the caliper branches against body parts, appeared to be the main factors introducing inaccuracy to anthropometric data. Installing a spirit level on caliper, and also a pre-programmed microprocessor for real-time saving of the obtained data, facilitated the measurement process for both investigators and subjects.Conclusion: Accuracy, followed by usability is the primary concern in designing anthropometric instruments. However, expectations would vary from one specialist to another. Therefore, trade-offs should be made when incorporating innovative features in novel designed body measurement kits.

  14. Individually Tailored Screening of Susceptibility to Sarcopenia Using p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism, Phenotypes, and Conventional Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Di Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. p53 activity plays a role in muscle homeostasis and skeletal muscle differentiation; all pathways that lead to sarcopenia are related to p53 activities. We investigate the allelic frequency of the TP53 codon 72 in exon 4 polymorphism in the Italian female population and the association with appendicular skeletal muscle mass index in normal weight (NW, normal weight obese (NWO, and preobese-obese (Preob-Ob subjects. Methods. We evaluated anthropometry, body composition, and p53 polymorphism in 140 women distinguished in NW, NWO, and Preob-Ob. Results. Arg*/Arg* genotype increases sarcopenia risk up to 20% (Arg*/Arg* genotype OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.48–2.9; proallele* carriers OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.83–2.06. The risk of being sarcopenic for Arg*/Arg* genotype in NWO and Preob-Ob is 31% higher than NW carriers of proallele* (RR = 0,31, 95% CI = 0,15–0,66, P = 0,0079. We developed a model able to predict sarcopenia risk based on age, body fat, and p53 polymorphism. Conclusion. Our study evidences that genotyping TP53 polymorphism could be a useful new genetic approach, in association with body composition evaluations, to assess sarcopenia risk.

  15. FitKids360: Design, Conduct, and Outcomes of a Stage 2 Pediatric Obesity Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M. Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes FitKids360, a stage 2 pediatric weight management program. FitKids360 is a physician-referred, multicomponent, low-cost healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese youth 5–16 years of age and their families. FitKids360 provides an evidence-based approach to the treatment of pediatric overweight by targeting patients’ physical activity, screen time, and dietary behaviors using a family-centered approach. The intervention begins with a two-hour orientation and assessment period followed by six weekly sessions. Assessments include lifestyle behaviors, anthropometry, and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA survey, which screens for obesogenic risk factors in the home environment. Outcomes are presented from 258 patients who completed one of 33 FitKids360 classes. After completing FitKids360, patients increased moderate to vigorous physical activity by 14 minutes (P=0.019, reduced screen time by 44 minutes (P<0.001, and improved key dietary behaviors. Overall, FNPA scores increased by 9% (P<0.001 and 69% of patients with “high risk” FNPA scores at baseline dropped below the “high risk” range by followup. Patients also lowered BMIs (P=0.011 and age- and sex-adjusted BMI z-scores (P<0.001 after completing the 7-week program. We hope this report will be useful to medical and public health professionals seeking to develop stage 2 pediatric obesity programs.

  16. Assessment of a head support system to prevent pediatric out-of-position: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Forman, Jason L.; Ash, Joseph H.; Kent, Richard; Alba, Juan J.; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Head injuries are the most common severe injuries sustained by pediatric occupants in road traffic crashes. Preventing children from adopting positions that can result in an increased injury risk due to unfavorable interactions with the restraints is fundamental. The objective of this paper was to assess the effect of a head support system (SS) on the lateral position of the head, the vertical position of the sternum and the shoulder belt fit. Thirty pediatric rear-seat passengers were exposed to two 75-minute trials. Volunteers were restrained by a three-point belt and, if needed, used the appropriate child restraint system for their anthropometry (high-back booster, low-back booster, no booster). A case crossover study was designed in which the volunteers used the head support system (SS) during one of the trials, acting as their own controls (No SS) in the other. Compared to the control group, the head support reduced significantly the 90th percentile value of the absolute value of the relative lateral motion of the head, regardless of the restraint used. The system also reduced the maximum downward position of the sternal notch within the low-back booster group. As for the belt fit, the use of the head support improved significantly the position of the shoulder belt on the occupant in the low-back booster and in the no booster groups. PMID:24406966

  17. Regional variation in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension and diabetes and their correlates among the adult rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, I I; Vishnu Vardhana Rao, M; Sudershan Rao, V; Laxmaiah, A; Polasa, K

    2016-04-14

    A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in five regions of India by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Information was collected from the participants about socio-demographic particulars such as age, sex, occupation, education, etc. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and three measurements of blood pressure were obtained. Fasting blood sugar was assessed using a Glucometer. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, χ(2) test for association and logistic regression analysis. A total of 7531 subjects were covered for anthropometry and blood pressure. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was 29 and 21%, respectively, and was higher in the Southern region (40% each) as compared with other regions. The prevalence of hypertension was 18 and 16% and diabetes was 9·5% each among men and women, respectively. The risk of hypertension and diabetes was significantly higher among adults from the Southern and Western regions, the among elderly, among overweight/obese individuals and those with abdominal obesity. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension was higher in the Southern region, whereas diabetes was higher in the Southern and Western regions. Factors such as increasing age, male sex, overweight/obesity, and abdominal obesity were important risk factors for hypertension and diabetes. Appropriate health and nutrition education should be given to the community to control these problems.

  18. PREDICTION OF STATURE BY THE MEASUREMENT OF HEAD LE NGTH IN POPULATION OF RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Estimation of stature has a significant importance in the field of forensic anthropometry for the identification of an individual. AIMS: Study was carried out to assess and correlate head length and the stature an d to predict the stature of an individual by head length using regression analysis. MATERIALS & METHODS: Total 300 (150 males and 150 females medical students of S.M.S medical college, Jaipur (Rajasthan were selected. Head length and height of the individual were measured. RESULTS: Correlation coefficient between height & head length were r=0.941 for Male & r= 0.8 5 for Female suggestive of strong positive correlation. Regression equations were derived to c alculate height of unknown individual from head length. CONCLUSION: Present study has established definite correlation between stature and head length. If either of the measurement (tota l height or head length is known, the other can be calculated. It will help in medico-legal case s in establishing identity of an individual when only some remains of the body are found as in mass disasters, bomb explosions, accidents etc

  19. Adaptive changes in spatiotemporal gait characteristics in women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Janusz W; Opala-Berdzik, Agnieszka; Plewa, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal gait cycle characteristics were assessed at early (P1), and late (P2) pregnancy, as well as at 2 months (PP1) and 6 months (PP2) postpartum. A substantial decrease in walking speed was observed throughout the pregnancy, with the slowest speed (1±0.2m/s) being during the third trimester. Walking at slower velocity resulted in complex adaptive adjustments to their spatiotemporal gait pattern, including a shorter step length and an increased duration of both their stance and double-support phases. Duration of the swing phase remained the least susceptible to changes. Habitual walking velocity (1.13±0.2m/s) and the optimal gait pattern were fully recovered 6 months after childbirth. Documented here adaptive changes in the preferred gait pattern seem to result mainly from the altered body anthropometry leading to temporary balance impairments. All the observed changes within stride cycle aimed to improve gait safety by focusing on its dynamic stability. The pregnant women preferred to walk at a slower velocity which allowed them to spend more time in double-support compared with their habitual pattern. Such changes provided pregnant women with a safer and more tentative ambulation that reduced the single-support period and, hence, the possibility of instability. As pregnancy progressed a significant increase in stance width and a decrease in step length was observed. Both factors allow also for gait stability improvement.

  20. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Weigel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Household food insecurity (HFI is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin. Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81% among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact.

  1. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact.

  2. Nutritional status of married adolescent girls in rural Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S; Kapil, U; Bhanthi, T; Gnanasekaran, N; Pandey, R M

    1994-01-01

    Adolescence is period of rapid growth and development. The present study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of 941 adolescent girls, aged 10-18 years belonging to Scheduled Caste communities in rural Rajasthan, using the probability proportionate to size sampling procedure. Data on 93 married adolescent girls was analysed in detail. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by anthropometry, dietary intake and by clinical examination of nutritional deficiency disorders. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for height, weight, chest circumference, MUAC and TSF using standardised techniques. On comparing the present study's data with ICMR's study data (1956-65) it was found that there has been a significant improvement in the height, weight and chest circumference of the adolescent girls but the values were below the well-to-do group study data. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 hours recall method. The dietary intake was compared against ICMR's RDA. It was found that the diets were deficient in calories by 30 to 40% in proteins by 25 to 37%, by 39 to 55% in iron and by 10 to 34% in vitamin A. 78% of the subjects suffered from various grades of anaemia and 40% of the subjects had B-complex deficiency.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Patterns and Their Implications for Intervention Strategies in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Ngoc Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Methods. A cross-sectional survey in 2009 (2,130 adults was done to collect data on behavioural CVDRF, anthropometry and blood pressure, lipidaemia profiles, and oral glucose tolerance tests. Four metabolic CVDRFs (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, and obesity and five behavioural CVDRFs (smoking, excessive alcohol intake, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and stress were analysed to identify their prevalence, cluster patterns, and social predictors. Framingham scores were applied to estimate the global 10-year CVD risks and potential benefits of CVD prevention strategies. Results. The age-standardised prevalence of having at least 2/4 metabolic, 2/5 behavioural, or 4/9 major CVDRF was 28%, 27%, 13% in women and 32%, 62%, 34% in men. Within-individual clustering of metabolic factors was more common among older women and in urban areas. High overall CVD risk (≥20% over 10 years identified 20% of men and 5% of women—especially at higher ages—who had coexisting CVDRF. Conclusion. Multiple CVDRFs were common in Vietnamese adults with different clustering patterns across sex/age groups. Tackling any single risk factor would not be efficient.

  4. Definition and Measurement of Child Malnutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Child Malnutrition has been defined or described in many ways. To summarize the common points, child malnutrition may be defined as a pathological state resulting from inadequate nutrition, including undernutrition (protein- energy malnutrition) due to insufficient intake of energy and other nutrients; overnutrition (overweight and obesity) due to excessive consumption of energy and other nutrients; deficiency diseases due to insufficient intake of one or more specific nutrients such as vitamins or minerals.   In the assessment of child malnutrition, a large number of measures are available. Among these measuring methods, Z-score, growth charts, weight-for-length index (WLI), height standard weight, body mass index, skin fold thickness and clinical grading diagnosis standard for child malnutrition are selected for discussion. The same set of anthropometry data of a group of preschool children was analyzed by using different methods. The results showed that it was very difficult to determine the nutritional state of children using a single index. For a given group of children, Z-score method is recommended to observe their height, weight and weight for height at the same time in order to have a comprehensive understanding.

  5. Does mass azithromycin distribution impact child growth and nutrition in Niger? A cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou Amza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use on animals demonstrates improved growth regardless of whether or not there is clinical evidence of infectious disease. Antibiotics used for trachoma control may play an unintended benefit of improving child growth.In this sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial, we assess anthropometry of pre-school children in a community-randomized trial of mass oral azithromycin distributions for trachoma in Niger. We measured height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC in 12 communities randomized to receive annual mass azithromycin treatment of everyone versus 12 communities randomized to receive biannual mass azithromycin treatments for children, 3 years after the initial mass treatment. We collected measurements in 1,034 children aged 6-60 months of age.We found no difference in the prevalence of wasting among children in the 12 annually treated communities that received three mass azithromycin distributions compared to the 12 biannually treated communities that received six mass azithromycin distributions (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.53 to 1.49.We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in stunting, underweight, and low MUAC of pre-school children in communities randomized to annual mass azithromycin treatment or biannual mass azithromycin treatment. The role of antibiotics on child growth and nutrition remains unclear, but larger studies and longitudinal trials may help determine any association.

  6. FERTILITY INTENTIONS AND EARLY LIFE HEALTH STRESS AMONG WOMEN IN EIGHT INDIAN CITIES: TESTING THE REPRODUCTIVE ACCELERATION HYPOTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Säävälä, Minna

    2015-09-01

    In life history theory, early life adversity is associated with an accelerated reproductive tempo. In harsh and unpredictable conditions in developing societies fertility is generally higher and the reproductive tempo faster than in more secure environments. This paper examines whether differences in female anthropometry, particularly adult height, are associated with fertility intentions of women in urban environments in India. The study population consists of women aged 15-29 (N=4485) in slums and non-slums of eight Indian cities in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2005-2006. Adult height is taken as a proxy for early childhood health and nutritional condition. Fertility intentions are examined by using two variables: the desire to have a child or another child, and to have it relatively soon, as indicative of accelerated reproductive scheduling. Evidence supporting the acceleration hypothesis is found in two urban frames out of 26 examined in a two-staged multinomial logistic model. In three cases, the relationship between fertility intentions and height is the opposite than expected by the acceleration hypothesis: taller women have a higher predictive probability of desiring a(nother) child and/or narrower birth spacing. Potential explanations for the partly contradictory relationship between the childhood health indicator and fertility intentions are discussed. PMID:25115228

  7. The relationship of endogenous plasma concentrations of β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) to age and total appendicular lean mass in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; Selvam, Sumithra; Jayakumar, J; Philip, Mamatha G; Shreeram, Sathyavageeswaran; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-08-01

    The maintenance of muscle mass and muscle strength is important for reducing the risk of chronic diseases. The age- related loss of muscle mass and strength is associated with adverse outcomes of physical disability, frailty and death. β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has beneficial effects on muscle mass and strength under various catabolic conditions. The objectives of the present study were to determine if age- related differences existed in endogenous plasma HMB levels, and to assess if HMB levels correlated to total appendicular lean mass and forearm grip strength. Anthropometry, dietary and physical activity assessment, and the estimation of fasting plasma HMB concentrations and handgrip strength were performed on the 305 subjects (children, young adults and older adults). Lean mass, which serves as a surrogate for muscle mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Mean plasma HMB concentrations were significantly lower with increasing age groups, with children having highest mean HMB concentration (pbody weight (%), appendicular lean mass (r=0.37; phumans and the HMB concentrations were positively correlated with appendicular lean mass and hand grip strength in young adults and older adults group. PMID:27108182

  8. Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracchi, O A B; Terreri, M T R A; Munekata, R V; Len, C A; Sarni, R O S; Lazaretti-Castro, M; Hilário, M O E

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in children and adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and associated them with disease duration and activity, use of medication (chloroquine and glucocorticoids), vitamin D intake, calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels, and bone mineral density. Thirty patients with JSLE were evaluated and compared to 30 healthy individuals, who were age and gender matched. Assessment was performed of clinical status, disease activity, anthropometry, laboratory markers, and bone mineral density. The 30 patients included 25 (83.3%) females and 16 (53.3%) Caucasians, with a mean age of 13.7 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 10.5 years and mean disease duration was 3.4 years. Mean levels of calcium, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in patients with JSLE compared with controls (Pvitamin D levels vitamin D levels between 20 and 32 ng/mL. However, these values were not associated with greater disease activity, higher levels of parathormone, medication intake, or bone mineral density. Vitamin D concentrations were similar with regard to ethnic group, body mass index, height for age, and pubertal stage. Significantly more frequently than in controls, we observed insufficient serum concentrations of 25(OH)D in patients with JSLE; however, we did not observe any association with disease activity, higher levels of parathormone, lower levels of alkaline phosphatase, use of medications, or bone mineral density alterations.

  9. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, A M; Smith, S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely.

  10. Semantics and technologies in modern design of interior stairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhta, M.; Sokolov, A.; Pelevin, E.

    2015-10-01

    Use of metal in the design of interior stairs presents new features for shaping, and can be implemented using different technologies. The article discusses the features of design and production technologies of forged metal spiral staircase considering the image semantics based on the historical and cultural heritage. To achieve the objective was applied structural- semantic method (to identify the organization of structure and semantic features of the artistic image), engineering methods (to justify the construction of the object), anthropometry method and ergonomics (to provide usability), methods of comparative analysis (to reveale the features of the way the ladder in different periods of culture). According to the research results are as follows. Was revealed the semantics influence on the design of interior staircase that is based on the World Tree image. Also was suggested rational calculation of steps to ensure the required strength. And finally was presented technology, providing the realization of the artistic image. In the practical part of the work is presented version of forged staircase.

  11. Metabolic syndrome in overweight children from the city of Botucatu - São Paulo State - Brazil: agreement among six diagnostic criteria

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    Rinaldi Ana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome has been described in children; however, a standard criterion has not been established for its diagnosis. Also, few studies have been conducted to specifically observe the possible existence of agreement among the existing diagnostic criteria. The purpose of the study is to evaluate agreement concerning prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome diagnosed by six different criteria in overweight schoolchildren in the city of Botucatu - SP -Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study on 128 overweight schoolchildren. Clinical examination included anthropometry, pubertal staging evaluation, and blood pressure. Triacylglycerol, glycemia, HDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR were determined. The Kappa index, the Mann-Whitney test and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome varied from 10 to 16.5% according to different diagnostic criteria. Results were similar for boys and girls and pubertal stage. Great agreement was observed among the six different diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Different diagnostic criteria, when adopted for subjects with similar demographic characteristics, generate similar and compatible prevalence. Results suggest that it is possible to adopt any of the analyzed criteria, and the choice should be according to the components available for each situation.

  12. CATIA的视觉分析功能在电动汽车电池快换转运装置中的应用%The vision function of CATIA and its application in battery quick change transfer device on electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫爱政; 杨勤; 吕健; 赵冠浩; 赵慧亮

    2013-01-01

    以电动汽车电池快换转运装置显示面板布置设计为例,将人机工程学理论与CATIA的视觉分析功能技术相结合,建立具有中国人体尺寸特征的数字化人体模型,利用CATIA软件的视觉功能及人体姿态分析模块,对产品进行动态视觉系统3D模拟仿真,实现了对电池快换转运装置中显示面板布局的人机优化.%Taking display panel placement design of battery quick change transfer device on electric vehicle for example, the ergonomics and CATIA visual analysis function technology were combined to establish a digital human model with a Chinese anthropometry data. And the product' s 3D dynamic simulation of visual system by using CATIA visual analysis function technology and human posture analysis module,to realize the man-machine optimization of the placement on the display panel of the battery quick change transfer device.

  13. The Influences of Human Design of Mattress on Sleeping%床垫的人性化设计对睡眠健康的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉霞; 中黎明; 郭勇; 潘颖玲; 胡天怡; 宋杰

    2012-01-01

    通过睡眠生理、睡眠行为、睡眠节律分析,论述了人对睡眠的需求特征和健康睡眠的重要性,结合人—床界面关系、卧姿脊柱形态、人体体型、床垫物理性能等,分析了睡眠质量和卧姿舒适性的影响因素以及不同人群对床垫需求的差异性,提出了床垫人性化设计的概念。在此基础上,总结了床垫人性化设计的原则,给出了基于床垫人性化设计的床垫性能检测的建议。%By analyzing sleep physiology, behaves and rhythm, it discussed sleeping demand characteristics and the importance of healthy sleep of people. And combined with human-bed interface with spinal morphology in lying position, anthropometry characteristics and physical property of mattress, it analyzed the factors of sleeping quality, lying comfort and different needs of different groups to mattresses, and put forward the concept of humanization design of mattress. On basis of that, it summarized the humanization design principles of mattress, and given suggestions of testing mattress properties on mattress humanization design.

  14. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44

  15. Micronutrient malnutrition and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis with and without HIV co-infection in Malawi

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    Clark Tamara D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wasting and micronutrient malnutrition have not been well characterized in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. We hypothesized that micronutrient malnutrition is associated with wasting and higher plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV load in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods In a cross-sectional study involving 579 HIV-positive and 222 HIV-negative adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba, Malawi, anthropometry, plasma HIV load and plasma micronutrient concentrations (retinol, α-tocopherol, carotenoids, zinc, and selenium were measured. The risk of micronutrient deficiencies was examined at different severity levels of wasting. Results Body mass index (BMI, plasma retinol, carotenoid and selenium concentrations significantly decreased by increasing tertile of plasma HIV load. There were no significant differences in plasma micronutrient concentrations between HIV-negative individuals and HIV-positive individuals who were in the lowest tertile of plasma HIV load. Plasma vitamin A concentrations Conclusions These data demonstrate that wasting and higher HIV load in pulmonary tuberculosis are associated with micronutrient malnutrition.

  16. Long-Term Consequences for Offspring of Paternal Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

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    Benigno Linares Segovia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, few have focused how diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome together in parents can influence on obesity and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Objective. To know the risk obesity and metabolic disturbance in children, adolescents, and young adults whose parents have diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Methods. A comparative survey was made in healthy children of parents with diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome compared with offspring of healthy parents. We performed anthropometry and evaluated blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in plasma. We registered parent antecedents to diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and investigated the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Results. We studied 259 subjects of 7 to 20 years of age. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27% and 37%, respectively. The highest proportion of BMI >95th of the entire group was found in offspring with both diabetic parents. Glucose and total cholesterol levels were lower in the group with healthy parents compared with the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but with healthy father. HDL cholesterol was higher in the group with both healthy parents than in the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but healthy father. Conclusions. The offspring of parents with diabetes plus metabolic syndrome showed higher proportion of variables related to metabolic syndrome compared with healthy parents.

  17. Leptin Levels and Nutritional Status of Indigenous Tepehuán and Mestizo Subjects in Durango, Mexico

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    Dealmy Delgadillo Guzmán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI. Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW, and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O. Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson’s correlation (r=-0.5; P<0.05 between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity.

  18. HOMA-ESTIMATED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN NONDIABETIC INDIVIDUALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任颖; 刘伟; 黄钢; 黄定九; 陆广华; 李惠娟; 季正明; 郁小英

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between HOMA-estimated insulin resistance and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in the general population. Methods 268 eligible subjects of Pudong ShangGan community, aged 45 ~ 80 years, volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional survey. Fasting insulin was measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Results Anthropometric parameters,fasting blood glucose and insulin,increased in a linear fashion across quartiles of HOMA-IR after adjustment for age and sex. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with measures of anthropometry ( BMI,r = 0. 30;waist circumference, r =0. 35; and waist-to-hip ratio, r =0. 21 ), fasting ( glucose, r = 0. 41; insulin, r = 0. 71 ), and cardiovascular risk factors ( cholesterol, r =0. 23; triglyceride, r = 0. 31; systolic blood pressure, r = 0. 25; and diastolic blood pressure, r = 0. 20; all P <0. 0001 ). In logistic regression analysis, odds ratios indicate that individuals with obesity ( high levels of BMI and waist circumference) were more than 4 times likely to have elevated HOMA-IR. With increase of log triglycerides,the risk of having elevated HOMA-IR increased more than 2.4 times. For increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the likelihood of having elevated HOMA-IR increased >1.8 times. Conclusion HOMA-IR was significantly and independently associated with risk factors of cardiovascular disease in this study.

  19. Effects of 8 weeks' specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  20. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position. PMID:23879184

  1. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN YOUNG MEN FROM MAPUTO CITY, MOZAMBIQUE

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    Mario Eugénio Tchamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years were divided into four groups (low birth weight 3.999 g, HBW, n = 31. Anthropometry and body composition were measured. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, and running speed. Results: IBW showed lower values of body mass and fat free mass while LBW and HBW had high values of hip circumference, suprailiac, subscapular and abdominal skinfold when compared to NBW. LBW and HBW showed a high percentage of individuals with low performance in flexibility, right handgrip, agility, abdominal resistance, arms strength, and horizontal long jump. Around 70% of HBW showed low performance in the running speed test. Conclusion: Both low and high birth weight can influence adult adiposity and the performance in physical fitness tests.

  2. Choice of design and outcomes in trials among children with moderate acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F; Wells, Jonathan C

    2015-03-01

    There is a need for trials on the effects of food aid products for children with moderate acute malnutrition, to identify how best to restore body tissues and function. The choice of control intervention is a major challenge, with both ethical and scientific implications. While randomized trials are needed, special designs, such as cluster-randomized, stepped-wedged or factorial designs may offer advantages. Anthropometry is widely used as the primary outcome in such trials, but anthropometric traits do not refer directly to specific organs, tissues, or functions. Thus, it is difficult to understand what components of health might be impacted by public health programs, or the underlying mechanisms whereby improved nutritional status might benefit short- and long-term health. Measurement of body composition, specific growth markers and functional outcomes may provide greater insight into the nature and implications of growth failure and recovery. There are now several methodologies suitable for application in infants and young children, e.g., measuring body composition with deuterium dilution, physical activity with accelerometers and linear growth with knemometers. To evaluate the generalizability of the findings from nutrition trials, it is important to collect data on baseline nutritional status.

  3. Modifikasi Mesin Pemanen Udang/Ikan Tipe Vakum berdasarkan Analisis Antropometri

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    Diza Puspa Arista

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many considerations was used when designing a tool or machine, one of that is ergonomics. Ergonomics makes the designing was effective and efficient in terms of the system, and operator’s comfort and safety also. The objective of this study is to determine the condition of operator in carrying out the work system of machine with simulation and ergonomics analysis using CATIA P3 V5R20, then modify it according to ergonomics principles that related to the posture of Indonesian people average (anthropometry, to get a comfortable working position, safe, and productive. Anthropometric data was used are male farmer’s data in Dramaga, Bogor. The object that would analyzed is the vacuum type shrimp or fish harvester. The results are a color sign and the final score that compared with RULA Method. From the simulation can be seen that the best Final Score is when operated the intake hole cap with the value of 2, the color code is green and acceptable. The worst result is when cranked the engine with the value of 4 and investige further. Modification was made to displace the engine position and addition the components for footing. The results of ergonomics simulation after modified was better than before.

  4. PERANCANGAN MESIN PENYAYAT BAMBU SECARA ERGONOMIS

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    Agung Kristanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jamboel Kipas adalah UKM yang memproduksi souvenir kipas dengan sistem pesanan make to order. Seiring perkembangan waktu, Jamboel Kipas tidak dapat memenuhi pesanan karena keterbatasan kapasitas produksi souvenir kipas. Hal ini disebabkan karena waktu proses yang lama terjadi pada bagian penyayatan bambu, yaitu sebesar 22 detik/iratan. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas penyayatan bambu serta memperbaiki posisi operator saat bekerja, dengan perancangan mesin penyayat bambu berdasar anthropometri ukuran tubuh operator, keluhan selama bekerja, dan waktu proses penyayatan bambu. Hasil penelitian setelah perancangan menunjukan posisi operator saat bekerja cukup ergonomis karena ukuran tempat kerja disesuaikan dengan dimensi antropometri operator. Waktu baku pada kondisi sebelum perancangan sebesar 21,16 detik/iratan dan output standar sebesar 170,09 iratan/jam. Sedangkan setelah perancangan sebesar 4,42 detik/iratan dan output standarnya sebesar 815,22 iratan/jam dengan peningkatan output standar 479,46%, terjadi penurunan waktu baku sebesar 378,73%. Sementara itu nilai break event point terjadi ketika UKM Jamboel Kipas sudah memproduksi 12927  kipas.

  5. PERANCANGAN MESIN PENYAYAT BAMBU SECARA ERGONOMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Kristanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jamboel Kipas adalah UKM yang memproduksi souvenir kipas dengan sistem pesanan make to order. Seiring perkembangan waktu, Jamboel Kipas tidak dapat memenuhi pesanan karena keterbatasan kapasitas produksi souvenir kipas. Hal ini disebabkan karena waktu proses yang lama terjadi pada bagian penyayatan bambu, yaitu sebesar 22 detik/iratan. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas penyayatan bambu serta memperbaiki posisi operator saat bekerja, dengan perancangan mesin penyayat bambu berdasar anthropometri ukuran tubuh operator, keluhan selama bekerja, dan waktu proses penyayatan bambu. Hasil penelitian setelah perancangan menunjukan posisi operator saat bekerja cukup ergonomis karena ukuran tempat kerja disesuaikan dengan dimensi antropometri operator. Waktu baku pada kondisi sebelum perancangan sebesar 21,16 detik/iratan dan output standar sebesar 170,09 iratan/jam. Sedangkan setelah perancangan sebesar 4,42 detik/iratan dan output standarnya sebesar 815,22 iratan/jam dengan peningkatan output standar 479,46%, terjadi penurunan waktu baku sebesar 378,73%. Sementara itu nilai break event point terjadi ketika UKM Jamboel Kipas sudah memproduksi 12927 kipas.

  6. The relationship of endogenous plasma concentrations of β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) to age and total appendicular lean mass in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; Selvam, Sumithra; Jayakumar, J; Philip, Mamatha G; Shreeram, Sathyavageeswaran; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-08-01

    The maintenance of muscle mass and muscle strength is important for reducing the risk of chronic diseases. The age- related loss of muscle mass and strength is associated with adverse outcomes of physical disability, frailty and death. β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has beneficial effects on muscle mass and strength under various catabolic conditions. The objectives of the present study were to determine if age- related differences existed in endogenous plasma HMB levels, and to assess if HMB levels correlated to total appendicular lean mass and forearm grip strength. Anthropometry, dietary and physical activity assessment, and the estimation of fasting plasma HMB concentrations and handgrip strength were performed on the 305 subjects (children, young adults and older adults). Lean mass, which serves as a surrogate for muscle mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Mean plasma HMB concentrations were significantly lower with increasing age groups, with children having highest mean HMB concentration (plean mass normalized for body weight (%), appendicular lean mass (r=0.37; plean mass and hand grip strength in young adults and older adults group.

  7. Dietary intakes in infertile women a pilot study

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    Nappi Rossella E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive axis is closely linked to nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional status in two groups of young infertile women, without clinically overt eating disorders: hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods Eighteen young infertile women (10 HA, 8 PCOS attending an outpatient gynecological endocrinology unit, underwent evaluation of anthropometry, body composition, dietary intakes by means of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and a seven-day food diary (7DD, and psychological characteristics by means of EDI2 and SCL90 tests. Results HA women had lower BMI and body fat compared to PCOS women. Habitual intake derived from FFQs showed a similar macronutrient distribution between groups (about 16% protein, 33% fat, 52% carbohydrates. The psychometric profiles of the two groups did not differ significantly. The underreporting of dietary intakes (measured as habitual energy intake by FFQs/basal metabolic rate was found to be negatively correlated with the interpersonal sensitivity SCL-90 subscale scores (r = -0.54, p = 0.02. Conclusion Our study identified differences in body composition but not in dietary habits between HA and PCOS infertile women. We documented, for the first time, a relationship between the accuracy of dietary surveys and the psychological characteristics of subjects with anovulation. This finding suggests that it may be important to be aware of the psychological terrain when planning a dietary survey in infertile women.

  8. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  9. Social and psychological factors affecting eating habits among university students in a Malaysian medical school: a cross-sectional study

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    Ganasegeran Kurubaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating habits and psychosocial factors. Results Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 22.7 (±2.4 years and (the age ranged from 18 to 30 years. More than half had regular meals and breakfast (57.6% &, 56.1% respectively. Majority (73.5% consumed fruits less than three times per week, 51.5% had fried food twice or more a week and 59.8% drank water less than 2 liters daily. Eating habits score was significantly low among younger students (18–22 years, smokers, alcohol drinkers and those who did not exercise. (ppp Conclusion Most of the students in this study had healthy eating habits. Social and psychological factors were important determinants of eating habits among medical students.

  10. Objective classification of vehicle seat discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Peter; Rose, Joseph; Knapik, Gregory; Marras, William S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify how physiological measures relate to self-reported vehicle seating discomfort. Twelve subjects of varied anthropometric characteristics were enrolled in the study. Subjects sat in two seats over a 2-h period and were evaluated via three physiological measures (near-infrared spectroscopy, electromyography and pressure mapping) yielding six testing sessions. Subjective discomfort surveys were recorded before and after each session for nine regions of the body. Conditional classification discomfort models were developed through dichotomised physiological responses and anthropometry to predict subjective discomfort in specific body locations. Models revealed that subjects taller than 171 cm with reduced blood oxygenation in the biceps femoris or constant, low-level muscle activity in the trapezius tended to report discomfort in the lower extremities or neck, respectively. Subjects weighing less than 58 kg with reduced blood oxygenation in the biceps femoris or unevenly distributed pressure patterns tended to report discomfort in the buttocks. The sensitivities and specificities of cross-validated models ranged between 0.69 and 1.00. PMID:24606493

  11. Developmental stage-dependent influence of environmental factors on growth of rural Sundanese children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs.

  12. Nutritional support of bone marrow transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing total parental nutrition to an enteral feeding program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have been associated with nutritionally-depleting side effects. Total parental nutrition (TPN) has become the standard, but it has not been demonstrated that TPN is the appropriate method of nutritional support. Therefore, in a prospective, randomized clinical trial TPN and enteral feeding were compared for their effectiveness in maintaining the nutritional status of patients through the first 29 post-transplant days. Nutritional assessment included measurement of serum proteins, body weight, anthropometry and isotope dilution analysis of body composition. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular fluid (ECF) were quantified by standard radioisotope dilution techniques using tritiated water and 169ytterbium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, respectively as the tracers. Consenting patients 10-58 years of age were stratified by type of BMT (autologous or allogeneic) and randomized to either TPN plus ad libitum oral feeding or the individualized enteral feeding program (EFP), which included one-on-one counseling, meal-by-meal menu selection, special snacks and tube feeding. There were no differences in the rate of hematologic recovery, incidence of graft-versus-host disease, organ toxicity, length of hospitalization or survival. Therefore, the observed changes in body composition were not clinically significant. Even allowing for increased dietary service, the EFP was only half as expensive as TPN. It was concluded that TPN is not superior to the EFP and therefore, TPN should be reserved for patients who demonstrate intolerance to enteral feeding

  13. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33 % less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity. PMID:26968841

  14. Comparison of Three Protocols: Dietary Therapy and Physical Activity, Acupuncture, or Laser Acupuncture in Management of Obese Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to compare efficiency of three types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with   healthy diet among obese females. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Randomized longitudinal prospective study, carried out on 76 adult females. Blood pressure, anthropometric, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: Females undergo nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the anthropometric measurements, visceral fat at umbilicus by US and diastolic blood pressure (decreased, and insignificant differences in fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Female undergo acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in visceral fat by US, lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL, and decreased fasting blood sugar, and insignificant differences in the anthropometric measurements. Those undergo laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all anthropometric measurements under study, visceral fat at umbilicus by US, blood pressure and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional intervention alone could be used to reduce weight if the lipid profile within normal range, but if it is impaired, acupuncture should be used beside. To strength the reduction in body anthropometry, laser intervention was recommended beside the nutritional intervention.

  15. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Choi

    Full Text Available Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP risk in Koreans.This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000 kcal together with its 95% confidence interval (CI, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed.No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014. Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP.The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women.

  16. Are Korean Patients Different from Other Ethnic Groups in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon; Kim, Kang-Il

    2015-12-01

    Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical results and patient satisfaction. In this review, we investigated the anthropometric differences of Koreans from Westerners. Koreans are of shorter stature, less weight, and smaller skeletal structure and have a higher incidence of constitutional varus alignment of the lower extremity. Moreover, compared to Westerner TKA populations, the proportion of female patients was large and primary osteoarthritis was prevalent in preoperative diagnosis in Korean TKA patients. Culturally, Koreans have life styles that demand high flexion positions of the knee such as squatting, kneeling, and cross-legged sitting. Although there were no notable differences in the complication and revision rates following TKA between Westerners and Koreans, the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism was lower in Koreans than Westerners. We hope that further research on implant designs and more interest in TKA will improve outcomes in Korean patients.

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Risk, and Inflammation in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios D. Christodoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and C-reactive protein (CRP in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4  ±  0.4 years. Data was obtained for children’s anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, without gender differences. Subjects with low fitness showed significantly higher MetS risk (<0.001 and CRP (<0.007, compared to the high-fitness pupils. However, differences in MetS risk, and CRP between fitness groups decreased when adjusted for waist circumference. These data indicate that the mechanisms linking cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS risk and inflammation in children are extensively affected by obesity. Intervention strategies aiming at reducing obesity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood might contribute to the prevention of the MetS in adulthood.

  18. Fitness and Adiposity Are Independently Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan S. Buchan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to examine the independent associations of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered cardiometabolic risk. Methods. A cross-sectional sample of 192 adolescents (118 boys, aged 14–16 years, was recruited from a South Lanarkshire school in the West of Scotland. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were taken. The 20 m multistage fitness test was the indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. A clustered cardiometabolic risk score was constructed from HDL-C (inverted, LDL-C, HOMA, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides. Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were also measured and examined relative to the clustered cardiometabolic risk score, CRF, and adiposity. Results. Although significant, partial correlations between BMI and waist circumference (WC and both CRF and adiponectin were negative and weak to moderate, while correlations between the BMI and WC and CRP were positive but weak to moderate. Weak to moderate negative associations were also evident for adiponectin with CRP, IL-6, and clustered cardiometabolic risk. WC was positively associated while CRF was negatively associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk. With the additional adjustment for either WC or CRF, the independent associations with cardiometabolic risk persisted. Conclusion. WC and CRF are independently associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk in Scottish adolescents.

  19. Nutritional assessment as predictor of complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Espinoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Nutritional support is pivotal in patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nutritional status has been associated with time of engraftment and infection rates. In order to evaluate the association between nutritional parameters and clinical outcomes after transplantation a cohort of transplant patients was retrospectively evaluated. Methods: All 50 patients transplanted between 2011 and 2014 were included. The nutritional status before transplantation, ten days after transplantation and before discharge was assessed including anthropometry, body mass index, albumin, prealbumin and total urinary nitrogen. Results: The median follow-up time was 41 months and the median age of patients was 41 years. Thirty-two underwent allogeneic and 18 autologous transplants. Diagnoses included acute leukemias (n = 27, lymphoma (n = 7, multiple myeloma (n = 13, and aplastic anemia (n = 3. Thirty-seven patients developed mucositis (three Grade 1, 15 Grade 2, 18 Grade 3 and one Grade 4, and twenty-two allogeneic, and five autologous transplant patients required total parenteral nutrition. Albumin and total urinary nitrogen were associated with length of hospital stay and platelet and neutrophil engraftment. None of the nutritional parameters evaluated were associated with overall survival. Non-relapse mortality was 14% and overall survival was 79% at 41 months of follow-up. Conclusions: After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, high catabolism was associated with longer length of hospital stay, the need of total parenteral nutrition and platelet and neutrophil engraftment times. Nutritional parameters were not associated with overall survival.

  20. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring. PMID:16140895

  1. Schisandra chinensis fruit modulates the gut microbiota composition in association with metabolic markers in obese women: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-young; Wang, Jing-hua; Eom, Taewoong; Kim, Hojun

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit (SCF) is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including obesity, and to affect gut microbiota in in vivo studies. However, in human research, there have been a few studies in terms of its clinical roles in lipid metabolism and modulation of gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 28 obese women with SCF or placebo was conducted for 12 weeks. Anthropometry and blood and fecal sampling were performed before and after treatment. Analysis of the gut microbiota in feces was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the values did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, the SCF group tended to show a greater decrease in waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase than the placebo group. Clustering of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints for total bacteria before and after treatment indicated more separate clustering in SCF group than placebo. In correlation analysis, Bacteroides and Bacteroidetes (both increased by SCF) showed significant negative correlation with fat mass, aspartate aminotransferase, and/or alanine aminotransferase, respectively. Ruminococcus (decreased by SCF) showed negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. In conclusion, administration of SCF for 12 weeks resulted in modulation of the gut microbiota composition in Korean obese women, and significant correlations with some bacterial genera and metabolic parameters were noted. However, in general, SCF was not sufficient to induce significant changes in obesity-related parameters compared with placebo.

  2. Nutrition for synchronized swimming: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Bronwen

    2011-10-01

    Synchronized swimming enjoys worldwide popularity and has been part of the formal Olympic program since 1984. Despite this, relatively little research has been conducted on participant nutrition practices and requirements, and there are significant gaps in the knowledge base despite the numerous areas in which nutrition could affect performance and safety. This review aimed to summarize current findings and identify areas requiring further research. Uniform physique in team or duet events may be more important than absolute values for muscularity or body fat, but a lean and athletic appearance remains key. Synchronized swimmers appear to have an increased risk of developing eating disorders, and there is evidence of delayed menarche, menstrual dysfunction, and lower bone density relative to population norms. Dietary practices remain relatively unknown, but micronutrient status for iron and magnesium may be compromised. More research is required across all aspects of nutrition status, anthropometry, and physiology, and both sports nutrition and sports medicine support may be required to reduce risks for participants.

  3. [PREVALENCE OF MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS OF CHRONIC NON INFECTION DISEASES AMONG URBAN AND RURAL RESIDENTS OF KARAGANDA REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgunova, L; Laryushina, E; Amirkhanova, D; Alina, A; Bayesheva, T

    2016-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence of modifiable risk factors of chronic non infection diseases among urban and rural residents in Karaganda region. The cross-sectional screening study of 1453 respondents' age 18 to 65 among the urban and rural population of the Karaganda region: 672 urban and 781 rural adult residents were included into the study. The screening stage included conducting survey using international questionnaires, anthropometry, arterial blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol measurement. According study results the most common risk factors among residents of Saran town and Osakarovsky area included: hypercholesterolemia (46,2 % and 36,9 %, respectively), arterial hypertension (39,3 % and 32,2 %, respectively) and smoking (26,3 % and 19,5 % respectively). Frequency of active and passive smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and alcohol abuse 1.2-2.0 times higher compared in urban population in comparison rural population. These differences gave possibility to identify special groups need to management preventive targeted measures. PMID:27119832

  4. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  5. Genetics of Glucose regulation in Gestation and Growth (Gen3G): a prospective prebirth cohort of mother–child pairs in Sherbrooke, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Laetitia; Allard, Catherine; Lacroix, Marilyn; Patenaude, Julie; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Moreau, Julie; Ménard, Julie; Bouchard, Luigi; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We initiated the Genetics of Glucose regulation in Gestation and Growth (Gen3G) prospective cohort to increase our understanding of biological, environmental and genetic determinants of glucose regulation during pregnancy and their impact on fetal development. Participants Between January 2010 and June 2013, we invited pregnant women aged ≥18 years old who visited the blood sampling in pregnancy clinic in Sherbrooke for their first trimester clinical blood samples: 1034 women accepted to participate in our cohort study. Findings to date At first and second trimester, we collected demographics and lifestyle questionnaires, anthropometry measures (including fat and lean mass estimated using bioimpedance), blood pressure, and blood samples. At second trimester, women completed a full 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and we collected additional blood samples. At delivery, we collected cord blood and placenta samples; obstetrical and neonatal clinical data were abstracted from electronic medical records. We also collected buffy coats and extracted DNA from maternal and/or offspring samples (placenta and blood cells) to pursue genetic and epigenetic hypotheses. So far, we have found that low adiponectin and low vitamin D maternal levels in first trimester predict higher risk of developing gestational diabetes. Future plans We are now in the phase of prospective follow-up of mothers and offspring 3 and 5 years postdelivery to investigate the consequences of maternal dysglycaemia during pregnancy on offspring adiposity and metabolic profile. Trial registration number NCT01623934. PMID:26842272

  6. ANTHROPOMETRIC COMPARISON OF WORLD-CLASS SPRINTERS AND NORMAL POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Uth

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the anthropometry of sprinters and people belonging to the normal population. The height and body mass (BM distribution of sprinters (42 men and 44 women were statistically compared to the distributions of American and Danish normal populations. The main results showed that there was significantly less BM and height variability (measured as standard deviation among male sprinters than among the normal male population (US and Danish, while female sprinters showed less BM variability than the US and Danish normal female populations. On average the American normal population was shorter than the sprinters. There was no height difference between the sprinters and the Danish normal population. All female groups had similar height variability. Both male and female sprinters had lower body mass index (BMI than the normal populations. It is likely that there is no single optimal height for sprinters, but instead there is an optimum range that differs for males and females. This range in height appears to exclude people who are very tall or very short in stature. Sprinters are generally lighter in BM than normal populations. Also, the BM variation among sprinters is less than the variation among normal populations. These anthropometric characteristics typical of sprinters might be explained, in part, by the influence the anthropometric characteristics have on relative muscle strength and step length

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors among Bangladeshi ready-made garment workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Fatema

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of anthropometry and clinical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs among ready-made garment (RMG of workers, majority are females, come from low-socioeconomics conditions. Population-based cross-sectional study with 614 individuals aged ≥18 years were recruited from six different RMG factories. In total, of 313 male (46% and 301 of female (56% workers had body mass index (BMI in the overweight and obese range as per Asian cut off values with corresponding reflection in waist hip ratio (WHR. High proportion of male 84% (95% confidence interval 81-87 had smoking habits. The prevalence of hypertension (HTN, dyslipidemia were 24% vs 15%; 56% vs 43% among males and females respectively. Prevalence of diabetes was 7.3% (5.3-9.4 and pre-diabetes was 10.6% (8.2-13 and it showed female preponderance (4.5% male vs 10.3% female. In multivariable logistic regression HTN showed significant association with age, gender, BMI; glycemic status with age, genderand WHR; dyslipidemia with BMI and WHR. A substantial proportion of RMG workers are at an increased risk of CVDs which need focused attention to reduce smoking (among males and body-weight and central obesity, particularly in females.

  8. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI STATUS KESEGARAN JASMANI WARGA KEBON MANGGIS, JAKARTA TIMUR, UMUR 20-39 TAHUN, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianty Pradono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of diagnostic test of Physical Fitness Status Using Questionnaire for Modul Susenas 1995, was conducted in 1998. A sample of two hundred and thirty five respondents were selected purposively from Kebon Manggis population, East Jakarta. The study focused on age group 20-39, since they are in the productive period. In this study several activities were done, i.e. physical examination by medical doctors, physical fitness test and anthropometry measurements by health fitness workers, and information of daily activities and fitness activities of the respondents. Extended analysis of the data was done to know the factors which influence the physical fitness status of the respondents. The results showed that 77% of the respondents have low status of fitness. In contrast, most of them have 'moderate' Body Mass Index, and 'good' Body Fat Percent Values. It is found that variables such as age, sex, marital status, intensity of fitness activities, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percent Values, have significant correlation with physical fitness status.

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES DURING MATCHES AND PROFILE OF ELITE PENCAK SILAT EXPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Tan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study describing the physiological responses during competitive matches and profile of elite exponents of an emerging martial art sport, pencak silat. Thirty exponents (21 males and 9 females were involved in the study. Match responses (i.e. heart rate (HR throughout match and capillary blood lactate concentration, [La], at pre-match and at the end of every round were obtained during actual competitive duels. Elite silat exponents' physiological attributes were assessed via anthropometry, vertical jump, isometric grip strength, maximal oxygen uptake, and the Wingate 30 s anaerobic test of the upper and lower body, in the laboratory. The match response data showed that silat competitors' mean HR was > 84% of estimated HR maximum and levels of [La] ranged from 6.7 - 18.7 mMol-1 during matches. This suggests that competitive silat matches are characterised by high aerobic and anaerobic responses. In comparison to elite taekwondo and judo athletes' physiological characteristics, elite silat exponents have lower aerobic fitness and grip strength, but greater explosive leg power (vertical jump. Generally, they also possessed a similar anaerobic capability in the lower but markedly inferior anaerobic capability in the upper body

  10. Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Aline A; Souza, Suelen J; Teixeira, Andrea M; Pontilho, Patricia M; Souza, José M P; Luzia, Liania A; Rondó, Patricia H C

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05) among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008). PMID:27223302

  11. Influence of adiposity-related genetic markers in a population of saudi arabians where other variables influencing obesity may be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Khalid K; Richardson, Tom G; Khan, Imran Ali; Syed, Rabbani; Mohammed, Abdul Khader; Boustred, Christopher R; Gaunt, Tom R; Tamimi, Waleed; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Day, Ian N M

    2014-01-01

    Large scale studies in Europeans have clearly identified common polymorphism affecting BMI and obesity. We undertook a genotype study to examine the impact of variants, known to influence obesity, in a sample from the Saudi Arabian population, notable for its profound combination of low mean physical activity indices and high energy intake. Anthropometry measures and genotypes were obtained for 367 Saudis, taken from King Saud University and Biomarker Screening Project in Riyadh (Riyadh Cohort). We observed large effect sizes with obesity for rs10767664 (BDNF) (OR = 1.923, P = 0.00072) and rs3751812 (FTO) (OR = 1.523, P = 0.016) in our sample and, using weighted genetic risk scores, we found strong evidence of a cumulative effect using 11 SNPs taken predominantly from loci principally affecting appetite (OR = 2.57, P = 0.00092). We used conditional analyses to discern which of our three highly correlated FTO SNPs were responsible for the observed signal, although we were unable to determine with confidence which best marked the causal site. Our analysis indicates that markers located in loci known to influence fat mass through increased appetite affect obesity in Saudi Arabians to an extent possibly greater than in Europeans. Larger scale studies will be necessary to obtain a precise comparison. PMID:25484485

  12. Fish intake, erythrocyte n-3 fatty acid status and metabolic health in Danish adolescent girls and boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Hellgren, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    -old children from the Copenhagen Birth Cohort Study. Of the children, 8% were overweight or obese and few showed signs of the metabolic syndrome, but all the metabolic syndrome variables were correlated. Median fish intake was 10·7 (interquartile range 3·6–21·2) g/d. Boys tended to have a higher fish intake (P...... the effects of n-3 LCPUFA in adolescence. The present study examines associations between fish intake (assessed by a 7 d pre-coded food diary), erythrocyte (RBC) DHA status (analysed by GC) and metabolic syndrome measures (anthropometry, blood pressure and plasma lipids, insulin and glucose) in 109 17-year......¼0·052), but girls had significantly higher RBC levels of DHA (P¼0·001). Sex and fish intake explained 37% of the variance in RBC-DHA (P,0·001). After adjusting for confounders, high DHA status was found to be significantly correlated with higher systolic blood pressure (P¼0·014) and increased...

  13. Design characteristics to reduce inadvertent cross-axis coupling during side stick handling of aircraft pitch and roll axis control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Marie-Eve

    Integrating a manual flight control inceptor with coupled axes such as the side stick within a flight deck creates challenges for the pilot to input a one-axis command without inadvertently inducing inputs in the opposite axis. The present paper studies three design features of the side stick and armrest setup believed to help reduce inadvertent cross-axis coupling occurrences. Design features address the aimed pilot population anthropometry (1.57m woman to 1.9m male) and their variability in upper segment measurements. Seven pilots of varying anthropometric sizes were asked to perform one-axis manoeuvres in pitch and roll for each setup configuration. To compare the setups both the duration and the definite integral of the unintended cross-axis input were processed and analyzed for each manoeuvre. Findings show that a short armrest reduces the occurrences of cross-axis input for the roll manoeuvre, whereas the side stick skew reduces inadvertent cross-axis coupling for the pitch manoeuvres.

  14. Effect of Malnutrition at Diagnosis on Clinical Outcomes of Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Samia, Loma; Saab, Raya; Abboud, Miguel R; Solh, Hassan; Muwakkit, Samar

    2016-03-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy among children. Although studies have shown that malnutrition can negatively affect treatment outcome, results are controversial. This retrospective study aims at determining the prevalence of malnutrition and its association with treatment outcome among children with ALL treated at the Children's Cancer Institute in Lebanon. A total of 103 patients diagnosed with ALL between April 2002 and May 2010 were enrolled. Anthropometric data were collected from medical records upon diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months, and at the end of treatment. Body mass index was calculated for children 2 years of age and older, whereas weight-for-height ratio was used for patients below 2 years. Patients were considered underweight, stunted, or wasted if their Z-scores were death and relapse) was higher among malnourished children and more so among stunted children with an odds ratios=2.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-8.3 and odds ratio=2.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-11.5, respectively. Although there was a trend showing worse outcomes in malnourished children with ALL at diagnosis when compared with well-nourished children larger studies using additional tools like arm anthropometry need to be conducted to prove the association. PMID:26479995

  15. Influence of Adiposity-Related Genetic Markers in a Population of Saudi Arabians Where Other Variables Influencing Obesity May Be Reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid K. Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale studies in Europeans have clearly identified common polymorphism affecting BMI and obesity. We undertook a genotype study to examine the impact of variants, known to influence obesity, in a sample from the Saudi Arabian population, notable for its profound combination of low mean physical activity indices and high energy intake. Anthropometry measures and genotypes were obtained for 367 Saudis, taken from King Saud University and Biomarker Screening Project in Riyadh (Riyadh Cohort. We observed large effect sizes with obesity for rs10767664 (BDNF (OR = 1.923, P=0.00072 and rs3751812 (FTO (OR = 1.523, P=0.016 in our sample and, using weighted genetic risk scores, we found strong evidence of a cumulative effect using 11 SNPs taken predominantly from loci principally affecting appetite (OR = 2.57, P=0.00092. We used conditional analyses to discern which of our three highly correlated FTO SNPs were responsible for the observed signal, although we were unable to determine with confidence which best marked the causal site. Our analysis indicates that markers located in loci known to influence fat mass through increased appetite affect obesity in Saudi Arabians to an extent possibly greater than in Europeans. Larger scale studies will be necessary to obtain a precise comparison.

  16. BIOMETRIC INDICES OF CONSTITUTIONAL RISKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA IN MALE PATIENTS

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    Lebedeva Е.A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the current study examines features and correlations of particular psychodynamic, dermatoglyphic characteristics and body constitution of men with paranoid schizophrenia. Study groups: 25 men having the "paranoid schizophrenia" (F20.0, 27 men having no mental diseases. Methods: psychodiagnostic tests (Hand test, the Big Five Inventory (BFI, anthropometry; dactyloscopy. Results: there were statistically significant differences in such personality factors as: extroversion and openness among two groups. Significantly smaller sizes of the chest and thigh circumferences were found in men with paranoid schizophrenia. The schizophrenic group exhibited higher frequency of "ulnar loop" and "double loop" finger pattern occurrence. Our study found a number of somato-psychic, dermato-psychic and dermato-somatic correlations, as well as correlations between personality factors and age. Conclusion: the examination of personality features correlated with markers of dermatoglyphic and body constitution helped to identify the predictors of risks for developing paranoid schizophrenia. This makes it possible the identification of at-risk groups with their monitoring and focusing on preventive programs

  17. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status. PMID:27467901

  18. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  19. Harmonization process and reliability assessment of anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study.

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    Alba Gómez-Cabello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. PURPOSE: To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. RESULTS: For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. CONCLUSION: The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population.

  20. Clinical prediction in early pregnancy of infants small for gestational age by customised birthweight centiles: findings from a healthy nulliparous cohort.

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    Lesley M E McCowan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Small for gestational age (SGA infants comprise up to 50% of all stillbirths and a minority are detected before birth. We aimed to develop and validate early pregnancy predictive models for SGA infants. METHODS: 5628 participants from SCOPE, a prospective study of nulliparous pregnant women, were interviewed at 15 ± 1 weeks' gestation. Fetal anthropometry, uterine and umbilical Doppler studies were performed at 20 ± 1 weeks'. The cohort was divided into training (n = 3735 and validation datasets (n = 1871. All-SGA (birthweight 12 months to conceive, university student, cigarette smoking, proteinuria, daily vigorous exercise and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80. Recreational walking ≥ 4 times weekly, rhesus negative blood group and increasing random glucose were protective. AUC for clinical risk factors was 0.63. Fetal abdominal or head circumference z scores <10(th centile and increasing uterine artery Doppler resistance at 20 ± 1 weeks' were associated with increased risk. Addition of these parameters increased the AUC to 0.69. Clinical predictors of Normotensive and Hypertensive-SGA were sub-groups of All-SGA predictors and were quite different. The combined clinical and ultrasound AUC for Normotensive and Hypertensive-SGA were 0.69 and 0.82 respectively. CONCLUSION: Predictors for SGA of relevance to clinical practice were identified. The identity and predictive potential differed in normotensive women and those who developed hypertension.

  1. Nutritional status in children with chronic renal failure in outpatient pediatric nephrology clinic at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali

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    Adela Isabel Herrera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic renal disease (CRD can compromise nutritional status in children. Nutritional assessment should be performed in early stages of CRD in order to maintain growth, as well as to prevent malnutrition and to diminish progression of renal diseases and metabolic consequences of uremia. Objective: Evaluation of nutritional status of children with moderate CRD stages 2- 4 by means of anthropometry, biochemical profile and dietary survey by records of last three days. Methods: A descriptive observational study was performed to a total of 17 patients that attended to pediatric nephrology service at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, from December 2007 to March 2008. Results: Of the children 65% were males, mean age was 6.2 for males and 10.3 for females. Causes of CRD were reflux nephropathy in 41%. Malnutrition under-2 Standard Deviation for height and weight for the age was found in 30% of patients. The measurement of triceps fold, showed moderate undernourishment in 75% of the children. According to the biochemical data 5 patients (29% had serum albumin Conclusions: These results support that an early nutritional intervention, is essential in children with of CRD in early stages; nutritional deficiencies were found in early stages of disease. It is essential to consume 100% of calories and other nutrients to avoid growth deficit and other important alterations.

  2. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gonzalez, M Cristina; Lu, Jianhua; Jia, Guang; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-11-01

    The first reports of accurate skeletal muscle mass measurement in human subjects appeared at about the same time as introduction of the sarcopenia concept in the late 1980s. Since then these methods, computed tomography and MRI, have been used to gain insights into older (i.e. anthropometry and urinary markers) and more recently developed and refined methods (ultrasound, bioimpedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) of quantifying regional and total body skeletal muscle mass. The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of these methods and their continued development in the context of sarcopenia evaluation and treatment. Advances in these technologies are described with a focus on additional quantifiable measures that relate to muscle composition and 'quality'. The integration of these collective evaluations with strength and physical performance indices is highlighted with linkages to evaluation of sarcopenia and the spectrum of related disorders such as sarcopenic obesity, cachexia and frailty. Our findings show that currently available methods and those in development are capable of non-invasively extending measures from solely 'mass' to quality evaluations that promise to close the gaps now recognised between skeletal muscle mass and muscle function, morbidity and mortality. As the largest tissue compartment in most adults, skeletal muscle mass and aspects of muscle composition can now be evaluated by a wide array of technologies that provide important new research and clinical opportunities aligned with the growing interest in the spectrum of conditions associated with sarcopenia. PMID:25851205

  3. Members of the human body prone to musculoskeletal damages: a comparison between the sector of transportation and footwears production.

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    Gomes de Lima, Jeane F; Colaço, Geraldo; da Silva, Ricardo; Masculo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This study present areas of the body more prone to develop diseases by musculoskeletal efforts, ie, RTD, in two companies of Paraiba, Brazil. To this end, was made a comparative analysis with respect to the type of work performed (standing, sitting) and the parts that suffer most discomfort after a day's work in a footwear industry and a bus transportation company. The quanti-qualitative research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 227 employees in the period 2008 to 2009, having as methodological the tool diagram of painful areas of Corlett and Manenica. It was concluded that the areas most affected by musculoskeletal disorders are located in the neck (9,2%), backs (23,6%), shoulders (14,5%) and legs (11,3%), being usually caused by inappropriate postures, repetitive movements and work station no adequate the anthropometry of the users. Thus, we recommend the adoption of ergonomic measures that enable a healthy and safe environment for workers. PMID:22316940

  4. Body shape changes in the elderly and the influence of density assumptions on segment inertia parameters

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    Jensen, Robert K.; Fletcher, P.; Abraham, C.

    1991-04-01

    The segment mass mass proportions and moments of inertia of a sample of twelve females and seven males with mean ages of 67. 4 and 69. 5 years were estimated using textbook proportions based on cadaver studies. These were then compared with the parameters calculated using a mathematical model the zone method. The methodology of the model was fully evaluated for accuracy and precision and judged to be adequate. The results of the comparisons show that for some segments female parameters are quite different from male parameters and inadequately predicted by the cadaver proportions. The largest discrepancies were for the thigh and the trunk. The cadaver predictions were generally less than satisfactory although the common variance for some segments was moderately high. The use ofnon-linear regression and segment anthropometry was illustrated for the thigh moments of inertia and appears to be appropriate. However the predictions from cadaver data need to be examined fully. These results are dependent on the changes in mass and density distribution which occur with aging and the changes which occur with cadaver samples prior to and following death.

  5. Peak expiratory flow rate in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes, in various industries of Hyderabad

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    Padaki Samata K, Dambal Amrut , Kokiwar Prashant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prevalence of occupational health hazards and mortality has been reported to be unusually high among people of India. Although developed countries are very much careful about the health in occupations it is quite neglected in the developing countries like India. Aims: To record PEFR in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years and compare the results with age matched unexposed, healthy male controls. Methods and Material: This was a comparative study between 50 asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years in various industries located at Jeedimetla Industrial Area and 50 unexposed healthy male individuals from general population. The sampling was done by simple random sampling (lottery method. The data was collected in the Research Laboratory of Physiology. Anthropometry like weight, height, was measured and the PEFR test was performed in the standing position by taking a deep inspiration and then blowing out as hard and as quickly as possible with their nose closed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS package and was expressed in terms of mean ± SD. Results: It was observed that mean PEFR was statistically highly significant in cases (p = 0.0001, and PEFR decreased with increase in duration of exposure. Conclusions: Thus, it can be concluded that apparently healthy individuals may also have abnormal PEFR findings. Hence, a regular check on these parameters will help them in reducing the chances of its manifestation at a future date.

  6. Image segmentation and registration algorithm to collect thoracic skeleton semilandmarks for characterization of age and sex-based thoracic morphology variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Nguyen, Callistus M; Schoell, Samantha L; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic anthropometry variations with age and sex have been reported and likely relate to thoracic injury risk and outcome. The objective of this study was to collect a large volume of homologous semilandmark data from the thoracic skeleton for the purpose of quantifying thoracic morphology variations for males and females of ages 0-100 years. A semi-automated image segmentation and registration algorithm was applied to collect homologous thoracic skeleton semilandmarks from 343 normal computed tomography (CT) scans. Rigid, affine, and symmetric diffeomorphic transformations were used to register semilandmarks from an atlas to homologous locations in the subject-specific coordinate system. Homologous semilandmarks were successfully collected from 92% (7077) of the ribs and 100% (187) of the sternums included in the study. Between 2700 and 11,000 semilandmarks were collected from each rib and sternum and over 55 million total semilandmarks were collected from all subjects. The extensive landmark data collected more fully characterizes thoracic skeleton morphology across ages and sexes. Characterization of thoracic morphology with age and sex may help explain variations in thoracic injury risk and has important implications for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. PMID:26496701

  7. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

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    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  8. Relative Handgrip Strength Is a Simple Indicator of Cardiometabolic Risk among Middle-Aged and Older People: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Muscle strength may play an important role in cardiovascular health. The study was intended to evaluate the association between cardiometabolic risk, risk of coronary artery disease and handgrip strength by using the relative handgrip strength. Materials and Methods Data of 927 Taiwanese aged 53 years and older (510 men and 417 women) were retrieved from a nationwide representative population-based cohort cross-sectional study in 2006. All participants were interviewed face-to-face and received measures of anthropometry, dominant handgrip strength, relative handgrip strength (summation of both handgrip strength divided by body mass index) and serum biomarkers. Results Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the significant association between relative handgrip strength and favorable cardiometabolic risk factors including blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol to high density cholesterol(HDL-C) ratio, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), uric acid, Framingham risk score in men, and HDL-C, fasting glucose, HbA1c, log hsCRP in women. Dominant hand grip strength was only associated with log hsCRP in women. (p<0.05 for all), but was not significant associated with all cardiovascular biomarkers and FRS in both sex. Conclusions Joint with handgrip strength and body size, as relative handgrip strength, may be a better tool to capture conceptual concomitant health, which may be a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-use tool when targeting cardiovascular health in public health level. PMID:27559733

  9. Vitamin D Status in Malaysian Men and Its Associated Factors

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    Kok-Yong Chin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health problem. The data on vitamin D status in Malaysian men is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status among Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia and its associating factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 men aged 20 years and above, residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their age, ethnicity, body anthropometry and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS were recorded. Their fasting blood was collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, intact parathyroid (PTH, total calcium and inorganic phosphate assays. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OHD level <30 nmol/L and insufficiency as a serum 25(OHD level between 30 and 50 nmol/L. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 0.5%, and insufficiency was 22.7%. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were more prevalent in the Malays compared to the Chinese. Being Chinese, older in age, having lower body mass index (BMI and a high physical activity status were associated significantly with a higher serum 25(OHD level (p < 0.05. The serum PTH level was inversely associated with the serum 25(OHD level (p < 0.05. As a conclusion, a significant proportion of Malaysian men have vitamin D insufficiency, although deficiency is uncommon. Steps should be taken to correct the vitamin D status of these men.

  10. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact. PMID:27110253

  11. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life.

  12. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gonzalez, M Cristina; Lu, Jianhua; Jia, Guang; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-11-01

    The first reports of accurate skeletal muscle mass measurement in human subjects appeared at about the same time as introduction of the sarcopenia concept in the late 1980s. Since then these methods, computed tomography and MRI, have been used to gain insights into older (i.e. anthropometry and urinary markers) and more recently developed and refined methods (ultrasound, bioimpedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) of quantifying regional and total body skeletal muscle mass. The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of these methods and their continued development in the context of sarcopenia evaluation and treatment. Advances in these technologies are described with a focus on additional quantifiable measures that relate to muscle composition and 'quality'. The integration of these collective evaluations with strength and physical performance indices is highlighted with linkages to evaluation of sarcopenia and the spectrum of related disorders such as sarcopenic obesity, cachexia and frailty. Our findings show that currently available methods and those in development are capable of non-invasively extending measures from solely 'mass' to quality evaluations that promise to close the gaps now recognised between skeletal muscle mass and muscle function, morbidity and mortality. As the largest tissue compartment in most adults, skeletal muscle mass and aspects of muscle composition can now be evaluated by a wide array of technologies that provide important new research and clinical opportunities aligned with the growing interest in the spectrum of conditions associated with sarcopenia.

  13. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

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    Gurmeet K S Singh

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T, estradiol (E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development.A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LH by immunoassay.A high proportion (92% of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage.We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  14. Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

    2005-03-15

    Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

  15. CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONTROL OF ASTHMA AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN OVERWEIGHT

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    V. A. Boykov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of overweight prevalence is becoming increasingly important not only in countries with high living standards, but also in developing countries, especially among the urban population. The social significance of obesity is determined by the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases in young patients and decreased overall survival. Given the high prevalence among the population of Tomsk Region of obesity and excessive weight seems actual to establish the extent of the actual impact of this disease on lung function, including patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Tomsk Region. The study included 9303 residents of the city ofTomsk, aged 18 to 88 that have passed examinations in Health Centers in 2010–2012. Among the methods of examination in health centers performed anthropometry and evaluation of respiratory function (spirometry. The study established a negative correlation between body mass index and respiratory function. The presence of obesity leads to a deterioration of the lung function parameters and associated with significantly reduces of asthma control and quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. High prevalence of overweight in the population of residents of Tomsk Region and the impact of this disease on the respiratory system seems actual to develop special programs for weight control in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and adjust screening preventive actions, paying more attention to the prevention of obesity among the population of the region. 

  16. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%). Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%), mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23%) ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6%) and meat and meat products (22.0%). Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70%) combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%). The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents. PMID:27011202

  17. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial

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    R Rajendran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibiscus sabdariffa is used regularly in folk medicine to treat various conditions. Methods The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract for 90 days while the placebo received a similar amount of maltodextrin in addition to dietary and physical activity advice for the control of their blood lipids. Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, dietary and physical activity were assessed at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Results While body weight, serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between the experimental and placebo group. Conclusions It is likely that the observed effects were as a result of the patients following the standard dietary and physical activity advice. At a dose of 1 gm/day, hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract did not appear to have a blood lipid lowering effect. Trial Registration REFCTRI2009000472

  18. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

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    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  19. Anthropometric, biochemical and clinical assessment of malnutrition in Malaysian patients with advanced cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampal Sanjay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on the nutritional status of Asian patients with various aetiologies of cirrhosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to compare nutritional differences between various aetiologies. Methodology A cross-sectional study of adult patients with decompensated cirrhosis was conducted. Nutritional status was assessed using standard anthropometry, serum visceral proteins and subjective global assessment (SGA. Results Thirty six patients (mean age 59.8 ± 12.8 years; 66.7% males; 41.6% viral hepatitis; Child-Pugh C 55.6% with decompensated cirrhosis were recruited. Malnutrition was prevalent in 18 (50% patients and the mean caloric intake was low at 15.2 kcal/kg/day. SGA grade C, as compared to SGA grade B, demonstrated significantly lower anthropometric values in males (BMI 18.1 ± 1.6 vs 26.3 ± 3.5 kg/m2, p Conclusion Significant malnutrition in Malaysian patients with advanced cirrhosis is common. Alcoholic cirrhosis may have more malnutrition compared to other aetiologies of cirrhosis.

  20. [From anthropometrical evaluation to the prediction of nutritional facts at infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones-restat, F; Jones, G; Diaz, M

    1990-04-01

    This study developed instruments to predict the unsatisfactory growth of children in the context of social programs, (health, education, nutrition, social work, food and employment) which measure the probability of malnutrition using anthropometry. Variables used were biological and social (family incompetency). A cohort of 822 breastfeeding infants were followed prospectively from prenatal until 12 months of age in 5 primary health clinics in Santiago, Chile. Weight by age was the dependent variable, defined as "unsatisfactory growth" if it was under the 20th percentile established by the World Health Organization. By 1 year, 32% of the study population was in this category, reflecting national statistics; at 3 months 8% of the infant population and no more than 2% of those breastfeeding were under the 20th percentile. 25 high risk variables were selected that also demonstrated a high correlation with weight and age and these were evaluated by using 3 statistical methods: 1) the relative simple risk (RRS) used by the WHO; 2) logistical regression; and 3) classification and regression trees (CART). PMID:12283399