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Sample records for anthropometry gastrointestinal dysfunction

  1. Nutrition, anthropometry, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor I and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in children during stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, B. U.; Pærregaard, Anders; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate anthropometry, nutrition and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and to characterize the relation between these parameters and the inflammatory activity evaluated by plasma levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor I (sTNFRI) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) levels...... during stem cell transplantation (SCT) in children. Clinical assessments and blood sampling were performed on days -3, 0, +7, +15 and +31 in eight children undergoing SCT. Energy intake, anthropometry, gastrointestinal dysfunction (WHO toxicity score) and sTNFRI and IL-1Ra were evaluated. The energy...

  2. GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION

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    A. A. Ziganshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to highlight the current concepts of gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction. The data available in Russian and foreign literature on the gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction were analyzed. Functional digestive diseases are common in pediatric practice; however, their etiopathogenesis has not been adequately explored today. According to the literature, impaired cellular energy metabolism may underlie gastrointestinal motility disorders in cyclic vomiting syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux, gastric stasis, chronic diarrhea, constipation, intestinal pseudoobstruction, malabsorption syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, as well as diseases of the liver and pancreas.

  3. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

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    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A; Borum, Marie L; Doman, David B

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases.

  4. DIET CORRECTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DYSFUNCTIONS OF INFANTS AFTER CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

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    G.V. Yatsyk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes mechanisms of occurrence of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions of infants after cerebral ischemia. It describes the clinical symptomatology of gastrointestinal impairment, particularly associated with vegetovisceral impairment, lactase deficiency, cow's milk protein intolerance. It gives recommendations about diet correction of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions of infants.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions, dietotherapy.

  5. Gastrointestinal Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

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    Joong-Seok Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, gastrointestinal dysfunctions in Parkinson’s disease (PD are well-recognized problems and are known to be an initial symptom in the pathological process that eventually results in PD. Gastrointestinal symptoms may result from the involvement of either the central or enteric nervous systems, or these symptoms may be side effects of antiparkinsonian medications. Weight loss, excessive salivation, dysphagia, nausea/gastroparesis, constipation, and defecation dysfunction all may occur. Increased identification and early detection of these symptoms can result in a significant improvement in the quality of life for PD patients.

  6. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinsonism: A narrative review

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    Mehri Salari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, gastrointestinal (GI dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease (PD are well-recognized problems and are known to be the initial symptoms in the pathological process that eventually results in PD. Many types of PD-associated GI dysfunctions have been identified, including weight loss, nausea, hypersalivation, dysphagia, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, constipation, defecatory dysfunction, and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. These symptoms can influence on other PD symptoms and are the second most significant predictor of the quality of life of these patients. Recognition of GI symptoms requires vigilance on the part of clinicians. Health-care providers should routinely ask direct questions about GI symptoms during office visits so that efforts can be directed at appropriate management of these distressing manifestations. Multiple system atrophy (MSA and progressive supranuclear palsy are two forms of neurodegenerative Parkinsonism. Symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions such as GI dysfunction are common in patients with parkinsonian disorders. Despite recent progress in the recognition of GI dysfunctions, there are a few reviews on the management of GI dysfunction and GI symptoms in idiopathic Parkinsonism. In this review, the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment of each GI symptom in PD, MSA, and prostate-specific antigen will be discussed.

  7. Curcumin ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction and oxidative damage in diabetic rats

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    Nitin Indarchandji Kochar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to be associated with gastrointestinal complications characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and oxidative stress pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes induced gastrointestinal complications. Hence, Curcumin was given in different doses to SD rats after 4 weeks of diabetic GI complication induction. At the end of 4 weeks, significant GI dysfunction characterized by weight loss, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit associated with reduction in antioxidant enzyme levels and increased lipid peroxidation was observed.  Upon treatment with Curcumin for further 4 weeks, reversal of GI dysfunction evidenced by restoration of body weight, GI emptying, intestinal transit, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme level and lipid peroxidation proves the beneficial role of Curcumin in diabetes induced GI complications due to its antioxidant potential.     

  8. Infant Nutritional Status and Markers of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction are Associated with Midchildhood Anthropometry and Blood Pressure in Tanzania.

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    Locks, Lindsey M; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Mtisi, Expeditho; Manji, Karim P; McDonald, Christine M; Liu, Enju; Kupka, Roland; Kisenge, Rodrick; Aboud, Said; Gosselin, Kerri; Gillman, Matthew; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    To assess whether growth and biomarkers of environmental enteric dysfunction in infancy are related to health outcomes in midchildhood in Tanzania. Children who participated in 2 randomized trials of micronutrient supplements in infancy were followed up in midchildhood (4.6-9.8 years of age). Anthropometry was measured at age 6 and 52 weeks in both trials, and blood samples were available from children at 6 weeks and 6 months from 1 trial. Linear regression was used for height-for-age z-score, body mass index-for-age z-score, and weight for age z-score, and blood pressure analyses; log-binomial models were used to estimate risk of overweight, obesity, and stunting in midchildhood. One hundred thirteen children were followed-up. Length-for-age z-score at 6 weeks and delta length-for-age z-score from 6 to 52 weeks were associated independently and positively with height-for-age z-score and inversely associated with stunting in midchildhood. Delta weight-for-length and weight-for-age z-score were also positively associated with midchildhood height-for-age z-score. The 6-week and delta weight-for-length z-scores were associated independently and positively with midchildhood body mass index-for-age z-score and overweight, as was the 6-week and delta weight-for-age z-score. Delta length-for-age z-score was also associated with an increased risk of overweight in midchildhood. Body mass index-for-age z-score in midchildhood was associated positively with systolic blood pressure. Serum anti-flagellin IgA concentration at 6 weeks was also associated with increased blood pressure in midchildhood. Anthropometry at 6 weeks and growth in infancy independently predict size in midchildhood, while anti-flagellin IgA, a biomarker of environmental enteric dysfunction, in early infancy is associated with increased blood pressure in midchildhood. Interventions in early life should focus on optimizing linear growth while minimizing excess weight gain and environmental enteric

  9. Pediatric Anthropometry

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    Klinich, Kathleen D.; Reed, Matthew P.

    Anthropometry is the measurement of human size, shape, and physical capabilities. Most pediatric anthropometry data are gathered to describe child growth patterns, but data on body size, mass distribution, range of motion, and posture are used to develop crash test dummies and computational models of child occupants. Pediatric anthropometry data are also used to determine child restraint dimensions, so they will accommodate the applicable population of child occupants.

  10. Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Goetze, Oliver; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Bluemel, Sena; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Bloch, Konrad E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In adult patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) life-threatening constipation has been reported. Since gastrointestinal function in DMD has not been rigorously studied we investigated objective and subjective manifestations of gastrointestinal disturbances in DMD patients. METHODS In 33 patients with DMD, age 12-41 years, eating behavior and gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Gastric emptying half time (T1/2) and oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) we...

  11. Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cascio, Christian M; Goetze, Oliver; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Bluemel, Sena; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Bloch, Konrad E

    2016-01-01

    In adult patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) life-threatening constipation has been reported. Since gastrointestinal function in DMD has not been rigorously studied we investigated objective and subjective manifestations of gastrointestinal disturbances in DMD patients. In 33 patients with DMD, age 12-41 years, eating behavior and gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Gastric emptying half time (T1/2) and oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) were evaluated by analyzing 13CO2 exhalation curves after ingestion of 13C labeled test meals. Colonic transit time (CTT) was measured by abdominal radiography following ingestion of radiopaque markers. The median (quartiles) T1/2 was 187 (168, 220) minutes, the OCTT was 6.3 (5.0, 7.9) hours, both substantially longer than normal data (Goetze 2005, T1/2: 107±10; Geypens 1999, OCTT 4.3±0.1 hours). The median CTT was 60 (48, 82) hours despite extensive use of laxative measures (Meier 1995, upper limit of normal: 60 hours). T1/2 and OCTT did not correlate with symptoms evaluated by the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) (Spearman r = -0.3, p = 0.1; and r = -0.15, p = 0.4, respectively). CTT was not correlated with symptoms of constipation assessed by ROME III criteria (r = 0.12, p = 0.5). DMD patients have a markedly disturbed gastrointestinal motor function. Since objective measures of impaired gastrointestinal transport are not correlated with symptoms of gastroparesis or constipation our findings suggest that measures assuring adequate intestinal transport should be taken independent of the patient's perception in order to prevent potentially life threatening constipation, particularly in older DMD patients.

  12. Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

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    Christian M Lo Cascio

    Full Text Available In adult patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD life-threatening constipation has been reported. Since gastrointestinal function in DMD has not been rigorously studied we investigated objective and subjective manifestations of gastrointestinal disturbances in DMD patients.In 33 patients with DMD, age 12-41 years, eating behavior and gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Gastric emptying half time (T1/2 and oro-cecal transit time (OCTT were evaluated by analyzing 13CO2 exhalation curves after ingestion of 13C labeled test meals. Colonic transit time (CTT was measured by abdominal radiography following ingestion of radiopaque markers.The median (quartiles T1/2 was 187 (168, 220 minutes, the OCTT was 6.3 (5.0, 7.9 hours, both substantially longer than normal data (Goetze 2005, T1/2: 107±10; Geypens 1999, OCTT 4.3±0.1 hours. The median CTT was 60 (48, 82 hours despite extensive use of laxative measures (Meier 1995, upper limit of normal: 60 hours. T1/2 and OCTT did not correlate with symptoms evaluated by the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI (Spearman r = -0.3, p = 0.1; and r = -0.15, p = 0.4, respectively. CTT was not correlated with symptoms of constipation assessed by ROME III criteria (r = 0.12, p = 0.5.DMD patients have a markedly disturbed gastrointestinal motor function. Since objective measures of impaired gastrointestinal transport are not correlated with symptoms of gastroparesis or constipation our findings suggest that measures assuring adequate intestinal transport should be taken independent of the patient's perception in order to prevent potentially life threatening constipation, particularly in older DMD patients.

  13. Loss of enteroendocrine cells in autoimmune-polyendocrine-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy (APECED) syndrome with gastrointestinal dysfunction.

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    Posovszky, C; Lahr, G; von Schnurbein, J; Buderus, S; Findeisen, A; Schröder, C; Schütz, C; Schulz, A; Debatin, K M; Wabitsch, M; Barth, T F

    2012-02-01

    Enteroendocrine (EE) cells are necessary for the regulation of gastrointestinal function. The lack of intestinal enteroendocrine cells in enteroendocrine cell dysgenesis causes severe malabsorptive diarrhea. Autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy (APECED) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. We hypothesized that an autoimmune attack against the cells of the GI-associated diffuse endocrine system may be a specific feature of GI dysfunction in APECED disorders. Biopsies were obtained during routine diagnostic endoscopy from 35 pediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as from five healthy controls; biopsies were immunostained for chromogranin A and serotonin. Four patients were classified as APECED syndrome on molecular and clinical grounds. Immunohistological analysis of biopsies along the GI tract (stomach, duodenum, colon) immunostained with chromogranin A and serotonin revealed a widespread reduction or complete loss of EE cells in all four patients with APECED syndrome suffering from severe diarrhea, vomiting, malabsorption, or constipation. In contrast, EE cells were present in pediatric patients with similar gastrointestinal symptoms caused by inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, lymphocytic colitis, and autoimmune disorders without endocrinopathy or graft vs. host disease of the gut. The reduction of EE cells is a specific and important early event in the pathogenesis of APECED with GI dysfunction. We propose a diagnostic algorithm integrating clinics, genetics and immunohistology.

  14. A New Strategy Using Rikkunshito to Treat Anorexia and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction

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    Yayoi Saegusa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the clinical condition of gastrointestinal dysfunction, including functional dyspepsia, involves tangled combinations of pathologies, there are some cases of insufficient curative efficacy. Thus, traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicines uniquely developed in Japan are thought to contribute to medical treatment for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Rikkunshito is a Kampo medicine often used to treat dyspeptic symptoms. Over the past few years, several studies have investigated the efficacy of rikkunshito for dysmotility, for example, upper abdominal complaints, in animals and humans. Rikkunshito ameliorated the decrease in gastric motility and anorexia in cisplatin-treated rats, stress-loaded mice, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-treated rats by enhancing plasma ghrelin levels via serotonin2B/2C receptor antagonism. In addition, rikkunshito ameliorated the decrease in food intake in aged mice and stress-loaded decreased gastric motility via enhanced ghrelin receptor signaling. Several clinical studies revealed that rikkunshito was effective in ameliorating upper gastrointestinal symptoms, including dyspepsia, epigastric pain, and postprandial fullness. In this review, we discuss these studies and propose additional evidence-based research that may promote the clinical use of Kampo medicines, particularly rikkunshito, for treating anorexia and gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  15. Stable Isotope Techniques for the Assessment of Host and Microbiota Response During Gastrointestinal Dysfunction

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    Butler, Ross N.; Kosek, Margaret; Krebs, Nancy F.; Loechl, Cornelia U.; Loy, Alexander; Owino, Victor O.; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Morrison, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical meeting on environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) in Vienna (28th – 30th October 2015; https://nucleus.iaea.org/HHW/Nutrition/EED_Technical_Meeting/index.html) to bring together international experts in the fields of EED, nutrition and stable isotope technologies. Advances in stable isotope labelling techniques open up new possibilities to improve our understanding of gastrointestinal dysfunction and the role of the microbiota in host health. In the context of EED, little is known about the role gut dysfunction may play in macro- and micronutrient bioavailability and requirements and what the consequences may be for nutritional status and linear growth. Stable isotope labelling techniques have been used to assess intestinal mucosal injury and barrier function, carbohydrate digestion and fermentation, protein derived amino acid bioavailability and requirements, micronutrient bioavailability and to track microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions at the single cell level. The non-invasive nature of stable isotope technologies potentially allows for low-hazard, field deployable tests of gut dysfunction that are applicable across all age-groups. The purpose of this review is to assess the state-of-the-art in the use of stable isotope technologies and to provide a perspective on where these technologies can be exploited to further our understanding of gut dysfunction in EED. PMID:27632432

  16. Autoimmune and gastrointestinal dysfunctions: does a subset of children with autism reveal a broader connection?

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    Brown, Amy C; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis

    2011-08-01

    A large number of autoimmune disorders have a gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction component that may interplay with genetic, hormonal, environmental and/or stress factors. This narrarive review investigates possible links between autism, immune system abnormalities and GI symptoms in a subgroup of children with autism. A literature search on Medline (1950 to September 2010) was conducted to identify relevant articles by using the keywords 'autism and gastrointestinal' (71 publications) and 'autism and immune' (237 publications), cross-referencing and general searching to evaluate the available literature on the immunological and GI aspects of autism. Sufficient evidence exists to support that a subgroup of children with autism may suffer from concomitant immune-related GI symptoms.

  17. Regorafenib-induced retinal and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a metastatic colorectal cancer patient with liver dysfunction

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    Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Shimokawa, Hozumi; Takayoshi, Kotoe; Nio, Kenta; Aikawa, Tomomi; Matsushita, Yuzo; Wada, Iori; Arita, Shuji; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Akashi, Koichi; Baba, Eishi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Regorafenib is effective for metastatic colorectal cancer but its toxicity such as hemorrhage should be considered. The safety of regorafenib for the patient with the liver disease is not known. Patient concerns: Seventy-one-year old man of colon cancer had myodesopsia and blood stool after 14 days from the initiation of regorafenib administration with 50% dose reduction due to liver dysfunction. Diagnoses: Fundus examination revealed hemorrhage of the retinal vein. Interventions: Regorafenib treatment was discontinued and observational therapy was pursued. Outcomes: Retinal and gastrointestinal hemorrhage resolved in 1 week. Lessons: Retinal hemorrhage should be considered as the differential diagnosis of myodesopsia in the patient treated by regorafenib. Safety and pharmacokinetic of continuous regorafenib administration for patients with liver dysfunction remains to be clarified. PMID:29049226

  18. Symptoms of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: case-control study.

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    Jaffe, K M; McDonald, C M; Ingman, E; Haas, J

    1990-09-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to see if symptoms of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) (oropharyngeal, esophageal, and gastric) dysfunction occurred more frequently in males afflicted with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) than healthy controls. Subjects included 55 children with confirmed DMD and 55 age-matched controls without neuromuscular disease. All subjects and/or their parents responded to a standard set of questions concerning the frequency of symptoms of UGI dysfunction. Responses of the DMD and control groups were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A significantly higher percentage of DMD patients experienced nasal quality to the voice, dysphagia, choking while eating, the need to clear the throat during or after eating, heartburn, and vomiting during or after meals, than did controls. Only one symptom--heartburn--was found significantly more frequently in the 33 nonambulatory than the 22 ambulatory DMD subjects. These findings document that feeding difficulty and symptoms consistent with oropharyngeal, esophageal, and gastric dysfunction are more frequent in the DMD population than healthy, age-matched controls.

  19. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 supplementation reduces gastrointestinal dysfunction in an animal model of IBS.

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    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1 exposure.Mice were inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 (102 PFU or vehicle at time 0 and 4 weeks later by the intragastric (IG route (108 PFU. Six weeks after IG inoculum, mice were randomly allocated to receive oral gavage with either S. boulardii (107 CFU/day or vehicle. After 4 weeks the following were determined: a intestinal motility using fluorescein-isothiocyanate dextran distribution in the gut, fecal pellet expulsion, stool water content, and distal colonic transit of glass beads; b integrity of the enteric nervous system (ENS by immunohistochemistry on ileal whole-mount preparations and western blot of protein lysates from ileal longitudinal muscle and myenteric plexus; c isometric muscle tension with electric field and pharmacological (carbachol stimulation of ileal segments; and d intestinal inflammation by levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin(IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-4.S. boulardii CNCM I-745 improved HSV-1 induced intestinal dysmotility and alteration of intestinal transit observed ten weeks after IG inoculum of the virus. Also, the probiotic yeast ameliorated the structural alterations of the ENS induced by HSV-1 (i.e., reduced peripherin immunoreactivity and expression, increased glial S100β protein immunoreactivity and neuronal nitric oxide synthase level, reduced substance P-positive fibers. Moreover, S. boulardii CNCM I-745 diminished the production of HSV-1 associated pro-inflammatory cytokines in the myenteric plexus and increased levels of anti-inflammatory interleukins.S. boulardii CNCM I-745 ameliorated gastrointestinal neuromuscular anomalies in a mouse model of gut dysfunctions typically observed with irritable bowel syndrome.

  20. Gastrointestinal Dysfunctions as a Risk Factor for Sleep Disorders in Children with Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

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    McCue, Lena M.; Flick, Louise H.; Twyman, Kimberly A.; Xian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders often co-occur with autism spectrum disorder. They further exacerbate autism spectrum disorder symptoms and interfere with children's and parental quality of life. This study examines whether gastrointestinal dysfunctions increase the odds of having sleep disorders in 610 children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder, aged 2-18…

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the gastrointestinal mucosa of children with autism: A blinded case-control study.

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    Shannon Rose

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Imbalances in the enteric microbiome have been associated with ASD and can cause GI dysfunction potentially through disruption of mitochondrial function as microbiome metabolites modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction is highly associated with GI symptoms. In this study, we compared mitochondrial function in rectal and cecum biopsies under the assumption that certain microbiome metabolites, such as butyrate and propionic acid, are more abundant in the cecum as compared to the rectum. Rectal and cecum mucosal biopsies were collected during elective diagnostic colonoscopy. Using a single-blind case-control design, complex I and IV and citrate synthase activities and complex I-V protein quantity from 10 children with ASD, 10 children with Crohn's disease and 10 neurotypical children with nonspecific GI complaints were measured. The protein for all complexes, except complex II, in the cecum as compared to the rectum was significantly higher in ASD samples as compared to other groups. For both rectal and cecum biopsies, ASD samples demonstrated higher complex I activity, but not complex IV or citrate synthase activity, compared to other groups. Mitochondrial function in the gut mucosa from children with ASD was found to be significantly different than other groups who manifested similar GI symptomatology suggesting a unique pathophysiology for GI symptoms in children with ASD. Abnormalities localized to the cecum suggest a role for imbalances in the microbiome, potentially in the production of butyrate, in children with ASD.

  2. Point-of-care gastrointestinal and urinary tract sonography in daily evaluation of gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients (GUTS Protocol).

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    Perez-Calatayud, Angel Augusto; Carrillo-Esper, Raul; Anica-Malagon, Eduardo Daniel; Briones-Garduño, Jesus Carlos; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Wise, Robert; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2018-01-01

    There is currently a lack of universally accepted criteria for gastrointestinal (GI) failure or dysfunction in critical care. Moreover, the clinical assessment of intestinal function is notoriously difficult and thus often goes unrecognized, contributing to poor outcomes. A recent grading system has been proposed to define acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) in conjunction with other organ function scores (e.g., SOFA). Ultrasonography has become widely accepted as a diagnostic tool for GI problems and pathology. We propose a sonographic examination of the abdomen, using the GUTS protocol (gastrointestinal and urinary tract sonography) in critically ill patients as part of the point-of-care ultrasound evaluation in patients with AGI. This article reviews possible applications of ultrasonography that may be relevant to monitor the GI function in critically ill patients. The GI ultrasound protocol (GUTS) focuses on four gastrointestinal endpoints: gastrointestinal diameter, mucosal thickness, peristalsis, and blood flow. Moreover, it is possible to examine the urinary tract and kidney function. Real-time ultrasound with the GUTS protocol is a simple, inexpensive, bedside imaging technique that can provide anatomical and functional information of the GI tract. Further studies are needed to investigate the utility of GUTS with other parameters, such as GI biomarkers, AGI class, and clinical outcomes.

  3. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder: the role of the mitochondria and the enteric microbiome

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    Richard E. Frye

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD affects a significant number of individuals worldwide with the prevalence continuing to grow. It is becoming clear that a large subgroup of individuals with ASD demonstrate abnormalities in mitochondrial function as well as gastrointestinal (GI symptoms. Interestingly, GI disturbances are common in individuals with mitochondrial disorders and have been reported to be highly prevalent in individuals with co-occurring ASD and mitochondrial disease. The majority of individuals with ASD and mitochondrial disorders do not manifest a primary genetic mutation, raising the possibility that their mitochondrial disorder is acquired or, at least, results from a combination of genetic susceptibility interacting with a wide range of environmental triggers. Mitochondria are very sensitive to both endogenous and exogenous environmental stressors such as toxicants, iatrogenic medications, immune activation, and metabolic disturbances. Many of these same environmental stressors have been associated with ASD, suggesting that the mitochondria could be the biological link between environmental stressors and neurometabolic abnormalities associated with ASD. This paper reviews the possible links between GI abnormalities, mitochondria, and ASD. First, we review the link between GI symptoms and abnormalities in mitochondrial function. Second, we review the evidence supporting the notion that environmental stressors linked to ASD can also adversely affect both mitochondria and GI function. Third, we review the evidence that enteric bacteria that are overrepresented in children with ASD, particularly Clostridia spp., produce short-chain fatty acid metabolites that are potentially toxic to the mitochondria. We provide an example of this gut–brain connection by highlighting the propionic acid rodent model of ASD and the clinical evidence that supports this animal model. Lastly, we discuss the potential therapeutic approaches that could be

  4. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 receptors ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

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    Manning, J; Buckley, M M; O'Halloran, K D; O'Malley, D

    2016-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease characterized by progressive deterioration and degeneration of striated muscle. A mutation resulting in the loss of dystrophin, a structural protein which protects cells from contraction-induced damage, underlies DMD pathophysiology. Damage to muscle fibers results in chronic inflammation and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, loss of cellular dystrophin also affects neurons and smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with complaints such as hypomotility, pseudo-obstruction, and constipation reported in DMD patients. Using dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, studies were carried out to examine colonic morphology and function compared with wild-type mice. Treatment with neutralizing IL-6 receptor antibodies (xIL-6R) and/or the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 2 receptor agonist, urocortin 2 (uro2) was tested to determine if they ameliorated GI dysfunction in mdx mice. Mdx mice exhibited thickening of colonic smooth muscle layers and delayed stress-induced defecation. In organ bath studies, neurally mediated IL-6-evoked contractions were larger in mdx colons. In vivo treatment of mdx mice with xIL-6R normalized defecation rates and colon lengths. Uro2 treatment did not affect motility or morphology. The potentiated colonic contractile response to IL-6 was attenuated by treatment with xIL-6R. These findings confirm the importance of dystrophin in normal GI function and implicate IL-6 as an important regulator of GI motility in the mdx mouse. Inhibition of IL-6 signaling may offer a potential new therapeutic strategy for treating DMD-associated GI symptoms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Regorafenib-induced retinal and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a metastatic colorectal cancer patient with liver dysfunction: A case report.

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    Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Shimokawa, Hozumi; Takayoshi, Kotoe; Nio, Kenta; Aikawa, Tomomi; Matsushita, Yuzo; Wada, Iori; Arita, Shuji; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Akashi, Koichi; Baba, Eishi

    2017-10-01

    Regorafenib is effective for metastatic colorectal cancer but its toxicity such as hemorrhage should be considered. The safety of regorafenib for the patient with the liver disease is not known. Seventy-one-year old man of colon cancer had myodesopsia and blood stool after 14 days from the initiation of regorafenib administration with 50% dose reduction due to liver dysfunction. Fundus examination revealed hemorrhage of the retinal vein. Regorafenib treatment was discontinued and observational therapy was pursued. Retinal and gastrointestinal hemorrhage resolved in 1 week. Retinal hemorrhage should be considered as the differential diagnosis of myodesopsia in the patient treated by regorafenib. Safety and pharmacokinetic of continuous regorafenib administration for patients with liver dysfunction remains to be clarified.

  6. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Lu

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the

  7. Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Cindy K.; Melmed, Raun D.; Barstow, Leon E.; Enriquez, F. Javier; Ranger-Moore, James; Ostrem, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin secretion onto mucosal surfaces is a major component of the mucosal immune system. We hypothesized that chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances associated with autistic disorder (AD) may be due to an underlying deficiency in mucosal immunity, and that orally administered immunoglobulin would be effective in alleviating chronic GI…

  8. Protective effect of eugenol against restraint stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction: Potential use in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Shah, Ankit; Singh, Sanjay; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2015-07-01

    Eugenol, an essential constituent found in plants such as Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. (Myrtaceae) is reported to possess neuroprotective and anti-stress activities. These activities can potentially be useful in the treatment of stress-induced irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The protective effect of eugenol was assessed against restraint stress (RS)-induced IBS-like gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats. Further, its centrally mediated effect was evaluated in this model. Eugenol (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg), ondansetron (4.0 mg/kg, p.o.), and vehicle were administered to rats for 7 consecutive days before exposure to 1 h RS. One control group was not exposed to RS-induction. The effect of eugenol (50 mg/kg) with and without RS exposure was evaluated for mechanism of action and per se effect, respectively. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA)-axis function was evaluated by estimating the plasma corticosterone level. The levels of brain monoamines, namely serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and their metabolites were estimated in stress-responsive regions such as hippocampus, hypothalamus, pre-frontal cortex (PFC), and amygdala. Oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses were also assessed in brain regions. Eugenol (50 mg/kg) reduced 80% of RS-induced increase in fecal pellets similar to that of ondansetron. Eugenol attenuated 80% of stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone and modulated the serotonergic system in the PFC and amygdala. Eugenol attenuated stress-induced changes in norepinephrine and potentiated the antioxidant defense system in all brain regions. Eugenol protected against RS-induced development of IBS-like gastrointestinal dysfunction through modulation of HPA-axis and brain monoaminergic pathways apart from its antioxidant effect.

  9. Anthropometry for HMD design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen

    1992-10-01

    The importance of fit for helmet ensembles is not limited to just comfort. It impacts most other safety and performance needs of the helmets, including helmet retention, and optical and acoustical performance. The addition of optical systems to helmet ensembles increases the need for precision in fit. Helmet systems which were previously acceptable in terms of fit do not necessarily fit well enough to accommodate new performance requirements. The increased need for precision has introduced the need for better definition of human anthropometry for helmet design as well as definition of the head and helmet interface. Traditional anthropometry (human body measurements taken with calipers, or head boards, etc.) is no longer adequate. For advanced helmet systems, data on the shape, or change in the surface curvature and how this relates to helmet systems in three-dimensional space, is now a necessity. In fact, use of the old style of anthropometry can and has created problems rather than resolve them. This paper discusses some of the problems with the old methods and introduces new technologies and research which is being done to address the needs.

  10. Generation of Boundary Manikin Anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Karen S.; Margerum, Sarah; Barr, Abbe; Ferrer, Mike A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop 3D digital boundary manikins that are representative of the anthropometry of a unique population. These digital manikins can be used by designers to verify and validate that the components of the spacesuit design satisfy the requirements specified in the Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) document. Currently, the HSIR requires the suit to accommodate the 1st percentile American female to the 99th percentile American male. The manikin anthropometry was derived using two methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Whole Body Posture Based Analysis (WBPBA). PCA is a statistical method for reducing a multidimensional data set by using eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The goal is to create a reduced data set that encapsulates the majority of the variation in the population. WBPBA is a multivariate analytical approach that was developed by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) to identify the extremes of the population for a given body posture. WBPBA is a simulation-based method that finds extremes in a population based on anthropometry and posture whereas PCA is based solely on anthropometry. Both methods yield a list of subjects and their anthropometry from the target population; PCA resulted in 20 female and 22 male subjects anthropometry and WBPBA resulted in 7 subjects' anthropometry representing the extreme subjects in the target population. The subjects anthropometry is then used to 'morph' a baseline digital scan of a person with the same body type to create a 3D digital model that can be used as a tool for designers, the details of which will be discussed in subsequent papers.

  11. Anthropometry of craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefánková, Eva; Horn, František; Neščáková, Eva; Kabát, Michal; Petrík, Michal; Trnka, Ján

    2015-01-01

    Anthropometry is becoming a popular method for diagnostics of various diseases in pediatric clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the growth changes in craniofacial parameters in patients with craniosynostosis and positional plagiocephaly. Inclusion criteria for the study were presence of craniostenosis or positional plagiocephaly in a patient with at least three anthropometric evaluations at our department. Studied patients were aged from 1.0 month to 2.5 years with median age at the first and last anthropometric evaluation as 1.83 and 25.27 months, respectively. Further anthropometric results in patients older than 2.5 years were excluded from the study. Statistical significance was tested by the Mann-Whitney test. The studied group consisted of 70.5% male patients. The type of craniosynostosis was represented by scaphocephaly in 44.1%, by trigonocephaly in 45.6% and by coronal craniosynostosis in 10.3% of the cases. Cranial index was proven as a suitable parameter for evaluating differences in the trend of growth in craniosynostosis (p<0.001) and also for evaluating post-operative results. Significance was found in width of the head (p=0.038) for scaphocephaly and in length of the head for trigonocephaly (p=0.001) in surgically treated patients. Trend of cranial growth in operated patients copied the curve of the norm but in higher or lower values which depends on the type of prematurely closed suture. Longitudinal anthropometric follow-up is an objective and measurable method that can accurately non-invasively and non-expensively assess skull growth in pediatric patients with cranial deformity. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Melmed, Raun D.; Hansen, Robin L.; Aman, Michael G.; Burnham, David L.; Bruss, Jon B.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI…

  13. Anthropometry. A Bibliography with Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    population strengths with anthropometry matching that of astronauts. (Author) DESCRIPTORS: *Biodynamics, * Bionics # *Hand (anatomy), *Huscular...PTB sockets with a thermoplastic material; Human locomotion ; Multichannel myoelectric control—experimental report; Guidelines for standards tor...years of wheelchair evaluation; Some observations on the transverse rotations of the human trunk during locomotion ; Hydraulic knee controls for knee

  14. Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

    The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

  15. A heptameric peptide purified from Spirulina sp. gastrointestinal hydrolysate inhibits angiotensin I-converting enzyme- and angiotensin II-induced vascular dysfunction in human endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seong-Yeong; Ko, Seok-Chun; Kim, Chang Su; Oh, Gun-Woo; Ryu, Bomi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Geunhyung; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan; Phan, Thi Tuong Vy; Heo, Soo-Jin; Kang, Do-Hyung; Yi, Myunggi; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a marine microalga Spirulina sp.-derived protein was hydrolyzed using gastrointestinal enzymes to produce an angiotensin I (Ang I)-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide. Following consecutive purification, the potent ACE inhibitory peptide was composed of 7 amino acids, Thr-Met-Glu-Pro-Gly-Lys-Pro (molecular weight, 759 Da). Analysis using the Lineweaver-Burk plot and molecular modeling suggested that the purified peptide acted as a mixed non-competitive inhibitor of ACE. The inhibitory effects of the peptide against the cellular production of vascular dysfunction-related factors induced by Ang II were also investigated. In human endothelial cells, the Ang II-induced production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species was inhibited, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was downregulated when the cells were cultured with the purified peptide. Moreover, the peptide blocked the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These results indicated that this Spirulina sp.-derived peptide warrants further investigation as a potential pharmacological inhibitor of ACE and vascular dysfunction. PMID:28393188

  16. Response of colonic motility to dopaminergic stimulation is subverted in rats with nigrostriatal lesion: relevance to gastrointestinal dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandis, G; Balestra, B; Siani, F; Rizzo, V; Ghezzi, C; Ambrosi, G; Cerri, S; Bonizzi, A; Vicini, R; Vairetti, M; Ferrigno, A; Pastoris, O; Blandini, F

    2015-12-01

    Constipation is extremely common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been described in PD animal models. In this study, we investigated whether a PD-like degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra can influence peristalsis in colonic segments of rats by impacting on enteric dopaminergic transmission. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats received a unilateral injection of neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), or saline, into the medial-forebrain-bundle. Peristaltic activity was recorded in isolated colonic segments, in baseline conditions and following exposure to combinations of D2 receptor (DRD2) agonist sumanirole and antagonist L-741626. Dopamine levels and DRD2 expression were assessed in the ileum and colon of animals. We also investigated the involvement of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) - a potential relay station between central dopaminergic denervation and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction - by analyzing cytochrome c oxidase activity and FosB/DeltaFosB expression in DMV neurons. We observed profound alterations in the response of colonic segments of 6-OHDA lesioned animals to DRD2 stimulation. In fact, the inhibition of colonic peristalsis elicited by sumanirole in control rats was absent in 6-OHDA-lesioned animals. These animals also showed reduced DRD2 expression in the colon, along with elevation of dopamine levels. No significant changes were detected within the DMV. Our results demonstrate that selective lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway subverts the physiological response of the colon to dopaminergic stimulation, opening new perspectives in the comprehension and treatment of GI dysfunctions associated with PD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcconville, J. T.; Laubach, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Data on body-size measurement are presented to aid in spacecraft design. Tabulated dimensional anthropometric data on 59 variables for 12 selected populations are given. The variables chosen were those judged most relevant to the manned space program. A glossary of anatomical and anthropometric terms is included. Selected body dimensions of males and females from the potential astronaut population projected to the 1980-1990 time frame are given. Illustrations of drawing-board manikins based on those anticipated body sizes are included.

  18. A Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Army Equipment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED A Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Army Equipment Evaluation Mark Edwards, Alistair Furnell...Jemma Coleman and Sheena Davis Land Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-TR-3006 ABSTRACT Anthropometry is the...Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Defence Force Army Equipment Evaluation Executive Summary Anthropometry is the

  19. Optics in gait analysis and anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Moreno, Alejandra Alicia

    2013-11-01

    Since antiquity, human gait has been studied to understand human movement, the kind of gait, in some cases, can cause musculoskeletal disorders or other health problems; in addition, also from antiquity, anthropometry has been important for the design of human items such as workspaces, tools, garments, among others. Nowadays, thanks to the development of optics and electronics, more accurate studies of gait and anthropometry can be developed. This work will describe the most important parameters for gait analysis, anthropometry and the optical systems used.

  20. Application of Digital Anthropometry for Craniofacial Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial anthropometry is an objective technique based on a series of measurements and proportions, which facilitate the characterization of phenotypic variation and quantification of dysmorphology. With the introduction of stereophotography, it is possible to acquire a lifelike three-dimensional (3D) image of the face with natural color and texture. Most of the traditional anthropometric landmarks can be identified on these 3D photographs using specialized software. Therefore, it has become possible to compute new digital measurements, which were not feasible with traditional instruments. The term “digital anthropometry” has been used by researchers based on such systems to separate their methods from conventional manual measurements. Anthropometry has been traditionally used as a research tool. With the advent of digital anthropometry, this technique can be employed in several disciplines as a noninvasive tool for quantifying facial morphology. The aim of this review is to provide a broad overview of digital anthropometry and discuss its clinical applications. PMID:25050146

  1. Photogrammetry procedures applied to anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimoto, Maria Lúcialeite Ribeiro; Klein, Alison Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability and establish procedures for the use of digital photogrammetry in anthropometric measurements of the human hand. The methodology included the construction of a platform to allow the placement of the hand always equivalent to a distance of the camera lens and to annul the effects of parallax. We developed a software to perform the measurements from the images and built up a subject of proof in a cast from a negative mold, this object was subjected to measurements with digital photogrammetry using the data collection platform in caliper and the Coordinate Measuring Machine (MMC). The results of the application of photogrammetry in the data collection segment hand, allow us to conclude that photogrammetry is an effective presenting precision coefficient below 0.940. Within normal and acceptable values, given the magnitude of the data used in anthropometry. It was concluded photogrammetry then be reliable, accurate and efficient for carrying out anthropometric surveys of population, and presents less difficulty to collect in-place.

  2. "Oriental anthropometry" in plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senna-Fernandes Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points′ (acupoints locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry" (OA. Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS. Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational study based on aesthetic surgeries performed in private clinic. This study was based on 106 cases, comprising of 102 women and 4 men, with ages varying from 07 to 73 years, and with heights of between 1.34 m and 1.80 m. Patients were submitted to aesthetic surgical planning by relating aesthetic-loci to conventional surgical marking, including breast surgeries, abdominoplasty, rhytidoplasty, blepharoplasty, and hair implant. The aesthetic-surgical-outcome (ASO of the patients was assessed by a team of plastic surgeons (who were not involved in the surgical procedures over a follow-up period of one year by using a numeric-rating-scale in percentage (% terms. A four-point-verbal-rating-scale was used to record the patients′ opinion of therapeutic-satisfaction (TS. Results: ASO was 75.3 ± 9.4% and TS indicated that most patients (58.5% obtained "good" results. Of the remainder, 38.7% found the results "excellent", and 2.8% found them "fair". Discussion and Conclusion : The data suggested that the use of aesthetic-loci may be a useful tool for PS as an anatomical reference for surgical marking. However, further investigation is required to assess the efficacy of the OA by providing the patients more reliable balance and harmony in facial and body contours surgeries.

  3. Population Analysis: Communicating About Anthropometry in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of communications about anthropometry and population analysis in particular for the design of aerospace systems. The difficulty of providing anthropometric accomodation an entire range of the population is reviewed, and the importance of communication of the issues with human system integration is emphasized, and the analysis of population as it applies to existing human factors methodologies is a novel way to assist with the communication. The issues of space suit design and anthropometry is reviewed as an example.

  4. the foundation of anthropometry and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition screening and assessment initiate the nutrition care process of individuals and groups and are also core in nutrition monitoring and evaluation.1 Anthropometry is an objective nutritional assessment method, and, in the case of infants and children, growth monitoring is also a sensitive indicator of health status.

  5. Anthropometry of young competitive sport rock climbers

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, P; Joubert, L; Lish, A; Mast, J; Wilkins, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Adult elite competitive rock climbers are small in stature with low body mass and very low body fat percentage. These characteristics have generated concern that young climbers may attempt body mass reduction to extreme levels with adverse consequences for health and performance. No published anthropometry data for young competitive climbers exist.

  6. Anthropometry of the Medan - North Sumatera Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Rizkya, I.; Muchtar, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted on 780 students at a university in Medan, North Sumatra. The taken data is divided into two sub-groups, namely men and women, where the data of 343 men and women as many as 437 people. Taken anthropometry data is standing position, sitting position, hands, feet and body weight. This study presents statistical data in the form of standard deviation, average and percentiles. This research needs to be done because the population of the city of Medan is around 2,497,183 people, and Medan is the third largest city in Indonesia. The objectives this study is to collect the anthropometry data for ergonomics application and design product base on the customer need in Medan territory. Data retrieval is necessary because with this data is expected to be applied in the application of science of ergonomics, work station design, equipment design; tooling makes it convenient in everyday use.

  7. Anthropometry: Basic Studies ad Applications. Volume 1. 1964-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    of cadaver dissection, anthropometry, radiography and cinetluoroscopy, photogrammetric, and computer analysis. Seventy-two antnropoaetric...harness), Males, Mobility, Radiography , photogrammetry, Spinal column, Head, Motion, Statistical analysis, Positioning reactions. Programming...Anatomy), Thorax , Vulnerability, Design standards, Impact tests, Performance standards, Evaluation, Acceleration, Motion, Anthropometry

  8. Effects of stress on gastrointestinal function: interactions of neural and endocrine systems in mediating stress-induced intestinal dysfunction in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The etiology of stress-induced intestinal dysfunction is completely unresolved, and the lack of an appropriate animal model has hindered studies of causality. We compared a number of stressors and their resultant effects on intestinal transit, a measure of the propulsive motor activity of the gut, in the rat. We found that the response of the intestine to stress, and the neural systems activated by stress, were dependent on the type and duration of stress, as well as the animal strain, and gender. We developed a model, acute wrapping restraint stress, to fully characterize the effects of stress on intestinal transit. Wrap restraint stress is a nonulcerogenic model in which rats are subjected to acute restraint by wrapping them in a harness of paper tape to restrict, but not prevent movement of the upper body and forelimbs. Transit was evaluated by the geometric center method, in which a radiomarker ( 51 Cr) is instilled directly into the proximal duodenum and proximal colon via a surgically placed intestinal cannula, in fasted, adult female Sprague Dawley rats

  9. Anthropometry of an aging work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J F; Case, H W; Clauser, C E; Bradtmiller, B

    1991-01-01

    Faced with an aging labor force, industrial planners are worried about the possible need to redesign jobs and workspaces in the future. One area of concern is the changes that occur in body size characteristics as people age. Although no true database for the anthropometry of the American worker exists, available surveys and studies that include older individuals (40 to 70 years), and errors associated with these studies, are discussed. Using sample mean values from selected cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, the changes in weight and selected body dimensions are traced from the third to the eighth decade of life. As a practical exercise, age-associated changes in a number of workspace dimensions are tested against recommended design values for seated work stations. While acknowledging the need for flexibility in future workplace designs the authors conclude that age-related changes in body size are insufficient in themselves to justify the resizing of existing ergonomically-designed workplaces.

  10. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Anthropometry and it application in ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romelio Rodriguez-Añez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry, is the branch of the human science that studies the physical measurement of the human body, particularly size and shape. Ergonomics is the science of work: of the people who do it and the way it is done; the tools and equipment they use, the places they work in, and the psychological aspects of the working environment. In a simplifi ed way can be understood as the adaptation of work to man. One characteristic of the ergonomic is its interdisciplinarity; since it is based on many different areas of knowledge. Anthropometry has a special importance because of the emergence of complex work systems where knowledge of the physicaldimensions of man with accuracy is important. One application of anthropometrical measurement in ergonomics is the design of working space and the development of industrialized products such as furnishing, cars, tools, etc. With advances in technology, the precision and automation of measurement techniques will increase, improving definition of human size, and the mechanics of workspaces, clothing and equipment. A well-developed tool will perform better in a worker’s hand without injuring his bodily structures. On the other hand, anthropometric data is only meaningful if the workers’ activities are also analyzed. RESUMO A antropometria é o ramo das ciências humanas que estuda as medidas do corpo, particularmente o tamanho e a forma. A ergonomia é a ciência do trabalho e envolve: as pessoas que o fazem, a forma como é feito, as ferramentas e equipamentos que elas usam, os lugares em que elas trabalham e os aspectos psicossociais nas situações de trabalho. De forma bastante simplifi cada, pode ser entendida como a adaptação do trabalho ao homem. Uma característica da ergonomia é a sua interdisciplinaridade, pois diversas áreas do conhecimento lhe dão sustentação. A antropometria assumiu uma importância especial com o surgimento dos sistemas complexos de trabalho onde o conhecimento das

  12. Gastrointestinal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepson, Mark A.; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products

  13. [Body composition assessment by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Juan Carlos; Restrepo, María Teresa; Estrada, Alejandro

    2007-06-01

    Anthropometry and electric impedance methods are widely used for body composition assessment. However the evidence is unclear whether the results obtained from the two methods can be compared. Two methods are compared for assessment of body composition; anthropometry and electric impedance. Body composition was measured in 70 women; aged 22 to 56 and 53 men; aged 24 to 54, using anthropometry (Durning/Womersley and Jackson/Pollock skinfolds equations) and electric impedance (foot to foot electric impedance) to obtain percentage body fat. The mean percentage body fat was significant higher with Durning/Womersley (25.2%) than Jackson/Pollock (20.1%) and electric impedance (19.3%) for men (pimpedance (27.6%) for women (p0.77) however, the concordance between methods to classify obesity subjects was low (Kbioelectrical impedance method. A significant difference was found between methods applied in men and women, and therefore these methods are not comparable.

  14. Validity of self-reported anthropometry in adult Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare direct and self-reported anthro­pometry in Mexican women. Materials and methods. Women aged 30-72 years, participating in the Mexican Teach­ers’ Cohort, completed a questionnaire with their anthropo­metric data in 2006-2008. After eleven months (median time, technicians performed anthropometry in 3 756 participants. We calculated correlations and multivariable-adjusted mean differences between direct and self-reported anthropomet­ric measures. Results. Correlations between direct and self-reported anthropometric measures ranged from 0.78 (waist circumference to 0.93 (weight. On average, women over-reported their height by 2.2 cm and underreported their weight, body mass index (BMI and waist and hip circumfer­ences by 1.3 kg, 1.3 kg/m2, 1.8 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. Errors in self-reported anthropometry increased with rising measured BMI and were also independently associated with age, education and socioeconomic status. Conclusion. Self-reported anthropometry is sufficiently valid for epide­miological purposes in adult Mexican women. Errors in self-reported anthropometry might result in underestimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  15. Longitudinal Changes in Anthropometry and Body Composition in University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hootman, Katie C.; Guertin, Kristin A.; Cassano, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We investigated predictors of weight gain in college freshmen. Participants: A longitudinal cohort study followed a representative sample of freshmen (N = 264) from 8/2011 to 6/2012. Methods: Repeated measurements of anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity, and diet were collected. We investigated…

  16. A survey of anthropometry and physical accommodation in ergonomics curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the U.S., anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g., digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the U.S. in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula.

  17. Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants attending child welfare clinics of a teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Maternal older age, multiparity and delivery at a government health facility were positively associated with higher rates of EBF (p < 0.05). Only 110 (48.2%) babies were put to the breast ...

  18. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissu...... fatty acids and changes in anthropometry....

  19. Nasofacial Anthropometry of Adult Bini Tribe In Nigeria | Omotoso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation is a common phenomenon in the physiognomy of humans. Therefore, physical anthropometry provides the techniques to assess human body dimensions and to describe morphological variations that exist among different human population. This study was conducted to describe the physical morphometric ...

  20. Three-dimensional surface anthropometry: Applications to the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter R. M.; Rioux, Marc

    1997-09-01

    Anthropometry is the study of the measurement of the human body. By tradition this has been carried out taking the measurements from body surface landmarks, such as circumferences and breadths, using simple instruments like tape measures and calipers. Three-dimensional (3D) surface anthropometry enables us to extend the study to 3D geometry and morphology of mainly external human body tissues. It includes the acquisition, indexing, transmission, archiving, retrieval, interrogation and analysis of body size, shape, and surface together with their variability throughout growth and development to adulthood. While 3D surface anthropometry surveying is relatively new, anthropometric surveying using traditional tools, such as calipers and tape measures, is not. Recorded studies of the human form date back to ancient times. Since at least the 17th century 1 investigators have made attempts to measure the human body for physical properties such as weight, size, and centre of mass. Martin documented 'standard' body measurement methods in a handbook in 1928. 2 This paper reviews the past and current literature devoted to the applications of 3D anthropometry because true 3D scanning of the complete human body is fast becoming a reality. We attempt to take readers through different forms of technology which deal with simple forms of projected light to the more complex advanced forms of laser and video technology giving low and/or high resolution 3D data. Information is also given about image capture of size and shape of the whole as well as most component parts of the human body. In particular, the review describes with explanations a multitude of applications, for example, medical, product design, human engineering, anthropometry and ergonomics etc.

  1. Gastrointestinal transit times and motility in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedsund, Caroline; Gregersen, Tine; Jønsson, Iben

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction including obstructive symptoms, malabsorption and pain, but the underlying pathophysiology remains obscure. AIM: To compare GI motility and transit times in CF patients and healthy controls. MATERIAL...

  2. Gastrointestinal malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the degree to which gestational age (GA) has been shortened due to prenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal malformations (GIM). The data source for the study was 14 population-based registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). All liveborn infants with GIMs...... malformations, although not statistically significant for gastroschisis. There was little difference in median birthweight by GA for the pre- and postnatally diagnosed infants. The difference in GA at birth between prenatally and postnatally diagnosed infants with GIMs is enough to increase the risk...... of mortality for the prenatally diagnosed infants. Clinicians need to balance the risk of early delivery against the benefits of clinical convenience when making case management decisions after prenatal diagnosis. Very few studies have been able to show benefits of prenatal diagnosis of congenital...

  3. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Laura W; Grocott, Olivia R; Kunz, Portia A; Larson, Anna M; Zella, Garrett; Ganguli, Kriston; Thibert, Ronald L

    2017-10-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, expressive speech impairment, movement disorder, epilepsy, and a happy demeanor. Children with AS are frequently reported to be poor feeders during infancy and as having gastrointestinal issues such as constipation, reflux, and abnormal food related behaviors throughout their lifetime. To assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with AS, we retrospectively analyzed medical records of 120 individuals seen at the Angelman Syndrome Clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital and 43 individuals seen at the University of North Carolina Comprehensive Angelman Clinic. The majority of patients' medical records indicated at least one symptom of gastrointestinal dysfunction, with constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) the most common. Other gastrointestinal issues reported were cyclic vomiting episodes, difficulty swallowing, excessive swallowing, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as GERD, swallowing difficulties, cyclic vomiting, and eosinophilic esophagitis were more common in those with deletions and uniparental disomy, likely related to the involvement of multiple genes and subsequent hypotonia. The frequency of constipation is consistent among all genetic subtypes while early feeding issues appear to mainly affect those with deletions. Caregivers and healthcare providers should be aware of the high prevalence of these issues, as proper treatment may improve not only gastrointestinal dysfunction but also sleep and behavioral issues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparison of current ATDs with Chinese adults in anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Libo; Zhang, Kai; Lv, Xin; Yan, Lingbo

    2016-05-18

    Crash test dummies are full-scale anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) that simulate the dimensions, weight proportions, and articulation of the human body and are used to measure human injury potential in vehicle crashes. The Hybrid III dummy family, which is widely used currently, takes selected percentiles of anthropometry dimensions of U.S. adults as design references. The objective of this study was to assess the difference in anthropometry between Chinese adults and the currently used dummy. Based on the Chinese National Physical Fitness Surveillance of the year 2000, 2005, 2010 and National Standard of China GB/T 10000-1988, a series of anthropometric parameters for Chinese adults were obtained, and data analysis was conducted between Chinese adults and ATDs that are currently used. The comparison revealed distinct anthropometric difference between ATDs and Chinese adults. Based on the latest data, median Chinese females were about 2.6% lower in stature and about 8.03% lower in body weight than the ATD design targets. Similarly, median Chinese males were about 3.48% shorter and weighed 11.89% less than the ATD design targets. Although the anthropometric differences between Chinese adults and the Hybrid III ATD specifications were modest and growing smaller, it is advisable to take the differences in anthropometry between ATDs and Chinese adults into consideration when developing new vehicles in China to provide effective protection specifically for Chinese occupants.

  5. The role of anthropometry in designing for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadadur, Gopal; Parkinson, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of human factors and ergonomics facilitates the design of artefacts, tasks and environments that fulfil their users' physical and cognitive requirements. Research in these fields furthers the goal of efficiently accommodating the desired percentage of user populations through enhanced awareness and modelling of human variability. Design for sustainability (DfS) allows for these concepts to be leveraged in the broader context of designing to minimise negative impacts on the environment. This paper focuses on anthropometry and proposes three ways in which its consideration is relevant to DfS: reducing raw material consumption, increasing usage lifetimes and ethical human resource considerations. This is demonstrated through the application of anthropometry synthesis, virtual fitting, and sizing and adjustability allocation methods in the design of an industrial workstation seat for use in five distinct global populations. This work highlights the importance of and opportunities for using ergonomic design principles in DfS efforts. This research demonstrates the relevance of some anthropometry-based ergonomics concepts to the field of design for sustainability. A global design case study leverages human variability considerations in furthering three sustainable design goals: reducing raw material consumption, increasing usage lifetimes and incorporating ethical human resource considerations in design.

  6. School furniture match to students' anthropometry in the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Salah R

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed at comparing primary school students' anthropometry to the dimensions of school furniture and determining whether the furniture used matches the students' anthropometry. A sample of 600 male students, whose ages were between 6 and 11 years, from five primary schools in the Gaza Strip governorates participated in the study. Several students' body dimensions were measured. The dimensions measured included elbow-seat height, shoulder height, knee height, popliteal height and buttock-popliteal length. Measurements of the dimensions of the classroom furniture indicated that there was a considerable mismatch between the students' body dimensions and the classroom furniture. The mismatches in seat height, seat depth and desk height occurred for 99% of the students, while the mismatch for the back rest height was only 35%. Two design specifications were proposed in order to decrease the mismatch percentage based on the data obtained. The two proposed designs showed a considerable improvement in the match percentages as compared to the existing design. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Having identified mismatches between the dimensions of the school furniture used in primary schools in the Gaza Strip, two new design specifications are proposed and shown to improve match with the students' anthropometric dimensions. The findings of the study are also an important addition to local knowledge on school children's anthropometry.

  7. Detecting Key Inter-Joint Distances and Anthropometry Effects for Static Gesture Development using Microsoft Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    AND ANTHROPOMETRY EFFECTS FOR STATIC GESTURE DEVELOPMENT USING MICROSOFT KINECT BY MICHAEL A. HAMILTON PATRICK MEAD RACHAEL LUND JAKE...DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Sep 2013–30 Sep 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Detecting Key Inter-Joint Distances and Anthropometry Effects for Static Gesture...prediction accuracy of 97 percent. 15. SUBJECT TERMS gestures anthropometry ANOVA Tukey 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  8. Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR), Final Report. Volume 1. Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    The Civilian Americana and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) project was a survey of the civilian populations of three countries representing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries...

  9. Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR). Volume II: Descriptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackwell, Sherri

    2002-01-01

    The Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) project was a survey of the civilian populations of three countries representing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries...

  10. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.D.; Pointon, R.C.S.

    1985-01-01

    At the time of writing, radiotherapy is of only minor use in the management of adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, for a number of reasons. First, an exploratory laparotomy is generally needed for diagnosis, and if possible the tumour is resected or by-passed. Second, radiotherapy planning in the upper abdomen is complicated by the proximity of small bowel, kidneys, and spinal cord. Third, it has been assumed that these tumours cause death largely as a result of distant metastases, so that local radiotherapy, even if effective, would contribute little to survival. The continued interest in radiotherapy for this group of tumours arises out of the poor survival rates following surgery, which have not changed for many years, and the morbidity associated with their resection. It was hoped that the addition of cytotoxic agents to radical surgery would improve survival rates in carcinoma of the stomach and intraperitoneal colon. Despite a large number of well-organised prospective trials, using a variety of cytotoxic drugs, there is so far no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to radical surgery improves survival for either tumour site. The authors are therefore faced with a group of tumours which are not only common, but commonly fatal and many surgeons would accept that a new approach using modern radiotherapy techniques may well be justified. There is evidence that this movement is already taking place for carcinoma of the rectum, and the indications for radiotherapy in this condition will be dealt with below. Before considering these it is worth dwelling briefly on recent changes in surgical and radiological practices which, if they fulfil expectations, might allow radiotherapy to be used for carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas as it is now used for rectal cancer

  11. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret H. Collins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID are characterized pathologically by excess eosinophils in mucosal biopsies of one or multiple sites in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, simultaneously or sequentially. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is the best characterized EGID, and in most patients it is an abnormal immune-mediated response to food antigens. Current recommendations for diagnosis include signs and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction that do not respond to proton-pump inhibitor therapy, and esophageal biopsies that exhibit at least 15 intraepithelial eosinophils in at least one high power field (HPF. Therapy consists of swallowed glucocorticoids or dietary elimination. Eosinophilic gastritis (EG is the second most common form of EGID, but like all forms of EGID except EoE consensus recommendations for either clinical or pathological diagnosis do not exist. EG may be associated clinically with peripheral blood eosinophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and anemia, and pathologically with marked expansion of lamina propria by dense eosinophilic infiltrates. Eosinophilic enteritis (EE may be subdivided into eosinophilic duodenitis, eosinophilic jejunitis, and eosinophilic ileitis. Most investigators believe that EE rarely, if ever, exists as a solitary form of EGID and is encountered only in patients who have at least one other affected portion of the GI tract. Eosinophilic colitis (EC is perhaps the most enigmatic EGID. Distinction of EC from inflammatory bowel disease may be problematic especially in children. Multiple possible etiologies for EGID include hypereosinophilic syndrome, drug reactions, etc. Currently, the only etiology that can be identified histologically is parasitic infestation, if a portion of an invasive parasite is found in mucosal biopsies. This review will provide guidelines for the pathologic diagnosis of the various forms of EGID.

  12. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L; Hansen, Tine W; Olsen, Michael H; Andersen, Ove; Linneberg, Allan; Madsbad, Sten; Haugaard, Steen B; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Jeppesen, Jørgen

    2013-08-10

    Low-grade inflammation is a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predict CVD. We tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers reflect different aspects of the inflammation associated with CVD. We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI) (Panthropometry. In both genders, independent of smoking, log-CRP was positively associated with BMI (β: 0.28 to 0.40, P3: 1.31 (1.16-1.47), whereas log-CRP was not (1.00 (0.89-1.11))). CRP is positively associated with anthropometric measures, whereas suPAR is linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study, the authors investigated whether anthropometry is associated with prostate cancer risk. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self- administered questionnaire on diet, anthropometry, and other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of

  14. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J

    2015-01-01

    anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed...

  15. Bowel Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to PCF? Featured Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Bowel Dysfunction The broad term of bowel dysfunction includes ... immodium) can be used to help with loose bowel movements. Increasing fiber intake through whole grains, ... mission 82% Join the fight against prostate ...

  16. Image analysis software versus direct anthropometry for breast measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quieregatto, Paulo Rogério; Hochman, Bernardo; Furtado, Fabianne; Machado, Aline Fernanda Perez; Sabino Neto, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2014-10-01

    To compare breast measurements performed using the software packages ImageTool(r), AutoCAD(r) and Adobe Photoshop(r) with direct anthropometric measurements. Points were marked on the breasts and arms of 40 volunteer women aged between 18 and 60 years. When connecting the points, seven linear segments and one angular measurement on each half of the body, and one medial segment common to both body halves were defined. The volunteers were photographed in a standardized manner. Photogrammetric measurements were performed by three independent observers using the three software packages and compared to direct anthropometric measurements made with calipers and a protractor. Measurements obtained with AutoCAD(r) were the most reproducible and those made with ImageTool(r) were the most similar to direct anthropometry, while measurements with Adobe Photoshop(r) showed the largest differences. Except for angular measurements, significant differences were found between measurements of line segments made using the three software packages and those obtained by direct anthropometry. AutoCAD(r) provided the highest precision and intermediate accuracy; ImageTool(r) had the highest accuracy and lowest precision; and Adobe Photoshop(r) showed intermediate precision and the worst accuracy among the three software packages.

  17. Maternal Anthropometry and Mammographic Density in Adult Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B; Cohn, Barbara A; Goldberg, Mandy; Flom, Julie D; Dougan, Marcelle; Terry, Mary Beth

    2016-11-01

    We examined the relation between maternal anthropometry and mammographic density in the adult daughter using prospectively collected data. Our study included a total of 700 mother-daughter dyads participating in an adult follow-up of women born in 2 US birth cohorts: the Child Health and Development Study and the Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island sites of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. We observed an increased percent breast density at a mean age of 43.1 years in the daughters of mothers who gained 5 kg or less during pregnancy compared with mother-daughter pairs in which the mother gained 5 to 10 kg (β = 4.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0 to 8.6). The daughters of mothers who were overweight at the time of conception (prepregnancy BMI ≥25) and who gained >5 kg during pregnancy had a lower percent density (β = -3.2, 95% confidence interval: -6.2 to -0.2) compared with mothers with a BMI 5 kg. We did not find any strong and consistent patterns between maternal anthropometry and the daughter's breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. A modest association between low gestational weight gain and increased breast density 40 years later in the daughter was observed, even after accounting for adult body size, and if confirmed, possible mechanisms need to be further elucidated. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Validating Paediatric Morphometrics: body proportion measurement using photogrammetric anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bas; Brecheisen, Ralph; Gerver, Angèle; van Zonneveld, Geertjan; Gerver, Willem-Jan

    2015-11-01

    Taking multiple anthropometric measurements for the description of body proportions in an accurate way is a time-consuming procedure that requires specific tools and skills. This is why we developed an alternative method based on digital photography for taking these measurements which is faster and easier to use, to make anthropometry more user-friendly and approachable to paediatricians. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 54 children between 2 and 18 years of age. We compared manual measurements with photogrammetric measurements to validate our method. Inter-observer correlations of all measurements are ≥0.96 and mean differences are 0.3-0.9 cm, except for arm span. Comparison of manual to photogrammetric measurements shows mean differences of 0.6-1.3 cm, with correlations ≥0.92, except for sitting height and arm span. Correlations of ratios between methods are height/sitting height (r=0.77), biacromium/biiliacum (r=0.74) and subischial leg length/sitting height (r=0.75). Photogrammetric anthropometry is faster, easier to use and provides the paediatrician with more flexibility as taking the digital photographs and performing the analysis are separated.

  19. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  20. Gut dysfunction in the critically ill − mechanisms and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction is a common problem in the critically ill patient, and is commonly observed in the intensive care unit (ICU). It is recognised that a functional gastrointestinal tract is an important factor in the clinical outcome of patients in the ICU. The difficulty in clinical practice has been the lack of an objective or ...

  1. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rigid. Medications The oral medications for erectile dysfunction, sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra), relax the muscles ... to begin working; the erection helping effects of sildenafil and vardenafil last for about 8 hours and ...

  2. The affecting factors of breast anthropometry in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa Jin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Min-Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Breast anthropometric morphology affects various factors with diverse physiognomy, making accurate measurements very difficult. The aim of this study was to measure the female breast using anthropometry and to use this method on normal subjects to examine breast asymmetry and consider the influence of age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, and breastfeeding in premenopausal Korean women. In total, 17 parameters of breast were measured with participants in a standing position. Breast volume was also assessed. The mean values of the right and left breast volumes were calculated as 386.0±342.5 mL and 393.3±347.2 mL, respectively. With aging, the height of women decreased, but the weight, BMI, upper chest, middle chest, lower chest, waist, and hip widths, nipple-nipple length, and ptosis increased with statistical significance. No asymmetric differences were observed between each breast, except for nipple-inframammary fold length in 20-30-year-old women and upper arm length in 41-50-year-old women. In our study, the breast volume increased with age as a result of weight gain, but the delivery mode and breastfeeding did not affect anthropometric breast measurements. In conclusion, age, weight, and BMI are important factors in determining breast anthropometry in our study. The results of the present study will help in the comparison of the anthropometric breast values of Korean women with those of women in other countries and may also be useful in the understanding of breast physiologic change-related obstetrical factors and epidemiologic factors.

  3. Correlations Between Anthropometry and Lipid Profile in Women With PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranmayee, Donthu; Kavya, Kothapalli; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Sriharibabu, Manne; Madhuri, Gadi Leela Jaya; Venu, Swargam

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive age women and is associated with both reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Recent studies have demonstrated an early onset of abnormal cardiovascular risk profile in women with PCOS. Abnormal lipid profile patterns are common in women with PCOS, and these abnormalities are not uniform in all populations. Anthropometry is a simple and commonly used research tool for assessing metabolic risk in women with PCOS. Therefore, this study examined the correlations between anthropometric parameters and lipid profile in women with PCOS. The objectives of the study were (1) To study the anthropometric profile of women with PCOS, (2) To examine the lipid profile pattern of these women with PCOS and (3) To see whether there exists any correlation between these anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. This observational cross-sectional study examined anthropometry and lipid profile in 86 married women with PCOS in the age group of 18-35 years and correlated them by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. More than 80% of the women with PCOS demonstrated abnormal anthropometric parameters, and in more than 70% women, lipid abnormalities such as low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Significant positive correlations were seen between body mass index (BMI) and triglycerides ( P ≤ 0.001) and waist circumference (WC) and triglycerides ( P ≤ 0.029). Negative correlations were observed between BMI and HDL cholesterol ( P ≤ 0.013). This study revealed that BMI and WC are the most important anthropometric parameters correlated to dyslipidemia in the south Indian women with PCOS.

  4. Anthropometry and body composition of south Indian babies at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, S; Dwarkanath, P; Thomas, T; Vaz, M; Mhaskar, A; Mhaskar, R; Thomas, A; Bhat, S; Kurpad, Av

    2006-10-01

    To assess the consequences on body composition of increasing birth weight in Indian babies in relation to reported values in Western babies, and to assess the relationship between maternal and neonatal anthropometry and body composition. Prospective observational study. Bangalore City, India. A total of 712 women were recruited at 12.5+/-3.1 weeks of gestation (mean+/-standard deviation, SD) and followed up until delivery; 14.5% were lost to follow-up. Maternal body weight, height, mid upper-arm circumference and skinfold thicknesses were measured at recruitment. Weight and body composition of the baby (skinfold thicknesses, mid upper-arm circumference, derived arm fat index and arm muscle index; AFI and AMI, respectively) were measured at birth in hospital. The mean+/-SD birth weight of all newborns was 2.80+/-0.44 kg. Birth weight was significantly related to the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness of the baby. In a small number of babies with large birth weight for gestational age, there was a relatively higher normalised AFI relative to AMI than for babies with lower or appropriate birth weight for gestational age. Maternal height and fat-free mass were significantly associated with the baby's length at birth. Skinfold thicknesses in Indian babies were similar to those reported in a Western population with comparable birth weights, and the relationship of AFI to birth weight appeared to be steeper in Indian babies. Thus, measures to increase birth weight in Indian babies should take into account possible adverse consequences on body composition. There were no significant relationships between maternal anthropometry and body composition at birth on multivariate analysis, except for sum of the baby's skinfold thicknesses and maternal fat-free mass (P<0.02).

  5. Multiple organ dysfunction caused by parathyroid adenoma‑induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 27‑year‑old male with multiple organ dysfunction caused by parathyroid adenoma‑induced primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Initially, the patient experienced a sudden onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, polyuria, polydipsia, bone pain, renal dysfunction, nephrolithiasis, and acute pancreatitis, symptoms ...

  6. Acupuncture and regulation of gastrointestinal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; He, Tian; Xu, Qian; Li, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Li, Fang; Yang, Bo-Feng; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-07-21

    In China, acupuncture has been considered an effective method for treating gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction diseases for thousands of years. In fact, acupuncture has gained progressive acceptance from both practitioners and patients worldwide. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms in treating GI dysfunction have not yet been established due to a lack of systematic and comprehensive review articles. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for GI dysfunction and the associated underlying mechanisms. A search of PubMed was conducted for articles that were published over the past 10 years using the terms "acupuncture", "gastrointestine", and other relevant keywords. In the following review, we describe the effect and underlying mechanisms of acupuncture on GI function from the perspectives of GI motility, visceral sensitivity, the GI barrier, and the brain-gut axis. The dual regulatory effects of acupuncture may manifest by promoting gastric peristalsis in subjects with low initial gastric motility, and suppressing peristalsis in subjects with active initial motility. In addition, the regulation of acupuncture on gastric motility may be intensity-dependent. Our findings suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the effects and more systematic mechanisms in treating GI dysfunction, and to promote the application of acupuncture for the treatment of GI diseases.

  7. Improving the quality of child anthropometry: Manual anthropometry in the Body Imaging for Nutritional Assessment Study (BINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkle, Joel; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Suchdev, Parminder S; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2017-01-01

    Anthropometric data collected in clinics and surveys are often inaccurate and unreliable due to measurement error. The Body Imaging for Nutritional Assessment Study (BINA) evaluated the ability of 3D imaging to correctly measure stature, head circumference (HC) and arm circumference (MUAC) for children under five years of age. This paper describes the protocol for and the quality of manual anthropometric measurements in BINA, a study conducted in 2016-17 in Atlanta, USA. Quality was evaluated by examining digit preference, biological plausibility of z-scores, z-score standard deviations, and reliability. We calculated z-scores and analyzed plausibility based on the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (CGS). For reliability, we calculated intra- and inter-observer Technical Error of Measurement (TEM) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). We found low digit preference; 99.6% of z-scores were biologically plausible, with z-score standard deviations ranging from 0.92 to 1.07. Total TEM was 0.40 for stature, 0.28 for HC, and 0.25 for MUAC in centimeters. ICC ranged from 0.99 to 1.00. The quality of manual measurements in BINA was high and similar to that of the anthropometric data used to develop the WHO CGS. We attributed high quality to vigorous training, motivated and competent field staff, reduction of non-measurement error through the use of technology, and reduction of measurement error through adequate monitoring and supervision. Our anthropometry measurement protocol, which builds on and improves upon the protocol used for the WHO CGS, can be used to improve anthropometric data quality. The discussion illustrates the need to standardize anthropometric data quality assessment, and we conclude that BINA can provide a valuable evaluation of 3D imaging for child anthropometry because there is comparison to gold-standard, manual measurements.

  8. Gastrointestinal symptoms in children with acute neuroinfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Markov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In cases of severe forms of infectious di­seases, in addition to local inflammation, secondary lesions of the gastrointestinal organs may occur. We aimed to study the semiotics and epidemiology of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with acute neuroinfection. Materials and methods. This observational, retrospective, case-control study. We analyzed cases of in-patient treatment of children aged 1 month to 18 years with acute neuroinfections (meningitis, encephalitis and encephalomyelopolyneuropathy. Results. The study included 117 patients with acute central nervous system infections. Clinical symptoms of gastrointestinal infection were observed in 83 (70.9 % children. Among revealed symptoms, disorders of intestinal moti­lity, such as constipation and diarrhea, were prevalent. Manifestations of hepatobiliary system dysfunction included increased transaminase level (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGTF and/or ultrasound changes (enlargement, diffuse structural changes and were observed in 39.1 % of patients. Among the laboratory parameters, elevated ALT level was observed in 8.3 % of patients, bilirubin was elevated in only one child, alkaline phosphatase was above the age norm in 11.8 %, an increased GGTF above the age norm was observed in 31.3 % of patients. The level of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP was elevated in 86.4 %, and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP — in all (100 % children. Clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction (the presence of at least one of the gastrointestinal symptoms had an inverse relationship with the child’s age (rpb = –0.19, p = 0.033, correlated with staying in intensive care unit (odds ratio (OR = +5.25; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.62–16.97, artificial ventilation (OR = +4.5; 95% CI 1.00–21.69 and level of I-FABP (rpb = 0.34, p = 0.019. Conclusions. Among gastrointestinal symptoms in children with

  9. Gastrointestinal Polyps in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Chun Wang; Hung-Chang Lee; Chun-Yan Yeung; Wai-Tao Chan; Chuen-Bin Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size...

  10. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cut out alcohol. Excess alcohol can contribute to erectile dysfunction. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for men older than age 65, and up to two drinks ...

  11. Endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Yaylalı, Yalın Tolga; Küçükaslan, Mete

    2011-01-01

    Endothelium is a multi-functional cluster of cells within the vascular system consisting of a single layer ofsquamous epithelium. Physiologically, endothelium performs various arrangement and protection functions.However, when these functions are disturbed toward derangement, endothelium also mediates pathologicalfunctions with negative effects on the body. Endothelial dysfunction is mediated by several mediators (nitricoxide, endothelins, prostaglandins, angiotensin 2, etc). Endothelial dysf...

  12. Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility Presentation to Open EVA Research Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    NASA is required to accommodate individuals who fall within a 1st to 99th percentile range on a variety of critical dimensions. The hardware the crew interacts with must therefore be designed and verified to allow these selected individuals to complete critical mission tasks safely and at an optimal performance level. Until now, designers have been provided simpler univariate critical dimensional analyses. The multivariate characteristics of intra-individual and inter-individual size variation must be accounted for, since an individual who is 1st percentile in one body dimension will not be 1st percentile in all other dimensions. A more simplistic approach, assuming every measurement of an individual will fall within the same percentile range, can lead to a model that does not represent realistic members of the population. In other words, there is no '1st percentile female' or '99th percentile male', and designing for these unrealistic body types can lead to hardware issues down the road. Furthermore, due to budget considerations, designers are normally limited to providing only 1 size of a prototype suit, thus requiring other possible means to ensure that a given suit architecture would yield the necessary suit sizes to accommodate the entire user population. Fortunately, modeling tools can be used to more accurately model the types of human body sizes and shapes that will be encountered in a population. Anthropometry toolkits have been designed with a variety of capabilities, including grouping the population into clusters based on critical dimensions, providing percentile information given test subject measurements, and listing measurement ranges for critical dimensions in the 1st-99th percentile range. These toolkits can be combined with full body laser scans to allow designers to build human models that better represent the astronaut population. More recently, some rescaling and reposing capabilities have been developed, to allow reshaping of these static

  13. Advances in gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2016-09-01

    The main innovations of the latest meeting of the Gastroenterological Association (2016) concerning upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the clinician's perspective can be summarised as follows: a) The Glasgow-Blatchford scale has the best accuracy in predicting the need for surgical intervention and hospital mortality; b) Prognostic scales for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding are also useful for lower gastrointestinal bleeding; c) Preliminary data suggest that treatment with hemospray does not seem to be superior to current standard treatment in controlling active peptic ulcer bleeding; d) Either famotidine or a proton pump inhibitor may be effective in preventing haemorrhagic recurrence in patients taking aspirin, but this finding needs to be confirmed in further studies; e) There was confirmation of the need to re-introduce antiplatelet therapy as early as possible in patients with antiplatelet-associated gastrointestinal bleeding in order to prevent cardiovascular mortality; f) Routine clinical practice suggests that gastrointestinal or cardiovascular complications with celecoxib or traditional NSAIDs are very low; g) Dabigatran is associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding compared with apixaban or warfarin. At least half of the episodes are located in the lower gastrointestinal tract; h) Implant devices for external ventricular circulatory support are associated with early gastrointestinal bleeding in up to one third of patients; the bleeding is often secondary to arteriovenous malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Gastrointestinal Polyps in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Wang

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Gastrointestinal polyps in children are usually benign. Pediatricians treating a child with a gastrointestinal polyp should pay attention to the immediate complications of the polyps, such as intussusception or bleeding, the extraintestinal manifestations and long-term risk for malignancy.

  15. Outcomes of bowel program in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Ozisler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine gastrointestinal problems associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients and to assess the efficacy of bowel program on gastrointestinal problems and the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Fifty-five spinal cord injury patients were included in this study. A bowel program according to the characteristics of neurogenic bowel dysfunction was performed for each patient. Before and after bowel program, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, incontinence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids, rectal bleeding and gastrointestinal induced autonomic dysreflexia and bowel evacuation methods (digital stimulation, oral medication, suppositories, abdominal massage, Valsalva maneuver and manual evacuation were determined. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was used to assess the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. At least one gastrointestinal problem was identified in 44 (80% of the 55 patients before bowel program. Constipation (56%, 31/55 and incontinence (42%, 23/55 were the most common gastrointestinal problems. Digital rectal stimulation was the most common method for bowel evacuation, both before (76%, 42/55 and after (73%, 40/55 bowel program. Oral medication, enema and manual evacuation application rates were significantly decreased and constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain rates were significantly reduced after bowel program. In addition, mean neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was decreased after bowel program. An effective bowel program decreases the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and reduces associated gastrointestinal problems in patients with spinal cord injury.

  16. Anthropometry of external auditory canal by non-contactable measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Wang, Ren-Hung; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Fan, Chun-Chieh; Peng, Ying-Chin; Tu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ching-I; Lin, Kuei-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Human ear canals cannot be measured directly with existing general measurement tools. Furthermore, general non-contact optical methods can only conduct simple peripheral measurements of the auricle and cannot obtain the internal ear canal shape-related measurement data. Therefore, this study uses the computed tomography (CT) technology to measure the geometric shape of the ear canal and the shape of the ear canal using a non-invasive method, and to complete the anthropometry of external auditory canal. The results of the study show that the average height and width of ear canal openings, and the average depth of the first bend for men are generally longer, wider and deeper than those for women. In addition, the difference between the height and width of the ear canal opening is about 40% (p < 0.05). Hence, the circular cross-section shape of the earplugs should be replaced with an elliptical cross-section shape during manufacturing for better fitting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. System for routine surface anthropometry using reprojection registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, R. J.; Owens, R. A.; Hartmann, P. E.

    2003-11-01

    Range data measurement can be usefully applied to non-invasive monitoring of anthropometric changes due to disease, healing or during normal physiological processes. We have developed a computer vision system that allows routine capture of biological surface shapes and accurate measurement of anthropometric changes, using a structured light stripe triangulation system. In many applications involving relocation of soft tissue for image-guided surgery or anthropometry it is neither accurate nor practical to apply fiducial markers directly to the body. This system features a novel method of achieving subject re-registration that involves application of fiducials by a standard data projector. Calibration of this reprojector is achieved using a variation of structured lighting techniques. The method allows accurate and comparable repositioning of elastic surfaces. Tests of repositioning using the reprojector found a significant improvement in subject registration compared to an earlier method which used video overlay comparison only. It has a current application to the measurement of breast volume changes in lactating mothers, but may be extended to any application where repeatable positioning and measurement is required.

  18. Assessment of Child Anthropometry in a Large Epidemiologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louer, Amy L; Simon, Denise N; Switkowski, Karen M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2017-02-02

    A high proportion of children have overweight and obesity in the United States and other countries. Accurate assessment of anthropometry is essential to understand health effects of child growth and adiposity. Gold standard methods of measuring adiposity, such as dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), may not be feasible in large field studies. Research staff can, however, complete anthropometric measurements, such as body circumferences and skinfold measurements, using inexpensive portable equipment. In this protocol we detail how to obtain manual anthropometric measurements from children, including standing and sitting height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and subscapular skinfold thickness, and procedures to assess the quality of these measurements. To demonstrate accuracy of these measurements, among 1,110 school-aged children in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients comparing manual anthropometric measurements with a gold standard measure of body fat, DXA fat mass 1 . To address reliability, we evaluate intra-rater technical error of measurement at a quality control session conducted on adult female volunteers.

  19. Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Jean M; Lindsay, Karen L; Walsh, Jennifer M; Horan, Mary; Molloy, Eleanor J; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-11-10

    Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring. Data from the ROLO [Randomised COntrol Trial of LOw Glycaemic Index in Pregnancy] study were analysed in the ROLO Kids study. Neonatal anthropometric and skinfold measurements were compared with fetal leptin and C-peptide results from cord blood in 185 cases. Analyses were performed to examine the association between these metabolic factors and birthweight, anthropometry and markers of central and generalised adiposity. Fetal leptin was found to correlate with birthweight, general adiposity and multiple anthropometric measurements. On multiple regression analysis, fetal leptin remained significantly associated with adiposity, independent of gender, maternal BMI, gestational age or study group assignment, while fetal C-peptide was no longer significant. Fetal leptin may be an important predictor of regional neonatal adiposity. Interventional studies are required to assess the impact of neonatal adiposity on the subsequent risk of childhood obesity and to determine whether interventions which reduce circulating leptin levels have a role to play in improving neonatal adiposity measures.

  20. A standardized nomenclature for craniofacial and facial anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, Jodi; Stephan, Carl N

    2016-05-01

    Standardized terms and methods have long been recognized as crucial to reduce measurement error and increase reliability in anthropometry. The successful prior use of craniometric landmarks makes extrapolation of these landmarks to the soft tissue context, as analogs, intuitive for forensic craniofacial analyses and facial photogrammetry. However, this extrapolation has not, so far, been systematic. Instead, varied nomenclature and definitions exist for facial landmarks, and photographic analyses are complicated by the generalization of 3D craniometric landmarks to the 2D face space where analogy is subsequently often lost, complicating anatomical assessments. For example, landmarks requiring palpation of the skull or the examination of the 3D surface typology are impossible to legitimately position; similar applies to median landmarks not visible in lateral photographs. To redress these issues without disposing of the craniometric framework that underpins many facial landmarks, we provide an updated and transparent nomenclature for facial description. This nomenclature maintains the original craniometric intent (and base abbreviations) but provides clear distinction of ill-defined (quasi) landmarks in photographic contexts, as produced when anatomical points are subjectively inferred from shape-from-shading information alone.

  1. Prevalence of Opioid Dispensings and Concurrent Gastrointestinal Medications in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Williams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opioids are frequently prescribed for moderate to severe pain. A side effect of opioid usage is the inhibition of gastrointestinal (GI motility, known as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD. OBD is typically treated prophylactically with laxatives and/or acid suppressants.

  2. Gastrointestinal polyposis in Cowden disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullnig, P.; Steiner, H.; Porsch, G.; Smolle, J.

    1987-01-01

    A case of Cowden disease (multiple hamartoma syndrome) with marked gastrointestinal polyposis is presented. The differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes is discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Relationships Between Propulsion and Anthropometry in Paralympic Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingley, Andrew A; Pyne, David B; Burkett, Brendan

    2015-11-01

    To characterize relationships between propulsion, anthropometry, and performance in Paralympic swimming. A cross-sectional study of swimmers (13 male, 15 female) age 20.5 ± 4.4 y was conducted. Subject locomotor categorizations were no physical disability (n = 8, classes S13-S14) and low-severity (n = 11, classes S9-S10) or midseverity disability (n = 9, classes S6-S8). Full anthropometric profiles estimated muscle mass and body fat, a bilateral swim-bench ergometer quantified upper-body power production, and 100-m time trials quantified swimming performance. Correlations between ergometer mean power and swimming performance increased with degree of physical disability (low-severity male r = .65, ± 0.56, and female r = .68, ± 0.64; midseverity, r = .87, ± 0.41, and r = .79, ± 0.75). The female midseverity group showed nearperfect (positive) relationships for taller swimmers' (with a greater muscle mass and longer arm span) swimming faster, while for female no- and low-severity-disability groups, greater muscle mass was associated with slower velocity (r = .78, ± 0.43, and r = .65, ± 0.66). This was supported with lighter females (with less frontal surface area) in the low-severity group being faster (r = .94, ± 0.24). In a gender contrast, low-severity males with less muscle mass (r = -.64, ± 0.56), high skinfolds (r = .78, ± 0.43), a longer arm span (r = .58, ± 0.60) or smaller frontal surface area (r = -.93, ± 0.19) were detrimental to swimming-velocity production. Low-severity male and midseverity female Paralympic swimmers should be encouraged to develop muscle mass and upper-body power to enhance swimming performance. The generalized anthropometric measures appear to be a secondary consideration for coaches.

  4. ANTHROPOMETRY TO IDENTIFY HIGH VISCERAL FAT AREA IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Pitanga, Francisco José; Seara Pitanga, Cristiano Penas; Calçada Dias Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugénio; Cristina Beck, Carmem; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Helena

    2015-12-01

    the evaluation of the body fat distribution by anthropometry can serve to identify excess visceral fat. This diagnosis will enable implementation of specific measures to both prevent and treat excess visceral fat in postmenopausal women. the aim of this study was to analyze different anthropometric indicators and identify the best cutoff points to discriminate subjects with high visceral fat area (HVFA) in postmenopausal women. cross-sectional study with a sample of 255 postmenopausal women. Different Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and the areas under them compared in terms of the conicity index (C-index), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) and HVFA. Sensitivity and specificity identified the best cutoff points between the different anthropometric indicators in order to discriminate subjects with HVFA. The confidence interval was set at 95%. statistically significant areas under the ROC curve were found for all anthropometric indicators analyzed. The following cutoff points, with their respective sensitivities and specificities to discriminate subjects with HVFA, were suggested: C-index (1.19; 75.00%- 74.77%); BMI (27.3 kg/m2; 81.08%-80.37%); WHR (0.98; 90.54%-83.18%); WC (85 cm; 85.14%-81.31%); and WHtR (0.55; 80.41%-80.37%). these results demonstrate that anthropometric indicators identify HVFA well in postmenopausal women and can be used instead of more sophisticated exams to detect high levels of visceral fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal stress and neonatal anthropometry: the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Deborah A; Ortega-Villa, Ana M; Grobman, William A; Hediger, Mary L; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Pugh, Sarah J; Kim, Sungduk; Newman, Roger; Chien, Ed; Owen, John; D'Alton, Mary E; Wapner, Ronald; Sciscione, Anthony; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L

    2017-07-01

    The effect of maternal mood disorders on neonatal measurements is not well-defined. The Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between perceived maternal stress and neonatal growth measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine whether perceived maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with anthropometric measurements in the neonate. This analysis was based on a prospective, multicenter longitudinal study of fetal growth. Women 18-40 years old with a body mass index of 19.0-29.9 kg/m 2 were screened at 8+0 to 13+6 weeks gestation for low-risk status associated with optimal fetal growth (eg, healthy, nonsmoking) and underwent serial sonographic examination at 6 study visits throughout gestation. At each study visit, women completed the Cohen's Perceived Stress Survey, which could have a score that ranges from 0-40. We used a latent class trajectory model to identify distinct groupings (ie, classes) of the Perceived Stress Survey trajectories over pregnancy. Trend analysis was used to determine whether neonatal measurements including birthweight, length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference differed by Perceived Stress Survey class and whether this relationship was modified by maternal race/ethnicity, after adjustment for gestational age at delivery, maternal height, age, and parity. Of the 2334 women enrolled in the study, 1948 women had complete neonatal anthropometry and were included in the analysis. Latent class analysis identified 3 Perceived Stress Survey trajectory classes, with mean Perceived Stress Survey scores of 2.82 (low), 7.95 (medium), and 14.80 (high). Neonatal anthropometric measures of birthweight, length, head circumference and abdominal circumference were similar (P=.78, =.10, =.18, and =.40 respectively), regardless of the participants' Perceived Stress Survey class. There was no effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity. Neonatal measurements did not differ by

  6. Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Robert A.; Versalovic, James

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The use of probiotics to prevent and treat a variety of diarrheal diseases has gained favor in recent years. Examples where probiotics have positively impacted gastroenteritis will be highlighted. However, the overall efficacy of these treatments and the mechanisms by which probiotics ameliorate gastrointestinal infections are mostly unknown. We will discuss possible m...

  7. Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovici, Gil D.; Stephens, Melanie L.; Possin, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice. Recent Findings: Executive functions can be split into four distinct components: working memory, inhibition, set shifting, and fluency. These components may be differentially affected in individual patients and act together to guide higher-order cognitive constructs such as planning and organization. Specific bedside and neuropsychological tests can be applied to evaluate components of executive function. While dysexecutive syndromes were first described in patients with frontal lesions, intact executive functioning relies on distributed neural networks that include not only the prefrontal cortex, but also the parietal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Executive dysfunction arises from injury to any of these regions, their white matter connections, or neurotransmitter systems. Dysexecutive symptoms therefore occur in most neurodegenerative diseases and in many other neurologic, psychiatric, and systemic illnesses. Management approaches are patient specific and should focus on treatment of the underlying cause in parallel with maximizing patient function and safety via occupational therapy and rehabilitation. Summary: Executive dysfunction is extremely common in patients with neurologic disorders. Diagnosis and treatment hinge on familiarity with the clinical components and neuroanatomic correlates of these complex, high-order cognitive processes. PMID:26039846

  8. Gastrointestinal issues in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Elaine Y

    2014-01-01

    While autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by communication impairments, social abnormalities, and stereotypic behaviors, several medical comorbidities are observed in autistic individuals. Of these, gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities are of particular interest given their reported prevalence and correlation with the severity of core autism-related behavioral abnormalities. This review discusses the GI pathologies seen in ASD individuals and the association of particular GI conditions with known genetic and environmental risk factors for autism. It further addresses how GI abnormalities can affect the neuropathological and behavioral features of ASD, as well as the development of autism-related endophenotypes such as immune dysregulation, hyperserotonemia, and metabolic dysfunction. Finally, it presents emerging evidence for a gut-brain connection in autism, wherein GI dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis or severity of ASD symptoms.

  9. Acupuncture and regulation of gastrointestinal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; He, Tian; Xu, Qian; Li, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Li, Fang; Yang, Bo-Feng; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    In China, acupuncture has been considered an effective method for treating gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction diseases for thousands of years. In fact, acupuncture has gained progressive acceptance from both practitioners and patients worldwide. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms in treating GI dysfunction have not yet been established due to a lack of systematic and comprehensive review articles. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for GI dysfunction and the associated underlying mechanisms. A search of PubMed was conducted for articles that were published over the past 10 years using the terms “acupuncture”, “gastrointestine”, and other relevant keywords. In the following review, we describe the effect and underlying mechanisms of acupuncture on GI function from the perspectives of GI motility, visceral sensitivity, the GI barrier, and the brain-gut axis. The dual regulatory effects of acupuncture may manifest by promoting gastric peristalsis in subjects with low initial gastric motility, and suppressing peristalsis in subjects with active initial motility. In addition, the regulation of acupuncture on gastric motility may be intensity-dependent. Our findings suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the effects and more systematic mechanisms in treating GI dysfunction, and to promote the application of acupuncture for the treatment of GI diseases. PMID:26217082

  10. Gastrointestinal polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Lee, Hung-Chang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chuen-Bin

    2009-10-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size, number and location; endoscopic findings; management; pathology; and information on recurrences were extracted from the clinical records. The distribution of polyps in the 50 patients included gastric (4 patients), duodenal (2), ileocecal (4) and colorectal polyps (40). All patients with gastric polyps presented with vomiting, and three of the four patients with ileocecal polyps presented with intussusception. The mean age of the 40 patients with colorectal polyps was 6.8 years. The majority of those polyps were in the rectosigmoid colon; 36 patients presented with hematochezia. Solitary polyps were identified in 33 patients and multiple polyps were identified in seven patients. Most of the colorectal polyps were less than 2cm in diameter. Histologically, the most frequent type was juvenile polyp. Gastrointestinal polyps in children are usually benign. Pediatricians treating a child with a gastrointestinal polyp should pay attention to the immediate complications of the polyps, such as intussusception or bleeding, the extraintestinal manifestations and long-term risk for malignancy.

  11. Gastrointestinal and Urologic Sphincter Dysfunction in Stiff Person Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, Oana M; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I; Lewis, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Stiff person syndrome is a neurologic disorder characterized by axial rigidity leading to progressive disability, with broad clinical spectrum. We report 2 cases with unique clinical presentation. Two young men suffered progressive urinary retention requiring bladder catheterization, anorectal spasms and constipation, complicated subsequently with lower extremity trigger-induced spasms, and gait instability. Associated symptoms revealed brainstem involvement (vertigo, diplopia, and cranial neuropathies) and dysautonomia (abnormal sweating and orthostatic hypotension). Anal manometry demonstrated incomplete relaxation of the anal sphincter. The first case was associated with diabetes mellitus type I, did not respond to classical therapies, but was responsive to rituximab. The second case responded to intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. Paraneoplastic profiles were negative, and anti-GAD65 antibody titers remained elevated despite successful therapeutic responses. We want to raise awareness that stiff person syndrome can present with esophageal, anorectal, and urethral sphincter disturbance. Rituximab is a good therapeutic option in intractable cases.

  12. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Moretti, E.S.; Austin, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effect of the oxidation state of plutonium on its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. For mice and rats that have been starved prior to gastrointestinal administration, there is no significant difference between the absorption factors for Pu(IV) and Pu(VI). The value obtained for Pu(VI) is an order of magnitude lower than that reported previously. The value obtained for Pu(IV) is two orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously for nitrate solutions and the same as those reported for citrate solutions

  13. Gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Adreesh; Biswas, Atanu; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-07-07

    Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown. The extensive involvement of the gut in PD even in its early stages has led to the evaluation of enteric α-synuclein as a possible biomarker of early PD. The clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD include malnutrition, oral and dental disorders, sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. These conditions are quite distressing for the patients and require relevant investigations and adequate management. Treatment usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. One important aspect of gut dysfunction is its contribution to the clinical fluctuations in PD. Dysphagia and gastroparesis lead to inadequate absorption of oral anti-PD medications. These lead to response fluctuations, particularly delayed-on and no-on, and there is significant relationship between levodopa pharmacokinetics and gastric emptying in patients with PD. Therefore, in such cases, alternative routes of administration or drug delivery systems may be required.

  14. [Study on the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines in promoting gastrointestinal peristalsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mu-Xin; Wei, Lan-Fu; Zhou, Bai-Cang; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2004-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine has accumulated rich experience in treating dysfunction of gastrointestinal peristalsis. In recent years, a large number of studies have been made on the mechanism and effects of traditional Chinese medicines on the gastrointestinal peristalsis, and the concept of "gastrointestinal promoting Chinese medicine" has been advocated. These traditional Chinese medicines can be divided into three types: promoting the gastrointestinal peristalsis, inhibiting the gastrointestinal peristalsis, and bi-directional modulating. The in vivo and/or in vitro experiments showed that some of the traditional Chinese medicines for activating blood or regulating qi could promote the stomach peristalsis, and the traditional Chinese medicines for moistening intestines to relieve constipation or invigorating spleen to promote digestion could accelerate the intestinal peristalsis. The mechanism lies in the neuroregulation and gut-peptide regulation. Further research on multi-regulation and of multi-target should be done, for the mechanism of the traditional Chinese medicines in regulating the gastrointestinal peristalsis is far more complicated.

  15. Gender Differences in NATO Anthropometry and the Implication for Protective Equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fullenkamp, Adam M.; Robinette, Kathleen; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the body proportions of men and women from the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) project, completed in 2002, and discusses proportions that have implications for protective apparel. CAESAR was an attempt to characterize the body size and shape

  16. Arm anthropometry indices in Turkish children and adolescents: changes over a three-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Betül; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mustafa Mümtaz; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2014-12-01

    Time-related changes and comparisons for mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) are lacking for Turkish children and adolescents. To determine the arm anthropometry indices (MUAC, TSF, AFA) in children and adolescents and to also assess the changes in these indices over a 3-year time period. The data of the Anthropometry of Turkish Children Aged 0-6 Years (ATCA-06) study and the Second Study of Determination of the Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents (DAMTCA-II) were used to calculate the arm anthropometry percentiles in a total group of 6982 children and adolescents aged 28 days to 17 years. The 3rd-97th percentiles were computed by the LMS method. In girls, 50th percentile MUAC values linearly increased with age. In boys, 50th percentile TSF values linearly increased until 10 years of age and decreased after age 11 years, while in girls, TSF values increased linearly with age. 50th percentile values for AFA showed a linear increase in both genders with age. Significant differences were found between the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values for MUAC and AFA obtained in the two studies (DAMTCA-II and DAMTCA-I) in both boys and girls. The prominent finding was the significant and alarming increase in arm anthropometry indices in both genders within as short period of time as three years.

  17. Moderate Association of Anthropometry, but Not Training Volume, with Race Performance in Male Ultraendurance Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 28 male Caucasian nonprofessional ultracyclists, we investigated whether anthropometry or training volume had an influence on race speed in the 600 km at the Swiss Cycling Marathon 2007. Anthropometric parameters (age, body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses) were determined before the race to calculate body mass index and percent body…

  18. Anthropometry as a predictor of vertical jump heights derived from an instrumented platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John F; Daily, Jeremy S; Mason, Melissa L; Shepherd, Catherine M; McLagan, Jessica R; Marshall, Mallory R; Walker, Ron H; West, Jason O

    2012-01-01

    The current study purpose examined the vertical height-anthropometry relationship with jump data obtained from an instrumented platform. Our methods required college-aged (n = 177) subjects to make 3 visits to our laboratory to measure the following anthropometric variables: height, body mass, upper arm length (UAL), lower arm length, upper leg length, and lower leg length. Per jump, maximum height was measured in 3 ways: from the subjects' takeoff, hang times, and as they landed on the platform. Standard multivariate regression assessed how well anthropometry predicted the criterion variance per gender (men, women, pooled) and jump height method (takeoff, hang time, landing) combination. Z-scores indicated that small amounts of the total data were outliers. The results showed that the majority of outliers were from jump heights calculated as women landed on the platform. With the genders pooled, anthropometry predicted a significant (p anthropometry-vertical jump relationship was not significant from heights calculated as subjects landed on the platform, likely due to the female outliers. Yet anthropometric data of men did predict a significant amount of variance from heights calculated when they landed on the platform; univariate correlations of men's data revealed that UAL was the best predictor. It was concluded that the large sample of men's data led to greater data heterogeneity and a higher univariate correlation. Because of our sample size and data heterogeneity, practical applications suggest that coaches may find our results best predict performance for a variety of college-aged athletes and vertical jump enthusiasts.

  19. Effects of Detraining on Anthropometry, Aerobic Capacity and Functional Ability in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, P. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Structured exercise has shown to improve parameters of functional fitness in adults with Down syndrome (DS). However, few, if any, continue to exercise after exercise intervention studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of detraining on anthropometry, aerobic capacity and functional ability of…

  20. Impact of hemodialysis on dual X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance measurements, and anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Hansen, T B; Høgsberg, I M

    1996-01-01

    ), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and simple anthropometry in 19 patients (9 women and 10 men, mean age 46 y) before and after hemodialysis, removing 0.9-4.3 L (x: 2.8L) of ultrafiltrate. The reduction in fat-free mass (FFM) measured by DXA was highly correlated with the ultrafiltrate, as determined...

  1. Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Anthropometry in European Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientzek, A.; Diaz, M.J.T.; Castano, J.M.H.; Amiano, P.; Arriola, L.; Overvad, K.; Ostergaard, J.N.; Charles, M.A.; Fagherazzi, G.; Palli, D.; Bendinelli, B.; Skeie, G.; Borch, K.B.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Hollander, de E.L.; May, A.M.; Ouden, den M.E.M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Valanou, E.; Soderberg, S.; Franks, P.W.; Brage, S.; Vigl, M.; Boeing, H.; Ekelund, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women. Methods: 2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits

  2. Anthropometry in Klinefelter syndrome - multifactorial influences due to CAG length, testosterone treatment and possibly intrauterine hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Simon; Skakkebæk, Anne; Trolle, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Klinefelter syndrome, 47, XXY (KS), is underdiagnosed partly due to few clinical signs complicating identification of affected individuals. Certain phenotypic traits are common in KS. However, not all aspects of the KS phenotype are well described. Objective: To describe anthropometry...

  3. Dietary intake of whole grains and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations in relation to changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2017-01-01

    adjusting for baseline anthropometry. For the different sources of whole grains, rye (women) and crispbread was significantly associated with gains in WC and body weight. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with reduced WC, but not body weight, for women (ΔWC per 50 nmol/l increment: -0...

  4. Anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity up to 5 years after pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Van Brussel, Marco; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Physical functioning is of major importance after burns in many areas of life, in both the short and the long term. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity in children and adolescents between 0.5-5 years after burns over 10% TBSA.

  5. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    of the inflammation associated with CVD. METHODS: We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI...

  6. Anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity up to 5 years after pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M; Mouton, Leonora J; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Physical functioning is of major importance after burns in many areas of life, in both the short and the long term. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity in children and adolescents between 0.5-5 years after burns over 10% TBSA.

  7. Touch in anthropometry: Enacting race in Dutch New Guinea 1903–1909.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the idea that race is an assemblage, the author investigates two instances of touch in anthropometry. Firstly, the detailed instructions for mechanized measurements of “the living”. Second, the practices involved in actual measurements of Papuans in Dutch New Guinea

  8. Morphological classifications of gastrointestinal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    In the era of spreading adoption of gastrointestinal endoscopy screening worldwide, endoscopists encounter an increasing number of complex lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. For decision-making on optimal treatment, precise lesion characterization is crucial. Especially the assessment of

  9. The study of dietary patterns and their relationship to anthropometry in female nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Abashzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are prone to continuous stress due to their job situation that lead to many physical and psychological disorders. this job stress also affects their personal life and career. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between major dietary patterns and anthropometry in nurses. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from February to October 2014. In this cross-sectional study, 320 female nurses were selected randomly from eight hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This research project carried out with the code 24371 Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Research Ethics Committee approved. Anthropometry and blood pressure measurement was done. Data on physical activity were obtained using the short version of international physical activity questionnaire. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and labeled: healthy, unhealthy and traditional. The healthy dietary pattern score was significantly related to weight and body mass index (BMI of participants after adjusting for confounders (P=0.05, P=0.01, respectively. There was not significant association between the unhealthy dietary pattern and anthropometry measures. The unhealthy dietary pattern score was inversely related to systolic and diastolic blood pressure after adjusting for confounders (P=0.001, P=0.03, respectively. There was not any significant association between the traditional dietary pattern and anthropometry and blood pressure measures (P>0.05. Conclusion: According to the result of this study, three dietary patterns including, healthy, unhealthy and traditional were identified in nurses. The healthy dietary pattern was associated with weight and BMI and the unhealthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with blood pressure. The traditional dietary pattern had no effect on anthropometry and blood pressure measures.

  10. [Gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Garcia, D; de Deus, T; Tejera-Perez, C; Exposito-Ruiz, I; Suarez-Castro, E; Carpintero, P; Macias-Arribi, M

    2015-09-16

    Different gastrointestinal symptoms, such as excessive salivation, deterioration and other disorders affecting the teeth, dysphagia, gastroparesis, gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, difficult defecation or loss of weight are frequent events in all the stages of the development of Parkinson's disease and affect at least a third of the patients. These symptoms reflect the dysfunction of the enteric nervous system, and the stomach is one of the organs where alpha-synuclein is first deposited. Other factors, such as the dysfunction of structures in the central nervous system like the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve, hormonal factors or secondary effects deriving from the consumption of antiparkinsonian drugs, are involved in its origin. The present article offers a detailed review of the epidemiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic management aspects of the different gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of erectile dysfunction in black and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and characteristics of erectile dysfunction in black and mixed race primary care populations of the Cape Flats and Helderberg Basin area of the Western Cape, South Africa. ... Significantly associated diseases: hypertension, diabetes, gastrointestinal and heart disease. Alcohol consumption (younger patients), ...

  12. [Microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Allué, I

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial colonisation is established immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota, and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of the immune system, leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favouring the health of the host. A review is presented on the modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention, and adjuvant treatment of some paediatric gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  14. [Probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gábor; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2009-05-10

    Probiotics are preparations containing viable microorganisms that confer potential health benefits for the host. Alteration of bacterial flora both in terms of specific content and concentration may be beneficial in many gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics are widely used for the management of these conditions in many countries. However, mechanisms of probiotics are incompletely understood. Benefits observed clinically with one species or combinations of species can not be generalized. The optimal dose of treatment has to be determined. Although probiotics are generally regarded safe, caution is needed when using these supplements routinely. It has been proved, that severe adverse events can occur as a complication of probiotic treatment. This review summarizes the recent knowledge concerning the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders.

  15. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Chang-Hun

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) stent has been developed for palliation of obstructive symptoms in various diseases causing obstruction of GI tract. Self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has replaced old type of plastic stent, and endoscopic insertion of stent has replaced fluoroscopy-guided insertion. Nowadays, newly-designed SEMSs have been developed for prevention of complications such as stent migration and re-obstruction, and indications of stent recently have been widened into benign conditions as we...

  16. Gastrointestinal microphysiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutt, Sarah E; Broughman, James R; Zou, Winnie; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Karandikar, Umesh C; In, Julie; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark; Estes, Mary K

    2017-10-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases are a significant health care and economic burden. Prevention and treatment of these diseases have been limited by the available human biologic models. Microphysiological systems comprise organ-specific human cultures that recapitulate many structural, biological, and functional properties of the organ in smaller scale including aspects of flow, shear stress and chemical gradients. The development of intestinal microphysiological system platforms represents a critical component in improving our understanding, prevention, and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. This minireview discusses: shortcomings of classical cell culture models of the gastrointestinal tract; human intestinal enteroids as a new model and their advantages compared to cell lines; why intestinal microphysiological systems are needed; potential functional uses of intestinal microphysiological systems in areas of drug development and modeling acute and chronic diseases; and current challenges in the development of intestinal microphysiological systems. Impact statement The development of a gastrointestinal MPS has the potential to facilitate the understanding of GI physiology. An ultimate goal is the integration of the intestinal MPS with other organ MPS. The development and characterization of nontransformed human intestinal cultures for use in MPS have progressed significantly since the inception of the MPS program in 2012, and these cultures are a key component of advancing MPS. Continued efforts are needed to optimize MPS to comprehensively and accurately recapitulate the complexity of the intestinal epithelium within intestinal tissue. These systems will need to include peristalsis, flow, and oxygen gradients, with incorporation of vascular, immune, and nerve cells. Regional cellular organization of crypt and villus areas will also be necessary to better model complete intestinal structure.

  17. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozdağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic examinations have great potential in early diagnosis of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas with reducing to colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to evaluate for diagnostic purposeful lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in the second step state hospital retrospectively Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2013, we evaluated 278 patients with rectal bleeding, constipation and abdominal pain detected by lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 16.8 (15-90 year, respectively. 172 (61.9% of the patients were male and 106 (38.1% of the patients were female. 116 (41.7% of the patients was performed rectosigmoidoscopy and 162 (58.3% of the patients was performed colonoscopy. 51(18.3% of our patients were normal. 10 (3.6% of patients had colorectal cancer, 11(3.9% of patients had inflammatory bowel disease, 8 (2.9% of patients had parasitosis, 31(11.1% of patients had colorectal polyps, 12 (4.3% , in patients had diverticular disease, 2 (0.7% patients had rectal ulcer, 25 (9% patients had anal fissure and 159 (57.2% of the patients had hemorrhoidal disease. Conclusion: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is a method been the gold standard with a low complication rate and that can be easily applied in the evaluation to pathology of colorectal and anal canal. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 580-582

  19. Orexins and gastrointestinal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, M C

    2010-03-01

    Orexin A (OXA) and orexin B (OXB) are recently discovered neuropeptides that appear to play a role in various distinct functions such as arousal and the sleep-wake cycle as well as on appetite and regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Orexins were first described as neuropeptides expressed by a specific population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, a region classically implicated in feeding behaviour. Orexin neurons project to numerous brain regions, where orexin receptors have been shown to be widely distributed: both OXA and OXB act through two subtypes of receptors (OX1R and OX2R) that belong to the G protein-coupled superfamily of receptors. Growing evidence indicates that orexins act in the central nervous system also to regulate gastrointestinal functions: animal studies have indeed demonstrated that centrally-injected orexins or endogenously released orexins in the brain stimulates gastric secretion and influence gastrointestinal motility. The subsequent identification of orexins and their receptors in the enteric nervous system (including the myenteric and the submucosal plexuses) as well as in mucosa and smooth muscles has suggested that these neuropeptides may also play a local action. In this view, emerging studies indicate that orexins also exert region-specific contractile or relaxant effects on isolated gut preparations. The aim of the proposed review is to summarize both centrally- and peripherally-mediated actions of orexins on gastrointestinal functions and to discuss the related physiological role on the basis of the most recent findings.

  20. Anthropometry in Klinefelter syndrome--multifactorial influences due to CAG length, testosterone treatment and possibly intrauterine hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Simon; Skakkebæk, Anne; Trolle, Christian; Bojesen, Anders; Hertz, Jens Michael; Cohen, Arieh; Hougaard, David Michael; Wallentin, Mikkel; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Østergaard, John Rosendahl; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2015-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome, 47, XXY (KS), is underdiagnosed partly due to few clinical signs complicating identification of affected individuals. Certain phenotypic traits are common in KS. However, not all aspects of the KS phenotype are well described. To describe anthropometry and body composition in KS and relate findings to biochemistry and X-chromosome related genetic markers. Seventy three KS males referred to our clinic and 73 age-matched controls underwent comprehensive measurements of anthropometry and body composition in a cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Furthermore, genetic analysis for parental origin of the supernumerary X-chromosome, skewed X-chromosome inactivation and androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat length was done. Anthropometry and body composition in KS and the effect of genotype hereon. KS males were taller (absolute difference: 5.1 cm, P Anthropometry and body composition in KS is specific and dysmorphic and affected by AR CAG repeat length and decreased exposure to testosterone already during fetal life.

  1. Relationship between the relative age effect and anthropometry, maturity and performance in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Susana Maria; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gravina, Leyre; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Lekue, Jose Antonio; Granados, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the relative age effect (RAE) has been widely reported; however, its underlying causes have not yet been determined. With this in mind, the present study examined if anthropometry and performance were different amongst older and younger soccer players born in the same year. Eighty-eight young soccer players participated in the study (age 9.75 ± 0.30). Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprint, agility, endurance test, jump and hand dynamometry) and the estimation of the maturity status were carried out. Most players (65.9%) were born in the first half of the year. Older players were taller (P anthropometry and physical performance amongst older and younger pre-pubertal soccer players. These differences may underlie the RAE.

  2. Nutritional status at diagnosis in children with cancer. 2. An assessment by arm anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald; Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Webber, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Assessment of nutritional status in children with cancer is important but measures based on weight can be problematic at diagnosis, especially in those with advanced disease. Likewise, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be confounded by other radiological procedures and is not commonly available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. Arm anthropometry is not subject to these constraints. In a study sample of 99 Canadian patients with cancer at diagnosis, mid-upper arm circumference correlated well with lean body mass as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry but triceps skin fold thickness was a poor predictor of fat mass. Arm anthropometry can be a useful tool for the measurement of nutritional status in children with cancer. However, further studies, particularly in low-income countries and in children with solid tumors at diagnosis, are required to determine the full extent of its utility.

  3. Monitoring anthropometry and fitness using maturity groups within youth rugby league.

    OpenAIRE

    Till, K; Jones, B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometry and fitness, and change in these characteristics over time, of youth rugby league players by using maturity status to determine annual categories instead of traditional chronological annual-age grouping. One hundred and twenty one male rugby league players were assessed using anthropometric (i.e., height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds) and fitness (i.e., vertical jump, medicine ball chest throw, 10m and 2...

  4. The effects of anthropometry and leg muscle power on drive and transition phase of acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Jeffreys, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of anthropometry and leg muscle power on accelerative ability and its phases (drive and transition). METHODS: Thirty-six soccer players (age 12.4±1.2 years, body mass 49.9±8.9 kg and height 154.2±10.3 cm) were tested twice, in the beginn...

  5. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-04-23

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  6. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  7. Three-dimensional facial anthropometry of unilateral cleft lip infants with a structured light scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Wei, Jianhua; Wang, Xi; Wu, Guofeng; Ma, Dandan; Wang, Bo; Liu, Yanpu; Feng, Xinghua

    2013-08-01

    Cleft lip in the presence or absence of a cleft palate is a major public health problem. However, few studies have been published concerning the soft-tissue morphology of cleft lip infants. Currently, obtaining reliable three-dimensional (3D) surface models of infants remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate a new way of capturing 3D images of cleft lip infants using a structured light scanning system. In addition, the accuracy and precision of the acquired facial 3D data were validated and compared with direct measurements. Ten unilateral cleft lip patients were enrolled in the study. Briefly, 3D facial images of the patients were acquired using a 3D scanner device before and after the surgery. Fourteen items were measured by direct anthropometry and 3D image software. The accuracy and precision of the 3D system were assessed by comparative analysis. The anthropometric data obtained using the 3D method were in agreement with the direct anthropometry measurements. All data calculated by the software were 'highly reliable' or 'reliable', as defined in the literature. The localisation of four landmarks was not consistent in repeated experiments of inter-observer reliability in preoperative images (P0.05). The structured light scanning system is proven to be a non-invasive, accurate and precise method in cleft lip anthropometry. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypertension and anthropometry measurement on academic staff at public universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Ilya Zulaikha; Abdullah, Mohammad Nasir; Baharuddin, Mohd Sapuan; Arul, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension or most commonly known as high blood pressure is a non-communicable disease affecting to health of people with non-detectible cause (primary) and some with determined causes (secondary). The prevalence of hypertension morbidity was very high globally, the consequences of the disease if not been treated is death. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hypertension and anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and body mass index among academic staff in public universities in Malaysia. The design for this study was cross-sectional and the method for data collection was mailed questionnaire. The initial sample size for this study was 189, therefore, 500 questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected academicians in public universities, colleges and polytechnics in Malaysia. However, only 101 questionnaires were returned and were analysed in this study. The target population were academicians which includes lecturers and senior lecturers in public universities in Malaysia. The methods of analysis employed was logistic regression and frequency analysis. It was found that weight, height and body mass index (BMI) have no significant relationship with hypertension but based on the Crude Odd Ratio, all these three anthropometry measures showed that there were protective risk of hypertension among lecturers and senior lecturers in public university, Malaysia. In a nutshell, there were no evidence to conclude that anthropometry measurements can affect hypertension status among academic staff at public university.

  9. Anthropometry and body composition do not predict bioavailable androgen or progesterone concentration in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Lea J; Vella, Emily T; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that anthropometry and body composition were independently associated with sex-steroid concentration in adolescent girls. Premenarcheal (age, mean +/- SD = 10.9 +/- 0.6, N = 51), perimenarcheal (age = 13.7 +/- 0.6, N = 74), and postmenarcheal (age = 16.7 +/- 0.6, N = 44) cohorts provided saliva at morning recess during the schoolday over 6 weeks. Estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were quantified. Age, developmental cohort, self-reported Tanner stage of breast development and pubic-hair distribution, gynecological age, height, weight, waist/hip ratio, and percent body fat (by impedance) were assessed. Repeated measures were reduced to a mean. Data were hierarchically standardized for sexual maturation status, and then used to predict anthropometry/percent body fat. After intensive repeated sampling, individuals still varied widely in testosterone, progesterone, and DHEA concentrations within a developmental cohort (35.0 fat, or waist/hip ratio, whether or not measures were age-adjusted (21 univariate tests; 0.19 Low estradiol assay precision precluded analyses. In conclusion, despite considerable population variation in hormone concentration after repeated sampling, no evidence supported an association between anthropometry or pecent body fat and testosterone, progesterone, or DHEA in adolescent girls.

  10. Match between school furniture dimensions and children's anthropometry in Isfahan schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Asaad

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   the main part of students' time is spent at school. Recent studies have  released that lack of match between students' anthropometry size and dimensions of existing  furniture is a risk factor in creating discomfort and muscle- skeletal disorders (such as backache and neck pain, reducing concentration, increasing fatigue, restless and eyestrain in youths and students.   Methods   In this study 982 students, 493 male (50.2% and 489 female (49.8% ranging 7 - 12 years old, were selected. In addition to age, sex, weight and height, six dimensions of anthropometric measures including: shoulder height, elbow rest height, knee height, popliteal height, buttock-popliteal length and hip breadth by anthropometry, caliper and adjustable seat height, goniometry, tape and scale, were taken into account.   Results   This study explains that there is a significant difference between the minimum and  maximum acceptable and available dimensions of furniture (p<0.001. The Height of desk in old  design is higher than acceptable height for many students (in the order of size in 100, 95.4, and 74.3 percent. The seat depth in this design is shorter for the majority of students (in the order of size in 92.1, 92 and 97.9 percent of studied students.   Conclusion   In designing suitable furniture for students, considering available anthropometry differences in age and sex is essential.  

  11. Plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegbrant, J.; Thysell, H.; Ekmann, R. (University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    The fasting plasma levels of nine gastrointestinal regulatory peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 13 stable patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly and compared with those of ten healthy controls. The plasma concentrations of gastrin-releasing peptide, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were increased. The plasma level of gastrin was not statistically different from that of the control (p=0.077). It is concluded that patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly, have increased concentrations of eight of nine measured gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. The elevated levels of gastrointestinal peptides in patients with chronic renal failure may contribute to uremic gastrointestinal symptoms and dysfunctions. It is necessary to make a renal function evaluation before interpreting measured plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. 62 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegbrant, J.; Thysell, H.; Ekmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    The fasting plasma levels of nine gastrointestinal regulatory peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 13 stable patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly and compared with those of ten healthy controls. The plasma concentrations of gastrin-releasing peptide, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were increased. The plasma level of gastrin was not statistically different from that of the control (p=0.077). It is concluded that patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly, have increased concentrations of eight of nine measured gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. The elevated levels of gastrointestinal peptides in patients with chronic renal failure may contribute to uremic gastrointestinal symptoms and dysfunctions. It is necessary to make a renal function evaluation before interpreting measured plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. 62 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  14. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufliarsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the digestive tract. Better understanding of the molecular characteristics of GISTs led to the clinical development of imatinib for treating patients with this disease. New immuno markers and mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance were discovered. Adjuvant imatinib in intermediate or high risk GIST has improved the recurrence-free survival. Sunitinib in patients with intolerance or progression on imatinib demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival versus placebo. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as sorafenib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, have shown activity in patients with imatinib- and sunitinib-resistant GIST. (author)

  15. Gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fifth in the series of short reviews of internet-based radiological learning resources and will focus on gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary radiology. Below are details of a few of the higher quality resources currently available. Most of the sites cater for medical students and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may be also be of interest to specialists, especially for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (May 2006)

  16. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  17. Postanesthetic temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

    OpenAIRE

    Knibbe, M. A.; Carter, J. B.; Frokjer, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Internal derangements, myofascial pain dysfunction, and chronic dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are three common sequelae resulting from mandibular trauma. Etiologic factors include prolonged dental and otolaryngologic procedures, and intraoperative use of the laryngoscope and bronchoscope. Three cases are reported to document postanesthetic TMJ dysfunction arising from normal preoperative joints. Four types of TMJ dysfunction are discussed: anterior meniscus dislocation with...

  18. Neonatal gastrointestinal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Padma

    2006-01-01

    Radiological imaging is an important part of the evaluation and management of neonates with suspected anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical presentation is often non-specific, commonly with abdominal distension and vomiting for which the underlying cause may or may not be clinically apparent. In a proportion of patients, the clinical assessment alone may suffice in providing the diagnosis and no further imaging is necessary. The reader must have an understanding of the normal radiographic appearances of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates and appreciate normal variants and differences to adults. In certain cases, the abdominal radiograph alone is diagnostic. In others, sonography and contrast studies are useful adjunct investigations and the indications for CT and MRI are few, but specific. Appropriate radiological investigation will help to establish the diagnosis and guide surgical intervention whilst also avoiding unnecessary radiation. Some of the conditions require transfer to specialist paediatric institutions for care. Thus, in some circumstances it is appropriate for imaging to be delayed and performed at the specialist centre with early referral often essential for the continued well being of the child

  19. [DRG and gastrointestinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardi, S; Altilia, F; Pietroletti, R; Risetti, A; Schietroma, M; Simi, M

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis-related-groups (DRG) is the cost-based system for hospital reimbursement. However, the proceeds does not coincide with the costs. Aim of the study was to identify the profit, which we could gained with 147, 155, 158, 162, 165, 198 gastrointestinal surgery DRG. 30 consecutive patients, undergone to surgery in Clinica Chirurgica of L'Aquila University, had been studied. We had calculated the daily costs of medical and nursing practice, diagnostic tests, drugs, hospitalization, surgical instruments for every patient's therapy. The DRG-proceeds had been correlated with the DRG-costs. The "major gastrointestinal surgery" had not profit (147 DRG: anterior resection of rectum = -354428 Pounds, Miles = -94020 Pounds; 155 DRG: total gastrectomy = -1920641 Pounds). On the contrary, "minimal surgery" had good profits (158 DRG: hemorroidectomy with local anestesia = 1469605 Pounds;162 DRG: sutureless groin hernioplasty = 1561200 Pounds; 198 DRG: videolaparochole-cystectomy: 1208807 Pounds). The study seems to demonstrate the disparity of the reimbursement system related to DRG. However, the surgeons, as managers, must employ warily the resources for producing DRG.

  20. Effect of chromium supplementation on the glucose homeostasis and anthropometry of type 2 diabetic patients: Double blind, randomized clinical trial: Chromium, glucose homeostasis and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marília Mendonça; Carvalho, Ana Clara Martins Silva; Silva, Maria Sebastiana

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of chromium supplementation on the glucose homeostasis and anthropometry of type 2 diabetic patients. Fifty-six individuals with type 2 Diabetes were randomized on a double blind clinical trial into three groups: placebo (NC0), 50μg (NC50) and 200μg (NC200) of chromium nicotinate. Glucose homeostasis, anthropometry and physical activity intensity were evaluated at the beginning, at day 45 and at day 90. Energy intake was evaluated at the beginning, between the beginning and 45 days, and between days 45 and 90 of the study. There were no differences within or between groups for HOMA-IR, waist circumference, body fat percentage, lean body mass percentage and total energy intake during the trial. There was an increase of the HOMA-β in group NC0 (p=0.0349) and a decrease of 1.08kg in group NC50 (p=0.0048) at 90 days. The relation between body mass index, body fat percentage and insulin sensitivity did not change in the placebo and supplemented groups (p>0.05). In the effect of the intervention, for each 1cm increase in waist circumference there was an increase of 1.90±0.63 in HOMA-IR (p=0.0087) and 16.31±5.27% in HOMA-β (p=0.0073) in group NC200. No difference was seen in the intensity of physical activity within the groups and in the comparison between the supplemented groups (NC50 and NC200) and placebo (NC0) at 90 days. There was an increase in energy expenditure in physical activity at 90days (p=0.0371) of intervention in the group subjects NC50. As for total energy intake, there were no differences within or between the groups during the study. 50μg and 200μg supplementation with chromium nicotinate for 90days did not promote improvements in glucose homeostasis and anthropometry in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Pelvic radiotherapy and sexual dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Tine; Froeding, Ligita Paskeviciute

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the past decade there has been considerable progress in developing new radiation methods for cancer treatment. Pelvic radiotherapy constitutes the primary or (neo) adjuvant treatment of many pelvic cancers e.g., locally advanced cervical and rectal cancer. There is an increasing...... of life (QOL) issues; sexual functioning has proved to be one of the most important aspects of concern in long-term survivors. METHODS: An updated literature search in PubMed was performed on pelvic radiotherapy and female sexual functioning/dysfunction. Studies on gynaecological, urological...... and gastrointestinal cancers were included. The focus was on the period from 2010 to 2014, on studies using PROs, on potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where female sexual dysfunction (FSD) at least constituted a secondary outcome, and on studies reporting from modern radiotherapy modalities. RESULTS...

  2. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  3. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  4. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  5. Autonomic dysfunction in different subtypes of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Claudia; Herting, Birgit; Prieur, Silke; Junghanns, Susann; Schweitzer, Katherine; Globas, Christoph; Schöls, Ludger; Reichmann, Heinz; Berg, Daniela; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2008-09-15

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) can clinically be divided into the cerebellar (MSA-C) and the parkinsonian (MSA-P) variant. However, till now, it is unknown whether autonomic dysfunction in these two entities differs regarding severity and profile. We compared the pattern of autonomic dysfunction in 12 patients with MSA-C and 26 with MSA-P in comparison with 27 age- and sex-matched healthy controls using a standard battery of autonomic function tests and a structured anamnesis of the autonomic nervous system. MSA-P patients complained significantly more often about the symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions than MSA-C patients, especially regarding vasomotor, secretomotor, and gastrointestinal subsystems. However, regarding cardiovascular, sudomotor pupil, urogenital, and sleep subsystems, there were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences as analyzed by autonomic anamnesis and testing. Our results suggest that there are only minor differences in the pattern of autonomic dysfunction between the two clinical MSA phenotypes. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y. Q. Low

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8 sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01. When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01. Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  7. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y. Q.; Lacy, Kathleen E.; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption. PMID:27120614

  8. Anthropometry and barbell trajectory in the snatch lift for elite women weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Leslie J; Garhammer, John; Rozenek, Ralph; Crussemeyer, Jill A; Vargas, Emmy M

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine relationships between anthropometry and horizontal barbell displacement during the pulling phase of the snatch lift (SN) in elite women weightlifters. Secondary objectives included description of anthropometric and displacement characteristics, and examinations of SN performance and competitive experience. Thirty-six women weightlifters competing at the 2009 Pan American Championships participated. Participants were measured for standing height, upper limb, trunk, thigh, and shank lengths, and completed a questionnaire about competition and training experience. Horizontal displacement from lift-off to first pull maximum (Dx1) and from first pull to second pull maximum (Dx2) was determined from the heaviest successful SN using 2-dimensional video analysis. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) existed between thigh and lower-limb lengths and Dx2 in 53 kg participants; lower-limb length and Dx1 in 75 kg participants; and horizontal displacement and body segment ratios involving the upper and lower extremity in multiple weight classes. Correlations between anthropometry and Dx1 also reached significance with participants grouped by barbell trajectory type. Except for the trunk and thigh, body segment lengths were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between weight classes. Significantly different body proportions existed in 48 kg participants compared with all other classes. Multiple thigh and trunk variables were significantly correlated with performance. Horizontal displacement values were similar to previous reports in the literature. Few significant relationships existed between displacement and performance, and none were found for competitive experience. Understanding relationships between anthropometry and barbell trajectory may be useful for optimizing SN technique.

  9. Anthropometry and somatotypes of competitive DanceSport participants: a comparison of three different styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liiv, H; Wyon, M; Jürimäe, T; Purge, P; Saar, M; Mäestu, J; Jürimäe, J

    2014-04-01

    Anthropometry in dance and aesthetic sports has been shown to play an important role in selection and performance criteria. The aim of the present study was to examine variations in somatotype and anthropometry in three different competitive dance styles: DanceSport Standard, Latin American and Ten Dance. Anthropometry and somatotype data were collected from thirty couples competing in Standard (n=24 individuals), Latin American (n=14) and Ten Dance (n=22) styles. A single tester (ISAK Level 1) carried out all anthropometric measurements using the Heath-Carter protocol and somatotypes were calculated using the Heath-Carter's decimal equations. Results indicated that the mean somatotype for the male dancers was 2.4-3.9-3.2, whilst for females it was 2.7-2.7-3.5. Factorial analysis reported Standard dancers scored significantly higher for ectomorphy, sitting height and arm span than Latin dancers (p<0.05). Correlation analysis with the Standard dancer's International Ranking highlighted moderate positive correlation with mesomorphy (r=0.434, p<0.05) and negative correlation with ectomorphy (r=-0.546, p<0.001). The findings of this study show that somatotypes differ among DanceSport participants by dance style. Compared with other aesthetic sports, male and female dancers were less mesomorphic and more ectomorphic. Standard dancers tend to be more ectomorphic with greater height, longer arm span and greater sitting height compared with Latin American dancers. Although Standard dancers were ectomorphic, those dancers who had higher mesomorphic ranking had higher places in the dancers' international ranking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on career attainment outcomes in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; Morley, David; O'hara, John; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of annual-age category, relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on the career attainment outcomes of junior rugby league players originally selected for a talent identification and development (TID) programme. Junior rugby league players (N = 580) were grouped retrospectively according to their career attainment level (i.e., amateur, academy and professional). Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds), maturational (age at peak height velocity; PHV) and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed, estimated[Formula: see text]) characteristics were assessed at the Under 13s, 14s and 15s annual-age categories. Relative age (Q2 = 8.5% vs. Q4 = 25.5%) and playing position (Pivots = 19.5% vs. Props = 5.8%) influenced the percentage of players attaining professional status. Anthropometry and fitness had a significant effect on career attainment at the Under 14 (P = 0.002, η(2) = 0.16) and 15 (P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.12) annual-age categories. Findings at the Under 14s showed future professional players were significantly later maturing compared to academy and amateur players. Findings suggest that relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness can influence the career attainment of junior rugby league players. TID programmes within rugby league, and other related team sports, should be aware and acknowledge the factors influencing long-term career attainment, and not delimit development opportunities during early adolescence.

  11. Pediatric Penile and Glans Anthropometry Nomograms: An Aid in Hypospadias Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Archana; Sikdar, Satyajit; Prakash, Raghu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish pediatric penile and glans anthropometry nomograms. This may be used as a reference model for penile assessment while managing hypospadias. Patients and Methods: Between October 2012 and September 2013, 263 boys of varying ages (0–16 years) were included in the study. Those with genetic, endocrine disorders, having genital anomaly, undescended testis, neonates, and infants with a nonretractile prepuce, with multiple congenital anomalies and refusal to take part in the study were excluded. Evaluated outcome variables were stretched penile length, glans circumference (GC) at coronal sulcus, glans diameter at coronal sulcus (Gdcl), mid glans diameter, and ventral glans length. Glans ratios were generated by dividing Gdcl by GC. Data were expressed as mean, median, and standard deviation. Correlation between age and variables was evaluated using nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: The patients were divided in six age groups, namely 0–1 (n = 61), 1–3 (n = 37), 3–5 (n = 36), 5–7 (n = 36), 7–12 (n = 45), and >12 years (n = 48). Gdcl was the maximum transverse glans diameter and based on it small glans size varied widely from 8.9 to 35.04 mm for various age groups. Although glans anthropometry showed age-related changes, glans ratio remained relatively constant between 0.49 and 0.53 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.051, r = 0.29). All the variables except glans ratio showed a significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.954–0.98, P anthropometry nomograms provide a reference model for hypospadias. This may aid in (a) objective preoperative assessment of glans size (b) patient selection for preoperative hormonal stimulation (c) provides a yardstick for postoperative cosmesis. PMID:28082769

  12. Maternal systemic or cord blood inflammation is associated with birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A L; Pedersen, S H; Urassa, M; Michael, D; Andreasen, A; Todd, J; Kinung'hi, S M; Changalucha, J; McDermid, J M

    2017-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for foetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n = 44) and HIV-negative (n = 70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed. Linear regression modelled associations between maternal or cord blood cytokines and birth anthropometry. Health indicators (haemoglobin, mid-upper-arm circumference, body mass index) in HIV-positive mothers without considerable immunosuppression did not differ from HIV-negative women. Despite this, HIV-exposed infants had lower birthweight and length. Subgroup analyses indicated that HIV management using HAART was associated with lower plasma TNF-α, as were longer durations of any antiretroviral therapy (≥2 months). Greater maternal plasma TNF-α was associated with earlier delivery (-1.7 weeks, P = 0.039) and lower birthweights (-287 g; P = 0.020), while greater umbilical cord TNF-α (-1.43 cm; P = 0.036) and IL-12p70 (-2.4 cm; P = 0.008) were associated with shorter birth length. Birthweight was inversely associated with cord IL-12p70 (-723 g; P = 0.001) and IFN-γ (-482 g, P = 0.007). Maternal cytokines during pregnancy did not correlate with umbilical cord cytokines at delivery. Systemic inflammation identified in maternal plasma or umbilical cord blood was associated with poorer birth anthropometrics in HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants. Controlling maternal and/or foetal systemic inflammation may improve birth anthropometry. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Postanesthetic temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbe, M. A.; Carter, J. B.; Frokjer, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Internal derangements, myofascial pain dysfunction, and chronic dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are three common sequelae resulting from mandibular trauma. Etiologic factors include prolonged dental and otolaryngologic procedures, and intraoperative use of the laryngoscope and bronchoscope. Three cases are reported to document postanesthetic TMJ dysfunction arising from normal preoperative joints. Four types of TMJ dysfunction are discussed: anterior meniscus dislocation with reduction, anterior meniscus dislocation without reduction, dislocation/subluxation of the mandibular condyle, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Preoperative screening of mandibular function is recommended in identifying patients as either normal or having potential TMJ dysfunction. Failure to recognize postoperative TMJ dysfunction can lead to long-term symptoms that are difficult to alleviate. Litigation is a common sequel in these cases. Images Figure 3 PMID:2604053

  14. Use of Anthropometry for the Prediction of Regional Body Tissue Distribution in Adults: Benefits and Limitations in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafoglieri, Aldo; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Cattrysse, Erik; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Regional body composition changes with aging. Some of the changes in composition are considered major risk factors for developing obesity related chronic diseases which in turn may lead to increased mortality in adults. The role of anthropometry is well recognized in the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of adults for risk classification, regardless of age. Regional body composition is influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therapeutic measures recommended to lower cardiovascular disease risk include lifestyle changes. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize studies that assessed the relationships between anthropometry and regional body composition. The potential benefits and limitations of anthropometry for use in clinical practice are presented and suggestions for future research given. PMID:25489489

  15. Burden of Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2017-01-02

    Similar to the burden of other diseases, the burden of sexual dysfunction has not been systematically studied. However, there is growing evidence of various burdens (e.g., economic, symptomatic, humanistic) among patients suffering from sexual dysfunctions. The burden of sexual dysfunction has been studied a bit more often in men, namely the burden of erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PE) and testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Erectile dysfunction is frequently associated with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression. These conditions could go undiagnosed, and ED could be a marker of those diseases. The only available report from the United Kingdom estimated the total economic burden of ED at £53 million annually in terms of direct costs and lost productivity. The burden of PE includes significant psychological distress: anxiety, depression, lack of sexual confidence, poor self-esteem, impaired quality of life, and interpersonal difficulties. Some suggest that increase in female sexual dysfunction is associated with partner's PE, in addition to significant interpersonal difficulties. The burden of TDS includes depression, sexual dysfunction, mild cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. One UK estimate of the economic burden of female sexual dysfunctions demonstrated that the average cost per patient was higher than the per annum cost of ED. There are no data on burden of paraphilic disorders. The burden of sexual dysfunctions is underappreciated and not well studied, yet it is significant for both the patients and the society.

  16. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  17. CT of acute gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The application of computerized tomography in gastrointestinal tract diseases are presented, including advantages in surgical belly that are: anatomic clarity, wide survey and rapid performance. (C.G.C.)

  18. Gastrointestinal perfusion in septic shock.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, E.M. van; Sleight, J.W.; Pickkers, P.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2007-01-01

    Septic shock is characterised by vasodilation, myocardial depression and impaired microcirculatory blood flow, resulting in redistribution of regional blood flow. Animal and human studies have shown that gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow is impaired in septic shock. This is consistent with

  19. Scintigraphic assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2014-01-01

    intestinal and colonic transit. This article reviews current imaging techniques, methods for data processing and principles for evaluating results when scintigraphy is used to assess gastrointestinal motility. Furthermore, clinical indications for performing scintigraphy are reviewed........ Dysmotility in the different major segments of the gastrointestinal tract may give rise to similar symptoms; hence, localizing transit abnormalities to a specific segment is a valuable element of diagnostic evaluation. Scintigraphy is an effective noninvasive tool to assess gastric emptying as well as small...

  20. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  1. Drug therapy for gastrointestinal and liver diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballinger, Anne; Farthing, M. J. G. (Michael J. G.)

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Gastrointestinal bleeding Matthew R Banks, Peter D Fairclough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Inflammatory bowel...

  2. Anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity up to 5 years after pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M; Mouton, Leonora J; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Van Brussel, Marco; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K

    2015-12-01

    Physical functioning is of major importance after burns in many areas of life, in both the short and the long term. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity in children and adolescents between 0.5-5 years after burns over 10% TBSA. Assessments took place in a mobile exercise lab. Demographics, burn characteristics and anthropometrics were recorded. Muscular strength in six muscle groups was measured using hand-held dynamometry and aerobic capacity was measured with a graded cardiopulmonary exercise test. Subjects' scores were compared with Dutch age- and gender-matched norm values and converted to Z-scores. The assessments were completed by 24 subjects with pediatric burns ranging from 10 to 41% TBSA and time after burn from 1 to 5 years (58.3% male; 6-18 years). On group level, no significant differences between the subjects' scores and norm values were found. No trends were seen indicating an effect of extent of burn or time after burn. Individually, eight subjects (33.3%), mostly aged 6 or 7, showed significantly low performance on at least one variable: seven for strength, one for aerobic capacity and one for both. Anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity are adequate in the majority of Dutch children and adolescents 1-5 years after 10-41% TBSA burns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between maternal dietary micronutrient intake and neonatal anthropometry - secondary analysis from the ROLO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-10-07

    Micronutrients are necessary for fetal growth. However increasingly pregnant women are nutritionally replete and little is known about the effect of maternal micronutrient intakes on fetal adiposity in mothers with increased BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the association of maternal dietary micronutrient intake with neonatal size and adiposity in a cohort at risk of macrosomia. This was a cohort analysis of 554 infants from the ROLO study. Three day food diaries from each trimester were collected. Neonatal weight, length, circumferences and skinfold thicknesses were measured at birth. Multiple linear regression was used to identify associations between micronutrient intakes and neonatal anthropometry. Birthweight was negatively associated with maternal trimester 3 vitamin D intake and positively associated with trimester 3 vitamin B12 intake R2adj 19.8% (F = 13.19, p anthropometry even in women not at risk of malnutrition. Further research is necessary to determine optimal micronutrient intake in overweight and obese pregnant women. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN54392969.

  4. Evaluation of unilateral cleft lip and palate using anthropometry measurements post-alveolar bone grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simorangkir, H. J.; Hak, M. S.; Tofani, I.

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) requires multiple steps and coordination of multidisciplinary sciences to produce optimal results. Alveolar bone-grafting (ABG) is an important procedure in the treatment of such patients because it influences the eruption of teeth and stabilizes the maxilla. To evaluate the effect and suitability of alveolar bone grafting procedure at Cleft Center Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital on nasal deformity from anthropometry with photogrammetry and aesthetic proportional in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate with UCLP. Patients with UCLP were evaluated post-ABG using anthropometry and photogrammetry to investigate the results anteriorly, laterally, and basally. Anthropometric measurements taken photogrammetrically used 14 points and 11 distance items. Evaluations were made of upper lip length, upper lip projection, and nostril sill elevation for both the cleft and non-cleft sides of patients’ faces. A t-test showed that the values for upper lip length and projection were significantly increased, and a correction test using a Fisher exam gave a value of 1. The ABG treatment protocol for patients with UCLP at the Cleft Lip and Palate Unit at Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital is suitable to be performed; it aesthetically satisfies patients and their families.

  5. Anthropometry in Long-Term Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura; Beaumont, Lesley; Cranston, Amy; Savoie, Stefanie; Nayiager, Trishana; Barr, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an inadequate measure of nutritional status in children and adolescents with cancer as it does not distinguish muscle from adipose tissue. However, arm anthropometry offers simple assessments of fat mass and lean body mass; especially valuable in low- and middle-income countries where the great majority of young people with cancer live and access to sophisticated expensive measures of body composition is markedly limited. The nutritional status of 75 long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was assessed by arm anthropometry, in addition to BMI, in a cross-sectional cohort study. Normal ranges for triceps skin fold thickness (TSFT, a surrogate for fat mass) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, a surrogate for lean body mass) were between the 15th and 85th percentiles for age and sex. Overweight/obesity was classified as a TSFT >85th percentile and sarcopenia as an MUAC obesity was identified in 1/3 of subjects by a BMI >25 and by TSFT; and 20% of the subjects had a TSFT >95th percentile. Only two subjects were sarcopenic. None met the combined criteria for sarcopenic obesity. TSFT and MUAC/height indices did not add sensitivity to identification of sarcopenia or obesity. TSFT is a useful measure of overweight/obesity in this population, but MUAC does not identify a notable proportion with sarcopenia. Further resolution may be provided by more sophisticated measures of body composition.

  6. Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men older than 75 years of age. Is erectile dysfunction just a part of old age? ED doesn’t have to be a part of getting older. It’s true that as you get older, you may need more ... Symptoms of erectile dysfunction The primary symptom of ED is not ...

  7. Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

  8. Probiotics and gastrointestinal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, S L

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for positive health benefits of Lactobacilli applies to only a few strains used for commercial applications. It is generally agreed that a probiotic must be capable of colonizing the intestinal tract to influence human health; this requirement disqualifies many of the strains currently used in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus GG, a variant of L. casei sps rhamnosus, has been studied extensively in adults and children. When consumed as a dairy product or as a lyophilized powder, LGG colonizes the gastrointestinal tract for 1-3 days in most individuals and up to 7 days in about 30% of subjects. Traveler's diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis are improved with LGG. In infantile diarrhea, the severity and duration of the attack is reduced. LGG-fermented milk lessens the intestinal permeability defects caused by exposure to cows milk or rotavirus infection. LGG has proven beneficial effects on intestinal immunity. It increases the numbers of IgA and other immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. LGG stimulates local release of interferon. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer's patches. LGG also acts as an immunoadjuvant for oral vaccines. In an animal model of colon cancer, LGG reduced the incidence of chemically induced tumors in the large bowel of rodents. Extensive safety testing has shown no pathogenic potential in humans or animals. Probiotic cultures of Lactobacilli have the potential to bring substantial health benefits to the consumer. The purported benefits for any probiotic must pass the highest standards of scientific scrutiny before the claims can be accepted.

  9. The distribution of advanced glycation end products and their receptor in the gastrointestinal tract in the rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to provide a basis for further study of the association between AGE/RAGE and diabetic GI dysfunction. METHODS: The distribution of AGEs [N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)......To investigate the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to provide a basis for further study of the association between AGE/RAGE and diabetic GI dysfunction. METHODS: The distribution of AGEs [N epsilon...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: surfactant dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Surfactant dysfunction Surfactant dysfunction Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Surfactant dysfunction is a lung disorder that causes breathing ...

  11. Diastolic dysfunction characterizes cirrhotic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush O. Somani

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Present study shows that although diastolic dysfunction is a frequent event in cirrhosis, it is usually of mild degree and does not correlate with severity of liver dysfunction. There are no significant differences in echocardiographic parameters between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. HRS is not correlated to diastolic dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. There is no difference in survival at one year between patients with or without diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis is unrelated to circulatory dysfunction, ascites and HRS.

  12. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Jensen, Signe Marie; Christensen, Line B

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99...

  13. Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

  14. Anthropometry at birth as a strong determinant factor of young women bone status: influence of high-level physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréban, Sophie; Chappard, Christine; Jaffré, Christelle; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the influence of anthropometry at birth on bone status and physical activity aptitudes of adult women. Our population was composed of 70 women (17-29 years): 40 athletes and 30 controls. Athletes participated in various long-lasting and high-level weight-bearing sports (10.2 ± 2.2h ours/week). Birth weight and height were collected. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured by DXA, at whole body, lumbar spine, non dominant femur (total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN)) and tibia. The Hip Structural Analysis software was applied to assess cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), section modulus (Z) and cortical thickness of three regions of the proximal femur: intertrochanter, narrow neck and femoral shaft. BMD and HSA measurements at all sites were significantly higher in athletes versus controls, as well as birth height (P = 0.009) and weight (P = 0.02). For the whole population, we found significant positive correlations between birth weight and BMDs (0.30 anthropometry, which can be used to predict fracture risk in later life. Predisposition to practice a weight-bearing sport could be related to the greater birth anthropometry described in athletes. The benefits of birth anthropometry on adult bone status appear to be maintained by sports. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Pre-Ramadan Education on Dietary Intake and Anthropometry-Comparison Between Two Groups of Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencharif Meriem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Fasting of Ramadan leads to changes in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep and time of drug intake for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-Ramadan education on dietary intake and anthropometry of two groups of patients.

  16. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using.......001) and VAT% in boys (R2=16.4%, PAnthropometry and circulating leptin are valid markers of SAT%, but not of VAT%....

  17. Vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, James; Deckert, Linda

    2010-01-15

    Vocal cord dysfunction involves inappropriate vocal cord motion that produces partial airway obstruction. Patients may present with respiratory distress that is often mistakenly diagnosed as asthma. Exercise, psychological conditions, airborne irritants, rhinosinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or use of certain medications may trigger vocal cord dysfunction. The differential diagnosis includes asthma, angioedema, vocal cord tumors, and vocal cord paralysis. Pulmonary function testing with a flow-volume loop and flexible laryngoscopy are valuable diagnostic tests for confirming vocal cord dysfunction. Treatment of acute episodes includes reassurance, breathing instruction, and use of a helium and oxygen mixture (heliox). Long-term management strategies include treatment for symptom triggers and speech therapy.

  18. Association between anthropometry-based nutritional status and malaria: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Efrem d'Avila; Alexandre, Márcia A; Salinas, Jorge L; de Siqueira, André M; Benzecry, Silvana G; de Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M

    2015-09-17

    Multiple studies in various parts of the world have analysed the association of nutritional status on malaria using anthropometric measures, but results differ due to the heterogeneity of the study population, species of the parasite, and other factors involved in the host and parasite relationship. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on the inter-relationship of nutritional status based on anthropometry and malarial infection. Two independent reviewers accessed the MEDLINE and LILACS databases using the same search terms related to malaria and anthropometry. Prospective studies associating anthropometry and malaria (incidence or severity) were selected. References from the included studies and reviews were used to increase the review sensitivity. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of the prospective studies was assessed. Selected articles were grouped based on exposures and outcomes. The search identified a total of 1688 studies: 1629 from MEDLINE and 59 from LILACS. A total of 23 met the inclusion criteria. Five additional studies were detected by reading the references of the 23 included studies and reviews, totaling 28 studies included. The mean sample size was 662.1 people, ranging from 57 to 5620. The mean follow-up was 365.8 days, ranging from 14 days to 1 year and 9 months, and nine studies did not report the follow-up period. Prospective studies assessing the relationship between malaria and malnutrition were mostly carried out in Africa. Of the 20 studies with malarial outcomes, fifteen had high and five had average quality, with an average score of 80.5 %. Most anthropometric parameters had no association with malaria incidence (47/52; 90.4 %) or parasite density (20/25; 80 %). However, the impact of malnutrition was noted in malaria mortality and severity (7/17; 41.2 %). Regarding the effects of malaria on malnutrition, malaria was associated with very few anthropometric parameters (8/39; 20.6

  19. Evaluation of the Indonesian National Standard for elementary school furniture based on children's anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanto; Lu, Chih-Wei; Lu, Jun-Ming

    2017-07-01

    In Indonesia, National Standardization Agency of Indonesia issued the Indonesian National Standard SNI 12-1015-1989 and SNI 12-1016-1989 to define the type of furniture dimensions that should be used by children in the elementary school level. This study aims to examine whether the current national standards for elementary school furniture dimensions issued by National Standardization Agency of Indonesia match the up-to-date Indonesian children's anthropometry. Two types of school furniture, small type (Type I, for grade 1-3) and large type (Type II, for grade 4-6), were evaluated in terms of seat height, seat depth, seat width and backrest height of a chair as well as the height and underneath height of a desk. 1146 students aged between 6 and 12 years old participated in the study. Seven anthropometric measurements were taken including stature, sitting shoulder height, sitting elbow height, popliteal height, buttock-popliteal length, knee height and hip breadth. Based on the standard school furniture dimensions and students' body dimensions, numbers of matches and mismatches between them were computed. Results indicated a substantial degree of mismatch between children's anthropometry and the standard dimensions of school furniture. The standard seat height was not appropriate for students among different grades with the mismatch percentage ranging from 63.4% to 96.7% for Type I and 72.7% to 99.0% for Type II. For desk height, the standard dimensions were not appropriate for students among different grades with the mismatch percentage ranging from 32.3% to 88.9% for Type I and 67.7% to 99.0% for Type II. Apparently, the current standards are out of date and need to be updated. Four different sizes of school furniture were hence proposed to accommodate the variation in students' anthropometry from Grade 1 to Grade 6. The proposed standard dimensions (PrS) of school furniture cover a slightly broader range of age and present a higher cumulative fit than the current

  20. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  1. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual Dysfunction in Urogynaecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.E. Roos (Anne-Marie)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ This thesis is dedicated to enhance understanding of sexual dysfunction in the field of urogynaecology, focussing on the prevalence of sexual problems in urogynaecology clinics, the clinical attention of the urogynaecologist to female sexual dyfunction, the impact

  3. HIV and thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Alan A; Bhangoo, Amrit

    2013-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are associated with dysfunction of many endocrine organs and their axis. HIV infectivity leads to altered metabolism, poor oral intake and increased prevalence of weight loss and wasting which may have a role in thyroid dysfunction. Overt thyroid dysfunction occurs at similar rates as the general population while subclinical disease such as nonthyroidal illness (sick euthyroid syndrome), subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated low T4 levels are more frequent. Moreover, HAART therapy can complicate thyroid function further through drug interactions and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this review we report the common thyroid dysfunctions associated with HIV before and after HAART therapy. We discuss presentation, diagnostic work up, treatment and follow up in each condition.

  4. Computertomographie of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, H.W.; Roedl, W.

    1982-01-01

    Besides the demonstration of parenchymatous organs CT can be used also in the diagnosis of hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract, e.g. the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and the small and large bowels, since the development of fast scanners with higher resolution. Conventional X-ray and endoscopy have to be primary diagnostics. CT, on the other hand, is capable of assessing of extraluminal and intramural tumor extension. In inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, CT can show the environmental reaction. In penetrating ulcers of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, the extension and direction of penetration can be figured by CT well. Extraenteral masses with secondary displacement, impression or infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract are often verified by CT only. One of the CT domains is the local relapse of rectum carcinoma following rectum amputation especially in differentiation from local scar formation. The importance of CT in radiotherapy treatment planning is not subject of this paper. (orig.) [de

  5. The effects of foot morphology and anthropometry on unipodal postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica C. Alonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The maintenance of posture is a constant challenge for the body, as it requires rapid and accurate responses to unforeseen disturbances, which are needed to prevent falls and maintain balance. The purpose of the present study was to compare different types of plantar arch in relation to postural balance, and analyze the relationships between variations the plantar arch and anthropometric characteristics of the feet with unipedal static balance. We evaluated 100 men and women between the ages of 20 and 40 years old, to determine anthropometry and posturography with a force platform. There was a weak correlation between plantar arches and anthropometric measurements and postural balance, except for the length of the male foot, which showed a correlation between increased size and poorer static balance. We conclude that the type of plantar arch does not influence postural balance, and of the anthropometric factors, only foot length was related to postural balance.

  6. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-01-01

    To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5...... regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings...... that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions...

  7. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball...... players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light...... tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21...

  8. Virtual forensic anthropology: Novel applications of anthropometry and technology in a child death case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy-Jow, Stephanie Lynn; Lees, Duncan M B; Russell, Sean

    2013-01-10

    Full-body 3D virtual reconstructions were generated using 3D technology and anthropometry following the death of a young girl, allegedly from severe malnutrition as a result of abuse and neglect. Close range laser scanning, in conjunction with full colour digital texture photography, was used to document the child's condition shortly after death in order to demonstrate the number and pattern of injuries and to be able to demonstrate her condition forensically. Full-body digital reconstructions were undertaken to illustrate the extent of the malnutrition by comparing the processed post mortem scans with reconstructed images at normal weight for height and age. This is the first known instance of such an investigative tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Free Amino Acids in Human Milk and Associations with Maternal Anthropometry and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Bruun, Signe; Pedersen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    . The aim was to investigate if maternal anthropometry was associated with the content of the FAA glutamic acid or glutamine in breast milk and if there was a negative association between these FAA and current size or early infant growth in fully breastfed infants. Methods: From a subgroup of 78 mothers......, of which 50 were fully breast feeding, from the Odense Child Cohort breast milk samples were collected 4 months after birth and analyzed for FAA. Information regarding breastfeeding status and infant weight and length was also recorded. Results: There was a large variation in the concentration of the FAAs.......013) but the correlation was attenuated when controlling for birth length (p = 0.089). Conclusions: The hypothesis that a high content of glutamic acid and glutamine in breast milk could downregulate milk intake to a degree affecting early growth could not be confirmed. Maternal factors associated with the level...

  10. Motion management in gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hassan; Chang, Bryan; Chen, Zhe Jay

    2014-06-01

    The presence of tumor and organ motions complicates the planning and delivery of radiotherapy for gastrointestinal cancers. Without proper accounting of the movements, target volume could be under-dosed and the nearby normal critical organs could be over-dosed. This situation is further exacerbated by the close proximity of abdominal tumors to many normal organs at risk (OARs). A number of strategies have been developed to deal with tumor and organ motions in radiotherapy. This article presents a review of the techniques used in the evaluation, quantification, and management of tumor and organ motions for radiotherapy of gastrointestinal cancers.

  11. Relative age effect on anthropometry, biological maturation and performance of young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Matta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n3p257   The study examined the presence of the relative age effect (RAE and association between birth quartile and anthropometry, biological maturation and physical and technical performance of young Brazilian soccer players. The sample included 119 male players, 74 of U-15 category and 45 of U-17 category, which were divided into quartiles according to the birth year. Biological maturation was assessed using the method of skeletal age of Fels. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, stature and subcutaneous adiposity. Physical fitness assessment included strength tests in the lower limbs, speed, aerobic endurance and anaerobic power. Technical skills included ball control, dribbling and kicking accuracy. Overall, 65.5% of soccer players were born on the first half of the year (c2= 8.069, p = 0.04; however, in the analysis by category, there was no significant difference in the distribution of birth dates for quartile when compared with the reference population (U-15: c2=6.322, p=0.10; U-17: c2=2.339, p=0.50. MANCOVA revealed no significant differences between anthropometry, biological maturation and physical and technical performance in both competitive categories. These results suggest that there is a higher proportion of young Brazilian soccer born on the first months of the year, but that RAE does not necessarily constitute an advantage under the anthropometric, physical and technical standpoint. The process of biological maturation of individuals should be considered by coaches in the selection of athletes.

  12. Young children's screen activities, sweet drink consumption and anthropometry: results from a prospective European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, S; Berg, C; Eiben, G; Lanfer, A; Reisch, L; Ahrens, W; Kourides, Y; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Siani, A; Veidebaum, T; Lissner, L

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children's screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and increased BMI, BMI z-score and waist to height ratio (WHtR) two years later. A second hypothesis was that SSB consumption mediates the association between the screen activities and changes in the anthropometric measures. The study is a part of the prospective cohort study IDEFICS ("Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants"), investigating diet, lifestyle and social determinants of obesity in 2 to 9-year-olds in eight European countries (baseline n=16,225, two-year follow-up; n=11,038). Anthropometry was objectively measured, and behaviours were parent-reported. The main hypothesis was supported, but the second hypothesis was not confirmed. The odds ratio of being in the highest quintile of % change in WHtR was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.17-1.36) and in BMI 1.22 (95% CI: 1.13-1.31), for each hour per day watching television. The odds ratio of having increased SSB consumption was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.29) for each hour per day watching TV. The associations for total screen time were slightly weaker. The results indicate substantial effects of TV viewing and other screen activities for young children, both on their consumption of sugary drinks and on an increase in BMI and central obesity. Our findings suggest that television viewing seems to have a stronger effect on food habits and anthropometry than other screen activities in this age group.

  13. Comparisons of foot anthropometry and plantar arch indices between German and Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Isabel C N; Onodera, Andrea N; Bosch, Kerstin; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2015-02-12

    Nowadays, trades and research have become closely related between different countries and anthropometric data are important for the development in global markets. The appropriate use of anthropometry may improve wellbeing, health, comfort and safety especially for footwear design. For children a proper fit of footwear is very important, not constraining foot growth and allowing a normal development. The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics of German and Brazilian children's feet from 3 to 10 years of age. We compared five indirect measures of two databases of children's feet. Forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot widths were measured in static footprints and the Chippaux-Smirak and Staheli indices of the longitudinal arch were calculated. Brazilian children showed a significantly narrower forefoot from 5 to 10 years, wider rearfoot from 3 to 4 years, wider midfoot for 4 year-olds and narrower midfoot for 10 year-old children. Nevertheless, the Chippaux-Smirak and Staheli indices showed no group differences. The only exception was for 4 year-old Brazilian children who showed a higher Chippaux-Smirak index compared to German children (48.4 ± 17.7%; 42.1 ± 13.8%). Our study revealed anthropometric differences in absolute forefoot and rearfoot widths of German and Brazilian children, but a similar longitudinal arch development. At 4 years of age, Brazilian children present a foot anthropometry similar to the 3 year-olds and develop the plantar longitudinal arch from 4 to 5 years more rapidly when compared to German children.

  14. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease. The biome......The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease....... The biomechanical properties are crucial for GI motor function because peristaltic motion that propels the food through the GI tract is a result of interaction of the passive and active tissue forces and the hydrodynamic forces in the food bolus and remodeling of the mechanical properties reflects the changes...... in the tissue structure that determine a specific motor dysfunction. Therefore, biomechanical data on the GI wall are important to understand the pathogenesis to the GI motor-sensory function and dysfunction. Moreover, biomechanical studies of the GI tract pave the way for further mathematical and computational...

  15. Quantification of ln-Flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Amick, R.; Rajulu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data to assess the impact of changes in body shape and size. For developing future planetary and reduced-gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry and body posture to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain data on these changes, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for preflight, in-flight, and post-flight conditions needs to be collected. Once these data have been collected, pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight anthropometric values will be compared, yielding microgravity factors. The neutral body posture (NBP) will also be measured, to determine body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress but has been completed for 6 out of 9 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes were collected during Skylab 4, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle mission STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab 4, ASTP, and the STS-57 studies found that, according to photographs, a distinct NBP exists. The still photographs showed a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulders abducted; in addition, the knees are flexed, with noticeable hip flexion, and the foot

  16. Association of pica with anemia and gastrointestinal distress among pregnant women in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Khalfan, Sabra S; Farag, Tamer H; Kavle, Justine A; Ali, Said M; Hajji, Hamad; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Pelto, Gretel H; Tielsch, James M; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2010-07-01

    The etiology of pica, the purposive consumption of non-food substances, is not understood, despite its ubiquity among gravidae. We examined correlates of pica in a representative obstetric population (n = 2,368) on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania to examine proposed etiologies. Cross-sectional data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics, food intake, geophagy (earth consumption), amylophagy (raw starch consumption), anthropometry, iron status, parasitic burden, and gastrointestinal morbidities. Amylophagy was reported by 36.3%, geophagy by 5.2%, and any pica by 40.1%. There was a strong additive relationship of geophagy and amylophagy with lower hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and iron deficiency anemia. By multivariate logistic regression, any pica was associated with Hb level (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72-0.81), nausea (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.20-1.73), and abdominal pain (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01-1.48). These striking results indicate that the nature of the relationship between pica, pregnancy, gastrointestinal distress, and iron deficiency anemia merits further investigation.

  17. Gastrointestinal symptoms and motility disorders in patients with systemic scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palasciano Giuseppe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on gastrointestinal symptoms, dysfunctions, and neurological disorders in systemic scleroderma are lacking so far. Methods Thirty-eight scleroderma patients (34 limited, 4 diffuse, 60 healthy controls and 68 dyspeptic controls were scored for upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms (dyspepsia, bowel habits, gastric and gallbladder emptying to liquid meal (functional ultrasonography and small bowel transit (H2-breath test. Autonomic nerve function was assessed by cardiovascular tests. Results The score for dyspepsia (mainly gastric fullness was greater in scleroderma patients than healthy controls, but lower than dyspeptic controls who had multiple symptoms, instead. Scleroderma patients with dyspepsia had a longer disease duration. Fasting antral area and postprandial antral dilatation were smaller in scleroderma patients than dyspeptic and healthy controls. Gastric emptying was delayed in both scleroderma patients (particularly in those with abnormal dyspeptic score and dyspeptic controls, who also showed a larger residual area. Despite gallbladder fasting and postprandial volumes were comparable across the three groups, gallbladder refilling appeared delayed in dyspeptic controls and mainly dependent on delayed gastric emptying in scleroderma. Small intestinal transit was also delayed in 74% of scleroderma and 66% of dyspeptic controls. Bowel habits were similar among the three groups. Autonomic neuropathy was not associated with dyspepsia, gastric and gallbladder motility and small intestinal transit. Conclusion In scleroderma patients dyspepsia (mainly gastric fullness, restricted distension of the gastric antrum and diffuse gastrointestinal dysmotility are frequent features. These defects are independent from the occurrence of autonomic neuropathy.

  18. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duodenum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  19. [Motility and functional gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses the studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at the 2014 Digestive Diseases Week conference that are of greatest interest to us. New data have been provided on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders, with recent prevalence data for irritable bowel syndrome and fecal incontinence. We know more about the pathophysiological mechanisms of the various functional disorders, especially irritable bowel syndrome, which has had the largest number of studies. Thus, we have gained new data on microinflammation, genetics, microbiota, psychological aspects, etc. Symptoms such as abdominal distension have gained interest in the scientific community, both in terms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and those with constipation. From the diagnostic point of view, the search continues for a biomarker for functional gastrointestinal disorders, especially for irritable bowel syndrome. In the therapeutic area, the importance of diet for these patients (FODMAP, fructans, etc.) is once again confirmed, and data is provided that backs the efficacy of already marketed drugs such as linaclotide, which rule out the use of other drugs such as mesalazine for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. This year, new forms of drug administration have been presented, including metoclopramide nasal sprays and granisetron transdermal patches for patients with gastroparesis. Lastly, a curiosity that caught our attention was the use of a vibrating capsule to stimulate gastrointestinal transit in patients with constipation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Mucoadhesion and the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, Felipe J O; McConnell, Emma L; Sousa, Joao J S; Veiga, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W

    2008-01-01

    The concept of mucoadhesion is one that has the potential to improve the highly variable residence times experienced by drugs and dosage forms at various sites in the gastrointestinal tract, and consequently, to reduce variability and improve efficacy. Intimate contact with the mucosa should enhance absorption or improve topical therapy. A variety of approaches have been investigated for mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly for the stomach and small intestine. Despite interesting results in these sites, mucoadhesive approaches have not yet shown success in humans. The potential of the lower gut for these applications has been largely neglected, although the large intestine in particular may benefit, and the colon has several factors that suggest mucoadhesion could be successful there, including lower motility and the possibility of a lower mucus turnover and thicker mucus layer. In vitro studies on colonic mucoadhesion show promise, and rectal administration has shown some positive results in vivo. This review considers the background to mucoadhesion with respect to the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the principles that underlie this concept. Mucoadhesive approaches to gastrointestinal drug delivery will be examined, with particular attention given to the lower gut.

  1. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal malignancies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional management of a patient with gastrointestinal cancer fi rst begins with an appropriate nutritional assessment, seeing that several factors could affect the patient's nutritional status. The most signifi cant dietary advice for cancer patients in general, is to consume a signifi cant amount of energy daily to maintain ...

  2. Gastrointestinal Histoplasmosis: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rashi; Lipi, Lipika; Gajendra, Smeeta; Mohapatra, Ishani; Goel, Ruchika K; Duggal, Rajan; Mishra, Smruti Ranjan; Gautam, Dheeraj

    2017-10-01

    Histoplasmosis is an invasive mycosis caused by inhalation of the spores of dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum. The disease manifests in the lung as acute or chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis and in severe cases gets disseminated in multiple organs like skin, adrenal gland, central nervous system, lymph node, liver, spleen, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. It occurs most commonly in immunodeficient patients like HIV-positive patients and transplant recipients, while immunocompetent hosts are affected rarely. In cases of gastrointestinal histoplasmosis, the samples are collected for culture and biopsy should be sent for histopathological examination for definitive diagnosis. We conducted a retrospective study of colonic biopsies performed in the department of gastroenterology in a tertiary care hospital of north India from January 2014 to December 2015. Five cases of colonic histoplasmosis were diagnosed on histopathology out of which 4 patients were from north India while 1 patient was from Myanmar. The patients presented with various complaints, including loose stools, diarrhea, altered bowel habits, and gastrointestinal bleeding. The prognosis is very good after early and aggressive treatment while the disease is fatal if it remains untreated. In our study, 2 patients died within few days of diagnosis due to delay in the diagnosis, dissemination, and associated complications. Other patients were started on amphotericin B deoxycholate and are under follow-up. An early diagnosis of gastrointestinal histoplasmosis is important as appropriate treatment leads to long-term survival while untreated cases are almost fatal.

  3. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    One hundred and fourteen (114) and one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract respectively. Parasites recovered during the survey include two species from gills identified as. Ergasilus sarsi ((24.60%) a crustacean (copepod), and one protozoan (myxosporean) named.

  4. Bullock on Rat Gastrointestinal Microflora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    20, No.2 (May) 2017. Oloyede, Odedara Omenu disorders (GIT) which are very common. Traditionally, diagnoses of the different types of gastrointestinal diseases are sometimes ... bacteria genera and species in the human body, regardless of body sites .... vitamin C causes the purple indicator solution to lose its colour.

  5. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duo- denum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  6. GASTROINTESTINAL FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence  of food allergies. Pathological conditions associated  with a food intolerance are becoming an increasingly urgent problem of pediatrics. According to different researchers, allergic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract occurs in 25–50% of patients with such common pathology as an allergy to cow's milk proteins. The severity of diseases  associated  with food allergies and their prognosis  depend largely on early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Difficulties and errors  in the diagnosis  of gastrointestinal  food allergies  are associated  with both subjective  and objective  reasons,  primarily due to the fact that gastrointestinal  reactions to food are often delayed and non-IgE-mediated. The article describes clinical forms of gastrointestinal food allergy according to the existing classification. Diagnostic algorithms and modern approaches  to differential diagnosis of disease based on evidence-based  medicine and corresponding to international consensus papers are given.

  7. Voiding dysfunction - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a child who is toilet trained the sudden onset of daytime wetting with frequency or urgency is alarming to the parents. Initially this subject was subdivided into a number of descriptive clinical conditions which led to a lot of confusion in recognition and management. Subsequently, the term elimination dysfunction was coined by Stephen Koff to emphasise the association between recurrent urinary infection, wetting, constipation and bladder overactivity. From a urodynamic point of view, in voiding dysfunction, there is either detrusor overactivity during bladder filling or dyssynergic action between the detrusor and the external sphincter during voiding. Identifying a given condition as a ′filling phase dysfunction′ or ′voiding phase dysfunction′ helps to provide appropriate therapy. Objective clinical criteria should be used to define voiding dysfunction. These include bladder wall thickening, large capacity bladder and infrequent voiding, bladder trabeculation and spinning top deformity of the urethra and a clinically demonstrated Vincent′s curtsy. The recognition and treatment of constipation is central to the adequate treatment of voiding dysfunction. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimuation for the treatment of detrusor overactivity, biofeedback with uroflow EMG to correct dyssynergic voiding, and behavioral therapy all serve to correct voiding dysfunction in its early stages. In established neurogenic bladder disease the use of Botulinum Toxin A injections into the detrusor or the external sphincter may help in restoring continence especially in those refractory to drug therapy. However in those children in whom the upper tracts are threatened, augmentation of the bladder may still be needed.

  8. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  9. Diagnostic indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aim: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy now assumes a prominent role in the diagnosis and therapy of upper GI diseases. Some indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy include dyspepsia, dysphagia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study aimed to review the ...

  10. Sepsis and myocardial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Deczka Morsch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis and septic shock are prevalent in the intensive care setting,accounting for more than 40% of mortality in this scenario. Theappropriate management and recognition of sepsis-inducedmyocardial dysfunction are paramount for its proper treatmentand probably impact mortality rates. The objective of this articleis to review its definition, pathophysiologic mechanisms, possibletreatments and current research on the subject according to acritical view.Cellular signaling involved in myocardial depression is not fullyunderstood. Disturbances in calcium homeostasis,cardiodepressant circulating factors, inflammatory mediators,nitric oxide and apoptosis act as synergistic pathways that leadto severely depressed cardiac function. The diagnosis ofmyocardial dysfunction during sepsis carries a worse prognosisand increased mortality.Myocardial dysfunction plays an important role in morbidity andmortality rate of critically ill patients. Current research in thisarea will continue to evolve; we will, therefore, soon have moreinsights into potential novel therapies that can change its mortalityrates.

  11. Neurogenic voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Petros; Apostolidis, Apostolos

    2017-05-01

    This review aims to analyze and discuss all recently published articles associated with neurogenic voiding discussion providing readers with the most updated knowledge and trigger for further research. They include the proposal of a novel classification system for the pathophysiology of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) which combines neurological defect in a distinct anatomic location, and data on bowel dysfunction, autonomic dysreflexia and urine biomarkers; review of patient-reported outcome measures in NLUTD; review of the criteria for the diagnosis of clinically significant urinary infections; novel research findings on the pathophysiology of NLUTD; and review of data on minimally and more invasive treatments. Despite the extended evidence base on NLUTD, there is a paucity of high-quality new research concerning voiding dysfunction as opposed to storage problems. The update aims to inform clinicians about new developments in clinical practice, as well as ignite discussion for further clinical and basic research in the aforementioned areas of NLUTD.

  12. Quantification of In-flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Reid, C. R.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data gathered to assess the impact of physical body shape and size changes on suit sizing. For developing future planetary and reduced gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry, body posture, and neutral body postures (NBP) to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain these impacts, anthropometric data, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (i.e. chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for pre, in-, and postflight conditions needs to be collected. Once this data has been collected, a comparison between pre, in-, and postflight anthropometric values will be analyzed, yielding microgravity factors. The NBP will be used to determined body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress with the completion of 3 out of 12 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes have been during Skylab, STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab and the STS-57 studies found that there is a distinct neutral body posture (NBP) based on photographs. The still photographs showed that there is a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulder abducted; and, in addition, the knees were flexed with noticeable hip flexion and the foot

  13. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P anthropometry, and body composition (P anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palankezhe Sashidharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report presents a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor operated recently in a 47-year-old female patient and the outcome, as well as literature review of the pathological identification, sites of origin, and factors predicting its behavior, prognosis and treatment.

  15. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  16. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis PT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis,1 Krzysztof Buśko,2 Filipe Manuel Clemente,3 Ioannis Tasiopoulos,1 Beat Knechtle4 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Nikaia, Greece; 2Department of Biomechanics, Institute of Sport-National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland; 3School of Sport and Leisure, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Melgaço, Portugal; 4Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7–48 years old, separated into six age groups (7–9, 10–11, 12–13, 14–17, 18–32, and 33+, were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength. An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η2≥0.045, but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η2=0.020, was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12–13 to 14–17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12–13 to 14–17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η2≥0.031 was observed with larger differences between 12–13 and 18–32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18–32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs was also shown (p≤0.002, η2≥0.068, where larger differences in male than female athletes were

  17. Digital 2D-photogrammetry and direct anthropometry--a comparing study on test accomplishment and measurement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Gromberg, Christine; Schüler, Grit; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this methodological anthropometric study was to compare direct anthropometry and digital two-dimensional photogrammetry in 18 male and 27 female subjects, aged 24 to 65 years, from Potsdam, Germany. In view of the rising interest in reliable biometric kephalofacial data, we focussed on head and face measurements. Out of 34 classic facial anatomical landmarks, 27 landmarks were investigated both by direct anthropometry and 2D-photogrammetry; 7 landmarks could not be localized by 2D-photogrammetry. Twenty-six kephalofacial distances were analysed both by direct anthropometry and digital 2D-photogrammetry. Kephalofacial distances are on average 7.6% shorter when obtained by direct anthropometry. The difference between the two techniques is particularly evident in total head height (vertex-gnathion) due to the fact that vertex is usually covered by hair and escapes from photogrammetry. Also the distances photographic sellion-gnathion (1.3 cm, i. e. 11.6%) and nasal-gnathion (1.2 cm, i. e. 9.4%) differ by more than one centimetre. Differences below 0.5 cm between the two techniques were found when measuring mucosa-lip-height (2.2%), gonia (3.0%), glabella-stomion (3.9%), and nose height (glabella-subnasal) (4.0%). Only the estimates of forehead width were significantly narrower when obtained by 2D-photogrammetry (-1.4 cm, -13.1%). The methodological differences increased with increasing magnitude of the kephalometric distance. Apart from these limitations, both techniques are similarly valid and may replace each other.

  18. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-04-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal "head and trunk skeletal size," "adiposity," and "limb lengths." Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a s...

  20. New values anthropometry for classification of nutritional status in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Rodrigues, R A; Martinez Espinosa, M; Duarte Melo, C; Rodrigues Perracini, M; Rezende Fett, W C; Fett, C A

    2014-07-01

    Anthropometry provides information on the physical status of the individual and can be associated with aspects of health including nutritional status. Currently, the stratification of the arm and calf circumferences is classified into only two situations: "malnourished" and "well-nourished". A total of 513 interviews were conducted, and 391 elderly people (≥ 65 years) completed the assessment using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and anthropometry of selected samples of the population of Cuiabá-MT. The body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated for the elderly people, establishing five new reference values for circumferences, arm relaxed (RAC), abdomen (AC), and calf (CC) in centimeters (cm). The median age was 71 years (64% women and 36% men) and was correlated to the RAC (r=-0.180, p<0.001) and CC (r=-0.202, pp<0.001). The BMI obtained the median of 27 (15% malnourished, risk of malnutrition 13%, eutrophic 24%; overweight 33%, obese 16%), and it was correlated to the RAC (r=0.798, pp<0.001), AC (r=0.823 p p<0.001) and CC (r=0.605, pp<0.001). The MNA was 26 (malnourished 13.8%, risk of malnutrition 12.3%, well-nourished, 73.9%). The BMI stratification by morbidity vs no morbidity was 27.50 (n=287) and 24.4 (n=104) to total sample respectively (pp<0,05). The RAC x AC (r=0.798, pp<0.001), RAC x CC (r=0.648, pp<0.001), and CC x AC (r=0.496, pp<0.001) were correlated between themselves. The eutrophic classification by circumference for both genders: RAC=27.1-29.00 cm, AC=88.1-95.00 cm, CC=32.60-33.00 cm. There are more overweight and obese than malnourished, which is a risk factor for morbidity and MNA only identifies malnutrition. Circumferences showed good association with BMI and are easy to apply. Therefore, the proposal of the circumferences can simplify and expand the nutritional assessment.

  1. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-04-01

    To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5 regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14.4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6.5 kg, and 25.4 ± 3.7 years, respectively. Wing players were lighter (63.5 ± 4.8 kg, p games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions remained unchanged in the second half. Marked positional differences in the physical demands were demonstrated, with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations than BP and PV. Body anthropometry differed substantially between different playing positions. Consequently, this should lead to an increase in physical training in modern female elite TH directed at specific positions and individual physical

  2. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  3. Hypertension and sexual dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Hypertension and sexual dysfunction. 117. Vol 54 No 2. S Afr Fam Pract 2012. Introduction. Hypertension is a major independent cardiovascular risk factor, and also a marker of survival risk. Quality of life during the treatment of hypertension is an important health issue, as one in every five treated patients ...

  4. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to talk, chew, and yawn. For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that travels through the face, jaw, ...

  5. Postirradiation cardiovascular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.N.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction may be defined as the inability of any element of the cardiovascular system to perform adequately upon demand, leading to inadequate performance and nutritive insufficiency of various parts of the body. Exposure to supralethal doses of radiation (accidental and therapeutic) has been show to induce significant alterations in cardiovascular function in man. These findings indicate that, after irradiation, cardiovascular function is a major determinant of continued performance and even survival. For the two persons who received massive radiation doses (45 and 88 Gy, respectively) in criticality accidents, the inability to maintain systematic arterial blood pressure (AP) was the immediate cause of death. In a study of cancer patients given partial-body irradiation, two acute lethalities were attributed to myocardial infarction after an acute hypotensive episode during the first few hours postexposure. Although radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been observed in many species, its severity, duration, and even etiology may vary with the species, level of exposure, and dose rate. For this reason, our consideration of the effects of radiation on cardiovascular performance is limited to the circulatory derangements that occur in rat, dog, and monkey after supralethal doses and lead to radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in these experimental models. The authors consider other recent data as they pertain to the etiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in irradiated animals

  6. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction in epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Kunz, W.S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2012), s. 35-40 ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : epilepsy * mitochondrial dysfunction * neurodegeneration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.025, year: 2012

  8. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Gliomas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Anni, H.; Dráber, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 216-227 ISSN 1071-9091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12050 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gliomas * mitochondrial dysfunction * microtubule proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2013

  9. Gastrointestinal Complications After Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Irene T.; Madura, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed in the medically complicated obese population as convincing data continue to mount, documenting the success of surgery not only in achieving meaningful weight loss but also in correcting obesity-related illnesses. Several surgical procedures with varying degrees of success and complications are currently being performed. This article discusses the short- and long-term gastrointestinal complications for the 4 most common bariatric surgical proc...

  10. Tumor of the gastrointestinal stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Leon, Jorge Felipe; Silveira Pablos, Juan Mario; Figueroa, Alejandro Joan; Fuente Pelaez, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    The tumors of the gastrointestinal stroma, known in English language as GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors) are mesenchymal tumors appearing in any place throughout the intestinal tract. The objective of present paper is to present the case of a female patient aged 60 came to Gynecology consultation of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology due pain in epigastrium irradiating to right flank with increase of volume in the right iliac fossa and by ultrasonography it is a tumor of right ovary projecting to epigastrium and the right hypochondrium. The surgical intervention is described as well as the findings noted in macro- and microscopic studies, as well ass in latter studies by immunohistochemistry of lesion. We conclude with a diagnosis of tumor of gastrointestinal stroma and the results of performed surgical and drugs interventions. It is recommended to assess the significance of a close relationship among general surgeons and gynecologists in face of unexpected diseases due to its difficult preoperative diagnosis leading to a appropriate surgical treatment due to its complexity it is necessary the competence of both surgical specialties

  11. Patient Health Communication Mediating Effects Between Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Saeed, Shehzad A; Patel, Ashish S; Nurko, Samuel; Neigut, Deborah A; Saps, Miguel; Zacur, George M; Dark, Chelsea V; Bendo, Cristiane B; Pohl, John F

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of patient health communication regarding their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to their health care providers and significant others in their daily life as a mediator in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Gastrointestinal Worry, and Communication Scales, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 252 pediatric patients with IBD. Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, constipation, or diarrhea and patient communication were tested for bivariate and multivariate linear associations with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales specific to patient worry about stomach pain or bowel movements. Mediational analyses were conducted to test the hypothesized mediating effects of patient health communication as an intervening variable in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry. The predictive effects of gastrointestinal symptoms on gastrointestinal worry were mediated in part by patient health communication with health care providers/significant others in their daily life. In predictive models using multiple regression analyses, the full conceptual model of demographic variables, gastrointestinal symptoms (stomach pain, constipation, or diarrhea), and patient communication significantly accounted for 46, 43, and 54 percent of the variance in gastrointestinal worry (all Ps health communication explains in part the effects of gastrointestinal symptoms on gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients with IBD. Supporting patient disease-specific communication to their health care providers and significant others may improve health-related quality of life for pediatric patients with IBD.

  12. Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gil Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players.  mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.

  13. The science of badminton: game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual fitness and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomsoupha, Michael; Laffaye, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Badminton is a racket sport for two or four people, with a temporal structure characterized by actions of short duration and high intensity. This sport has five events: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, each requiring specific preparation in terms of technique, control and physical fitness. Badminton is one of the most popular sports in the world, with 200 million adherents. The decision to include badminton in the 1992 Olympics Game increased participation in the game. This review focuses on the game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual attributes and biomechanics of badminton. Players are generally tall and lean, with an ectomesomorphic body type suited to the high physiological demands of a match. Indeed, a typical match characteristic is a rally time of 7 s and a resting time of 15 s, with an effective playing time of 31%. This sport is highly demanding, with an average heart rate (HR) of over 90% of the player's maximal HR. The intermittent actions during a game are demanding on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems: 60-70% on the aerobic system and approximately 30% on the anaerobic system, with greater demand on the alactic metabolism with respect to the lactic anaerobic metabolism. The shuttlecock has an atypical trajectory, and the players perform specific movements such as lunging and jumping, and powerful strokes using a specific pattern of movement. Lastly, badminton players are visually fit, picking up accurate visual information in a short time. Knowledge of badminton can help to improve coaching and badminton skills.

  14. Interactions Between Race/Ethnicity and Anthropometry in Risk of Incident Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Pereira, Mark A.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how adiposity influences racial/ethnic differences in diabetes incidence by exploring whether relations between anthropometric measures and incident diabetes vary by race/ethnicity. Data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis initiated in 2000 (n = 5,446 US men and women aged 45–84 years) were analyzed by using proportional hazards and Poisson regression. The diabetes incidence rate was 2/100 person-years (n = 479 cases). Interactions were present between race and anthropometry (P-interaction(race × body mass index) = 0.002). The slope of incident diabetes per anthropometric unit was greatest for Chinese, less for whites and Hispanics, and still less for blacks. For small waist, risk of incident diabetes was <1/100 person-years for all racial/ethnic groups. At intermediate waist levels, Chinese had the highest and whites the lowest rates of incident diabetes. At the respective 95th percentiles of waist circumference, risk of incident diabetes per 100 person-years was 3.9 for Chinese (104 cm), 3.5 for whites (121 cm), 5.0 for blacks (125 cm), and 5.3 for Hispanics (121 cm). Adiposity influenced relative diabetes occurrence across racial/ethnic groups, in that Chinese had a steeper diabetes risk per unit of adiposity. However, the generally low level of adiposity in Chinese led to a relatively low diabetes occurrence. PMID:20570825

  15. Maternal vitamin D status and infant anthropometry in a US multi-centre cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Cara L.; Gernand, Alison D.; Roth, Daniel E.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is linked to foetal growth and may impact infant growth. Aim This study examined the association between maternal vitamin D status and infant anthropometry. Subjects and methods Data came from n = 2473 mother–child pairs from the 12-site US Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959–1965). Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at ≤26 weeks gestation. Multivariate-adjusted linear mixed models were used to relate maternal vitamin D status to infant z-scores for length (LAZ), head circumference (HCZ), weight (WAZ) and BMI (BMIZ), measured at birth and 4, 8 and 12 months. Results Infants with maternal 25(OH)D ≥30 nmol/L vs <30 nmol/L had LAZ and HCZ measures 0.13 (95% CI = 0.03–0.23) and 0.20 (95% CI = 0.11–0.28) units higher, respectively, across the first year of life. Similar differences in WAZ and BMIZ at birth were resolved by 12 months of age due to interactions indicating steeper age slopes in infants with maternal 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L. Conclusion Low maternal vitamin D status was associated with deficits at birth in infant weight and BMI that were recouped across the first year of life; associations with reduced measures of linear and skeletal growth were sustained from birth to 12 months. PMID:25268792

  16. Predicting hepatic steatosis and liver fat content in obese children based on biochemical parameters and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H-X; Xu, X-Q; Fu, J-F; Lai, C; Chen, X-F

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of quantitative evaluation of hepatic steatosis and liver fat content (LFC) using clinical and laboratory variables available in the general practice in the obese children are poorly identified. To build predictive models of hepatic steatosis and LFC in obese children based on biochemical parameters and anthropometry. Hepatic steatosis and LFC were determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 171 obese children aged 5.5-18.0 years. Routine clinical and laboratory parameters were also measured in all subjects. Group analysis, univariable correlation analysis, and multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis were used to develop a liver fat score to identify hepatic steatosis and a liver fat equation to predict LFC in each subject. The predictive model of hepatic steatosis in our participants based on waist circumference and alanine aminotransferase had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.959 (95% confidence interval: 0.927-0.990). The optimal cut-off value of 0.525 for determining hepatic steatosis had sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 90%. A liver fat equation was also developed based on the same parameters of hepatic steatosis liver fat score, which would be used to calculate the LFC in each individual. The liver fat score and liver fat equation, consisting of routinely available variables, may help paediatricians to accurately determine hepatic steatosis and LFC in clinical practice, but external validation is needed before it can be employed for this purpose. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  17. Design of Lesehan Chair by Using Kansei Engineering Method And Anthropometry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi, A. T.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Sari, A. D.; Kurnia, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY) is known as city for academic. Many people come to get some education in college. They live in boarding house with some supporting facilities. The most common facilities is low table which lead students have to sit on the floor while studying on table which could cause higher risk of back pain and musculoskeletal disorder. To identify the solution to reduce back pain and musculoskeletal risk, it is needed to design a lesehan chair which also appropriate to customer needs. Kansei engineering method was used with a total of 30 respondents participated, 15 kansei words collected, and 12 kansei words selected by doing validation and reliability test. The result of this study showed that quality, aesthetics, and comfort level influence the design of lesehan chair. A design of lesehan chair was created by considering the suitable concept and merging it with the physical design and its anthropometry measurement. In this case, marginal homogeneity test is needed to identify the differences between each kansei words attribute and the design or product recommendation. The marginal homogeneity test results show that the design and product recommendation has fulfilled customer's desires and needs. For further research, it is needed to analyse and evaluate the posture of lesehan chair users in order to develop and improve its performance.

  18. Predicting muscle mass from anthropometry using magnetic resonance imaging as reference: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Leslie, Wilma; Govan, Lindsay; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-02-01

    Identification and management of sarcopenia are limited by lack of reliable simple approaches to assess muscle mass. The aim of this review is to identify and evaluate simple methods to quantify muscle mass/volume of adults. Using Cochrane Review methodology, Medline (1946-2012), Embase (1974-2012), Web of Science (1898-2012), PubMed, and the Cochrane Library (to 08/2012) were searched for publications that included prediction equations (from anthropometric measurements) to estimate muscle mass by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults. Of 257 papers identified from primary search terms, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 10) assessed only regional/limb muscle mass/volume. Many studies (n = 9) assessed limb circumference adjusted for skinfold thickness, which limits their practical applications. Only two included validation in separate subject-samples, and two reported relationships between whole-body MRI-measured muscle mass and anthropometry beyond linear correlations. In conclusion, one simple prediction equation shows promise, but it has not been validated in a separate population with different investigators. Furthermore, it did not incorporate widely available trunk/limb girths, which have offered valuable prediction of body composition in other studies. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  19. Work stress, anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure, and blood-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 1......, creatinine, glucose levels or resting blood pressure measures. This indicates that work stress is associated altered metabolic profile, increased systemic inflammation, and, in men, poorer liver function, which is a marker of high alcohol consumption.......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18......–72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood...

  20. 3-D breast anthropometry of plus-sized women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandarum, Reena; Yu, Winnie; Hunter, Lawrance

    2011-09-01

    Exploratory retail studies in South Africa indicate that plus-sized women experience problems and dissatisfaction with poorly fitting bras. The lack of 3-D anthropometric studies for the plus-size women's bra market initiated this research. 3-D body torso measurements were collected from a convenience sample of 176 plus-sized women in South Africa. 3-D breast measurements extracted from the TC(2) NX12-3-D body scanner 'breast module' software were compared with traditional tape measurements. Regression equations show that the two methods of measurement were highly correlated although, on average, the bra cup size determining factor 'bust minus underbust' obtained from the 3-D method is approximately 11% smaller than that of the manual method. It was concluded that the total bust volume correlated with the quadrant volume (r = 0.81), cup length, bust length and bust prominence, should be selected as the overall measure of bust size and not the traditional bust girth and the underbust measurement. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes new data and adds to the knowledge base of anthropometry and consumer ergonomics on bra fit and support, published in this, the Ergonomics Journal, by Chen et al. (2010) on bra fit and White et al. (2009) on breast support during overground running.

  1. Anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary pattern of patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajifdar B

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary characteristics of 114 patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD were evaluated. There were 91 (80% men and the mean age was 56 +/- 9 years. The body mass index was near normal (24.4 +/- 3.4, but the waist: hip ratio was high (0.94 +/- 0.06 suggesting central obesity. This was well in accordance of the step II recommendations of the NCEP guidelines as regards their caloric intake and its break-up in terms of carbohydrate, protein and fat (including saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids content. Their daily cholesterol intake (31 +/- 32 mg/day, range 4-180 was very low. The total cholesterol (212 +/- 37 mg% was marginally elevated, HDL cholesterol (33 +/- 7.5 mg% was low, LDL cholesterol (148 +/- 39 mg% was high and the total: HDL ratio (6.8 +/- 2.0 was significantly abnormal. The serum triglyceride level (154 +/- 68 mg% was on the higher side of normal. These observations give further credence to the recently evolving view that there are different and hitherto unrecognised risk factors of IHD in Indians, who seem to have the highest incidence of IHD amongst all ethnic groups of the world despite consuming a diet low in fat and cholesterol content.

  2. Radiologic anthropometry of the hand in patients with familial short stature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, C.D.; Lifshitz, F.; Levenbrown, J.

    1988-04-01

    Fifth metacarpal bone shortening (brachymetacarpia V) was recently described to be highly prevalent in children with familial short stature (FSS). To characterize the hand bones of FSS patients with and without brachymetacarpia V, the left hand bone age radiographs of 26 FSS children were reviewed. In 16/19 patients with clinical brachymetacarpia V radiographs revealed fifth metacarpal bone shortening with a gap of 2 mm or more between the distal end of the fifth metacarpal bone and a tangential line connecting the distal ends of the third and fourth metacarpal bones. Only one of 7 patients without clinical brachymetacarpia V had a gap of 2 mm. Radiologic anthropometry revealed that FSS patients with clinically shortened fifth metacarpal bone frequently had shortened first metacarpal bones, second and third proximal phalanges, and fifth distal phalanx as well. FSS patients without clinical fifth metacarpal bone shortening had shortened 3rd and 4th metacarpal bones, fifth proximal phalanx, and fifth distal phalanx. Fifth metacarpal bone shortening was only detected clinically if the fourth metacarpal bone was not short as well. Reduction in height correlated more with reduction in metacarpal bone length than with that of the other hand bones. These peculiar tubular bone alterations commonly seen in FSS suggest a disturbance in endochondral ossification, the process primarily involved in tubular bone elongation.

  3. Anthropometry and renal size of children suffering under sustained conflict in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehall, John

    2008-11-01

    To measure anthropometry, blood pressure and renal lengths of children in a war torn region of Sri Lanka and compare results with local and international standards. Measurements of 147 Tamil children in Kilinochchi, north-east Sri Lanka, were compared with the World Health Organization standards using Anthro 2005 software in a period of relative peace in December 2005. Renal lengths were measured by ultrasound and compared with Australian and Indian data. 1 2-5 years of age. The weight-to-height ratio for combined sexes revealed 13.9% were children was children was children are stunted and wasted in this older group. Girls are more affected than boys. 3 Renal lengths fell progressively below -2 SD for both age and height when compared with Australian and Indian children. Tamil children in Kilinochchi are more stunted and wasted than others in Sri Lanka, except those in the tea estates. Progressive renal stunting because of under-nutrition may be a mechanism for later disease. The loss of potential for human development can only be addressed by long-term improvement in access to nutrition.

  4. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  5. Colonic Mucosal Ulceration and Gastrointestinal Bleeding Associated with Sevelamer Crystal Deposition in a Patient with End Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Nambiar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available End stage renal disease (ESRD population account for 1.9 per patient year of hospital admissions annually. ESRD population are at increased risk of bleeding secondary to use of anticoagulation during hemodialysis and uremia induced platelet dysfunction. Gastrointestinal bleeding accounts for 3–7% of all deaths in ESRD population. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding refers to blood loss from a site in the gastrointestinal tract distal to the ligament of Treitz. It is usually suspected when a patient complains of hematochezia. It is different from patients presenting with hematemesis that suggests bleeding from upper gastrointestinal tract. Common causes of lower gastrointestinal bleed include diverticulosis, ischemia, hemorrhoids, neoplasia, angiodysplasia, and inflammatory bowel disease. ESRD patients are known to retain phosphate alone or in combination with calcium which has been associated with high mortality. Sevelamer is a phosphate binder used widely in ESRD population. The known side effects of sevelamer include metabolic acidosis, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, constipation, flatulence, fecal impaction, and skin rash. We are reporting a unique case of a 56-year-old female with end stage renal disease on sevelamer hydrochloride who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent a right hemicolectomy found to have sevelamer-induced mucosal ulceration and crystal deposition in the colonic mucosa. This case report highlights the fact that, with widespread use of this medication in the patients with chronic kidney diseases, physicians should be aware of this underrecognized entity in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleed in ESRD patients.

  6. [Thyroid dysfunction and amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jandira; Carvalho, Patrícia; Molina, M Auxiliadora; Rebelo, Marta; Dias, Patrícia; Vieira, José Diniz; Costa, José M Nascimento

    2013-02-01

    Although most patients remain clinically euthyroid, some develop amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (HPEAI) or hypothyroidism (HPOAI). The authors present a retrospective analysis of ten patients with amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction. Six patients were female and mean amiodarone intake was 17.7 months. HPOIA was more common (six patients). From all the patients with HPEAI, two had type 2, one had type 1, and one had type 3 hyperthyroidism. Symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction occurred in five patients, most of them with HPOAI. In HPEAI, the most frequent symptom was exacerbation of arrhythmia (three patients). Discontinuation of amiodarone and treatment with levothyroxine was chosen in 83.3% of the HPOAI cases, while thyonamide treatment with corticosteroids and without amiodarone was the option in 75% of the HPEAI cases. There were three deaths, all in patients with HPEAI. HPEAI is potentially fatal. The clinical picture may be vague, so the thyroid monitoring is mandatory.

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Aline Haas; Costa, Ana Beatriz; Engel, Jéssica Della Giustina; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza

    2018-01-01

    Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation. This increase in ROS production by the respiratory chain may also cause oxidative stress, which may exacerbate the inflammatory process in obesity. All these intracellular changes can lead to cellular apoptosis. These processes have been described in obesity as occurring mainly in peripheral tissues. However, some studies have already shown that obesity is also associated with changes in the central nervous system (CNS), with alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in cerebral structures such as hypothalamus and hippocampus. In this sense, this review presents a general view about mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity, including related alterations, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and focusing on the whole organism, covering alterations in peripheral tissues, BBB, and CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Review article: botulinum toxin in the therapy of gastrointestinal motility disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, D; Rossi, S; Runfola, M; Magalini, S C

    2003-07-01

    Since 1980, botulinum toxin has been employed for the treatment of various voluntary muscle spastic disorders in the fields of neurology and ophthalmology. More recently, botulinum toxin has been proved to be effective in the therapy of dyskinetic smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Achalasia and anal fissure are the gastrointestinal disorders in which botulinum toxin therapy has been most extensively investigated. Botulinum toxin is the best treatment option for achalasia in patients whose condition makes them unfit for pneumatic dilation or surgery. In anal fissure, botulinum toxin is highly effective and may become the treatment of choice. In the future, botulinum toxin application in the gastrointestinal tract will be extended to many other gastrointestinal disorders, such as non-achalasic motor disorders of the oesophagus, dysfunction of Oddi's sphincter, achalasia of the internal anal sphincter and others. This article describes the mechanism of action, rationale of employment, indications and side-effects of botulinum toxin application in smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and compares the results of different techniques of botulinum toxin therapeutic application.

  9. Brain changes in diabetes mellitus patients with gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewes, Anne M; Søfteland, Eirik; Dimcevski, Georg

    2016-01-01

    to stimulation of GI organs. Imaging studies on patients with diabetes and GI symptoms mainly showed microstructural changes, especially in brain areas involved in visceral sensory processing. As the electrophysiological and imaging changes were associated with GI and autonomic symptoms they may represent...... neuropathy of the central nervous system (CNS) may play a major role. This systematic review provides an overview of the neurodegenerative changes that occur as a consequence of diabetes with a focus on the CNS changes and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Animal models where diabetes was induced...... experimentally support that the disease induces changes in CNS. Recent investigations with electroencephalography and functional brain imaging in patients with diabetes confirm these structural and functional brain changes. Encephalographic studies demonstrated that altered insular processing of sensory stimuli...

  10. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  11. History of Polish gastrointestinal radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanik, A

    2003-12-01

    As early as several days after the publication of the information concerning Roentgen's discovery the first radiological examinations were performed in Poland. The new method was immediately introduced into medical practice, including gastroenterology. In that pioneer period the most important works were those by Walery Jaworski who was the first man in the world to perform an X-ray of gall stones as well as the stomach with the use of a contrast medium. In its more-than-a-hundred-year history Polish gastrointestinal radiology has attempted not only to catch up with the world science, but it also has made a considerable contribution to its development.

  12. Gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Lynette A; Sokol, Ronald J

    2003-09-01

    Although non-specific gastrointestinal and hepatic symptoms are commonly found in most mitochondrial disorders, they are among the cardinal manifestations of several primary mitochondrial diseases, such as: mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy; mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome; Alpers syndrome; and Pearson syndrome. Management of these heterogeneous disorders includes the empiric supplementation with various "mitochondrial cocktails," supportive therapies, and avoidance of drugs and conditions known to have a detrimental effect on the respiratory chain. There is a great need for improved methods of treatment and controlled clinical trials of existing therapies. Liver transplantation is successful in acquired cases; however neuromuscular involvement in primary mitochondrial disorders should be a contraindication for liver transplantation.

  13. Gastrointestinal Complications After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Irene T; Madura, James A

    2015-08-01

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed in the medically complicated obese population as convincing data continue to mount, documenting the success of surgery not only in achieving meaningful weight loss but also in correcting obesity-related illnesses. Several surgical procedures with varying degrees of success and complications are currently being performed. This article discusses the short- and long-term gastrointestinal complications for the 4 most common bariatric surgical procedures: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch.

  14. Fraccionando la microbiota gastrointestinal humana

    OpenAIRE

    Peris Bondia, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    La microbiota gastrointestinal humana es una de las comunidades microbianas más diversa y compleja que se puede encontrar en la naturaleza. Las nuevas tecnologías de secuenciación permiten obtener una amplia visión de la diversidad microbiana, lo que ha revelado una gran cantidad de bacterias no cultivables. A pesar del potencial de estas tecnologías de alto rendimiento la metagenómica no muestra la imagen completa. La citometría de flujo es una metodología que permite describir y/o separa...

  15. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals.

  16. Gastrointestinal Complications After Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Irene T.

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed in the medically complicated obese population as convincing data continue to mount, documenting the success of surgery not only in achieving meaningful weight loss but also in correcting obesity-related illnesses. Several surgical procedures with varying degrees of success and complications are currently being performed. This article discusses the short- and long-term gastrointestinal complications for the 4 most common bariatric surgical procedures: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. PMID:27118949

  17. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahn, Benjamin; Bitton, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the evaluation and management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) in children. The common etiologies at different ages are reviewed. Conditions with endoscopic importance for diagnosis or therapy include solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, polyps, vascular lesions, and colonic inflammation and ulceration. Diagnostic modalities for identifying causes of LGIB in children include endoscopy and colonoscopy, cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging, video capsule endoscopy, and enteroscopy. Pre-endoscopic preparation and decision-making unique to pediatrics is highlighted. The authors conclude with a summary of current and emerging therapeutic hemostatic techniques that can be used in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the most interesting presentations at Digestive Disease Week, held in San Diego, in the field of functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. One of the most important contributions was undoubtedly the presentation of the new Rome IV diagnostic criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders. We therefore devote some space in this article to explaining these new criteria in the most common functional disorders. In fact, there has already been discussion of data comparing Rome IV and Rome III criteria in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, confirming that the new criteria are somewhat more restrictive. From the physiopathological point of view, several studies have shown that the aggregation of physiopathological alterations increases symptom severity in distinct functional disorders. From the therapeutic point of view, more data were presented on the efficacy of acotiamide and its mechanisms of action in functional dyspepsia, the safety and efficacy of domperidone in patients with gastroparesis, and the efficacy of linaclotide both in irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. In irritable bowel syndrome, more data have come to light on the favourable results of a low FODMAP diet, with emphasis on its role in modifying the microbiota. Finally, long-term efficacy data were presented on the distinct treatment options in achalasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Endocannabinoids in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunna; Jo, Jeongbin; Chung, Hae Young; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Im, Eunok

    2016-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system mainly consists of endogenously produced cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) and two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB 1 and CB 2 ). This system also includes enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids and molecules required for the uptake and transport of endocannabinoids. In addition, endocannabinoid-related lipid mediators and other putative endocannabinoid receptors, such as transient receptor potential channels and other GPCRs, have been identified. Accumulating evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid system is a key modulator of gastrointestinal physiology, influencing satiety, emesis, immune function, mucosal integrity, motility, secretion, and visceral sensation. In light of therapeutic benefits of herbal and synthetic cannabinoids, the vast potential of the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has been demonstrated. This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in gut homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of intestinal disorders associated with intestinal motility, inflammation, and cancer. Finally, links between gut microorganisms and the endocannabinoid system are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, L E; Hardam, E E; Hertzke, D M; Flatland, B; Rohrbach, B W; Moore, R R

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

  1. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  2. Accuracy and reliability of 3D stereophotogrammetry: A comparison to direct anthropometry and 2D photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindaroğlu, Furkan; Kutlu, Pınar; Duran, Gökhan Serhat; Görgülü, Serkan; Aslan, Erhan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry by comparing it with the direct anthropometry and digital photogrammetry methods. The reliability of 3D stereophotogrammetry was also examined. Six profile and four frontal parameters were directly measured on the faces of 80 participants. The same measurements were repeated using two-dimensional (2D) photogrammetry and 3D stereophotogrammetry (3dMDflex System, 3dMD, Atlanta, Ga) to obtain images of the subjects. Another observer made the same measurements for images obtained with 3D stereophotogrammetry, and interobserver reproducibility was evaluated for 3D images. Both observers remeasured the 3D images 1 month later, and intraobserver reproducibility was evaluated. Statistical analysis was conducted using the paired samples t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement. The highest mean difference was 0.30 mm between direct measurement and photogrammetry, 0.21 mm between direct measurement and 3D stereophotogrammetry, and 0.5 mm between photogrammetry and 3D stereophotogrammetry. The lowest agreement value was 0.965 in the Sn-Pro parameter between the photogrammetry and 3D stereophotogrammetry methods. Agreement between the two observers varied from 0.90 (Ch-Ch) to 0.99 (Sn-Me) in linear measurements. For intraobserver agreement, the highest difference between means was 0.33 for observer 1 and 1.42 mm for observer 2. Measurements obtained using 3D stereophotogrammetry indicate that it may be an accurate and reliable imaging method for use in orthodontics.

  3. Nasal Anthropometry on Facial Computed Tomography Scans for Rhinoplasty in Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Moon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCephalometric analysis is essential for planning treatment in maxillofacial and aesthetic facial surgery. Although photometric analysis of the Korean nose has been attempted in the past, anthropometry of the deeper nasal structures in the same population based on computerized tomography (CT has not been published. We therefore measured three anthropometric parameters of the nose on CT scans in our clinical series of patients.MethodsWe conducted the current retrospective study of a total of 100 patients (n=100 who underwent a CT-guided radiological measurement at our institution during a period ranging from January of 2008 to August of 2010. In these patients, we took three anthropometric measurements: the nasofrontal angle, the pyramidal angle, and the linear distance between the nasion and the tip of the nasal bone.ResultsThe mean nasofrontal angle was 131.14° in the male patients and 140.70° in the female patients. The mean linear distance between the nasion and the tip of the nasal bone was 21.28 mm and 18.02 mm, respectively. The mean nasal pyramidal angle was 112.89° and 103.25° at the level of the nasal root, 117.49° and 115.60° at the middle level of the nasal bone, and 127.99° and 125.04° at the level of the tip of the nasal bone, respectively.ConclusionsIn conclusion, our data will be helpful in the preparation of silicone implants for augmentation and/or corrective rhinoplasty in ethnic Korean people.

  4. Influence of maturation on anthropometry and body composition in Japanese junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine maturity-related differences in anthropometry and body composition in Japanese youth within a single year. Methods Two hundred and ten Japanese youth aged from 13 to 13.99 years participated in this study. Their maturity status was assessed using a self-assessment of stage of pubic hair development. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate percent body fat and lean body mass (LBM). Muscle thickness of the anterior thigh, posterior lower leg and rectus abdominis muscles were measured by ultrasound. Results For boys, height, body weight, and LBM in less mature groups were lower than that in more mature groups. The maturity-related differences were still significant after adjusting for chronological age. On the other hand, muscle thickness values in the lower extremity and abdomen differed among the groups at different stages of pubic hair development, whereas there was no maturity-related difference in the relative values corrected by LBM, except for those thickness values measured at the abdomen. For girls, only the muscle thickness at the anterior thigh and muscle thickness relative to LBM1/3 at the posterior lower leg was significantly affected by maturity status, but significant maturity-related difference was not found after adjusting for chronological age. Conclusions At least for Japanese boys and girls aged 13 years, maturity status affected body size in boys, but not in girls, and the influence of maturation on the muscularity of the lower extremity and trunk muscles is less in both sexes. PMID:23497570

  5. Anthropometry, CT, and DXA as predictors of GH deficiency in premenopausal women: ROC curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Utz, Andrea L.; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy; Schoenfeld, David A.; Miller, Karen K.

    2009-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is a strong determinant of growth hormone (GH) secretion, and states of GH deficiency are associated with increased visceral adiposity and decreased lean body mass. The purpose of our study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of different methods of assessing body composition [anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and computed tomography (CT)] to predict GH deficiency in premenopausal women and threshold values for each technique to predict GH deficiency, using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We studied a group of 45 healthy lean, overweight, and obese premenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, skin fold thickness), DXA, CT, and a GH-releasing hormone-arginine stimulation test. ROC curve analysis was used to determine cutoff values for each method to identify GH deficiency. Visceral adiposity measured by CT showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying subjects with GH deficiency with a cutoff of >9,962 mm2 [area under the curve (AUC), 0.95; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 77.8%; P = 0.0001]. Largest waist circumference showed high sensitivity and specificity with a cutoff of >101.7 cm (AUC, 0.89; sensitivity, 88.9%; specificity, 75%; P = 0.0001). When the ROC curves of visceral fat measured by CT and largest waist circumference were compared, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P = 0.36). Our study showed that the largest waist circumference predicts the presence of GH deficiency in healthy premenopausal women with high sensitivity and specificity and nearly as well as CT measurement of visceral adiposity. It can be used to identify women in whom GH deficiency is likely and therefore in whom formal GH stimulation testing might be indicated. PMID:19095751

  6. Changes in anthropometry and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients in the HEMO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chi-Ting; Yabes, Jonathan; Pike, Francis; Weiner, Daniel E; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Burrowes, Jerrilynn D; Rocco, Michael V; Unruh, Mark L

    2013-12-01

    Poor nutritional status has been associated with worse patient survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Anthropometric values are important nutritional measures, incorporating muscle and fat mass. However, the association of changes in anthropometry, including midarm circumference (MAC) and skinfold measurements, with mortality in hemodialysis patients remains unknown. Accordingly, we explored this association in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. Post hoc analysis of cohort data from a clinical trial. 1,846 hemodialysis patients enrolled in the HEMO Study. MAC and skinfold measurements. Longitudinal changes in MAC and skinfolds were jointly modeled using repeated measures and survival modeling. Time-to-event outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiac death and hospitalization, and infection-related death. Mean MAC was 30.1 cm, and mean baseline sum of subscapular, biceps, and triceps skinfolds was 42.4 mm. During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, there were 845 deaths. During follow-up, MAC and the skinfold measurement declined 0.26 cm and 1.1 mm per year, respectively. Declines in MAC (per cm) and skinfold (per mm) measurements were associated with higher all-cause mortality (HRs of 1.58 [95% CI, 1.29-1.94; P 85 kg. Declines in skinfold thickness were not associated significantly with outcomes except for participants with BMI ≤25 kg/m2. Declines in MAC are associated significantly with all-cause mortality and cardiac outcomes in hemodialysis patients, most notably in those with BMI ≤25 kg/m2. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anthropometry in the Prediction of Sleep Disordered Breathing in HIV-infected and -uninfected Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Todd T.; Patil, Susheel P.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Laffan, Alison M.; Godfrey, Rebecca J; Johnson, Jacquett R; Johnson-Hill, Lisette M; Reynolds, Sandra M; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and neck circumference (NC) are important screening tools for sleep disordered breathing (SDB). However, the utility of anthropometry for this purpose has not been evaluated among HIV-infected patients. Methods HIV-uninfected men (HIV−; n=60), HIV-infected men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HIV+/HAART; n=58), and HIV-infected men not receiving HAART (HIV+/No HAART; n=41) from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study underwent a nocturnal sleep study and anthropomorphic assessment. Moderate-severe SDB was defined as an apnea/hypopnea event rate ≥15 episodes/hour. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the ability of different anthropometric measurements to predict SDB within each group. Results Moderate-severe SDB was found in 48% (HIV−:57%; HIV+/HAART: 41%; HIV+/No HAART−: 44%). The performance of BMI, WC, and NC to predict SDB was excellent among the HIV− men (ROC areas-under-the curve (AUC): 0.83, 0.88, 0.88, respectively) and fair among the HIV+/HAART group (AUCs: 0.71, 0.77, 0.77, respectively). In contrast, these measurements had no predictive value in the HIV+/No HAART group (AUCs: 0.43, 0.41, 0.45, respectively). Moreover, in the HIV+/No HAART group, moderate-severe SDB was independently associated with serum C-reactive protein ≥3.0 mg/L (Odds Ratio (OR) 6.9; p=0.04) and HIV RNA > 10,000 copies/ml (OR 7.1; p=0.05). Conclusions BMI, waist circumference, and neck circumference had better predictive value for moderate-severe SDB in HIV-uninfected men compared to HIV-infected men, and had no value among HIV-infected men not receiving HAART. Among this latter group, systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of SDB. PMID:20587858

  8. Associations of anthropometry and lifestyle factors with HDL subspecies according to apolipoprotein C-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Manja; Furtado, Jeremy D; Jiang, Gordon Z; Gray, Brianna E; Cai, Tianxi; Sacks, Frank; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken K

    2017-06-01

    The presence of apoC-III on HDL impairs HDL's inverse association with coronary heart disease (CHD). Little is known about modifiable factors explaining variation in HDL subspecies defined according to apoC-III. The aim was to investigate cross-sectional associations of anthropometry and lifestyle with HDL subspecies in 3,631 participants from the Diet, Cancer, and Health study originally selected for a case-cohort study (36% women; age 50-65 years) who were all free of CHD. Greater adiposity and less activity were associated with higher HDL containing apoC-III and lower HDL lacking apoC-III. Per each 15 cm higher waist circumference, the level of HDL containing apoC-III was 2.8% higher (95% CI: 0.4, 5.3; P = 0.024) and the level of HDL not containing apoC-III was 4.7% lower (95% CI: -6.0, -3.4; P = <0.0001). Associations for physical activity were most robust to multivariable modeling. Each 20 metabolic equivalent task hours per week reported higher physical activity was associated with 0.9% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.1; P = 0.031) lower HDL containing apoC-III and 0.5% higher (95% CI: 0.1, 1.0; P = 0.029) HDL lacking apoC-III. Lower alcohol consumption was associated with lower HDL lacking apoC-III (percent difference per 15 g/day: 1.58 (95% CI: 0.84, 2.32; P = <0.0001). Adiposity and sedentary lifestyle were associated with a less favorable HDL subspecies profile. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Chang, Yun-feng; Fan, Fei; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2015-11-01

    The recent study was to assess the relationship between the radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions and stature in Chinese and to develop regression formulae to estimate stature from these dimensions. A total of 412 normal, healthy volunteers, comprising 206 males and 206 females, were recruited. The linear regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation between the stature and lengths of various segments of the lumbar vertebral column. Among the regression equations created for single variable, the predictive value was greatest for the reconstruction of stature from the lumbar segment in both sexes and subgroup analysis. When individual vertebral body was used, the heights of posterior vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for male group, the heights of central vertebral body of L1 provided the most accurate results for female group and female group with age above 45 years, the heights of central vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for the groups with age from 20-45 years for both sexes and the male group with age above 45 years. The heights of anterior vertebral body of L5 gave the less accurate results except for the heights of anterior vertebral body of L4 provided the less accurate result for the male group with age above 45 years. As expected, multiple regression equations were more successful than equations derived from a single variable. The research observations suggest lumbar vertebral dimensions to be useful in stature estimation among Chinese population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Anthropometry-Based Equations for the Estimation of the Total Body Water in Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Woo; Kim, Gyeong A; Lim, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun Young; Park, Geun Ho; Song, Joon Ho

    2005-01-01

    For developing race-specific anthropometry-based total body water (TBW) equations, we measured TBW using bioelectrical impedance analysis (TBWBIA) in 2,943 healthy Korean adults. Among them, 2,223 were used as a reference group. Two equations (TBWK1 and TBWK2) were developed based on age, sex, height, and body weight. The adjusted R2 was 0.908 for TBWK1 and 0.910 for TBWK2. The remaining 720 subjects were used for the validation of our results. Watson (TBWW) and Hume-Weyers (TBWH) formulas were also used. In men, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWH, followed by TBWK1, TBWK2 and TBWW. TBWK1 and TBWK2 showed the lower root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean prediction errors (ME) than TBWW and TBWH. On the Bland-Altman plot, the correlations between the differences and means were smaller for TBWK2 than for TBWK1. On the contrary, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1, and TBWH in females. RMSE was smallest in TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1 and TBWH. ME was closest to zero for TBWK2, followed by TBWK1, TBWW and TBWH. The correlation coefficients between the means and differences were highest in TBWW, and lowest in TBWK2. In conclusion, TBWK2 provides better accuracy with a smaller bias than the TBWW or TBWH in males. TBWK2 shows a similar accuracy, but with a smaller bias than TBWW in females. PMID:15953867

  11. The effect of breast anthropometry on the Hybrid III 5th female chest response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Charlebois, Dominique; Bussières, Alain; Dalmotas, Dainius

    2006-11-01

    Two manufacturers, Denton ATD and FTSS, currently produce the Hybrid III 5th percentile female dummy. In response to concerns raised by industry that differences in the anthropometry of the molded breasts between the two manufacturers may influence chest responses, Transport Canada conducted a comparative testing program. Thorax biofidelity tests were conducted to compare force-deflection characteristics; full frontal rigid-barrier tests were conducted at 40, 48 and 56 km/h to compare chest responses, and out-of-position chest on module static airbag deployment tests were conducted to compare peak chest deflections of the Denton and FTSS dummy jackets and of a prototype jacket without breasts. Differences in force-deflection characteristics were observed during biofidelity pendulum impacts of the two dummies, with much of the differences attributed to the different chest jackets. Differences of up to 11 mm in the peak sternum deflection and of the order of 15 g for the 3-ms chest acceleration clips were noted in rigid-barrier vehicle tests. In the out-of-position airbag-deployment tests, differences in the magnitude of peak chest deflections were observed. The prototype chest jacket without breasts was found to improve repeatability in the belted crash tests and in out-of-position airbag testing. Though neither the Denton nor the FTSS chest jackets fully meet the original design intent of the Hybrid III 5th percentile dummy, the Denton dummy more closely met the drawing specifications and had less manufacturing variability. The results demonstrate the importance of detailed chest flesh assembly specifications, provide evidence that a fully molded jacket design would eliminate manufacturing variability and suggest that removal of the breasts may further improve test repeatability.

  12. Use of serial ultrasound to identify periods of fetal growth restriction in relation to neonatal anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Anusha H; Klebanoff, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    The developmental origins of the health and disease hypothesis suggests that fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a risk factor for several chronic diseases of adulthood. However, most supporting studies use birth weight as a proxy measure of FGR. To examine the relationship between birth weight and FGR, the present study used serial prenatal ultrasound to identify periods of FGR during gestation, and related these periods to birth size and shape. The data in this study included serial prenatal ultrasounds performed on 1,349 high-risk Scandinavian women enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Successive Small for Gestational Age Births. Fetal growth velocity between ultrasounds was used to identify periods of isolated FGR, and these were studied in relation to anthropometry at birth. FGR was identified in 184 subjects. A control group of 384 subjects without FGR was also identified. Infants with first-trimester FGR (n = 20) had the highest birth weight, ponderal index, and subscapular skinfold thickness. Infants with second-trimester FGR (n = 37) had the highest arm fat percentage. Infants with early third-trimester FGR (n = 55) had the lowest mean birth weight and ponderal index. When infant gender, gestational age, maternal body mass index, and smoking were controlled, birth weight was predicted only by third-trimester FGR (not first- or second-trimester FGR), and arm fat percent was predicted only by second-trimester FGR. These results suggest that birth weight is not a valid indicator of FGR occurring before the third trimester. Body composition may be a more sensitive marker of early FGR.

  13. Nutritional status among adolescent girls in children's homes: Anthropometry and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tone; Magala-Nyago, Christine; Iversen, Per Ole

    2017-03-25

    Malnutrition is widespread among disadvantaged people in low-income countries like Uganda. Children and adolescents living in children's homes are considered an especially vulnerable group, and malnutrition among girls is of particular concern since it has intergenerational consequences. Virtually no information exists about the nutritional status of adolescent girls living in children's homes in Uganda. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status by evaluating anthropometric indicators, body composition and dietary patterns. Forty-four girls aged 10-19 years living in five children's homes participated in addition to a reference group of 27 adolescent girls from three boarding schools; both in the Ugandan capital Kampala. Height and weight were measured to assess anthropometry. Body composition data was obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire, calculation of dietary diversity score, and a 24-h dietary recall. The adolescent girls living in children's homes suffered from stunting (18.6%), overweight or obesity (18.6%), and were at risk of insufficient intakes of multiple micronutrients, especially of vitamins A, B 12 , C, D, E and calcium. They also had a low intake of essential fatty acids. Dietary diversity was low with a median score of 3 out of 9 food groups. Animal products were rarely consumed. The majority of girls in children's homes consumed a less adequate diet compared to the reference group, thus being at risk of nutrient deficiency-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  15. The Frequency and Severity of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Young Sung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although gastrointestinal dysfunctions occur in the majority of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, they are often unrecognized because many patients remain relatively asymptomatic in the early stage. We investigated the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PD using newly developed gastrointestinal symptom questionnaires. Methods Early PD patients with a symptom duration not exceeding 3 years were included in this study. All PD patients were evaluated using a questionnaire, which consisted of three relevant domains: oropharyngoesophageal (10 items; gastric (3 items; and intestinal-anorectal (7 items. The frequency of symptoms was calculated as a proportion with an item score ≥ 2. Results Of the 54 patients enrolled, 48 patients (88.9% responded that bowel symptoms developed before the onset of Parkinsonian motor symptoms, and four patients reported that the onset of two types of symptoms (i.e., bowel and neurological occurred approximately simultaneously, with only months between them. The frequencies of gastrointestinal symptoms are as follows: speech disturbance (40.7%, drooling (24.1%, sense of getting stuck (31.5%, choking (27.8%, globus pharyngis (16.7%, repetitive deglutition (29.6%, pain during swallowing (5.6%, food regurgitation (3.7%, acid reflux (7.4%, nausea/vomiting (11.1%, early satiety (16.7%, postprandial fullness (14.8%, epigastric soreness (9.3%, abdominal pain (3.7%, constipation (46.3%, excessive strain during defecation (33.3%, fecal incontinence (7.4%, tenesmus (20.4%, loose stool or diarrhea (3.7%, and difficulty in relaxing anal sphincter (11.1%. Two patients were scored at zero. Conclusions Our findings confirm that gastrointestinal dysfunction occurs in early PD in relatively high frequency.

  16. Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiese, Signe Skovgaard; Halgreen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    stiffness of the cirrhotic heart may decrease the compliance and result in DD. The prevalence of DD in cirrhotic patients averages about 50 %. It can be evaluated by transmitral Doppler echocardiography, tissue Doppler echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. There seems to be a relation...... between DD and the severity of liver dysfunction and the presence of ascites. After liver transplantation, DD worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of graft rejection, but DD improves after few months. Insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt increases left ventricular diastolic...

  17. Stress and psychological constructs related to eating behavior are associated with anthropometry and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hootman, Katie C; Guertin, Kristin A; Cassano, Patricia A

    2018-01-05

    The transition to college is associated with weight gain, but the relation between eating behavior indicators and anthropometric outcomes during this period remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate sex differences in stress, emotional eating, tendency to overeat, and restrained eating behavior, and determine whether the psycho-behavioral constructs assessed immediately prior to starting college are associated with anthropometry and adiposity at the start of college, and with first-semester weight gain. A prospective study administered the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Satter Eating Competence Inventory, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to 264 participants one month before college. Body composition was assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the start of college, and anthropometry (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) was collected at the beginning and end of the first semester. Ordinary least squares regression tested the cross-sectional association of baseline psychological and behavioral scales with baseline DXA and anthropometry, and the longitudinal association with change in anthropometry. Among 264 participants, 91% (241) had baseline data, and 66% (173) completed follow-up. In sex-adjusted linear regression models, baseline TFEQ disinhibited and emotional (DE; EE) eating sub-scales were positively associated with baseline weight (P = 0.003; DE, P = 0.014; EE), body mass index (BMI, P = 0.002; DE, P = 0.001; EE), WC (P = 0.004; DE, P = 0.006; EE) and DXA fat mass index (P = 0.023; DE, P = 0.014; EE). Baseline PSS was positively associated with subsequent changes in weight and WC among males only (P interaction  = 0.0268 and 0.0017 for weight and WC, respectively). College freshmen with questionnaire scores indicating a greater tendency to overeat in response to external cues and emotions tended to have greater weight, BMI, and WC at the start of college. Males with higher perceived stress at college

  18. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  19. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we studied the gastrointestinal parasites of nonhuman mammalian hosts living in 10 rainforest patches of the Anamalai Tiger Reserve, India. We examined 349 faecal samples of 17 mammalian species and successfully identified 24 gastroin-testinal parasite taxa including 1 protozoan, 2 trematode, 3 cestode and 18 ...

  20. Gastrointestinal symptoms and ethanol metabolism in alcoholics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Verlaan, M.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Doelder, M.S. de; Jong, C.A.J. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake frequently results in gastrointestinal discomfort. It is an empirical fact that the severity of gastrointestinal discomfort induced by alcohol abuse is subject to interindividual variation. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphism in alcohol

  1. Gastrointestinal symptoms and ethanol metabolism in alcoholics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R. J. E.; Verlaan, M.; van Oijen, M. G. H.; de Doelder, M. S.; Dejong, C. A. J.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake frequently results in gastrointestinal discomfort. It is an empirical fact that the severity of gastrointestinal discomfort induced by alcohol abuse is subject to interindividual variation. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphism in alcohol

  2. Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uncomplicated dyspepsia has a low predictive value in diagnosing upper gastrointestinal organic disease making early endoscopy essential. Objective: To assess the reliability of clinical information in the diagnosis of organic disease in patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: Patients ...

  3. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: A prospective study involving 54 consecutive in and out patients who had diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at ...

  4. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygdala plays a significant role and mucosal mast cells arise. But in people with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal, how is differ motility response in healthy individuals, this situation is due to lack of autonomous nervous system or an increased sensitivity of stress is not adequately understood. The brain-gastrointestinal axis frequency and severity of symptoms associated with negative emotions. American Gastroenterology Association is closely associated with the quality of life and is very difficult to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, re-interpreted under the heading of 'Gastrointestinal Distress'. This review is defined as gastrointestinal distresses, physical, emotional, and behavioral components as a disorder in which, almost like an anxiety disorder are discussed. Physical component is pain, gas, and defecation problems, cognitive component is external foci control, catastrophization and anticipatory anxiety, the emotional component is somatic anxiety, hypervigilance, and avoidance of gastrointestinal stimuli as defined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 122-133

  5. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one.

  6. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one. Images PMID:3712396

  7. Upper gastrointestinal fiberoptic endoscopy in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolla, J C; Diehl, A S; Bemvenuti, G A; Loguercio, S V; Magalhães, D S; Silveira, T R

    1983-11-01

    Upper gastrointestinal fiberendoscopy in pediatric patients is done safely and under local anesthesia in most instances. This study of 47 children confirmed the value of fiberendoscopy in establishing the etiology of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the presence of esophageal varices. It also contributed significantly to the management of patients with disphagia, pyrosis, epigastric pain, and ingestion of foreign bodies. No significant morbidity was caused.

  8. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81 ye...

  9. Managing female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, John E

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... and DN) independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality, and adverse effects. Outcomes were reported as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) based on random-effects and fixed-effect model meta...

  11. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  12. Antidepressants and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, B.; Tielemans, M.M.; Aaldering, B.R.; Eikendal, T.; Jaspers Focks, J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently reported adverse effects of antidepressants, but antidepressants are also a treatment modality in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to assess the association between antidepressant use and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general

  13. Gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makepeace, A.R.; Fermont, D.C.; Bennett, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Seventy-two patients with gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated between 1952 and 1980 are reviewed. The small intestine was involved in 49% of cases and the stomach in 29%. Surgical resection of the tumour was performed whenever feasible. Radiotherapy was used either adjuvantly or for incompletely excised tumours and chemotherapy was more often reserved for advanced, unresected disease. The overall 5 year survival was 36% and the 5 year relapse free survival was 22%. Forty-one (57%) patients relapsed of whom 33 (80%) subsequently died of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The histology in each case was reviewed using the British National Lymphoma Investigation criteria and 94% of cases were reclassified as Grade 2 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (author)

  14. Radiologic evaluation of gastrointestinal leiomyosarcomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korman, U.; Ersavasti, G.; Kurugoglu, S.; Akman, C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, University of Istanbul, TR-34 300 Istanbul (Turkey); Uygun, N.T. [Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, University of Istanbul, TR-34 300 Istanbul (Turkey)

    1997-10-01

    A 68-year-old woman who had previously undergone small intestinal resection because of leiomyosarcoma was referred to our clinic with epigastric pain. A double-contrast barium study and the subsequent abdominopelvic CT and abdominal MRI examinations demonstrated multiple extraluminal growing tumors arising from the walls of stomach, small bowell, and colon. A CT-guided aspiration biopsy revealed malignant mesenchymal tumor. The presence of disseminated intra-abdominal masses without concomitant ascites and invasion of tissue planes on CT in a patient operated on prior because of a leiomyosarcoma led to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal leiomyosarcomatosis. In this report we discuss the radiological approach to this rare entity. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  15. Identifying Low Muscle Mass in Patients with Hip Fracture: Validation of Biolectrical Impedance Analysis and Anthropometry Compared to Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steihaug, O M; Gjesdal, C G; Bogen, B; Ranhoff, A H

    2016-01-01

    Older hip fracture patients often have reduced muscle mass, which is associated with adverse outcomes. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can determine muscle mass, but is not practical in the acute phase. We investigated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry compared against DXA for detecting low muscle mass in hip fracture patients. This was a cross-sectional validation study at two Norwegian hospitals on 162 hip fracture patients aged ≥ 65 years. Appendicular lean mass (ALM) was determined by DXA, BIA and anthropometry 3 months after hip fracture. ALM by BIA was calculated by the Kyle, Janssen, Tengvall and Sergi equations, and ALM by anthropometry by the Heymsfield and Villani equations. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare BIA and anthropometry for determining low ALM (≤5.67 kg/m2 for women and ≤7.25kg/m2 for men). Mean age was 79 years (SD 7.9), 74% were female. Mean ALM by DXA was 14.8 kg (SD 2.3) for women and 20.8 kg (SD 4.2) for men and 45% of women and 60% of men had low ALM. BIA (Kyle) in women (AUC 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.89) and BIA (Sergi) in men (AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) were best able to discriminate between low and normal ALM. Anthropometry (Heymsfield) was less accurate than BIA in women (AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.75), and equal to BIA in men (AUC 0.72, 95% CI 0.72 0.56-0.87). BIA (Sergi, Kyle and Tengvall) and anthropometry (Heymsfield) can identify low muscle mass in hip fracture patients.

  16. Body composition assessment in infancy and early childhood: comparison of anthropometry with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in low-income group children from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, B; Mamidi, R S; Balakrishna, N; Radhakrishna, K V

    2014-06-01

    Anthropometry is a simple, inexpensive method of body composition assessment, but its validity has not been examined adequately in young children. The study therefore compared the body composition estimates using anthropometry with those using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in infants and young children. Body composition estimates using anthropometry and DXA were assessed and compared at 6, 12 and 18 months in a cohort of 137 infants enrolled at birth. Fat mass (FM) and body fat percent (%BF) estimates by anthropometry were lower than those using DXA. Mean differences (DXA-skinfold thickness) in FM, fat free mass (FFM) and %BF were highest at 6 months (350 g, -226 g and 4%, respectively); the differences reduced with increase in age and were lowest at 18 months (46 g, 56 g and 0%, respectively). Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement between the FM, FFM and %BF estimates by the two methods only at 18 months. Accretion of FM and FFM during follow-up, estimated by the two methods, was significantly different, with agreement between the methods seen only for increment in FFM from 6 to 12 months. Substantial differences were found in the body composition estimates by anthropometry compared with DXA and also in the longitudinally assessed tissue accretion patterns by the two methods. As the body composition patterns may be influenced by the method used for body composition assessment, results of studies assessing body composition by anthropometry during infancy should be interpreted with caution.

  17. Client attributions for sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichten, C S; Spector, I; Libman, E

    1988-01-01

    This investigation examined attributions for sexual dysfunctions made by 63 individuals and 21 of their partners who presented at a sex therapy service for the following problems: erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, and female orgasmic dysfunctions. All participants completed measures of marital adjustment, locus of control, depression and a questionnaire which assessed: attributions of responsibility for the sexual problem, perceived control over sexual functioning, distress, effort made to improve the sexual relationship, and expectations about the efficacy of sex therapy for the problem. Results indicate that both identified patients and their partners, regardless of the dysfunction, blamed the sexual problem on the "dysfunctional individual" rather than on the circumstances or the partner. With respect to the partners, husbands of women with orgasmic dysfunction were more likely to blame themselves than the circumstances, while the opposite was true for wives of males with erectile difficulties. Individuals experiencing the dysfunction perceived themselves and their partners as having little, but equal control over the identified patient's sexuality. Correlational analyses indicate that in identified patients, the better the quality of the marital relationship, the greater the self-blame and the lower the partner blame. Those with happy marriages also made greater efforts to improve their sexual relationship and had higher expectations of success with therapy. The implications of the results for research on the role of attributions in sexual dysfunction and for assessment of cognitive factors in sexually dysfunctional individuals and their partners is discussed.

  18. [APPROACH TO PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, M; Hanževački, M; Jurčić, P; Budimir, I; Ljubičić, N

    2015-11-01

    In the developed Western countries, despite the accumulation of knowledge about the causes and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as the experience of gastroenterologists-endoscopists using sophisticated endoscopic devices, the number of hospitalizations and mortality rates has not declined as expected. The most likely explanations are the following: aging population, increased prevalence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity, Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance, using dual anti-aggregation therapy, anticoagulants, and excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of this paper is to show the incidence and the most common signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim is also to present initial clinical evaluation, diagnostic methods, the main causes of gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopic hemostatic modalities and treatment of bleeding from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Using the MEDLINE and Ovid databases, we searched the meta-analyses and systematic reviews published in English during the 2005-2015 period. Meta-analyses included results of randomized, double-blind studies on adults treated for gastrointestinal bleeding. Included were guidelines of the European and American Society of Gastroenterological Endoscopy, as well as recent expert work. In this review, we bring the state-of-the-art on gastrointestinal bleeding, new classification of gastrointestinal bleeding from the upper, mid and lower gut, controversy of nasogastric tube placement, use of prokinetic agents and inhibitor proton pumps in acute gastrointestinal bleeding from the upper tract, restrictive transfusion strategy, useful clinical stratification of the severity of bleeding, indications for hospitalization and outcome of using the clinical bleeding score, proper use of gastroprotection in patients at a high risk of peptic ulcer, the need of initial endoscopy, variceal assessment in newly diagnosed

  19. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F.; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    To develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is

  20. Gastrointestinal Non-Infectious Complications in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostović Milica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal complications are common among patients on peritoneal dialysis. Risk factors for the development of gastrointestinal complications in this patient population include: toxic effects of uremic toxins, frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Helicobacter pylori infection, angiodysplasia, increased intra-abdominal pressure, use of bioincompatible solution for peritoneal dialysis, increased glucose in solutions for peritoneal dialysis, secondary hyperparathyroidism (hypercalcemia, a disorder of lipid metabolism (hypertriglyceridemia, and the duration of peritoneal dialysis treatment. The most important non-infectious gastrointestinal complications in patients on peritoneal dialysis are: gastrointestinal bleeding, herniation and leaking of the dialysate from the abdomen (increased intra-abdominal pressure, impaired lung function (intra-abdominal hypertension, acute pancreatitis, and encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum. Intra-abdominal hypertension is defined as IAP ≥ 12 mmHg. Pouring the peritoneal dialysis solution leads to increased intra-abdominal pressure, which results in the development of hernias, pleuro-peritoneal dialysate leakage (hydrothorax, and restrictive pulmonary dysfunction. Risk factors for the development of acute pancreatitis in this patient population include: uraemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia, hypertriglyceridemia, features of the peritoneal dialysis solution (osmolarity, acidity, glucose, chemical irritation, and calcium in the solution for peritoneal dialysis lead to “local hypercalcemia”, toxic substances from the dialysate, the bags and tubing, and peritonitis and treatment of peritonitis with antibiotics and anticoagulants. Encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum is rare and is the most serious complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis. It is characterized by thickening of the peritoneum, including cancer, and signs and symptoms of obstructive ileus

  1. Estimation of Gestational Age, Using Neonatal Anthropometry: A Cross-sectional Study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawani, Rajat; Faridi, M.M.A.; Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Kumar, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Prematurity is a significant contributor to neonatal mortality in India. Conventionally, assessment of gestational age of newborns is based on New Ballard Technique, for which a paediatric specialist is needed. Anthropometry of the newborn, especially birthweight, has been used in the past to predict the gestational age of the neonate in peripheral health facilities where a trained paediatrician is often not available. We aimed to determine if neonatal anthropometric parameters, viz. birthweight, crown heel-length, head-circumference, mid-upper arm-circumference, lower segment-length, foot-length, umbilical nipple distance, calf-circumference, intermammary distance, and hand-length, can reliably predict the gestational age. The study also aimed to derive an equation for the same. We also assessed if these neonatal anthropometric parameters had a better prediction of gestational age when used in combination compared to individual parameters. We evaluated 1,000 newborns in a cross-sectional study conducted in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital in Delhi. Detailed anthropometric estimation of the neonates was done within 48 hours after birth, using standard techniques. Gestational age was estimated using New Ballard Scoring. Out of 1,250 consecutive neonates, 1,000 were included in the study. Of them, 800 randomly-selected newborns were used in devising the model, and the remaining 200 newborns were used in validating the final model. Quadratic regression analysis using stepwise selection was used in building the predictive model. Birthweight (R=0.72), head-circumference (R=0.60), and mid-upper arm-circumference (R=0.67) were found highly correlated with gestation. The final equation to assess gestational age was as follows: Gestational age (weeks)=5.437×W–0.781×W2+2.815×HC–0.041×HC2+0.285×MUAC–22.745 where W=Weight, HC=Head-circumference and MUAC=Mid-upper arm-circumference; Adjusted R=0.76. On validation, the predictability of this equation is 46% (±1 week), 75

  2. Anthropometry and head and neck cancer:a pooled analysis of cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Kitahara, Cari M; Newton, Christina C; Bernstein, Leslie; Reynolds, Peggy; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kreimer, Aimée R; Yang, Gong; Adami, Hans-Olov; Alavanja, Michael C; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Boeing, Heiner; Buring, Julie; Chaturvedi, Anil; Chen, Yu; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; Freedman, Michal; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Håkansson, Niclas; Huang, Wen-Yi; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S; MacInnis, Robert J; Park, Yikyung; Prizment, Anna; Purdue, Mark P; Riboli, Elio; Robien, Kim; Sandler, Dale P; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D; Ou Shu, Xiao; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zelenuich-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Patel, Alpa V; Hartge, Patricia; Berrington de González, Amy; Gapstur, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    Associations between anthropometry and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk are inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate these associations while minimizing biases found in previous studies. We pooled data from 1,941,300 participants, including 3760 cases, in 20 cohort studies and used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of anthropometric measures with HNC risk overall and stratified by smoking status. Greater waist circumference (per 5 cm: HR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05, P-value for trend = <0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (per 0.1 unit: HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, P-value for trend = <0.0001), adjusted for body mass index (BMI), were associated with higher risk and did not vary by smoking status (P-value for heterogeneity = 0.85 and 0.44, respectively). Associations with BMI (P-value for interaction = <0.0001) varied by smoking status. Larger BMI was associated with higher HNC risk in never smokers (per 5 kg/m(2): HR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.24, P-value for trend = 0.0006), but not in former smokers (per 5 kg/m(2): HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.06, P-value for trend = 0.79) or current smokers (per 5 kg/m(2): HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.82, P-value for trend = <0.0001). Larger hip circumference was not associated with a higher HNC risk. Greater height (per 5 cm) was associated with higher risk of HNC in never and former smokers, but not in current smokers. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were associated positively with HNC risk regardless of smoking status, whereas a positive association with BMI was only found in never smokers. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  3. Antropometría recumbente en personas ancianas Recumbent anthropometry in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Ojea Menéndez

    2008-06-01

    statistical significance, even for the indexes calculated starting from them. Recumbent anthropometry is an easy and reliable method that may be applied to evaluate the nutritional state in the elderly, or in any other group with limitations to undergo the anthropometric evaluation standing.

  4. Sexual dysfunction in women partners of men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, A; Abramov, L; Matzkin, H; Chen, J

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated 113 female partners of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) attending a sexual dysfunction clinic in order to define sexual dysfunction among these women. In all, 51 (45%) women denied having any sexual dysfunction. The other 62 (55%) responded to questions classifying their complaint(s) according to the international classification of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in the following topics (40/62, 65%, reported having more than one problem): decreased sexual desire (n=35, 56%), sexual aversion (none), arousal (n=23, 37%) and orgasmic disorders (n=39, 63%), dyspareunia (n=19, 31%), vaginismus (n=3, 5%), and noncoital sexual pain (none). Many female partners of men with ED report having some form of sexual disorder, mostly orgasmic problems and decreased sexual desire. Therefore, for optimal outcome of ED treatment, evaluation and treatment of male and FSD should be addressed as one unit within the context of the couple, and be incorporated into one clinic of sexual medicine.

  5. [Quantification of visceral adipose tissue using magnetic resonance imaging compared with anthropometry, in type 2 diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano García, Cristóbal; Barrera, Francisco; Labbé, Pilar; Liberona, Jessica; Arrese, Marco; Irarrázabal, Pablo; Tejos, Cristián; Uribe, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is associated with the development of metabolic diseases. Anthropometry is one of the methods used to quantify it. to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT), measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and anthropometric indexes, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in type 2 diabetic patients (DM2). Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients aged 55 to 78 years (15 females) and weighting 61.5 to 97 kg, were included. The patients underwent MRI examination on a Philips Intera® 1.5T MR scanner. The MRI protocol included a spectral excitation sequence centered at the fat peak. The field of view included from L4-L5 to the diaphragmatic border. VAT was measured using the software Image J®. Weight, height, BMI, WC and body fat percentage (BF%), derived from the measurement of four skinfolds with the equation of Durnin and Womersley, were also measured. The association between MRIVAT measurement and anthropometry was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mean VAT was 2478 ± 758 ml, mean BMI29.5 ± 4.7 kg/m², and mean WC was 100 ± 9.7 cm. There was a poor correlation between VAT, BMI (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.56). BMI and WC are inaccurate predictors of VAT volume in type 2 diabetic patients.

  6. Body surface assessment with 3D laser-based anthropometry: reliability, validation, and improvement of empirical surface formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnapfel, Andreas; Ahnert, Peter; Loeffler, Markus; Scholz, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Body surface area is a physiological quantity relevant for many medical applications. In clinical practice, it is determined by empirical formulae. 3D laser-based anthropometry provides an easy and effective way to measure body surface area but is not ubiquitously available. We used data from laser-based anthropometry from a population-based study to assess validity of published and commonly used empirical formulae. We performed a large population-based study on adults collecting classical anthropometric measurements and 3D body surface assessments (N = 1435). We determined reliability of the 3D body surface assessment and validity of 18 different empirical formulae proposed in the literature. The performance of these formulae is studied in subsets of sex and BMI. Finally, improvements of parameter settings of formulae and adjustments for sex and BMI were considered. 3D body surface measurements show excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability of 0.998 (overall concordance correlation coefficient, OCCC was used as measure of agreement). Empirical formulae of Fujimoto and Watanabe, Shuter and Aslani and Sendroy and Cecchini performed best with excellent concordance with OCCC > 0.949 even in subgroups of sex and BMI. Re-parametrization of formulae and adjustment for sex and BMI slightly improved results. In adults, 3D laser-based body surface assessment is a reliable alternative to estimation by empirical formulae. However, there are empirical formulae showing excellent results even in subgroups of sex and BMI with only little room for improvement.

  7. An overview of Space Shuttle anthropometry and biomechanics research with emphasis on STS/Mir recumbent seat system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, Glenn K.; Stoycos, Lara E.

    1994-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) at JSC conducts multi-disciplinary research focusing on maximizing astronaut intravehicular (IVA) and extravehicular (EVA) capabilities to provide the most effective work conditions for manned space flight and exploration missions. Biomechanics involves the measurement and modeling of the strength characteristics of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of torque wrench capability during weightlessness, optimization of foot restraint, and hand hold placement, measurements of the strength and dexterity of the pressure gloved hand to improve glove design, quantification of the ability to move and manipulate heavy masses (6672 N or 1500 lb) in weightlessness, and verification of the capability of EVA crewmembers to perform Hubble Space Telescope repair tasks. Anthropometry is the measurement and modeling of the dimensions of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of 14 anthropometric parameters of every astronaut candidate, identification of EVA finger entrapment hazards by measuring the dimensions of the gloved hand, definition of flight deck reach envelopes during launch and landing accelerations, and measurement of anthropometric design parameters for the recumbent seat system required for the Shuttle/Mir mission (STS-71, Spacelab M) scheduled for Jun. 1995.

  8. Assessment of Body Composition Using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Comparison with Anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Han; Lee, Jeong A; Kim, Jin A; Lee, Mun Woo; Chae, Hee Bok; Choi, Won Jun; Shin, Hyoung Shik; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Youn, Sei Jin; Koong, Sung Soo; Park, Seon Mee

    1999-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of body composition in cirrhotic patients. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and anthropometry were used, and the values obtained were compared. Methods Mid-arm fat and muscle areas were calculated by anthropometry in 66 cirrhotic patients and 94 healthy controls. In 37 of the cirrhotic patients and 39 of the controls, fat mass, lean soft tissue mass and bone mineral contents were measured with DEXA. Results The number of cirrhotic patients with measured values below the fifth percentile of normal controls was 21 (31.8%) by mid-arm fat area, six (9.1%) by mid-arm muscle area, 15 (40.5%) by fat mass and 0 (0%) by lean soft tissue mass. The fat mass in cirrhotic patients was less than in controls, whereas lean soft tissue mass and bone mineral content were not different. Fat depletion was severe in Child-class C patients and with severe ascites. Mid-arm fat area and fat mass showed close correlation (r = 0.85, p<0.01), but mid-arm muscle area and lean soft tissue mass showed poor correlation (r = 0.32, p<0.05). Conclusion Cirrhotic patients showed lower fat component, with preserved lean soft tissue mass and bone mineral content. In clinical practice, the measurement of mid-arm fat area was useful for the assessment of fat mass. PMID:10461427

  9. Anthropometry-corrected exposure modeling as a method to improve trunk posture assessment with a single inclinometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driel, Robin; Trask, Catherine; Johnson, Peter W; Callaghan, Jack P; Koehoorn, Mieke; Teschke, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Measuring trunk posture in the workplace commonly involves subjective observation or self-report methods or the use of costly and time-consuming motion analysis systems (current gold standard). This work compared trunk inclination measurements using a simple data-logging inclinometer with trunk flexion measurements using a motion analysis system, and evaluated adding measures of subject anthropometry to exposure prediction models to improve the agreement between the two methods. Simulated lifting tasks (n=36) were performed by eight participants, and trunk postures were simultaneously measured with each method. There were significant differences between the two methods, with the inclinometer initially explaining 47% of the variance in the motion analysis measurements. However, adding one key anthropometric parameter (lower arm length) to the inclinometer-based trunk flexion prediction model reduced the differences between the two systems and accounted for 79% of the motion analysis method's variance. Although caution must be applied when generalizing lower-arm length as a correction factor, the overall strategy of anthropometric modeling is a novel contribution. In this lifting-based study, by accounting for subject anthropometry, a single, simple data-logging inclinometer shows promise for trunk posture measurement and may have utility in larger-scale field studies where similar types of tasks are performed.

  10. Factors associated with mercury levels in human placenta and the relationship to neonatal anthropometry in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Phylicia; Fletcher, Horace; Voutchkov, Mitko

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mercury levels in human placenta and its relationship to neonatal anthropometry for a group of selected pregnant women in Kingston and Manchester in Jamaica and St. Joseph in Trinidad & Tobago. The participants were interviewed on their fish intake. Neonatal anthropometric data were also recorded. The placental mercury concentrations ranged from 0.64±0.5μg/kg to 1.4±0.6μg/kg. The most significant associated factor for prenatal mercury exposure was maternal fish intake. Those pregnant women who regularly ate shark recorded the highest placenta mercury concentrations. Their neonates also had slightly smaller mean head circumference and lower birth weight. The mean placental mercury concentrations in this study were found to be lower than the literature values. Therefore it was difficult to detect any significant changes in neonatal anthropometry. This type of study can contribute to the extent of mercury exposure in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cycling and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Šibli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: For many years medical studies have implicated bicycle riding is causing erectile dysfunction (ED in association with higher perineal pressure. This review focuses upon epidemiological studies assesing the impact of cycling on ED, pathogenesis of ED in cyclists  as well as on research considering changes of perineal pressure, hemodynamics, and nerve conduction when cycling. Investigestors were also interested in different saddle sizes, materials and geometry and also in the impact of saddle and riders position on changes to the perineum. Research on female cyclists is very limited but indicates similar genitourinary disorders as in male cyclists. We also review  research on preventative and therapeutic options regarding bicycle riding and ED.

  12. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  13. Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. Saneto DO, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. In a large cohort of children and adolescents with mitochondrial disease (n = 180, over 48% of patients developed seizures. The majority (68% of patients were younger than 3 years and medically intractable (90%. The electroencephalographic pattern of multiregional epileptiform discharges over the left and right hemisphere with background slowing occurred in 62%. The epilepsy syndrome, infantile spasms, was seen in 17%. Polymerase γ mutations were the most common genetic etiology of seizures, representing Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (14%. The severity of disease in those patients with epilepsy was significant, as 13% of patients experienced early death. Simply the loss of energy production cannot explain the development of seizures or all patients with mitochondrial dysfunction would have epilepsy. Until the various aspects of mitochondrial physiology that are involved in proper brain development are understood, epilepsy and its treatment will remain unsatisfactory.

  14. Sexual dysfunction associated with infertility'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... In the present study 50% of women had a statistically increased incidence of sexual dysfunction during the fertile phase compared with the non-fertile phase. Loss of libido was found to be the most common dysfunction in 45% either alone or in combination with a decreased frequency of orgasm in.

  15. Organizational Dysfunctions: Sources and Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pasieczny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this article is to identify and describe various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions. Research Design & Methods: The findings are based on literature review and an ongoing empirical research project conducted in private sector organisations. The empirical study can be situated within interpretative approach. In this qualitative project open interviews and observations were used to collect data. Findings: The study indicates that various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions can be identified in organizations operating in Poland. The sources of dysfunctions may be found both within the organization and its environment. Regardless of its specific features, most of the dysfunctions may be interpreted as an undesirable goal displacement. Very often areas of these dysfunctions are strongly interconnected and create a system that hinders organizational performance. Yet, it is difficult to study these phenomena as respondents are unwilling, for various reasons, to disclose the problems faced by their organizations. Implications & Recommendations: The results imply that the issue of organisational dysfunctions requires open, long-lasting and comparative studies. Recommendations for further studies are formulated in the last section of the paper. Contribution & Value Added: The paper provides insight into "the dark side of organising" by identifying sources and areas of dysfunctions. It also reveals difficulties connected with conducting research on dysfunctions in the Polish context.

  16. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  17. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  18. Management of pancreatic, gastrointestinal and liver complications in adult cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, A; Languepin, J; Debray, D; Lamireau, T; Abely, M; Huet, F; Maudinas, R; Michaud, L; Mas, E

    2015-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is a major source of morbidity in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF), with a wide range of complications, some of them being specific to the underlying disease. Abnormal CFTR function, with reduced bicarbonate and other ion transport levels through the apical surface of epithelial cells, affects the intestinal tract including the pancreas and the liver. Similarly to what is observed in the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal CFTR dysfunction leads to mucus accumulation, dysmotility, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and inflammation with alteration of innate immune responses, all of which being likely to be interrelated. In developed countries, almost half of patients with CF are adults followed in multidisciplinary CF care centres by pneumologists who often have to manage gastrointestinal complications. It therefore appears essential that adult gastroenterologists develop the expertise needed for managing CF gastrointestinal complications in close collaboration with multidisciplinary CF care centre teams to improve the quality of life of adults with CF. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Impaired contractility and remodeling of the upper gastrointestinal tract in diabetes mellitus type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frokjaer, Jens Brondum; Andersen, Soren-Due; Ejskjaer, Niels; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Drewes, Asbjorn-Mohr; Gregersen, Hans

    2007-09-28

    To investigate that both the neuronal function of the contractile system and structural apparatus of the gastrointestinal tract are affected in patients with longstanding diabetes and auto mic neuropathy. The evoked esophageal and duodenal contractile activity to standardized bag distension was assessed using a specialized ultrasound-based probe. Twelve type-1 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy and severe gastrointestinal symptoms and 12 healthy controls were studied. The geometry and biomechanical parameters (strain, tension/stress, and stiffness) were assessed. The diabetic patients had increased frequency of distension-induced contractions (6.0 +/- 0.6 vs 3.3 +/- 0.5, P 0.14). The impaired contractile activity with an imbalance in the distension-induced contractions likely reflects neuronal abnormalities due to autonomic neuropathy. However, structural changes and remodeling of the gastrointestinal tract are also evident and may add to the neuronal changes. This may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic gut dysfunction and impact on future management of diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.

  20. Gastrointestinal Prophylaxis in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Akash R; Oheb, Daniel; Zaslow, Tracy L

    Because sports participation at all levels often requires international travel, coaches, athletic trainers, and team physicians must effectively protect athletes from gastrointestinal infections. Traveler's diarrhea is the most common travel-related illness and can significantly interfere with training and performance. A review of relevant publications was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 5 Results: Enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli are the most common bacterial causes of traveler's diarrhea. Traveler's diarrhea generally occurs within 4 days of arrival, and symptoms tend to resolve within 5 days of onset. There are several prophylactic agents that physicians can recommend to athletes, including antibiotics, bismuth subsalicylate, and probiotics; however, each has its own unique limitations. Decision-making should be based on the athlete's destination, length of stay, and intent of travel. Prophylaxis with antibiotics is highly effective; however, physicians should be hesitant to prescribe medication due to the side effects and risks for creating antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Antibiotics may be indicated for high-risk groups, such as those with a baseline disease or travelers who have little flexible time. Since most cases of traveler's diarrhea are caused by food and/or water contamination, all athletes should be educated on the appropriate food and water consumption safety measures prior to travel.

  1. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-11-15

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract.

  2. Gastrointestinal manifestations in APECED syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas; Jokinen, Martta; Krohn, Kai; Ranki, Annamari

    2013-02-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) (or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene. It causes a loss in central immune tolerance, failure to eliminate autoreactive T cells in the thymus, and their escape to the periphery. APECED patients are susceptible to mucocutaneous candidiasis and multiple endocrine and nonendocrine autoimmune diseases. Although it depends on the series, approximately 25% of APECED patients are affected by gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations, mainly autoimmune-related disorders like autoimmune hepatitis, atrophic gastritis with or without pernicious anemia (Biermer disease), intestinal infections, and malabsorption. In contrast to the major organ-specific autoimmune symptoms of APECED, the GI symptoms and their underlying pathogenesis are poorly understood. Yet isolated case reports and small series depict severe intestinal involvement in children, leading to malabsorption, multiple deficiencies, growth impairment, and possible death. Moreover, very few systematic studies of GI function with intestinal biopsies have been performed. GI symptoms may be the first manifestation of APECED, yet they may have various causes; effective treatment will therefore vary. We provide here an updated review of GI manifestations in APECED, including principles of diagnosis and therapy.

  3. [Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at Digestive Diseases Week (DDW), 2015. Researchers are still seeking biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome and have presented new data. One study confirmed that the use of low-dose antidepressants has an antinociceptive effect without altering the psychological features of patients with functional dyspepsia. A contribution that could have immediate application is the use of transcutaneous electroacupuncture, which has demonstrated effectiveness in controlling nausea in patients with gastroparesis. New data have come to light on the importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome, although the effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet seems to be losing momentum with time. Multiple data were presented on the long-term efficacy of rifaximin therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhoea. In addition, among other contributions, and more as a curiosity, a study evaluated the effect of histamine in the diet of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Probiotics: defenders of gastrointestinal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh D. Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health.

  5. Microrobotics for future gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menciassi, Arianna; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The impulse given by robotic technologies and imaging techniques to the development of a new way to conceive and perform surgery is clearly visible. Nowadays, minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedures are often performed with the assistance of robots, such as the Da Vinci master-slave system, the AESOP robot with voice control, etc. In addition, mechatronic technologies are becoming the elective technologies for designing advanced hand-held surgical tools. The introduction of robotic technologies in endoscopy has been slower than in MIS, since the development of miniaturized robotic components for entering the small orifices of the human body is difficult. On the other hand, the large contribution that robotic technologies could bring to endoluminal techniques has been evident since the first development of instrumented catheters. In the 1990s, there was an increasing activity in the application of robotic technologies to improve endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of robotic colonoscopy and gastroscopy was to obtain more effective diagnoses in terms of reduced pain for the patients, and to make uniform the diagnostic procedures, which too often depended on the manual abilities of the endoscopist. Currently, the availability of more reliable robotic technologies for miniaturization of size and integration of functions has allowed to conceive and develop robotic pills for the early screening of the digestive tract, with dramatic potential advantages for patients, endoscopists, and healthcare system.

  6. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  7. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Helm, Norman; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness outcomes throughout the different training periods over the course of a soccer season in female elite young soccer players. However, changes in components of fitness were inconsistent (e.g., power, speed, strength). Thus, training volume and/or types should be carefully considered in order to develop power-, speed- or strength-related fitness measures more efficiently throughout the soccer season. PMID:29375392

  8. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the 'Gold Standard' Tarnished?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Denise L; Beilin, Lawrence J; Hands, Beth; Burrows, Sally; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Mountain, Jennifer A; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults.

  9. Streptococcus bovis bacteremia and underlying gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, H W; Roberts, R B

    1978-07-01

    Twenty-six adults with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and ten with bacteremia alone were studied to determine possible portals of entry. Of 36 patients (17 with endocarditis, eight with bacteremia alone), 25 had gastrointestinal lesions or manipulation. In 22, the gastrointestinal tract appeared to be the source of S bovis bacteremia. Four patients had either carcinoma of the colon (two) or potentially malignant villous adenomas (two) when first seen because of S bovis bacteremia. None of these, nor two other patients with benign colonic polyps, had bowel-related symptoms or signs prior to admission. Since S bovis is a normal intestinal tract inhabitant, bacteremia may frequently be associated with bowel lesions. Streptococcus bovis bacteremia may provide an early clue to the presence of serious and clinically unexpected gastrointestinal disease. Gastrointestinal tract evaluation should be part of S bovis bacteremia patient management, with or without endocarditis.

  10. Laparoscopic ultrasonography for staging of gastrointestinal malignancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; de Wit, L. T.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E.; van Delden, O.; Bemelman, W. A.; Rauws, E. A.; van Lanschot, J. J.; Obertop, H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnostic laparoscopy has been used frequently as a preoperative staging procedure for different gastrointestinal malignancies. The assessment of solid abdominal organs and retroperitoneal ingrowth or detection of lymph-node metastasis is limited, however. A recent development,

  11. Drugs Approved for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Gastrointestinal Epithelial Organoid Cultures from Postsurgical Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Soojung; Yoo, Jongman

    2017-08-17

    An organoid is a cellular structure three-dimensionally (3D) cultured from self-organizing stem cells in vitro, which has a cell population, architectures, and organ specific functions like the originating organs. Recent advances in the 3D culture of isolated intestinal crypts or gastric glands have enabled the generation of human gastrointestinal epithelial organoids. Gastrointestinal organoids recapitulate the human in vivo physiology because of all the intestinal epithelial cell types that differentiated and proliferated from tissue resident stem cells. Thus far, gastrointestinal organoids have been extensively used for generating gastrointestinal disease models. This protocol describes the method of isolating a gland or crypt using stomach or colon tissue after surgery and establishing them into gastroids or colonoids.

  13. Unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, S; Rai, R R; Agarwal, S; Vijayvergiya, R

    1995-01-01

    We report management of unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract, namely beer bottle cap, raisins and pistachu, mango peel, betelnut and plum seed at a university hospital in Northern India.

  14. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus with symptoms arising from the whole GI tract. Common complaints include dysphasia, early satiety, reflux, constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of GI symptoms...

  15. Ketamine Sedation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman E. Eskander

    2016-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Ketamine sedation found to be safe for paediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy in Egyptian children without co-morbidities. Transient Hypoxia (13% may occur but easily reversed by nasal oxygen therapy.

  16. Metabolic abnormalities and viral replication are associated with biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T I; Borkowsky, W; DiMeglio, L A; Dooley, L; Geffner, M E; Hazra, R; McFarland, E J; Mendez, A J; Patel, K; Siberry, G K; Van Dyke, R B; Worrell, C J; Jacobson, D L; Shearer, William; Cooper, Norma; Harris, Lynette; Purswani, Murli; Baig, Mahboobullah; Cintron, Anna; Puga, Ana; Navarro, Sandra; Patton, Doyle; Burchett, Sandra; Karthas, Nancy; Kammerer, Betsy; Yogev, Ram; Malee, Kathleen; Hunter, Scott; Cagwin, Eric; Wiznia, Andrew; Burey, Marlene; Nozyce, Molly; Chen, Janet; Gobs, Elizabeth; Grant, Mitzie; Knapp, Katherine; Allison, Kim; Garvie, Patricia; Acevedo-Flores, Midnela; Rios, Heida; Olivera, Vivian; Silio, Margarita; Borne, Cheryl; Sirois, Patricia; Spector, Stephen; Norris, Kim; Nichols, Sharon; McFarland, Elizabeth; Barr, Emily; Chambers, Carrie; Watson, Douglas; Messenger, Nicole; Belanger, Rose; Dieudonne, Arry; Bettica, Linda; Adubato, Susan; Scott, Gwendolyn; Himic, Lisa; Willen, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    HIV-infected children may be at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. We compared levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in HIV-infected children (with and without hyperlipidaemia) with those in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), and determined factors associated with these biomarkers. A prospective cohort study was carried out. Biomarkers of inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1)], coagulant dysfunction (fibrinogen and P-selectin), endothelial dysfunction [soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM) and E-selectin], and metabolic dysfunction (adiponectin) were measured in 226 HIV-infected and 140 HEU children. Anthropometry, body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin, HIV disease severity, and antiretroviral therapy were recorded. The median ages of the children were 12.3 years in the HIV-infected group and 10.1 years in the HEU group. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores, waist and hip circumferences, and percentage body fat were lower in the HIV-infected children. Total and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children also had higher MCP-1, fibrinogen, sICAM and sVCAM levels. In multivariable analyses in the HIV-infected children alone, BMI z-score was associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen, but lower MCP-1 and sVCAM. Unfavourable lipid profiles were positively associated with IL-6, MCP-1, fibrinogen, and P- and E-selectin, whereas increased HIV viral load was associated with markers of inflammation (MCP-1 and CRP) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM and sVCAM). HIV-infected children have higher levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction than do HEU children. Risk factors associated with higher biomarkers include unfavourable lipid levels and active HIV replication. © 2011 British HIV

  17. Hepatobiliary manifestations of gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasena, Jason B; Hu, Ke-Qin

    2011-02-01

    Hepatobiliary manifestations of gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders can occur as part of the clinical spectrum of the underlying disease or as a consequence of the treatment of the disease. This article reviews aspects of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of hepatobiliary manifestations associated with a selection of gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, Whipple's disease, and parenteral nutrition associated disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Large melanoma metastases to the gastrointestinal tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, J M; Hamlin, J A

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that malignant melanoma can metastasize widely. Although these metastases in the gastrointestinal tract usually appear as small 'bull's-eye' or 'target' lesions, there are a few reports of relatively large melanoma metastases. We report five cases of large melanoma lesions metastatic to the alimentary canal. We also emphasise the consideration of a thorough gastrointestinal tract evaluation in patients with malignant melanoma especially if they are symptomatic.

  19. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un......, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  20. Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Amornyotin, Somchai

    2013-01-01

    Sedation practices for gastrointestinal endoscopic (GIE) procedures vary widely in different countries depending on health system regulations and local circumstances. The goal of procedural sedation is the safe and effective control of pain and anxiety, as well as to provide an appropriate degree of memory loss or decreased awareness. Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy, once occurred, can lead to significant morbidity and occasional mortality in patients. The risk fa...

  1. Early Administration of Probiotics Alters Bacterial Colonization and Limits Diet-Induced Gut Dysfunction and Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Richard H.; Siggers, Jayda; Boye, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Following preterm birth, bacterial colonization and interal formula feeding predispose neonates to gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocilitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal inflammatory disease. We hypothesized that administration of probiotics would beneficially influence early bacterial...... colonization, thereby reducing the susceptibility to formula-induced gut atrophy, dysfunction, and NEC. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were provided total parenteral nutrition (1.5 d) followed by enteral feeding (2d) with porcine colosstrum (COLOS; n= 5), formula (FORM; n = 9), or formula with probiotics...

  2. Primary graft dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; Christie, Jason D

    2013-06-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a syndrome encompassing a spectrum of mild to severe lung injury that occurs within the first 72 hours after lung transplantation. PGD is characterized by pulmonary edema with diffuse alveolar damage that manifests clinically as progressive hypoxemia with radiographic pulmonary infiltrates. In recent years, new knowledge has been generated on risks and mechanisms of PGD. Following ischemia and reperfusion, inflammatory and immunological injury-repair responses appear to be key controlling mechanisms. In addition, PGD has a significant impact on short- and long-term outcomes; therefore, the choice of donor organ is impacted by this potential adverse consequence. Improved methods of reducing PGD risk and efforts to safely expand the pool are being developed. Ex vivo lung perfusion is a strategy that may improve risk assessment and become a promising platform to implement treatment interventions to prevent PGD. This review details recent updates in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, molecular and genetic biomarkers, and state-of-the-art technical developments affecting PGD. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. [Testosterone and erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, T

    2010-01-01

    Primary hypogonadism represents a classic but rare cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. Therapy with testosterone as monotherapy is therefore unlikely to cure ED in the typical ED patient. However, recent developments indicate a much greater role of testosterone in erectile function than has been supposed in the past. Serum testosterone levels decline in men with increasing age. Aging men might develop late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) associated with characteristic symptoms. Typical symptoms of LOH are represented by decreased libido and sexual function, osteoporosis, altered distribution of body fat, overall reduction in physical strength, and alterations in the general mood. Experimental and clinical studies over the last few years have also pointed out that hypogonadism results in characteristic alterations of the erectile tissue of the penis. These alterations might be reversible in response to hormone therapy with testosterone. Particularly testosterone might be a helpful supportive therapy in cases where PDE-5 antagonists have tended to lose their effectiveness on the erectile tissue in the treatment of ED.

  4. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin P Davies

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED, the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.

  5. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Update on non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main studies in the field of non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding reported in the last American Congress of Gastroenterology (Digestive Disease Week) in 2013. Some of these studies have provided new knowledge and expertise in areas of uncertainty. In this context and among other findings, it has been reported that the administration of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prior to endoscopy or the early performance of endoscopy-within 6 hours of admission in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (or colonoscopy within 24 hours in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding)-does not improve the prognosis of the event. It has also been reported that oral administration of a PPI after endoscopic hemostasis may produce a similar outcome to that of intravenously administered PPI in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). In the field of endoscopic therapy, the use of radiofrequency ablation for antral vascular ectasia is of interest. Regarding UGIB and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), new data confirm the risk of cardiovascular events by stopping treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) after an episode of UGIB, the increased risk of UGIB when associating gastrotoxic drugs, and the need to identify both the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks of each NSAID and coxib when prescribing these agents. Finally, there is evidence that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in individual susceptibility to gastrointestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and human gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Antonella; Russo, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract account for 25 % of all cancers and for 9 % of all causes of cancer death in the world, so gastrointestinal cancers represent a major health problem. In the past decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the interactions between the gastrointestinal content and the onset of neoplasia. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. Probiotics are mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms that might beneficially affect the host by improving the characteristics of indigenous microflora. Although the effects of probiotic administration has been intensively investigated in vitro, in animal models, in healthy volunteers, and in some human gastrointestinal diseases, very little is still known about the possible cross-interactions among probiotic administration, changes of intestinal flora, and the neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa. Theoretically, probiotics are able to reduce cancer risk by a number of mechanisms: (a) binding and degradation of potential carcinogens; (b) quantitative, qualitative and metabolic alterations of the intestinal microflora; (c) production of anti-tumorigenic or anti-mutagenic compounds; (d) competitive action towards pathogenic bacteria; (e) enhancement of the host's immune response; (f) direct effects on cell proliferation. This review will attempt to highlight the literature on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa and in particular on their effects on cell proliferation.

  8. Perioperative implications of the patient with autonomic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Stuart; Atria, Nicklaus P; Barwise, John A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system functions to control heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, gastrointestinal motility, hormone release, and body temperature on a second-to-second basis. Here we summarize some of the latest literature on autonomic dysfunction, focusing primarily on the perioperative implications. The variety of autonomic dysfunction now extends to a large number of clinical conditions in which the cause or effect of the autonomic component is blurred. Methods for detecting dysautonomia can be as simple as performing a history and physical examination that includes orthostatic vital signs measured in both recumbent and vertical positions; however, specialized laboratories are required for definitive diagnosis. Heart rate variability monitoring is becoming more commonplace in the assessment and understanding of autonomic instability. Degenerative diseases of the autonomic nervous system include Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, with the most serious manifestations being postural hypotension and paradoxical supine hypertension. Other conditions occur in which the autonomic dysfunction is only part of a larger disease process, such as diabetic autonomic neuropathy, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Patients with dysautonomia often have unpredictable and paradoxical physiological responses to various perioperative stimuli. Knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology of their condition is required in order to reduce symptom exacerbation and limit morbidity and mortality during the perioperative period.

  9. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    OpenAIRE

    Clegg, Miriam E.; McClean, Conor; Davison, Gareth W.; Murphy, H. Marie; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; McLaughlin, Jim; Fogarty, Mark; Shafat, Amir

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD) participated...

  10. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Seung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC and colorectal cancer (CRC. Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2–4. A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians.

  11. Deep Learning in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Armstrong, David; Ganguli, Malika; Roopra, Sandeep; Kantipudi, Neha; Albashir, Siwar; Kamath, Markad V

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is used to inspect the lumen or interior of the GI tract for several purposes, including, (1) making a clinical diagnosis, in real time, based on the visual appearances; (2) taking targeted tissue samples for subsequent histopathological examination; and (3) in some cases, performing therapeutic interventions targeted at specific lesions. GI endoscopy is therefore predicated on the assumption that the operator-the endoscopist-is able to identify and characterize abnormalities or lesions accurately and reproducibly. However, as in other areas of clinical medicine, such as histopathology and radiology, many studies have documented marked interobserver and intraobserver variability in lesion recognition. Thus, there is a clear need and opportunity for techniques or methodologies that will enhance the quality of lesion recognition and diagnosis and improve the outcomes of GI endoscopy. Deep learning models provide a basis to make better clinical decisions in medical image analysis. Biomedical image segmentation, classification, and registration can be improved with deep learning. Recent evidence suggests that the application of deep learning methods to medical image analysis can contribute significantly to computer-aided diagnosis. Deep learning models are usually considered to be more flexible and provide reliable solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. The use of fast computers offers the possibility of real-time support that is important for endoscopic diagnosis, which has to be made in real time. Advanced graphics processing units and cloud computing have also favored the use of machine learning, and more particularly, deep learning for patient care. This paper reviews the rapidly evolving literature on the feasibility of applying deep learning algorithms to endoscopic imaging.

  12. Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Calciphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nancy; Haq, Khwaja F.; Mahajan, Sugandhi; Nagpal, Prashant; Doshi, Bijal

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 66 Final Diagnosis: Calciphylaxis Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Hemodialysis • blood transfusions Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Calciphylaxis is associated with a high mortality that approaches 80%. The diagnosis is usually made when obvious skin lesions (painful violaceous mottling of the skin) are present. However, visceral involvement is rare. We present a case of calciphylaxis leading to lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and rectal ulceration of the GI mucosa. Case Report: A 66-year-old woman with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), recently diagnosed ovarian cancer, and on hemodialysis (HD) presented with painful black necrotic eschar on both legs. The radiograph of the legs demonstrated extensive calcification of the lower extremity arteries. The hospital course was complicated with lower GI bleeding. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed severe circumferential calcification of the abdominal aorta, celiac artery, and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries and their branches. Colonoscopy revealed severe rectal necrosis. She was deemed to be a poor surgical candidate due to comorbidities and presence of extensive vascular calcifications. Recurrent episodes of profuse GI bleeding were managed conservatively with blood transfusion as needed. Following her diagnosis of calciphylaxis, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium containing phosphate binders was stopped. She was started on daily hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate bath as well as intravenous sodium thiosulphate. The clinical condition of the patient deteriorated. The patient died secondary to multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Calciphylaxis leading to intestinal ischemia/perforation should be considered in the differential diagnosis in ESRD on HD presenting with abdominal pain or GI bleeding. PMID:26572938

  13. The Impact of Opioid Treatment on Regional Gastrointestinal Transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Jakob L; Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina; Sandberg, Thomas H; Krogh, Klaus; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-04-30

    To employ an experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in healthy human volunteers, and evaluate the impact ofopioid treatment compared to placebo on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and motility assessed by questionnaires and regional GItransit times using the 3-dimensional (3D)-Transit system. Twenty-five healthy males were randomly assigned to oxycodone or placebo for 5 days in a double blind, crossover design. AdverseGI effects were measured with the bowel function index, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, patient assessment of constipationsymptom questionnaire, and Bristol stool form scale. Regional GI transit times were determined using the 3D-Transit system, and segmental transit times in the colon were determined using a custom Matlab(®) graphical user interface. GI symptom scores increased significantly across all applied GI questionnaires during opioid treatment. Oxycodone increased median total GI transit time from 22.2 to 43.9 hours (P transit times in the cecum and ascending colon from 5.7 to 9.9 hours (P = 0.012), rectosigmoid colon transit from 2.7 to 9.0 hours (P = 0.044), and colorectal transit time from 18.6 to 38.6 hours (P= 0.001). No associations between questionnaire scores and segmental transit times were detected. Self-assessed GI adverse effects and increased GI transit times in different segments were induced during oxycodone treatment. This detailed information about segmental changes in motility has great potential for future interventional head-to-head trials of different laxative regimes for prevention and treatment of constipation.

  14. Differential Risk of Hypertension Among Lean and Nonlean Rural Subjects in Relation to Decadal Changes in Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande-Joshi, Sayali S; Rao, Shobha

    2018-02-09

    Assessing risk of hypertension in relation to decadal changes in anthropometry among cohort of young rural Indian men. Subjects (n = 140) were measured in 2005 and 2015 for blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), body fat (BF), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and additionally for visceral fat (VF) at follow-up. Decadal changes showed significant (p lean (baseline BMI lean but was not significant among nonlean subjects. This was also true for change in other adiposity indicators, indicating greater vulnerability of lean subjects. Further, among lean subjects, ORs reduced considerably after adjusting for VF, whereas among nonlean subjects ORs continued to remain nonsignificant but showing independent significance for VF. For similar level of change in adiposity indicators, lean subjects were at greater risk of hypertension than nonlean subjects, probably due to higher VF deposition.

  15. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure. Recent findings Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources. Summary Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:22820214

  16. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol......This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive...... neuropsychological test battery must be used to detect POCD and a well-matched control group is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the test RESULTS: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with a high incidence of POCD. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to explain this difference, but randomized...

  17. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L

    2014-01-01

    dysfunction in cancer patients lies in the correlation to vital clinical end points such as cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, therapy complications and quality of life (QoL). Such associations strongly emphasize the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures to be developed and implemented......BACKGROUND: Muscle dysfunction is a prevalent phenomenon in the oncology setting where patients across a wide range of diagnoses are subject to impaired muscle function regardless of tumor stage and nutritional state. Here, we review the current evidence describing the degree, causes and clinical...... dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...

  18. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in a community sample of subjects with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Charlotte; Mortensen, Dennis; Friis, Merete

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects about 15-20% of the population of the Western countries. Traditionally, IBS has been an exclusion diagnosis, but recently definitions have emerged from population-based research. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate any...... evaluation. IBS was defined as more than weekly experience of abdominal pain and distension, and in addition either borborygmia or altering stool consistency. The diagnostic work-up consisted of gastroscopy, manometry and 23-hour pH and pressure recordings of the oesophagus, lactose tolerance test, barium...... enema, measurement of colonic transit time, and rectoscopy. RESULTS: Compared to the group without abdominal complaints significantly more subjects with IBS had spasms of the colon (OR = 10.2 (1.2-87.3)), and abnormal contractions of the oesophagus at manometry (OR = 9.1 (1.1-78.2)). Furthermore...

  19. Nutritional status at presentation, comparison of assessment tools, and importance of arm anthropometry in children with cancer in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, P; Jhaveri, U; Idhate, T B; Dhingra, S; Arolkar, P; Arora, B

    2015-01-01

    In India, approximately 40,000 new cases of cancer in children are diagnosed each year. However, there are no good studies analyzing their nutritional status. Also, since accurate and sensitive nutritional assessment is critical for optimal clinical outcomes through timely remediation of malnutrition, it is important to assess the relative sensitivity and feasibility of commonly used nutritional screening tools. This observational study analyzed height/length (cm), weight (kg), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT) as well as their Z-scores or percentiles, albumin levels and history of weight loss at diagnosis in children aged 2-15 years being treated for cancer between November 2008 to December 2013. Body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were calculated respectively from height and weight, and MUAC and TSFT. A total of 1693 new patients were enrolled; 1187 had all anthropometric measurements performed. The prevalence of malnutrition was 38%, 57%, 76%, 69% and 81% on the basis of BMI, TSFT, MUAC, AMC, and arm TSFT + MUAC respectively with the highest prevalence in solid abdominal tumours. Addition of BMI and serum albumin to arm anthropometry increased the proportion classified as severely nutritionally depleted by a mere 2% & 1.5% respectively. Positive history of significant weight loss additionally identified 16.5% at nutritional risk over arm anthropometry. The prevalence of malnutrition in Indian children with cancer at presentation is very high ranging from 40% and 80% depending on the method used for assessment, being higher with MUAC and lowest with BMI. Either MUAC alone or TSFT + MUAC (wherever feasible) should be used for screening for malnutrition in children with cancer at diagnosis to plan timely nutritional interventions, reduce the treatment-related morbidity and optimise their chance of long-term cure.

  20. The Effect of Sex and Anthropometry on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Complex Coronary Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yul; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Jung Sun; Kim, Byeong Keuk; Ko, Young Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong Ki

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of sex and anthropometry on clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). From three randomized trials (REal Safety and Efficacy of 3-month dual antiplatelet Therapy following Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation, Impact of intraVascular UltraSound guidance on outcomes of Xience Prime stents in Long lesions, Chronic Total Occlusion InterVention with drUg-eluting Stents), we compared 333 pairs of men and women matched by propensity scores, all of whom underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided PCI for complex lesions. For 12 months, the incidence of adverse cardiac events, defined as the composite of cardiac death, target lesion-related myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization, was not different between women and men (2.4% vs. 2.4%, p=0.939). Using multivariable Cox's regression analysis, post-intervention minimum lumen area [MLA; hazard ratio (HR)=0.620, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.423-0.909, p=0.014] by IVUS was a predictor of adverse cardiac events. Height on anthropometry and lesions with chronic total occlusion were significantly related to post-intervention MLA. However, female sex was not independently associated with post-intervention MLA. In an age and sex-adjusted model, patients in the low tertile of height exhibited a greater risk for adverse cardiac events than those in the high tertile of height (HR=6.391, 95% CI=1.160-35.206, p=0.033). Sex does not affect clinical outcomes after PCI for complex lesions. PCI outcomes, however, may be adversely affected by height.

  1. Association of sex hormones with physical, laboratory, and imaging markers of anthropometry in men and women from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfart, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Kische, Hanna; Bülow, Robin; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Keevil, Brian G; Haring, Robin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of sex hormones with anthropometry in a large population-based cohort, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS)-based sex hormone measurements and imaging markers. Cross-sectional data from 957 men and women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were used. Associations of a comprehensive panel of LCMS-measured sex hormones with anthropometric parameters, laboratory, and imaging markers were analyzed in multivariable regression models for the full sample and stratified by sex. Sex hormone measures included total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (fT), estrone and estradiol, androstenedione (ASD), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Domains of anthropometry included physical measures (body-mass-index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height-ratio, waist-to-hip-ratio, and hip circumference), laboratory measures of adipokines (leptin and vaspin), and magnet resonance imaging-based measures (visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue). In men, inverse associations between all considered anthropometric parameters with TT were found: BMI (β-coefficient, standard error (SE): -0.159, 0.037), waist-circumference (β-coefficient, SE: -0.892, 0.292), subcutaneous adipose tissue (β-coefficient, SE: -0.156, 0.023), and leptin (β-coefficient, SE: -0.046, 0.009). In women TT (β-coefficient, SE: 1.356, 0.615) and estrone (β-coefficient, SE: 0.014, 0.005) were positively associated with BMI. In analyses of variance, BMI and leptin were inversely associated with TT, ASD, and DHEAS in men, but positively associated with estrone. In women, BMI and leptin were positively associated with all sex hormones. The present population-based study confirmed and extended previously reported sex-specific associations between sex hormones and various anthropometric markers of overweight and obesity.

  2. Anthropometry, DXA, and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue on MRI in 197 healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders N; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Helge, Jørn W; Beck, Thomas N; Fallentin, Eva; Larsen, Rasmus; Jensen, Rikke B; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2017-10-01

    BackgroundAbdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).MethodsWe performed a cross-sectional study that included 197 healthy adolescents (114 boys) aged 10-15 years nested within a longitudinal population-based cohort. Clinical examination, blood sampling, DXA, and abdominal MRI were performed. SAT% and VAT% were adjusted to total abdominal volume.ResultsGirls had a higher SAT% than did boys in early and late puberty (16 vs. 13%, P<0.01 and 20 vs. 15%, P=0.001, respectively), whereas VAT% was comparable (7% in both genders, independently of puberty). DXA android fat% (standard deviation score (SDS)), suprailiac skinfold thickness (SDS), leptin, BMI (SDS), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and waist circumference (SDS) correlated strongly with SAT% (descending order: r=0.90-0.55, all P<0.001) but weakly with VAT% (r=0.49-0.06). Suprailiac skinfold was the best anthropometric marker of SAT% (girls: R 2 =48.6%, boys: R 2 =65%, P<0.001) and VAT% in boys (R 2 =16.4%, P<0.001). WHtR was the best marker of VAT% in girls (R 2 =7.6%, P=0.007).ConclusionsHealthy girls have a higher SAT% than do boys, whereas VAT% is comparable, independently of puberty. Anthropometry and circulating leptin are valid markers of SAT%, but not of VAT%.

  3. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

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    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  4. Psychological model of adolescent dysfunctionality

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    Cvetkov A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available teenage dysfunctionality could be caused by a number of factors, which are an integral part of modern life. Particularly, in this work we considered such factors as uncertainty, frustration, and a mismatch of sexual behavior setting. The path analysis based on using structural equations. The results proved that teenage dysfunctionality is a consequence of the direct effect of the interconnection between moral reflection and moral and ethical responsibility on the perception level of social frustration, corporeality and sexual mismatch.

  5. Obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iantorno, M; Campia, U; Di Daniele, N; Nistico, S; Forleo, G B; Cardillo, C; Tesauro, M

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in obese individuals. Obesity dramatically increases the risk of development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to originate from disruption in adipose tissue function leading to a chronic inflammatory state and to dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors. These, in turn, impair vascular homeostasis and lead to endothelial dysfunction. An altered endothelial cell phenotype and endothelial dysfunction are common among all obesity-related complications. A crucial aspect of endothelial dysfunction is reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. A systemic pro-inflammatory state in combination with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and activation of the renin angiotensin system are systemic disturbances in obese individuals that contribute independently and synergistically to decreasing NO bioavailability. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines are locally produced by perivascular fat and act through a paracrine mechanism to independently contribute to endothelial dysfunction and smooth muscle cell dysfunction and to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in obese individuals. The promising discovery that obesity-induced vascular dysfunction is, at least in part, reversible, with weight loss strategies and drugs that promote vascular health, has not been sufficiently proved to prevent the cardiovascular complication of obesity on a large scale. In this review we discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying inflammation and vascular damage in obese patients.

  6. Hepatic Dysfunction as a Complication of Combined Valproate and Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Clare E; Turner, Zahava; Kossoff, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet has long been shown to be an effective therapy for children with medication-refractory seizures. Most complications of the ketogenic diet include short-lived gastrointestinal disturbances, acidosis, and dyslipidemia. Hepatic dysfunction and pancreatitis are among the less common but more serious complications of the ketogenic diet. Many patients on the ketogenic diet receive adjunct treatment with an anticonvulsant drug, and valproate is frequently used. We describe a child who developed hepatic dysfunction in association with the combined use of valproate and the ketogenic diet. After stopping the valproate and then restarting the ketogenic diet, her liver enzymes normalized, and she was able to achieve markedly improved seizure control and quality of life. Although caution should be advised when using both treatments simultaneously, the development of hepatic dysfunction should not preclude continuation of the ketogenic diet, as the hepatotoxic effects may be completely reversed once the valproate is stopped. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of gastrointestinal lesions on endoscopy in iron deficiency anemia without gastrointestinal symptoms

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    Wasaya Rozina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA due to occult gastrointestinal (GI blood loss usually remains unnoticed until patient become symptomatic. There is sparse data in IDA patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. This study was designed to find out the frequency and predictors of endoscopic lesions in IDA without gastrointestinal symptoms. Cross-sectional study performed on a convenience sample of consecutive subjects. Methods Ninety five consecutive patients with laboratory based diagnosis of IDA having no gastrointestinal symptoms were interviewed and their clinical and biochemical variables were recorded. All the study patients underwent esophago-gastroduodenoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy. Endoscopic findings were documented as presence/absence of bleeding related lesion and presence/absence of cause of IDA. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify variables significantly related to outcome variables. Results Possible cause of anaemia was found in 71% and bleeding related lesions were found in 53% of patients. Upper gastrointestinal tract lesions were found in 41% of patients with bleeding related lesions. On multivariable logistic regression; advancing age, low mean corpuscular volume (MCV ≤ 60 fl, and positive fecal occult blood test were predictive factors for bleeding related GI lesions and cause of IDA Conclusion Clinical and Biochemical markers can predict gastrointestinal lesions on endoscopy in IDA patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. High proportion of upper gastrointestinal involvement warrants EGD as initial endoscopic procedure however, this needs validation by further studies.

  8. Mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy and risk of gastrointestinal complications in infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Ilias; Branco, Ricardo G; Brinkhuis, Nadine; Furck, Anke; LaRovere, Joan; Cooper, David S; Pathan, Nazima

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesised that lower mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy values would be associated with a greater incidence of gastrointestinal complications in children weighing infrared spectroscopy, central venous oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gases for 48 hours post-operatively. Enteral feeding intake, gastrointestinal complications, and markers of organ dysfunction were monitored for 7 days. A total of 50 children, with median age of 16.7 (3.2-31.6) weeks, were studied. On admission, the average mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy value was 71±18%, and the systemic oxygen saturation was 93±7.5%. Lower admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy correlated with longer time to establish enteral feeds (r=-0.58, pinfrared spectroscopy (58±18% versus 73±17%, p=0.01) and higher mesenteric arteriovenous difference of oxygen at admission [39 (23-47) % versus 19 (4-27) %, p=0.02]. Based on multiple logistic regression, admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy was independently associated with gastrointestinal complications (Odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.97; p=0.03). Admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76 to identify children who developed gastrointestinal complications, with a suggested cut-off value of 72% (78% sensitivity, 68% specificity). In this pilot study, we conclude that admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy is associated with gastrointestinal complications and enteral feeding tolerance in children after cardiac surgery.

  9. Male Sexual Dysfunction, Leptin, Pituitary and Gonadal Hormones in Nigerian Males with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Unyime Aniekpon; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebatonyo; Fasanmade, Adesoji Adedipe; Olaniyi, John Ayodele; Oyewole, Oyediran Emmanuel; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; Adebusuyi, Jane Roli; Hassan, Olufunke Olayemi; Ajobo, Babatunde Mohammed; Ebesunun, Maria Onomhaguan; Adigun, Kehinde; Akinlade, Kehinde Sola; Arinola, Olatubosun Ganiyu; Agbedana, Emmanuel Oluyemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pituitary and gonadal dysfunctions resulting from increased adiposity leading to disturbances of sexual and reproductive functions have been reported in males with metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dysfunction, leptin, and reproductive hormones in Nigerian males with MS and DM2. Methods: Participants were 104 men (34 males with DM2, 17 men with MS and 53 men with normal body mass index (18.5–24.9 Kg/m2) without MS (controls)). The International Diabetes Federation (2005) criteria were used for MS diagnosis. Reproductive history, anthropometry, blood pressure (BP) and 10 ml fasting blood samples were obtained by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined by enzymatic methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated. Leptin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin, testosterone and oestrogen were determined by enzyme immunoassay (leptin by Diagnostic Automation, Inc.; others by Immunometrics (UK) Ltd.) while oestrogen-testosterone ratio was calculated. Data analyzed using ANOVA, Chi square and multiple regression were statistically significant at plibido was observed in men in MS than controls and DM2 groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Sexual and reproductive dysfunction may be related to increased conversion of testosterone to oestrogen in increased adipose mass in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26962479

  10. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Small Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Yamamoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The source of most cases of gastrointestinal bleeding is the upper gastrointestinal tract. Since bleeding from the small intestine is very rare and difficult to diagnose, time is required to identify the source. Among small intestine bleeds, vascular abnormalities account for 70–80%, followed by small intestine tumors that account for 5–10%. The reported peak age of the onset of small intestinal tumors is about 50 years. Furthermore, rare small bowel tumors account for only 1–2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. We describe a 29-year-old man who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent laparotomy. Surgical findings revealed a well-circumscribed lesion measuring 45 × 40 mm in the jejunum that initially appeared similar to diverticulosis with an abscess. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with extramural growth.

  11. [Gastrointestinal bleeding, NSAIDs, aspirin and anticoagulants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2014-09-01

    The studies presented at the recent American Congress of Gastroenterology in the field of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (associated or not to NSAIDs or ASA use) have not been numerous but interesting. The key findings are: a) rabeprazole, the only PPI that had few studies in this field, is effective in the prevention of gastric ulcers; b) famotidine could also be effective in the prevention of complications by AAS; c) the new competitive inhibitors of the acid potassium pump are effective (as much as PPIs) on the recurrence of peptic ulcers by ASA; d) early endoscop (<8 h) in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding seems to offer no better results than those made in the first 24 h; e) endoscopic therapy in Forrest 1a ulcers does not obliterate the bleeding artery in 30% of cases and is the cause of bleeding recurrence; f) alternative therapies with glue or clotting products are being increasingly used in endoscopic therapy of gastrointestinal bleeding; g) liberal administration of blood in the GI bleeding is associated with poor prognosis; h) lesions of the small intestine are frequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding when upper endoscopy shows no positive stigmata; and i) capsule endoscopy studies have high performance in gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, if performed early in the first two days after the beginning of the bleeding episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxalate Concentrations in Human Gastrointestinal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Thanmaya G; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P; Harvey, Lisa M; Mitchem, April L E; Wilcox, Charles M; Monkemuller, Klaus E; Assimos, Dean G

    2016-05-01

    Urinary oxalate excretion is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis and is a result of endogenous metabolism and gastrointestinal processes. Gastrointestinal absorption of oxalate has been well demonstrated but to our knowledge evidence for secretion of oxalate is absent in humans. The objective of this study was to measure the amount and conformation of oxalate in the stomach and small intestine of adult subjects undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. Eleven adults participated in this study. Gastrointestinal fluid was collected from the stomach and small intestine during endoscopy. A determination of the soluble and insoluble components of oxalate was made by centrifugation of the sample and subsequent acidification of the resultant pellet and supernatant. Samples were processed and the amount of oxalate was measured by ion chromatography, the limit of which is 1.6 μM. The majority of small intestinal samples contained some degree of oxalate. This is in contrast to the stomach where minimal oxalate was detected. There was a wide range of oxalate concentrations and a greater degree of insoluble oxalate in small intestinal samples. Our results suggest that some degree of oxalate secretion in the small intestine may occur in the fasted state while this is less likely in the stomach. Further studies are warranted to provide definitive evidence of gastrointestinal secretion of oxalate.

  13. Antioxidants and prevention of gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina D

    2013-03-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers account for 20% of all incident cancers in the United States. Much work has been done to understand the role dietary factors play in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancers, yet evidence regarding the potential preventive effect of antioxidants is conflicting. This review highlights the recent studies investigating the associations between dietary antioxidants and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. In-vitro and in-vivo studies in animals continue to support the hypothesis that antioxidants reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancers. Results in human populations are not as supportive. Antioxidant nutrients and fruits and vegetables do not seem to confer protection against colorectal cancer, and certain antioxidants were found to increase the risk of distal colon cancer. Individual antioxidants also do not help prevent pancreatic cancer. Total antioxidant intake and plant-based foods seem promising for stomach cancer prevention, while vitamin C lowers the risk of esophageal cancer. Preventive effects for stomach and esophageal cancers were often limited to or stronger in smokers. Evidence is scarce regarding antioxidants and liver cancer. Antioxidants do not aid in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancers in the general population; however, they may act as chemopreventive agents for stomach and esophageal cancers, especially in high-risk populations.

  14. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  15. The gut microbiota and gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Kristina; Alverdy, John C

    2017-01-01

    Surgery involving the gastrointestinal tract continues to prove challenging because of the persistence of unpredictable complications such as anastomotic leakage and life-threatening infections. Removal of diseased intestinal segments results in substantial catabolic stress and might require complex reconstructive surgery to maintain the functional continuity of the intestinal tract. As gastrointestinal surgery necessarily involves a breach of an epithelial barrier colonized by microorganisms, preoperative intestinal antisepsis is used to reduce infection-related complications. The current approach to intestinal antisepsis varies widely across institutions and countries with little understanding of its mechanism of action, effect on the gut microbiota and overall efficacy. Many of the current approaches to intestinal antisepsis before gastrointestinal surgery run counter to emerging concepts of intestinal microbiota contributing to immune function and recovery from injury. Here, we review evidence outlining the role of gut microbiota in recovery from gastrointestinal surgery, particularly in the development of infections and anastomotic leak. To make surgery safer and further reduce complications, a molecular, genetic and functional understanding of the response of the gastrointestinal tract to alterations in its microbiota is needed. Methods can then be developed to preserve the health-promoting functions of the microbiota while at the same time suppressing their harmful effects.

  16. Gastrointestinal polyps and polyposis syndromes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Steven H; Barnard, John A

    2002-10-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are common during childhood and most often present with painless rectal bleeding. Most polyps occur as isolated colonic lesions and are not harbingers of an underlying genetic disorder, nor do they bestow a risk of gastrointestinal cancer. The astute pediatrician must be aware, however, that occasionally polyps may occur in the context of a genetic polyposis disorder characterized by an increase in the life-time risk of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract and other organ systems. This review outlines the major polyposis syndromes affecting children and highlights associated findings that might clue the alert physician to an underlying diagnosis. Recent developments in the understanding of the genetics of each disorder are emphasized.

  17. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Mitiko Matsuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

  18. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis - a differential diagnostic problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, D.; Krug, B.; Stelzner, M.

    1986-11-01

    The diagnostic radiologist may have problems with the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal amyloidosis combined with only uncharacteristic clinical symptoms. In the stomach upper gastrointestinal series show in most cases stenosing submucosal masses in the gastric antrum with diminished peristalsis and pliability. Sonography reveals a circular thickening of the gastric antrum wall. Only a synopsis of radiologic changes, the patient's history, laboratory tests and biopsies render a clue to the correct diagnosis. In the small bowel segmental or total intestinal dilatation with sonographically demonstrable thickening of the bowel wall and diminished motility, prolonged transit and eventually obstruction or paralytic ileus can be demonstrated. In patients with simultaneous plasmocytoma the radiologist has to take a gastrointestinal involvement by concurrent amyloidosis into account.

  19. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis - a differential diagnostic problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, D.; Krug, B.; Stelzner, M.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The diagnostic radiologist may have problems with the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal amyloidosis combined with only uncharacteristic clinical symptoms. In the stomach upper gastrointestinal series show in most cases stenosing submucosal masses in the gastric antrum with diminished peristalsis and pliability. Sonography reveals a circular thickening of the gastric antrum wall. Only a synopsis of radiologic changes, the patient's history, laboratory tests and biopsies render a clue to the correct diagnosis. In the small bowel segmental or total intestinal dilatation with sonographically demonstrable thickening of the bowel wall and diminished motility, prolonged transit and eventually obstruction or paralytic ileus can be demonstrated. In patients with simultaneous plasmocytoma the radiologist has to take a gastrointestinal involvement by concurrent amyloidosis into account. (orig.) [de

  20. New advances in gastrointestinal motility research

    CERN Document Server

    Pullan, A; Farrugia, G

    2013-01-01

    Research into gastrointestinal motility has received renewed interest in part due to recent advances in the techniques for measuring the structure and function of gastrointestinal cells, tissue and organs. The integration of this wealth of data into biophysically based computation models can aid in interpretation of experimental and clinical measurements and the refinement of measurement techniques. The contents of this book span multiple scales - from cell, tissue, organ, to whole body and is divided into four broad sections covering: i) gastrointestinal cellular activity and tissue structure; (ii) techniques for measuring, analyzing and visualizing high-resolution extra-cellular recordings; (iii) methods for sensing gastroelectrical activity using non-invasive bio-electro-magnetic fields and for modulating the underlying gastric electrical activity, and finally; (iv) methods for assessing manometric and videographic motility patterns and the application of these data for predicting the flow and mixing behav...

  1. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2015-01-01

    Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Idiopathic eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the latest cognitions, diagnosis and treatment strategies of the three main representatives of the eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID): idiopathic eosinophilic oesophagitis (EE), idiopathic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) with gastrointestinal involvement. These disorders share important similarities: their origin is unknown and their pathogenesis is due to a histological inflammatory response characterised by eosinophilic tissue infiltration. In spite of these parallels, the courses and prognoses of the diseases differ radically: EE is restricted to the oesophagus, and though it may significantly decrease the patient's quality of life, it has a favourable long-term prognosis. In EGE, the inflammatory process involves several segments of the gastrointestinal tract but this chronic inflammation may also be considered a benign disorder. In contrast, HES is primarily a multisystem disorder that may involve several organs, including the digestive tract, and often has a fatal outcome.

  3. Sexual Dysfunction in Interstitial Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyali, Senol; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2017-11-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a debilitating disease characterized with urgency, frequency, and pelvic pain affecting especially women. Sexual dysfunction in female patients with IC/BPS consists of dyspareunia, altered sexual desire and orgasm frequency and insufficient lubrication is reported to negatively affect the patient's quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between IC/BPS and sexual dysfunction and improvement in sexual dysfunction related to given treatments. A PubMed/Medline and EMBASE search was conducted using keywords: "interstitial cystitis", "sexual dysfunction", and "bladder pain syndrome". Several studies have been conducted to determine the relation between IC/BPS and sexual dysfunction. And also limited studies focusing on IC/BPS specific treatments reported significant improvements in sexual function after either oral or intravesical treatment. However, given the used different questionnaires, study protocols, patient characteristics, previous treatments and follow-up period, it is not possible to make a head-to-head comparison of the treatment effects on sexual function. Further, randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these results and make a comparison between effects of various treatment modalities on sexual functioning in IC/BPS.

  4. Autoimmune Gastrointestinal Paralysis: Failure of Conventional Treatment without Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Weinkauf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of the rare enteric nervous system (ENS manifestations of paraneoplastic syndromes, which are most frequently associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC, is poorly understood and described. Patients with neuroendocrine-derived tumors can develop B-cell reactivity towards the tumor with cross-reactivity for neurons located in the submucosal and myenteric ganglia of the ENS. The ensuing autoimmune neuritis causes aperistalsis and severe gastrointestinal (GI dysfunction. Immune-directed therapy is not the standard of care but may be paramount for patient recovery. Our patient, a 63-year-old man with recent symptoms of esophageal dysmotility and newly diagnosed SCLC was hospitalized with nausea, emesis, and constipation. After an extensive work-up that included laparoscopy and celiotomy with bowel resection, we diagnosed what we refer to as Autoimmune Paraneoplastic Chronic Intestinal Pseudoobstruction (AP-CIPO. Unlike the few clinically similar reports, SCLC and AP-CIPO were diagnosed in our patient within weeks of each other, which presented the dilemma of treating the two processes simultaneously. In this report, we review the relevant literature and describe our patient’s course. We believe standard chemotherapy is not effective treatment for AP-CIPO. Based on evidence discussed herein, we suggest initiating autoimmune-directed therapy before or simultaneous with cancer-directed therapy.

  5. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with gastrointestinal symptomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siroka, M.; Bilicky, J.; Hernesniemi, B.

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a case of 6-week-old baby boy with congenital diaphragmatic hernia(CDH). He presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. CDH is commonly manifested by nonspecific respiratory problems. The symptoms of CDH in older infants are atypical and misleading. Children may have only gastrointestinal problems even the acute abdomen. In our case, the ultrasound examination of abdomen did not detect the exact cause of vomiting and intolerance of oral intake, but the explanation has brought classic chest X-ray. (author)

  6. Copper Deficiency Myelopathy After Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dominic; Siau, Keith; Senthil, Latha; Kane, Katherine F; Cooper, Sheldon C

    2017-06-01

    A well-functioning alimentary canal is required for adequate nutrient absorption. Disruption to the upper gastrointestinal tract through surgery can lead to micronutrient malnourishment. Copper deficiency has been noted in up to 10% of those undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, but sequalae are not frequently reported. The resultant deficiency states can have profound and long-term consequences if not realized early and managed appropriately. Here we present a case of copper deficiency myelopathy, a condition indistinguishable from subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, following upper gastrointestinal bypass surgery for gastric ulceration, further complicated by inadequate nutrition.

  7. Gastrointestinal complications of leukemia and its treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.B.; Bjelland, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia represents 4% of all cancer deaths and is the leading cause of death from malignancy for all patients under 30 years of age. Various rare, usually preterminal gastrointestinal complications of leukemia have been reported. These complications are becoming more common and no longer should be considered unusual. Their increasing incidence is the result of new, more aggressive treatment methods and increased patient lifespan. The authors describe the relative incidence and common radiographic presentations of leukemia-related gastrointestinal disease and emphasize that its prognosis is favorable with prompt diagnosis and treatment

  8. Diagnosis of liver, biliary tract and gastrointestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio

    1981-01-01

    The role of RI imaging in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, biliary tracts and gastrointestinal tracts are reviewed, and representative cases are shown. Liver scintigraphy was of value for the diagnosis of lesions limitted to the liver such as primary and metastatic liver cancer and inflammatory liver diseases. However, RI methods were less useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the biliary tracts and stomach. RI scintigraphy was more sensitive than angiography in the detection of Meckel's deverticulum, Ballet's esophagus, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, D; Ng, T; Ahmad, C; Alfakeeh, A; Alruzug, I; Biagi, J; Brierley, J; Chaudhury, P; Cleary, S; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Ferland, E; Galiatsatos, P; Girard, S; Gray, S; Halwani, F; Kopek, N; Mahmud, A; Martel, G; Robillard, L; Samson, B; Seal, M; Siddiqui, J; Sideris, L; Snow, S; Thirwell, M; Vickers, M; Goodwin, R; Goel, R; Hsu, T; Tsvetkova, E; Ward, B; Asmis, T

    2016-12-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents.

  10. Multiple Gastrointestinal Complications of Crack Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Carlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and its alkaloid free base “crack-cocaine” have long since been substances of abuse. Drug abuse of cocaine via oral, inhalation, intravenous, and intranasal intake has famously been associated with a number of medical complications. Intestinal ischemia and perforation remain the most common manifestations of cocaine associated gastrointestinal disease and have historically been associated with oral intake of cocaine. Here we find a rare case of two relatively uncommon gastrointestinal complications of hemorrhage and pancreatitis presenting within a single admission in a chronic crack cocaine abuser.

  11. Modeling the Impact of Space Suit Components and Anthropometry on the Center of Mass of a Seated Crewmember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Blackledge, Christopher; Ferrer, Mike; Margerum, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The designers of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) utilize an intensive simulation program in order to predict the launch and landing characteristics of the Crew Impact Attenuation System (CIAS). The CIAS is the energy absorbing strut concept that dampens loads to levels sustainable by the crew during landing and consists of the crew module seat pallet that accommodates four to six seated astronauts. An important parameter required for proper dynamic modeling of the CIAS is knowledge of the suited center of mass (COM) variations within the crew population. Significant center of mass variations across suited crew configurations would amplify the inertial effects of the pallet and potentially create unacceptable crew loading during launch and landing. Established suited, whole-body, and posture-based mass properties were not available due to the uncertainty of the final CEV seat posture and suit hardware configurations. While unsuited segmental center of mass values can be obtained via regression equations from previous studies, building them into a model that was posture dependent with custom anthropometry and integrated suit components proved cumbersome and time consuming. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of posture, suit components, and the expected range of anthropometry on the center of mass of a seated individual. Several elements are required for the COM calculation of a suited human in a seated position: anthropometry; body segment mass; suit component mass; suit component location relative to the body; and joint angles defining the seated posture. Anthropometry and body segment masses used in this study were taken from a selection of three-dimensional human body models, called boundary manikins, which were developed in a previous project. These boundary manikins represent the critical anthropometric dimension extremes for the anticipated astronaut population. Six male manikins and 6 female manikins, representing a

  12. Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders, with particular reference to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, A; Zaffaroni, M

    2001-11-01

    Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders are described, with particular reference to those resembling multiple sclerosis (MS) on clinical or MRI grounds. Patients with celiac disease can present cerebellar ataxia, progressive myoclonic ataxia, myelopathy, or cerebral, brainstem and peripheral nerve involvement. Antigliadin antibodies can be found in subjects with neurological dysfunction of unknown cause, particularly in sporadic cerebellar ataxia ("gluten ataxia"). Patients with Whipple's disease can develop mental and psychiatric changes, supranuclear gaze palsy, upper motoneuron signs, hypothalamic dysfunction, cranial nerve abnormalities, seizures, ataxia, myorhythmia and sensory deficits. Neurological manifestations can complicate inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) due to vascular or vasculitic mechanisms. Cases with both Crohn's disease and MS or cerebral vasculitis are described. Epilepsy, chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy, muscle involvement and myasthenia gravis are also reported. The central nervous system can be affected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection because of vasculitis associated with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) is a disease caused by multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA. It is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, deafness, leukoencephalopathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms due to visceral neuropathy. Neurological manifestations can be the consequence of vitamin B1, nicotinamide, vitamin B12, vitamin D, or vitamin E deficiency and from nutritional deficiency states following gastric surgery.

  13. Sexual dysfunctions in psoriatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabela Sarbu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with a worldwide occurrence characterized by well-defined infiltrated erythematous papules and plaques, covered by silvery white or yellowish scales. It is a physically, socially and emotionally invalidating disorder that affects 1-2% of the population. Sexual health is an important part of general health and sexual dysfunctions can negatively affect self-esteem, confidence, interpersonal relationships and the quality of life. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI and the Impact of Psoriasis on Quality of Life (IPSO questionnaire are all questionnaires used to assess the quality of life of patients with psoriasis and each has one question regarding sexual dysfunction. Several scales were also designed to particularly assess sexual satisfaction in men and women. The aim of this paper is to perform an overview of the existing studies on sexual dysfunction in psoriatic patients.

  14. Validity and intraobserver reliability of three-dimensional scanning compared with conventional anthropometry for children and adolescents from a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Fabian; Vogel, Mandy; Naumann, Stephanie; Kuehnapfel, Andreas; Scholz, Markus; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kirsten, Toralf; Rieger, Kristin; Koerner, Antje; Loeffler, Markus; Kiess, Wieland

    2017-05-01

    Conventional anthropometric measurements are time consuming and require well trained medical staff. To use three-dimensional whole body laser scanning in daily clinical work, validity, and reliability have to be confirmed. We compared a whole body laser scanner with conventional anthropometry in a group of 473 children and adolescents from the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE-Child). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were calculated separately for sex, weight, and age to assess validity. Overall CCC (OCCC) was used to analyze intraobserver reliability. Body height and the circumferences of waist, hip, upper arm, and calf had an "excellent" (CCC ≥ 0.9); neck and thigh circumference, a "good" (CCC ≥ 0.7); and head circumference, a "low" (CCC anthropometry.

  15. The Sex and Race Specific Relationship between Anthropometry and Body Fat Composition Determined from Computed Tomography: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; Golden, Sherita Hill; Allison, Matthew A; Ding, Jingzhong; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Szklo, Moyses; Woodward, Mark; Young, Jeffery Hunter; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT) body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race. CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity. Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028), waist circumference (panthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used.

  16. Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and the Gastrointestinal Microbiota on Gut Motility and Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimidi, Eirini; Christodoulides, Stephanos; Scott, S Mark; Whelan, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Constipation is a common and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder that may result from altered gastrointestinal motility. The effect of probiotics on constipation has been increasingly investigated in both animal and human studies, showing promising results. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the mechanisms of action of probiotics on gut motility and constipation. Several factors are vital to normal gut motility, including immune and nervous system function, bile acid metabolism and mucus secretion, and the gastrointestinal microbiota and fermentation; an imbalance or dysfunction in any of these components may contribute to aberrant gut motility and, consequently, symptoms of constipation. For example, adults with functional constipation have significantly decreased numbers of bifidobacteria (with one study showing a mean difference of 1 log 10 /g) and lactobacilli (mean difference, 1.4 log 10 /g) in stool samples, as well as higher breath methane, compared with control subjects. Modifying the gut luminal environment with certain probiotic strains may affect motility and secretion in the gut and, hence, provide a benefit for patients with constipation. Therefore, this review explores the mechanisms through which probiotics may exert an effect on gut motility and constipation. Nevertheless, the majority of current evidence is derived from animal studies, and therefore, further human studies are needed to determine the mechanisms through specific probiotic strains that might be effective in constipation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Hormonal Changes and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common concern for many patients with cancer after treatment. Hormonal changes as a result of cancer-directed therapy can affect both male and female sexual health. This has the potential to significantly impact patients' quality of life, but is underreported and undertreated in the oncology setting. This review discusses commonly reported sexual issues and the role that hormonal changes play in this dysfunction. Although medical and psychosocial intervention strategies exist, there is a clear need for further research to formally develop programming that can assist people whose sexual health has been impacted by cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD) is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women ...

  19. Lysosomal dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Tomala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent data advocate for the implication of lysosomes in the development of programmed cell death. Lysosomal dysfunction decreased the efficiency of autophagosome/lysosome fusion that leads to vacuolation of cells. Autophagic vacuoles containing damaged organelles and altered proteins are hallmarks in most neurodegenerative disorders. These aggregates consequently disrupt cellular homeostasis causing neuronal cell death due apoptosis or necrosis. Moreover calpain mediated or mutation inducted lysosomal rupture result in release of lysosomal cathepsins into the cytoplasm and inducing neuronal cell death. In this review we emphasize the pathophysiological mechanism connecting disrupting autophagy – lysosomal pathway and lysosomal dysfunction in neuronal cell death called lysosomal cell death.

  20. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Mark D; Khalil, Anita; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H D; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ramji, Siddharth; Gera, Tarun; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Dey Biswas, S K; Reddy, K Srinath; Bhargava, Santosh K; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg) were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009). Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] ). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm) and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm). A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  1. Associations between gestational anthropometry, maternal HIV, and fetal and early infancy growth in a prospective rural/semi-rural Tanzanian cohort, 2012-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Amanda L; Pedersen, Sarah H; Urassa, Mark; Michael, Denna; Todd, Jim; Kinung'hi, Safari; Changalucha, John; McDermid, Joann M

    2015-10-29

    Healthcare access and resources differ considerably between urban and rural settings making cross-setting generalizations difficult. In resource-restricted rural/semi-rural environments, identification of feasible screening tools is a priority. The objective of this study was to evaluate gestational anthropometry in relation to birth and infant growth in a rural/semi-rural Tanzanian prospective cohort of mothers and their infants. Mothers (n = 114: 44 HIV-positive) attending antenatal clinic visits were recruited in their second or third trimester between March and November, 2012, and followed with their infants through 6-months post-partum. Demographic, clinical, and infant feeding data were obtained using questionnaires administered by a Swahili-speaking research nurse on demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and infant feeding practices. Second or third trimester anthropometry (mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC], triceps skinfold thickness, weight, height), pregnancy outcomes, birth (weight, length, head circumference) and infant anthropometry (weight-for-age z-score [WAZ], length-for-age z-score [LAZ]) were obtained. Linear regression and mixed effect modeling were used to evaluate gestational factors in relation to pregnancy and infant outcomes. Gestational MUAC and maternal HIV status (HIV-positive mothers = 39%) were associated with infant WAZ and LAZ from birth to 6-months in multivariate models, even after adjustment for infant feeding practices. The lowest gestational MUAC tertile was associated with lower WAZ throughout early infancy, as well as lower LAZ at 3 and 6-months. In linear mixed effects models through 6-months, each 1 cm increase in gestational MUAC was associated with a 0.11 increase in both WAZ (P anthropometry through 6-months despite maternal antiretroviral access. Routine assessment of MUAC has the potential to identify at-risk women in need of additional health interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and infant growth

  2. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  3. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the 'Gold Standard' Tarnished?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L Demmer

    Full Text Available Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults.1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR.Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults.

  4. Relationship between Nutritional Status and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Geriatric Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Jiménez, Dinorah; Miranda-Alatriste, Paola; Atilano-Carsi, Ximena; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Espinosa-Cuevas, Ángeles

    2018-03-29

    Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are associated with nutritional risks resulting from low food intake. Little is known about the relationship between GIS and malnutrition in geriatric patients with ESRD. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status and severity of GIS in geriatric patients on dialysis therapy. Clinically-stable geriatric patients (older than 60 years old) who were dialysis outpatients were included in this cross-sectional study. The severity of GIS was assessed using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Questionnaire (GSQ, short version), with patients classified into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe. Nutritional status was evaluated with the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS), anthropometric assessment, biochemical parameters, and bioelectrical impedance. Descriptive statistics were used and differences between groups were analyzed with ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis, with a p hemodialysis (HD) and 27 were on peritoneal dialysis (PD). No significant differences were found according to dialysis modality, presence of diabetes, or gender. Ninety percent of patients had at least one GIS. Poorer nutritional status (evaluated by MIS) was related to a higher severity of GIS. There were no significant differences with other nutritional parameters. Our study showed a high prevalence of GIS in geriatric patients. There were no differences in observed GIS values that were attributed to dialysis modality, gender, or presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Severe GIS values were associated with poorer nutritional status determined by MIS, however, there was no association with anthropometry, biochemical values, or bioimpedance vector analysis.

  5. A Patient with Interstitial 5q21 Deletion, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, Dysmorphic Features, and Profound Neurologic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is a hereditary autosomal dominant cancer syndrome, results from germ line mutation or deletion of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC gene on chromosome 5q21. Patients with FAP suffer from multiple polyps mainly at the colorectal region as well as other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which has propensity to transform into carcinoma. FAP has also been well described in association with various syndromic extra-gastrointestinal manifestations. Less commonly, patients with FAP present with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction and developmental delay, though the reason for the association is unclear. Herein, we report the case of a male patient born with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 5q, 46,XY, del(5 (q14q23, presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, profound developmental delay, cognitive dysfunction, and multiple congenital anomalies including talipes equinovarus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facial features.

  6. Modeling the Impact of Space Suit Components and Anthropometry on the Center of Mass of a Seated Crewmember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Christopher; Margerum, Sarah; Ferrer, Mike; Morency, Richard; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The Crew Impact Attenuation System (CIAS) is the energy-absorbing strut concept that dampens Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) landing loads to levels sustainable by the crew. Significant COM variations across suited crew configurations would amplify the inertial effects of the pallet and potentially create unacceptable crew loading during launch and landing. The objective of this study was to obtain data needed for dynamic simulation models by quantifying the effects of posture, suit components, and the expected range of anthropometry on the COM of a seated individual. Several elements are required for the COM calculation of a suited human in a seated position: anthropometry, body segment mass, suit component mass, suit component location relative to the body, and joint angles defining the seated posture. Three-dimensional (3D) human body models, suit mass data, and vector calculus were utilized to compute the COM positions for 12 boundary manikins in two different seated postures. The analysis focused on two objectives: (1) quantify how much the wholebody COM varied from the smallest to largest subject and (2) quantify the effects of the suit components on the overall COM in each seat configuration. The location of the anterior-posterior COM varied across all boundary manikins by about 7 cm, and the vertical COM varied by approximately 9 to 10 cm. The mediolateral COM varied by 1.2 cm from the midline sagittal plane for both seat configurations. The suit components caused an anterior shift of the total COM by approximately 2 cm and a shift to the right along the mediolateral axis of 0.4 cm for both seat configurations. When the seat configuration was in the standard posture the suited vertical COM shifted inferiorly by as much as 1 cm, whereas in the CEV posture the vertical COM had no appreciable change. These general differences were due to the high proportion of suit mass located in the boots and lower legs and their corresponding distance from the body COM

  7. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations at 2 years: associations with anthropometry and milk consumption in an Indian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Andrea S; Joshi, Suyog M; Lubree, Himangi G; Bhat, Dattatray S; Memane, Neelam S; Raut, Deepa A; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2018-04-01

    To ascertain associations between plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and their molar ratio at 2 y with neonatal size, infant growth, body composition at 2 y, and feeding practices in an Indian cohort. A cohort of 209 newborns, with 122 followed at 2 y. Anthropometry was conducted at birth and 2 y. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations were measured in cord blood and at 2 y. Maternal and child diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and maternal interviews. Multivariate regression was used to test for associations adjusting for confounding factors. Mean 2 y plasma IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 were 49.4 ng/ml (95% CI: 44.1, 54.8), 1953.8 ng/ml (CI: 1870.6, 2036.9) ng/ml, and 0.088 (CI: 0.081, 0.095), respectively. IGF-I and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 were positively associated with current length, but not body mass index or adiposity. IGF-I was higher among those with greater change in length since birth. IGF-I concentrations were higher in children who drank the most milk (>500 vs. <250 ml per day: 65.6 vs. 42.8 ng/ml, p < 0.04), received other milk <6 months compared to ≥6 months (56.3 vs. 44.8 ng/ml, p < 0.05), and in those whose mothers consumed milk daily vs. less frequently in late pregnancy (56.4 vs. 42.7 ng/ml, p < 0.01). In multivariate regression, 2 y IGF-I concentration and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 were each positively associated with current length and milk intake. IGFBP-3 was not related to anthropometry or milk intake. Plasma IGF-I concentrations and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 at 2 y are positively associated with length at 2 y and current milk intake.

  8. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  9. The Health Problems, Gastrointestinal and Blood Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report on the disease conditions in donkeys in most West African countries is scanty in literature. This study was conducted to identify the health related problems including gastrointestinal and blood parasites of donkeys at the Bolgatanga livestock market in the Upper East region of Ghana from July to December, 2012.

  10. Gastrointestinal Injuries Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment included segmental resection with end to end anastomosis, wedge resection with anastomosis, exteriorizations stomas, simple excision of the perforation and closure in two layers (gastric perforation). The total mortality was four (21.1%), two of them due to associated injuries. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal injuries ...

  11. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  12. Standardization and Coding of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Groenen (Marcel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGastrointestinal endoscopy has developed rapidly in the last five decades. It started in the sixties, when the first commercial model of the then recently invented fully flexible fiberoptic gastroscope was developed. In the late sixties fiberoptic endoscopes changed to forward viewing,

  13. Gastrointestinal bleeding following NSAID ingestion in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presented with GI bleeding following ingestion of NSAID. Two female children ... users of NSAIDs [2]. The risk and the magnitude of. NSAID-induced GI injury in children are uncertain. Here, we report two cases of GI bleeding in children following NSAID use. .... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastrointestinal ...

  14. Point prevalence and pathology associated with gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Parasitology ... This study determines the gastrointestinal parasite species and their associated gross lesions in local chickens and guinea fowls in the Kumasi Metropolis in the Ashanti ... In this study, 21 helminth parasites were identified in the guinea fowls and 19 were identified in the local chickens.

  15. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  16. [Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal safety of NSAIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, P.M. van den; Tjwa, E.T.; Oijen, M.G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    All NSAIDs may induce cardiotoxicity. In this respect naproxen is relatively the safest choice. Selective cyclo-oxygenase-2-inhibitors (coxibs) are at least as effective in preventing clinically relevant gastrointestinal toxicity as non-selective NSAIDs plus a protonpump inhibitor (PPI).

  17. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...

  18. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results

  19. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.

  20. Diverticular Disease of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Aaron

    2017-12-01

    Almost all gastrointestinal tract diverticula require no intervention if they are asymptomatic. There is no clear diagnostic modality of choice for diagnosis and surveillance of diverticulum. Medical treatment should be attempted before surgical intervention because significant morbidity is may be associated with resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pattern of gastrointestinal opportunistic infections among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two per cent (22%) of these had mixed parasitosis of cryptosporidium and hookworm. There was no significant association of CD4 cells count with intestinal parasitosis. x2 = 5.286 and p=0.259. However marital status was significantly associated with gastrointestinal opportunistic parasitosis with x2 of 12.693, ...

  2. Gastrointestinal immune responses in HIV infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRR Castello-Branco

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut associated lymphoid tissue is responsible for specific responses to intestinal antigens. During HIV infection, mucosal immune deficiency may account for the gastrointestinal infections. In this review we describe the humoral and cellular mucosal immune responses in normal and HIV-infected subjects.

  3. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients. PMID:24409051

  4. Prevalence of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from December, 2014 to May, 2015 on 914 animals (345 sheep and 569 goats) at Jalingo abattoir, Taraba State, Nigeria based on faecal examination. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes in slaughtered small ...

  5. Efficacy of selected anthelmintics against gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep owned by smallholder farmers. Eighty three sheep were selected for the study and divided into four groups: the first group was treated with Albendazole, the second group ...

  6. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harm; Jansen, Peter L M; Moshage, Han

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  7. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Moshage, Han

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  8. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine whether gastrointestinal symptoms are more frequent in persons with diabetes mellitus compared with age and sex-matched controls, and to assess the association of these symptoms with blood sugar control. Methods: Hospital-based case control study. Study was carried out in the diabetic clinic of ...

  9. Vascular Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Harki (Jihan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractChronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) results from insufficient blood supply to the stomach, small intestine and colon. In most cases this is caused by stenosis of the supplying arteries with lack of sufficient collateral circulation. Most often the stenosis is due to

  10. Probiotics and functional gastrointestinal disorders in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Benninga, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Chronic constipation is one of the most frequent complaints in childhood. Although there is evidence that gastrointestinal flora is important in gut motility, there is little evidence that gut flora is abnormal in constipation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increase stool frequency and decrease

  11. Gastrointestinal estromal tumor: Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Gonzalez, Alexis; Hernandez Perez, Arnaldo; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Diana; Hernandez Fernandez, Diana M; Castanneda Munnoz, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Since the first descriptions made by Golden and Stout, this group of mesenchymal lesions is considered of muscular origin and they were named as leiomyoma, cellular leiomyoma, epithelioid leiomyoma, leiomyoblastoma, bizarre leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. But Mazur and Clark created the term estromal tumor only after they began to use the inmunohistochemistry and subsequently showed the absence of muscular markers, and the occasional presence of neural markers. Nowadays, gastrointestinal estromal tumors are called the primary mesenchymal CD117 positive, fusiform or epithelioid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, epiplon, mesenterio, and retroperitoneum. The gastrointestinal estromal tumors appear at the wall of the digestive tube: stomach (50-60 %), small intestine (20-30 %), large intestine (10 %) and esophagus (5 %), and occasionally in epiplon, mesenterio, and retroperineum (5 %). In our work we present a 67 year-old patient, entered in our hospital for presenting high digestive bleeding. We studied the case, and found a 6 cm tumor of the gastric fundus. The tumor was operated and the definitive results of the pathologic anatomy showed a gastrointestinal estromal tumor

  12. Epidemiology and Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the epidemiology and control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in lambs in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya was carried out between January 2001 and December 2001. Forty Dorper lambs were randomly recruited at the age of 6 weeks and their faecal samples examined for strongyle-type ...

  13. Association between Khat Chewing and Gastrointestinal Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of gastritis was 580 (57.7%); constipation 235 (23.4%); hemorrhoids 54 (5.4%) and that of dental problems (carries, decay, filling and extraction) was 225 (22.4%) of all study participants. Gastrointestinal disorders were found to be higher among khat chewers, where 64(36.2%) of them had dental problems; ...

  14. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Amietophyrnus regularis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Amietophyrnus regularis (African Common Toad) in Anyigba were investigated. A total of 120 specimens were examined for helminth parasites, 113(94.17%) toads were infected, while 7(5.8%) were uninfected. Helminth parasites recovered were 1576, comprising of 1 Cestode: ...

  15. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-12-28

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients.

  16. Handbook on diagnostic radiology. Gastrointestinal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerbach, S.

    2007-01-01

    The volume on the gastrointestinal tract within the handbook on diagnostic radiology contains the following contributions: abdomen, acute abdomen, esophagus diseases, congenital and constitutional diseases, small intestine diseases, large intestine diseases, liver and biliary tract diseases, pancreas diseases, splenetic diseases, original peritoneum diseases

  17. Gastrointestinal manifestations in children with primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    clinical feature is recurrent and/or severe infections. However, some type ... Table 1. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases with Gastrointestinal Manifestations. Primary ... Inflammatory bowel disease, IFN-γ; interferon-γ, Igs; immunoglobulins, IL-12; interleukin-12, IPEX; Immune dysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy ...

  18. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  19. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    cancers. SEARCH STRATEGY: We identified trials through the trials registers of the four Cochrane Review Groups on gastrointestinal diseases, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCI-EXPANDED, and The Chinese Biomedical...

  20. Systematic review: tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, S.L.; Langholz, S.E.; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid may reduce upper gastrointestinal bleeding and stabilize patients before endoscopic treatments. AIM: To review randomized trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and...

  1. Migraines and Gastrointestinal Problems: Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regularly experience gastrointestinal symptoms — such as reflux, diarrhea, constipation and nausea — have a higher prevalence of headaches than those who don't have gastrointestinal symptoms. These studies suggest that people who get frequent headaches may ...

  2. Pediatric functional constipation gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient-reported outcomes are necessary to evaluate the gastrointestinal symptom profile of patients with functional constipation. Study objectives were to compare the gastrointestinal symptom profile of pediatric patients with functional constipation with matched healthy controls with the Pediatric...

  3. A rare cause of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: mesenteric hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeytunlu Murat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage accounts for approximately 20% of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The most common causes of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in adults are diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, benign anorectal diseases, intestinal neoplasias, coagulopathies and arterio-venous malformations. Hemangiomas of gastrointestinal tract are rare. Mesenteric hemangiomas are also extremely rare. We present a 25-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. An intraluminal bleeding mass inside the small intestinal segment was detected during explorative laparotomy as the cause of the recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After partial resection of small bowel segment, the histopathologic examination revealed a cavernous hemagioma of mesenteric origin. Although rare, gastrointestinal hemangioma should be thought in differential diagnosis as a cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. Specific infant feeding practices do not consistently explain variation in anthropometry at age 1 year in urban United States, Mexico, and China cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S; McMahon, Robert J; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant's birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry.

  5. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleed from a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Jejunal Diverticulum: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sadaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of small bowel diverticulum with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. This GIST in the diverticulum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and was of low-grade malignant potential.

  6. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Furtwaengler, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST ( 5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  7. Thyroid dysfunction in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-09

    thirds of the subjects in this study. The serum TSH concentration is a reliable screening test for thyroid dysfunction in the elderly, but is less useful if used to identify biochemical thyroid disease. An elevated TSH concentration is a ...

  8. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  9. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Brennan, Mike T.; Leeuw, Irma M. Verdonck-de; Gibson, Rachel J.; Eilers, June G.; Waltimo, Tuomas; Bots, Casper P.; Michelet, Marisol; Sollecito, Thomas P.; Rouleau, Tanya S.; Sewnaik, Aniel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Fliedner, Monica C.; Silverman, Sol; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  10. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  11. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  12. Medical therapy and smell dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, P. W.; Rombaux, P.

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is deemed to be a significant contributor to poor quality of life in different nasal inflammatory conditions like common cold, allergic rhinitis, and acute and chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps (NP). The mechanism underlying olfactory impairment in

  13. Pathogenesis of Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Hypothesis with Emphasis on the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Adam Daulatzai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OSA is characterized by the quintessential triad of intermittent apnea, hypoxia, and hypoxemia due to pharyngeal collapse. This paper highlights the upstream mechanisms that may trigger cognitive decline in OSA. Three interrelated steps underpin cognitive dysfunction in OSA patients. First, several risk factors upregulate peripheral inflammation; these crucial factors promote neuroinflammation, cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in OSA. Secondly, the neuroinflammation exerts negative impact globally on the CNS, and thirdly, important foci in the neocortex and brainstem are rendered inflamed and dysfunctional. A strong link is known to exist between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. A unique perspective delineated here underscores the importance of dysfunctional brainstem nuclei in etiopathogenesis of cognitive decline in OSA patients. Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS is the central integration hub for afferents from upper airway (somatosensory/gustatory, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular (baroreceptor and chemoreceptor and other systems. The NTS has an essential role in sympathetic and parasympathetic systems also; it projects to most key brain regions and modulates numerous physiological functions. Inflamed and dysfunctional NTS and other key brainstem nuclei may play a pivotal role in triggering memory and cognitive dysfunction in OSA. Attenuation of upstream factors and amelioration of the NTS dysfunction remain important challenges.

  14. Gastrointestinal Fistula: Audit of management in a remote hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The management of gastrointestinal fistula continues to present considerable challenge to the surgeon in general and gastrointestinal surgeon in particular. Objectives: To audit the management and report the outcome of the gastrointestinal fistula in a remote hospital. Setup: Eldamazeen Hospital is a regional ...

  15. Surgical treatment of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency condition. More immediately life-threatening is massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in cardiovascular compromise causing dizziness, syncope and shock. The causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding include bleeding ...

  16. Psychophysiological Associations with Gastrointestinal Symptomatology in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Bradley J.; Marler, Sarah; Altstein, Lily L.; Lee, Evon Batey; Akers, Jill; Sohl, Kristin; McLaughlin, Aaron; Hartnett, Kaitlyn; Kille, Briana; Mazurek, Micah; Macklin, Eric A.; McDonnell, Erin; Barstow, Mariah; Bauman, Margaret L.; Margolis, Kara Gross

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal disturbances, which also may impact behavior. Alterations in autonomic nervous system functioning are also frequently observed in ASD. The relationship between these findings in ASD is not known. We examined the relationship between gastrointestinal symptomatology, examining upper and lower gastrointestinal tract symptomatology separately, and autonomic nervous system functioning, as assessed by heart rate variability and...

  17. Comparison of anthropometry with photogrammetry based on a standardized clinical photographic technique using a cephalostat and chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihwan; Kwon, Hyuk Joon; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Jun Hyung; Son, Daegu

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize clinical photogrammetric techniques, and to compare anthropometry with photogrammetry. To standardize clinical photography, we have developed a photographic cephalostat and chair. We investigated the repeatability of the standardized clinical photogrammetric technique. Then, with 40 landmarks, a total of 96 anthropometric measurement items was obtained from 100 Koreans. Ninety six photogrammetric measurements from the same subjects were also obtained from standardized clinical photographs using Adobe Photoshop version 7.0 (Adobe Systems Corporation, San Jose, CA, USA). The photogrammetric and anthropometric measurement data (mm, degree) were then compared. A coefficient was obtained by dividing the anthropometric measurements by the photogrammetric measurements. The repeatability of the standardized photography was statistically significantly high (p=0.463). Among the 96 measurement items, 44 items were reliable; for these items the photogrammetric measurements were not different to the anthropometric measurements. The remaining 52 items must be classified as unreliable. By developing a photographic cephalostat and chair, we have standardized clinical photogrammetric techniques. The reliable set of measurement items can be used as anthropometric measurements. For unreliable measurement items, applying a suitable coefficient to the photogrammetric measurement allows the anthropometric measurement to be obtained indirectly.

  18. Can anthropometry measure gender discrimination? An analysis using WHO standards to assess the growth of Bangladeshi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moestue, Helen

    2009-08-01

    To examine the potential of anthropometry as a tool to measure gender discrimination, with particular attention to the WHO growth standards. Surveillance data collected from 1990 to 1999 were analysed. Height-for-age Z-scores were calculated using three norms: the WHO standards, the 1978 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference and the 1990 British growth reference (UK90). Bangladesh. Boys and girls aged 6-59 months (n 504 358). The three sets of growth curves provided conflicting pictures of the relative growth of girls and boys by age and over time. Conclusions on sex differences in growth depended also on the method used to analyse the curves, be it according to the shape or the relative position of the sex-specific curves. The shapes of the WHO-generated curves uniquely implied that Bangladeshi girls faltered faster or caught up slower than boys throughout their pre-school years, a finding consistent with the literature. In contrast, analysis of the relative position of the curves suggested that girls had higher WHO Z-scores than boys below 24 months of age. Further research is needed to help establish whether and how the WHO international standards can measure gender discrimination in practice, which continues to be a serious problem in many parts of the world.

  19. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2–4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity. PMID:24463487

  20. Adjustment of interaural time difference in head related transfer functions based on listeners' anthropometry and its effect on sound localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yôiti; Watanabe, Kanji; Iwaya, Yukio; Gyoba, Jiro; Takane, Shouichi

    2005-04-01

    Because the transfer functions governing subjective sound localization (HRTFs) show strong individuality, sound localization systems based on synthesis of HRTFs require suitable HRTFs for individual listeners. However, it is impractical to obtain HRTFs for all listeners based on measurements. Improving sound localization by adjusting non-individualized HRTFs to a specific listener based on that listener's anthropometry might be a practical method. This study first developed a new method to estimate interaural time differences (ITDs) using HRTFs. Then correlations between ITDs and anthropometric parameters were analyzed using the canonical correlation method. Results indicated that parameters relating to head size, and shoulder and ear positions are significant. Consequently, it was attempted to express ITDs based on listener's anthropometric data. In this process, the change of ITDs as a function of azimuth angle was parameterized as a sum of sine functions. Then the parameters were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, in which the anthropometric parameters were used as explanatory variables. The predicted or individualized ITDs were installed in the nonindividualized HRTFs to evaluate sound localization performance. Results showed that individualization of ITDs improved horizontal sound localization.

  1. Are traditional body fat equations and anthropometry valid to estimate body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Junior, Carlos Alencar Souza Alves; Castro, João Antônio Chula de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of traditional anthropometric equations and to develop predictive equations of total body and trunk fat for children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric measurements. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 boys) aged 7-17 years, living in Santa Catarina, Brazil, participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the reference method to evaluate total body and trunk fat. Height, body weight, circumferences and triceps, subscapular, abdominal and calf skinfolds were measured. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter were used to estimate body fat. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict total body fat (Model 1) and trunk fat (Model 2) using a backward selection procedure. Model 1 had an R 2 =0.85 and a standard error of the estimate of 1.43. Model 2 had an R 2 =0.80 and standard error of the estimate=0.49. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter showed poor performance in estimating body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. The prediction models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be used by clinicians and healthcare professionals to monitor total body and trunk fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  3. Load dependent diastolic dysfunction in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebert, T. C.; Leite-Moreira, A. F.; de Hert, S. G.

    2000-01-01

    Congestive heart failure may result from cardiovascular overload, from systolic or from diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic left ventricular dysfunction may result from structural resistance to filling such as induced by pericardial constraint, right ventricular compression, increased chamber stiffness

  4. β1/2 or M2/3 Receptors Are Required for Different Gastrointestinal Motility Responses Induced by Acupuncture at Heterotopic or Homotopic Acupoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaochun; Cui, Changxiang; Yang, Zhaokun; Shi, Hong; Jing, Xianghong; Zhu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    -type littermates of either. Our study revealed that M2/3 receptors are required for the gastrointestinal motility associated with whole gastrointestinal transition enhanced by acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints, whereas β1/2 receptors are required for the same gastrointestinal motility processes inhibited by acupuncture at homotopic acupoints. Therefore, our findings reveal important biological mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment of disorders involving gastrointestinal motility dysfunction. PMID:27978539

  5. History of the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinplatz, Peggy J

    2018-01-22

    This article reviews the history of the treatment of women's sexual problems from the Victorian era to the twenty-first century. The contextual nature of determining what constitutes female sexual psychopathology is highlighted. Conceptions of normal sexuality are subject to cultural vagaries, making it difficult to identify female sexual dysfunctions. A survey of the inclusion, removal, and collapsing of women's sexual diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from 1952 to 2013 illuminates the biases in the various editions. Masters and Johnson's models of sexual response and dysfunction paved the way for the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual dysfunctions. Their sex therapy paradigm is described. Conceptions of and treatments for anorgasmia, arousal difficulties, vaginismus, dyspareunia, and low desire are reviewed. The medicalization of human sexuality and the splintering of sex therapy are discussed, along with current trends and new directions in sexual health care for women. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 14 is May 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  6. Erectile dysfunction among men attending surgical outpatients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Erectile dysfunction is becoming a public health issue with high incidences reported in community studies. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and outcome of treatment in men with erectile dysfunction in a tertiary center in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. Methods: Data of men with erectile dysfunction was ...

  7. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may either be spontaneous or triggered by touch, visual, auditory or emotional stimuli.[7] Autonomic dysfunction may occur, and does not necessarily correlate with the severity of tetanus. Wassay et al.[8] reported autonomic dysfunction in a third of tetanus cases. Autonomic dysfunction presents as labile hypertension, ...

  8. Innate Immune Sensors and Gastrointestinal Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina L. Hold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal microbiota is a major source of immune stimulation. The interaction between host pattern-recognition receptors and conserved microbial ligands profoundly influences infection dynamics. Identifying and understanding the nature of these interactions is a key step towards obtaining a clearer picture of microbial pathogenesis. These interactions underpin a complex interplay between microbe and host that has far reaching consequences for both. Here, we review the role of pattern recognition receptors in three prototype diseases affecting the stomach, the small intestine, and large intestine, respectively (Helicobacter pylori infection, Salmonella infection, and inflammatory bowel disease. Specifically, we review the nature and impact of pathogen:receptor interactions, their impact upon pathogenesis, and address the relevance of pattern recognition receptors in the development of therapies for gastrointestinal diseases.

  9. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor – An Evolving Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornillo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with RTK inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan) the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other “entities,” have been discovered (e.g., succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, and mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway). The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data. PMID:25593916

  10. Nanotechnology in gastrointestinal endoscopy: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Jha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the understanding, control of matter and development of engineered devices in nanometer range (1-100 nm. Nanoparticles have different physicochemical properties (small size, large surface area to volume ratio, and high reactivity in comparison to bulk materials of the same composition. The nanotechnology has proved its usefulness in early diagnosis, proteonomics, imaging diagnostics and multifunctional therapeutics. Recent studies have shown its role in early diagnosis and targeted therapy of various gastrointestinal disorders such as hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus related liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, gastric ulcer, and malignancy. Application of this technology appears promising in diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy such as the endoscopic hemostasis of peptic ulcer bleeding, prevention of clogging of plastic stent and advance capsule endoscopy. This article will highlight the basic concepts of nanotechnology and its potential application in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  11. Dermatologic symptoms associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Młynarczyk-Bonikowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tumors are among the most common neoplastic causes of death worldwide. Presence of characteristic skin lesions can allow faster diagnosis and therapy and this way can increase the probability of a cure. In the paper we present the most important paraneoplastic syndromes that can coexist with gastrointestinal malignancy including colon, gastric, esophagus and pancreatic cancers. We take into account genetic syndromes such as Cowden syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMM (melanoma/pancreatic cancer, Clarke Howel-Evans, Peutz-Jeghers, Muir-Torre, Gardner syndromes and acquired syndromes such as acantosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, Leser-Trelat, Bazex, hypertrichosis languinosa, erythema gyratum repens , carcinoid and glucagonoma syndrome. We also include cutaneous metastases and coexistence of neoplasia in some cases of dermatomyositis.

  12. The role of probiotics in gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Maria Isabel T D; Liboredo, Juliana C; Consoli, Marcella L D

    2012-03-01

    The intestinal microbiota, which is a complex and dynamic population of different bacterial species, represents an important contribution to the health of the host. This microbiota plays a key role by promoting the integrity of the epithelial barrier and the development of mucosal immunity. However, under some stressful situations, such as after gastrointestinal surgery, infectious complications may originate from the intestinal microbiota of the patient. This phenomenon is known as the gut origin of sepsis hypothesis. However, the supply of probiotics has beneficial effects under similar conditions despite some controversial results. Therefore, it is important to carefully assess the efficacy of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of complications in surgical patients and to evaluate the safety of its use. This review provides an overview of the proposed mechanisms of probiotic action and the significant progress in this field, mainly concerning gastrointestinal surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S. E-mail: laushunhk@yahoo.com.hk; Tam, K.F.; Kam, C.K.; Lui, C.Y.; Siu, C.W.; Lam, H.S.; Mak, K.L

    2004-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) represents the most common kind of mesenchymal tumour that arises from the alimentary tract. GIST is currently defined as a gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells (or less commonly epithelioid cells or rarely both) and showing CD117 (c-kit protein) positivity. Targeted molecular therapy of non-resectable GIST using imatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, represents a real milestone in the management of solid malignancy. Imaging studies, both anatomical and functional, are playing an increasingly important role in management of patients with GIST. This review illustrates the radiological appearance of GISTs and the site-specific roles of each imaging tool. Clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis of GIST are also discussed.

  14. Can eating disorders cause functional gastrointestinal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, P

    2010-12-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are very common (up to 98%) in patients with an eating disorder (ED). Boyd et al. discuss in this issue of Neurogastroenterology & Motility that FGIDs can persist independently on the outcome of the ED. Their findings leave room for speculation on the mechanisms underlying FGIDs in patients with an ED. FGIDs result from a complex interaction of biological, psychosocial and social factors. The altered eating behavior seen in EDs is strongly associated with disturbed gastrointestinal sensitivity and motor physiology. Moreover, psychiatric co-morbidities in ED patients are also frequently found in FGIDs. The motor and sensitivity disturbances together with psychiatric co-morbidities can lay the foundation of a FGID. Once established the psychological and physiological disturbances can perpetuate and strengthen each other resulting in a FGID that can persist independently of the ED that originally caused the motor and sensitivity disturbances.

  15. Effects of Kampo on functional gastrointestinal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Takakazu; Okumi, Hirokuni; Nishida, Shinji; Ito, Takashi; Morikiyo, Shinichi; Kimura, Yoko; Murakami, Masato

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the effectiveness of Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal medicine) in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, especially functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The results of four randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) suggested the usefulness of rikkunshito in relieving the subjective symptoms of patients with FD. Rikkunshito significantly improved not only gastric symptoms, such as epigastiric discomfort, but also extra-gastric sympto...

  16. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein /tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Patterns and Scales in Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Camp, J. Gray; Kanther, Michelle; Semova, Ivana; Rawls, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The body surfaces of humans and other animals are colonized at birth by microorganisms. The majority of microbial residents on the human body exist within gastrointestinal (GI) tract communities, where they contribute to many aspects of host biology and pathobiology. Recent technological advances have expanded our ability to perceive the membership and physiologic traits of microbial communities along the GI tract. To translate this information into a mechanistic and practical understanding o...

  18. Internal medical therapy of gastrointestinal stroma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichardt, P.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently no active treatment for advanced or metastatic gastrointestinal stroma tumors (GIST) was available. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib has revolutionized the treatment of this disease and the median overall survival now reaches 5 years. The standard dose of imatinib is 400 mg per day. Locally advanced GIST should be treated with systemic therapy prior to surgical resection. Imatinib was recently licensed for adjuvant therapy following complete surgical removal of GIST in patients with a significant risk of recurrence. (orig.) [de

  19. An Unusual Cause of Gastrointestinal Obstruction: Bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq O. Abbas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bezoars are concretions of swallowed hair, fruit vegetable fibers, and similar substances found in the alimentary canal. The first description of a postmortem human bezoar was by Swain in 1854. Although the prevalence of bezoars in humans is low, an absence of treatment has been associated with mortality rates as high as 30�20primarily because of gastrointestinal bleeding, destruction, or perforation.

  20. Informational needs of gastrointestinal oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakos, Janet; Urowitz, Sara; Olmstead, Craig; Jusko Friedman, Audrey; Zhu, Jason; Catton, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    In response to the dearth of consumer health information for patients with gastrointestinal cancers, this study examined the informational needs of these patients to build a plan for future resource development. Although studies have examined informational needs of some such cancers, no published literature has investigated the comprehensive informational needs across all sites of gastrointestinal cancer. A cross-sectional needs assessment comprising a self-administered questionnaire was conducted at an ambulatory gastrointestinal oncology clinic in Toronto, Canada. Patient informational needs were measured, including importance of information, amount desired and preferred mode of delivery. Informational needs were grouped into six domains: medical, practical, physical, emotional, social and spiritual. Eighty-two surveys were analysed. The majority of the respondents were male (53.8%), over the age of 50 (77.8%), and born outside of Canada (51.9%). While many did not speak English as a child (46.3%), and do not speak English at home (22.2%), nearly all indicated comfort with receiving health information in English (97.5%). The majority of respondents were college educated (79.3%) and married (73%). Multiple cancer types were reported; the most common being colorectal (39%), followed by pancreatic (12%) and cancers of the gallbladder or bile duct (12%). Overall, respondents placed highest importance on medical information (P < 0.001). Preferred education modalities were pamphlets, websites and one-on-one discussions with health-care professionals. This study highlights the principal informational needs of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, along with preferred modality for information delivery. This information will guide the development of educational resources for future patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.