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Sample records for anthropometry circulating levels

  1. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate G; Opar, David A; Livingstone, Steuart G; Cordy, Justin T; Bird, Stephen R; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in elite junior, sub-elite senior, and elite senior Australian Football (AF) players. Nineteen experienced elite senior (≥4 years Australian Football League [AFL] experience), 27 inexperienced elite senior (Football players' FFSTM are different between playing levels, which are likely because of training and partly explain the observed differences in performance between playing levels highlighting the importance of optimizing FFSTM in young players.

  2. Elevated circulating somatostatin levels in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, M; Porretti, S; Epaminonda, P; Giavoli, C; Gebbia, C; Penati, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Peracchi, M

    2003-06-01

    GH increases hypothalamic somatostatin (SS) synthesis and secretion but it is unknown if chronic GH excess, as found in acromegaly, may influence circulating SS levels, that are mainly of enteropancreatic source and affect several gastrointestinal functions, including motility. Circulating SS occurs in several post-translational forms including somatostatin-14 (SS-14), somatostatin-28 (SS-28) and other small peptides. The aim of the present study was to characterize the fasting and postprandial pattern of plasma circulating somatostatin in normal subjects and patients with acromegaly. Fasting total SS and SS-28 levels were measured in 32 subjects, 16 acromegalic patients with a new diagnosis (A) (8 F, 8 M, median age 48) and 16 matched healthy volunteers (C) (8 F, 8 M, median age 45). SS was also determined after a standard solid-liquid meal (550 kCal) in 24 of the subjects (12 C and 12 A). Fasting SS and SS-28 were significantly higher in acromegalic patients as compared to healthy subjects. In the former, a positive correlation was found between IGF-I and SS levels (r = 0.525 p acromegaly. Excess GH/IGF-I could be a causal factor in somatostatin hypersecretion. Conceivably this abnormality might play a role in some alterations of gastrointestinal function of acromegalic patients such as prolonged bowel transit.

  3. Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; Amin, Najaf; Isaacs, Aaron;

    2011-01-01

    Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid...... suggested a small overlap between the polygenic backgrounds involved in determining LDL-C, HDL-C and TG levels. Pathway analysis utilizing the best polygenic score for TC uncovered extra information compared with using only genome-wide significant loci. These results suggest that the genetic architecture...... levels have identified numerous loci, a substantial portion of the heritability of these traits remains unexplained. Evidence of unexplained genetic variance can be detected by combining multiple independent markers into additive genetic risk scores. Such polygenic scores, constructed using results from...

  4. Anthropometry of young competitive sport rock climbers

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, P.; Joubert, L; Lish, A; Van der Mast, J.; Wilkins, B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Adult elite competitive rock climbers are small in stature with low body mass and very low body fat percentage. These characteristics have generated concern that young climbers may attempt body mass reduction to extreme levels with adverse consequences for health and performance. No published anthropometry data for young competitive climbers exist.

  5. Dynamic sea level changes following changes in the thermohaline circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Levermann, A; Hofmann, M; Montoya, M; Rahmstorf, S; Levermann, Anders; Griesel, Alexa; Hofmann, Matthias; Montoya, Marisa; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Using the coupled climate model CLIMBER-3a, we investigate changes in sea surface elevation due to a weakening of the thermohaline circulation (THC). In addition to a global sea level rise due to a warming of the deep sea, this leads to a regional dynamic sea level change which follows quasi-instantaneously any change in the ocean circulation. We show that the magnitude of this dynamic effect can locally reach up to ~1m, depending on the initial THC strength. In some regions the rate of change can be up to 20-25 mm/yr. The emerging patterns are discussed with respect to the oceanic circulation changes. Most prominent is a south-north gradient reflecting the changes in geostrophic surface currents. Our results suggest that an analysis of observed sea level change patterns could be useful for monitoring the THC strength.

  6. Evaluation of circulating YKL-40 levels in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthagen, Nicoline M; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Zanen, Pieter; Ruven, Henk J; Grutters, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: YKL-40 is a novel biomarker in diseases with inflammation, fibrosis and tissue remodelling. Previously, circulating YKL-40 was shown to be elevated in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and was associated with survival. OBJECTIVE: To compare YKL-40 serum levels between I

  7. Linkage analysis of circulating levels of adiponectin in hispanic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced exclusively by adipose tissue, is inversely associated with insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children participating in the VVA...

  8. Circulating KL-6 levels in patients with drug induced pneumonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Akira; Naka, Tetsuji; Hamada, Hironobu; Abe, Masahiro; Nishimura, Kazutaka; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ikezoe, Junpei; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2003-01-01

    Background: The circulating level of KL-6/MUC1 is a sensitive marker for various interstitial lung diseases. Previous case reports have suggested that KL-6 may also be increased in some patients with drug induced pneumonitis. A study was undertaken to determine whether serum KL-6 could be a marker for particular types of drug induced pneumonitis. Methods: The findings of high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) chest scans of 30 patients with drug induced pneumonitis were reviewed separate...

  9. Circulating docosahexaenoic acid levels are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity.

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    Jin-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid (AA; C20∶4 n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22∶6 n-3 are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in maintaining pancreatic beta-cell structure and function. Newborns of gestational diabetic mothers are more susceptible to the development of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is not known whether low circulating AA or DHA is involved in perinatally "programming" this susceptibility. This study aimed to assess whether circulating concentrations of AA, DHA and other fatty acids are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity or beta-cell function, and whether low circulating concentrations of AA or DHA are involved in compromised fetal insulin sensitivity in gestational diabetic pregnancies. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort, maternal (32-35 weeks gestation and cord plasma fatty acids were assessed in relation to surrogate indicators of fetal insulin sensitivity (cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio, proinsulin concentration and beta-cell function (proinsulin-to-insulin ratio in 108 mother-newborn pairs. Cord plasma DHA levels (in percentage of total fatty acids were lower comparing newborns of gestational diabetic (n = 24 vs. non-diabetic pregnancies (2.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.01. Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, lower cord plasma DHA levels were associated with lower fetal insulin sensitivity (lower glucose-to-insulin ratio, r = 0.20, P = 0.036; higher proinsulin concentration, r = -0.37, P <0.0001. The associations remained after adjustment for maternal and newborn characteristics. Cord plasma saturated fatty acids C18∶0 and C20∶0 were negatively correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity, but their levels were not different between gestational diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies. Cord plasma AA levels were not correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Low circulating DHA levels are associated with

  10. Sports training and circulating adipokine levels 

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    Ryszard Plinta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The beneficial effect of regular moderate physical activity on metabolic profile is well documented. Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor of excessive visceral fat accumulation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. However, intensive training in athletes may be related to unfavorable changes in secretion of adipose tissue hormones and constitute a link in the pathogenesis of hormonal disturbances observed in athletes.In this paper we review the recently published data concerning the impact of sports training on circulating adipokine levels in athletes.

  11. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

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    Subarna Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results:Large for gestational age (LGA babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA group (P < 0.001. Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05. However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01. Conclusion:The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies.

  12. Critical anthropometry for menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Villena, A

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if any anthropometric measurements, including weight, height, and upper arm circumference, or the calculated body mass index observed at the time of menarche may be used as a threshold for menarche. The sample was randomly selected from 1133 girls aged 10-18 years from two groups, one residing in Lima, Peru, at 150 m above sea level, and the second in Cerro de Pasco, Peru, at 4340 m above sea level. For the purpose of this study, all girls who reached menarche at least 1 month before the study (n = 93) were considered as cases (girls at menarche); 88 girls without menarche at the time of the study were randomly matched by age and place of residence, and designated as controls. All subjects came from the same low socioeconomic status. Body weight at menarche was 44.6 +/- 5.09 kg (mean +/- SD; coefficient of variation [CV], 11.4%). Height at menarche was 151.6 +/- 5.5 cm (CV, 3.7%). Body mass index, defined as weight/height2.15, was 18.26 +/- 1.96 kg/m2.15 at menarche (CV, 10.7%). Upper arm circumference at menarche was 21.8 +/- 1.6 cm (CV, 7.3%). The logistic regression analysis showed that any of the four anthropometric measurements analyzed were critical for menarche; i.e., any of the four could be used as a threshold for menarche. Data from the present study do not support the hypothesis that there are anthropometric markers that are critical for menarche.

  13. METERNAL ANTHROPOMETRY DETEMINES PREGNANCY OUTCOME

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    Rupa L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Placenta is a transient vital organ of pregnancy and one of the most sensitive determinants of birth weight and pregnancy complications. Placental morphology and pregnancy outcome are influenced by maternal genetic, socio - economic and psychological make - up , and nutritional status in childhood and thereafter. Variation in these factors will lead to adverse pregnancy outcome. Hence, the study assessed the influence of maternal anthropometry: weight and, height on placental morphometry: weight, volume and surf ace area, and birth weight. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The study was conducted on 391 placentae of singleton newborn from a teaching hospital of North Karnataka, India. Data was collected from August 2012 to January 2013 by using standard operating procedures i n a pre - designed and pre - tested proforma. Maternal anthropometry cumulative distribution is described with figures. Analysis of variance is used to study the differences in means of placental morphometry in different groups of maternal anthropometry. RESUL TS : The Means and standard deviations of placental morphometry; weight, volume, surface area and thickness were 440 ± 100gm, 386 ±101 ml, 230 ±50 cm sq , and 2.1±0.4cm respectively . Mean and standard deviations of b irth weight and were 2700 ±500 gm. Maternal pre - pregnancy weight followed moderately normal distribution with mean 48.4 and SD 8.9 kg. Mean birth weight ( p<0.001 and placental morphometry [weight ( p<0.001 , volume ( p<0.001 and surface area ( p<0.05 ] increased consistently with the increasing mater nal pre - pregnancy weight. Gestational weight gain was significantly related with birth weight ( p<0.01 however, placental morphometry did not exhibit any significant difference with weight gain. Maternal height followed moderately normal distribution with mean maternal height 153.9 cm with SD of 6.7. Means of birth weight ( p<0.05 increased consistently with the increasing maternal height, however, placental

  14. Optics in gait analysis and anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Moreno, Alejandra Alicia

    2013-11-01

    Since antiquity, human gait has been studied to understand human movement, the kind of gait, in some cases, can cause musculoskeletal disorders or other health problems; in addition, also from antiquity, anthropometry has been important for the design of human items such as workspaces, tools, garments, among others. Nowadays, thanks to the development of optics and electronics, more accurate studies of gait and anthropometry can be developed. This work will describe the most important parameters for gait analysis, anthropometry and the optical systems used.

  15. Associação entre a antropometria e a leptina circulante nos compartimentos materno, fetal e placentário, na gravidez normal Association between anthropometry and circulating leptin in maternal, fetal and placental compartments, in healthy pregnancy

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    Flávia Cipriano Castro

    2004-10-01

    variables were assessed through linear regression. RESULTS: leptin levels were detected in the blood of all 33 pregnant women and their respective newborns, with maternal blood concentration (17.1±1.77 ng/mL higher than that of umbilical vessels (vein: 9.0±1.16 ng/mL; artery: 8.23±1.02 ng/mL, p<0.0001. Leptin concentrations in the maternal blood were correlated with leptin concentrations in fetal blood (artery: coef. 0.63, p=0.037; vein: coef. 0.72, p=0.006. Regarding the anthropometric variables, leptin measured in the maternal blood was associated with initial and final maternal BMF (coef. 1.13; p=0.002; coef. 1,18, p=0.001 and cord leptin levels were correlated with the fetal weight at birth (vein: coef. 0.007, p=0.02; artery: coef. 0.006, p=0.02. CONCLUSION: there was a correlation between maternal and fetal leptin production and probably by the action of similar stimuli during gestation. Serum leptin was associated with the weight of the compartment where it circulates.

  16. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A;

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered...

  17. Relationships between anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness indices and physical activity levels in different age and sex groups in rural Senegal (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Bénéfice, Eric; Mbaye Ndiaye, Gnagna

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high level of activity is commonplace in traditional subsistence societies. Physiological characteristics of individuals, including body composition and physical fitness, could be limiting factors when performing daily tasks. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, nutritional status and physical activity patterns, so as to test the hypothesis that these relationships are less straightforward in children than in adults. STUDY DESIG...

  18. "Oriental anthropometry" in plastic surgery

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    Senna-Fernandes Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points′ (acupoints locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry" (OA. Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS. Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational study based on aesthetic surgeries performed in private clinic. This study was based on 106 cases, comprising of 102 women and 4 men, with ages varying from 07 to 73 years, and with heights of between 1.34 m and 1.80 m. Patients were submitted to aesthetic surgical planning by relating aesthetic-loci to conventional surgical marking, including breast surgeries, abdominoplasty, rhytidoplasty, blepharoplasty, and hair implant. The aesthetic-surgical-outcome (ASO of the patients was assessed by a team of plastic surgeons (who were not involved in the surgical procedures over a follow-up period of one year by using a numeric-rating-scale in percentage (% terms. A four-point-verbal-rating-scale was used to record the patients′ opinion of therapeutic-satisfaction (TS. Results: ASO was 75.3 ± 9.4% and TS indicated that most patients (58.5% obtained "good" results. Of the remainder, 38.7% found the results "excellent", and 2.8% found them "fair". Discussion and Conclusion : The data suggested that the use of aesthetic-loci may be a useful tool for PS as an anatomical reference for surgical marking. However, further investigation is required to assess the efficacy of the OA by providing the patients more reliable balance and harmony in facial and body contours surgeries.

  19. A Longitudinal Study Investigating the Stability of Anthropometry and Soccer-Specific Endurance in Pubertal High-Level Youth Soccer Players

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    Dieter Deprez, Martin Buchheit, Job Fransen, Johan Pion, Matthieu Lenoir, Renaat M. Philippaerts, Roel Vaeyens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the evolution and stability of anthropometric and soccer-specific endurance characteristics of 42 high-level, pubertal soccer players with high, average and low yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1 baseline performances over two and four years. The rates of improvement were calculated for each performance group, and intra-class correlations were used to verify short- and long-term stability. The main finding was that after two and four years, the magnitudes of the differences at baseline were reduced, although players with high YYIR1 baseline performance still covered the largest distance (e.g., low from 703 m to 2126 m; high from 1503 m to 2434 m over four years. Furthermore, the YYIR1 showed a high stability over two years (ICC = 0.76 and a moderate stability over four years (ICC = 0.59, due to large intra-individual differences in YYIR1 performances over time. Anthropometric measures showed very high stability (ICCs between 0.94 to 0.97 over a two-year period, in comparison with a moderate stability (ICCs between 0.57 and 0.75 over four years. These results confirm the moderate-to-high stability of high-intensity running performance in young soccer players, and suggest that the longer the follow-up, the lower the ability to predict player’s future potential in running performance. They also show that with growth and maturation, poor performers might only partially catch up their fitter counterparts between 12 and 16 years.

  20. Elevated levels of cell-free circulating DNA in patients with acute dengue virus infection.

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    Tran Thi Ngoc Ha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of severe dengue and the release of cell-free DNA into the circulatory system in several medical conditions. Therefore, we investigated circulating DNA as a potential biomarker for severe dengue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A direct fluorometric degradation assay using PicoGreen was performed to quantify cell-free DNA from patient plasma. Circulating DNA levels were significantly higher in patients with dengue virus infection than with other febrile illnesses and healthy controls. Remarkably, the increase of DNA levels correlated with the severity of dengue. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating DNA levels independently correlated with dengue shock syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating DNA levels were increased in dengue patients and correlated with dengue severity. Additional studies are required to show the benefits of this biomarker in early dengue diagnosis and for the prognosis of shock complication.

  1. Circulating Zinc-α2-glycoprotein levels and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yerui; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Ling; Yin, Jingxia; He, Junying; Yang, Mengliu; Jia, Yanjun; Liu, Dongfang; Liu, Hua; Liao, Yong; Yang, Gangyi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the relationship between zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and androgen excess with insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. 99 PCOS women and 100 healthy controls were recruited. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) was preformed to assess their insulin sensitivity. Circulating ZAG was determined with an ELISA kit. In healthy subjects, circulating ZAG levels exhibited a characteristic diurnal rhythm in humans, with a major nocturnal rise occurring between midnight and early morning. Circulating ZAG and M-value were much lower in PCOS women than in the controls. In all population, overweight/obese subjects had significantly lower circulating ZAG levels than lean individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only M-value and the area under the curve for glucose were independently related factors to circulating ZAG in PCOS women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating ZAG was significantly associated with PCOS even after controlling for anthropometric variables, blood pressure, lipid profile and hormone levels. The PCOS women with high ZAG had fewer MetS, IGT and polycystic ovaries as compared with the low ZAG PCOS women. Taken together, circulating ZAG levels are reduced in women with PCOS and ZAG may be a cytokine associated with insulin resistance in PCOS women. PMID:27180914

  2. Circulating Zinc-α2-glycoprotein levels and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yerui; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Ling; Yin, Jingxia; He, Junying; Yang, Mengliu; Jia, Yanjun; Liu, Dongfang; Liu, Hua; Liao, Yong; Yang, Gangyi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the relationship between zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and androgen excess with insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. 99 PCOS women and 100 healthy controls were recruited. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) was preformed to assess their insulin sensitivity. Circulating ZAG was determined with an ELISA kit. In healthy subjects, circulating ZAG levels exhibited a characteristic diurnal rhythm in humans, with a major nocturnal rise occurring between midnight and early morning. Circulating ZAG and M-value were much lower in PCOS women than in the controls. In all population, overweight/obese subjects had significantly lower circulating ZAG levels than lean individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only M-value and the area under the curve for glucose were independently related factors to circulating ZAG in PCOS women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating ZAG was significantly associated with PCOS even after controlling for anthropometric variables, blood pressure, lipid profile and hormone levels. The PCOS women with high ZAG had fewer MetS, IGT and polycystic ovaries as compared with the low ZAG PCOS women. Taken together, circulating ZAG levels are reduced in women with PCOS and ZAG may be a cytokine associated with insulin resistance in PCOS women. PMID:27180914

  3. Circulating DNG level is negatively associated with the long-term survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ren; Qing-Hai Ye; Lun-Xiu Qin; Bo-Heng Zhang; Yin-Kun Liu; Zhao-You Tang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To quantify the circulating DNA in plasma from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to evaluate its prognostic value.METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 79patients with HCC before operation, 20 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 20 healthy volunteers. Circulating DNA was extracted from plasma and quantified. The association between circulating DNA level and prognosis of HCC patients was evaluated.RESULTS: Compared with the healthy volunteers (17.6± 9.5 ng/mL), a significant higher circulating DNA level was found in the patients with HCC (47.1±43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000) or with liver cirrhosis (30.0 ± 13.3 ng/mL, P = 0.002). The circulating DNA level was closely associated with tumor size (P = 0.008) and TNM stage (P = 0.040), negatively associated with the 3-year diseasefree survival (DFS) (P = 0.017) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.001).CONCLUSION: Large or invasive tumor may release more circulating DNA, and higher level of circulating DNA may be associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients.

  4. Association between circulating adiponectin levels and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Shafique, Kashif; Shaikh, Abdul Rauf; Khan, Naveed Ali; Anwar Qureshi, Masood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low adiponectin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been largely attributed to obesity which is common among these patients. In addition, evidence also suggests that low adiponectin in PCOS may be related to insulin resistance (IR) in these women. However, studies on the role of adiponectin in younger and lean patients are limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the association of adiponectin levels in young and lean women with PCOS. Me...

  5. ASSOCIATION OF PLACENTAL MORPHOMETRY WITH NEWBORN ANTHROPOMETRY

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    Rupa L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The fetal growth is the outcome of the maternal nutrient stores and efficient transport across the placenta. Hence, any variation in the placenta leads to disproportionate fetal growth leading to long term risk of chronic diseases in the newborn. This stud y was designed to explore influence of placental morphometry on newborn anthropometry . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study was conducted on 391 placentae of singleton newborn from a teaching hospital of North Karnataka, India. Data was collected from August 2 012 to January 2013 by using standard operating procedures in a pre - designed and pre - tested proforma. The distributions of placental morphology and newborn anthropometry are mentioned with their percentiles and Box plots. Analysis of variance is used to st udy the differences in means of placental morphometry in different groups of newborn anthropometry. RESULTS : The Means and standard deviations of placental morphometry; weight, volume, surface area and thickness were 440±100gm, 386±101 ml, 230±50 cm sq , an d 2.1±0.4cm respectively. Mean and standard deviations of birth weight and newborn length were 2700±500 gm. 46.6±2.5cm. Placental morphometry and newborn anthropometry increased significantly with gestation. CONCLUSIONS : This study infers that suboptimal g rowth of placenta leads to adverse pregnancy outcome.

  6. Circulating MKRN3 levels decline during puberty in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Initiation and progression of puberty requires concerted action of hypothalamic activating and inhibiting factors. Recently, cases of familial central precocious puberty have been linked to loss-of-function mutations of makorin RING-finger protein 3 (MKRN3) indicating a pivotal inhibitory.......8) years at baseline followed for 6.0 (0.5 - 7.6) years (2006 - 2014) with blood sampling every 6 months. INTERVENTION: None Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of MKRN3: 623 samples, median (range) 12 (2 - 14) per boy. RESULTS: MKRN3 levels declined prior to onset of puberty; the geometric mean (95% CI) 5...... years prior to onset of puberty vs. last visit before onset of puberty was 216 (169 - 272) pg/ml vs. 128 (118 - 139) pg/ml (p puberty progressed. MKRN3 levels were not associated with age at onset of puberty. CONCLUSION: Declining MKRN3 prior...

  7. Circulating leptin and adiponectin levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Enrica; Petramala, Luigi; Caliumi, Chiara; Cotesta, Darlo; De Toma, Giorgio; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Panzironi, Giuseppe; Diacinti, Daniele; Minisola, Savatore; D' Erasmo, Emilio; Mazzuoli, Gian Franco; Letizia, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has been associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Moreover, many metabolic abnormalities are frequently present in patients with PHPT. Several substances (such as leptin and adiponectin) are secreted from adipocytes, which may contribute to regulate energy homeostasis and the development of cardiovascular diseases. We examined the relationship between leptin and adiponectin levels and metabolic disorders in 67 newly diagnosed never-treated patients with PHPT and in 46 healthy subjects (HS). Twenty (29.8%) patients with PHPT presented a metabolic syndrome (as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria). Serum leptin and adiponectin levels in HS were 6.28 +/- 3.3 ng/mL (range, 1.7-19.2 ng/mL) and 6.65 +/- 1.7 microg/mL (range, 3.72-10.86 microg/mL), respectively. In all patients with PHPT, the mean leptin levels (34.28 +/- 20.4 ng/mL) were significantly higher than those of HS (P < .01) and, in particular, in PHPT patients with metabolic syndrome (52.63 +/- 31.2 ng/mL) and positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, and cholesterol. The mean adiponectin level was significantly lower (4.34 +/- 3.5 mug/mL) only in PHPT patients with metabolic syndrome (P < .005) and negatively correlated with waist circumference and fasting glucose. We concluded that increased serum level of leptin and decreased serum level of adiponectin coexist in patients with PHPT and may represent a pathogenetic factor for cardiovascular disease in this condition.

  8. Association between circulating adiponectin levels and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira Saeed); K. Shafique (Kashif); A.R. Shaikh (Abdul Rauf); N.A. Khan (Naveed Ali); M. Anwar Qureshi (Masood)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Low adiponectin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been largely attributed to obesity which is common among these patients. In addition, evidence also suggests that low adiponectin in PCOS may be related to insulin resistance (IR) in these women. However, studi

  9. Do circulating androgen levels predict competitiveness in female athletes?

    OpenAIRE

    Romfo, Marit

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In males a correlation between competitiveness and testosterone have been reported. As no such data is available in females we aimed at investigating the possible association between competitiveness and androgen levels in a sample of female top athletes.Method: Thirty one Norwegian female top athletes completed the competitiveness subscale of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ), underwent a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test with a following lactate measurement and had ...

  10. Circulating exosome levels in the diagnosis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H-Y.; Gao, Y-C.; Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Circulating exosomes represent novel biomarkers for multiple diseases. In this study, we investigated whether circulating exosome levels could be used as a diagnostic biomarker for steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Methods We assessed the serum exosome level of 85 patients with steroid-induced ONFH and 115 healthy donors by Nanosight detection. We then assessed the diagnostic accuracy of serum exosomes by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results The circulating exosome level of the ONFH group was significantly lower than that of control group. The area under the curve was 0.72, suggesting that the level of serum exosomes has moderate diagnostic accuracy for steroid-induced ONFH. Conclusion Circulating exosome levels are valuable in the diagnosis of steroid-induced ONFH. Cite this article: H-Y. Zhu, Y-C. Gao, Y. Wang, C-Q. Zhang. Circulating exosome levels in the diagnosis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:276–279. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.BJR-2015-0014.R1. PMID:27357384

  11. Divergent relationship of circulating CTRP3 levels between obesity and gender: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Roy Marshal; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Clark, William Andrew

    2016-01-01

    C1q TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3) is a novel adipose tissue derived secreted factor, or adipokine, which has been linked to a number of beneficial biological effects on metabolism, inflammation, and survival signaling in a variety of tissues. However, very little is known about CTRP3 in regards to human health. The purpose of this project was to examine circulating CTRP3 levels in a clinical population, patients with symptoms requiring heart catheterization in order to identify the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). It was hypothesized that serum CTRP3 levels would be decreased in the presence of CAD. Methods Body mass index (BMI), diabetes status, and plasma samples were collected from 100 patients who were >30 years of age and presented at the East Tennessee State University Heart Clinic with symptoms requiring heart catheterization in order to identify the presence of cardiovascular blockages (n = 52 male, n = 48 female). Circulating CTRP3 levels were quantified using commercially available ELISA. Results Circulating CTRP3 levels had no relationship to the presence of CAD regardless of gender. However, circulating concentrations of CTRP3 were significantly higher in normal weight (BMI obesity (BMI > 30) resulted in an increase in circulating CTRP3 levels in male subjects (0.74 ± 0.08 µg/ml) but showed a significant decrease in female subjects (0.58 ± 0.07 µg/ml). Additionally, there was a significant reduction in circulating CTRP3 levels in female subjects who were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes compared with patients without (0.79 ± 0.08 vs. 0.42 ± 0.10 µg/ml). There was no relationship between diabetes status and circulating CTRP3 levels in male subjects. Conclusion Circulating CTRP3 levels had a different relationship with diabetes and obesity status between male and female patients. It is possible that circulating CTRP3 levels are controlled by hormonal status, however more research is needed to explore this relationship

  12. Southern hemisphere low level wind circulation statisticsfrom the Seasat scatterometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Levy

    Full Text Available Analyses of remotely sensed low-level wind vector data over the Southern Ocean are performed. Five-day averages and monthly means are created and the month-to-month variability during the winter (July-September of 1978 is investigated. The remotely sensed winds are compared to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM and the National Meteorological Center (NMC surface analyses. In southern latitudes the remotely sensed winds are stronger than what the weather services' analyses suggest, indicating underestimation by ABM and NMC in these regions. The evolution of the low-level jet and the major stormtracks during the season are studied and different flow regimes are identified. The large-scale variability of the meridional flow is studied with the aid of empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The dominance of quasi-stationary wave numbers 3, 4, and 5 in the winter flow is evident in both the EOF analysis and the mean flow. The signature of an exceptionally strong blocking situation is evident in July and the special conditions leading to it are discussed. A very large intraseasonal variability with different flow regimes at different months is documented.

  13. Chemotherapeutic treatment reduces circulating levels of surfactant protein-D in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Sorensen, Grith L; Wehner, Peder S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a host defense molecule of the innate immune system that enhances pathogen clearance and modulates inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that circulating SP-D levels are associated with chemotherapy-induced mucositis and infectious morbidity in children...... with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PROCEDURE: In a prospective study, 43 children receiving treatment for ALL were monitored for mucosal toxicity from diagnosis through the induction phase of treatment. Serial blood draws were taken to determine the levels of SP-D, interleukin-6 (IL-6), C......-reactive protein, and white blood cells. Data on fever, antibiotics, and bacteremia were collected. Baseline levels of circulating SP-D were compared with healthy controls. RESULTS: Baseline values of circulating SP-D were similar to levels in healthy controls (median: 829 ng/ml vs. 657 ng/ml, respectively, P > 0...

  14. Circulating Levels of Irisin in Hypopituitary and Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pértega-Diaz, Sonia; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Eiras-Leal, Raquel; Varela-Rodriguez, Bárbara; Juiz-Valiña, Paula; Pérez-Fontán, Miguel; Cordido, María; Cordido, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Context The recently identified myokine irisin conveys some of the benefits of exercise. Hypopituitarism with adult growth hormone deficiency (HP) is a situation characterized by decreased GH secretion and an altered body composition. Objective Our aim was to study the skeletal muscle hormone irisin in HP, and compare the results with a similar group of normal subjects. Participants and Methods Seventeen HP patients and fifty-one normal subjects of similar age and sex were studied. The diagnosis of GH deficiency was confirmed by the presence of pituitary disease and a peak GH secretion below 3 μg/L after an insulin tolerance test. The patients were adequately treated for all pituitary hormone deficits, except for GH. Fasting serum irisin was measured with an enzyme immunoassay, and HOMA-IR, QUICKI and HOMA-β were calculated. Results Fasting irisin levels (ng/ml) were similar in normal [208.42 (168.44–249.23)] and HP patients [195.13 (178.44–241.44)]. In the control group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and BMI, waist circumference, leptin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In the control group there were moderate significant negative correlations between irisin and IGF-I and QUICKI. In the hypopituitary group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and body fat and HOMA-β. Conclusions We found similar irisin levels in GH deficiency hypopituitary patients when compared with normal subjects. The correlation between irisin and adiposity related factors suggests that that in the case of this clinical model, irisin is regulated by adiposity and not by GH. PMID:27472279

  15. Cross-Circulating Current Suppression Method for Parallel Three-Phase Two-Level Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Baoze; Guerrero, Josep M.; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    The parallel architecture is very popular for power inverters to increase the power level. This paper presents a method for the parallel operation of inverters in an ac-distributed system, to suppress the cross-circulating current based on virtual impedance without current-sharing bus and communi......The parallel architecture is very popular for power inverters to increase the power level. This paper presents a method for the parallel operation of inverters in an ac-distributed system, to suppress the cross-circulating current based on virtual impedance without current-sharing bus...

  16. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on mourning dove reproduction and circulating progesterone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval, P.J.; Peterle, T.J.; Harder, J.D.

    1987-10-01

    PCBs acquired in sublethal doses increase activation of the liver's microsomal action and hepatic mixed function oxidase (MFO) enzymes. Physiological effects of increase in the MFO system may delay, if not eliminate, avian reproductive behavior and nesting success. No evidence is yet available to clearly link PCBs to lowered levels of circulating steroids in birds. However, data concerning the effects of PCBs on avian reproduction are abundant. Increased degradation of circulating steroids might alter essential hormone dynamics associated with nesting behavior and ovulation. Alternatively, normal feedback regulation by the pituitary-gonadal axis might lead to a full compensatory response to increased MFO such that hormone profiles remain unaltered, suggesting alternative modes of action for PCBs in reproductive disorders. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of dietary PCBs on circulating progesterone levels prior to and during egg laying in wild-trapped mourning doves (Zenaida macroura).

  17. Simulation of the Low-Level-Jet by general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghan, S.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To what degree is the low-level jet climatology and it`s impact on clouds and precipitation being captured by current general circulation models? It is hypothesised that a need for a pramaterization exists. This paper describes this parameterization need.

  18. Circulating 20S Proteasome Levels in Patients with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Majetschak, Matthias; Perez, Magdalena; Sorell, Luis T.; Lam, Janet; Maldonado, Marcos E.; Hoffman, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    The associations of circulating 20S proteasomes (c20S) with clinical and serologic disease indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are unknown. We present the initial report that c20S levels are elevated in MCTD and correlate with clinically relevant changes in disease activity in SLE and MCTD.

  19. Circulating levels of neuropeptides (CGRP, VIP, NPY) in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauss, Gitte Irene; Edvinsson, Lars; Larsen, Fin Stolze;

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the circulating levels and cerebral fluxes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and their relation to cerebral blood flow (CBF) during normoventilation and hyperventilation in patients with fulminant...

  20. Higher circulating levels of IGF-1 are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Kimura, Masayuki;

    2009-01-01

    Mutations that inhibit the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) extend the lifespan of worms, flies and mice. However, it appears that relatively low circulating levels of IGF-1 in humans are associated with aging-related diseases and diminished longevity. As leukocyte telomere length (LTL...

  1. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F; Hedman, Åsa K; Drong, Alexander W; Hayes, James E; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Pasko, Dorota; Renström, Frida; Willems, Sara M; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E; Pérusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ju Sung, Yun; Ramos, Yolande F; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Inês; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M; Böhringer, Stefan; I Chen, Yii-Der; de Craen, Anton J N; Crosslin, David R; Dale, Caroline E; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E; Havulinna, Aki S; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Hunter, David J; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P; Myers, Richard H; Männistö, Satu; Nalls, Mike A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K; Brent Richards, J; Ridker, Paul M; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B; Söderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widén, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Sarzynski, Mark A; Rao, D C; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Heliövaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K; Viikari, Jorma S; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P; Bandinelli, Stefanie; März, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Harris, Tamara B; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A; Chasman, Daniel I; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Borecki, Ingrid B; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B; Eline Slagboom, P; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D; Jukema, J W; Klein, Robert J; Schadt, Erik E; Franks, Paul W; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Leibel, Rudolph L; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health. PMID:26833098

  2. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Carli, Jayne F. Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A.; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F; Hedman, Åsa K.; Drong, Alexander W.; Hayes, James E.; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H.; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Greco M, Fabiola Del; Pasko, Dorota; Renström, Frida; Willems, Sara M.; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M.; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E.; Pérusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ju Sung, Yun; Ramos, Yolande F.; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Inês; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M.; Böhringer, Stefan; I Chen, Yii-Der; de Craen, Anton J. N.; Crosslin, David R.; Dale, Caroline E.; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R.; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E.; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M.; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Havulinna, Aki S; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hunter, David J.; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S.; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A.; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard H.; Männistö, Satu; Nalls, Mike A.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K.; Brent Richards, J; Ridker, Paul M.; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B.; Söderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widén, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R.; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Rao, D. C.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heliövaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P.; Bandinelli, Stefanie; März, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B.; Eline Slagboom, P; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D.; Jukema, J.W.; Klein, Robert J.; Schadt, Erik E; Franks, Paul W.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10−6 in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10−8) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health. PMID:26833098

  3. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina eSorwell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  4. Impacts of sea-level rise on estuarine circulation: An idealized estuary and San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Vivien P.; Xu, Ming

    2014-11-01

    Estuaries lie at the interface of land and sea, and are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise due to climate change that might lead to intrusion of salt water further upstream and affect circulation patterns. Climate change is also likely to have a major impact on hydrological cycles and consequently lead to changes in freshwater inflows into estuaries. An idealized estuary model is employed to investigate the effects of sea-level rise and freshwater inflows on estuarine circulation. Rising sea levels result in a stronger longitudinal salinity gradient ∂s/∂x, indicating an increase in the strength of the gravitational circulation UGC, higher longitudinal dispersion coefficients K and enhanced salinity intrusion. Under low-flow conditions, the effects of sea level rise on salinity intrusion are largest because sea-level rise has a greater impact due to weaker vertical stratification. Strong flows increase the strength of the gravitational circulation, resulting in higher vertical stratification, which leads to the nonlinear feedback between vertical mixing and stratification. The effect of sea-level rise on salinity intrusion is reduced owing to the suppression of mixing by stratification. Supporting three-dimensional simulations from northern San Francisco Bay are presented. The intrusion length scale L is used as a substitute for regulating inflows to ensure that sufficient fresh water is available to flush the Bay. Following a set of standards explicitly stated in the 1994 Bay-Delta Accord, a series of simulations is performed and we find that with sea-level rise stronger inflows are required to maintain L at the proposed locations.

  5. Correlation between the levels of circulating adhesion molecules and atherosclerosis in type-2 diabetic normotensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Serrano, Alberto Maceda; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose Juan; Escalante-Acosta, Bruno Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a common feature in type-2 diabetic patients and is associated with inflammation, increased levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules and the degree of atherosclerosis in normotensive type-2 diabetic patients. Results: We found significant correlations between ICAM-1 (r = 0.69, p < 0.001 95% IC 0.65 to 0.82) and VCAM-1 (r = 0.4, p < 0.03, 95% IC 0.65 to 0.82) levels and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thickness, whereas no correlation was observed with E-selectin. Methods: We studied 30 normotensive type-2 diabetic patients in whom VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured by ELISA. Additionally, the intimal-medial thickness of both the common and internal carotid arteries was measured (B-mode ultrasound). The levels of circulating adhesion molecules and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thicknesses were correlated using the Spearman correlation coefficient test. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are markers associated, and correlated with the degree of atherosclerosis in normotensive type-2 diabetic patients. PMID:19717975

  6. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Holst, J J; Moller, S;

    2000-01-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in fat cells, appears to be important for the regulation of metabolism, insulin secretion/sensitivity and body weight. Recently, elevated plasma leptin levels have been reported in patients with arterial hypertension. Because a change in circulating leptin...... concentrations in such patients could be caused by altered rates of production or disposal, or both, the aim of the present study was to identify regions of leptin overflow into the bloodstream and of leptin extraction. Patients with arterial hypertension (n=12) and normotensive controls (n=20) were studied...... during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds (artery, and renal, hepatic, iliac and cubital veins). Plasma leptin was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Patients with hypertension had significantly elevated levels of circulating leptin (12.8 ng/l, compared with 4.1 ng...

  7. The circulating PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin level is associated with a beneficial blood lipid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, P.; Greevenbroek, van, M.M.J.; Bouwman, F.G. (F.G.); Brouwers, M.C.G.J.; Kallen, van der, B.F.; Smit, E.; Keijer, J.; Mariman, E C M

    2007-01-01

    Visfatin with the official gene name pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor 1 (PBEF) and the protein name nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreted protein that was shown by some to be associated with visceral fat and insulin resistance. To explore the link between PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin and lipid metabolism, we analyzed the relation of its plasma level with several parameters of adiposity, insulin resistance and the circulating blood lipid profile in...

  8. Alcohol modulates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N; Larsen, S; Seidelin, J B;

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the...... circulating levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP)....

  9. ELEVATED CIRCULATING LEVELS OF MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    González, Frank; ROTE, Neal S.; Minium, Judi; Weaver, Amy L.; Kirwan, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low level inflammation which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We evaluated the status of circulating macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in atherogenesis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models adjusted for age were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status (PCOS vs. controls) and weight-class (obese vs. lean) on MIF and other parameters. M...

  10. Alcohol modulates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N; Larsen, S; Seidelin, J B;

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate...... the circulating levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP)....

  11. Circulating L-selectin levels and endothelial CD34 expression in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, J B; Vainer, B; Horn, T;

    1998-01-01

    Soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin) concentrations are positively correlated with disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) but not in Crohn's disease (CD). This difference in sL-selectin regulation could be due to a disease specific regulation of L-selectin ligands. The aim of this study was to c...... was to compare levels of circulating sL-selectin, expression of the L-selectin ligand CD34 in the affected colon, and inflammatory bowel disease activity....

  12. Increased circulating miR-21 levels are associated with kidney fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Glowacki

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNA acting at a post-transcriptional level to control the expression of large sets of target mRNAs. While there is evidence that miRNAs deregulation plays a causative role in various complex disorders, their role in fibrotic kidney diseases is largely unexplored. Here, we found a strong up-regulation of miR-21 in the kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and also in the kidneys of patients with severe kidney fibrosis. In addition, mouse primary fibroblasts derived from fibrotic kidneys exhibited higher miR-21 expression level compared to those derived from normal kidneys. Expression of miR-21 in normal primary kidney fibroblasts was induced upon TGFβ exposure, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis. Finally, ectopic expression of miR-21 in primary kidney fibroblasts was sufficient to promote myofibroblast differentiation. As circulating miRNAs have been suggested as promising non-invasive biomarkers, we further assess whether circulating miR-21 levels are associated with renal fibrosis using sera from 42 renal transplant recipients, categorized according to their renal fibrosis severity, evaluated on allograft biopsies (Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy (IF/TA. Circulating miR-21 levels are significantly increased in patients with severe IF/TA grade (IF/TA grade 3: 3.0±1.0 vs lower grade of fibrosis: 1.5±1.2; p = 0.001. By contrast, circulating miR-21 levels were not correlated with other renal histological lesions. In a multivariate linear regression model including IF/TA grade and estimated GFR, independent associations were found between circulating miR-21 levels and IF/TA score (ß = 0.307, p = 0.03, and between miR-21 levels and aMDRD (ß = -0.398, p = 0.006. Altogether, these data suggest miR-21 has a key pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis and may represent a novel, predictive and reliable blood marker of kidney fibrosis.

  13. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

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    Palladino Ilaria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ and 77 healthy control subjects (HC for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP. Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease.

  14. Circulating levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akahori,Yoichiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF has been shown to decrease food intake in mouse models of obesity and to improve insulin sensitivity. It is well known that tight regulation of glucose metabolism is essential for successful gestational outcomes (e.g. fetal growth, and that abnormal insulin resistance is associated with preeclampsia (PE. To investigate the possibility that CNTF might be involved in the regulation of insulin resistance during pregnancy, circulating levels of CNTF were assessed in non-pregnant, normal pregnant, postpartum, and pregnant women with PE. Sera from healthy non-pregnant women (n10, pregnant women (n30:1st trimester;n10, 2nd trimester n10;3rd trimester;n10, postpartum women (n10, and patients with PE (n11 were studied with Western blotting. Circulating CNTF was detected by Western blotting, and the levels of CNTF in pregnant women were decreased as compared with those in non-pregnant women, and tended to decrease as pregnancy progressed. A significant decrease was found in PE as compared with normal pregnancy. Circulating CNTF might be associated with physiological and abnormal insulin resistance during pregnancy.

  15. Circulating Cytokine Levels as Markers of Inflammation in Philadelphia Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Diagnostic and Prognostic Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Mondet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are well known mediators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. They contribute to the regulation of normal hematopoiesis but increasing data suggest that they also have a clinical impact in some hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, there is evidence that cytokines are implicated in the functional symptoms of Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph− MPNs, suggesting that evaluation of circulating levels of cytokines could be of clinical interest for the characterization of patients at the time of diagnosis and for disease prognosis. In this review, we present the current knowledge on alteration of circulating cytokine profiles in MPNs and their role in myelofibrosis pathogenesis. Phenotypic correlation, prognostic value of cytokines, and impact of JAK inhibitors are also discussed.

  16. Circulating Resistin Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

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    Gui Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Published data on resistin levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC were conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association of circulating resistin levels with carcinogenesis of the CRC. Methods. Potentially eligible studies published up to November 2015 were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded database, CNKI, and WanFang database. The pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by fixed- or random-effect model were used to estimate the effects. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 965 patients were admitted in our meta-analysis. The pooled effects indicated that resistin levels were higher in CRC patients compared to healthy controls (WMD: 1.47 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.16, with significant heterogeneity across the studies (I2=72%, p<0.0001. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses revealed that study quality, design, sample type, and resistin assays may account for this heterogeneity. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that increased circulating resistin levels are associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. Given the limited number of available studies and significant heterogeneity, larger well-designed randomized studies are warranted.

  17. Circulating Resistin Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gui; Fan, Wei; Luo, Baohong; Xu, Zhigao; Wang, Ping; Tang, Shihui; Xu, Peipei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Published data on resistin levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association of circulating resistin levels with carcinogenesis of the CRC. Methods. Potentially eligible studies published up to November 2015 were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded database, CNKI, and WanFang database. The pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by fixed- or random-effect model were used to estimate the effects. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 965 patients were admitted in our meta-analysis. The pooled effects indicated that resistin levels were higher in CRC patients compared to healthy controls (WMD: 1.47 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.16), with significant heterogeneity across the studies (I2 = 72%, p < 0.0001). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses revealed that study quality, design, sample type, and resistin assays may account for this heterogeneity. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that increased circulating resistin levels are associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. Given the limited number of available studies and significant heterogeneity, larger well-designed randomized studies are warranted. PMID:27642602

  18. Brain insulin lowers circulating BCAA levels by inducing hepatic BCAA catabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andrew C.; Fasshauer, Martin; Filatova, Nika; Grundell, Linus A.; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Zhou, Jianying; Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; White, Phillip J.; Lapworth, Amanda L.; Llkayeva, Olka; Knippschild, Uwe; Wolf, Anna M.; Scheja, Ludger; Grove, Kevin L.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun; Lynch, Christopher J.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-11-04

    Circulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels are elevated in obesity and diabetes and are a sensitive predictor for type 2 diabetes. Here we show in rats that insulin dose-dependently lowers plasma BCAA levels through induction of protein expression and activity of branched-chain alpha keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the BCAA degradation pathway in the liver. Selective induction of hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats as well as inducible and lifelong genetic modulation of brain insulin receptor expression in mice both demonstrate that brain insulin signaling is a major regulator of BCAA metabolism by inducing hepatic BCKDH. Further, short-term overfeeding impairs the ability of brain insulin to lower circulating BCAA levels in rats. Chronic high-fat feeding in primates and obesity and/or type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with reduced BCKDH protein expression in liver, further supporting the concept that decreased hepatic BCKDH is a primary cause of increased plasma BCAA levels in insulin-resistant states. These findings demonstrate that neuroendocrine pathways control BCAA homeostasis and that hypothalamic insulin resistance can be a cause of impaired BCAA metabolism in obesity and diabetes.

  19. Chasing a ghost?--Issues with the determination of circulating levels of endotoxin in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger Graham; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2016-01-01

    Reliable quantification of bacterial products such as endotoxin is important for the diagnosis of Gram-negative infection and for the monitoring of its treatment. Further, it is important to identify patients with persistent subclinical level of bacterial products in their systemic circulation as data from animal studies also suggest this may be correlated with the onset of metabolic syndrome. In this review, we first aim to describe the principles of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test, an assay that is used to quantify endotoxin, and the various shortcomings that must be addressed before it can become a reliable means of quantifying endotoxin in samples derived from blood. We then review published data regarding endotoxin levels in healthy subjects and those with sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. We also review the evidence regarding influence of macronutrients in augmenting the levels of systemic endotoxin. The results of this review show that reported mean levels of endotoxin in the systemic circulation of healthy humans and of those with various clinical disorders vary over a wide range. Further, this review shows that a significant proportion of this variation can be related to the method that was used to prepare plasma and serum samples prior to assay and its ability to reduce the effect of various blood borne factors that interfere with the LAL assay. PMID:26732012

  20. Increased Circulating Levels of Vitamin D Binding Protein in MS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Ottavio Rinaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (vitD low status is currently considered a main environmental factor in multiple sclerosis (MS etiology and pathogenesis. VitD and its metabolites are highly hydrophobic and circulate mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (DBP and with lower affinity to albumin, while less than 1% are in a free form. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the circulating levels of either of the two vitD plasma carriers and/or their relationship are altered in MS. We measured DBP and albumin plasma levels in 28 MS patients and 24 healthy controls. MS patients were found to have higher DBP levels than healthy subjects. Concomitant interferon beta therapy did not influence DBP concentration, and the difference with the control group was significant in both females and males. No significant correlation between DBP and albumin levels was observed either in healthy controls or in patients. These observations suggest the involvement of DBP in the patho-physiology of MS.

  1. Genetic Variation in the Natriuretic Peptide System, Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels, and Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Nielsen, Søren J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn a large collaborative study (n > 50,000), common variants in the natriuretic peptide (NP) genes were found to be associated with circulating NP levels and also with blood pressure (BP) levels based on office BP measurements (OBPMs). It is unknown if determining an individual's BP by 24...... determined by both 24-h ABPMs and OBPMs in a population consisting of 1,397 generally healthy individuals taking no BP-lowering drugs.Resultsrs632793 was significantly correlated with serum Nt-proBNP levels (r = 0.10, P = 0.0003), and participants with the A:A genotype had lower serum Nt-proBNP levels than...

  2. Circulating levels of neuropeptides (CGRP, VIP, NPY) in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauss, Gitte Irene; Edvinsson, L; Larsen, F S;

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the circulating levels and cerebral fluxes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and their relation to cerebral blood flow (CBF) during normoventilation and hyperventilation in patients with fulminant...... in FHF than in cirrhosis, 87 (55-218) vs. 29 (21-42) pmol/L, and 11 (6-29) vs. 5 (3-9)pmol/L, respectively. NPY was normal, none of the measures were related to CBF, and there was no detectable net brain fluxes. Hyperventilation did not alter any of the measures. CGRP and VIP in FHF seem to reflect...

  3. Associations of Circulating Gut Hormone and Adipocytokine Levels with the Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huei Tseng

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is complex and poorly understood. We aim to investigate the association of various circulating peptide hormones with heterogenous manifestations of GERD.One hundred and four patients that had experienced typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation for at least 3 episodes per week in the past 3 months were enrolled. All patients received a baseline assessment of symptom severity and frequency with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and an upper endoscopy to classify GERD into erosive esophagitis (EE, n = 67, non-erosive esophagitis (NE, n = 37, and Barrett's esophagus (BE, n = 8. Fifty asymptomatic subjects with an endoscopically normal esophagus were recruited as the control group. Complete anthropometric measures and blood biochemistry were obtained and fasting serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin and gut hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all subjects.All circulating peptide hormone levels were not statistically different between the GERD and control groups. However, GERD patients appeared to have lower PYY levels [median (25th-75th percentile, 80.1 (49.8-108.3 vs. 99.4 (65.8-131.9 pg/ml, p = 0.057] compared with control subjects. Among the GERD patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation. In male GERD patients, EE was associated with significantly higher PYY levels [107.0 (55.0-120.8 vs. 32.8 (28.7-84.5 pg/ml, p = 0.026] but lower adiponectin levels [6.7 (5.6-9.3 vs. 9.9 (9.6-10.6 μg/ml, p = 0.034] than NE. Patients with BE had significantly lower adiponectin levels [6.0 (5.1-9.2 vs. 9.2 (7.1-11.2 μg/ml, p = 0.026] than those without BE.Humoral derangement of circulating peptide hormones might participate in inflammation and symptom perception in patients suffering from GERD. Further studies to clarify the exact role of these hormones

  4. Prognostic value of circulating catestatin levels for in-hospital heart failure in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀磊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether circulating level of catestatin(CST) could provide prognostic information independently of conventional risk markers for the development of in-hospital heart failure in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction(STEMI).

  5. Elevated circulating levels of betatrophin are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calan, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Ozgur; Kume, Tuncay; Unal Kocabas, Gokcen; Yesil Senses, Pinar; Senses, Yasar Mehmet; Temur, Muzaffer; Gursoy Calan, Ozlem

    2016-07-01

    Betatrophin is a newly identified hormone determined to be a potent inducer of pancreatic beta cell proliferation in response to insulin resistance in mice. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an inflammatory-based metabolic disease associated with insulin resistance. However, no evidence is available indicating whether betatrophin is involved in women with PCOS. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether betatrophin levels are altered in women with PCOS. This study was conducted in secondary referral center. This cross-sectional study included 164 women with PCOS and 164 age- and BMI-matched female controls. Circulating betatrophin levels were measured using ELISA. Metabolic and hormonal parameters were also determined. Circulating betatrophin levels were significantly elevated in women with PCOS compared with controls (367.09 ± 55.78 vs. 295.65 ± 48.97 pg/ml, P PCOS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratio for PCOS was 2.51 for patients in the highest quartile of betatrophin compared with those in the lowest quartile (95 % CI 1.31-4.81, P = 0.006). Multivariate regression analyses showed that HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, and free-testosterone were independent factors influencing serum betatrophin levels. Betatrophin levels were increased in women with PCOS and were associated with insulin resistance, hs-CRP, and free-testosterone in these patients. Elevated betatrophin levels were found to increase the odds of having PCOS. Further research is needed to elucidate the physiologic and pathologic significance of our findings. PMID:26832343

  6. Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ulleråkersvägen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Penell, Johanna [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ulleråkersvägen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, Lars [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods: One thousand and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Twenty-three POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: Seven hundred and thirty-two subjects (72%) showed hypertension. When the POPs were treated as continuous variables and adjusted for gender only, two PCBs with a low number of chlorine atoms (PCB 105 and 118) were related to prevalent hypertension. Also the OC pesticide p,p'-DDE was related to hypertension. The strongest of these associations was seen for p,p'-DDE (OR 1.35 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.17–1.56, p<0.0001). Following further adjustment also for BMI, smoking status, education level and exercise habits, only p,p'-DDE was still significantly related to hypertension (OR 1.23 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.06–1.43, p=0.006). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of an elderly population, high levels of circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension, further strengthening the experimental findings that POPs might influence blood pressure. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation between POPs and hypertension. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly men and women were analyzed. • The main exposure was circulating levels of 23 different POPs. • Hypertension was defined as ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive treatment. • High levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with

  7. Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods: One thousand and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Twenty-three POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: Seven hundred and thirty-two subjects (72%) showed hypertension. When the POPs were treated as continuous variables and adjusted for gender only, two PCBs with a low number of chlorine atoms (PCB 105 and 118) were related to prevalent hypertension. Also the OC pesticide p,p'-DDE was related to hypertension. The strongest of these associations was seen for p,p'-DDE (OR 1.35 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.17–1.56, p<0.0001). Following further adjustment also for BMI, smoking status, education level and exercise habits, only p,p'-DDE was still significantly related to hypertension (OR 1.23 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.06–1.43, p=0.006). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of an elderly population, high levels of circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension, further strengthening the experimental findings that POPs might influence blood pressure. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation between POPs and hypertension. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly men and women were analyzed. • The main exposure was circulating levels of 23 different POPs. • Hypertension was defined as ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive treatment. • High levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension

  8. Obesity suppresses circulating level and function of endothelial progenitor cells and heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Tzu-Hsien

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim This study tested the hypothesis that obesity suppresses circulating number as well as the function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods High fat diet (45 Kcal% fat was given to 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice (n = 8 for 20 weeks to induce obesity (group 1. Another age-matched group (n = 8 were fed with control diet for 20 weeks as controls (group 2. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks after obesity induction. Results By the end of study period, the heart weight, body weight, abdominal fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood sugar were remarkably higher in group 1 than in group 2 (all p Conclusions Obesity diminished circulating EPC level, impaired the recovery of damaged endothelium, suppressed EPC angiogenesis ability and LVEF, and increased LV remodeling.

  9. Association of circulating omentin-1 level with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Hye

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipokines contribute directly to the atherosclerotic process, connecting metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes to cardiovascular disease. Omentin-1 is a recently discovered novel adipokine, so data about the relationship of this adipokine to vascular health in type 2 diabetes is limited. Methods We enrolled 60 people with type 2 diabetes, with or without carotid plaque, and 30 participants with normal glucose tolerance. We measured serum omentin-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. Vascular health was assessed by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Results Serum omentin-1 levels were significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes patients compared to normal glucose controls and was further reduced in type 2 diabetes patients with carotid plaque compared to those without carotid plaque. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure, history of use of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and serum omentin-1 level were independent factors determining baPWV in people with type 2 diabetes (r2 = 0.637. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, circulating omentin-1 level was an independent decisive factor for the presence of carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes patients, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of smoking and medication (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.420-0.919; P = 0.017. Conclusions Circulating omentin-1 level was independently correlated with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes, even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and detailed medication history.

  10. Longitudinal assessment of circulating insulin-like peptide 3 levels in healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G; Nielsen, John E;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the natural course of circulating insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) levels according to puberty as well as its relation to other reproductive hormones. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Healthy peripubertal girls (n = 10) examined every......), and T and androstenedione (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). RESULT(S): Serum levels of INSL3 varied considerably between girls (range, 0.01-0.27 ng/mL) and within each girl as puberty progressed; intraindividual variation, median (range) 102% (65%-143%). Insulin-like peptide 3 increased...... of antral follicles. CONCLUSION(S): Insulin-like peptide 3 increased in late puberty, albeit inter- and intraindividual variations were substantial. Immunohistochemistry and intraindividual variation, as well as relations to other ovarian hormones, reveal that INSL3 in girls is a unique and specific marker...

  11. Long-term stability and circadian variation in circulating levels of surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Silje Vermedal; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Tornoe, Ida;

    2010-01-01

    to be used as a biomarker for disease e.g. in COPD. We aimed to investigate the variation of circulating SP-D in healthy individuals in and between days for 6 months. In addition, we studied the SP-D response to a standardized physical exercise programme. SP-D was measured in serum using a 5-layered ELISA...... pre-exercise level of SP-D was 746 ng/ml (95% CI: 384-2035), and immediately after cessation of physical activity the median SP-D level was 767 ng/ml (95% CI: 367-1885) (P=0.248). Our findings underscore the importance of standardized blood sampling conditions in future studies on the potential role...... of SP-D as a biomarker. Importantly, stable measures of systemic SP-D over a prolonged period support that SP-D is suitable for biomarker studies....

  12. High Circulating Adrenaline Levels at Admission Predict Increased Mortality After Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon;

    2012-01-01

    partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, hematology, biochemistry, circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline, 11 biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage, glycocalyx degradation, natural anticoagulation and fibrinolysis (histone-complexed DNA fragments, high-mobility group box 1......:: The adrenaline level was increased in nonsurvivors (p = 0.026), it was independently associated with increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.034) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.007), a marker of glycocalyx degradation, and it correlated with biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage (histone......-complexed DNA, high-mobility group box 1, soluble thrombomodulin) and hyperfibrinolysis (tissue-type plasminogen activator, d-dimer). Furthermore, nonsurvivors had higher syndecan-1, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and d-dimer levels (all p adrenaline was independently associated with 30...

  13. Impact of remote oceanic forcing on Gulf of Alaska sea levels and mesoscale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Metzger, E. Joseph; Hurlburt, Harley E.

    2003-11-01

    We examine the relative importance of regional wind forcing and teleconnections by an oceanic pathway for impact on interannual ocean circulation variability in the Gulf of Alaska. Any additional factors that contribute to this variability, such as freshwater forcing from river runoff, are disregarded. The study is based on results from numerical simulations, sea level data from tide gauge stations, and sea surface height anomalies from satellite altimeter data. At the heart of this investigation is a comparison of ocean simulations that include and exclude interannual oceanic teleconnections of an equatorial origin. Using lagged correlations, the model results imply that 70-90% of the interannual coastal sea level variance in the Gulf of Alaska can be related to interannual sea levels at La Libertad, Equador. These values are higher than the corresponding range from sea level data, which is 25-55%. When oceanic teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific are excluded in the model, the explained variance becomes about 20% or less. During poleward propagation the coastally trapped sea level signal in the model is less attenuated than the observed signal. In the Gulf of Alaska we find well-defined sea level peaks in the aftermath of El Niño events. The interannual intensity of eddies in the Gulf of Alaska also peaks after El Niño events; however, these maxima are less clear after weak and moderate El Niño events. The interannual variations in eddy activity intensity are predominantly governed by the regional atmospheric forcing.

  14. Plasma macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels during cardiopulmonary bypass with extracorporeal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Denizot

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia occur during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB with extracorporeal circulation (ECC. Elevated circulating concentrations of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF are reported during thrombocytopenia and leukopenia of different origins. We have assessed M-CSF concentrations in 40 patients undergoing CPB with ECC. Plasma M-CSF concentrations were stable during ECC and increased at the 6th (7.3 ± 0.7 IU/μg protein and 24th (8.6 ± 0.8 IU/μg protein postoperative hour compared with pre-ECC values (4.9 ± 0.5 IU/μg protein. A deep thrombocytopenia was found during ECC and until the 24th postoperative hour. A drop of leukocyte counts was found during ECC followed by an increase after ECC weaning. While no correlation was found between M-CSF concentrations and the leukocyte counts, M-CSF values were positively correlated with platelet counts only before and during ECC. Thus, M-CSF is not implicated in the thrombocytopenia and the leukopenia generated during CPB with ECC. However the elevated levels of M-CSFa few hours after the end of ECC might play a role in the inflammatory process often observed after CPB.

  15. A two-time-level split-explicit ocean circulation model (MASNUM) and its validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lei

    2014-01-01

    A two-time-level, three-dimensional numerical ocean circulation model (named MASNUM) was estab-lished with a two-level, single-step Eulerian forward-backward time-differencing scheme. A mathematical model of large-scale oceanic motions was based on the terrain-following coordinated, Boussinesq, Reyn-olds-averaged primitive equations of ocean dynamics. A simple but very practical Eulerian forward-back-ward method was adopted to replace the most preferred leapfrog scheme as the time-differencing method for both barotropic and baroclinic modes. The forward-backward method is of second-order of accuracy, computationally efficient by requiring only one function evaluation per time step, and free of the compu-tational mode inherent in the three-level schemes. This method is superior to the leapfrog scheme in that the maximum time step of stability is twice as large as that of the leapfrog scheme in staggered meshes thus the computational efficiency could be doubled. A spatial smoothing method was introduced to control the nonlinear instability in the numerical integration. An ideal numerical experiment simulating the propa-gation of the equatorial Rossby soliton was performed to test the amplitude and phase error of this new model. The performance of this circulation model was further verified with a regional (northwest Pacific) and a quasi-global (global ocean simulation with the Arctic Ocean excluded) simulation experiments. These two numerical experiments show fairly good agreement with the observations. The maximum time step of stability in these two experiments were also investigated and compared between this model and that model which adopts the leapfrog scheme.

  16. Low Circulating Protein C Levels Are Associated with Lower Leg Ulcers in Patients with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Whitmont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated protein C (APC promotes angiogenesis and reepithelialisation and accelerates healing of diabetic ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the incidence of lower leg ulcers and plasma levels of APC's precursor, protein C (PC, in diabetic patients. Patients with diabetes who had a lower leg ulcer(s for >6 months (n=36 were compared with age-, type of diabetes-, and sex-matched subjects with diabetes but without an ulcer (n=36, controls. Total PC was assessed using a routine PC colorimetric assay. There was a significantly (P<0.001 lower level of plasma PC in patients with ulcers (103.3 ± 22.7, mean ± SD compared with control (127.1±34.0 subjects, when corrected for age and matched for gender and type of diabetes. Ulcer type (neuropathic, ischaemic, or mixed was not a significant covariate for plasma PC levels (P=0.35. There was no correlation between PC levels and gender, type of diabetes, HbA1c, or C-reactive protein in either group. In summary, decreased circulating PC levels are associated with, and may predispose to, lower leg ulceration in patients with diabetes.

  17. The gyre-scale circulation of the North Atlantic and sea level at Brest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the gyre-scale circulation of the North Atlantic, represented by air pressure near to the centre of the sub-tropical gyre, and sea level measured at the eastern boundary of the ocean has been investigated using records commencing in the middle of the 18th century. These time series are twice as long as those employed in an earlier study of this relationship. Near-continuous values of annual mean sea level and mean high water from Brest, and air pressure fields for the eastern North Atlantic derived from terrestrial instrumental pressure records and ship logbook information, have been used to demonstrate that sea level on the eastern boundary does indeed appear to be related to air pressure at the centre of the gyre (subject to reservations concerning short sub-sections of data near to the ends of the records. These findings confirm the earlier conclusions but over much longer timescales. This relationship can explain at least part of the century timescale accelerations in European sea level records obtained from tide gauge and saltmarsh data. This finding has important implications for interpretation of the observed sea level rise and acceleration on the European Atlantic coast, suggesting that redistribution of water could play an important role instead of (or as well as change in ocean volume.

  18. Increased circulating urocortin-3 levels is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temur, Muzaffer; Yilmaz, Özgür; Aksun, Saliha; Özün Özbay, Pelin; Calan, Mehmet; Küme, Tuncay; Karakulak, Murat; Korkmaz, Hüseyin Anıl

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare serum urocortin-3 (UCN3) levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women, and establish what role UCN3 levels play in PCOS. Fifty-two patients with PCOS and 55 healthy women were included in the study, matched for age and body mass index. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, hs-CRP, UCN3 and free-testosterone levels of the all participants were measured. HOMA-IR was used to calculate the insulin resistance. Circulating UCN3 levels were significantly increased in women with PCOS than in control subjects (54.49 ± 5.77 versus 51.28 ± 5.86 pmol/l, p = 0.005). Serum insulin, hs-CRP and HOMA-IR levels were higher in women with PCOS than in control group. UCN3 levels positively correlated with hs-CRP in PCOS group (r = 0.391, p = 0.004). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curves were 0.732 (95% CI 0.634-0.830, p optimal cut-off value of UCN3 for detecting PCOS was ≥51.46 pmol/l, at which the sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 68%. Our results suggest that there is a potential link between PCOS and UCN3 levels. The results of this study support the presence of increased UCN3 levels for the association of inflammation with PCOS. PMID:26488073

  19. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance.

  20. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance. PMID:26849997

  1. Aquifer-Circulating Water Curtain Cultivation System To Recover Groundwater Level And Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ko, K.; Chon, C.; Oh, S.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater temperature, which generally ranges 14 to 16 degree of Celsius all year long, can be said to be 'constant' compared to the amplitude of daily variation of air temperature or surface water. Water curtain cultivating method utilizes this 'constant' groundwater temperature to warm up the inside of greenhouse during winter night by splash groundwater on the roof of inner greenhouse. The area of water curtain cultivation system have increased up to 107.5 square kilometers as of 2006 since when it is first introduced to South Korea in 1984. Groundwater shortage problem became a great issue in a concentrated water curtain cultivation area because the pumped and splashed groundwater is abandoned to nearby stream and natural recharge rate is reduced by greenhouses. The amount of groundwater use for water curtain cultivation system in South Korea is calculated to be 587 million cubic meters which is 35% of national agricultural use of groundwater. A new water curtain cultivation system coupled with aquifer circulating of the splashed groundwater and greenhouse roof-top rainwater harvesting is developed and applied to field site in Nonsan-si, Chungnam province to minimize groundwater shortage problem and recover groundwater level. The aquifer circulating water curtain cultivation system is consist of a pumping well and a injection well of 80 m deep, groundwater transfer and splashing system, recovery tank and rainwater collecting waterway. The distance between injection and pumping well is 15 m and an observation well is installed in the middle of the wells. To characterize hydrogeological properties of this site, hydraulic test such as pumping tests and tracer tests with dye tracer, thermal tracer and ion tracer. Once the integrated system is constructed in this site, hydraulic head in all the wells and temperature of air, recovery tank and groundwater in all the wells are monitored during the operation for 3months in winter season. Hydraulic test and tracer

  2. Circulating levels of the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor and of IL-18 in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkmann, Thomas; Winkler, Heidi; Graninger, Wolfgang; Kremsner, Peter G; Winkler, Stefan

    2005-02-21

    Circulating levels of sIL-4R, IL-18 and IFN-gamma were studied by ELISA in 36 Gabonese patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (29 children, 7 adults). Drug induced clearance of parasitemia, studied in 22 patients with mild disease, was accompanied by a rapid decrease of sIL-4R and IFN-gamma to normal values and an increase of circulating IL-18, suggesting the downregulation of a type 2 biased immune response and a dissociated type 1 responsiveness while resolving parasitemia. Comparing subgroups with hyperparasitemia/severe anemia and mild malaria, children with severe malaria had significant higher levels of sIL-4R and IFN-gamma, whereas IL-18 levels were not statistically different. Furthermore, among those children, higher levels of circulating IL-18 correlated with a lower degree of parasitemia.

  3. GRP94 Regulates Circulating Cholesterol Levels through Blockade of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation

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    Steve Poirier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc by hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR is central for vascular health. Secreted by hepatocytes, PCSK9 induces the degradation of LDLR, resulting in higher plasma LDLc levels. Still, it remains unknown why LDLR and PCSK9 co-exist within the secretory pathway of hepatocytes without leading to complete degradation of LDLR. Herein, we identified the ER-resident GRP94, and more precisely its client-binding C-terminal domain, as a PCSK9-LDLR inhibitory binding protein. Depletion of GRP94 did not affect calcium homeostasis, induce ER stress, nor did it alter PCSK9 processing or its secretion but greatly increased its capacity to induce LDLR degradation. Accordingly, we found that hepatocyte-specific Grp94-deficient mice have higher plasma LDLc levels correlated with ∼80% reduction in hepatic LDLR protein levels. Thus, we provide evidence that, in physiological conditions, binding of PCSK9 to GRP94 protects LDLR from degradation likely by preventing early binding of PCSK9 to LDLR within the ER.

  4. Circulating Antigens Levels in Different Clinical Forms of the Schistosoma mansoni Infection

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    Yerkes Pereira e Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA levels in relation to the different clinical phases of Schistosoma sp. infection a sandwich ELISA using monoclonal antibody 5H11 was performed. The sera of three groups of 25 Brazilian patients with acute, intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of S. mansoni infection were tested and compared to a non-infected control group. Patients and control groups were matched for age and sex and the number of eggs per gram of feces was equally distributed among the three patient groups. Sensitivity of 100%, 72%, 52% of the assay was observed for the intestinal, hepatosplenic and acute toxemic groups respectively. The specificity was 100%. Intestinal and hepatosplenic groups presented CCA levels significantly higher in comparison to those observed for acute patients (F-ratio = 2,524; p = 0.000 and F-ratio = 6,314; p = 0.015 respectively. There was no significant difference of CCA serum levels between hepatosplenic and intestinal groups (F-ratio = 1,026; p = 0.316.

  5. Climate-Induced Variability of Sea Level in Stockholm: Influence of Air Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This study is focused on climate-induced variation of sea level in Stockholm during 1873-1995. After the effect of the land uplift is removed, the residual is characterized and related to large-scale temperature and atmospheric circulation. The residual shows an overall upward trend, although this result depends on the uplift rate used. However, the seasonal distribution of the trend is uneven. There are even two months (June and August) that show a negative trend. The significant trend in August may be linked to fresh water input that is controlled by precipitation. The influence of the atmospheric conditions on the sea level is mainly manifested through zonal winds, vorticity and temperature. While the wind is important in the period January-May, the vorticity plays a main role during June and December. A successful linear multiple-regression model linking the climatic variables (zonal winds, vorticity and mean air temperature during the previous two months) and the sea level is established for each month. An independent verification of the model shows that it has considerable skill in simulating the variability.

  6. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males athletes from the aforementioned teams. We used a high-precision scale and stadiometer to verify anthropometric characteristics and Heath & Carter's method to evaluate somatotype. The men's team obtained the following mean results: Age=16.71; height=195.9cm; body weight=87.7kg; endomorphy=1.26; mesomorphy=3.18 and ectomorphy=3.8; while the women's results were: Age=15.9; height=181.6cm; body weight=67.4kg; endomorphy=3.09; mesomorphy=2.21 and ectomorphy=3.88. We can conclude from the results that the teams in question have similar characteristics to those of the high-performance adult teams, and exhibit a predominance of the ectomorphic component of the somatotype. This finding is of great importance, given the current demands of high-performance volleyball, and shows us the high level of the group studied.

  7. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Cabral

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males athletes from the aforementioned teams. We used a high-precision scale and stadiometer to verify anthropometric characteristics and Heath & Carter’s method to evaluate somatotype. The men’s team obtained the following mean results: Age = 16.71; height = 195.9cm; body weight = 87.7kg; endomorphy = 1.26; mesomorphy = 3.18 and ectomorphy = 3.8; while the women’s results were: Age = 15.9; height = 181.6cm; body weight = 67.4kg; endomorphy = 3.09; mesomorphy = 2.21 and ectomorphy = 3.88. We can conclude from the results that the teams in question have similar characteristics to those of the high-performance adult teams, and exhibit a predominance of the ectomorphic component of the somatotype. This finding is of great importance, given the current demands of high-performance volleyball, and shows us the high level of the group studied.

  8. Landscape Architecture-Anthropometry Relationship: The Case of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Korkut

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape architecture which is a discipline of ecological data based physical planning aims functional and aesthetical space design fitting for human activities and needs in cities. In Landscaping, ergonomic, anthropometry studies which have much in common, the aim is to perform studies to improve the physical space design at a maximum level in terms of comfort, health and safety.All environments and accessories used by people must comply with anthropometric data and, accordingly, it must be ensured that people move free from any dangers and comfortably in any environment, improving of the life quality must be the principle aim (Yörük et al., 2006. In this respect, it is of high importance that landscaping components and accessories used within the city are designed in accordance with the anthropometric measurements.This study is conducted on the İstanbul example in order to determine the conformity of landscaping elements widely used in our cities to anthropometric data. Therefore, regions of wide use in İstanbul are selected as research zones, current structural and plantal applications are examined in accordance with anthropometric data. According to the acquired data, along with the designs and applications fit to human use, those that are not fit to these measurements and especially disadvantageous in terms of safety are detected and suggestions are presented thereto.

  9. Relationship of circulating hyaluronic acid levels to disease control in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszes, Noémi; Toldi, Gergely; Bohács, Anikó; Ivancsó, István; Müller, Veronika; Rigó, János; Losonczy, György; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Tamási, Lilla

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled asthma is a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a potential peripheral blood marker of tissue fibrosis in various diseases, promotes eosinophil survival and plays a role in asthmatic airway inflammation as well as in physiological processes necessary to maintain normal pregnancy; however the level of circulating HA in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy is unknown. We investigated HA levels in asthmatic patients (N = 52; asthmatic pregnant (AP) N = 16; asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) N = 36) and tested their relationship to asthma control. Serum HA level was lower in AP than in ANP patients (27 [24.7-31.55] vs. 37.4 [30.1-66.55] ng/mL, p = 0.006); the difference attenuated to a trend after its adjustment for patients' age (p = 0.056). HA levels and airway resistance were positively (r = 0.467, p = 0.004), HA levels and Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score inversely (r = -0.437, p = 0.01) associated in ANP patients; these relationships remained significant even after their adjustments for age. The potential value of HA in the determination of asthma control was analyzed using ROC analysis which revealed that HA values discriminate patients with ACT total score ≥20 (controlled patients) and asthma control, as it correlates with airway resistance and has good sensitivity in the detection of impaired asthma control. Decrease of HA level in pregnancy may be the consequence of pregnancy induced immune tolerance.

  10. Circulating microRNAs correlated with the level of coronary artery calcification in symptomatic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ling, Shukuan; Sun, Weijia; Liu, Tong; Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Zhao, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Jin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Zi; Song, Hailin; Li, Qi; Liu, Shujuan; Chai, Meng; Dai, Qinyi; He, Yi; Fan, Zhanming; Zhou, Yu Jie; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) co-related with the severity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), and testify whether the selected miRNAs could reflect the obstructive coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients. Patients with chest pain and moderated risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) were characterized with coronary artery calcium score (CACS) from cardiac computed tomography (CT). We analyzed plasma miRNA levels of clinical matched 11 CAC (CACS > 100) and 6 non-CAC (CACS = 0) subjects by microarray profile. Microarray analysis identified 34 differentially expressed miRNAs between CAC and non CAC groups. Eight miRNAs (miR-223, miR-3135b, miR-133a-3p, miR-2861, miR-134, miR-191-3p, miR-3679-5p, miR-1229 in CAC patients) were significantly increased in CAC plasma in an independent clinical matched cohort. Four miRNAs (miR-2861, 134, 1229 and 3135b) were correlated with the degree of CAC. Validation test in angiographic cohort showed that miR-134, miR-3135b and miR-2861 were significantly changed in patients with obstructive CAD . We identified three significantly upregulated circulating miRNAs (miR-134, miR-3135b and 2861) correlated with CAC while detected obstructive coronary disease in symptomatic patients. PMID:26537670

  11. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  12. Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility Spring 2016 Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Abhishektha

    2016-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at Johnson Space Center supports the Space Human Factors Engineering portfolio of the Human Research Program. ABF provides capability to verify the accommodation and comfort of crewmembers through anthropometry and biomechanics analyses. Anthropometric measurements are derived from three-dimensional (3D) whole body scan images. The scans are currently taken by a Human Solutions Vitus 3D Laser Scanning System. ABF has purchased a 3dMD photogrammetry scanner system to speed up the process of collecting 3D scans. The photogrammetry scanner system features a faster data collection time, as well as fewer holes in the scans. This internship was mainly focused on developing calibration, measurement, data acquisition, and analysis processes for the new system. In addition, I also participated in a project to validate the use of a pressure mat sensor on the shoulder during in-suit testing. My duties for the scanner validation project started with identifying and documenting a calibration process. The calibration process proved vital to using the system as the quality of the scans was directly related to the success of the calibration. In addition, the calibration process suggested by the system vendor required the user to hold a large calibration board at precise locations. To aid in this, I built a calibration stand which held a calibration board at constant positions throughout numerous calibration process. The calibration process was tested extensively until proven acceptable. The standardized process reduced calibration time from over 10 minutes to just below three minutes. As a result, the calibration process could be completed painlessly and precisely, and scan quality was constant between sessions. After standardizing the calibration process, I proceeded to modify the locations of the cameras in order to capture the full volume of a person. The scanning system needed to capture a full T-pose of a person in one scan

  13. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  14. Levels of plasma circulating cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA as potential biomarkers for breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diesch Claude

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the aim to simplify cancer management, cancer research lately dedicated itself more and more to discover and develop non-invasive biomarkers. In this connection, circulating cell-free DNA (ccf DNA seems to be a promising candidate. Altered levels of ccf nuclear DNA (nDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been found in several cancer types and might have a diagnostic value. Methods Using multiplex real-time PCR we investigated the levels of ccf nDNA and mtDNA in plasma samples from patients with malignant and benign breast tumors, and from healthy controls. To evaluate the applicability of plasma ccf nDNA and mtDNA as a biomarker for distinguishing between the three study-groups we performed ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. We also compared the levels of both species in the cancer group with clinicopathological parameters. Results While the levels of ccf nDNA in the cancer group were significantly higher in comparison with the benign tumor group (P P P P = 0.022. The level of ccf nDNA was also associated with tumor-size (2 cmP = 0.034. Using ROC curve analysis, we were able to distinguish between the breast cancer cases and the healthy controls using ccf nDNA as marker (cut-off: 1866 GE/ml; sensitivity: 81%; specificity: 69%; P P Conclusion Our data suggests that nuclear and mitochondrial ccf DNA have potential as biomarkers in breast tumor management. However, ccf nDNA shows greater promise regarding sensitivity and specificity.

  15. Evidence from a randomized trial that simvastatin, but not ezetimibe, upregulates circulating PCSK9 levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner K Berthold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a secreted inhibitor of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor and an important regulator of LDL metabolism. Elevated PCSK9 levels have been associated with cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate how ezetimibe and simvastatin, alone and in combination, affect PCSK9 circulating concentrations. METHODS: A single center, randomized, open-label parallel 3-group study in healthy men (mean age 32±9 years, body mass index 25.7±3.2 kg/m(2 was performed. Each group of 24 subjects was treated for 14 days with either simvastatin 40 mg/d, ezetimibe 10 mg/d, or with both drugs. Multivariate analysis was used to investigate parameters influencing the change in PCSK9 concentrations under treatment. RESULTS: The baseline plasma PCSK9 concentrations in the total cohort were 52±20 ng/mL with no statistically significant differences between the groups. They were increased by 68±85% by simvastatin (P = 0.0014, by 10±38% by ezetimibe (P = 0.51 and by 67±91% by simvastatin plus ezetimibe (P = 0.0013. The increase in PCSK9 was inversely correlated with baseline PCSK9 concentrations (Spearman's R = -0.47, P<0.0001 and with the percent change in LDL cholesterol concentrations (Spearman's R = -0.30, P<0.01. In multivariate analyses, only baseline PCSK9 concentrations (β = -1.68, t = -4.04, P<0.0001, percent change in LDL cholesterol from baseline (β = 1.94, t = 2.52, P = 0.014, and treatment with simvastatin (P = 0.016, but not ezetimibe (P = 0.42, significantly influenced changes in PCSK9 levels. Parameters without effect on PCSK9 concentration changes were age, body mass index, body composition, thyroid function, kidney function, glucose metabolism parameters, adipokines, markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, and molecular markers of cholesterol metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Ezetimibe does not increase

  16. On the relation between Meridional Overturning Circulation and sea-level gradients in the Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kienert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of model simulations, we examine what information on changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC can be extracted from associated changes in sea surface height (SSH, specifically from a broad Atlantic north-south gradient as has been suggested previously in the literature. Since a relation between AMOC and SSH changes can only be used as an AMOC diagnostic if it is valid independently of the specific forcing, we consider three different forcing types: increase of CO2 concentration, freshwater fluxes to the northern convection sites and the modification of Southern Ocean winds. We concentrate on a timescale of 100 yr. We find approximately linear and numerically similar relations between a sea-level difference within the Atlantic and the AMOC for freshwater as well as wind forcing. However, the relation is more complex in response to atmospheric CO2 increase, which precludes this sea-level difference as an AMOC diagnostic under climate change. Finally, we show qualitatively to what extent changes in SSH and AMOC strength that are caused by simultaneous application of different forcings correspond to the sum of the changes due to the individual forcings, a potential prerequisite for more complex SSH-based AMOC diagnostics.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin: circulating levels in normal and polycythemic human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J F; Ebbe, S N; Hollander, L; Cutting, H O; Miller, M E; Cronkite, E P

    1982-05-01

    Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 microliters of sample, the essay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases in circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation of suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RIA inthe hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use. PMID:7069267

  18. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin: circulating levels in normal and polycythemic human beings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA); Ebbe, S.N.; Hollander, L.; Cutting, H.O.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-05-01

    Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 ..mu..l of sample, the assay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases of circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation or suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RA in the hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use.

  19. Haplotypes of vitamin D receptor modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Vania B. [State University of Campinas, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Sandrim, Valeria C.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Morphology, Estomatology and Physiology, Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Genetic factors influence whole blood lead (Pb-B) concentrations in lead exposed subjects. This study aimed at examining the combined effects (haplotype analysis) of three polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI and FokI) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Pb-B and on the concentrations of lead in plasma (Pb-P), which is more relevant to lead toxicity, in 150 environmentally exposed subjects. Genotypes were determined by RFLP, and Pb-P and Pb-B were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Subjects with the bb (BsmI polymorphism) or ff (FokI polymorphism) genotypes have lower B-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Subjects with the aa (ApaI polymorphism) or ff genotypes have lower P-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Lower Pb-P, Pb-B, and %Pb-P/Pb-B levels were found in subjects with the haplotype combining the a, b, and f alleles for the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms, respectively, compared with the other haplotype groups, thus suggesting that VDR haplotypes modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects. (orig.)

  20. Detection and adequacy evaluation of erythrocyte glutathione transferase on levels of circulating toxins in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rui; Qiu, Hui; Zuo, Huaiyun; Cui, Min; Zhai, Nailiang; Zheng, Hongguang; Zhang, Dewei; Huo, Ping; Hong, Min

    2016-08-01

    To explore detection and adequacy evaluation of erythrocyte glutathione S transferase (GST) on levels of circulating toxins in hemodialysis patients in Qinhuangdao region in China, this study divided 84 cases of long-term, end-stage hemodialysis patients into 2 groups: one group of 33 cases of adequate hemodialysis (spKt/V ≥ 1.3) and another group of 51 cases of inadequate hemodialysis (spKt/V GST, creatinine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), transferrin saturation (TSAT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), interleukin-2,6,8 (IL-2,6,8) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) in the hemodialysis group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P GST, IL-2, 6, 8, and TNF-a levels in the inadequate hemodialysis group were significantly higher than in the adequate hemodialysis group (P GST and spKt/V, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a have a positive correlation (P 0.05). There were 23 patients with levels of spKt/V ≥ 1.3 after adjusting the dialysis solution for 51 cases of inadequate hemodialysis patients, and the GST level after the adjustment was significantly lower than that before the adjustment, but still higher than that in the adequate dialysis group. This concludes that the maintenance of hemodialysis in patients has certain relevance on spKt/V and associated inflammatory factors. Through the study, it can be determined that GST can effectively respond to adequate hemodialysis, which has a guiding significance on adjusting the blood dialysis solution in clinical practice. PMID:27121915

  1. Circulating levels of human salusin-β, a potent hemodynamic and atherogenesis regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Fujimoto

    Full Text Available Using bioinformatics analysis, we previously identified salusin-β, an endogenous bioactive peptide with diverse physiological activities. Salusin-β is abundantly expressed in the neuroendocrine system and in systemic endocrine cells/macrophages. Salusin-β acutely regulates hemodynamics and chronically induces atherosclerosis, but its unique physicochemical characteristics to tightly adhere to all types of plastic and glassware have prevented elucidation of its precise pathophysiological role. To quantitate plasma total salusin-β concentrations, we produced rabbit and chicken polyclonal antibodies against the C- and N-terminal end sequences, circumvented its sticky nature, and successfully established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Salusin-β was abundantly present in the plasma of healthy volunteers, ranging from 1.9 to 6.6 nmol/L. Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that a single immunoreactive salusin-β peak coincided with synthetic authentic salusin-β. Plasma salusin-β concentrations were unaffected by postural changes and by potent vasopressin release stimuli, such as hypertonic saline infusion or smoking. However, salusin-β concentrations showed significant circadian variation; concentrations were high during the daytime and reached the lowest concentrations in the early morning. Plasma salusin-β levels in subjects with diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease showed distinctly higher levels than healthy controls. Patients with panhypopituitarism combined with complete central diabetes insipidus also showed significantly higher plasma salusin-β levels. Therefore, the ELISA system developed in this study will be useful for evaluating circulating total salusin-β levels and for confirming the presence of authentic salusin-β in human plasma. The obtained results suggest a limited contribution of the neuroendocrine system to peripheral total salusin

  2. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms in relation to circulating levels among African American and Caucasian women

    OpenAIRE

    D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Schroeder, Jane C; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles; West, Suzanne L.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Baird, Donna D.

    2009-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels have been associated with common diseases. Although family-based studies suggest that genetic variation contributes to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, analyses of associations with multiple IGF-I and IGFBP-3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been limited, especially among African Americans. We evaluated 30 IGF-I and 15 IGFBP-3 SNPs and estimated diplotypes in association with plasma I...

  3. Circulating levels of chromatin fragments are inversely correlated with anti-dsDNA antibody levels in human and murine systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariann H; Rekvig, Ole Petter; Jacobsen, Rasmus S;

    2011-01-01

    Anti-dsDNA antibodies represent a central pathogenic factor in Lupus nephritis. Together with nucleosomes they deposit as immune complexes in the mesangial matrix and along basement membranes within the glomeruli. The origin of the nucleosomes and when they appear e.g. in circulation is not known...... an inverse correlation between anti-dsDNA antibodies and the DNA concentration in the circulation in both murine and human serum samples. High titer of anti-DNA antibodies in human sera correlated with reduced levels of circulating chromatin, and in lupus prone mice with deposition within glomeruli....... The inverse correlation between DNA concentration and anti-dsDNA antibodies may reflect antibody-dependent deposition of immune complexes during the development of lupus nephritis in autoimmune lupus prone mice. The measurement of circulating DNA in SLE sera by using qPCR may indicate and detect...

  4. Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Casina WS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a critical need for improved diagnostic markers for high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC. MicroRNAs are stable in the circulation and may have utility as biomarkers of malignancy. We investigated whether levels of serum microRNA could discriminate women with high-grade SEOC from age matched healthy volunteers. Methods To identify microRNA of interest, microRNA expression profiling was performed on 4 SEOC cell lines and normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Total RNA was extracted from 500 μL aliquots of serum collected from patients with SEOC (n = 28 and age-matched healthy donors (n = 28. Serum microRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR following preamplification. Results microRNA (miR-182, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were highly overexpressed in the SEOC cell lines relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells and were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate biomarkers. miR-103, miR-92a and miR -638 had relatively invariant expression across all ovarian cell lines, and with small-nucleolar C/D box 48 (RNU48 were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate endogenous normalizers. No correlation between serum levels and age were observed (age range 30-79 years for any of these microRNA or RNU48. Individually, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c normalized to serum volume and miR-103 were significantly higher in serum of the SEOC cohort (P  Conclusions We identified serum microRNAs able to discriminate patients with high grade SEOC from age-matched healthy controls. The addition of these microRNAs to current testing regimes may improve diagnosis for women with SEOC.

  5. Effect of changes in circulating amylase levels on amylase output in bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendell, J H; Rothman, S S

    1982-07-01

    The relation between plasma and biliary amylase activity and their relationship to the functional state of the pancreas were studied in anesthetized rabbits. Repetitive intravenous injections of cholecystokinin resulted in a 25-fold rise in the secretion of amylase via the pancreatic duct, followed at first by a 50% increase in plasma amylase concentration and later by a 270% increase in biliary amylase concentration. There was then a gradual, roughly synchronous decline in both plasma and biliary values toward basal level despite a continued highly augmented rate of pancreatic ductal secretion. "Near-total" pancreatectomy completely abolished the effect. These observations are consistent with a cholecystokinin-induced basolateral secretion of amylase from pancreas into blood and its subsequent movement from blood into bile down a concentration gradient. The output of amylase in bile, however, was quite small and does not suggest that biliary transport of amylase has an important function either as a means of secreting and recycling digestive enzyme into the gut or as a major excretory pathway for circulating amylase in the rabbit.

  6. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  7. Circulating interleukin-8 levels explain breast cancer osteolysis in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, Archana; Bendre, Manali S; Washam, Charity L; Fowler, Tristan W; Carver, Adam; Dilley, Joshua D; Bracey, John W; Akel, Nisreen S; Margulies, Aaron G; Skinner, Robert A; Swain, Frances L; Hogue, William R; Montgomery, Corey O; Lahiji, Parshawn; Maher, Jacqueline J; Leitzel, Kim E; Ali, Suhail M; Lipton, Alan; Nicholas, Richard W; Gaddy, Dana; Suva, Larry J

    2014-04-01

    Skeletal metastases of breast cancer and subsequent osteolysis connote a dramatic change in the prognosis for the patient and significantly increase the morbidity associated with disease. The cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8/CXCL8) is able to directly stimulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in mouse models of breast cancer bone metastasis. In this study, we determined whether circulating levels of IL-8 were associated with increased bone resorption and breast cancer bone metastasis in patients and investigated IL-8 action in vitro and in vivo in mice. Using breast cancer patient plasma (36 patients), we identified significantly elevated IL-8 levels in bone metastasis patients compared with patients lacking bone metastasis (pIL-8 and increased bone resorption (pIL-8 expression. In vitro, human MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MET breast cancer cell lines secrete two distinct IL-8 isoforms, both of which were found to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. However, the more osteolytic MDA-MET-derived full length IL-8(1-77) had significantly higher potency than the non-osteolytic MDA-MB-231-derived IL-8(6-77), via the CXCR1 receptor. MDA-MET breast cancer cells were injected into the tibia of nude mice and 7days later treated daily with a neutralizing IL-8 monoclonal antibody. All tumor-injected mice receiving no antibody developed large osteolytic bone tumors, whereas 83% of the IL-8 antibody-treated mice had no evidence of tumor at the end of 28days and had significantly increased survival. The pro-osteoclastogenic activity of IL-8 in vivo was confirmed when transgenic mice expressing human IL-8 were examined and found to have a profound osteopenic phenotype, with elevated bone resorption and inherently low bone mass. Collectively, these data suggest that IL-8 plays an important role in breast cancer osteolysis and that anti-IL-8 therapy may be useful in the treatment of the skeletal related events associated with breast cancer.

  8. The association of circulating adiponectin levels with pancreatic cancer risk : A study within the prospective EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, Verena A.; Rohrmann, Sabine; Dossus, Laure; Nieters, Alexandra; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Stegger, Jakob; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Teucher, Birgit; Becker, Susen; Montonen, Jukka; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Argueelles, Marcial; Duell, Eric J.; Molina-Montes, Esther; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Jeurnink, Suzanne M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Bjoern; Johansen, Dorthe; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Crowe, Francesca L.; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Jenab, Mazda; Romaguera, Dora; Michaud, Dominique S.; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Excess body weight and type 2 diabetes mellitus, risk factors of pancreatic cancer, are characterized by decreased levels of adiponectin. In addition to anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions, adiponectin has an important role in regulating glucose metabolism, i.e., decreasing circulating

  9. Associations between joint effusion in the knee and gene expression levels in the circulation: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.F.M. Ramos (Yolande); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); W. den Hollander (Wouter); D. Schiphof (Dieuwke); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); J.L. Bloem (Johan); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); I. Meulenbelt (Ingrid); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To identify molecular biomarkers for early knee osteoarthritis (OA), we examined whether joint effusion in the knee associated with different gene expression levels in the circulation. Materials and Methods: Joint effusion grades measured with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging a

  10. Optimisation of vehicle passive safety for occupants with varying anthropometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Haaster, R. van; Michaelsen, L.; Hoffmann, R.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been devloped to generate models representing subjects of varying anthropometry. This method has been applied to crash-dummy models, and will in the future also be applied to human body models. The 1st step of the method is to generate a set of target anthropomethry parameters from a re

  11. Changes in circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 induced by short-term dietary magnesium deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Katsumata, Shinichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Kajita, Yasutaka

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a potent regulator of phosphorus (P) and vitamin D metabolism. Long-term dietary magnesium (Mg) deficiency increases circulating levels of FGF23, whereas the effects of short-term dietary Mg deficiency are unclear. Thus, the present study investigated whether short-term dietary Mg deficiency affects circulating levels of FGF23. We also assessed changes in renal mRNA expression of vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and type II sodium-phosphate (Na/Pi) cotransporters, since these are regulated by FGF23. Rats were fed a control diet (control group) or an Mg-deficient diet (Mg-deficient group) for 2, 4 or 7 days. Serum Mg levels were significantly lower in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at all time points. Serum FGF23 levels were significantly higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at day 7. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24(OH)ase) mRNA levels were significantly higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at day 7 . No significant differences in types IIa and IIc Na/Pi cotransporter mRNA levels were observed between the control and Mg-deficient groups. These results suggest that dietary Mg deficiency causes a rapid increase in circulating levels of FGF23 and renal 24(OH)ase mRNA levels. PMID:27624533

  12. Relationship of circulating cell-free DNA levels to cell-free fetal DNA levels, clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters in preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mézes Miklós

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to examine whether increased circulating total cell-free DNA levels are related to the clinical characteristics and standard laboratory parameters of preeclamptic patients, to markers of inflammation, endothelial activation or injury, oxidative stress and to cell-free fetal DNA levels. Methods Circulating total cell-free DNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR in plasma samples obtained from 67 preeclamptic and 70 normotensive pregnant women. Standard laboratory parameters, C-reactive protein, plasma von Willebrand factor antigen, plasma fibronectin, plasma malondialdehyde and cell-free fetal DNA levels were also determined. Results and Conclusion Circulating total cell-free and fetal deoxyribonucleic acid levels were significantly elevated in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (median: 11.395 vs. 32.460 and 0.001 vs. 0.086 pg/μl; P < .001. The quantity of plasma total cell-free DNA did not correlate with most of the laboratory parameters, except for serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities (correlation coefficient: 0.31; P = 0.012 and 0.46; P < .001. There was no correlation with clinical characteristics, including body mass index. The releases of both free fetal and total cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid were found to be affected in preeclampsia. Hepatocellular necrosis seems to be responsible - at least partly - for increased circulating total DNA levels in preeclampsia, as suggested by the significant correlation with liver enzyme activities.

  13. Circulating Levels of IL-1B+IL-6 Cause ER Stress and Dysfunction in Islets From Prediabetic Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Christina M.; Lu, Christine; Corbin, Kathryn L.; Sharma, Poonam R.; Dula, Stacey B.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Ramadan, James W.; Xin, Wenjun; Lee, Jae K.; Nunemaker, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with obesity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism is unknown. We tested whether proinflammatory cytokines IL-1B+IL-6 at low picogram per milliliter concentrations (consistent with serum levels) could directly trigger pancreatic islet dysfunction. Overnight exposure to IL-1B+IL-6 in islets isolated from normal mice and humans disrupted glucose-stimulated intracellular calcium responses; cytokine-induced...

  14. The influence of age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on career attainment outcomes in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; Morley, David; O'hara, John; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the influence of annual-age category, relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on the career attainment outcomes of junior rugby league players originally selected for a talent identification and development (TID) programme. Junior rugby league players (N = 580) were grouped retrospectively according to their career attainment level (i.e., amateur, academy and professional). Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds), maturational (age at peak height velocity; PHV) and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed, estimated[Formula: see text]) characteristics were assessed at the Under 13s, 14s and 15s annual-age categories. Relative age (Q2 = 8.5% vs. Q4 = 25.5%) and playing position (Pivots = 19.5% vs. Props = 5.8%) influenced the percentage of players attaining professional status. Anthropometry and fitness had a significant effect on career attainment at the Under 14 (P = 0.002, η(2) = 0.16) and 15 (P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.12) annual-age categories. Findings at the Under 14s showed future professional players were significantly later maturing compared to academy and amateur players. Findings suggest that relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness can influence the career attainment of junior rugby league players. TID programmes within rugby league, and other related team sports, should be aware and acknowledge the factors influencing long-term career attainment, and not delimit development opportunities during early adolescence. PMID:26512761

  15. Steam drum level dynamics in a multiple loop natural circulation system of a pressure-tube type BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a pressure tube type boiling water reactor employing natural circulation as the mode of heat removal under all the operating conditions. Main Heat Transport System (MHTS) of AHWR is essentially a multi-loop natural circulation system with all the loops connected to each other. Each loop of MHTS has a steam drum that provides for gravity based steam-water separation. Steam drum level is a very critical parameter especially in multi-loop natural circulation systems as large departures from the set point may lead to ineffective separation of steam-water or may affect the driving head. However, such a system is susceptible to steam drum level anomalies under postulated asymmetrical operating conditions among the different quadrants of the core like feedwater flow distribution anomaly among the steam drums or power anomaly among the core quadrants. Analyses were carried out to probe such scenarios and unravel the underlying dynamics of steam drum level using system code RELAP5/Mod3.2. In addition, a scheme to obviate such problem in a passive manner without dependence on level controller was examined. It was concluded that steam drums need to be connected in the liquid as well as steam space to make the system tolerant to asymmetrical operating conditions.

  16. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  17. IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGFBP-3 levels among women from high-risk breast cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendahl, Ann; Hietala, Maria; Henningson, Maria; Olsson, Håkan; Jernström, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway has been implicated as risk modifier in premenopausal breast cancer. In this study, associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and diplotypes in the IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 genes and circulating IGFBP-3 levels, BRCA family status and breast cancer among women from high-risk breast cancer families were investigated. Nine IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 SNPs were genotyped with PCR-based methods in 323 women. Nine IGFBP1 and ten IGFB...

  18. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Suzet de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Gilmario Ricarte Batista; Jose Fernandes Filho; Maria Irany knackfuss

    2008-01-01

    The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males) athlet...

  19. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I correlate with disease status in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Luciana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caused by Mycobacterium leprae (ML, leprosy presents a strong immune-inflammatory component, whose status dictates both the clinical form of the disease and the occurrence of reactional episodes. Evidence has shown that, during the immune-inflammatory response to infection, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I plays a prominent regulatory role. However, in leprosy, little, if anything, is known about the interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Methods In the present retrospective study, we measured the serum levels of IGF-I and IGBP-3, its major binding protein. These measurements were taken at diagnosis in nonreactional borderline tuberculoid (NR BT, borderline lepromatous (NR BL, and lepromatous (NR LL leprosy patients in addition to healthy controls (HC. LL and BL patients who developed reaction during the course of the disease were also included in the study. The serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were evaluated at diagnosis and during development of reversal (RR or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL reaction by the solid phase, enzyme-labeled, chemiluminescent-immunometric method. Results The circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels showed significant differences according to disease status and occurrence of reactional episodes. At the time of leprosy diagnosis, significantly lower levels of circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 were found in NR BL and NR LL patients in contrast to NR BT patients and HCs. However, after treatment, serum IGF-I levels in BL/LL patients returned to normal. Notably, the levels of circulating IGF-I at diagnosis were low in 75% of patients who did not undergo ENL during treatment (NR LL patients in opposition to the normal levels observed in those who suffered ENL during treatment (R LL patients. Nonetheless, during ENL episodes, the levels observed in RLL sera tended to decrease, attaining similar levels to those found in NR LL patients

  20. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  1. A multi-level adaptation model of circulation for the western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D.

    topography is also included in diagnostic models. Many diagnostic calculations of seasonal mean currents in the non-equatorial regions of the world oceans have been carried out by Sarkisyan and his co-workers [1–4]. These calculations show that, on average..., the baroclinic currents do not decay very rapidly with depth. Even at greater depths, the horizontal gradient of density is one of the main factors that control the large scale circulation in the ocean. Mellor et al. [5] has carried out the diagnostic calculation...

  2. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in centenarians are not associated with increased production in T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, Marie; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Kemp, Kåre;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by increased inflammatory activity reflected by increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, concomitant with an altered cytokine profile of T lymphocytes. High plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are strongly associated with morbidity...... and mortality in elderly humans. However, the cellular source and mechanisms for the increased circulating TNF-alpha levels are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate if high plasma levels of TNF-alpha are associated with increased production of TNF-alpha by T lymphocytes in elderly...... humans. METHODS: TNF-alpha production by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin in 28 young controls, 14, 81-year-olds and 25 centenarians. RESULTS: Plasma levels of TNF-alpha increased with increasing age...

  3. HIV-1/HAART-Related Lipodystrophy Syndrome (HALS Is Associated with Decreased Circulating sTWEAK Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López-Dupla

    Full Text Available Obesity and HIV-1/HAART-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS share clinical, pathological and mechanistic features. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in obesity and related diseases. We sought to explore the relationship between HALS and circulating levels of soluble (s TWEAK and its scavenger receptor sCD163.This was a cross-sectional multicenter study of 120 HIV-1-infected patients treated with a stable HAART regimen; 56 with overt HALS and 64 without HALS. Epidemiological and clinical variables were determined. Serum levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U and χ2 test. Pearson and Spearman correlation were used to estimate the strength of association between variables.Circulating sTWEAK was significantly decreased in HALS patients compared with non-HALS patients (2.81±0.2 vs. 2.94±0.28 pg/mL, p = 0.018. No changes were observed in sCD163 levels in the studied cohorts. On multivariate analysis, a lower log sTWEAK concentration was independently associated with the presence of HALS (OR 0.027, 95% CI 0.001-0.521, p = 0.027.HALS is associated with decreased sTWEAK levels.

  4. Maternal deprivation has sexually dimorphic long-term effects on hypothalamic cell-turnover, body weight and circulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Díaz, Francisca; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) has numerous outcomes, including modulation of neuroendocrine functions. We previously reported that circulating leptin levels are reduced and hypothalamic cell-turnover is affected during MD, with some of these effects being sexually dimorphic. As leptin modulates the development of hypothalamic circuits involved in metabolic control, we asked whether MD has long-term consequences on body weight, leptin levels and the expression of neuropeptides involved in metabolism. Rats were separated from their mother for 24h starting on postnatal day (PND) 9 and sacrificed at PNDs 13, 35 and 75. In both sexes MD reduced body weight, but only until puberty, while leptin levels were unchanged at PND 35 and significantly reduced at PND 75. Adiponectin levels were also reduced at PND 75 in females, while testosterone levels were reduced in males. At PND 13, MD modulated cell-turnover markers in the hypothalamus of males, but not females and increased nestin, a marker of immature neurons, in both sexes, with males having higher levels than females and a significantly greater rise in response to MD. There was no effect of MD on hypothalamic mRNA levels of the leptin receptor or metabolic neuropeptides or the mRNA levels of leptin and adiponectin in adipose tissue. Thus, MD has long-term effects on the levels of circulating hormones that are not correlated with changes in body weight. Furthermore, these endocrine outcomes are different between males and females, which could be due to the fact that MD may have sexually dimorphic effects on hypothalamic development.

  5. A combination of l-arabinose and chromium lowers circulating glucose and insulin levels after an acute oral sucrose challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perricone Nicholas V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that elevated circulating levels of glucose and insulin accelerate risk factors for a wide range of disorders. Low-risk interventions that could suppress glucose without raising insulin levels could offer significant long-term health benefits. Methods To address this issue, we conducted two sequential studies, the first with two phases. In the first phase of Study 1, baseline fasting blood glucose was measured in 20 subjects who consumed 70 grams of sucrose in water and subsequently completed capillary glucose measurements at 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes (Control. On day-2 the same procedure was followed, but with subjects simultaneously consuming a novel formula containing l-arabinose and a trivalent patented food source of chromium (LA-Cr (Treatment. The presence or absence of the LA-Cr was blinded to the subjects and testing technician. Comparisons of changes from baseline were made between Control and Treatment periods. In the second phase of Study 1, 10 subjects selected from the original 20 competed baseline measures of body composition (DXA, a 43-blood chemistry panel and a Quality of Life Inventory. These subjects subsequently took LA-Cr daily for 4 weeks completing daily tracking forms and repeating the baseline capillary tests at the end of each of the four weeks. In Study 2, the same procedures used in the first phase were repeated for 50 subjects, but with added circulating insulin measurements at 30 and 60 minutes from baseline. Results In both studies, as compared to Control, the Treatment group had significantly lower glucose responses for all four testing times (AUC = P P = Conclusions As compared to a placebo control, consumption of a LA-Cr formula after a 70-gram sucrose challenge was effective in safely lowering both circulating glucose and insulin levels. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov, NCT0110743

  6. Genetic variations altering FSH action affect circulating hormone levels as well as follicle growth in healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Hagen, Casper; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION: Do variants of the genes encoding follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit (B) and FSH receptor (R) impact circulating reproductive hormone levels and ovarian follicle maturation in healthy peripubertal girls? SUMMARY ANSWER: FSHB and FSHR genetic variants exert...... (2006-2014, a cross-sectional and ongoing longitudinal study) and the Copenhagen Mother-Child Cohort (1997-2002, including transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) of the ovaries in a subset of 91 peripubertal girls). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Clinical examinations, including pubertal breast...

  7. Decreased Circulating C3 Levels and Mesangial C3 Deposition Predict Renal Outcome in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Jun Kim; Hyang Mo Koo; Beom Jin Lim; Hyung Jung Oh; Dong Eun Yoo; Dong Ho Shin; Mi Jung Lee; Fa Mee Doh; Jung Tak Park; Tae-Hyun Yoo; Shin-Wook Kang; Kyu Hun Choi; Hyeon Joo Jeong; Seung Hyeok Han

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mesangial C3 deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the role of complement in the pathogenesis or progression of IgAN is uncertain. In this observational cohort study, we aimed to identify the clinical implications of circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition and to investigate their utility as predictors of renal outcomes in patients with IgAN. METHODS: A total of 343 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled betw...

  8. Thermal hydraulic aspects of steam drum level control philosophy for the natural circulation based heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From safety considerations advanced nuclear reactors rely more and more on passive systems such as natural circulation for primary heat removal. A natural circulation based water reactor is relatively larger in size so as to reduce flow losses and channel type for proper flow distribution. From the size of steam drum considerations it has to be multi loop but has a common inlet header. Normally the turbine follows the reactor. This paper addresses the thermal hydraulic aspects of the steam drum pressure and level control philosophy for a four drum, natural circulation based, channel type boiling water advanced reactor. Three philosophies may be followed for drum control viz. individual drum control, one control drum approach and an average of all the four drums. For drum pressure control, the steam flow to the turbine is be regulated. A single point pressure control is better than individual drum pressure control. This is discussed in the paper. But the control point has to be at a place down steam the point where all steam line from individual drum meet. This may lead to different pressure in all the four drums depending on the power produced in the respective loops. The difference in pressure cannot be removed even if the four drums are directly connected through pipes. Also the pressure control scheme with/without interconnection is discussed. For level, the control of individual drum may not be normally possible because of common inlet header. As the frictional pressure drops in the large diameter downcomers are small as compared to elevation pressure drops, the level in all the steam drum tend to equalize. Consequently a single representative drum level may be chosen as a control variable for controlling level in all the four drums. But in case, where all the four loops are producing different powers and single point pressure control is effective, the scheme may not work satisfactorily. the level in a drum may depend on the power produced in the loop

  9. The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells may be associated with the occurrence and recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The onset of chronic subdural hematoma may be associated with direct or indirect minor injuries to the head or a poorly repaired vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells happen to be one of the key factors involved in hemostasis and vascular repair. This study was designed to observe the levels of endothelial progenitor cells, white blood cells, platelets, and other indicators in the peripheral blood of patients diagnosed with chronic subdural hematoma to determine the possible relationship between the endothelial progenitor cells and the occurrence, development, and outcomes of chronic subdural hematoma. METHOD: We enrolled 30 patients with diagnosed chronic subdural hematoma by computer tomography scanning and operating procedure at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from July 2009 to July 2011. Meanwhile, we collected 30 cases of peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers over the age of 50. Approximately 2 ml of blood was taken from veins of the elbow to test the peripheral blood routine and coagulation function. The content of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The level of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood was significantly lower in preoperational patients with chronic subdural hematomas than in controls. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the blood routine and coagulation function. However, the levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were significantly different between the recurrent group and the non-recurrent group. CONCLUSIONS: The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in chronic subdural hematoma patients was significantly lower than the level in healthy controls. Meanwhile, the level of endothelial progenitor cells in recurrent patients was significantly lower than the level in patients without recurrence. Endothelial progenitor cells may be related to the

  10. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study, the authors investigated whether anthropometry is associated with prostate cancer risk. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self- administered questionnaire on diet, anthropometry, and other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-

  11. On Evaluating circulation and temperature stratification under changing water levels in Lake Mead with a 3D hydrodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Acharya, K.; Chen, D.; Stone, M.; Yu, Z.; Young, M.; Zhu, J.; Shafer, D. S.; Warwick, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sustained drought in the western United States since 2000 has led to a significant drop (about 35 meters) in the water level of Lake Mead, the largest reservoir by volume in United States. The drought combined with rapid urban development in southern Nevada and emergence of invasive species has threatened the water quality and ecological processes in Lake Mead. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), was applied to investigate lake circulation and temperature stratification in parts of Lake Mead (Las Vegas Bay and Boulder Basin) under changing water levels. Besides the inflow from Las Vegas Wash and the Colorado River, the model considered atmospheric changes as well as the boundary conditions restricted by the operation of Hoover Dam. The model was calibrated and verified by using observed data including water level, velocity, and temperature from 2003 and 2005. The model was applied to study the hydrodynamic processes at water level 366.8 m (year 2000) and at water level 338.2 m (year 2008). The high-stage simulation described the pre-drought lake hydrodynamic processes while the low-stage simulation highlighted the drawdown impact on such processes. The results showed that both inflow and wind-driven mixing process played major roles in the thermal stratification and lake circulation in both cases. However, the atmospheric boundary played a more important role than inflow temperature on thermal stratification of Lake Mead during water level decline. Further, the thermal stratification regime and flow circulation pattern in shallow lake regions (e.g.., the Boulder Basin area) were most impacted. The temperature of the lake at the high-stage was more sensitive to inflow temperatures than at low-stage. Furthermore, flow velocities decreased with the decreasing water level due to reduction in wind impacts, particularly in shallow areas of the lake. Such changes in temperature and lake current due to present drought have a

  12. Comparative Assessment of Fetal Malnutrition by Anthropometry and CAN Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achappa Basavaprabhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fetal malnutrition (FM implies soft tissue wasting at birth with significant postnatal consequences and morbidity, and is identified by clinical assessment (CAN score and anthropometry. Noprevious studies have been done to study all these parameters and evolve a screening method. The aim of this study was identifying the incidence of FM using CAN score and compare the nutritional assessment with anthropometry and evolve a screening tool for rapid assessment of FM. Methods: Prospective study in Government district maternity hospital. 300 term newborns were assessed byCAN score and anthropometry recorded. The newborns were classified as per weight for age. Ponderal index (PI, Body mass index (BMI and midarm circumference/head circumference ratio (MAC/HC calculated andcompared to CAN Score for accuracy in identifying FM. Findings: Incidence of FM was 24%. Newborns identified malnourished by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were evaluated by CAN score and significant number of them (31/78 in PI, 60/121 in BMI, 51/81 in MAC/HC were foundwell nourished. Similarly those recognized as normal by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were malnourished by CAN score(25/222 in PI, 11/179 in BMI, 42/219 in MAC/HC with statistical significance(0.0001. BMI had the highest sensitivity and 11 neonates with normal BMI had low CAN score ann 9 of them had normal PI also making a combination of BMI and PI a good indicator of normal nutrition.Conclusion: FM is best identified by CAN Score. BMI is the best screening tool for malnutrition and when coupled with PI will identify most normally nourished newborns.

  13. Young Children's Screen Activities, Sweet Drink Consumption and Anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso;

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children’s screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages...... children, both on their consumption of sugary drinks and on an increase in BMI and central obesity. Our findings suggest that television viewing seems to have a stronger effect on food habits and anthropometry than other screen activities in this age group....

  14. Serum leptin levels in relation to circulating cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and angiogenic factors in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karádi István

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In this study, we determined circulating levels of C-reactive protein, several cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and angiogenic factors along with those of leptin in healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women and preeclamptic patients, and investigated whether serum leptin levels were related to the clinical characteristics and measured laboratory parameters of the study participants. Methods Sixty preeclamptic patients, 60 healthy pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women were involved in this case-control study. Levels of leptin and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1 in maternal sera were assessed by ELISA. Serum levels of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-18, interferon (IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 were determined by multiplex suspension array. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations were measured by an autoanalyzer. Serum total soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 and biologically active placental growth factor (PlGF levels were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. For statistical analyses, non-parametric methods were applied. Results There were significant differences in most of the measured laboratory parameters among the three study groups except for serum IL-1beta and TGF-beta1 levels. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients and healthy pregnant women than in healthy non-pregnant women. Additionally, preeclamptic patients had significantly higher leptin levels as compared to healthy pregnant women. Serum leptin levels were independently associated with BMI in healthy non-pregnant women. In healthy pregnant women, both BMI and serum CRP concentrations showed significant positive linear

  15. Assessment of γ-H2AX levels in circulating tumor cells from patients receiving chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eGarcia-Villa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are prognostic markers in a variety of solid tumor malignancies. The potential of CTCs to be used as a liquid biopsy to monitor a patient’s condition and predict drug response and resistance is currently under investigation. Using a negative depletion, enrichment methology, CTCs isolated from the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with stage IV breast cancer undergoing DNA damaging therapy with platinum based therapy were enriched. The enriched cell suspensions, were stained with an optimized labeling protocol targeting: nuclei, cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19, the surface marker CD45, and the presence of the protein ɣ-H2AX. As a direct or indirect result of platinum therapy, double strand break of DNA initiates phosphorylation of the histone H2AX, at serine 139; this phosphorylated form is referred to as ɣ-H2AX. In addition to ɣ-H2AX staining in specific locations with the cell nuclei, consistent with previous reports and referred to as foci, more general staining in the cell cytoplamim was also observed in some cells suggesting the potential of cell apoptosis. Our study underscores the utility and the complexity of investigating CTCs as predictive markers of response to various therapies. Additional studies are ongoing to evaluate the diverse γ-H2AX staining patterns we report here which needs to be further correlated with patient outcomes

  16. Maternal blood lead concentration, diet during pregnancy, and anthropometry predict neonatal blood lead in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D.; Gomez, Marta; Ravenscroft, Julia; Parsons, Patrick J.; Aydermir, Aida; Samelson, Renee

    2003-01-01

    To determine the influences of maternal diet and nutrition during pregnancy on the blood lead level of neonates, we conducted a study of mother-infant pairs from lower socioeconomic circumstances living in Albany County, New York. Maternal blood lead (MBPb), anthropometry, and diet were assessed in each trimester. Neonates' blood lead (NBPb) levels were low (geometric mean = 1.58 micro g/dL), and none had elevated blood lead. More than 50% of the mothers had intakes below the recommended diet...

  17. Single ingestion of soy β-conglycinin induces increased postprandial circulating FGF21 levels exerting beneficial health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashidume, Tsutomu; Kato, Asuka; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Miyoshi, Shoko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Nakata, Rieko; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Oikawa, Akira; Nakai, Yuji; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Soy protein β-conglycinin has serum lipid-lowering and anti-obesity effects. We showed that single ingestion of β-conglycinin after fasting alters gene expression in mouse liver. A sharp increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression, which is depressed by normal feeding, resulted in increased postprandial circulating FGF21 levels along with a significant decrease in adipose tissue weights. Most increases in gene expressions, including FGF21, were targets for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), but not for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of ATF4 significantly reduced β-conglycinin-induced increases in hepatic FGF21 gene expression. In FGF21-deficient mice, β-conglycinin effects were partially abolished. Methionine supplementation to the diet or primary hepatocyte culture medium demonstrated its importance for activating liver or hepatocyte ATF4-FGF21 signaling. Thus, dietary β-conglycinin intake can impact hepatic and systemic metabolism by increasing the postprandial circulating FGF21 levels. PMID:27312476

  18. Mean sea surface heights of the South and East China Seas from ocean circulation model and geodetic leveling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mean sea surface heights (sea surface topography) of the South China, East China, Yellow and Bohai Seas are derived from an ocean general circulation model and surface air pressure. The circulation model covers the global oceans, with fine grid (1/6°) covering the East Asian marginal seas and coarse grid (3°) covering the rest part of the global oceans. The result shows that the China 1985 National Altitude Datum is 24.7 cm above the mean sea surface height of the world oceans. The mean sea surface in the coastal ocean adjacent to China is higher in the south than in the north. Intercomparison of the model results with the geodetic leveling measurements at 28 coastal tidal stations shows a standard deviation of 4.8 cm and a fitting coefficient of 95.3%. After correction through linear regression, the standard deviation is reduced to 4.5 cm. This indicates that the accuracy of rmodel results is sufficient for practical application. Based on the model results, the mean sea surface heights for the study area with a resolution of 1/6 degree are given. This result also links the mean sea levels at islands with those on the mainland coast and gives the mean sea surface heights at tidal stations in the Taiwan Island, the Dongsha Islands, the Xisha Islands and the Nansha Islands relative to the China 1985 National Altitude Datum.

  19. Circulating levels of pegvisomant and endogenous growth hormone during prolonged pegvisomant therapy in patients with acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Fisker, Sanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pegvisomant treatment in acromegaly induces gradual elevations in endogenous serum growth hormone (GH) levels and whether serum pegvisomant levels predict the therapeutic outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients (6 women), mean age 46·3 years (range: 23...... correlated with baseline growth hormone levels, whereas no associations between serum pegvisomant and either dose, gender, age or body weight were found. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Serum GH levels increased initially, but remained stable during prolonged pegvisomant treatment in patients with acromegaly, (2) serum...

  20. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion

  1. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  2. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  3. Circulating levels of microRNA from children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lotte B; Wang, Cheng; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the mi......RNAs expression levels to beta-cell function and glycaemic control. Global miRNA sequencing analyses were performed on sera pools from two T1D cohorts (n = 275 and 129, resp.) and one control group (n = 151). We identified twelve upregulated human miRNAs in T1D patients (miR-152, miR-30a-5p, miR-181a, miR-24, mi...

  4. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Martinez, Salomé; Armengol, Sandra; Sabench, Fàtima; Ras, Rosa; Hernandez, Mercè; Aguilar, Carmen; Colom, Josep; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS) and steatohepatitis (NASH) cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients. Materials and Methods We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30) and morbidly obese women (n = 97) with or without NAFLD. Results We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate) had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis. Conclusion These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH. PMID:27123846

  5. Circulating levels of platelet α-granule cytokines in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis Agerlin; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Johansson, Per Ingemar;

    2015-01-01

    TGs), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) and the pro-inflammatory platelet factor 4 (PF4) cytokines. We also measured soluble glycoprotein VI (sGPVI), procoagulant platelet microparticles (PMPs) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, and evaluated in vitro platelet function in primary and secondary haemostasis...... p PMPs levels correlated with TGFβ1 and PF4 whereas we found no significant association between cytokine levels and measures of haemostasis. By multivariate regression, a high WBC count was associated with high levels of TGFβ1 (p = 0.01) and β...

  6. Anthropometry and Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.

  7. FNDC5 expression and circulating irisin levels are modified by diet and hormonal conditions in hypothalamus, adipose tissue and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Rodríguez, B M; Pena-Bello, L; Juiz-Valiña, P; Vidal-Bretal, B; Cordido, F; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is processed from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function. To elucidate the relationship between serum irisin and FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, we evaluated plasma irisin levels and FNDC5 gene expression in the hypothalamus, gastrocnemius muscle and different depots of adipose tissue in models of altered metabolism. In normal rats, blood irisin levels diminished after 48-h fast and with leptin, insulin and alloxan treatments, and serum irisin concentrations increased in diabetic rats after insulin treatment and acute treatments of irisin increased blood insulin levels. No changes were observed during long-term experiments with different diets. We suggested that levels of circulating irisin are the result of the sum of the irisin produced by different depots of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. This study shows for the first time that there are differences in FNDC5 expression depending on white adipose tissue depots. Moreover, a considerable decrease in visceral and epididymal adipose tissue depots correlated with increased FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, probably in an attempt to compensate the decrease that occurs in their mass. Hypothalamic FNDC5 expression did not change for any of the tested diets but increased with leptin, insulin and metformin treatments suggesting that the regulation of central and peripheral FNDC5/irisin expression and functions are different. PMID:27432282

  8. A Statistically-Based Low-Level Cloud Scheme and Its Tentative Application in a General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fushan; YU Rucong; ZHANG Xuehong; YU Yongqiang

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a statistical cloud scheme is first introduced and coupled with a first-order turbulence scheme with second-order turbulence moments parameterized by the timescale of the turbulence dissipation and the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient. Then the ability of the scheme to simulate cloud fraction at different relative humidity, vertical temperature profile, and the timescale of the turbulent dissipation is examined by numerical simulation. It is found that the simulated cloud fraction is sensitive to the parameter used in the statistical cloud scheme and the timescale of the turbulent dissipation. Based on the analyses, the introduced statistical cloud scheme is modified. By combining the modified statistical cloud scheme with a boundary layer cumulus scheme, a new statistically-based low-level cloud scheme is proposed and tentatively applied in NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) CCM3 (Community Climate Model version3). It is found that the simulation of low-level cloud fraction is markedly improved and the centers with maximum low-level cloud fractions are well simulated in the cold oceans off the western coasts with the statistically-based low-level cloud scheme applied in CCM3. It suggests that the new statistically-based low-level cloud scheme has a great potential in the general circulation model for improving the low-level cloud parameterization.

  9. Natural circulation steam generator model for optimal steam generator water level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several authors have cited the control of steam generator water level as an important problem in the operation of pressurized water reactor plants. In this paper problems associated with steam generator water level control are identified, and advantages of modern estimation and control theory in dealing with these problems are discussed. A new state variable steam generator model and preliminary verification results using data from the loss of fluid test (LOFT) plant are also presented

  10. Helicobacter pylori prevalence and circulating micronutrient levels in a low-income United States population

    OpenAIRE

    Epplein, Meira; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Fowke, Jay H.; Correa, Pelayo; Blot, William J.

    2011-01-01

    High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori, the leading cause of gastric cancer, and low levels of micronutrients have been observed in many developing countries, and the question remains as to the whether an association between the two exists. The present study seeks to further our understanding of this potential connection in the Southern Community Cohort Study, representing a low-income population in the United States. Blood levels of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori proteins were assessed us...

  11. Circulating irisin levels are not affected by coffee intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R Peter

    Full Text Available Irisin, secreted by skeletal muscle and possibly fat, is hypothesized to play an important role in modulating energy expenditure, obesity and metabolism. Coffee consumption also increases energy expenditure and leads to positive metabolic effects, but whether these effects are mediated by irisin remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between baseline irisin levels and the metabolic profile in humans and to investigate whether consumption of caffeinated coffee alters irisin levels. To this end, a secondary analysis was performed investigating irisin levels at baseline and after eight weeks in 32 healthy, overweight coffee drinkers who were randomized to consumption of 5 cups per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water. Spearman correlation and analysis of covariance analyses were performed to identify possible associations. Irisin levels were positively correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.41, p = 0.02, fat mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.01 and CRP (r = 0.47, p = 0.007. Though there was a trend towards increased levels of irisin over time in the caffeinated coffee group (+1.8% when compared to the placebo group (24% this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.75 for the trend. This first randomized trial failed to reveal any effects of coffee consumption on irisin levels, but a larger trial, appropriately sized on the basis of data provided by this study, is needed to conclusively investigate such a relationship.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00305097.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of various immunomodulators: independence from normal levels of circulating monocytes and natural killer cells. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morahan, P.S.; Dempsey, W.L.; Volkman, A.; Connor, J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of /sup 89/Sr treatment on the natural host resistance of CD-1 mice and the enhancement of resistance by immunomodulators to infection with Listeria monocytogenes or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were determined. In the CD-1 mouse, single-dose treatment with /sup 89/Sr caused a profound decrease in the number of circulating monocytes (Mo), lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) within 1 week. There was also marked functional impairment of the Mo inflammatory response, as well as markedly decreased spontaneous and activatable cytoxicity by splenic natural killer (NK) cells. Despite this profound cellular suppression, there was no significant change in natural resistance of CD-1 mice to L. monocytogenes of HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, prophylactic treatment of mice with the biologic immunomodulator Corynebacterium parvum or the synthetic immunomodulators maleic anhydride-divinyl ether or avridine in liposomes resulted in comparable enhancement of resistance in /sup 89/Sr-treated and normal mice. These data indicate that natural and immunomodulator-enhanced resistance of CD-1 mice to microbail infections do not depend on normal levels of Mo, PMN, or NK cells. The resistance enhancement may rely on activated tissue macrophages. In contrast to the early changes in circulating leukocytes, the residenet peritoneal cell populations were not markedly altered until after day 30. There then was a distinct decline in lymphocytes and a gradual decline in activated tissue macrophages.

  13. Pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D levels and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedirko, Veronika; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Bamia, Christina;

    2014-01-01

    size or smoking status. Conclusion: In this prospective study on Western European populations, serum levels of 25(OH)D were inversely associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Given the rising incidence of this cancer in low-risk developed countries and the strong public health interest......-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a prospective, nested case-control study among 520,000 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Each case (n = 138) diagnosed between 1992 and 2010 was matched to one control by...... age, sex, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Serum baseline levels of 25(OH)D were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable incident rate ratios (IRR) of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with continuous (per 10 nmol/L) or...

  14. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in patients with incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Sørensen, Lars T; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2013-01-01

    Incisional hernia formation is a common complication to laparotomy and possibly associated with alterations in connective tissue metabolism. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are closely involved in the metabolism of the extracellular matrix. Our...... aim was to study serum levels of multiple MMPs and TIMPs in patients with and without incisional hernia. Out of 305 patients who underwent laparotomy, 79 (25.9%) developed incisional hernia over a median follow-up period of 3.7 years. Pooled sera from a subset (n = 72) of these patients were screened...... for MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMP-13, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-4 using a multiplex sandwich fluorescent immunoassay supplemented with gelatin zymography. The screening indicated differences in serum MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels. Consequently, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were...

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  16. Dual-level parallelism exploitation with OpenMP in coastal ocean circulation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    González Tallada, Marc; Ayguadé Parra, Eduard; Martorell Bofill, Xavier; Labarta Mancho, Jesús José; Luong, P V

    2002-01-01

    Two alternative dual-level parallel implementations of the Multiblock Grid Princeton Ocean Model (MGPOM) are compared in this paper. The first one combines the use of two programming paradigms: message passing with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and shared memory with OpenMP (version called MPI-OpenMP); the second uses only OpenMP (version called OpenMP-Only). MGPOM is a multiblock grid code that enables the exploitation of two levels of parallelism. The MPI-OpenMP implementation use...

  17. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Ping; Yang, Jiong

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma. IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The frequencies of cytotoxic T cells (Tc)1, Tc2 and Tc17 cells were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-35, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlations between plasma IL-35 levels and Tc1, Tc2, and Tc17 cytokine production in allergic asthmatics (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 12) were analyzed by Pearson's test. IL-35 protein and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated in allergic asthmatics compared with healthy controls. The frequencies of Tc2 and Tc17 cells were significantly increased in patients with asthma, and the frequency of Tc1 cells did not differ between asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Similarly, plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly increased in asthmatic patients, while there was no difference in IFN-γ levels between allergic asthma patients and healthy controls. More importantly, plasma IL-35 protein levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of IL-4-producing CD8+ T (Tc2) cells and with the IL-4 level in patients with allergic asthma. Our results suggest that decreased circulating IL-35 levels could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by regulating CD8+ T cells. PMID:26547705

  18. Elevated circulating stromal-derived factor-1 levels in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landburg, P P; Nur, E; Maria, N; Brandjes, D P M; Biemond, B J; Schnog, J B; Duits, A J

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are of importance in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). Recently, the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be a key mediator of angiogenesis and inflammation. In this study we determined serum SDF-1 levels in consecutive adult sick

  19. Circulating levels of endothelin-1 in a homogenous Gulf Arab population with untreated essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal variations are reported in the natural history of high-tension. For example hypertension is significantly more prevalent in blacks than whites. Endothelial cells are important regulators of vasculars tone and homeostasis, in part through secretions of vasoactive substances including endothelin-I (ET-1), a small peptide with potent vaspressor actions in black hypertensive and normotensive whites. Since ET-I might play a significant role to the development and severity of hypertension in the indigenous Arab population of United Arab Emirates; we investigated the circulatory levels of ET-1 in the homogenous population. ET-I levels were measured in plasma samples from 60 unteated hypertensive Arabs and compared with 60 age and sex matched normotensive controls. ET-I levels were significantly higher in hypertensive (10.1+-pmol/L) than normtensives (mean 2.2+-0.5 pmol/L). Body mass index (BMI) was slightly higher among the hypertensive. For all subjects these levels significantly (P<0.001) correlated with systolic blood pressure and less significantly (P<0.05) with diastolic blood pressure and body weight. The correlation with ET-1 and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure with persistently significant after adjusting for BMI. Plasma concentration of ET-I are significantly higher in hypertensive Gulf Arabs as compared with reported levels in which hypertensives and ET-I could be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in this population. The endothelial sate might be particularly important with respect to hypertension in this racial group and merits further study. (author)

  20. Circulating levels of citrullinated and MMP-degraded vimentin (VICM) in liver fibrosis related pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliadis, E.; Oliveira, C. P.; Alvares-da-Silva, M. R.;

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether increased levels of vimentin citrullinated peptides identified by MS in articular cartilage can be measured in pathologies other than rheumatoid arthritis and be utilised for diagnostic purposes. Methods: A monoclonal antibody against the sequence RLRSSVPGV-citrulline ......Aim: To investigate whether increased levels of vimentin citrullinated peptides identified by MS in articular cartilage can be measured in pathologies other than rheumatoid arthritis and be utilised for diagnostic purposes. Methods: A monoclonal antibody against the sequence RLRSSVPGV......-citrulline (VICM) was developed and evaluated in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (n=52 + 28 controls) rat model of liver fibrosis and two clinical cohorts of adult patients with hepatitis C (HCV) (n=92) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n=62), and compared to healthy controls. Results: In CCl4-treated...

  1. Circulating levels of citrullinated and MMP-degraded vimentin (VICM) in liver fibrosis related pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Oliveira, Claudia P; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether increased levels of vimentin citrullinated peptides identified by MS in articular cartilage can be measured in pathologies other than rheumatoid arthritis and be utilised for diagnostic purposes. METHODS: A monoclonal antibody against the sequence RLRSSVPGV-citrulline ......AIM: To investigate whether increased levels of vimentin citrullinated peptides identified by MS in articular cartilage can be measured in pathologies other than rheumatoid arthritis and be utilised for diagnostic purposes. METHODS: A monoclonal antibody against the sequence RLRSSVPGV......-citrulline (VICM) was developed and evaluated in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) (n=52 + 28 controls) rat model of liver fibrosis and two clinical cohorts of adult patients with hepatitis C (HCV) (n=92) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n=62), and compared to healthy controls. RESULTS: In CCl(4...

  2. Impact of obesity control on circulating level of endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenesis in response to ischemic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yung-Lung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim We tested the hypothesis that obesity reduced circulating number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, angiogenic ability, and blood flow in ischemic tissue that could be reversed after obesity control. Methods 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice (n = 27 were equally divided into group 1 (fed with 22-week control diet, group 2 (22-week high fat diet, and group 3 (14-week high fat diet, followed by 8-week control diet. Critical limb ischemia (CLI was induced at week 20 in groups 2 and 3. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 22 weeks. Results Heart weight, body weight, abdominal fat weight, serum total cholesterol level, and fasting blood sugar were highest in group 2 (all p  Conclusion Obesity suppressed abilities of angiogenesis and recovery from CLI that were reversed by obesity control.

  3. Association of circulating irisin levels with normal weight obesity, glycemic and lipid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabian, Sarvenaz; Taheri, Ehsaneh; Karkhaneh, Maryam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hosseini, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin, a recently identified myokine/adipokine, has potential role in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Normal weight obesity (NWO) is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate association of irisin level with NWO, glycemicand lipid profile in women. Methods In this matchedcase-control study, 38 subjects with NWO (body mass index (BMI)  30) as case and 26 controls (BMI

  4. The Inhomogeneous Tropospheric Warming as the driver of Tropical Sea Level Pressure and Walker Circulation Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Bayr, Tobias; Dommenget, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation we follow the idea to split up the global warming signal in a spatial homogeneous warming and in a spatial inhomogeneous warming. In Bayr and Dommenget (2012) the changes of the tropical sea level pressure (SLP) due to inhomo-geneous tropospheric warming in climate change, which is mostly the land-sea warming contrast, was investigated in a multi model ensemble. The amplitude of the inhomogeneous tropospheric warming is roughly 10 times smaller than the total warming of t...

  5. Bancroftian filariasis: circulating B-1 cells decreased in microfilaria carriers and correlate with immunoglobulin M levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R; Sahoo, P K; Mishra, S; Achary, K G; Dwibedi, B; Kar, S K; Satapathy, A K

    2014-05-01

    B-1 cells play an important role in the outcome of infection in schistosomiasis, pneumonia and experimental filariasis. However, no information exists regarding status of B-1 cells in clinical manifestations of human filariasis. We investigated the levels of B-1 cells from the total B cells by flow cytometry. Significantly low levels of B-1 cells and IgM antibodies were detected against a wide variety of autoantigens in microfilariae carriers as compared to endemic controls and patients with chronic pathology. A positive correlation was found between IgM antibodies to actin and ss-DNA. Absorption of plasma with soluble actin, myosin and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) resulted in significant removal of antifilarial antibodies. Affinity-purified anti-ss-DNA antibodies were found to be reactive to filarial antigens and various autoantigens. Further, a positive correlation was found between polyreactive antibodies and B-1 cells in filarial-infected human subjects. After antifilarial treatment, levels of IgM antibodies to ss-DNA, actin, LPS and filarial antigen increased significantly indicating a role of polyreactive naturally occurring antibodies in filarial infection. Our findings add to the existing evidence that the B-cell defect in BALB.Xid mice account for susceptibility to murine filarial infection and indicate an important role for these antibodies in providing host protection against filarial infection.

  6. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sacchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P<0.001. Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P=0.007 and P=0.028, resp. and SHBG (P=0.01 and P=0.002, resp. when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P=0.007. Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC.

  7. Circulating Glutamate and Taurine Levels Are Associated with the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Takano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, but its proarrhythmic mechanism remains to be elucidated. Glutamate (Glu and taurine (Tau are present in the myocardium at substantially higher concentrations than in the plasma, suggesting their active role in myocardium. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the metabolism of Glu and Tau is altered in association with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in patients with AF. Fifty patients with paroxysmal AF and 50 control subjects without a history of AF were consecutively enrolled. Circulating Glu and Tau levels were measured and correlations between Glu/Tau and ROS levels were examined. Glu/Tau content was significantly higher in patients with AF versus controls (Glu: 79.2±23.9 versus 60.5±25.2 nmol/L; Tau: 78.8±19.8 versus 68.5±20.8 nmol/L; mean ± standard deviation (SD, p<0.001 for both. Glu/Tau levels also showed an independent association with AF by multiple logistic regression analysis. Glu and Tau levels both showed significant positive associations with plasma hydroperoxide concentrations. These data suggest a novel pathophysiological role of Glu and Tau in association with ROS production in paroxysmal AF, providing new insights into the elevated amino acid content in cardiac disease.

  8. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  9. Tailored antihypertensive drug therapy prescribed to older women attenuates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo JO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juliana O Toledo,1 Clayton F Moraes,2,3 Vinícius C Souza,2 Audrey C Tonet-Furioso,2 Luís CC Afonso,4 Cláudio Córdova,3 Otávio T Nóbrega1,2 1Graduate Program in Health Sciences, 2Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, 3Graduate Program in Gerontology, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, 4Research Center in Biological Sciences, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil Objective: To test the hypothesis that antihypertensive drug therapy produces anti-inflammatory effects in clinical practice, this study investigated circulating levels of selected proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and interferon-γ [INF-γ] in response to multivariate drug directions for blood pressure (BP control.Methods: Prospective study involving 110 hypertensive, community-dwelling older women with different metabolic disorders. A short-term BP-lowering drug therapy was conducted according to current Brazilian guidelines on hypertension, and basal cytokine levels were measured before and after intervention.Results: Interventions were found to represent current hypertension-management practices in Brazil and corresponded to a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP levels in a whole-group analysis, as well as when users and nonusers of the most common therapeutic classes were considered separately. Considering all patients, mean IL-6 and TNF-α levels showed a significant decrease in circulating concentrations (P<0.01 at the endpoint compared with baseline, whereas the mean INF-γ level was not significantly different from baseline values. In separate analyses, only users of antagonists of the renin–angiotensin system and users of diuretics exhibited the same significant treatment-induced reduction in serum IL-6 and TNF-α observed in the whole group.Conclusion: Our data demonstrates that a clinically guided antihypertensive treatment is effective in

  10. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  11. Circulating MicroRNA-223 Serum Levels Do Not Predict Sepsis or Survival in Patients with Critical Illness

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    Fabian Benz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Dysregulation of miR-223 was recently linked to various diseases associated with systemic inflammatory responses such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, and bacterial infections. However, contradictory results are available on potential alterations of miR-223 serum levels during sepsis. We thus aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-223 serum concentrations in patients with critical illness and sepsis. Methods. We used i.v. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as well as cecal pole ligation and puncture (CLP for induction of polymicrobial sepsis in mice and measured alterations in serum levels of miR-223. These results from mice were translated into a large and well-characterized cohort of critically ill patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU. Finally, results from analysis in patients were correlated with clinical data and extensive sets of routine and experimental biomarkers. Results. Although LPS injection induced moderately elevated serum miR-223 levels in mice, no significant alterations in miR-223 serum levels were found in mice after CLP-induced sepsis. In accordance with these results from animal models, serum miR-223 levels did not differ between critically ill patients and healthy controls. However, ICU patients with more severe disease (APACHE-II score showed moderately reduced circulating miR-223. Strikingly, no differences in miR-223 levels were found in critically ill patients with or without sepsis, and serum levels of miR-223 did not correlate with classical markers of inflammation or bacterial infection. Finally, low miR-223 serum levels were moderately associated with an unfavorable prognosis of patients during the ICU treatment but did not predict long-term mortality. Conclusion. Recent reports on alterations in miR-223 serum levels during sepsis revealed contradictory results, preventing a potential use of this miRNA in clinical routine. We clearly show that miR-223 serum

  12. Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in healthy human subjects exposed to chronic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Nichiporuk, Igor; Nicolas, Michel; Schneider, Stefan; Feuerecker, Matthias; Vassilieva, Galina; Thieme, Detlef; Schelling, Gustav; Choukèr, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that chronic stress, such as social isolation, plays an important role in the development of a variety of psychiatric and somatic disorders. Meanwhile, chronic stress imposed by prolonged isolation and confinement in the spacecraft is also one of the major concerns for the health of future interplanetary space travelers. Preclinical studies suggest that the peripheral endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the regulation of the stress response and eCB signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of stress-related diseases. However, there are only few human studies addressing this topic, of which most focusing on patients who have already developed a certain type of disorder. It remains unknown whether chronic stress may affect eCB signaling in healthy humans. A 520-d isolation and confinement study simulating a flight to Mars provided an extraordinary chance to study the effects of prolonged stress in healthy humans. During the study period, the participants lived in confinement and could not meet their families, friends, or strangers for more than 500 days. We examined the impact of chronic exposure to isolation and confinement through monitoring their psychological state, brain cortical activity, sympathetic adrenal-medullary system response and eCB signaling response. We observed reduced positive emotion ratings, decreased brain cortical activities and high levels of catecholamine release, indicating that prolonged exposure to isolation and confinement stressors may bring about changes both psychologically and physiologically. Importantly, for eCB signaling response, blood concentrations of eCB 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but not anandamide (AEA), were significantly reduced (p<0.001), suggesting that dysregulation of 2-AG signaling might be specifically implicated in the response to chronic stressors.

  13. Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in healthy human subjects exposed to chronic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Nichiporuk, Igor; Nicolas, Michel; Schneider, Stefan; Feuerecker, Matthias; Vassilieva, Galina; Thieme, Detlef; Schelling, Gustav; Choukèr, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that chronic stress, such as social isolation, plays an important role in the development of a variety of psychiatric and somatic disorders. Meanwhile, chronic stress imposed by prolonged isolation and confinement in the spacecraft is also one of the major concerns for the health of future interplanetary space travelers. Preclinical studies suggest that the peripheral endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the regulation of the stress response and eCB signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of stress-related diseases. However, there are only few human studies addressing this topic, of which most focusing on patients who have already developed a certain type of disorder. It remains unknown whether chronic stress may affect eCB signaling in healthy humans. A 520-d isolation and confinement study simulating a flight to Mars provided an extraordinary chance to study the effects of prolonged stress in healthy humans. During the study period, the participants lived in confinement and could not meet their families, friends, or strangers for more than 500 days. We examined the impact of chronic exposure to isolation and confinement through monitoring their psychological state, brain cortical activity, sympathetic adrenal-medullary system response and eCB signaling response. We observed reduced positive emotion ratings, decreased brain cortical activities and high levels of catecholamine release, indicating that prolonged exposure to isolation and confinement stressors may bring about changes both psychologically and physiologically. Importantly, for eCB signaling response, blood concentrations of eCB 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but not anandamide (AEA), were significantly reduced (p<0.001), suggesting that dysregulation of 2-AG signaling might be specifically implicated in the response to chronic stressors. PMID:26780604

  14. An elevated level of circulating galanin promotes developmental expression of myelin basic protein in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubetska, H; Zhang, L; Kong, J; Vrontakis, M

    2015-01-22

    Myelinogenesis is a scheduled process that is regulated by the intrinsic properties of the cell and extracellular signals. Galanin (GAL) is a bioactive neuropeptide that is widely distributed throughout the nervous system. Chronic increase in circulating GAL levels protects the demyelination processes. Furthermore, GAL is synthesized in myelin-producing glial cells, such as oligodendrocytes and its expression level is at its highest between postnatal days 10 and 40. In the present study, we use our GAL transgenic mouse model to examine the effects of GAL on postnatal myelinogenesis in the CNS. Although we observed no difference in the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, we found that GAL has a strong pro-myelinating effect. The transgenic mice at postnatal day 10 appeared to undergo myelinogenesis at an accelerated rate, as demonstrated by the increase in myelin basic protein (MBP) synthesis. The immunohistochemical results are consistent with our preliminary findings that suggest that GAL is a regulator of myelination and may be one of the myelination promoters. This finding is especially important for studies focusing on endogenous molecules for treating myelin-related diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and other leukodystrophies.

  15. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma

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    Wei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Interleukin (IL-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate  inflammatory  and  autoimmune  diseases.  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma.IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were detected  by  quantitative  real-time  PCR  (qPCR.  The  frequencies  of  cytotoxic  T  cells (Tc1,Tc2  and  Tc17  cells  were  measured  by  flow  cytometry.  Plasma  levels  of  IL-35, interferon (IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The correlations between plasma IL-35 levels and Tc1, Tc2, and Tc17 cytokine production in allergic asthmatics (n = 25 and healthy controls (n = 12 were analyzed by Pearson’s test.IL-35 protein and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated in allergic asthmaticscompared with healthy controls. The frequencies of Tc2 and Tc17 cells were significantly increased in patients with asthma, and the frequency of Tc1 cells did not differ between asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Similarly, plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly increased in asthmatic patients, while there was no difference in IFN-γ levels between allergic asthma patients  and  healthy  controls.  More importantly,  plasma  IL-35 protein levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of IL-4-producing CD8+ T (Tc2 cells and with the IL-4 level in patients with allergic asthma.Our results suggest that decreased circulating IL-35 levels could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by regulating CD8+ T cells. 

  16. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-ming; Duan, Xue-ning; Cui, Shu-de; Tian, Fu-guo; Cao, Xu-chen; Geng, Cui-zhi; Fan, Zhi-min; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-chuan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-hai; Liang, Hong; Yang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Hai-bo; Wang, Qi-tang; Li, Guo-lou; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-guang; Zuo, Wen-shu; Liu, Li-yuan; Wang, Lu; Ma, Dan-dan; Liu, Shu-chen; Xiang, Yu-juan; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-miao; Zhou, Wen-zhong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-xiang; Ma, Zhong-bing; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family history of breast cancer (P=0.024). We analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and breast cancer risk in 6 subgroups. Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was also negatively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.020, 0.014, 0.035) in the subgroups of postmenopausal women, negative family history of breast cancer, BMI>=24.0. Total adiponectin was positively associated with breast cancer (P=0.028) in the subgroup of BMIbreast cancer risk (P=0.034, 0.0116). This study showed different forms of circulating adiponectin levels might play different roles in breast cancer risk. A higher circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal, without family history of breast cancer or BMI>=24.0 subgroups, whereas higher circulating HMW adiponectin levels is a risk factor in women with a family history of breast cancer. Further investigation of different forms of adiponectin on breast cancer risk is needed.

  17. Circulating levels of inflammation-associated miR-155 and endothelial-enriched miR-126 in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Honglei; Peng, Wujian; Shen, Xuemei; Huang, Yunhui; Ouyang, Xin; Dai, Yong [Clinical Medical Research Center, Second Clinical Medical College, Shenzhen People' s Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2012-10-19

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) may represent a potential noninvasive molecular biomarker for various pathological conditions. Moreover, the detection of circulating miRNAs can provide important novel disease-related information. In particular, inflammation-associated miR-155 and endothelial-enriched miR-126 are reported to be associated with vascular homeostasis. Vascular damage is a common event described in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesized that miR-155 and miR-126 may be detectable in the circulation and serve as potential biomarkers for risk stratification. In this study, we assessed miR-155 and miR-126 in the plasma of 30 ESRD patients and 20 healthy controls using real-time quantification RT-PCR. The circulating levels of miR-155 and miR-126 were significantly reduced in patients with ESRD compared to healthy controls. However, there was no significant difference of circulating miR-155 and miR-126 levels between prehemodialysis and posthemodialysis patients. Furthermore, both circulating miR-126 and miR-155 correlated positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (miR-126: r = 0.383, P = 0.037; miR-155: r = 0.494, P = 0.006) and hemoglobin (miR-126: r = 0.515, P = 0.004; miR-155: r = 0.598, P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with phosphate level (miR-126: r = -0.675, P < 0.001; miR-155: r = -0.399, P = 0.029). Pearson's correlation was used to compare circulating levels of miRNAs with clinical parameters. These results suggested that circulating miR-155 and miR-126 might be involved in the development of ESRD. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the role of circulating miR-155 and miR-126 as candidate biomarkers for risk estimation.

  18. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGF levels but not breast cancer risk: findings from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa V Patel

    Full Text Available IGF-1 has been shown to promote proliferation of normal epithelial breast cells, and the IGF pathway has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis in animal models. We comprehensively examined the association between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes in relation to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and breast cancer risk within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. This analysis included 6,912 breast cancer cases and 8,891 matched controls (n = 6,410 for circulating IGF-I and 6,275 for circulating IGFBP-3 analyses comprised primarily of Caucasian women drawn from six large cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns were characterized in the regions surrounding IGF1 and the genes coding for two of its binding proteins, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. In total, thirty haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP were selected to provide high coverage of common haplotypes; the haplotype structure was defined across four haplotype blocks for IGF1 and three for IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. Specific IGF1 SNPs individually accounted for up to 5% change in circulating IGF-I levels and individual IGFBP3 SNPs were associated up to 12% change in circulating IGFBP-3 levels, but no associations were observed between these polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Logistic regression analyses found no associations between breast cancer and any htSNPs or haplotypes in IGF1, IGFBP1, or IGFBP3. No effect modification was observed in analyses stratified by menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, or postmenopausal hormone therapy, or for analyses stratified by stage at diagnosis or hormone receptor status. In summary, the impact of genetic variation in IGF1 and IGFBP3 on circulating IGF levels does not appear to substantially influence breast cancer risk substantially among primarily Caucasian postmenopausal women.

  19. Optimisation of an immunohistochemistry method for the determination of androgen receptor expression levels in circulating tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AZD3514 inhibits and down regulates the androgen receptor (AR) and has undergone clinical trials in prostate cancer. To provide proof-of-mechanism (POM) in patients, an immunohistochemistry (IHC) method for determination of AR in circulating tumour cells (CTC) was developed and validated. After an assessment of specificity validation focused on intra- and inter-operator reproducibility utilising a novel modification of incurred sample reanalysis (ISR). β-Content γ-confidence tolerance intervals (BCTI) and Cohen’s Kappa (κ) were employed in statistical analysis of results. In a first set of IHC reproducibility experiments, almost perfect agreement was recorded (κ=0.94) when two different operators scored CTC as overall positive or negative for AR. However, BCTI analysis identified a specific bias in scoring staining intensity, where one operator favoured moderate over strong assignments, whereas the reverse was the case with the second operator. After a period of additional training involving deployment of a panel of standardised images, a second set of validation experiments were conducted. These showed correction of the inter-operator bias by BCTI with κ for scoring intensity increasing from 0.59 to 0.81, indicative of almost perfect agreement. By application of BCTI to the validation of IHC, operator bias and therefore poor reproducibility can be identified, characterised and corrected to achieve a level of error normally associated with a quantitative biomarker assay, such as an ELISA. The methodological approach described herein can be applied to any generic IHC technique

  20. Striatal GDNF Production Is Independent to Circulating Estradiol Level Despite Pan-Neuronal Activation in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterría-Morales, Daniel; López-López, Ivette; López-Barneo, José; d’Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Gender difference in Parkinson’s disease (PD) suggests that female sex steroids may promote dopaminergic neuron survival and protect them from degeneration. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is believed to be dopaminotrophic; thus it is considered as a potential therapeutic target in PD. Additionally, GDNF is endogenously synthetized in the caudate/putamen of humans and striatum in rodents. A neuroprotective role of estrogens on the nigrostriatal pathway via the stimulation of GDNF has been proposed. Since the GDNF-producing parvalbumin (Parv) interneurons express the estrogen receptor alpha in the mouse striatum, we sought to determine whether ectopic estrogenic compound modulates the GDNF synthesis in mice. Using an ovariectomized-estradiol (E2) replacement regimen, which reliably generates a rise of plasma estradiol, we assessed the effects of different levels of E2 on the activation of striatal neuronal populations, and GDNF production. A strong correlation was found between plasma E2 and the expression of the immediate early gene cFos in the striatum, as well as in other cortical regions. However, moderate and high E2 treatments failed to induce any striatal GDNF mRNA and protein synthesis. High E2 only stimulates cFos induction in a low percentage of striatal Parv neurons whereas the majority of cFos-positive cells are medium spiny neurons. Activation of these projecting neurons by E2 suggests a role of circulating sex steroids in the modulation of striatal neural pathways. PMID:27741271

  1. A Python Implementation of an Intermediate-Level Tropical Circulation Model and Implications for How Modeling Science is Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. W. B.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, climate models have been developed incrementally and in compiled languages like Fortran. While the use of legacy compiledlanguages results in fast, time-tested code, the resulting model is limited in its modularity and cannot take advantage of functionalityavailable with modern computer languages. Here we describe an effort at using the open-source, object-oriented language Pythonto create more flexible climate models: the package qtcm, a Python implementation of the intermediate-level Neelin-Zeng Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical Circulation model (QTCM1) of the atmosphere. The qtcm package retains the core numerics of QTCM1, written in Fortran, to optimize model performance but uses Python structures and utilities to wrap the QTCM1 Fortran routines and manage model execution. The resulting "mixed language" modeling package allows order and choice of subroutine execution to be altered at run time, and model analysis and visualization to be integrated in interactively with model execution at run time. This flexibility facilitates more complex scientific analysis using less complex code than would be possible using traditional languages alone and provides tools to transform the traditional "formulate hypothesis → write and test code → run model → analyze results" sequence into a feedback loop that can be executed automatically by the computer.

  2. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    adiponectin and resistin but not the circulating levels of visfatin. In view of the recent evidences about the involvement of adiponectin and resistin in the pathogenesis and progression of OA, the decrease of these adipokines after mud-bath therapy may play a protective role in the course of the disease. However, it remains to be clarified which of the mechanisms of action of MBT may have determined the changes in serum levels of adiponectin and resistin that we observed.

  3. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group ( n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease ( p MBT group at the end of the study and a significant increase in the control patients ( p MBT. Furthermore, we tested the relationships between demographic and clinical parameters and adipocytokine concentrations measured in the MBT group at basal and at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study shows that a cycle of MBT can modify serum levels of adiponectin and resistin but not the circulating levels of visfatin. In view of the recent evidences about the involvement of adiponectin and resistin in the pathogenesis and progression of OA, the decrease of these adipokines after mud

  4. Decreased circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition predict renal outcome in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mesangial C3 deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN. However, the role of complement in the pathogenesis or progression of IgAN is uncertain. In this observational cohort study, we aimed to identify the clinical implications of circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition and to investigate their utility as predictors of renal outcomes in patients with IgAN. METHODS: A total of 343 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled between January 2000 and December 2008. Decreased serum C3 level (hypoC3 was defined as C3 <90 mg/dl. The study endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD and a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine (D-SCr. RESULTS: Of the patients, there were 66 patients (19.2% with hypoC3. During a mean follow-up of 53.7 months, ESRD occurred in 5 patients (7.6% with hypoC3 compared with 9 patients (3.2% with normal C3 levels (P = 0.11. However, 12 patients (18.2% with hypoC3 reached D-SCr compared with 17 patients (6.1% with normal C3 levels [Hazard ratio (HR, 3.59; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.33-10.36; P = 0.018]. In a multivariable model in which serum C3 levels were treated as a continuous variable, hypoC3 significantly predicted renal outcome of D-SCr (per 1 mg/dl increase of C3; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P = 0.011. The risk of reaching renal outcome was significantly higher in patients with mesangial C3 deposition 2+ to 3+ than in patients without deposition (HR 9.37; 95% CI, 1.10-80.26; P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that hypoC3 and mesangial C3 deposition were independent risk factors for progression, suggesting that complement activation may play a pathogenic role in patients with IgAN.

  5. Circulating microparticles and plasma levels of soluble E- and P-selectins in patients with systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Østergaard, O; Ullman, S;

    2013-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), which includes vasculopathy, endothelial cell activation, and coagulation activation. Circulating MPs from SSc patients were characterized and their relationship with soluble markers of vascular activation inves...

  6. Altered circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases and inhibitors associated with elevated type 2 cytokines in lymphatic filarial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Anuradha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti can cause severe disease characterized by subcutaneous fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of enzymes governing extracellular remodeling by regulating cellular homeostasis, inflammation, and tissue reorganization, while tissue-inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs are endogenous regulators of MMPs. Homeostatic as well as inflammation-induced balance between MMPs and TIMPs is considered critical in mediating tissue pathology. METHODS: To elucidate the role of MMPs and TIMPs in filarial pathology, we compared the plasma levels of a panel of MMPs, TIMPs, other pro-fibrotic factors, and cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection to those with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Markers of pathogenesis were delineated based on comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our data reveal that an increase in circulating levels of MMPs and TIMPs is characteristic of the filarial disease process per se and not of active infection; however, filarial disease with active infection is specifically associated with increased ratios of MMP1/TIMP4 and MMP8/TIMP4 as well as with pro-fibrotic cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and TGF-β. Our data therefore suggest that while filarial lymphatic disease is characterized by a non-specific increase in plasma MMPs and TIMPs, the balance between MMPs and TIMPs is an important factor in regulating tissue pathology during active infection.

  7. Circulating level of microRNA-126 may be a potential biomarker for recovery from smoking-related vascular damage in middle-aged habitual smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Sugiura

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Endothelial damage was improved and plasma levels of circulating miR-126 were increased after 8 weeks of smoking cessation. These findings suggested a potential use of miR-126 as a biomarker for recovery from smoking-induced vascular damage.

  8. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  9. Circulating alpha-klotho levels are not disturbed in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without macrovascular disease in the absence of nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Joris; Hammes, Hans-Peter; van Dijk, Marcory C. R. F.; Vervloet, Marc G.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is associated with a high incidence of macrovascular disease (MVD), including peripheral and coronary artery disease. Circulating soluble-Klotho (sKlotho) is produced in the kidney and is a putative anti-aging and vasculoprotective hormone. Reduced Klotho levels may therefore in

  10. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have...... important biological roles in prepubertal children....

  11. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20), primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31), metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32), and healthy individuals (n = 28) by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001), whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001), nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008), and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001). High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009). Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004). The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01) and DNA levels (p = 0.04), and protease activities (p = 0.008). Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression

  12. Perioperative prostate specific antigen levels among coronary artery bypass grafting patients: Does extracorporeal circulation and body temperature induce prostate specific antigen levels alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patris, Emmanuel; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Patris, Vasileios; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Argiriou, Mihalis; Charitos, Christos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) levels among coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC), to investigate the changes overtime of tPSA in each group separately and to determine the effect of body core temperature on tPSA levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. Our sample was allocated to: (a) Seven patients who underwent off pump CABG (Group I) and (b) 16 CABG patients with ECC (Group II). The levels of tPSA were measured preoperatively (baseline), intra-operatively and at the 4th postoperative day. We compared the two groups on their tPSA levels and we investigated the changes of tPSA overtime in each group separately. Results: Intra-operative serum samples were obtained in significantly lower body temperature in patients of Group II than in those of Group I (31°C vs. 36.9°C, P < 0.001). In each group separately, postoperative tPSA levels were increased significantly compared to the baseline values (2.55 ng/ml vs. 0.39 ng/ml for Group I, P = 0.005 and 4.36 ng/ml vs. 0.77 for Group II, P < 0.001). CABG patients with ECC had significantly lower intra-operative tPSA levels than the baseline values (0.67 ng/ml vs. 0.77 ng/ml, P = 0.008). We did not observe significant differences of tPSA levels between the two groups. Conclusions: CABG surgery affects similarly the perioperative tPSA independently the involvement of ECC. Although all patients had significantly higher early postoperative tPSA levels, only those who underwent CABG with ECC had exceeded normal values and significantly decreased intra-operative tPSA. Hypothermia seems to be the causal factor of tPSA reduction. PMID:25657546

  13. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Anthropometry of Arm: Nutritional Risk Indicator in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Patricia; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Orsini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the correlation between clinical data, nutritional, respiratory and functional parameters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This is a descriptive study of 111 ALS patients [91 spinal onset (GS) and 20 bulbar onset (GB)] carried on using nutritional and respiratory parameters and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS). ALSFRS was analyzed in the main domains (D1, D2 and D3). Forced vital capacity and anthropometric measurements, there was significant association for GS and GB, and in GS there was positive correlation with midarm circumference (MAC) (r=0.30; P=0.020), midarm muscle circumference (r=0.29; P=0.026), arm muscle area (r=0.28; P=0.033) and protein-caloric malnutrition score (r=0.27; P=0.039), while for GB only with body weight (r=0.64; P=0.024). On correlation of nutritional parameters and ALSFRS for GS patients we observed that MAC and %MAC presented positive association with both issues of D1 and D2. For GB, the total score in addition to correlate positively with anthropometric parameters related to lean body mass also presented negative association with a parameter associated with body fat. In summary, it is suggested that the application of anthropometry of arm could be useful in routine monitoring of ALS patients. PMID:26788263

  15. Automated Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Using Optical Imaging and Foot Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Hafeez-U R; Spruce, Michelle; Alty, Stephen R; Dudley, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    A large proportion of individuals who live with type-2 diabetes suffer from plantar sensory neuropathy. Regular testing and assessment for the condition is required to avoid ulceration or other damage to patient's feet. Currently accepted practice involves a trained clinician testing a patient's feet manually with a hand-held nylon monofilament probe. The procedure is time consuming, labor intensive, requires special training, is prone to error, and repeatability is difficult. With the vast increase in type-2 diabetes, the number of plantar sensory neuropathy sufferers has already grown to such an extent as to make a traditional manual test problematic. This paper presents the first investigation of a novel approach to automatically identify the pressure points on a given patient's foot for the examination of sensory neuropathy via optical image processing incorporating plantar anthropometry. The method automatically selects suitable test points on the plantar surface that correspond to those repeatedly chosen by a trained podiatrist. The proposed system automatically identifies the specific pressure points at different locations, namely the toe (hallux), metatarsal heads and heel (Calcaneum) areas. The approach is generic and has shown 100% reliability on the available database used. The database consists of Chinese, Asian, African, and Caucasian foot images. PMID:26186748

  16. Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gil Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players.  mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.

  17. Circulating levels of chromatin fragments are inversely correlated with anti-dsDNA antibody levels in human and murine systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariann H; Rekvig, Ole Petter; Jacobsen, Rasmus S;

    2011-01-01

    Anti-dsDNA antibodies represent a central pathogenic factor in Lupus nephritis. Together with nucleosomes they deposit as immune complexes in the mesangial matrix and along basement membranes within the glomeruli. The origin of the nucleosomes and when they appear e.g. in circulation is not known....... Serum samples from autoimmune (NZBxNZW)F1 mice, healthy BALB/c mice, patients with SLE, RA and normal healthy individuals were analyzed for presence and amount of circulating anti-dsDNA antibodies and nucleosomal DNA. Here we use a quantitative PCR to measure circulating DNA in sera. We demonstrate...

  18. Correlation between motor performance scales, body composition, and anthropometry in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Erhan; Topcu, Yasemin; Karakaya, Pakize; Bayram, Meral Torun; Sahin, Ebru; Gunduz, Nihan; Yis, Uluc; Peker, Ozlen; Kurul, Semra Hiz

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition, anthropometry, and motor scales in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Twenty six patients with DMD were evaluated by Expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMSE), gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and anthropometric measurements. Seventeen healthy children served as control group. There were 26 patients with a mean age of 9.5 ± 4.8 years. Ages and anthropometric measurements did not differ between groups. Of the 26 patients, nine were level I, seven were level II, two were level III, seven were level IV, and one was level V, according to the GMFCS. Despite the similar percentage of total body water, extracellular water/intracellular water ratio was significantly elevated in DMD patients (p = 0.001). Increased values of fat percentage and body fat mass index (BFMI) correlated positively with elevated GMFCS levels (r = 0.785 and 0.719 respectively). Increased fat-free mass index (FFMI) correlated negatively with elevated GMFCS levels (r = -0.401). Increased fat percentage and BFMI correlated negatively with HFMSE scores (r = -0.779 and -0.698, respectively). Increased values of FFMI correlated positively with HFMSE scores. There was also a negative correlation between increased skin fold measurements from triceps and scapula and HFMSE scores (r = -0.618 and -0.683, respectively). Increased skin fold values from the same regions correlated positively with elevated GMFCS levels (r = 0.643 and 0.712, respectively). Significant body composition changes occur in patients with DMD. Anthropometric and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyses measurements show good correlation between motor function scales. These results may also be helpful to evaluate the effects of new treatment strategies. PMID:22975832

  19. Prolactin anterior pituitary expression and circulating levels are reduced in obese and diabetic rats: role of TGF-β and TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemini, María; Ruiz-Herrera, Xarubet; Ledesma-Colunga, María G; Díaz-Lezama, Nundehui; De Los Ríos, Ericka A; López-Barrera, Fernando; Méndez, Isabel; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Macotela, Yazmín; Clapp, Carmen

    2015-05-01

    The levels of the hormone prolactin (PRL) are reduced in the circulation of patients with Type 2 diabetes and in obese children, and lower systemic PRL levels correlate with an increased prevalence of diabetes and a higher risk of metabolic syndrome. The secretion of anterior pituitary (AP) PRL in metabolic diseases may be influenced by the interplay between transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which inhibit and can stimulate AP PRL synthesis, respectively, and are known contributors to insulin resistance and metabolic complications. Here, we show that TGF-β and TNF-α antagonize the effect of each other on the expression and release of PRL by the GH4C1 lactotrope cell line. The levels of AP mRNA and circulating PRL decrease in high-fat diet-induced obese rats in parallel with increased and reduced AP levels of TGF-β and TNF-α mRNA, respectively. Likewise, AP expression and circulating levels of PRL are reduced in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and are associated with higher AP expression and protein levels of TGF-β and TNF-α. The opposing effects of the two cytokines on cultured AP cells, together with their altered expression in the AP of obese and diabetic rats suggest they are linked to the reduced PRL production and secretion characteristics of metabolic diseases.

  20. Common genetic variation in the SERPINF1 locus determines overall adiposity, obesity-related insulin resistance, and circulating leptin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Böhm

    , obesity-related insulin resistance, and circulating leptin levels.

  1. Increased Obesity-Associated Circulating Levels of the Extracellular Matrix Proteins Osteopontin, Chitinase-3 Like-1 and Tenascin C Are Associated with Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Izaguirre, Maitane; Hernández-Lizoain, José Luis; Baixauli, Jorge; Martí, Pablo; Valentí, Víctor; Moncada, Rafael; Silva, Camilo; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2016-01-01

    Background Excess adipose tissue represents a major risk factor for the development of colon cancer with inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling being proposed as plausible mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity can influence circulating levels of inflammation-related extracellular matrix proteins in patients with colon cancer (CC), promoting a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Methods Serum samples obtained from 79 subjects [26 lean (LN) and 53 obese (OB)] were used in the study. Enrolled subjects were further subclassified according to the established diagnostic protocol for CC (44 without CC and 35 with CC). Anthropometric measurements as well as circulating metabolites and hormones were determined. Circulating concentrations of the ECM proteins osteopontin (OPN), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), tenascin C (TNC) and lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) were determined by ELISA. Results Significant differences in circulating OPN, YKL-40 and TNC concentrations between the experimental groups were observed, being significantly increased due to obesity (P<0.01) and colon cancer (P<0.05). LCN-2 levels were affected by obesity (P<0.05), but no differences were detected regarding the presence or not of CC. A positive association (P<0.05) with different inflammatory markers was also detected. Conclusions To our knowledge, we herein show for the first time that obese patients with CC exhibit increased circulating levels of OPN, YKL-40 and TNC providing further evidence for the influence of obesity on CC development via ECM proteins, representing promising diagnostic biomarkers or target molecules for therapeutics. PMID:27612200

  2. Design of Lesehan Chair by Using Kansei Engineering Method And Anthropometry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi, A. T.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Sari, A. D.; Kurnia, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY) is known as city for academic. Many people come to get some education in college. They live in boarding house with some supporting facilities. The most common facilities is low table which lead students have to sit on the floor while studying on table which could cause higher risk of back pain and musculoskeletal disorder. To identify the solution to reduce back pain and musculoskeletal risk, it is needed to design a lesehan chair which also appropriate to customer needs. Kansei engineering method was used with a total of 30 respondents participated, 15 kansei words collected, and 12 kansei words selected by doing validation and reliability test. The result of this study showed that quality, aesthetics, and comfort level influence the design of lesehan chair. A design of lesehan chair was created by considering the suitable concept and merging it with the physical design and its anthropometry measurement. In this case, marginal homogeneity test is needed to identify the differences between each kansei words attribute and the design or product recommendation. The marginal homogeneity test results show that the design and product recommendation has fulfilled customer's desires and needs. For further research, it is needed to analyse and evaluate the posture of lesehan chair users in order to develop and improve its performance.

  3. Anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary pattern of patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajifdar B

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary characteristics of 114 patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD were evaluated. There were 91 (80% men and the mean age was 56 +/- 9 years. The body mass index was near normal (24.4 +/- 3.4, but the waist: hip ratio was high (0.94 +/- 0.06 suggesting central obesity. This was well in accordance of the step II recommendations of the NCEP guidelines as regards their caloric intake and its break-up in terms of carbohydrate, protein and fat (including saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids content. Their daily cholesterol intake (31 +/- 32 mg/day, range 4-180 was very low. The total cholesterol (212 +/- 37 mg% was marginally elevated, HDL cholesterol (33 +/- 7.5 mg% was low, LDL cholesterol (148 +/- 39 mg% was high and the total: HDL ratio (6.8 +/- 2.0 was significantly abnormal. The serum triglyceride level (154 +/- 68 mg% was on the higher side of normal. These observations give further credence to the recently evolving view that there are different and hitherto unrecognised risk factors of IHD in Indians, who seem to have the highest incidence of IHD amongst all ethnic groups of the world despite consuming a diet low in fat and cholesterol content.

  4. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Fetal Circulation Updated:Jul 8,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  5. Adiponectin levels are associated with the number and activity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang YING; Dan-dan ZHONG; Geng XU; Miao-yan CHEN; Qing-yu CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and the functional activities of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Circulating EPCs were enumerated as AC133+/KDR+ cells via flow cytometry and identified by co-staining with Dii-acLDL and fluorescein isothiocy-anate (FITC)-conjugated lectin under a fluorescent microscope. The migratory capacity of EPCs was measured by modified Boyden chamber assay. Adhesion capacity was performed to count adherent cells after replating EPCs on six-well culture dishes coated with fibronectin. Results: The number of circulating EPCs (AC133+/KDR+ cells) decreased significantly in CAD patients, compared with control subjects [(74.2±12.3) vs (83.5±12.9) cells/ml blood, P<0.0\\]. In addition, the number of EPCs also decreased in CAD patients after ex vivo cultivation [(54.4±8.6) vs (71.9±11.6) EPCs/field, P<0.01]. Both circulating EPCs and differentiated EPCs were positively correlated with plasma adiponectin concentration. The functional activities of EPCs from CAD patients, such as migratory and adherent capacities, were also impaired, compared with control subjects, and positively correlated with plasma adiponectin concentration. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the impairment of the number and functional activities of EPCs in CAD patients is correlated with their lower plasma adiponectin concentrations.

  6. Circulating vitamin D binding protein levels are not associated with relapses or with vitamin D status in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, J.J.F.M.; Peelen, E.; Thewissen, M.; Menheere, P.; Damoiseaux, J.; Hupperts, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Most circulating vitamin D metabolites are bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is an association between MS and DBP. METHODS: We compared DBP

  7. Lower Circulating C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP3 Levels Are Associated with Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa M Wolf

    Full Text Available C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3 is a novel adipokine that lowers blood glucose levels, reduces liver triglyceride synthesis, and is protective against hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mouse models. We hypothesized that higher circulating serum levels of CTRP3 would be associated with a lean body mass index (BMI and a more favorable metabolic profile in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate CTRP3 levels in lean individuals compared to obese individuals.This was a cross-sectional study of obese (n=44 and lean control patients (n=60. Fasting metabolic parameters were measured in all patients and serum CTRP3 levels were measured by ELISA.BMI of the lean group was 21.9 ± 0.2 kg/m2 and obese group was 45.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2. We found significantly lower circulating levels of CTRP3 in obese individuals (405 ± 8.3 vs. 436 ± 6.7 ng/mL, p=0.004 compared to the lean group. Serum CTRP3 levels were inversely correlated with BMI (p=0.001, and triglycerides (p<0.001, and significantly associated with gender (p<0.01, ethnicity (p=0.05, HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01, and adiponectin (p<0.01. We found BMI (p<0.01, gender (p<0.01, and ethnicity (p<0.05 to be significant predictors of CTRP3 levels when controlling for age in multiple regression analysis.CTRP3 is a beneficial adipokine whose circulating levels are significantly lower in obese individuals. Obesity causes dysregulation in adipokine production, including the down-regulation of CTRP3. Lower CTRP3 levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Optimizing CTRP3 levels through novel therapies may improve obesity and its comorbidities.

  8. High level of chromosomal instability in circulating tumor cells of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, E.; Auger, N.; Lindsay, C. R.; Vielh, P.; Islas-Morris-Hernandez, A.; Borget, I.; Ngo-Camus, M.; Planchard, D.; Soria, J.-C.; Besse, B.; Farace, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic aberrations affecting the c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) tyrosine kinase gene have been reported in a small subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated whether ROS1-chromosomal rearrangements could be detected in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and examined tumor heterogeneity of CTCs and tumor biopsies in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC patients. Patients and methods Using isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells (ISET) filtration and filter-adapted-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FA-FISH), ROS1 rearrangement was examined in CTCs from four ROS1-rearranged patients treated with the ROS1-inhibitor, crizotinib, and four ROS1-negative patients. ROS1-gene alterations observed in CTCs at baseline from ROS1-rearranged patients were compared with those present in tumor biopsies and in CTCs during crizotinib treatment. Numerical chromosomal instability (CIN) of CTCs was assessed by DNA content quantification and chromosome enumeration. Results ROS1 rearrangement was detected in the CTCs of all four patients with ROS1 rearrangement previously confirmed by tumor biopsy. In ROS1-rearranged patients, median number of ROS1-rearranged CTCs at baseline was 34.5 per 3 ml blood (range, 24–55). In ROS1-negative patients, median background hybridization of ROS1-rearranged CTCs was 7.5 per 3 ml blood (range, 7–11). Tumor heterogeneity, assessed by ROS1 copy number, was significantly higher in baseline CTCs compared with paired tumor biopsies in the three patients experiencing PR or SD (P < 0.0001). Copy number in ROS1-rearranged CTCs increased significantly in two patients who progressed during crizotinib treatment (P < 0.02). CTCs from ROS1-rearranged patients had a high DNA content and gain of chromosomes, indicating high levels of aneuploidy and numerical CIN. Conclusion We provide the first proof-of-concept that CTCs can be used for noninvasive and sensitive detection of ROS1 rearrangement in NSCLC patients. CTCs from ROS1-rearranged

  9. Data regarding association between serum osteoprotegerin level, numerous of circulating endothelial-derived and mononuclear-derived progenitor cells in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander E; Kremzer, Alexander A; Berezina, Tatyana A; Martovitskaya, Yulia V; Gronenko, Elena A

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as cluster of multiple metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities included abdominal obesity, high-normal blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and impaired fasting glucose tolerance that exhibits has a growing prevalence worldwide. We investigated whether an elevated level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) predicts imbalance between different phenotypes of circulating endothelial (EPCs) and mononuclear (MPCs) progenitor cells in MetS patients. We have analyzed data regarding dysmetabolic disorder subjects without known CV disease), as well as with known type two diabetes mellitus. All patients have given their informed written consent for participation in the study. This article contains data on the independent predictors of depletion in numerous of circulating EPCs and MPCs in MetS patients. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of elevated OPG level in MetS patients with numerous of EPCs and MPCs beyond traditional CV risk factors. PMID:27508223

  10. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Hendel, Helle W;

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower musc...... cytokines are partly derived from this adipose tissue bed. Furthermore, TNF-alpha was related to lower ASM and BCM, suggesting that TNF-alpha contributes to sarcopenia in ageing....

  11. Circulating levels of reactive oxygen species in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and the influence of antioxidant supplementation: 6-month follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Domanico; Serena Fragiotta; Alessandro Cutini; Carmela Carnevale; Luigi Zompatori; Enzo Maria Vingolo

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to evaluate circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in central macular thickness (CMT) in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) after antioxidant supplementation. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients (68 eyes) with NPDR were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Treated with antioxidant supplement (Group A) and untreated control group (Group B). Each tablet, for oral administration, containing pycnogen...

  12. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-ming Guo; Xue-ning Duan; Shu-de Cui; Fu-guo Tian; Xu-chen Cao; Cui-zhi Geng; Zhi-min Fan; Xiang Wang; Shu Wang; Hong-chuan Jiang; Jian-guo Zhang; Feng Jin; Jin-hai Tang; Hong Liang; Zhen-lin Yang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family...

  13. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina;

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower musc...... that cytokines are partly derived from this adipose tissue bed. Furthermore, TNF-alpha was related to lower ASM and BCM, suggesting that TNF-alpha contributes to sarcopenia in ageing....

  14. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  15. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor Increases Circulating Zinc-Α2-Glycoprotein Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Haopeng; Li, Ling; Zhang, Guohao; Yang, Mengliu; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    ZAG has recently been characterized as a potent metabolic regulator, but the effect of anti-diabetic agents on ZAG in humans remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effects of SGLT2 inhibitor on circulating ZAG and ADI in nT2DM. 162 subjects with nT2DM were treated by a placebo or DAPA. After 3-months of DAPA therapy, HbA1c, FBG, 2h-PBG, FFA, TG, blood pressure, BMI, WHR, body weight, FAT%, FINS, and HOMA-IR in T2DM patients decreased significantly, whereas HDL-C was significantly increased. Importantly, circulating ZAG and ADI levels in these patients were also significantly increased after DAPA therapy. Basal ZAG levels were associated with changes in BMI, FAT%, TC, HbA1c, HDL-C and ADI at post-treatment, whereas basal ADI levels were associated with changes in FAT%, TC, HbA1c, FFA and HDL-c. In vitro, DAPA treatment showed increased ZAG expression and secretion in HepG2 cells. When combined with a PPAR-γinhibitor GW9662, the effect of DAPA on ZAG was abrogated. These findings suggest that circulating ZAG can be regulated by DAPA, and DAPA promotes the expression and secretion of ZAG in the liver via the activation of PPAR-γ. The changes in ZAG induced by DAPA may play a physiologic role in enhancing insulin sensitivity. PMID:27611858

  16. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor Increases Circulating Zinc-Α2-Glycoprotein Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Haopeng; Li, Ling; Zhang, Guohao; Yang, Mengliu; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    ZAG has recently been characterized as a potent metabolic regulator, but the effect of anti-diabetic agents on ZAG in humans remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effects of SGLT2 inhibitor on circulating ZAG and ADI in nT2DM. 162 subjects with nT2DM were treated by a placebo or DAPA. After 3-months of DAPA therapy, HbA1c, FBG, 2h-PBG, FFA, TG, blood pressure, BMI, WHR, body weight, FAT%, FINS, and HOMA-IR in T2DM patients decreased significantly, whereas HDL-C was significantly increased. Importantly, circulating ZAG and ADI levels in these patients were also significantly increased after DAPA therapy. Basal ZAG levels were associated with changes in BMI, FAT%, TC, HbA1c, HDL-C and ADI at post-treatment, whereas basal ADI levels were associated with changes in FAT%, TC, HbA1c, FFA and HDL-c. In vitro, DAPA treatment showed increased ZAG expression and secretion in HepG2 cells. When combined with a PPAR-γinhibitor GW9662, the effect of DAPA on ZAG was abrogated. These findings suggest that circulating ZAG can be regulated by DAPA, and DAPA promotes the expression and secretion of ZAG in the liver via the activation of PPAR-γ. The changes in ZAG induced by DAPA may play a physiologic role in enhancing insulin sensitivity. PMID:27611858

  17. Circulating vitamin D binding protein levels are not associated with relapses or with vitamin D status in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Smolders, Joost; Peelen, Evelyn; Thewissen, Marielle; Menheere, Paul; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Background: A low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Most circulating vitamin D metabolites are bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is an association between MS and DBP. Methods: We compared DBP concentrations in blood samples of controls (n = 30) and subjects with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) during remission (n = 29) and relapse (n = 15). Furthermore, we explored correlations of DBP wit...

  18. High level of chromosomal instability in circulating tumor cells of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pailler, E.; Auger, N.; Lindsay, C. R.; Vielh, P; Islas-Morris-Hernandez, A.; Borget, I; Ngo-Camus, M.; Planchard, D.; Soria, J.-C.; Besse, B.; Farace, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic aberrations affecting the c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) tyrosine kinase gene have been reported in a small subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated whether ROS1-chromosomal rearrangements could be detected in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and examined tumor heterogeneity of CTCs and tumor biopsies in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC patients. Patients and methods Using isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells (ISET) filtration and filter-adapted-fluoresce...

  19. Multi-level evidence that circulating CK18 is a biomarker of tumour burden in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Greystoke, A; Dean, E; Saunders, M P; Cummings, J; Hughes, A; Ranson, M; Dive, C; Renehan, A G

    2012-01-01

    Background: Circulating total cytokeratin 18 (tCK18) and/or caspase cleaved cytokeratin 18 (cCK18) (measured by M65 and M30 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), respectively) are used as pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers of epithelial cell death in clinical trials. Having validated these ELISAs, we assessed their utility in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: We applied the assays in several settings: 53 controls; 97 patients undergoing surgery and 74 patients with metastatic CRC undergoi...

  20. Circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF Levels in Advanced Stage Cancer Patients Compared to Normal Controls and Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Critical Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoka H. Kusumanto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenic therapy is emerging as a valuable tool in the treatment of patients with cancer. As VEGF is a central target in anti-angiogenic therapy, its levels in the circulation might be relevant in selecting tumor types or patients likely to respond to this treatment. Additional VEGF has been recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Recently anti-angiogenic therapy has been advocated in this situation. We measured VEGF levels in whole blood in 42 patients with high grade (n = 26 and low grade (n = 16 end stage cancer, and in 28 healthy controls and 37 patients with diabetes related vascular disease. Only 2/26 patients in the group of high grade cancer had signifi cantly elevated VEGF levels, 1/16 in the low grade group and 1/28 in the healthy control group. In contrast, in 10/37 diabetic patients the mean VEGF levels were significantly elevated compared to the other groups. The mean level in these diabetic patients was significantly elevated compared to the other groups. These data indicate the limitation of the use of circulating VEGF levels as a potential selection criterion for anti-angiogenic therapy in cancer patients and suggest further studies into its application in the management of diabetic complications.

  1. Maternal deprivation induces a rapid decline in circulating leptin levels and sexually dimorphic modifications in hypothalamic trophic factors and cell turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Díaz, Francisca; Mateos, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Noé; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-04-01

    Pathological outcomes, including metabolic and endocrine disturbances, of maternal deprivation (MD) in Wistar rats depend on gender and the timing of deprivation during development. We analyzed the effect of MD between postnatal days 9 and 10, a critical period in hypothalamic development, on circulating hormones and local production of trophic factors involved in this process, as well as on markers of cell turnover and maturation. Males and females were studied 12 and 24 h after MD and 12 h (MD36) after returning the dam to her pups. Circulating corticosterone levels were increased and glucose and leptin levels decreased throughout the study in both sexes. Hypothalamic mRNA levels of leptin receptor increased significantly at MD24 in both sexes, normalizing in females at MD36, but not in males. In male rats insulin-like growth factor mRNA levels were significantly decreased at MD24 and brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels decreased at MD12 and MD24, with both trophic factors unaffected in females. In males cell proliferation was significantly decreased at MD36, as were the glial structural proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin. In females, nestin levels decreased significantly at MD24. These results indicate that MD differently affects trophic factors and cell-turnover in the hypothalamus of males and females, which may underlie the sex differences seen in the endocrine and metabolic outcome.

  2. Data on the circulating levels of endothelial microparticles are elevated in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and are related to aortic dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Alegret

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data included here support the research article “Circulating endothelial microparticles are elevated in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV disease and related to aortic dilation” (Alegret et al., 2016 [1] where circulating levels of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM+ endothelial microparticles (EMPs were identified as a biological variable related to aortic dilation in patients with BAV disease. The data presented in this article are composed by four tables and one figure containing the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of the patients (Alegret et al., 2016 [1] included in this study, and summarize the results of multivariate linear analyses. Furthermore, is also included a figure showing a representative flow cytometry dot plots and histograms used in PECAM+ EMPs quantification is also included.

  3. Longitudinal Changes in Circulating Testosterone Levels Determined by LC-MS/MS and by a Commercially Available Radioimmunoassay in Healthy Girls and Boys during the Pubertal Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Søeborg, Tue; Johannsen, Trine Holm;

    2014-01-01

    (detection limit 0.23 nmol/l). RESULTS: Serum concentrations of testosterone increased gradually with age by both methods. However, serum testosterone was quantifiable in 9/10 girls prior to pubic hair development measured with LC-MS/MS, and in 2/10 girls measured with immunoassay. In boys, testosterone was...... quantifiable in 10/10 boys 1 year prior to pubic hair development measured with LC-MS/MS, and only in 1/10 boys measured with immunoassay. Serum testosterone levels were quantifiable 1.5 years (range 0.5-2.5) earlier using LC-MS/MS. CONCLUSION: Assessment of longitudinal circulating levels of serum...

  4. Assessment of Cord Blood Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels and Circulating CD34+ Cells in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Tawfeek Moawed, Nihad Ahmed El Nashar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS secondary to surfactant deficiency is a common cause of mobility and mortality in premature infants. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a major angiogenic factor and prime regulator of endothelial cells proliferation. So, VEGF may contribute to surfactant secretion and pulmonary maturation. Additionally, circulating CD34+ stem – progenitor cells are elevated along with its mobilizing cytokines in neonatal RDS. Aim of work: This study aimed to elucidate the role of cord blood VEGF and the circulating CD34+ cells in preterm infants with and without RDS. Patients & method: This study was conducted on 55 preterm neonates divided into 25 preterm (15 males/ 10 females without RDS with mean age of 31.60 ± 1.56 weeks and 30 preterm neonates with RDS (18 males/ 12 females with mean age of 29.95 ± 1.09 weeks . Twenty healthy neonates (14 males/ 6 females served as controls with mean age of 38.20 ± 3.57 weeks. All neonates were subjected to full history taking; thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations including determination of VEGF levels in cord blood samples using ELISA and circulating CD34+ cells in peripheral blood by flowcytometery. Results:The results of this study revealed that cord blood VEGF levels were significantly decreased in preterms with RDS versus preterms without RDS and controls with p values of both < 0.0001. Furthermore, the circulating CD34+ cells were significantly increased in preterm infants with RDS versus preterm infants without RDS and controls (p < 0.05 & < 0.0001 respectively. Premature rupture of the membrane, gender of the newborn, birth weight and antenatal steroid administration had neither significant effect on the cord blood VEGF nor on the number of CD34+ cells. There was inverse significant correlation between GA and the number of CD34+ cells. Conclusion:It was concluded that low cord blood VEGF is associated with RDS and its level negatively

  5. Profile of circulating levels of IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL2/MCP-1 in dengue fever and parvovirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and parvovirus B19 (B19V infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra, CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10, CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37 and DENV-infected (36 patients and from healthy individuals (7. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

  6. Profile of circulating levels of IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL2/MCP-1 in dengue fever and parvovirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria; Gandini, Mariana; Freitas, Laís Picinini; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Marinho, Cíntia Ferreira; Setúbal, Sérgio; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Oliveira, Solange Artimos de

    2012-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and parvovirus B19 (B19V) infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (Ra), CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10), CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37) and DENV-infected (36) patients and from healthy individuals (7). Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

  7. Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Anthropometry in European Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientzek, A.; Diaz, M.J.T.; Castano, J.M.H.; Amiano, P.; Arriola, L.; Overvad, K.; Ostergaard, J.N.; Charles, M.A.; Fagherazzi, G.; Palli, D.; Bendinelli, B.; Skeie, G.; Borch, K.B.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Hollander, de E.L.; May, A.M.; Ouden, den M.E.M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Valanou, E.; Soderberg, S.; Franks, P.W.; Brage, S.; Vigl, M.; Boeing, H.; Ekelund, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women. Methods: 2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits

  8. Comparison of Anthropometry to Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A New Prediction Equation for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Swan, Pamela D.; DeSimone, Rosemarie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of three recommended anthropometric equations for women and then develop an updated prediction equation using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The percentage of body fat (%BF) by anthropometry was significantly correlated (r = .896-. 929; p [is less than] .01) with DXA, but each equation…

  9. Association of circulating levels of RANTES and -403G/A promoter polymorphism to acute heart failure after STEMI and to cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkova, Jolana; Parenica, Jiri; Duris, Kamil; Helanova, Katerina; Tomandl, Josef; Kubkova, Lenka; Vasku, Anna; Goldbergova Pavkova, Monika

    2015-08-01

    Chemokines, including RANTES, play a crucial role in the processes of inflammation during cardiovascular disorders, including myocardial infarction, disease progression and complications. This study aimed to evaluate the role of RANTES -403G/A polymorphism and levels in circulation in processes of development and progression of myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. A total of 609 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 43 patients with cardiogenic shock and 130 control subjects were enrolled in the study. RANTES -403G/A promoter polymorphism and baseline serum RANTES levels were analyzed. In the present study, we associated RANTES -403G/A promoter polymorphism with acute heart failure in patients with myocardial infarction (p = 0.006) and ejection fraction 3 months after MI onset (p = 0.02). Further, a difference in circulating RANTES levels among controls and STEMI subjects, and a relation of serum levels with acute heart failure was observed (p = 0.03, p = 0.003, respectively). We found a significant difference when comparing cardiogenic shock patients and controls (p cardiogenic shock and AHF subgroup of STEMI patients (p cardiogenic shock (cutoff level ≥80.4 ng/ml). Our results suggest the role of RANTES as a potential biomarker of cardiogenic shock and acute heart failure in the hospital phase after myocardial infarction.

  10. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Reggi Max

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The administration of the ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate is known to exert a protective effect against metabolic disorders associated with cerebral pathologies. This suggests that the enhancement of their endogenous production might be a rational therapeutic approach. Ketone bodies are generated by fatty acid beta-oxidation, a process involving a mitochondrial oxido-reductase superfamily, with fatty acid-CoA thioesters as substrates. In this report, emphasis is on the penultimate step of the process, i.e. L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. We determined changes in enzyme activity and in circulating ketone body levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form. Pantethine has the advantage of being known as an anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic agent with very few side effects. Results We found that dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels were drastically reduced by the neurotoxin MPTP, whereas treatment with pantethine overcame these adverse effects. Pantethine prevented dopaminergic neuron loss and motility disorders. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the protection was associated with enhancement of glutathione (GSH production as well as restoration of respiratory chain complex I activity and mitochondrial ATP levels. Remarkably, pantethine treatment boosted the circulating ketone body levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice, but not in normal animals. Conclusions These finding demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancement of endogenous ketone body production and provide a promising therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease as well as, conceivably, to other neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Nearshore circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Sobey, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf circulation is driven primarily by wind- and tide-induced forces. It is laterally only weakly constrained so that the geostrophic (Coriolis) acceleration is manifest in the response. Nearshore circulation on the other hand is dominated by wave-induced forces associated with shallow-water. wave

  12. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasso Loredana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  13. Predicting volumes of metabolically important whole-body adipose tissue compartments in overweight and obese adolescents by different MRI approaches and anthropometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI approaches and anthropometric measures as predictors for metabolically relevant whole-body adipose tissue (AT) compartments in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods: Forty adolescents (22 males, age 11.4–16.1 years) were included with a BMI above the 90th percentile. Volumes of whole-body AT compartments, i.e. total AT (TAT), subcutaneous AT (SCAT) and visceral AT (VAT), were determined using a breath-hold T1-weighted-FSE-MR-sequence and semi-automated segmentation serving as the gold standard. SCAT, VAT and TAT was estimated by either axially oriented single-slices or 5-slice-stacks centred at specific anatomic landmarks (umbilicus, head of femur and humerus). Furthermore, anthropometric measures were also evaluated as predictors of whole-body AT compartments. Results: Strong correlations were found for both genders between TAT/SCAT and single-slice evaluation (e.g. whole-body SCAT-SCAT at umbilicus level: r = 0.91 (m), r = 0.92 (f)) or anthropometry (SCAT-BMI: r = 0.93 (m, f)). VAT was correlated to VAT at umbilicus (r = 0.71 (m), r = 0.94 (f)) but only weakly to anthropometry. Conclusions: Anthropometric measures and single-slice MRI can accurately predict TAT/SCAT which cannot be improved by evaluation of 5-slice stacks. Prediction of VAT by 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI protocols seems only to be accurate in females. Anthropometry cannot be reliably used for prediction of VAT in both genders. Thus, MRI seems to be necessary for quantification of VAT in overweight/obese adolescents of both genders.

  14. Levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells correlate with outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, F.; Gross-Goupil, M; Tournay, E; Taylor, M; Vimond, N.; Jacques, N; Billiot, F.; Mauguen, A.; Hill, C.; Escudier, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Methods: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) a...

  15. Levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells correlate with outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, F; Gross-Goupil, M; Tournay, E; Taylor, M; Vimond, N; Jacques, N; Billiot, F; Mauguen, A; Hill, C; Escudier, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Methods: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) and day 14 during treatment (46 pts received sunitinib and 9 pts received sorafenib). Circulating endothelial cells (CD45−CD31+CD146+7-amino-actinomycin (7AAD)− cells) were measured in 1 ml whole blood using four-color flow cytometry (FCM). Circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells were measured in progenitor-enriched fractions by four-color FCM. Plasma VEGF, sVEGFR2, SDF-1α and sVCAM-1 levels were determined by ELISA. Correlations between baseline CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells, plasma factors, as well as day 1–day 14 changes in CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor, plasma factor levels, and response to TKI, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: No significant correlation between markers and response to TKI was observed. No association between baseline CEC, plasma VEGF, sVEGFR-2, SDF-1α, sVCAM-1 levels with PFS and OS was observed. However, baseline CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cell levels were associated with PFS (P=0.01) and OS (P=0.006). Changes in this population and in SDF-1α levels between day 1 and day 14 were associated with PFS (P=0.03, P=0.002). Changes in VEGF and SDF-1α levels were associated with OS (P=0.02, P=0.007). Conclusion: Monitoring CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells, plasma VEGF and SDF-1α levels could be of clinical interest in TKI-treated mRCC pts to predict outcome. PMID:21386843

  16. Potentials of the elevated circulating miR-185 level as a biomarker for early diagnosis of HBV-related liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-bin; Li, Dong-liang; Chen, Chao; Liu, Bao-hai; Xia, Chun-yan; Wu, Han-jun; Wu, Chao-qun; Ji, Guo-qin; Liu, Su; Ni, Wu; Yao, Ding-kang; Zeng, Zhi-yu; Chen, Da-gui; Qin, Bao-dong; Xin, Xuan; Yan, Gang-li; Dan Tang; Liu, Hui-min; He, Jin; Yan, Hongli; Zhu, Wei-Jian; Yu, Hong-yu; Zhu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of liver fibrosis is critical for early intervention and prognosis of various chronic liver diseases. Conventional repeated histological assessment is impractical due to the associated invasiveness. In the current study, we evaluated circulating miR-185 as a potential biomarker to predict initiation and progression of liver fibrosis. We found that miR-185 was significantly up-regulated in blood specimens from patients with HBV-liver fibrosis and rats with liver fibrosis, the miR-185 levels were correlated with liver fibrosis progression, but not with the different viral loads in HBV-infected patients. miR-185 was observed in collagen deposition regions during advanced liver fibrosis. We found that differences in miR-185 levels facilitated the discrimination between early-staged or advanced-staged liver fibrosis and the healthy controls with high specificity, sensitivity, and likelihood ratio using receiver-operator characteristic analysis. miR-185 targeted SREBF1, and increased expression of COL1A1 and a-SMA genes that are hallmarks of liver fibrosis. Our data supported that circulating miR-185 levels could be used as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of liver fibrosis. PMID:27677421

  17. Circulating levels of maternal plasma cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs are associated with placental weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, K; Morisaki, S; Abe, S; Higashijima, A; Hasegawa, Y; Miura, S; Tateishi, S; Mishima, H; Yoshiura, K; Masuzaki, H

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma concentration of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs and clinical variables (placental weight, maternal body mass index, and neonatal birth weight). Circulating levels of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs (miR-515-3p, miR-517a, miR-517c and miR-518b) in maternal plasma were measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in sixty-two pregnant women. The levels of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs were significantly associated with placental weight, but not associated with body mass index or birth weight. Therefore, the measurement of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific miRNAs levels in maternal plasma may reflect the pregnancy status related to placenta volume.

  18. A case of thyroid storm with a markedly elevated level of circulating soluble interleukin-2 receptor complicated by multiple organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Yoko; Satoh, Tetsurou; Takahashi, Hiroki; Katano-Toki, Akiko; Ozawa, Atsushi; Tomaru, Takuya; Horiguchi, Norio; Kaira, Kyoichi; Nishioka, Masaki; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Wakino, Shu; Mori, Masatomo; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid storm (TS) is a life-threatening endocrine emergency. However, the pathogenesis of TS is poorly understood. A 40-year-old man was admitted to a nearby hospital with body weight loss and jaundice. Five days after a contrasted abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan, he exhibited high fever and disturbance of consciousness. He was diagnosed with TS originating from untreated Graves' disease and was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital. The patient exhibited impaired consciousness (E4V1M4 in Glasgow coma scale), high fever (39.3°C), and atrial flutter with a pulse rate 162/min, and was complicated by heart failure, acute hepatic failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC). His circulating level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), a serum marker of an activated immune response, was highly elevated (7,416 U/mL, reference range: 135-483). Multiple organ failure (MOF) and DIC were successfully managed by multimodality treatments using inorganized iodide, glucocorticoids, anti-thyroid drugs, beta-blockers, and diuretics as well as an anticoagulant agent and the transfusion of platelet concentrate and fresh frozen plasma. sIL-2R levels gradually decreased during the initial treatment, but were still above the reference range even after thyroidectomy. Mild elevations in serum levels of sIL-2R have previously been correlated with thyroid hormone levels in non-storm Graves' disease. The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that circulating sIL-2R levels could be markedly elevated in TS. The marked increase in sIL-2R levels was speculated to represent an inappropriate generalized immune response that plays an unknown role in the pathogenesis of TS.

  19. Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-21 increase with age independently of body composition indices among healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynae J. Hanks

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Our findings in a healthy population display an age-related increase in serum FGF21, highlighting a potential age effect in response to metabolic demand over the lifecourse. FGF21 levels increase with age independently of body composition. At lower levels of FGF21, BMD, but not other body composition parameters, attenuates the association between FGF21 level and age, suggesting the metabolic demand of the skeleton may provide a link between FGF21 and energy metabolism.

  20. Ultra-high-density 3D DNA arrays within nanoporous biocompatible membranes for single-molecule-level detection and purification of circulating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, M.; Shimoni, O.; Fox, K.; Karle, T. J.; Lohrmann, A.; Ostrikov, K.; Prawer, S.; Cervenka, J.

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular nucleic acids freely circulating in blood and other physiologic fluids are important biomarkers for non-invasive diagnostics and early detection of cancer and other diseases, yet difficult to detect because they exist in very low concentrations and large volumes. Here we demonstrate a new broad-range sensor platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of circulating DNA down to the single-molecule level. The biosensor is based on a chemically functionalized nanoporous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated alumina membrane. The few nanometer-thick, yet perfect and continuous DLC-coating confers the chemical stability and biocompatibility of the sensor, allowing its direct application in biological conditions. The selective detection is based on complementary hybridization of a fluorescently-tagged circulating cancer oncomarker (a 21-mer nucleic acid) with covalently immobilized DNA on the surface of the membrane. The captured DNAs are detected in the nanoporous structure of the sensor using confocal scanning laser microscopy. The flow-through membrane sensor demonstrates broad-range sensitivity, spanning from 1015 molecules per cm2 down to single molecules, which is several orders of magnitude improvement compared to the flat DNA microarrays. Our study suggests that these flow-through type nanoporous sensors represent a new powerful platform for large volume sampling and ultrasensitive detection of different chemical biomarkers.Extracellular nucleic acids freely circulating in blood and other physiologic fluids are important biomarkers for non-invasive diagnostics and early detection of cancer and other diseases, yet difficult to detect because they exist in very low concentrations and large volumes. Here we demonstrate a new broad-range sensor platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of circulating DNA down to the single-molecule level. The biosensor is based on a chemically functionalized nanoporous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated

  1. Basal, But Not Pulsatile, Growth Hormone Secretion Determines the Ambient Circulating Levels of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I

    OpenAIRE

    Faje, Alexander T.; Barkan, Ariel L.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Previous studies have shown that mean 24-h GH concentrations determine plasma IGF-I levels in patients with acromegaly. However, we have recently shown that continuous GH infusion, mimicking the interpulse GH levels, was significantly more effective than the pulsatile GH administration at increasing IGF-I concentrations.

  2. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  3. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  4. Anthropometry and body composition in soccer and volleyball players in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2007-06-01

    50 sedentary males and 128 sports persons (volleyball=82, soccer=46) of 20-24 years were selected from West Bengal, India, to evaluate and compare their anthropometry and body composition. Skinfolds, girth measurements, body fat percentage (%fat), and endomorphy were significantly higher among sedentary individuals, but lean body mass (LBM) and mesomorphy were significantly (pSoccer and volleyball players were found to be ectomorphic mesomorph, whereas sedentary subjects were endomorphic mesomorph. The soccer and volleyball players had higher %fat with lower body height and body mass than their overseas counterparts. %fat exhibited a significant correlation with body mass index (BMI) and thus prediction equations for %fat from BMI were computed in each group. The present data will serve as a reference standard for the anthropometry and body composition of Indian soccer and volleyball players and the prediction norms for %fat will help to provide a first-hand impression of body composition in the studied population. PMID:17704629

  5. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J;

    2015-01-01

    Overweight, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have become increasing problems during the past decade. Increased sedentary behaviour may change the body composition (BC) by increasing the fat mass relative to the lean mass (LM). These changes may influence bone health to describe how...... anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed...... by multilevel regression analyses. Of the invited children, 742/800 (93 %) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92 %) participated at follow-up. Mean (range) of age at baseline was 9.5 years (7.7-12.1). Height, BMI, LM and BF % predicted bone mineral accrual and bone size positively and independently...

  6. Anthropometry in Klinefelter syndrome - multifactorial influences due to CAG length, testosterone treatment and possibly intrauterine hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Simon; Skakkebæk, Anne; Trolle, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    .47)(p<0.02 for all), as well as total fat mass (0.74), abdominal fat mass (0.67) and total body fat percentage (0.84) was increased in KS males (p<0.001 for all), while bitesticular volume was reduced (4.6). AR CAG repeat length was comparable in KS and controls, and among KS CAG correlated to arm...... body composition in KS and relate findings to biochemistry and X-chromosome related genetic markers. Design, setting and participants: 73 KS males referred to our clinic and 73 age-matched controls underwent comprehensive measurements of anthropometry and body composition in a cross-sectional, case......-controlled study. Furthermore, genetic analysis for parental origin of the supernumerary X-chromosome, skewed X-chromosome inactivation and androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat length was done. Main outcome measure: Anthropometry and body composition in KS and the effect of genotype hereon. Results: KS males were...

  7. ENO1 Protein Levels in the Tumor Tissues and Circulating Plasma Samples of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying ZHANG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Proper tumor markers are useful to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment for lung cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the levels of alpha-enolase (ENO1 protein in the tumor tissues and peripheral plasma samples obtained from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, and evaluate its potential clinical significance. Methods The ENO1 protein levels in the tumor tissues and corresponding normal tissues from 16 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed by Western blot. The ENO1 protein levels in the plasma samples from 42 healthy individuals, 34 patients with lung benign disease and 84 patients with NSCLC were measured by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results For 87.5% (14/16 of the patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma, the ENO1 protein level in the tumor tissues was higher than that in the corresponding normal lung tissues. The ENO1 protein level in the plasma of NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that in the plasma of healthy individuals (P=0.031 and patients with lung benign disease (P=0.019. Furthermore, the ENO1 protein level was significantly higher in the plasma of patients with lung adenocarcinoma than that of patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The elevated levels of ENO1 protein in the tumor tissues and the plasma samples from NSCLC patients indicate ENO1 may be a candidate biomarker of lung cancer.

  8. Maternal circulating levels of activin A, inhibin A, sFlt-1 and endoglin at parturition in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Reddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal circulating levels of anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1, endoglin (sEng and placental proteins like activin A and inhibin A are increased before the onset of pre-eclampsia. There is evidence for oxidative stress in pre eclampsia. Recently it was shown that placental oxygen concentration is related to sFlt-1 and inhibin A. In addition it is reported that oxidative stress markers are increased in placental tissue delivered after labour. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate if these proteins are altered in maternal circulation of labouring pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancies. METHODOLOGY: To assess the effects of labour, samples were taken from 10 normal pregnant (NP and 10 pre-eclamptic (PE women pre-labour, full dilation, placental delivery and 24 h. To assess the effects of placental delivery, plasma samples were taken from 10NP and 10PE women undergoing elective Caesarean section, pre-delivery, placental delivery and 10 min, 60 min and 24 h post delivery. SFlt-1 and sEng and activin A and inhibin A were measured using commercial and in house ELISA's respectively. RESULTS: The levels of sFlt-1 and sEng were significantly higher in PE compared to NP women in both groups. In labour, sFlt-1 levels increased significantly at full dilatation in PE women, before declining by 24 hr. However there was no significant rise in sEng levels in labour. Activin A and inhibin A levels declined rapidly with placental delivery in NP and PE pregnancies. There was a significant rise in activin A levels during labour in PE compared to pre labour, but inhibin levels did not increase. CONCLUSION: Labour in pre-eclamptic women increases the levels of sFlt-1 and activin A. This pilot data suggests that increase in the maternal levels of these factors in labour could predict and/or contribute to the maternal syndrome postpartum.

  9. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Turgut

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy, vitamin B6 (vit-B6, serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12, and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG, or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin supplements or medications affecting Hcy and vitamin levels were excluded from the study. The levels of Hcy and vit-B6 were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The levels of serum vit-B12 and folic acid were measured by competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CEI. One-way analysis if variance (ANOVA, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and the Tukey honestly significant difference test were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean Hcy level of the PXG group was 15.46 ± 9.27 μmol/L which was significantly higher (P = 0.03 than that of the control group. There were no statistical differences in serum vit-B12 and folate levels among control subjects and NTG, PXG and POAG groups (P > 0.05. It was found that the mean plasma vit-B6 level was significantly higher in subjects with NTG (P = 0.03 and POAG (P = 0.025 versus controls. Mean vit-B6 levels in NTG and POAG were 30.50 ± 11.29 μg/L and 30 ± 12.15 μg/L, respectively.Conclusions: The plasma level of Hcy was found to be increased only in PXG patients and the plasma levels of vit-B6 were found to increase in the NTG and POAG sample groups. Using homocysteine and vit-B6 levels as the determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia still needs further research.Keywords: normal tension glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, primary open

  10. A Fall in Plasma Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Level Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Independent of Plasma Glucose: Evidence for Brain Sensing of Circulating FFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug

    2012-01-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels. PMID:22669895

  11. Relationships of Leptin and Anthropometry, Physical Work Capacity, Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yanbai; Wang, Hongli; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women gain abdominal and visceral fat during the menopausal period. Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that is involved in metabolic disturbance disease. However, few studies have investigated the associations between leptin and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of serum leptin and anthropometry, physical work capacity and MS in sixty Chinese postmenopausal women. Factor analysis extracted fi...

  12. Relationships Between Legs Bone Mineral Density, Anthropometry and Jumping Height in Prepubertal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jürimäe, Toivo; Hurbo, Tanya; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how the legs bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by anthropometry and vertical jumping height in prepubertal children. In total, 64 8–11-year-old schoolchildren (27 boys and 37 girls) were studied. All children were at Tanner stage 1. The subjects’ height and body mass were measured and BMI calculated. The following anthropometric parameters directly connected with leg were measured: skinfolds – front thigh and medial calf; girths – glut...

  13. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Y. Q. Low; Lacy, Kathleen E.; Robert McBride; Russell S. J. Keast

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was a...

  14. Circulating levels of cell adhesion molecule L1 as a prognostic marker in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schachner Melitta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171 is expressed in many malignant tumors and its expression correlates with unfavourable outcome. It thus represents a target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. An earlier study conducted by our group identified L1 expression levels in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST as a prognostic marker. The aim of the current study was to compare L1 serum levels of GIST patients with those of healthy controls and to determine whether levels of soluble L1 in sera could serve as a prognostic marker. Methods Using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, soluble L1 was measured in sera of 93 GIST patients und 151 healthy controls. Soluble L1 levels were then correlated with clinicopathological data. Results Median levels of soluble L1 were significantly higher (p p Conclusion These results suggest that high soluble L1 levels predict poor prognosis and may thus be a promising tumor marker that can contribute to individualise therapy.

  15. Hypertension and anthropometry measurement on academic staff at public universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Ilya Zulaikha; Abdullah, Mohammad Nasir; Baharuddin, Mohd Sapuan; Arul, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension or most commonly known as high blood pressure is a non-communicable disease affecting to health of people with non-detectible cause (primary) and some with determined causes (secondary). The prevalence of hypertension morbidity was very high globally, the consequences of the disease if not been treated is death. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hypertension and anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and body mass index among academic staff in public universities in Malaysia. The design for this study was cross-sectional and the method for data collection was mailed questionnaire. The initial sample size for this study was 189, therefore, 500 questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected academicians in public universities, colleges and polytechnics in Malaysia. However, only 101 questionnaires were returned and were analysed in this study. The target population were academicians which includes lecturers and senior lecturers in public universities in Malaysia. The methods of analysis employed was logistic regression and frequency analysis. It was found that weight, height and body mass index (BMI) have no significant relationship with hypertension but based on the Crude Odd Ratio, all these three anthropometry measures showed that there were protective risk of hypertension among lecturers and senior lecturers in public university, Malaysia. In a nutshell, there were no evidence to conclude that anthropometry measurements can affect hypertension status among academic staff at public university.

  16. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  17. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption. PMID:27120614

  18. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene haplotypes and circulating nitric oxide levels significantly associate with risk of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatizadeh, Azim; Kumar, Rahul; Stobdan, Tsering; Goyal, A K; Sikdar, Sunandan; Gupta, Mohit; Javed, Saleem; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2008-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator, plays a pivotal role in blood pressure regulation. Endothelial NO synthase gene (NOS3) polymorphisms influence NO levels. Here, we investigated the role of the -922A/G, -786T/C, 4b/4a, and 894G/T polymorphisms of the NOS3 and NO(x) levels in 800 consecutive unrelated subjects comprising 455 patients of essential hypertension and 345 controls. The polymorphisms were investigated independently and as haplotypes. Plasma NO(x) levels (nitrate and nitrite) were estimated by the Griess method. Genotype frequencies for the -786T/C, 4b/4a, and 894G/T polymorphisms differed significantly (Phypertension (OR=2.0, OR=3.8, OR=1.6, respectively). The 4-locus haplotypes ATaG (H1), ATaT (H2), and GCaG (H3) were significantly associated with essential hypertension and served as susceptible haplotypes (Phypertension and served as protective haplotypes (Ppolymorphisms showed marginal association with NO(x) level; however, the susceptible haplotype H2 associated significantly with lower NO(x) levels in patients (Ppolymorphisms were identified as the determinants modifying the risk of hypertension. This study identifies the NOS3 variants and haplotypes as genetic risk factors and as useful markers of increased susceptibility to the risk of essential hypertension. PMID:18325347

  19. Opposed circulating plasma levels of endothelin-1 and C-type natriuretic peptide in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issifou Saadou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria (SM, are not yet fully understood. Both endothelin-1 (ET-1 and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP are produced by vascular endothelium and act locally as paracrine regulators of vascular tone, ET-1 being a potent vasoconstrictor and CNP having strong vasorelaxant properties. Methods Plasma levels of ET-1 and N-terminal fragments of CNP (NT-proCNP were studied on admission and after 24 hours of treatment, using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA technique, in Gabonese children with severe falciparum malaria (SM, n = 50, with uncomplicated malaria (UM, n = 39 and healthy controls (HC, n = 25. Results Compared to HC, malaria patients had significantly higher plasma levels of ET-1 and significantly lower levels of NT-proCNP (p p p = 0.034, whereas UM was not significantly different to HC. In the SM group we found a trend towards lower ET-1 levels compared to UM (p = 0.085. Conclusion In the present study, an imbalance between the vasoconstricitve and vasorelaxant endothelium-derived substances ET-1 and CNP in the plasma of children with falciparum malaria is demonstrated, presumably in favor of vasoconstrictive and pro-inflammatory effects. These results may indicate involvement of ET-1 and CNP in malaria pathogenesis. Furthermore, results of lower ET-1 and CNP levels in SM may reflect endothelial cell damage.

  20. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

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    Abhay Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a period of 2 years, and TPO was estimated by using commercially available TPO-specific-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median TPO level of 1190 pg/ml (range 625-7651 pg/ml in aplastic anemia patients was significantly higher than the median TPO level of 121.1 pg/ml (81.25-237.7 pg/ml in normal healthy blood donors (P = 0.000. No significant difference was observed in TPO levels of male and female patients (P = 0.453. The median TPO concentrations observed in very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and nonsevere aplastic anemia were 2765 pg/ml (range 625-6451 pg/ml, 1190 pg/ml (range 672.1-7651 pg/ml, and 1111.5 pg/ml (range 761.1-2289.2 pg/ml, respectively. TPO in patients of very severe aplastic anemia was significantly higher than patients of nonsevere aplastic anemia (P = 0.043, with no significant relation among rest of the groups. Discussion: TPO levels in aplastic anemia patients were significantly higher than in healthy blood donors; however, in aplastic anemia patients TPO levels were significantly higher only in patients with very severe disease.

  1. Circulating ZBED3 level is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the plasma zinc-finger BED domain-containing 3(ZBED3)levels in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance,and to explore the relationship between ZBED3 and insulin resistance.Methods There were 109 patients with newly diagnosed type 2diabetes mellitus(T2DM),89 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT),113 sex-,age-,and body mass index(BMI)-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)included in this study.Plasma ZBED3 level

  2. Lipoprotein apheresis for the treatment of elevated circulating levels of lipoprotein(a): a critical literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a), which consists of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle linked to an apolipoprotein(a) moiety, is currently considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to its atherogenic (LDL-like) and prothrombotic (plasminogen-like) properties. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and newer therapies for lowering increased lipoprotein(a) levels, focusing on lipoprotein apheresis. After a systematic literature search, we identified ten studies which, overall, documented that lipoprotein apheresis is effective in reducing increased lipoprotein(a) levels and cardiovascular events. PMID:26710351

  3. Circulating levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease 2 in endemic pemphigus foliaceus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messias-Reason, I; Bosco, DG; Nisihara, RM;

    2008-01-01

    Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, which occurs in Brazil and other regions of South America. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease (MASP-2) play a key role in innate immunity, and its deficiency has been related to increased susceptibility...... to infection and autoimmune diseases. MBL and MASP-2 serum levels were measured in 114 patients with EPF and in 100 healthy individuals in Brazil. MBL and MASP-2 levels were measured by sandwich assays (time-resolved immunofluorimetic assay) using monoclonal antibodies. No difference was observed in the MBL...

  4. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Youn, Y. D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage.

  5. Altered Circulating Levels of Serotonin and Immunological Changes in Laying Hens Divergently Selected for Feather Pecking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Kjaer, Jørgen B.; Labouriau, Rodrigo;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in immunological parameters as well as changes with respect to plasma levels of serotonin and tryptophan in lines selected for and against feather pecking (FP) behavior [high FP (HP) line and low FP (LP) line] for 5 generations. The hens from the...

  6. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage

  7. Higher levels of circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates are correlated with viremia and increased sCD163 levels in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hua; Duan, Zhaojun; Li, Dan; Li, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Li; Shen, Tao; Shao, Yiming

    2015-07-01

    Increased levels of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) are reported to be highly correlated with cardiovascular events. In this study, the MPA levels in different monocyte subsets and the associations between MPA levels, HIV-1 viremia and monocyte activation were evaluated during HIV-1 infection. The results showed that the percentages of MPAs in all three monocyte subsets were higher in HIV-1-infected subjects than in healthy controls, and were associated with the plasma viral load in the non-classical and intermediate monocyte subsets. The plasma levels of sCD14 and sCD163 were upregulated in HIV-1 infection and were positively associated with viral loads and negatively associated with CD4 counts. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) was shown to be expressed at significantly lower levels on all three monocyte subsets and was negatively correlated with the sCD163 level. The MPA level was correlated with the levels of plasma sCD163 but negatively correlated with CD163 and PSGL-1 on all three monocyte subsets. An elevated immune activation status was correlated with increased MPA formation, underlying the potential interaction between monocyte activation and MPA formation. This interaction may be related to a higher thromboembolic risk in patients infected with HIV-1.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.66.

  8. Effect of Abciximab on the Levels of Circulating Microparticles in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary Angioplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jung-Joon; Kim, Jong-Youn; Choi, Eui-Young; Min, Pil-Ki; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Da-Lyung; Hong, Sung-Yu; Yoon, Young-Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the effect of the additional use of abciximab during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the level of procoagulant microparticles (MPs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who had undergone primary PCI. Subjects and Methods In this study, we studied 86 patients with STEMI (72 men, age 58±13) who had undergone primary PCI. The decision to administer abciximab immediately prior to PCI was left to the discretion of...

  9. Developmental Coexposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Has Additive Effects on Circulating Thyroxine Levels in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Veronica M; Sanchez-Morrissey, Susana; Brosch, Karl O; Seegal, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in seafood and dairy products. PCBs and PBDEs are structurally similar chemicals and affect thyroid hormone function and behavior in children and laboratory rodents. Although coexposure frequently exists, the in vivo developmental effects of combined exposure to PCBs and PBDEs on thyroxine (T4) levels are unknown. We examined the effects of PCB and PBDE coexposure from g...

  10. Increasing Circulating IGFBP1 Levels Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Promotes Nitric Oxide Production, Lowers Blood Pressure, and Protects Against Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajwani, Adil; Ezzat, Vivienne; Smith, Jessica; Yuldasheva, Nadira Y.; Duncan, Edward R.; Gage, Matthew; Cubbon, Richard M.; Kahn, Matthew B.; Imrie, Helen; Abbas, Afroze; Viswambharan, Hema; Aziz, Amir; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Sethi, Jaswinder K.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-1 (IGFBP1) are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether increasing IGFBP1 levels can prevent the development of these disorders. Metabolic and vascular phenotype were examined in response to human IGFBP1 overexpression in mice with diet-induced obesity, mice heterozygous for deletion of insulin receptors (IR+/−), and ApoE−/− mice. Direct effects of human (h)IGFBP1 on...

  11. Associations between circulating endostatin levels and vascular organ damage in systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are chronic immune-mediated disorders complicated by vascular organ damage. The aim of this study was to examine the serum levels of the markers of neoangiogenesis: endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in our unselected cohorts of SSc and MCTD. Methods Sera of SSc patients (N = 298) and MCTD patients (N = 162) from two longitudinal Norwegian cohorts were included. Blood donors were included a...

  12. Circulating Osteocalcin Level Is Not Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Jee, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent human studies suggested that serum osteocalcin is associated with the cross-talk between bone and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum osteocalcin level is independently associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed of 1,229 nondiabetic men, aged 25–60 years, who were recruited from the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, between January 1997 and Decemb...

  13. Genetic variants associated with circulating MMP1 levels near matrix metalloproteinase genes on chromosome 11q21-22 in Taiwanese: interaction with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background MMP1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to elucidate genetic determinants of inflammatory marker levels, including circulating MMP1, in Taiwanese, and their association with obesity. Methods Five genetic polymorphisms around matrix metalloproteinase genes on chromosome 11q21-22 region were genotyped in 519 subjects. Results After adjusting for clinical covariates, two polymorphisms were significantly associated with MMP1 levels, rs1799750 and rs495366, using an additive inheritance model (P = 1.5x10-4 and P = 2.57x10-5, respectively). Using dominant model, minor alleles of rs1799750 and rs495366 were associated with higher MMP1 levels (P = 1.3x10-4 and P = 1.95x10-5, respectively). In haplotype analysis, two haplotypes inferred from five SNPs (A2GATA and A1GATG) were associated with MMP1 levels (P = 5x10-4 and P = 8.47x10-5, respectively). Subgroup and interaction analysis revealed an association of rs1799750 and rs495366 with MMP1 levels only in non-obese subjects (P = 6.66x10-6 and P = 4.38x10-5, respectively, and interaction P = 0.008 for rs1799750). Haplotype interaction analysis also showed significant interaction for haplotype A1GATG (interaction P = 0.003). Conclusions Genotypes/haplotypes around MMP1 locus are associated with MMP1 levels in Taiwanese. Further, since genotypes/haplotypes near MMP1 locus interact with obesity to set MMP1 levels, genetic determinants for MMP1 level may be different between obese and non-obese individuals. PMID:23497408

  14. Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, A; Rashidinejad, H R; Khalili, M; Dabiri, S; Nemati, M; Mohammadi, M M; Jafarzadeh, A

    2016-07-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chemokines play an important role in the migration of these cells into the inflammation sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4508917, rs6749704 and rs4359426 in chemokine genes in patients with IHD to clarify any association. A total of 300 patients with IHD as having acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n=100), stable angina (SA; n=100) or unstable angina (UA; n=100) and 100 healthy subjects as a control group were enrolled to study. Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. The SNPs were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The mean serum concentrations of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in AMI patients (395.97±21.20Pg/mL, 108.38±10.31Pg/mL and 1852.58±205.77Pg/mL), SA patients (405.48±27.36Pg/mL, 90.20±7.69Pg/mL and 2322.04±231.23Pg/mL) and UA patients (396.69±22.79Pg/mL, 141.87±18.10Pg/mL and 2754.89±211.70Pg/mL) were significantly higher than in the healthy group (179.38±8.85Pg/mL, 51.92±4.62Pg/mL and 451.82±23.76Pg/mL, respectively; PACE) inhibitors and patients without mentioned treatment regarding the levels of chemokines. The frequency of the GG genotype at SNP rs4508917 in CXCL10 gene was higher, whereas the frequency of the AA genotype at SNP rs4359426 in CCL22 gene was lower in total patients with IHD as compared with healthy subjects (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). These results showed that the higher levels of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 were associated with IHD. The serum levels of chemokines may influence by the certain traditional risk factors of IHD and some studied SNPs, but did not influence by treatment and gender of patients. PMID:27152707

  15. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  16. Circulating levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate are elevated in severe, but not mild psoriasis and are unresponsive to anti-TNF-α treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Antonio; Xu, Ning; Sar, Daniel G.; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Ståhle, Mona; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2015-07-01

    Sphingolipids are bioactive molecules with a putative role in inflammation. Alterations in sphingolipids, in particular ceramides, have been consistently observed in psoriatic skin. Herein, we quantified the circulating sphingolipid profile in individuals with mild or severe psoriasis as well as healthy controls. In addition, the effects of anti-TNF-α treatment were determined. Levels of sphingoid bases, including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased in severe (P fatty acid chain length-dependent manner. These alterations were also observed in psoriasis skin lesions and were associated with changes in mRNA levels of ceramide synthases. The lack of S1P response to treatment may have pathobiological implications due to its close relation to the vascular and immune systems. In particular, increased levels of sphingolipids and especially S1P in severe psoriasis patients requiring biological treatment may potentially be associated with cardiovascular comorbidities. The fact that shifts in S1P levels were not ameliorated by anti-TNF-α treatment, despite improvements in the skin lesions, further supports targeting S1P receptors as therapy for severe psoriasis.

  17. Circulating levels of reactive oxygen species in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and the influence of antioxidant supplementation: 6-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Domanico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to evaluate circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and changes in central macular thickness (CMT in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR after antioxidant supplementation. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients (68 eyes with NPDR were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Treated with antioxidant supplement (Group A and untreated control group (Group B. Each tablet, for oral administration, containing pycnogenol 50 mg, Vitamin E 30 mg and coenzyme Q10 20 mg. CMT and free oxygen radical test (FORT were analyzed at baseline (T0, 3 (T1 and 6 (T2 months in both groups. Results: In Group A, FORT levels and CMT were significantly reduced over time (P < 0.001 for both. In Group B, FORT levels were increased (P < 0.001 and CMT did not vary significantly (P = 0.81 over 3 time points. Conclusions: This is the first study showing the reduction of ROS levels in patients with NPDR thanks to antioxidant therapy. Moreover, our findings have suggested also an influence on retinal thickness.

  18. Circulating IGF-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) levels are elevated in patients with endometriosis or undergoing diabetic hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sasajima Koji; Matsuda Akihisa; Matsutani Takeshi; Higuma Chinatsu; Itokazu Osamu; Isaka Keiichi; Momose Katsutoshi; Ishihara Ryosuke; Kutsukake Masahiko; Hara Takahiko; Tamura Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) is a secretory protein with a molecular mass of approximately 30 kDa. It is abundantly expressed in the uterine endometrium during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. Decreased IGFBP7 expression has been observed in some cancers and leiomyomata. Methods To determine whether serum IGFBP7 levels reflect changes in uterine IGFBP7 expression in humans during the menstrual cycle, and to examine whether serum IGFBP7 l...

  19. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR] in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. METHODS: Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. RESULTS: Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.85, by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2 = 0.69, or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2 = 0.91. Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2 = 0.58 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.53 or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH-vitamin D(3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2 = 0.35. Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2 = 0.68 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.65 or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3; R(2 = 0.58. Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2 = 0

  20. Circulating levels of the innate and humoral immune regulators CD14 and CD23 are associated with adult glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Wiemels, Joseph L; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; McCoy, Lucie S; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jennette D; Patoka, Joseph S; Wiencke, John K

    2010-10-01

    Allergy history has been consistently inversely associated with glioma risk. Two serologic markers, soluble CD23 (sCD23) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), are part of the innate and adaptive humoral immune systems and modulate allergic responses in opposite directions, with sCD23 enhancing and sCD14 blunting inflammatory responses. We measured sCD23 and sCD14 in serum from blood that was drawn at a single time point from 1,079 glioma patients postdiagnosis and 736 healthy controls. Glioma was strongly associated with high sCD14 [highest versus lowest quartile odds ratio (OR), 3.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.98-5.21] and low sCD23 (lowest versus highest quartile OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.89-3.23). Results were consistent across glioma histologic types and grades, but were strongest for glioblastoma. Whereas temozolomide treatment was not associated with either sCD14 or sCD23 levels among cases, those taking dexamethasone had somewhat lower sCD23 levels than those not taking dexamethasone. However, sCD23 was associated with case status regardless of dexamethasone treatment. These results augment the long-observed association between allergies and glioma and support a role for the innate and adaptive humoral functions of the immune system, in particular immunoregulatory proteins, in gliomagenesis. PMID:20719886

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 gene polymorphisms affect circulating MMP-2 levels in patients with migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flavia M; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Lacchini, Riccardo; Belo, Vanessa A; Speciali, Jose G; Dach, Fabíola; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are involved in the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) during migraine attacks. In the present study, we hypothesized that two functional polymorphisms (C(-1306)T and C(-735)T) in MMP-2 gene and MMP-2 haplotypes are associated with migraine and modify MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-2 levels in migraine. Genotypes for MMP-2 polymorphisms were determined by real time-PCR using Taqman allele discrimination assays. Haplotypes were inferred using the PHASE program. Plasma MMP-2 and TIMP-2 concentrations were measured by gelatin zymography and ELISA, respectively, in 148 healthy women without history of migraine and in 204 women with migraine (153 without aura; MWA, and 51 with aura; MA). Patients with MA had higher plasma MMP-2 concentrations and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios than patients with MWA and controls (P0.05), we found that the CC genotype for C(-735)T polymorphism and the CC haplotype were associated with higher plasma MMP-2 concentrations in MA group (P<0.05). Our findings may help to understand the role of MMP-2 and its genetic variants in the pathophysiology of migraine and to identify a particular group of migraine patients with increased MMP-2 levels that would benefit from the use of MMP inhibitors.

  2. CXC chemokine CXCL12 tissue expression and circulating levels in peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Vahid; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Mirzaee, Vahid; Khorramdelazad, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is among the most prevalent human infections. CXCL12 is a well-known CXC chemokine involved in inflammation and play major roles in angiogenesis. There is currently very limited data on the role of CXCL12 in peptic ulcer disease. Hence, we aimed to explore whether CXCL12 is involved in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer induced by H. pylori. In this study, we enrolled 102 H. pylori-infected patients, including 51 with active ulcer (GA) and 51 with healing ulcer (GH). We also recruited 50 healthy subjects as control, which did not show any sign or symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases, infection, or immune-related disorders. Endoscopy was performed to determine the stage of the disease. ELISA was used for detection of H. pylori infection and CXCL12 measurement. We also employed western blotting to detect CXCL12 in ulcerative lesions of H. pylori. Demographic data were also collected by questionnaire. Our results demonstrated that CXCL12 serum levels in GA group (151.8±18.31pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in GH (36.89±6.78pg/mL) and control groups (33.77±9.12pg/mL) (Pulcer. CXCL12 serum levels may also be used to distinguish between GA and GH phases of the disease.

  3. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene

  4. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Lars [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Penell, Johanna [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ingelsson, Erik [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.

  5. Circulating levels of hormones, lipids, and immune mediators in posttraumatic stress disorder - a three-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen eJergović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of peripheral blood analytes have been proposed as potential biomarkers of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Few studies have investigated whether observed changes in biomarkers persist over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of combat-related chronic PTSD with a wide array of putative PTSD biomarkers and to determine reliability of the measurements, i.e. correlations over time.Croatian combat veterans with chronic PTSD (n=69 and age-matched healthy controls (n=32, all men, were assessed at two time points separated by three months. Serum levels of lipids, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S, prolactin, and CRP were determined. Multiplex assay was used for the simultaneous assessment of 13 analytes in sera: cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, adhesion molecules (sPECAM-1, sICAM-1, chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1α, sCD40L, NGF, and leptin. Group differences and changes over time were tested by parametric or nonparametric tests, including repeated measures analysis of covariance. Reliability estimates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and kappa were also calculated.Robust associations of PTSD with higher levels of DHEA-S (F(1,75= 8.14, p=0.006 and lower levels of prolactin (F(1,75=5.40, p=0.023 were found. Measurements showed good to excellent reproducibility (DHEA-S, ICC=0.50; prolactin, ICC=0.79. Serum lipids did not differ between groups but significant increase of LDL-C after three months was observed in the PTSD group (t=6.87, p<0.001. IL-8 was lower in the PTSD group (t=4.37, p<0.001 but assessments showed poor reproducibility (ICC=-0.08.Stable DHEA-S and prolactin changes highlight their potential to be reliable markers of PTSD. Change in lipid profiles after three months suggests that PTSD patients may be more prone to hyperlipidemia. High intra-individual variability in some variables emphasizes the importance of longitudinal studies in investigations of PTSD

  6. Modeling the Impact of Space Suit Components and Anthropometry on the Center of Mass of a Seated Crewmember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Christopher; Margerum, Sarah; Ferrer, Mike; Morency, Richard; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The Crew Impact Attenuation System (CIAS) is the energy-absorbing strut concept that dampens Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) landing loads to levels sustainable by the crew. Significant COM variations across suited crew configurations would amplify the inertial effects of the pallet and potentially create unacceptable crew loading during launch and landing. The objective of this study was to obtain data needed for dynamic simulation models by quantifying the effects of posture, suit components, and the expected range of anthropometry on the COM of a seated individual. Several elements are required for the COM calculation of a suited human in a seated position: anthropometry, body segment mass, suit component mass, suit component location relative to the body, and joint angles defining the seated posture. Three-dimensional (3D) human body models, suit mass data, and vector calculus were utilized to compute the COM positions for 12 boundary manikins in two different seated postures. The analysis focused on two objectives: (1) quantify how much the wholebody COM varied from the smallest to largest subject and (2) quantify the effects of the suit components on the overall COM in each seat configuration. The location of the anterior-posterior COM varied across all boundary manikins by about 7 cm, and the vertical COM varied by approximately 9 to 10 cm. The mediolateral COM varied by 1.2 cm from the midline sagittal plane for both seat configurations. The suit components caused an anterior shift of the total COM by approximately 2 cm and a shift to the right along the mediolateral axis of 0.4 cm for both seat configurations. When the seat configuration was in the standard posture the suited vertical COM shifted inferiorly by as much as 1 cm, whereas in the CEV posture the vertical COM had no appreciable change. These general differences were due to the high proportion of suit mass located in the boots and lower legs and their corresponding distance from the body COM

  7. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Ping Li; Jiong Yang

    2015-01-01

     Interleukin (IL)-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate  inflammatory  and  autoimmune  diseases.  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma.IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected  by  quantitative  real-time  PCR  (qPCR).  The  frequencies  of  cytotoxic  T  cells (Tc)1,Tc2  and  Tc17  cells  were  measured  by  flow  cytometry...

  8. ANTENATAL THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN RAYALASEEMA REGION: A PRELIMINARY CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY BASED ON CIRCULATING SERUM THYROTROPIN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Vinodh Bandela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foetal brain development can be influenced by thyroid gland functioning. Sub normal function of thyroid gland in first trimester of pregnancy leads to miscarriages, stillborn and anomalies of central nervous system in foetus. The environmental factors that will effect thyroid gland functioning are deficit soil iodine, high fluoridation of water and low dietary iodine intake. Rayalaseema is endemic for iodine and most of the communities are suffering from high fluoride levels of water. Therefore study was designed to estimate prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women of Rayalaseema region. Materials and Methods: 139 first trimester pregnant women randomly selected from Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Santhiram medical college and General Hospital, Nandyal during the period from April 2013 to June 2013 in respect of inclusion and exclusion criteria. And fasting blood samples of the participants were analyzed for T3, T4 and TSH. Based on the TSH levels subjects were categorised in to euthyroid, hypothyroid, subclinical hypothyroid and hyper thyroid. Results: The prevalence of antenatal thyroid dysfunction is 18.70% [10.0% - subclinical hypothyroid, 2.87% - overt hypothyroid, 5.75% - hyperthyroid and 81.29% - euthyroid]. 37.5%- tribal, 10.81% - rural and 21.21% urban antenatal are suffering from thyroid dysfunction. Median maternal age was 25 years and gestational age was 8.5 weeks. Prevalence of pregnancy related risk factors include 26.92% - personnel thyroid history, 11.53% - hypertension, 15.38% - elevated fasting blood glucose, 30.76 % - family thyroid history. Conclusion: Subclinical hypothyroidism was highly prevalent among Rayalaseema region antenatal women at first trimester of pr

  9. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  10. Inulin-enriched pasta improves intestinal permeability and modifies the circulating levels of zonulin and glucagon-like peptide 2 in healthy young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Clemente, Caterina; Chiloiro, Marisa; Orlando, Antonella; Marconi, Emanuele; Chimienti, Guglielmina; Riezzo, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Apart from the intestinal environment, inulin induces physiological effects, which includes a reduction in glucose and lipid concentrations and modulation of gastrointestinal motility through the release of different peptides. We hypothesized that inulin-enriched pasta may also improve small intestine permeability in relation to zonulin and glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) levels in healthy young subjects. Twenty healthy, young male volunteers completed a randomized, double-blind crossover study consisting of a 2-week run-in period and two 5-week study periods (11% inulin-enriched or control pasta), with an 8-week washout period in between. The intestinal barrier function was assessed by lactulose-mannitol excretion in urine. Zonulin values and GLP-2 release were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the inulin group, the urinary lactulose recovery was significantly lower than the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in urinary mannitol levels between groups. Accordingly, the lactulose-mannitol excretion ratio was significantly decreased in the inulin-enriched pasta group compared with the other 2 groups. The inulin-enriched pasta group had significantly lower zonulin serum values and significantly higher GLP-2 basal values when compared with the baseline and control pasta groups. The dietary use of inulin-enriched pasta preserves intestinal mucosal barrier functioning and modulates circulating levels of zonulin and GLP-2, suggesting that prebiotics could be used in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases and metabolic disorders.

  11. The effect of chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure in normal and chronic restraint stressed rats: related with circulating level of blood pressure regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayada, Ceylan; Turgut, Günfer; Turgut, Sebahat; Güçlü, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin is a peptide secreted by peripheral tissues, central and peripheral nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis. Although the effects of nesfatin-1 on nutrition have been studied widely in the literature, the mechanisms of nesfatin-1 action and also relations with other physiological parameters are still not clarified well. We aimed to investigate the effect of peripheral chronic nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure regulation in normal and in rats exposed to restraint immobilization stress. In our study, three month-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups as Control, Stress, Control+Nesfatin-1, Nesfatin-1+Stress. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone, cortisol, nesfatin-1 levels were determined in plasma samples by ELISA. Our results have shown that chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration increases blood pressure in normal and in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Effect of nesfatin-1 on circulating level of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. We can conclude that elevated high blood pressure after chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress may be related to decreased plasma level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase concentration. PMID:25504061

  12. Distinct effect of zoledronate and clodronate on circulating levels of DKK1 and sclerostin in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; Viapiana, Ombretta; Idolazzi, Luca; Fracassi, Elena; Ionescu, Claudio; Dartizio, Carmela; Troplini, Sonila; Kunnathully, Vidya; Adami, Silvano; Rossini, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    The coupling of bone formation to bone resorption during treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with antiresorbers might be related to changes in Wnt/b-catenin signaling. We compared the effects of two bisphosphonate treatments on two Wnt-inhibitors Sclerostin (SOST) and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). The study population included 74 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis participating simultaneously in two multicenter, placebo controlled trials. The patients were randomized to: intramuscular clodronate 100mg/week (CLO) (N=36), and yearly intravenous therapy with 5mg zoledronate (ZOL) (N=18) and placebo (N=20). Bone turnover markers (intact N-propeptide of type I collagen [P1NP], C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [CTX]) remained unchanged in the placebo group while they significantly decreased during treatment with the two bisphosphonates, versus both placebo and baseline. In CLO treated patients serum DKK1 remained stable over the entire period of observation while serum SOST levels increased significantly after 12months of treatment both versus placebo group (posteoporosis with intermittent yearly ZOL is associated with transient and declining increases in DKK1 while continuous treatment with CLO, results in a late increase in serum SOST. These preliminary results and further ad hoc studies might contribute to shed light on our understanding of the bone coupling effects taking place during treatment of osteoporosis with different anti-resorbers or with different treatment regimens.

  13. CXC chemokine CXCL12 tissue expression and circulating levels in peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Vahid; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Mirzaee, Vahid; Khorramdelazad, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is among the most prevalent human infections. CXCL12 is a well-known CXC chemokine involved in inflammation and play major roles in angiogenesis. There is currently very limited data on the role of CXCL12 in peptic ulcer disease. Hence, we aimed to explore whether CXCL12 is involved in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer induced by H. pylori. In this study, we enrolled 102 H. pylori-infected patients, including 51 with active ulcer (GA) and 51 with healing ulcer (GH). We also recruited 50 healthy subjects as control, which did not show any sign or symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases, infection, or immune-related disorders. Endoscopy was performed to determine the stage of the disease. ELISA was used for detection of H. pylori infection and CXCL12 measurement. We also employed western blotting to detect CXCL12 in ulcerative lesions of H. pylori. Demographic data were also collected by questionnaire. Our results demonstrated that CXCL12 serum levels in GA group (151.8±18.31pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in GH (36.89±6.78pg/mL) and control groups (33.77±9.12pg/mL) (Pdisease. PMID:27269177

  14. Correlation between Circulating Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines TNF-alpha and Vascular Calcification Inhibitor Matrix Gla Protein in Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilis Yulianti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult obesity is rapidly increasing in the world including Indonesia. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α was chronically elevated in obese adipose tissue. TNF-α, a pleiotropic cytokine and also a regulator of bone formation, may might represent an important link between obesity and vascular calcification. Elegant genetic studies in mice and human have highlighted the important roles for Matrix Gla Protein (MGP as an inhibitor of vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and vascular calcification inhibitor MGP in obese men. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study including 40 central obese men (waist circumference ≥90 cm aged 31-60 years old. Serum MGP and serum TNF-α concentrations were quantified by ELISA principle. Fasting plasma glucose was assessed using hexokinase methods, triglyceride by GPO-PAP methods, and creatinine by Jaffe methods. All assays were performed according to the manufacture instruction. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS for windows ver 16. Univariate analysis were performed to analyze mean, maximum, minimum value and SD. Pearson correlation statistic were performed to determine the correlation between variables. Significance value were define as alpha level=0.05 based on two-tailed tests. RESULTS: The cross-sectional study (n=40 showed that the advancing age was correlated with plasma TNF-α concentration (r = 0.348; p = 0.028. The mean concentration of TNF-α and MGP were 8.323 and 8.368, respectively. We found a significant negative correlation between TNF-α with MGP (r=-0.425; p=0.006 and a significant correlation between TNF-α and triglyceride (r=0.375; p=0.017. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating level of TNF-α was inversely correlated with MGP concentration in obese men. This finding suggested that high level TNF-α leads to low MGP concentration obese men, hence, limits inhibitory

  15. Assessing the role of insulin‐like growth factors and binding proteins in prostate cancer using Mendelian randomization: Genetic variants as instruments for circulating levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J.; Rowlands, Mari‐Anne; Gaunt, Tom R.; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David; Palmer, Tom; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Neal, David E.; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote‐Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Travis, Ruth C.; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay‐Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Blot, William J.; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon‐Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev; Lathrop, Mark; Holly, Jeff M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are associated with prostate cancer. Using genetic variants as instruments for IGF peptides, we investigated whether these associations are likely to be causal. We identified from the literature 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF axis previously associated with biomarker levels (8 from a genome‐wide association study [GWAS] and 48 in reported candidate genes). In ∼700 men without prostate cancer and two replication cohorts (N ∼ 900 and ∼9,000), we examined the properties of these SNPS as instrumental variables (IVs) for IGF‐I, IGF‐II, IGFBP‐2 and IGFBP‐3. Those confirmed as strong IVs were tested for association with prostate cancer risk, low (< 7) vs. high (≥ 7) Gleason grade, localised vs. advanced stage, and mortality, in 22,936 controls and 22,992 cases. IV analysis was used in an attempt to estimate the causal effect of circulating IGF peptides on prostate cancer. Published SNPs in the IGFBP1/IGFBP3 gene region, particularly rs11977526, were strong instruments for IGF‐II and IGFBP‐3, less so for IGF‐I. Rs11977526 was associated with high (vs. low) Gleason grade (OR per IGF‐II/IGFBP‐3 level‐raising allele 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10). Using rs11977526 as an IV we estimated the causal effect of a one SD increase in IGF‐II (∼265 ng/mL) on risk of high vs. low grade disease as 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.31). Because of the potential for pleiotropy of the genetic instruments, these findings can only causally implicate the IGF pathway in general, not any one specific biomarker. PMID:27225428

  16. Case report: low circulating IGF-I levels due to Acid-Labile Subunit deficiency in adulthood are not associated with early development of atherosclerosis and impaired heart function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensing, K.L.; Duyvenvoorde, H.A. van; Cramer, M.J.; Teske, A.J.; Prokop, M.; Stroes, E.S.; Wit, J.M.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Twickler, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Decreased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels in adults have been associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease and heart failure. It is currently unknown whether patients with low circulating IGF-I levels due to a homozygous acid-labile subunit (IGFALS) gene mutatio

  17. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk : a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Mckay, James D.; Canzian, Federico; Wilkening, Stefan; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnes; Linseisen, Jakob; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Georgila, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Sala, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hallmans, Goran; Lenner, Per; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay Tee; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study on

  18. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  19. Assessing the role of insulin-like growth factors and binding proteins in prostate cancer using Mendelian randomization: Genetic variants as instruments for circulating levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Rowlands, Mari-Anne; Gaunt, Tom R; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David; Palmer, Tom; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Lathrop, Mark; Martin, Richard M; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-10-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are associated with prostate cancer. Using genetic variants as instruments for IGF peptides, we investigated whether these associations are likely to be causal. We identified from the literature 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF axis previously associated with biomarker levels (8 from a genome-wide association study [GWAS] and 48 in reported candidate genes). In ∼700 men without prostate cancer and two replication cohorts (N ∼ 900 and ∼9,000), we examined the properties of these SNPS as instrumental variables (IVs) for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Those confirmed as strong IVs were tested for association with prostate cancer risk, low (IGFBP1/IGFBP3 gene region, particularly rs11977526, were strong instruments for IGF-II and IGFBP-3, less so for IGF-I. Rs11977526 was associated with high (vs. low) Gleason grade (OR per IGF-II/IGFBP-3 level-raising allele 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10). Using rs11977526 as an IV we estimated the causal effect of a one SD increase in IGF-II (∼265 ng/mL) on risk of high vs. low grade disease as 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.31). Because of the potential for pleiotropy of the genetic instruments, these findings can only causally implicate the IGF pathway in general, not any one specific biomarker. PMID:27225428

  20. Associations between joint effusion in the knee and gene expression levels in the circulation: a meta-analysis [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein J. Peters

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify molecular biomarkers for early knee osteoarthritis (OA, we examined whether joint effusion in the knee associated with different gene expression levels in the circulation. Materials and Methods: Joint effusion grades measured with magnetic resonance (MR imaging and gene expression levels in blood were determined in women of the Rotterdam Study (N=135 and GARP (N=98. Associations were examined using linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, fasting status, RNA quality, technical batch effects, blood cell counts, and BMI. To investigate enriched pathways and protein-protein interactions, we used the DAVID and STRING webtools. Results: In a meta-analysis, we identified 257 probes mapping to 189 unique genes in blood that were nominally significantly associated with joint effusion grades in the knee. Several compelling genes were identified such as C1orf38 and NFATC1. Significantly enriched biological pathways were: response to stress, gene expression, negative regulation of intracellular signal transduction, and antigen processing and presentation of exogenous pathways. Conclusion: Meta-analyses and subsequent enriched biological pathways resulted in interesting candidate genes associated with joint effusion that require further characterization. Associations were not transcriptome-wide significant most likely due to limited power. Additional studies are required to replicate our findings in more samples, which will greatly help in understanding the pathophysiology of OA and its relation to inflammation, and may result in biomarkers urgently needed to diagnose OA at an early stage.

  1. Changes in circulating level of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 from the first to second trimester as predictors of preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatten, Lars J; Nilsen, Tom I L; Juul, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    To assess whether circulating IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in the first and second trimester are associated with subsequent risk of preterm and term preeclampsia.......To assess whether circulating IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in the first and second trimester are associated with subsequent risk of preterm and term preeclampsia....

  2. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y. Q. Low

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8 sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01. When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01. Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  3. Endurance training-induced increase in circulating irisin levels is associated with reduction of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Miyamoto-Mikami

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effects of endurance training on circulating irisin levels in young and middle-aged/older adults, and to determine the association between endurance training-induced alteration of irisin and reduction in body fat. Twenty-five healthy young (age 21 ± 1 years; 16 men, 9 women and 28 healthy middle-aged/older adults (age 67 ± 8 years; 12 men, 16 women participated in the study. Each age cohort was divided into two groups: the endurance-training group (14 young, 14 middle-aged/older and the control group. Subjects in the training groups completed an 8-week endurance-training program (cycling at 60-70% peak oxygen uptake [V̇O2peak] for 45 min, 3 days/week. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level, V̇O2peak, and body composition. The increase in V̇O2peak in the young and middle-aged/older training groups after the intervention period was significantly greater than those in the young and middle-aged/older control groups (P < 0.05. Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the middle-aged/older training group after the intervention period (P < 0.01, but not in the young training group. Furthermore, in the middle-aged/older training group, the endurance training-induced reduction in visceral adipose tissue area was negatively correlated with the change in serum irisin level (r = -0.54, P < 0.05. These results suggest a possible role for secreted irisin in the exercise-induced alteration of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.

  4. Circulating levels of sirtuin 4, a potential marker of oxidative metabolism, related to coronary artery disease in obese patients suffering from NAFLD, with normal or slightly increased liver enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Finelli, Carmine; Scopacasa, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Contaldo, Franco; Capone, Domenico; Savastano, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The present study shows low circulating levels of SIRT4 in obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mirroring its reduced mitochondrial expression in an attempt to increase the fat oxidative capacity and then the mitochondrial function in liver and in muscle. SIRT4 modulates the metabolism of free fatty acids reducing their high circulating levels but, unfortunately, increasing ROS production. Great concentration of free fatty acids, released by adipose tissue, coupled with oxidative stress, directly results in endothelial dysfunction, early atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease risk factor.

  5. Influence of maturation on anthropometry and body composition in Japanese junior high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunaga, Yuko; Takai, Yohei; Yoshimoto, Takaya; Fujita, Eiji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine maturity-related differences in anthropometry and body composition in Japanese youth within a single year. Methods Two hundred and ten Japanese youth aged from 13 to 13.99 years participated in this study. Their maturity status was assessed using a self-assessment of stage of pubic hair development. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate percent body fat and lean body mass (LBM). Muscle thickness of the anterior thigh, posteri...

  6. Breastfeeding During Early Infancy is Associated with Higher Weight-Based World Health Organization Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libraty, Daniel H; Capeding, Rosario Z; Obcena, Anamae; Brion, Job D; Tallo, Veronica

    2013-06-28

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry established reference anthropometric standards for the growth of healthy infants and children. As part of a prospective clinical study of dengue virus infections in infants, we measured the length and weight of healthy infants in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines at two scheduled study visits. We examined the correlation between breastfeeding and WHO anthropometric z scores during early infancy in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines. We found that breastfeeding status and the frequency of breastfeeding during early infancy positively correlated with weight-based WHO anthropometric z scores. PMID:24416089

  7. Impact of hemodialysis on dual X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance measurements, and anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Hansen, T B; Høgsberg, I M;

    1996-01-01

    Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performs noninvasive assessment of bone and soft tissue with high precision. However, soft tissue algorithms assume that 73.2% of the lean body mass is water, a potential source of error in fluid retention. We evaluated DXA (model QDR-2000; Hologic Inc, Waltham, MA......), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and simple anthropometry in 19 patients (9 women and 10 men, mean age 46 y) before and after hemodialysis, removing 0.9-4.3 L (x: 2.8L) of ultrafiltrate. The reduction in fat-free mass (FFM) measured by DXA was highly correlated with the ultrafiltrate, as determined...

  8. Optimizing 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of 18F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values (meanSUVmax), target-to-background ratios (meanTBRmax) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aorticmeanSUVmax values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotidmeanTBRmax values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotidmeanTBRmax and carotidmeanSUVmax values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol/l should be preferred in this setting. (orig.)

  9. Presence of Circulating Levels of Interferon-g, Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-a in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Marques de MEDEIROS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental murine L. major infection is characterized by the expansion of distinct CD4+ T cell subsets. The Th1 response is related to production of IFN-g and resolution of infection, whereas Th-2 response with production of IL-4 and IL-10 and dissemination of infection. The objective of this study was to measure the circulating levels of IFN-g, IL-10 and TNF-a in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL before, during and at the end of therapy and to examine the association between cytokine levels and activity of VL. Fifteen patients with VL were evaluated. The cytokine determinations were done by using the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA before, during and at the end of therapy. At baseline, we detected circulating levels of IFN-g in 13 of 15 patients (median = 60 pg/ml; IL-10 in 14 of 15 patients (median = 141.4 pg/ml; and TNF-a in 13 of 14 patients (median = 38.9 pg/ml. As patients improved, following antimonial therapy, circulating levels of IL-10 showed an exponential decay (y = 82.34 e–0,10367x, r = –0.659; p g was no longer detected after 7/14 days of therapy. On the other hand, circulating levels of TNF-a had a less pronounced decay with time on therapy, remaining detectable in most patients during the first seven days of therapy (y = 36.99-0.933x, r = –0.31; p = 0.05. Part of the expression of a successful response to therapy may, therefore, include reduction in secretion of inflammatory as well as suppressive cytokines. Since IL-10 and IFN-g are both detected prior to therapy, the recognized cellular immune depression seen in these patients may be due to biological predominance of IL-10 (type 2 cytokine, rather than lack of IFN-g (type 1 cytokine production.Infecção murina experimental por L. major caracteriza-se pela expansão de subpopulações distintas de células T CD4+. A resposta Th-1 relaciona-se com a produção de IFN-g e resolução da infecção, enquanto a resposta Th-2 com a produção de IL-4 e IL-10 e

  10. Assessing the role of insulin‐like growth factors and binding proteins in prostate cancer using Mendelian randomization: Genetic variants as instruments for circulating levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J.; Rowlands, Mari‐Anne; Gaunt, Tom R.; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David; Palmer, Tom; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Neal, David E.; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote‐Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Travis, Ruth C.; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay‐Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Blot, William J.; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon‐Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev; Lathrop, Mark; Holly, Jeff M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are associated with prostate cancer. Using genetic variants as instruments for IGF peptides, we investigated whether these associations are likely to be causal. We identified from the literature 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF axis previously associated with biomarker levels (8 from a genome‐wide association study [GWAS] and 48 in reported candidate genes). In ∼700 men without prostate cancer and two replication cohorts (N ∼ 900 and ∼9,000), we examined the properties of these SNPS as instrumental variables (IVs) for IGF‐I, IGF‐II, IGFBP‐2 and IGFBP‐3. Those confirmed as strong IVs were tested for association with prostate cancer risk, low (level‐raising allele 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10). Using rs11977526 as an IV we estimated the causal effect of a one SD increase in IGF‐II (∼265 ng/mL) on risk of high vs. low grade disease as 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.31). Because of the potential for pleiotropy of the genetic instruments, these findings can only causally implicate the IGF pathway in general, not any one specific biomarker. PMID:27225428

  11. Circulating levels of osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis randomized to etanercept alone or in combination with methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H.; Sørensen, Steen; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether circulating levels of osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (total sRANKL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) change in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during...

  12. Elevated circulating PAI-1 levels are related to lung function decline, systemic inflammation, and small airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hao Wang,1,2,* Ting Yang,1,2,* Diandian Li,1,2 Yanqiu Wu,1,2 Xue Zhang,1,2 Caishuang Pang,1,2 Junlong Zhang,3 Binwu Ying,3 Tao Wang,1,2 Fuqiang Wen1,2 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR participate in inflammation and tissue remolding in various diseases, but their roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are not yet clear. This study aimed to investigate if PAI-1 and suPAR were involved in systemic inflammation and small airway obstruction (SAO in COPD. Methods: Demographic and clinical characteristics, spirometry examination, and blood samples were obtained from 84 COPD patients and 51 healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of PAI-1, suPAR, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and C-reactive protein (CRP were detected with Magnetic Luminex Screening Assay. Differences between groups were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or chi-square test. Pearson’s partial correlation test (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cigarette status, and passive smoke exposure and multivariable linear analysis were used to explore the relationships between circulating PAI-1 and indicators of COPD. Results: First, we found that serum PAI-1 levels but not suPAR levels were significantly increased in COPD patients compared with healthy volunteers (125.56±51.74 ng/mL versus 102.98±36.62 ng/mL, P=0.007. Then, the

  13. Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Coordination of Young Figure Skaters of Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaert, M; Deconinck, F; Pion, J; Lenoir, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify anthropometric, physical, coordinative and ice-skating specific characteristics that discriminate young elite ice skaters from non-elite skaters and their non-skating peers. 32 skaters aged 9-12 years old (11 elites and 21 non-elites) voluntarily participated in the study. They were submitted to 5 anthropometric, 7 physical, 3 coordination and 5 ice-skating specific tests. Reference values of a representative healthy non-skating sample were taken from the Flemish Sports Compass dataset. Figure skaters appeared to be predominantly average mature (93.8%), were lighter and leaner than the reference sample, and demonstrated better physical characteristics and motor coordination. There was no difference between the elite and non-elite group regarding maturity status and anthropometric or physical parameters. Still, elite skaters scored better than non-elites on the coordination tests jumping sideways and tended to do so on the moving sideways test. Profiles of figure skaters differ clearly from a reference population, while non-sport-specific motor coordination tests allow discrimination between elite and non-elite skaters. The relevance of these findings with respect to talent detection and identification in young ice skaters are discussed. PMID:27116350

  14. Joint analysis of individual participants' data from 17 studies on the association of the IL6 variant -174G >C with circulating glucose levels, interleukin-6 levels, and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huth, Cornelia; Illig, Thomas; Herder, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    fasting glucose (-0.091 mmol/L, P=0.014). There was no evidence for association between IL6 -174G >C and BMI or interleukin-6 levels, except in some subgroups. Conclusions. Our data suggest that C-allele carriers of the IL6 -174G >C polymorphism have lower fasting glucose levels on average, which......Background. Several studies have investigated associations between the -174G >C single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1800795) of the IL6 gene and phenotypes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but presented inconsistent results. Aims. This joint analysis aimed to clarify whether IL6 -174G >C...... was associated with glucose and circulating interleukin-6 concentrations as well as body mass index (BMI). Methods. Individual-level data from all studies of the IL6-T2DM consortium on Caucasian subjects with available BMI were collected. As study-specific estimates did not show heterogeneity (P>0.1), they were...

  15. The effect of capsaicin on circulating biomarkers, soluble tumor necrosis factor and soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor-1 and -2 levels in vivo using lipopolysaccharide-treated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Ijiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF and sTNF-receptor (R 1 and -R2 have known as septic biomarker. The pungent component of capsicum, capsaicin (Cap, has several associated physiological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of Cap on circulating sTNF and sTNF-R1 and -R2 in vivo using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated mice. LPS (20 mg/kg, ip-treated group was significantly increased circulating sTNF, sTNF-R1, and -R2 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels compared to the vehicle group. Treatment with LPS (20 mg/kg, ip + Cap (4 mg/kg, sc-treated group was significantly decreased both circulating sTNF levels (after 1 h only and TNF-α mRNA expression (after 6 h compared to the LPS-treated group. There is an early increase in circulating sTNF, sTNR-R1, and -R2 observed in the LPS-treated mice. Since Cap inhibits this initial increase as biomarkers, circulating sTNF, it is considered a potent treatment option for TNF-α-related diseases, such as septicemia. In conclusion, Cap interferes with TNF-α mRNA transcription and exerts an inhibiting effect on TNF-α release from macrophages in the early phase after LPS stimulation. Thus, Cap is considered a potent agent for the treatment of TNF-α-related diseases, such as septicemia.

  16. Mendelian randomization studies do not support a causal role for reduced circulating adiponectin levels in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lamina, Claudia; Scott, Robert A; Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Warren, Liling L; Stancáková, Alena; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Henneman, Peter; Wu, Ying; Cheung, Chloe Y Y; Pankow, James S; Jackson, Anne U; Gustafsson, Stefan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Ballantyne, Christie M; Xie, Weijia; Bergman, Richard N; Boehnke, Michael; el Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Collins, Francis S; Dunn, Sandra H; Dupuis, Josee; Forouhi, Nita G; Gillson, Christopher; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hong, Jaeyoung; Kähönen, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Kronenberg, Florian; Doria, Alessandro; Assimes, Themistocles L; Ferrannini, Ele; Hansen, Torben; Hao, Ke; Häring, Hans; Knowles, Joshua W; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Nolan, John J; Paananen, Jussi; Pedersen, Oluf; Quertermous, Thomas; Smith, Ulf; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liu, Ching-Ti; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew D; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Spector, Tim D; Teslovich, Tanya M; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Viikari, Jorma S; Zhu, Na; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Semple, Robert K; Sinaiko, Alan R; Palmer, Colin N A; Walker, Mark; Lam, Karen S L; Paulweber, Bernhard; Mohlke, Karen L; van Duijn, Cornelia; Raitakari, Olli T; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Wareham, Nick J; Laakso, Markku; Waterworth, Dawn M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Meigs, James B; Richards, J Brent; Frayling, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants at the ADIPOQ gene as instruments to calculate a regression slope between adiponectin levels and metabolic traits (up to 31,000 individuals) and a combination of instrumental variables and summary statistics-based genetic risk scores to test the associations with gold-standard measures of insulin sensitivity (2,969 individuals) and type 2 diabetes (15,960 case subjects and 64,731 control subjects). In conventional regression analyses, a 1-SD decrease in adiponectin levels was correlated with a 0.31-SD (95% CI 0.26-0.35) increase in fasting insulin, a 0.34-SD (0.30-0.38) decrease in insulin sensitivity, and a type 2 diabetes odds ratio (OR) of 1.75 (1.47-2.13). The instrumental variable analysis revealed no evidence of a causal association between genetically lower circulating adiponectin and higher fasting insulin (0.02 SD; 95% CI -0.07 to 0.11; N = 29,771), nominal evidence of a causal relationship with lower insulin sensitivity (-0.20 SD; 95% CI -0.38 to -0.02; N = 1,860), and no evidence of a relationship with type 2 diabetes (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.75-1.19; N = 2,777 case subjects and 13,011 control subjects). Using the ADIPOQ summary statistics genetic risk scores, we found no evidence of an association between adiponectin-lowering alleles and insulin sensitivity (effect per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: -0.03 SD; 95% CI -0.07 to 0.01; N = 2,969) or type 2 diabetes (OR per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: 0.99; 95% CI 0.95-1.04; 15,960 case subjects vs. 64,731 control subjects). These results do not provide any consistent evidence that interventions aimed at increasing adiponectin levels will improve insulin sensitivity or risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID

  17. Impact of Circulating Vitamin D Binding Protein Levels on the Association Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have been associated with elevated pancreatic cancer risk. As this is contrary to an expected inverse association between vitamin D status and cancer, we examined whether vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary carrier of vitamin D compounds in circulation, plays a role in this relationship. Prediagnostic serum DBP and 25(OH)D were studied in relation to risk of pancreatic cancer in a nested case-control study of 234 pancre...

  18. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male...... elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball......). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks...

  19. The effects of foot morphology and anthropometry on unipodal postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica C. Alonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The maintenance of posture is a constant challenge for the body, as it requires rapid and accurate responses to unforeseen disturbances, which are needed to prevent falls and maintain balance. The purpose of the present study was to compare different types of plantar arch in relation to postural balance, and analyze the relationships between variations the plantar arch and anthropometric characteristics of the feet with unipedal static balance. We evaluated 100 men and women between the ages of 20 and 40 years old, to determine anthropometry and posturography with a force platform. There was a weak correlation between plantar arches and anthropometric measurements and postural balance, except for the length of the male foot, which showed a correlation between increased size and poorer static balance. We conclude that the type of plantar arch does not influence postural balance, and of the anthropometric factors, only foot length was related to postural balance.

  20. Does vitamin C supplementation influence the levels of circulating oxidized LDL, slCAM-1, sVCAM-1 and vWF-antigen in healthy male smokers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoydonck, P.G.A.; Schouten, E.G.; Manuel-y-Keenoy, B.; Campenhout, van A.; Hoppenbrouwers, K.P.M.; Temme, E.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the concentration of oxidation markers, in particular, circulating oxidized LDL ( OxLDL) and on endothelial activation markers. Design: Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Setting: Belgian population of the ci

  1. Quantification of ln-Flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Amick, R.; Rajulu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data to assess the impact of changes in body shape and size. For developing future planetary and reduced-gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry and body posture to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain data on these changes, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for preflight, in-flight, and post-flight conditions needs to be collected. Once these data have been collected, pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight anthropometric values will be compared, yielding microgravity factors. The neutral body posture (NBP) will also be measured, to determine body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress but has been completed for 6 out of 9 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes were collected during Skylab 4, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle mission STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab 4, ASTP, and the STS-57 studies found that, according to photographs, a distinct NBP exists. The still photographs showed a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulders abducted; in addition, the knees are flexed, with noticeable hip flexion, and the foot

  2. Optimizing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of {sup 18}F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Moncrieff, Colin [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [Cambridge University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values ({sub mean}SUV{sub max}), target-to-background ratios ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aortic{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} and carotid{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol

  3. Circulating follistatin in relation to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jakob Schiøler; Plomgaard, Peter

    2016-09-15

    Recently, substantial evidence has emerged that the liver contributes significantly to the circulating levels of follistatin and that circulating follistatin is tightly regulated by the glucagon-to-insulin ratio. Both observations are based on investigations of healthy subjects. These novel findings challenge the present view of circulating follistatin in human physiology, being that circulating follistatin is a result of spill-over from para/autocrine actions in various tissues and cells. Follistatin as a liver-derived protein under the regulation of glucagon-to-insulin ratio suggests a relation to energy metabolism. In this narrative review, we attempt to reconcile the existing findings on circulating follistatin with the novel concept that circulating follistatin is a liver-derived molecule regulated by the glucagon-to-insulin ratio. The picture emerging is that conditions associated with elevated levels of circulating follistatin have a metabolic denominator with decreased insulin sensitivity and/or hyperglucagoneimia. PMID:27264073

  4. Leptin Levels and Nutritional Status of Indigenous Tepehuán and Mestizo Subjects in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dealmy Delgadillo Guzmán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI. Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW, and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O. Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson’s correlation (r=-0.5; P<0.05 between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity.

  5. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  6. Relative levels of the proprotein and cleavage‐activated form of circulating human anti‐Müllerian hormone are sexually dimorphic and variable during the life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Pankhurst, Michael W.; Chong, Yih Harng; McLennan, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anti‐Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a gonadal hormone, which induces aspects of the male phenotype, and influences ovarian follicular recruitment. AMH is synthesized as a proprotein (proAMH), which is incompletely cleaved to the receptor‐competent AMHN ,C. AMH ELISAs have not distinguished between proAMH and AMHN ,C; consequently, the physiological ranges of circulating proAMH and AMHN ,C are unknown. A novel proAMH ELISA has been used to assay serum proAMH in humans. Total AMH was also ...

  7. The connection between anthropometry and gait harmony unveiled through the lens of the golden ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Bini, Fabiano; Fusco, Augusto; Paolucci, Stefano; Marinozzi, Franco

    2016-01-26

    In nature, many systems have a harmonic organization due to their fractal structure related to an irrational number called golden ratio. That is a constant proportion found in phases of human gait cycle, and is also found in the lengths of human body segments. In this study we tested if artificial alterations in anthropometric proportions may alter gait proportions. Twenty healthy subjects (29.15±5.66years) were enrolled in this study and asked to walk normally and with special shoes altering their anthropometric proportions. Further, to test if the relationship between gait phases and anthropometry could be due to the pendular mechanism of walking, subjects were also asked to walk with extra masses located on their shanks. Results showed that the artificial alteration of body segment proportions affected the gait ratio based on the proportion of time between stance and swing (p=0.015). Conversely, no changes occurred during walking in weighted condition (p=0.394). These results confirm the connection between anthropometric proportions and gait ratio, and suggest the idea that humans may have evolved into the actual anthropometric proportions for favoring a walking having a golden ratio based harmony, but research is required to verify this hypothesis.

  8. The science of badminton: game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual fitness and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomsoupha, Michael; Laffaye, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Badminton is a racket sport for two or four people, with a temporal structure characterized by actions of short duration and high intensity. This sport has five events: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, each requiring specific preparation in terms of technique, control and physical fitness. Badminton is one of the most popular sports in the world, with 200 million adherents. The decision to include badminton in the 1992 Olympics Game increased participation in the game. This review focuses on the game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual attributes and biomechanics of badminton. Players are generally tall and lean, with an ectomesomorphic body type suited to the high physiological demands of a match. Indeed, a typical match characteristic is a rally time of 7 s and a resting time of 15 s, with an effective playing time of 31%. This sport is highly demanding, with an average heart rate (HR) of over 90% of the player's maximal HR. The intermittent actions during a game are demanding on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems: 60-70% on the aerobic system and approximately 30% on the anaerobic system, with greater demand on the alactic metabolism with respect to the lactic anaerobic metabolism. The shuttlecock has an atypical trajectory, and the players perform specific movements such as lunging and jumping, and powerful strokes using a specific pattern of movement. Lastly, badminton players are visually fit, picking up accurate visual information in a short time. Knowledge of badminton can help to improve coaching and badminton skills.

  9. Vertical normal modes of human ears: Individual variation and frequency estimation from pinna anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Parham; Takemoto, Hironori; Nishimura, Ryouichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Beyond the first peak of head-related transfer functions or pinna-related transfer functions (PRTFs) human pinnae are known to have two normal modes with "vertical" resonance patterns, involving two or three pressure anti-nodes in cavum, cymba, and fossa. However, little is known about individual variations in these modes, and there is no established model for estimating their center-frequencies from anthropometry. Here, with geometries of 38 pinnae measured, PRTFs were calculated and vertical modes visualized by numerical simulation. Most pinnae were found to have both Cavum-Fossa and Cavum-Cymba modes, with opposite-phase anti-nodes in cavum and either fossa or cymba, respectively. Nevertheless in both modes, fossa involvement varied substantially across pinnae, dependent on scaphoid fossa depth and cymba shallowness. Linear regression models were evaluated in mode frequency estimation, with 3322 measures derived from 31 pinna landmarks. The Cavum-Fossa normal mode frequency was best estimated [correlation coefficient r = 0.89, mean absolute error (MAE) = 257 Hz or 4.4%] by the distance from canal entrance to helix rim, and cymba horizontal depth. The Cavum-Cymba normal mode frequency was best estimated (r = 0.92, MAE = 247 Hz or 3.2%) by the sagittal-plane distance from concha floor to cymba anterior wall, and cavum horizontal depth. PMID:27586714

  10. Effect of Sesame Oil on Diuretics or ß-blockers in the Modulation of Blood Pressure, Anthropometry, Lipid Profile, and Redox Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D.; Rao, M. Ramakrishna; Sambandam, G.; Pugalendi, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sesame oil in hypertensive patients who were on antihypertensive therapy either with diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide) or ß-blockers (atenolol). Thirty-two male and 18 female patients aged 35 to 60 years old were supplied sesame oil (Idhayam gingelly oil) and instructed to use it as the only edible oil for 45 days. Blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were measured at baseline and after 45 days of sesame oil substitution. Substitution of sesame oil brought down systolic and diastolic blood pressure to normal. The same patients were asked to withdraw sesame oil consumption for another 45 days, and the measurements were repeated at the end of withdrawal period. Withdrawal of sesame oil substitution brought back the initial blood pressure values. A significant reduction was noted in body weight and body mass index (BMI) upon sesame oil substitution. No significant alterations were observed in lipid profile except triglycerides. Plasma levels of sodium reduced while potassium elevated upon the substitution of sesame oil. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) decreased while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, ß-carotene, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were increased. The results suggested that sesame oil as edible oil lowered blood pressure, decreased lipid peroxidation, and increased antioxidant status in hypertensive patients. PMID:17876372

  11. Changes in circulating level of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 from the first to second trimester as predictors of preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatten, Lars J; Nilsen, Tom I L; Juul, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether circulating IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in the first and second trimester are associated with subsequent risk of preterm and term preeclampsia. METHODS: Nested case-control study within a cohort of 29 948 pregnant women. Cases were women, who later...... developed preeclampsia, and controls were randomly selected women, who did not develop preeclampsia. IGF-I and IGFBP-1 were measured with ELISA in maternal blood samples that were collected in the first and second trimesters. We assessed associations of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 concentrations with later...... development of preterm (before the 37th week of gestation) and term preeclampsia. RESULTS: An increase in IGF-I from the first to second trimester was associated with higher risk of preterm preeclampsia; the odds ratio (OR) for the highest compared with lowest quartile of increase was 4.9 (95% confidence...

  12. A preliminary study of pamidronic acid downregulation of angiogenic factors IGF-1/PECAM-1 expression in circulating level in bone metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeng Wang,1,2 Lei Lei,2,3 Xin-jun Cai,4 Ling Ya Chen,1,2 Meiqin Yuan,2,3 Guonong Yang,1,2 Ping Huang,1,2 Xiaojia Wang2,3 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Zhejiang Key Lab of Diagnosis & Treatment Technology on Thoracic Oncology, 3Department of Chemotherapy Center, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, 4Department of Pharmacy, Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the expressions of circulating angiogenic factors affected by pamidronic acid (PA intravenous infusion in bone metastatic breast cancer patients and the impact on their prognosis.Methods: Peripheral blood of ten bone metastatic breast cancer patients was collected for serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 expression detection just before and 2 days after PA infusion.Results: Both IGF-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations decreased after PA treatment for 48 hours (P<0.05. Modification was defined as >20% decrease recorded 2 days after PA administration. The decrease of IGF-1 was more significant in breast cancer patients who had received previous hormonotherapy. Moreover, the progression-free survival of first-line chemotherapy treatment of IGF-1 modified patients was longer than that of IGF-1 unmodified patients (P=0.009.Conclusion: PA treatment could suppress circulating serum IGF-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations; moreover, the prognosis of patients in IGF-1 unmodified group was relatively poor. Keywords: pamidronic acid, insulin-like growth factor-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, bone metastatic breast cancer, prognosis

  13. Improvement of Classification of Enterprise Circulating Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohanova Hanna O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in revelation of possibilities of increase of efficiency of managing enterprise circulating funds by means of improvement of their classification features. Having analysed approaches of many economists to classification of enterprise circulating funds, systemised and supplementing them, the article offers grouping classification features of enterprise circulating funds. In the result of the study the article offers an expanded classification of circulating funds, which clearly shows the role of circulating funds in managing enterprise finance and economy in general. The article supplements and groups classification features of enterprise circulating funds by: the organisation level, functioning character, sources of formation and their cost, and level of management efficiency. The article shows that the provided grouping of classification features of circulating funds allows exerting all-sided and purposeful influence upon indicators of efficiency of circulating funds functioning and facilitates their rational management in general. The prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of the level of attraction of loan resources by production enterprises for financing circulating funds.

  14. Conservation of Circulation in Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenstein, J D; Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Oron, Asaf

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate, both at the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels, theexistence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids)which is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based onthe least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the newconservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful inidentifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluidvortices.

  15. Modelled Circulation In Storfjorden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogseth, R.; Asplin, L.

    tidal modeling in the Barents Sea including Storfjorden with Heleysundet and Freemansundet closed gave a half-phase shift between tides in inner Storfjorden and northern Barents Sea that induced large difference in water level. The present tidal model simulations of Storfjorden with Freemansundet opened also showed a phase shift between tides in inner Storfjorden and northern Barents Sea indicating that the phase shift does ex- ist independent of the sounds and that the strong tidal currents are due to the phase shift. The residual current from the model simulation probably shows a pronounced cyclonic coastal circulation in Storfjorden. Artificial tracers are used in the simula- tions to depict the residual current. The role of surface buoyancy flux north of the sill for enhancement of the cyclonical circulation due to a larger horizontal density gra- 1 dient will be discussed. Other possible mechanisms forcing the cyclonic circulation, which will be studied and discussed, are fresh water input from rivers, glaciers and melted sea ice, and the initial hydrographic fields in the model. Alternatively, initial fields based on extensive hydrographical surveys (Skogseth, Haugan &Nøst: Water mass transformations in Storfjorden, submitted EGS 2002) can be used in the model providing better resolution and representation of the present fresh water. 2

  16. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. PMID:26298813

  17. Body composition in neonates: relationship between measured and derived anthropometry with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Winston W K; Walters, Jocelyn C; Hockman, Elaine M

    2004-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between measured and derived anthropometric measurements with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean and fat mass at 3.0 +/- 2.8 (SD) days in 120 neonates with birth weights appropriate (AGA; n=74), large (LGA; n=30); or small (SGA, n=16) for gestational age. Anthropometric measurements, including total body weight and length, and regional measurements, including circumferences of head, chest, abdomen, midarm, and midthigh and dynamic skinfold thickness (15 and 60 s) at tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, and midthigh, were performed. Derived anthropometry included muscle and fat areas, and ratios were calculated from direct measurements. The skinfold thickness measurements between 15 and 60 s were highly correlated (r=0.973-0.996, p circumferences of trunk and extremities, the four skinfolds, and the ratios of weight to length and its higher powers. Weight and length accounted for >97% of the variance of lean mass in AGA and SGA infants and 46% of the variance in LGA infants and for 80, 82, and 84% of the variance of fat mass in SGA, AGA, and LGA infants, respectively, whereas midarm:head circumference ratio and arm muscle and fat areas are the most important derived anthropometry in the prediction for body composition. They independently accounted for up to 16.5 and 10.2%, respectively, of the variance in body composition depending on the state of in utero growth. Thus, total body weight and length and some selected regional and derived anthropometry accounted for the vast majority of the variance of body composition. PMID:15371563

  18. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Jensen, Signe Marie; Christensen, Line B;

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99...... healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross...

  19. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P < .001]). Relative to baseline, within-group mean changes from WPC were significant for appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition (P < .001). In the SPI group, mean changes were significant, relative to baseline, for all variables except lean muscle (P = .37). According to this 12-week study, WPC preloads conducted 30 minutes prior to the ad libitum main meal exerted stronger beneficial effects than did SPI preloads on appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men.

  20. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne;

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  1. Measurement of circulating levels of VEGF-A,-C,and -D and their receptors,VEGFR-1 and -2 in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour S Al-Houndhd; A Al-Shukaili; M Al-Nabhani; B Al-Bahrani; IA Burney; A Rizivi; SS Ganguly

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the serum levels and prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -A,-C,and -D,and their receptors,VEGFR-1 and -2 in gastric adenocarcinomas.METHODS: The serum levels of VEGF family members were measured in 76 control subjects and 76 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).These measurements were correlated with clinco-pathological features and survival rates.RESULTS: The serum levels of VEGF-A and its receptor,VEGFR-1,were significantly higher in patients with gastric cancer than in healthy donors (t = 2.3,P = 0.02 and t = 4.2,P<0.0001,respectively).In contrast,the serum levels of VEGF-D were significantly higher in control subjects than in patients (t = 2.9,P = 0.004).There was no significant difference in serum levels of VEGF-C and VEGFR-2 between patients and controls.VEGF-C was associated with advanced tumor stage and presence of metastasis.VEGFR-1 was associated with metastasis,advanced overall stage,tumor differentiation and survival.VEGFR-2 levels were associated with poor tumor differentiation.There was no significant prognostic value for any of the VEGF family members or their receptors except for VEGFR-1 where high levels were associated with a poor overall survival.CONCLUSION: Serum VEGF levels vary significantly in the same cohort of patients with variable clinicopathological features and prognostic values.The simultaneous measurement of VFGF receptors levels in sera may overcome the limitations of a single biomarker assay.

  2. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Sea level data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000313)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea level and pressure data were collected using CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from January 1, 1905 to December 31, 1999. Data were submitted by University...

  3. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  4. Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1 is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1 and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1 and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2 were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52±0.18 ng/mL and 0.78±0.13, resp., <0.001. There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (=−0.645, <0.001. The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (=−0.683, <0.001. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age.

  5. Assessment of the E-Selectin rs5361 (561A>C Polymorphism and Soluble Protein Concentration in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Association with Circulating Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sandoval-Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a complex disease where genetic and environmental factors are involved. E-selectin gene is a candidate for ACS progression due to its contribution in the inflammatory process and endothelial function. The rs5361 (561A>C polymorphism in the E-selectin gene has been linked to changes in gene expression, affinity for its receptor, and plasmatic levels; therefore it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of the rs5361 polymorphism with ACS and to measure serum levels of soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin. Materials and Methods. 283 ACS patients and 205 healthy subjects (HS from Western Mexico were included. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the rs5361 polymorphism. The sE-selectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Neither genotype nor allele frequencies of the rs5361 polymorphism showed statistical differences between groups. The sE-selectin levels were significantly higher in ACS patients compared to HS (54.58 versus 40.41 ng/ml, P=0.02. The C allele had no effect on sE-selectin levels. Conclusions. The rs5361 E-selectin gene polymorphism is not a susceptibility marker for ACS in Western Mexico population. However, sE-selectin may be a biological marker of ACS.

  6. Serial measurement of the circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor and its soluble receptors 1 and 2 for monitoring leprosy patients during multidrug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Dias Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an infectious and contagious spectral disease accompanied by a series of immunological events triggered by the host response to the aetiologic agent, Mycobacterium leprae . The induction and maintenance of the immune/inflammatory response in leprosy are linked to multiple cell interactions and soluble factors, primarily through the action of cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α and its soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 in leprosy patients at different stages of multidrug treatment (MDT in comparison with non-infected individuals and to determine their role as putative biomarkers of the severity of leprosy or the treatment response. ELISA was used to measure the levels of these molecules in 30 healthy controls and 37 leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis and during and after MDT. Our results showed increases in the serum levels of TNF-α and sTNF-R2 in infected individuals in comparison with controls. The levels of TNF-α, but not sTNF-R2, decreased with treatment. The current results corroborate previous reports of elevated serum levels of TNF-α in leprosy and suggest a role for sTNF-R2 in the control of this cytokine during MDT.

  7. An overview of Space Shuttle anthropometry and biomechanics research with emphasis on STS/Mir recumbent seat system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, Glenn K.; Stoycos, Lara E.

    1994-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) at JSC conducts multi-disciplinary research focusing on maximizing astronaut intravehicular (IVA) and extravehicular (EVA) capabilities to provide the most effective work conditions for manned space flight and exploration missions. Biomechanics involves the measurement and modeling of the strength characteristics of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of torque wrench capability during weightlessness, optimization of foot restraint, and hand hold placement, measurements of the strength and dexterity of the pressure gloved hand to improve glove design, quantification of the ability to move and manipulate heavy masses (6672 N or 1500 lb) in weightlessness, and verification of the capability of EVA crewmembers to perform Hubble Space Telescope repair tasks. Anthropometry is the measurement and modeling of the dimensions of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of 14 anthropometric parameters of every astronaut candidate, identification of EVA finger entrapment hazards by measuring the dimensions of the gloved hand, definition of flight deck reach envelopes during launch and landing accelerations, and measurement of anthropometric design parameters for the recumbent seat system required for the Shuttle/Mir mission (STS-71, Spacelab M) scheduled for Jun. 1995.

  8. The short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the circulating levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Kitty George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that periodontal infection is a risk factor for a number of systemic diseases and conditions. In addition to the conventional risk factors, chronic infection and the subsequent generation of a systemic inflammatory response may be associated with this increased risk. Aims: This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of chronic periodontitis and subsequent non-surgical periodontal therapy could influence the serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP in patients with severe chronic generalized periodontitis. Settings and Design: Participants were selected from subjects who attended the Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantololgy, Government Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram. Materials and Methods: Sera were obtained from 25 patients with periodontitis for baseline examination and reassessment after completion of treatment. As a control, sera were also obtained from 20 subjects without periodontitis. Interleukin-6 was determined by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP was measured using latex turbidometric immunoassay. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 10. Results: The level of interleukin-6 and hsCRP in the sera of periodontitis patients was seen to be higher than those of healthy controls. Interleukin-6 level tended to decrease with improvement of the periodontal condition following treatment and approached that of control subjects, and this decline was statistically significant. The hsCRP levels also showed a decreasing trend following periodontal treatment. Conclusions: In this study, we were able to show that periodontal disease significantly affects the serum levels of systemic inflammatory markers and that non-surgical periodontal therapy could bring about a decrease in the levels of these inflammatory markers.

  9. Angiogenesis related genes NOS3, CD14, MMP3 and IL4R are associated to VEGF gene expression and circulating levels in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Abdelsalam; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Dadé, Sébastien; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Murray, Helena; Masson, Christine; Lamont, John; Fitzgerald, Peter; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis. The aim was to assess the genetic connections between the angiogenesis-related NOS3, CD14, MMP3, IL4R, IL4 genes and VEGF expression and plasma levels. Methods The associations between VEGF plasma levels with the polymorphisms of NOS3, CD14, MMP3, IL4R, and IL4 were assessed in 403 healthy unrelated adults. The epistatic and environmental interactions were explored, including four VEGF-related polymorphisms...

  10. [Differences in the dynamics of the eosinophilia, blood immunoglobulin E and the level of circulating immune complexes in patients with chronic opisthorchiasis treated with different doses of praziquantel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legon'kov, Iu A; Ozeretskovskaia, N N; Gervazieva, V B; Ovsiannikova, I G; Bronshteĭn, A M

    1992-01-01

    Sixty patients with a chronic Opisthorchis felineus infection were administered one-day therapy with praziquantel in doses 25, 40, or 60-75 mg/kg b. m. The former two doses of the drug did not much improve the levels of the examined immunologic parameters. In patients treated with the highest dose of praziquantel a significant decrease of the total and specific IgE and CIC levels, reaching that in the reference groups, was observed in 6-8 months after the treatment, this indicating a 92% efficacy of the drug in this group of patients. PMID:1299753

  11. Relationships between legs bone mineral density, anthropometry and jumping height in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Toivo; Hurbo, Tanya; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how the legs bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by anthropometry and vertical jumping height in prepubertal children. In total, 64 8-11-year-old schoolchildren (27 boys and 37 girls) were studied. All children were at Tanner stage 1. The subjects' height and body mass were measured and BMI calculated. The following anthropometric parameters directly connected with leg were measured: skinfolds--front thigh and medial calf girths--gluteal, thigh, mid-thigh, calf and ankle; lengths--iliospinale height, trochanterion height, trochanteriontibiale laterale, tibiale-laterale height and tibiale mediale-spyrion tibiale; and breadths--biiliocristal, foot length and biepicondylar femur. Total body and legs fat mass and fat %, lean body mass (LBM) and both legs BMD were measured by DXA. Maximal jumping height was measured on the contact mat. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that body height in boys (54.6%; R2 x 100) and body mass in girls (57.3%) were the most important basic anthropometric parameters that influenced BMD in legs. From the measured skinfolds, that of the front thigh characterized legs BMD by 24.9-35.6%. From the girths, the most important parameter to characterize legs BMD was that of calf (50.0-59.1%). Tibiale laterale height was the only length parameter which was highly related with legs BMD (51.1-54.5%). Biepicondylar femur was the most important breadth parameter which characterized legs BMD (51.0-54.8%). Femur breadth and tibiale-laterale height were selected (68.7%) in boys, and tibiale-laterale height and front thigh skinfold thickness (66.0%) in girls when all measured leg anthropometric parameters were analyzed together. From the body composition parameters, the most important parameter to characterize legs BMD was legs LBM (48.9-59.5%). Jumping height did not correlate with legs BMD in any studied groups. In summary, the present study demonstrated that legs LBM together with tibiale

  12. Low circulating levels of IGF-1 in healthy adults are associated with reduced β-cell function, increased intramyocellular lipid, and enhanced fat utilization during fasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thankamony, Ajay; Capalbo, Donatella; Marcovecchio, M Loredana;

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low serum IGF-1 levels have been linked to increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes. However, the physiological role of IGF-1 in glucose metabolism is not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore glucose and lipid metabolism associated with variations in serum...

  13. Positive correlation between circulating cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP18/LL-37) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, Brian M; Barker, Tyler; McKinnon, Toni;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transcription of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is induced by binding of the bioactive form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, to the vitamin D receptor. Significant levels of the protein hCAP18/LL-37 are found in the blood and may protect against...

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study for Circulating Tissue Plasminogen Activator Levels and Functional Follow-Up Implicates Endothelial STXBP5 and STX2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jie; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Yamkauchi, Munekazu; Trompet, Stella; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Chen, Wei-Min; Smith, Nicholas L.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Shin, So-Youn; Becker, Diane M.; Tang, Weihong; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D.; Vinh Truong, [No Value; Folkersen, Lasse; Yang, Qiong; Oudot-Mellkah, Tiphaine; Buckley, Brendan M.; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Frances M. K.; Campbell, Harry; Silbernagel, Guenther; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Navis, Gerjan J.; DeStefano, Anita; Wright, Alan F.; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Rumley, Ann; Bookman, Ebony B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Chen, Fang; Keene, Keith L.; Franco, Oscar H.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Carter, Angela M.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Sattar, Naveed; Bis, Joshua C.; Ikram, Mohammad A.; Sale, Michele M.; McKnight, Barbara; Fornage, Myriam; Ford, Ian; Taylor, Kent; Slagboom, P. Eline; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Goodall, Alison H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Furie, Karen L.; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Basu, Saonli; Matijevic, Nena; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Wilson, James F.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P.; Tracy, Russell P.; Polasek, Ozren; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Grant, Peter J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Cambien, Francois; Stott, David J.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Spector, Timothy D.; Meigs, James B.; Marz, Winfried; Eriksson, Per; Becker, Lewis C.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Soranzo, Nicole; Williams, Scott M.; Hayward, Caroline; van der Harst, Pim; Hamsten, Anders; Lowenstein, Charles J.; Strachan, David P.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular d

  15. Correlation between circulating white blood cell counts and level of protective immune response against bovine viral diarrhea virus elicited by a modified live vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials (T1 and T2) were conducted to examine the range of responses elicited against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by vaccination with modified live vaccine and to determine the level of response required for prevention of clinical disease. For T1, BVDV neutralizing (BVDV VN) titers were de...

  16. Circulating FGF21 levels are progressively increased from the early to end stages of chronic kidney diseases and are associated with renal function in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofeng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hepatic hormone involved in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. This study aims to test the hypothesis that elevated FGF21 concentrations are associated with the change of renal function and the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in the different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 240 subjects including 200 CKD patients (146 outpatients and 54 long-term hemodialytic patients and 40 healthy control subjects were recruited. All CKD subjects underwent echocardiograms to assess left ventricular mass index. Plasma FGF21 levels and other clinical and biochemical parameters in all subjects were obtained based on standard clinical examination methods. Plasma FGF21 levels were significantly increased with the development of CKD from early- and end-stage (P<0.001 for trend, and significantly higher in CKD subjects than those in healthy subjects (P<0.001. Plasma FGF21 levels in CKD patients with LVH were higher than those in patients without LVH (P = 0.001. Furthermore, plasma FGF21 level correlated positively with creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, β2 microglobulin, systolic pressure, adiponectin, phosphate, proteinuria, CRP and triglyceride, but negatively with creatinine clearance rate (CCR, estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR, HDL-c, LDL-c, albumin and LVH after adjusting for BMI, gender, age and the presence of diabetes mellitus. Multiple stepwise regression analyses indicated that FGF21 was independently associated with BUN, Phosphate, LVMI and β2 microglobulin (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Plasma FGF21 levels are significantly increased with the development of early- to end-stage CKD and are independently associated with renal function and adverse lipid profiles in Chinese population. Understanding whether increased FGF21 is associated with myocardial hypertrophy in CKD requires further study.

  17. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Jahangir; Afsar, Nure Alam; Huda, Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7-9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  18. Lower Circulating Levels of Chemokine CXCL10 In Helicobacter Pylori-Infected Patients with Peptic Ulcer: Influence of the Bacterial Virulence Factor CagA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Alterations in CXCL10 (a Th1 chemokine expression have been associated with various diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum CXCL10 levels in H. pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer (PU and to determine its association with bacterial virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA. Materials and Methods: Serum samples from 90 H. pylori infected patients (70 were anti-CagA+, 20 were anti-CagA-, 65 asymptomatic (AS carriers (40 were anti-CagA+, 25 were anti-CagA- and 30 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (as a control were tested for the concentrations of CXCL10 by using ELISA method. Results: The mean serum levels of CXCL10 in PU patients (96.64 ± 20.85 Pg/mL was significantly lower than those observed in AS subjects (162.16 ± 53.31 Pg/mL, P < 0.01 and control group (193.93 ± 42.14 Pg/mL, P < 0.02. In the PU group, the levels of CXCL10 in anti-CagA+ subjects was significantly higher in comparison to anti-CagA- patients (P<0.04. Conclusion: These results showed that the mean concentrations of CXCL10 in H. pylori-infected-PU patients was lower than AS carriers and control group. In the PU group, the serum levels of CXCL10 were affected by bacterial factor CagA.

  19. Combined effects of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and Th1 and th2 cytokines on breast cancer estrogen receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44-21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:24473087

  20. Combined effects of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and Th1 and th2 cytokines on breast cancer estrogen receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2014-01-27

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44-21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  1. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Song, E-mail: song.yao@roswellpark.org; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Johnson, Candace S. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Trump, Donald L. [Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Ambrosone, Christine B. [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  2. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98, with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09. There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  3. Conservation of circulation in magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekenstein; Oron

    2000-10-01

    We demonstrate at both the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids) that is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based on the least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the new conservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful in identifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluid vortices. PMID:11089118

  4. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E2), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  5. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  6. Circulating mannan-binding lectin, M-, L-, H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 levels in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Tea Lund; Sandahl, Thomas D; Støy, Sidsel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The complement system is activated in liver diseases including acute liver failure (ALF); however, the role of the lectin pathway of complement has scarcely been investigated in ALF. The pathway is initiated by soluble pattern recognition molecules: mannan-binding lectin (MBL), M......-, L-, and H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 (CL-L1), which are predominantly synthesized in the liver. We aimed to study lectin levels in ALF patients and associations with clinical outcome. METHODS: Serum samples from 75 patients enrolled by the US ALF Study Group were collected on days 1 and 3. We...

  7. Cardio-Metabolic Disease Risks and Their Associations with Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Omega-3 Levels in South Asian and White Canadians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wu Xiao

    Full Text Available This study compared cardio-metabolic disease risk factors and their associations with serum vitamin D and omega-3 status in South Asian (SAC and White Canadians (WC living in Canada's capital region.Fasting blood samples were taken from 235 SAC and 279 WC aged 20 to 79 years in Ottawa, and 22 risk factors were measured.SAC men and women had significantly higher fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, ratios of total (TC to HDL cholesterol (HDLC and ApoB to ApoA1, leptin, E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and omega-3 (p 4%-<8% or high (≥ 8% levels of omega-3 indices were related to lower E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and higher HDLC, 25(OHD levels in WC, but not in SAC. The BMIs of ≤ 25 kg/m2 were related to lower LDLC, ApoB, VEGF, creatinine and higher 25(OHD in WC, but not in SAC.The associations of vitamin D, omega-3 status, BMI and risk factors were more profound in the WC than SAC. Compared to WC, vitamin D status and omega-3 index may not be good predictive risk factors for the prevalence of CVD and diabetes in SAC.

  8. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL and their complex MMP-9/NGAL in breast cancer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonni Afroditi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL expression is induced in many types of human cancer, while detection of its complex with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is correlated with cancer disease status. We aim to evaluate the serum expression of MMP-9, NGAL and their complex (MMP-9/NGAL during the diagnostic work-up of women with breast abnormalities and investigate their correlation with disease severity. Methods The study included 113 women with non-palpable breast lesions undergoing vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for histological diagnosis, and 30 healthy women, which served as controls. Expression levels of MMP-9, NGAL and their complex MMP-9/NGAL were determined in peripheral blood samples with immunoenzymatic assays. Results Women with invasive ductal carcinoma exhibited significantly increased levels of MMP-9, NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL compared to healthy controls (MMP-9: p Conclusion These findings suggest that the serum measurement of MMP-9 and NGAL may be useful in non-invasively monitoring breast cancer progression, while supporting their potential role as early biomarkers of breast disease status.

  9. Circulating complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 levels are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and are associated with insulin sensitivity in Chinese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebo Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1, a member of the CTRP superfamily, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects in mice. However, the clinical relevance of CTRP1 has been seldom explored. The current study aimed to investigate the association of circulating CTRP1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in a Chinese population. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum CTRP1 and adiponectin levels of 96 T2DM patients and 85 healthy subjects were determined by ELISA, and their associations with adiposity, glucose and lipid profiles were studied. In a subgroup of this study, the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in 20 healthy and 20 T2DM subjects to evaluate the relationship among serum levels of CTRP1 and adiponectin, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Serum CTRP1 levels were significantly increased in patients with T2DM, compared with healthy controls (p<0.001. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of CTRP1 were significantly correlated to several parameters involved in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and independently associated with fasting glucose levels (p<0.05 after BMI and gender adjustments. Furthermore, CTRP1 levels were positively correlated to insulin secretion, while negatively to insulin sensitivity, as measured by OGTT. CONCLUSION: CTRP1 is a novel adipokine associated with T2DM in humans. The paradoxical increase of serum CTRP1 levels in T2DM subjects may be due to a compensatory response to the adverse glucose and lipid metabolism, which warrants further investigation.

  10. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Friedrichsen, Martin; Vaag, Allan;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate...... the association between RBP4 and in vivo measures of glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study population included 298 elderly twins (aged 62-83 years), with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to overt type 2 diabetes, and 178 young (aged 25-32 years) and elderly (aged 58-66 years) nondiabetic....... Plasma RBP4 was elevated in type 2 diabetes and increased with duration of disease. Plasma RBP4 correlated inversely with peripheral, but not hepatic, insulin sensitivity. However, the association disappeared after correction for covariates, including plasma adiponectin. Plasma retinol, and not RBP4...

  11. Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90α in Severe Sepsis and SIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vardas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS compared to healthy subjects (H. Methods. Patients with early (first 48 hrs SS (n=29 or SIRS (n=29 admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72 and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P<0.003. ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P<0.005. SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P=0.03. Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90α, IL-6, and lactate (P<0.05. In SS and SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.

  12. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  13. The Pharmacodynamic Impact of Apremilast, an Oral Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, on Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis: Substudy Results from a Phase III, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial (PALACE 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Schafer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apremilast, an oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, demonstrated effectiveness (versus placebo for treatment of active psoriatic arthritis in the psoriatic arthritis long-term assessment of clinical efficacy (PALACE phase III clinical trial program. Pharmacodynamic effects of apremilast on plasma biomarkers associated with inflammation were evaluated in a PALACE 1 substudy. Of 504 patients randomized in PALACE 1, 150 (placebo: n=51; apremilast 20 mg BID: n=51; apremilast 30 mg BID: n=48 provided peripheral blood plasma samples for analysis in a multiplexed cytometric bead array assay measuring 47 proteins associated with systemic inflammatory immune responses. Association between biomarker levels and achievement of 20% improvement from baseline in modified American College of Rheumatology (ACR20 response criteria was assessed by logistic regression. At Week 24, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1β, MCP-1, and ferritin were significantly reduced from baseline with apremilast 20 mg BID or 30 mg BID versus placebo. ACR20 response correlated with change in TNF-α level with both apremilast doses. At Week 40, IL-17, IL-23, IL-6, and ferritin were significantly decreased and IL-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonists significantly increased with apremilast 30 mg BID versus placebo. In patients with active psoriatic arthritis, apremilast reduced circulating levels of Th1 and Th17 proinflammatory mediators and increased anti-inflammatory mediators.

  14. Circulating Levels of PAI-1 and SERPINE1 4G/4G Polymorphism Are Predictive of Poor Prognosis in HCC Patients Undergoing TACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Divella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although several molecular markers have been proposed as prognostic of disease progression in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, predictive markers of response to treatment are still unsatisfactory. Here, we propose a genetic polymorphism as a potential predictive factor of poor prognosis in HCC patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE. In particular, we show that the guanosine insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of SERPINE1 gene at the −675 bp position, named 4G/4G, predicts poor prognosis in a cohort of 75 patients with HCC undergoing TACE. By a combination of ELISA and SERPINE1 promoter study, we found that the presence of elevated plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 in patients with 4G/4G genotype is significantly associated with reduced overall survival compared to patients with 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotype in HCC patients after TACE. Our analysis provided evidence that variation in SERPINE1 gene plays a role in defining the outcome in patients treated with TACE. In addition to a poor disease outcome, the 4G/4G variant represents an unfavorable predictive factor for response to chemotherapy as well.

  15. Mendelian Randomisation Studies Do Not Support a Causal Role for Reduced Circulating Adiponectin Levels in Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lamina, Claudia; Scott, Robert A;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants......,969 individuals) and type 2 diabetes (15,960 cases and 64,731 controls). In conventional regression analyses a 1 SD decrease in adiponectin levels was correlated with a 0.31 SD (95%CIs: 0.26-0.35) increase in fasting insulin, a 0.34 SD (0.30-0.38) decrease in insulin sensitivity and a type 2 diabetes odds ratio.......20 SD; 95%CIs: -0.38, -0.02; N=1,860) and no evidence of a relationship with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 0.94; 95%CIs: 0.75, 1.19; N= 2,777 cases and 13,011 controls). Using the ADIPOQ summary statistics genetic risk scores we found no evidence of an association between adiponectin lowering alleles...

  16. Sedimentary response to ocean gateway circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Christoph; Crowley, Thomas J.

    1997-12-01

    Previous modeling studies suggested that changes in ocean gateways may have exerted a dramatic influence on the ocean circulation. In this pilot study we extend those results to examining the potential ramifications of circulation changes on the sedimentary record. A version of the Hamburg carbon cycle/sediment model is used in these sensitivity experiments. Results indicate that internal reorganization of the ocean circulation can potentially cause very large regional changes in lysocline depth (1500-3000 m) and opal deposition. These shifts are sometimes comparable in magnitude to those imposed by changes in external forcing (e.g., climate, sea level, and weathering). Comparisons of the model response with the geologic record indicate some significant levels of first-order agreement. This exercise suggests that opportunities now exist for physically based modeling of past sediment responses to circulation and climate changes.

  17. Radioisotopic evaluation of portal circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a radio-tracer of portal circulation through the intestine, should prevent cruel punctures in the portal-vein or spleen as it is usually the case with traditional methods in the study of portal-system. The absorption of I-131 and Tc-99m, previously cheked in rabbits presented similar results in dogs. The time of circulation between terminal large-intestine and the liver (t-RF) was determined by external counting at hepatic level by recording radioactivity variation-time. In healthy animals the t-RF was from 20to 60 seconds, with average time of 42 seconds. In 2 animals with partial binding of portal-vein the t-RF went up to 110 and 120 seconds. (Author)

  18. An Okinawan-based Nordic diet improves anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life in Scandinavian patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassan Darwiche

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our hypothesis was that a modified diet would improve blood glucose control with beneficial impact on weight management and overall health in established diabetes. Objective: This prospective interventional study investigated the clinical effect of an Okinawan-based Nordic diet on anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in Scandinavian type 2 diabetes patients. Design: Food was prepared and delivered to 30 type 2 diabetes patients. Clinical information along with data on HRQoL, blood samples, and urine samples were collected during 12 weeks of diet interventions, with follow-up 16 weeks after diet completion. Results: After 12 weeks of dietary intervention, a reduction in body weight (7% (p<0.001, body mass index (p<0.001, and waist circumference (7.0 cm (p<0.001 was seen. Improved levels of proinsulin (p=0.005, insulin (p=0.011, and fasting plasma glucose (p<0.001 were found already after 2 weeks; these improved levels remained after 12 weeks when lowered levels of C-peptide (p=0.015, triglycerides (p=0.009, total cholesterol (p=0.001, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p=0.041 were also observed. Insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was lowered throughout the study, with a 20% reduction in hemoglobin A1c levels (p<0.001 at week 12, despite reduced anti-diabetes treatment. Lowered systolic blood pressure (9.6 mmHg (p<0.001, diastolic blood pressure (2.7 mmHg (p<0.001, and heart and respiratory rates (p<0.001 were accompanied by decreased cortisol levels (p=0.015 and improvement in HRQoL. At follow-up, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were found (p=0.003. Conclusion: This interventional study demonstrates a considerable improvement of anthropometric and metabolic parameters and HRQoL in Scandinavian type 2 diabetes patients when introducing a modified Okinawan-based Nordic diet, independently of exercise or other interventions. Through

  19. Gaussian Fibonacci Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become important tools in solving integrable system, Hamiltonian structure, and integral equations. In this paper, we prove that Gaussian Fibonacci circulant type matrices are invertible matrices for n>2 and give the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices. Furthermore, the upper bounds for the spread on Gaussian Fibonacci circulant and left circulant matrices are presented, respectively.

  20. The Quantified Level of Circulating Prostate Stem Cell Antigen mRNA relative to GAPDH Level Is a Clinically Significant Indictor for Predicting Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Han Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study quantified the relative absolute PSCA level in relation to the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH level in the peripheral blood of 478 hormone-naive prostate cancer (PC patients who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2005 to 2012 and evaluated its prognostic significance as a risk factor for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR, compared to known parameters. Nested real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and gel electrophoresis detected PSCA levels and measured the PSCA/GAPDH ratio. Clinicopathological data from the institutional database were examined to determine the adequate cut-off level to predict postoperative BCR. A total of 110 patients had a positive PSCA result (23.0% via RT-PCR (mean blood ratio 1.1 ± 0.4. The BCR was significantly higher in the PSCA-positive detection group (p=0.009. A multivariate model was created to show that a PSCA/GAPDH ratio between 1.0 and 1.5 (HR 12.722, clinical T2c stage (HR 0.104, preoperative PSA (HR 1.225, extraprostatic capsule extension (HR 0.006, lymph node dissection (HR 16.437, and positive resection margin (HR 27.453 were significant predictive factors for BCR (p<0.05. The study showed successful quantification of PSCA with its significance for BCR-related risk factor; however, further studies are needed to confirm its clinical predictive value.

  1. Numerical experimentation of a diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D.

    Climatic circulation in the upper levels of the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean are computed using a 3-dimensional, 33 level diagnostic circulation model. A steady state solution is obtained within 30 days of model integration. Model...

  2. Circulant Double Coverings of a Circulant Graph of Valency Five

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Quan FENG; Jin Ho KWAK

    2007-01-01

    Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph covering projections is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory. A covering of G is called circulant if its covering graph is circulant. Recently, the authors [Discrete Math., 277, 73-85 (2004)]enumerated the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a certain type, called a typicalcovering, and showed that no double covering of a circulant graph of valency three is circulant. Also, in [Graphs and Combinatorics, 21, 386-400 (2005)], the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency four are enumerated. In this paper, the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency five are enumerated.

  3. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Naeije; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associ...

  4. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  5. Estimation of CT-Derived Abdominal Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Depots from Anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Sophie V.; Therese Tillin; Andrew Wright; John Heasman; Joseph Willis; Godsland, Ian F.; Nita Forouhi; Peter Whincup; Hughes, Alun D.; Nishi Chaturvedi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. DESIGN: 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70 ± 7 years) underwent anthropom...

  6. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  7. INTERNAL CIRCULATION ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or a piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  8. Modelling Seasonal Circulation and Thermohaline Structure of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gunduz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind and buoyancy driven seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea is investigated for a better understanding of its basin-wide and meso-scale dynamics, mixing and transport. The model successfully reproduces the following basic elements of the circulation: the southward flowing current systems along the eastern and western coasts, the upwelling along the eastern coast, the cyclonic circulation in the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS especially in winter, and the cyclonic and anticyclonic cells of circulation in the South Caspian Sea (SCS. The observed seasonal variability of sea level and sea surface temperature (SST is well reproduced. Mesoscale structures, not always evident from hydrographic observations, are identified.

  9. Modelling seasonal circulation and thermohaline structure of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gunduz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wind- and buoyancy-driven seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea is investigated for a better understanding of its basin-wide and mesoscale dynamics, mixing and transport. The model successfully reproduces the following basic elements of the circulation: the southward-flowing current systems along the eastern and western coasts, the upwelling along the eastern coast, the cyclonic circulation in the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS, especially in winter, and the cyclonic and anticyclonic cells of circulation in the South Caspian Sea (SCS. The observed seasonal variability of sea level and sea surface temperature (SST is well reproduced. Mesoscale structures, not always evident from hydrographic observations, are identified.

  10. Resolvability in Circulant Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad SALMAN; Imran JAVAID; Muhammad Anwar CHAUDHRY

    2012-01-01

    A set W of the vertices of a connected graph G is called a resolving set for G if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a vertex w ∈ W such that d(u,w) ≠ d(v,w).A resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a metric basis for G and the number of vertices in a metric basis is called the metric dimension of G,denoted by dim(G).For a vertex u of G and a subset S of V(G),the distance between u and S is the number mins∈s d(u,s).A k-partition H ={S1,S2,...,Sk} of V(G) is called a resolving partition if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a set Si in Π such that d(u,Si) ≠ d(v,Si).The minimum k for which there is a resolving k-partition of V(G) is called the partition dimension of G,denoted by pd(G).The circulant graph is a graph with vertex set Zn,an additive group ofintegers modulo n,and two vertices labeled i and j adjacent if and only if i - j (mod n) ∈ C,where C C Zn has the property that C =-C and 0(∈) C.The circulant graph is denoted by Xn,△ where A =|C|.In this paper,we study the metric dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,3 with connection set C ={1,-n/2,n - 1} and prove that dim(Xn,3) is independent of choice of n by showing that 3 for all n =0 (mod 4),dim(X,n,3) ={ 4 for all n =2 (mod 4).We also study the partition dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,4 with connection set C ={±1,±2} and prove that pd(Xn,4) is independent of choice of n and show that pd(X5,4) =5 and 3 forall odd n≥9,pd(Xn,4) ={ 4 for all even n ≥ 6 and n =7.

  11. Intraoperative study on anthropometry and gender differences of the proximal tibial plateau at the arthroplasty resection surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Yu Jiakuo; Gong Xi; Chen Lianxu; Wang Yongjian; Wang Jian; Wang Haijun

    2014-01-01

    Background The tibial plateau is asymmetric with a larger medial plateau.We observed from clinical practice that the shape of the tibial plateau does not always present a larger medial plateau.Tibial plateau also showed other shapes.The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data of the proximal tibia in a large group of Chinese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and to investigate the morphology of the resected proximal tibial surface and its gender differences.Methods A total of 822 knees (164 males,658 females) from the Chinese population were measured intraoperatively for medial anteroposterior (MAP) and lateral anteroposterior (LAP) dimensions of the resected proximal tibial surface.The difference of MAP and LAP (DML) was also calculated as MAP minus LAP.We then classified the data into three groups based on the DML (<-2,-2 to 2,and >2 mm) to analyze the morphology of the proximal tibia and its distribution between male and female.Results The shape of proximal tibial plateau was of three types:larger medial plateau type,symmetric type,and larger lateral plateau type.There were significant differences between males and females in relation to the shape distribution of the proximal tibial plateau (P <0.05).Most of the proximal tibial plateau was asymmetric,with 517 of 822 (62.9%) tibia having a DML >2 mm and 120 of 822 (14.6%) tibia having a DML<-2 mm.Only 185 of 822 (22.5%) tibia had a DML between-2 and 2 mm.Conclusion The results of this study can be used as a guideline to design tibial components with different DMLs to better match the different anthropometry of the resected tibial surface.

  12. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  13. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  14. Value of bioimpedance analysis and anthropometry for complication prediction in children with malignant and non-malignant diseases after hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Tseytlin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is widely used in the treatment of malignant and autoimmune diseases. Various complications often develop during the post-transplantation period that can significantly impair the clinical outcomes, so the ability to predict therisk of severe complications is of great practical importance. Predictive value of some anthropometric indices and bioimpedance analysis(BIA measured before conditioning to assess the risks of serious complications and graft hypofunction in the early post-transplant period(100 days were analyzed. Anthropometry and BIA used in a comprehensive assessment of nutritional status in order to optimize the nutritional support of these patients. 101 patients were examined before conditioning and at different times during the early post-transplant period: 50 children (5–17 years of age were examined using BIA and anthropometry, 61 children (6 months – 4 years of age – using only anthropometry without BIA due to age restrictions. The prognostic value of the phase angle (FA, ratio of the active cell mass to lean body mass (ACM/LBM and shoulder muscle circumference (SMC was shown. Thus, in patients with FA ≤ 4, ACM/LBM < 0.45 and SMC ≤ 10th percentile before conditioning risk of severe complications during early post-transplant period was significantly higher (p < 0.05. Also, in patients with FA ≤ 4 and ACM/LBM < 0.45 a significantly higher risk of graft hypofunction developing was observed (p < 0.05.

  15. The Sex and Race Specific Relationship between Anthropometry and Body Fat Composition Determined from Computed Tomography: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Mongraw-Chaffin

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race.CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity.Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028, waist circumference (p<0.001, waist to hip ratio (p<0.001, and waist to height ratio (p = 0.05 differed by sex, with a steeper slope for men. That is, across the range of these anthropometric measures the rise in visceral fat is faster for men than for women. Additionally, there were differences by race/ethnicity in the relationship with height (p<0.001, weight (p<0.001, waist circumference (p<0.001, hip circumference (p = 0.006, and waist to hip ratio (p = 0.001 with the Hispanic group having shallower slopes. For subcutaneous fat, interaction by sex was found for all anthropometric indices at p<0.05, but not for race/ethnicity.The relationship between anthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used.

  16. Insulin Like Growth Factor System: How Does it Affect Neonatal Anthropometry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kacar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aims to clarify the role of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, ghrelin, and insulin in fetal growth. Material and Method: Based on Turkish standards, 14 newborns were defined as small for gestational age (SGA, 33 newborns were described as appropriate for gestational age (AGA, and 13 newborns were identified as large for gestational age (LGA. IGF-1, IGFBP-3, ghrelin, and insulin levels were measured in umbilical cord and maternal serum. Results: The LGA group had significantly higher levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, ghrelin, and insulin in umbilical cord and maternal serum than the SGA group. Umbilical cord and maternal serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 correlated significantly and positively with body weight, body length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference of the neonates. Discussion: Based on the findings of the present study, it may be postulated that insulin like growth factor system has a role in fetal growth.

  17. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women.......To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women....

  18. [Social stratification and nutritional anthropometry in children under 15 years old La Escalera, Lara State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.

  19. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  20. Percutaneous interventions in Fontan circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franco

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Interventional catheterization procedures are often necessary to reach and maintain the fragile Fontan circulation, mainly in patients with right morphology systemic ventricles and fenestrated Fontan conduits.

  1. Walker circulation in a transient climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesca, Elina; Grützun, Verena; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2016-04-01

    The tropical overturning circulations modulate the heat exchange across the tropics and between the tropics and the poles. The anthropogenic influence on the climate system will affect these circulations, impacting the dynamics of the Earth system. In this work we focus on the Walker circulation. We investigate its temporal and spatial dynamical changes and their link to other climate features, such as surface and sea-surface temperature patterns, El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and ocean heat-uptake, both at global and regional scale. In order to determine the impact of anthropogenic climate change on the tropical circulation, we analyze the outputs of 28 general circulation models (GCMs) from the CMIP5 project. We use the experiment with 1% year-1 increase in CO2 concentration from pre-industrial levels to quadrupling of the concentration. Consistent with previous studies (ex. Ma and Xie 2013), we find that for this experiment most GCMs associate a weakening Walker circulation to a warming transient climate. Due to the role of the Walker Pacific cell in the meridional heat and moisture transport across the tropical Pacific and also the connection to ENSO, we find that a weakened Walker circulation correlates with more extreme El-Niño events, although without a change in their frequency. The spatial analysis of the Pacific Walker cell suggests an eastward displacement of the ascending branch, which is consistent with positive SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific and the link of the Pacific Walker cell to ENSO. Recent studies (ex. England et al. 2014) have linked a strengthened Walker circulation to stronger ocean heat uptake, especially in the western Pacific. The inter-model comparison of the correlation between Walker circulation intensity and ocean heat uptake does not convey a robust response for the investigated experiment. However, there is some evidence that a stronger weakening of the Walker circulation is linked to a higher transient climate

  2. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  3. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan T. Ramlal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, arm muscle area (AMA, arm fat area (AFA, and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

  4. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p<0.001. The bioimpedance variables also presented significant higher values in this group. Significant difference was found in the confidence interval of the vector analysis performed for both the patients and healthy individuals (p<0.0001. The tolerance intervals showed that 55.20% of the patients were dehydrated, 10.30% presented visible edema, and 34.50% were within normal levels of hydration. Bioimpedance and vector analysis revealed that 52% of the patients presented decreased cell mass while 14.00% presented increased cell mass. CONCLUSIONS: the differences in the body composition of patients and healthy individuals were revealed through bioimpedance and vector analysis but not through their measures of arm circumference and arm muscle area.

  5. Observational Evidence for Poleward Expansion of the Hadley Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yongyun; ZHOU Chen; LIU Jiping

    2011-01-01

    How the Hadley circulation changes in response to global climate change and how its change impacts upon regional and global climates has generated a lot of interest in the literature in the past few years. In this paper, consistent and statistically significant poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation in the past few decades is demonstrated, using independent observational datasets as proxy measures of the Hadley circulation. Both observational outgoing longwave radiation and precipitation datasets show an annual average total poleward expansion of the Hadley cells of about 3.6° latitude. Sea level pressure from observational and reanalysis datasets show smaller magnitudes of poleward expansion, of about 1.2° latitude. Ensemble general circulation model simulations forced by observed time-varying sea surface temperatures were found to generate a total poleward expansion of about 1.23° latitude. Possible mechanisms behind the changes in the horizontal extent of the Hadley circulation are discussed.

  6. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ric Lovell

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's, representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2 were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug. Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT], Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ, sprint (10 & 20m, and agility (T-Test performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83 more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56 and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13. Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4 that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57, and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72 in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45 and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46. The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and

  7. Comparison of Organ Dosimetry for Astronaut Phantoms: Earth-Based vs. Microgravity-Based Anthropometry and Body Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, Mary; Bahadon, Amir; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use NASA radiation transport codes to compare astronaut organ dose equivalents resulting from solar particle events (SPE), geomagnetically trapped protons, and free-space galactic cosmic rays (GCR) using phantom models representing Earth-based and microgravity-based anthropometry and positioning. Methods: The Univer sity of Florida hybrid adult phantoms were scaled to represent male and female astronauts with 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile heights and weights as measured on Earth. Another set of scaled phantoms, incorporating microgravity-induced changes, such as spinal lengthening, leg volume loss, and the assumption of the neutral body position, was also created. A ray-tracer was created and used to generate body self-shielding distributions for dose points within a voxelized phantom under isotropic irradiation conditions, which closely approximates the free-space radiation environment. Simplified external shielding consisting of an aluminum spherical shell was used to consider the influence of a spacesuit or shielding of a hull. These distributions were combined with depth dose distributions generated from the NASA radiation transport codes BRYNTRN (SPE and trapped protons) and HZETRN (GCR) to yield dose equivalent. Many points were sampled per organ. Results: The organ dos e equivalent rates were on the order of 1.5-2.5 mSv per day for GCR (1977 solar minimum) and 0.4-0.8 mSv per day for trapped proton irradiation with shielding of 2 g cm-2 aluminum equivalent. The organ dose equivalents for SPE irradiation varied considerably, with the skin and eye lens having the highest organ dose equivalents and deep-seated organs, such as the bladder, liver, and stomach having the lowest. Conclus ions: The greatest differences between the Earth-based and microgravity-based phantoms are observed for smaller ray thicknesses, since the most drastic changes involved limb repositioning and not overall phantom size. Improved self-shielding models

  8. Sino-Danish Brain Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Du, Xiangyun; Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2014-01-01

    China is faced with urgent needs to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge. Brain circulation and research and business investments from the outside are central for this development. Sino-American brain circulation and research...... and investment by overseas researchers and entrepreneurs are well described. In that case, the US is the center of global R&D and S&T. However, the brain circulation and research and investments between a small open Scandinavian economy, such as Denmark, and the huge developing economy of China are not well...... understood. In this case, Denmark is very highly developed, but a satellite in the global R&D and S&T system. With time and the growth of China as a R&D and S&T power house, both Denmark and China will benefit from brain circulation between them. Such brain circulation is likely to play a key role in flows...

  9. TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-30

    The Hadley circulation, a prominent circulation feature characterized by rising air near the Equator and sinking air in the subtropics, defines the position of dry subtropical areas and is a fundamental regulator of the earth’s energy and momentum budgets. The character of the Hadley circulation, and its related precipitation regimes, exhibits variation and change in response to both climate variability and radiative forcing changes. The strength and position of the Hadley circulation change from year to year paced by El Niño and La Niña events. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, the Hadley cell has expanded poleward in both hemispheres, with changes in atmospheric composition (including stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases) thought to have contributed to its expansion. This article introduces the basic phenomenology and driving mechanism of the Hadley circulation and discusses its variations under both natural and anthropogenic climate forcings.

  10. Circulating somatostatin. Physiological regulator of pancreatic function?

    OpenAIRE

    Gyr, K; Beglinger, C; Köhler, E; Trautzl, U; Keller, U.; Bloom, S R

    1987-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether somatostatin is released into the circulation in sufficient amounts to regulate exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function and to evaluate the possible role of somatostatin as a hormonal regulator of the pancreas. Mean plasma somatostatin levels (SLI) increased from 11 +/- 2 pmol liter-1 to peak concentrations of 18 +/- 2 in six healthy male volunteers after a steak meal (P less than 0.05). Infusion of somatostatin inhibited hormone-induced ...

  11. The relationship between urbanization and commodity circulation: a theoretical and positive research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Weilong

    2006-01-01

    "Town" and commodity circulation are two closely interrelated concepts.A town is born through the exchange of commodities;it is formed by an increase in trade efficiency.The trade efficiency caused by the density of economy is the standard of rationalization of the town scale.The development of a town promotes the development from simple commodity circulation to developed commodity circulation,while the difference in the level of urbanization is an important reason for differences in the circulation level.Therefore,the strategy of being guided by circulation will be a basic way to push forward urbanization healthily in China.

  12. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  13. The circulation physiology of agroecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhiping; Richard Dawson

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an effort to enlarge the understanding of the biophysical foundation of agroecosystems by using an analogy with the circulation of the blood in the human body. The circulation function in the human body can be represented as arterial pressure. The factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body have direct counterparts in the cultivation-husbandry system. The relationship between circulation pressure and the factors affecting that pressure in the cultivation-husbandry system are similar to the relationship between the arterial pressure and factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body. Furthermore, circulation resistance in the cultivation-husbandry system can be shown to be analogous to the calculation of peripheral resistance in the human body by Poiseuille's formula.

  14. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Showman, Adam P.; Wordsworth, Robin D.; Merlis, Timothy M.; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical a...

  15. Circulating Vitamin D and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Arslan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a nested case-control study within two prospective cohorts, the New York University Women's Health Study and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, to examine the association between prediagnostic circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and the risk of subsequent invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. The 25(OHD levels were measured in serum or plasma from 170 incident cases of EOC and 373 matched controls. Overall, circulating 25(OHD levels were not associated with the risk of EOC in combined cohort analysis: adjusted OR for the top tertile versus the reference tertile, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.59–2.01. In addition, there was no evidence of an interaction effect between VDR SNP genotype or haplotype and circulating 25(OHD levels in relation to ovarian cancer risk, although more complex gene-environment interactions may exist.

  16. The effects of ageing on the immune response to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm by measuring circulating immune complexes, C3, IgG, IgA and IgM levels in residents of Omi dam area of Kogi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyinka, G O; Awogun, I A; Akande, T M; Awarun, J A; Arinola, O G; Salimonu, L S

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the effects of infestation (with Schistosoma haematobium or hookworm) during host ageing on the serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC), C3, IgG, IgA and IgM were examined in residents of Omi dam area of Kogi state, Nigeria. S. haematobium-infested and hookworm-infested individuals showed no significant alteration in the levels of CIC, C3, IgG, IgA and IgM in comparison with controls. These levels were the same in infested subjects and controls even when the patients were pooled. Infested old people had the same concentrations of serum CIC, C3 IgG and IgM in comparison with infested young people but IgA levels were higher in the aged group (t=2.100; P0.20) was observed in the overall population of infested subjects; and infestation in old age did not alter CIC, C3, IgG, IgA and IgM levels in comparison with uninfested young people. For the uninfested, IgG, IgA and IgM values were similar in the aged and the young but the levels of CIC were higher (t=2.156; P0.10) in the aged. The results of this study suggest that the elevated CIC levels found in old people is age-related; and that the contribution of parasitic infestation to these raised levels is uncertain.

  17. The effects of ageing on the immune response to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm by measuring circulating immune complexes, C3, IgG, IgA and IgM levels in residents of Omi dam area of Kogi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyinka, G O; Awogun, I A; Akande, T M; Awarun, J A; Arinola, O G; Salimonu, L S

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the effects of infestation (with Schistosoma haematobium or hookworm) during host ageing on the serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC), C3, IgG, IgA and IgM were examined in residents of Omi dam area of Kogi state, Nigeria. S. haematobium-infested and hookworm-infested individuals showed no significant alteration in the levels of CIC, C3, IgG, IgA and IgM in comparison with controls. These levels were the same in infested subjects and controls even when the patients were pooled. Infested old people had the same concentrations of serum CIC, C3 IgG and IgM in comparison with infested young people but IgA levels were higher in the aged group (t=2.100; P0.20) was observed in the overall population of infested subjects; and infestation in old age did not alter CIC, C3, IgG, IgA and IgM levels in comparison with uninfested young people. For the uninfested, IgG, IgA and IgM values were similar in the aged and the young but the levels of CIC were higher (t=2.156; P0.10) in the aged. The results of this study suggest that the elevated CIC levels found in old people is age-related; and that the contribution of parasitic infestation to these raised levels is uncertain. PMID:15030085

  18. Empirical Study on Factors Influencing Farmland Circulation in Economically Developed Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunfang; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Farmland circulation is the foundation of development of regional farmland market.With the aid of survey data of Jiangsu Province and using Heckman two-stage method,this paper analyzed factors influencing farmland circulation from supply and demand of land.Results showed that non-agricultural employment,social security level,and regional economic development level are key factors.In view of these factors,it is recommended to improve rural labor quality,establish perfect rural social security system,and constantly improve rural security level,which are fundamental ways to promoting farmland circulation and improve circulation market.

  19. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The Invertibility, Explicit Determinants, and Inverses of Circulant and Left Circulant and g-Circulant Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices play an important role in solving delay differential equations. In this paper, circulant type matrices including the circulant and left circulant and g-circulant matrices with any continuous Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are considered. Firstly, the invertibility of the circulant matrix is discussed and the explicit determinant and the inverse matrices by constructing the transformation matrices are presented. Furthermore, the invertibility of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices is also studied. We obtain the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices by utilizing the relationship between left circulant, g-circulant matrices and circulant matrix, respectively.

  1. Circulating mesenchymal stem cells and their clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is a new cell source for tissue regeneration and tissue engineering. The characteristics of circulating MSCs are similar to those of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs, but they exist at a very low level in healthy individuals. It has been demonstrated that MSCs are able to migrate to the sites of injury and that they have some distinct genetic profiles compared to BM-MSCs. The current review summaries the basic knowledge of circulating MSCs and their potential clinical applications, such as mobilizing the BM-MSCs into circulation for therapy. The application of MSCs to cure a broad spectrum of diseases is promising, such as spinal cord injury, cardiovascular repair, bone and cartilage repair. The current review also discusses the issues of using of allogeneic MSCs for clinical therapy.

  2. 基于SD的食用油料生产流通多级库存管理模式研究%Study on SD-based Multi-level Inventory Management Model in Production and Circulation of Edible Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明葆; 杜志平

    2015-01-01

    采用系统动力学方法,运用VENSIM仿真软件,以山东某食用油生产企业的供应链为例,构建了食用油生产流通环节的多级库存控制供应链模型,并对其进行了系统仿真,通过对现有库存控制模式和VMI模式进行对比,并对个别参数进行灵敏度分析,揭示了现行库存控制模式的弊端.最后,根据仿真结果给出库存控制的优化建议,为降低供应链中多级库存的牛鞭效应以及由于库存波动而产生的风险提供技术支持.%In this paper, using the system dynamics process and the VENSIM software and in the case of a certain edible oil producer in Shandong, we built the multi-echelon inventory control model for the production and circulation links of the edible oil and then simulated the model using VENSIM. Next through comparing it with the VMI mode we carried out the sensitive analysis of some of the parameters, uncovered the shortcomings of the current inventory control mode, and at the end gave the corresponding suggestions for optimization.

  3. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Merlis, Timothy M; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical and dynamical conditions, only a small fraction of which have yet been explored in detail. Our approach is to lay out the fundamental dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation on terrestrial planets--broadly defined--and show how they can provide a foundation for understanding the atmospheric behavior of these worlds. We first survey basic atmospheric dynamics, including the role of geostrophy, baroclinic instabilities, and jets in the strongly rotating regime (the "extratropics") and the role of the Hadle...

  4. 脑循环功能治疗仪对老年脑梗死认知功能及血脂水平的影响分析%Cerebral Circulation Function Therapeutic Apparatus for Senile Cerebral Infarction Impact Analysis of Cognitive Function and Blood Lipid Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立杰; 李苹; 张丽静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the cerebral function therapeutic apparatus for senile cerebral infarction impact analysis of cognitive function and blood lipid levels. Methods The control group was given treatment, on this basis, the study group were treated with cerebral circulation function, compared with the patients' living ability and blood lipid level. Results After treatment, all patients life skills, improve lipid levels are certain, the team is more significant, patients with differences between the two groups are significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Circulation function therapeutic has a great influence on the cognitive function and serum lipid level in the elderly patients with cerebral infarction.%目的:探讨脑循环功能治疗仪对老年脑梗死认知功能及血脂水平的影响分析。方法对照组患者给予常规治疗,在此基础上,研究组患者给予脑循环功能治疗仪进行治疗,对比治疗后,患者的生活能力、血脂水平情况。结果经过治疗之后,研究组患者生活能力、血脂水平均得到一定的改善,两组差异存在统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论循环功能治疗仪对老年脑梗死认知功能及血脂水平具有很大的影响,降低血脂水平,促进患者康复。

  5. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    , but the results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water...... as well as their pollution during operation. Policy measures are proposed of how to ensure that in the future only such energy saving pumps are installed. Furthermore, on the basis of the historic experiences with circulation pumps some con¬clusions are drawn on how to investigate, develop and market new...

  6. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Trabka Bartosz; Zubrzycki Igor Z.; Ossowski Zbigniew; Bojke Olgierd; Clarke Anna; Wiacek Magdalena; Latosik Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST) on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL...

  7. Circulating amounts of osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Hjelmborg, Jacob Vb; Kostenuik, Paul;

    2005-01-01

    was 1.04 +/- 0.11 g/cm2. Serum levels of OPG and RANKL were measured by ELISA (Biomedica, Vienna, Austria). Thisregister covers twins born in Denmark since 1870. Heritability and environmental influence was assessed using a maximum-likelihood model for genetic pleiotropy. RESULTS: RANKL levels showed...... only a weak relation to BMD in healthy women. Phenotype correlations indicate that the genes that contribute to twin similarity for BMD are not genes regulating serum levels of RANKL or OPG. The weak correlation with BMDappears to consist in shared environmental factors....... and cytokines. The influence of genetic factors on circulating amounts of OPG and RANKL is not known. BMD has been demonstrated to have a high heritability and there is evidence also that bone turnover and bone loss rates are controlled at least in part by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: Assessing the genetic...

  8. Neural Control of the Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gail D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to highlight key concepts about the neural control of the circulation that graduate and medical students should be expected to incorporate into their general knowledge of human physiology. The focus is largely on the sympathetic nerves, which have a dominant role in cardiovascular control due to their effects to…

  9. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  10. Minor effect of meltwater on the ocean circulation during deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Decaying Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during deglaciation affect the high latitude hydrological balance in the North Atlantic and therefore the ocean circulation after the Last Glacial Maximum. Surprisingly, geological data suggest that meltwater fluxes of about 14–20 m sea-level equivalent flushed into the North Atlantic without significantly influencing the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model coupled to an energy balance model of the atmosphere, we investigate the response of the ocean circulation to spatio-temporal variable deglacial freshwater discharges. Freshwater inputs are simulated by a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical ice sheet model of the Northern Hemisphere. In our experiments, we find a strong sensitivity of the ocean circulation when the deglacial meltwater is injected into the surface layers yielding a quasi shut-down. On the other hand, the parameterization of huge sub-glacial outbursts as so-called hyperpycnal flows are mimicked through bottom injections in ocean models leading to a reduced sensitivity of the overturning circulation against freshwater perturbations and providing a consistent representation of the deglacial climate evolution.

  11. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNF alpha inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.J.; Hetland, M.L.; Sørensen, Inge Juul;

    2010-01-01

    with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n = 32, and psoriatic arthritis, n = 17) initiating TNF alpha inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n = 38......The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated......Euro parts per thousand 0.001), whereas total aggrecan was lower (662 mu g/l (223-2,219) vs. 816 (399-2,190),p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.001). Two weeks after first treatment, all biomarker levels changed towards normal levels (p a parts per thousand currency signa...

  12. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Hetland, Merete Lund; Sørensen, Inge Juul;

    2010-01-01

    with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n=32, and psoriatic arthritis, n=17) initiating TNFα inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n=38; etanercept, n=8......The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated......-2,190), p≤0.001). Two weeks after first treatment, all biomarker levels changed towards normal levels (p≤0.03) in clinical responders (n=24), and persistent reductions over 3 years were found in IL-6, VEGF, YKL-40, and MMP-3. Only MMP-3 decreased (p≤0.02) in non-responders (n=13). The study demonstrated...

  13. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n=32, and psoriatic arthritis, n=17) initiating TNFa inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n=38; etanercept, n=8......The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated......-2,190), p=0.001). Two weeks after first treatment, all biomarker levels changed towards normal levels (p=0.03) in clinical responders (n=24), and persistent reductions over 3 years were found in IL-6, VEGF, YKL-40, and MMP-3. Only MMP-3 decreased (p=0.02) in non-responders (n=13). The study demonstrated...

  14. Influence of ACE I/D Polymorphism on Circulating Levels of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1, D-Dimer, Ultrasensitive C-Reactive Protein and Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Santos de Carvalho

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases are associated with coagulation disorders, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D polymorphism has also be linked to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to compare plasma levels of ultrassensible C-reactive protein (usCRP, PAI-1, D-dimer and TGF-β1 in patients undergoing HD with different ACE I/D polymorphisms.The study was performed in 138 patients at ESRD under hemodialysis therapy for more than six months. The patients were divided into three groups according to the genotype. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood cells (leukocytes. ACE I/D polymorphism was investigated by single polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Plasma levels of D-dimer, PAI-1 and TGF-β1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the determination of plasma levels of usCRP was performed by immunonephelometry. Data were analyzed by the software SigmaStat 2.03.Clinical characteristics were similar in patients with these three ACE I/D polymorphisms, except for interdialytic weight gain. I allele could be associated with higher interdialytic weight gain (P = 0.017. Patients genotyped as DD and as ID had significantly higher levels of PAI-1 than those with II genotype. Other laboratory parameters did not significantly differ among the three subgroups (P = 0.033. Despite not reaching statistical significance, plasma levels of usCRP were higher in patients carrying the D allele.ACE I/D polymorphisms could be associated with changes in the regulation of sodium, fibrinolytic system, and possibly, inflammation. Our data showed that high levels of PAI-1 are detected when D allele is present, whereas greater interdialytic gain is associated with the presence of I allele. However, further studies with different experimental designs are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these

  15. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the ‘Gold Standard’ Tarnished?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Beth; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Mountain, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Methods and Results 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:27622523

  16. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in non-obese men and women: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-onset calorie restriction (CR) in rodents decreases serum IGF-1 concentration and increases serum corticosterone levels, which have been hypothesized to play major roles in mediating its anti-cancer and anti-aging effects. However, little is known on the effects of CR on the IGF-1 system and c...

  17. The Congo Basin Walker circulation: dynamics and connections to precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.

    2016-08-01

    The existence, seasonality, and variability of a Congo Basin Walker circulation are investigated in reanalyses, and connections with rainfall are explored. A zonal overturning circulation along the equator connects rising motion in the Congo Basin and sinking in the eastern Atlantic during June through October. This timing is out of phase with precipitation over equatorial Africa, which greatest during spring and fall, and does not correlate with the seasonality of land temperatures. Rather, the zonally-overturning circulation only occurs when the Atlantic cold tongue has formed. Although the cold tongue formation is essential for setting up the Congo Basin Walker circulation, variations in equatorial eastern Atlantic sea surface temperatures are not associated with interannual variability in the strength of the circulation. When cold tongue SSTs are anomalously cool (warm), evaporation from the ocean surface is reduced (enhanced) and the westerly flow advects less (more) moisture into the base of the Congo Basin Walker circulation. This reduces (increases) the release of latent heat in the upbranch and weakens (strengthens) the Walker circulation. This process dominates the pure dry dynamical response to enhanced land/sea temperature differences, which has an opposite sign. A positive correlation connects low-level vertical velocity in the Congo basin with low-level vertical velocity and precipitation over West Africa. A wave response to anomalous vertical velocity in the Congo Basin in several reanalyses suggests a teleconnection into West Africa such that an anomalously strong (weak) upbranch is associated with anomalously strong (weak) rainfall over the Guinean coast and southern Sahel.

  18. Effect of folic acid supplementation on levels of circulating Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and the presence of intravascular ultrasound derived virtual histology thin-cap fibroatheromas in patients with stable angina pectoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil H Løland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound (VH-IVUS may be used to detect early signs of unstable coronary artery disease. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1 is linked with coronary atherosclerosis and plaque instability and could potentially be modified by folic acid treatment. METHODS: In a randomized, prospective study, 102 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP received percutaneous coronary intervention and established medical treatment as well as either homocysteine-lowering folic acid/vitamin B12 (± B6 or placebo (± B6 for 1 year before VH-IVUS was performed. The presence of VH-Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma (VH-TCFA in non-intervened coronary vessels was registered and serum levels of MCP-1 were measured. The patients were subsequently followed for incident myocardial infarction (MI. RESULTS: Patients treated with folic acid/vitamin B12 had a geometric mean (SD MCP-1 level of 79.95 (1.49 versus 86.00 (1.43 pg/mL for patients receiving placebo (p-value 0.34. VH-TCFA lesions were present in 7.8% of patients and did not differ between intervention arms (p-value 0.47. Serum levels of MCP-1 were 1.46 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.92 times higher in patients with VH-TCFA lesions than in those without (p-value 0.005. Afterwards, patients were followed for median 2.1 years and 3.8% experienced a myocardial infarction (MI, which in post-hoc Cox regression analyses was independently predicted by both MCP-1 (P-value 0.006 and VH-TCFA (p-value 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with SAP receiving established medical treatment, folic acid supplementation is not associated with either presence of VH-TCFA or levels of MCP-1. MCP-1 is however associated with VH-TCFA, a finding corroborated by increased risk for future MI. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00354081.

  19. Journalism as Cultures of Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The universe of journalism has always consisted of interspersed texts, meanings and practices. Yet, much journalism research has often isolated either texts and/or contexts and as such assumed relations between professional practices, informed (rational) readers and (conceived) core texts...... of journalism. It is, however, more important than ever to shift attention away from texts to the processes through which they are circulated. This is partly because the many cultural forms of journalism (textual, institutional, technological, material, behavioural and imagined) are undergoing significant......, likes, comments, searches, journalist roles, writing and reading positions and identities etc. Such forms will be traced within the mediation of a specific event with the overall aim of beginning a theorization of the landscape of journalism as highly interrelated cultures of circulation....

  20. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.;

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  1. Electronic circulation of accounting documents

    OpenAIRE

    Kremláčková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a circulation of accounting documents in an accounting entity, deals with legal requirements of the entire process and discusses it as a part of an internal control system of the entity. In connection with the theme of the work there are also defined legislative conditions for using information and communication technologies and introduced possibilities of involving these technologies in the process of processing of the accounting documents. Above all the electronic data...

  2. Natural circulation systems: advantages and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture briefly explains the principle of working of a natural circulation system, its various advantages and applications in nuclear and other industries. The major challenges to be overcome before the wide acceptance of natural circulation as the normal mode of coolant circulation in nuclear power reactors are briefly described. Classification of NCSs and the terminologies commonly encountered in natural circulation literature are also briefly explained. (author)

  3. Internal variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, Lianke Alinda te

    2003-01-01

    Variations in the ocean circulation can strongly influence climate due to the large heat transport by the ocean currents. Variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation, the part of the ocean circulation driven by density gradients, occurs typically on (inter)decadal and longer time scales and is

  4. 小儿体外循环心内直视手术后的红细胞变化%An Observation on Red Cell Level in Pediatric Extracorporeal Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上海市儿科研究所心血管研究室; 上海第二医学院附属新华医院小儿胸外科

    1982-01-01

    @@ 体外循环是应用机械替代心肺功能的血液循环,由于其设备和方法均尚未完善,在应用过程中给人体的正常生理带来一定的影响,包括生化、血液等各方面.%Fifty cases of infantile congenital heart diseases are reported. Open heart surgery was performed with the help of bypass technique. The patients' age ranged from 3 months to 12 years and their body weight was recorded from 4 to 36 kg. The bypass continued for 21-91 minutes with the hematocrit being 25 - 28 % and perfusion rate being 2.0-2.4 L/M/Min. The red-cell count, hemoglobin, plasma hemoglobin, reticulum cells, serum iron and theosmotic fragility of the erythrocytes were assessed before and after the use of bypass, and 3 hours, 1,3, 7 days and a fortnight postoperatively.The results demonstrated: (1) Red-cell count and hemoglobin level decreased significantly (P<0.01) in the first 3 hours after operation and then began to return or surpass the preoperative level (P>0.05) within a single day; (2)By the end of the operation, the plasm hemoglobin increased by 15.9 %; (3)The serum iron and reticulum cells increased noticeably during the first 2 weekspostoperatively (P<0.01) and (4) The osmotic fragility of erythrocytes was normal during, the first 3 days after operation.

  5. A genetic contribution to circulating cytokines and obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytokines are considered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Study objectives are to determine the heritability of circulating cytokine levels, to investigate pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and to present genome scan results for cytokines in 1030 Hispanic children...

  6. Atmospheric General Circulation Changes under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipane, Erool

    The work in this thesis is mainly two-fold. First we study the internal variability of the general circulation and focus our study on the annular modes and how important it is to simulate the subsynoptic scales in the circulation. In the next major section we will try to understand the mechanisms of the forced response and the mechanisms leading towards the jet shift from transient evolution in Atmospheric general circulation models. In the first part, in an attempt to assess the benefit of resolving the sub-synoptic to mesoscale processes, the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Annular Modes (AMs), in particular those related to the troposphere-stratosphere interaction, are evaluated for moderate- and high-horizontal resolution simulations with a global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), in comparison with the ERA40 re- analysis. Relative to the CMIP-type climate models, the IFS AGCM demonstrates notable improvement in capturing the key characteristics of the AMs. Notably, the performance with the high horizontal resolution version of the model is systematically superior to the moderate resolution on all metrics examined, including the variance of the AMs at different seasons of the year, the intrinsic e-folding time scales of the AMs, and the downward influence from the stratosphere to troposphere in the AMs. Moreover, the high-resolution simulation with a greater persistence in the intrinsic variability of the SAM projects an appreciably larger shift of the surface westerly wind during the Southern Hemisphere summer under climate change. In the second part, the response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation

  7. Climatology of the HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model - Sea ice general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legutke, S. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    The HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) climatology, obtained in a long-term forced integration is described. HOPE-G is a primitive-equation z-level ocean model which contains a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model. It is formulated on a 2.8 grid with increased resolution in low latitudes in order to better resolve equatorial dynamics. The vertical resolution is 20 layers. The purpose of the integration was both to investigate the models ability to reproduce the observed general circulation of the world ocean and to obtain an initial state for coupled atmosphere - ocean - sea-ice climate simulations. The model was driven with daily mean data of a 15-year integration of the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM4, the atmospheric component in later coupled runs. Thereby, a maximum of the flux variability that is expected to appear in coupled simulations is included already in the ocean spin-up experiment described here. The model was run for more than 2000 years until a quasi-steady state was achieved. It reproduces the major current systems and the main features of the so-called conveyor belt circulation. The observed distribution of water masses is reproduced reasonably well, although with a saline bias in the intermediate water masses and a warm bias in the deep and bottom water of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The model underestimates the meridional transport of heat in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated heat transport in the other basins, though, is in good agreement with observations. (orig.)

  8. 饮酒对心肌梗死患者冠状动脉侧支循环及血清VEGF水平的影响%Effects of alcohol intake on coronary collateral circulation and serum level of VEGF in myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱烨; 孙永乐; 苑海涛; 张兴华; 张玉英; 唐元升

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨不同乙醇摄入量的心肌梗死患者冠状动脉侧支循环水平及血清中血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)水平的变化.方法 收集经冠状动脉造影证实至少存在一支主要血管闭塞的冠心痛患者103例,对患者侧支循环水平进行Rentrop分级;采用问卷调查收集患者的饮酒量、吸烟、高血压、糖尿病、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)和低密度脂蛋白(LDL)等冠心病危险因素;并根据患者不同饮酒量分为非饮酒组、少量饮酒组(每日乙醇摄入量≤40 g)和大量饮酒组(每日乙醇摄入量>60 g);收集患者动脉血,采用ELISA法检测血清VEGF水平.结果 少量饮酒组侧支循环水平高于非饮酒组(P<0.05)和大量饮酒组(P<0.01);少量饮酒组血清VEGF水平(148.32 ±60.80) pg/mL明显高于非饮酒组(113.53±61.82) pg/mL(P <0.05),而大量饮酒组与少量饮酒组血清VEGF水平无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 少量饮酒有利于心肌梗死患者冠状动脉侧支循环的建立,可能与血中VEGF高表达有关.%To investigate the effects of different amount of alcohol intake on coronary collateral circulation and serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in patients with myocardial infarction. Methods 103 cases with at least one major coronary vessel occlusion confirmed by the coronary angiography were collected, and their coronary collateral circulations were classified with the Rentrop scoring system. Patients' daily alcohol intake and other risk factors of coronary artery disease were collected with the questionnaire survey method. Patients were divided into three groups according to the amount of alcohol intake: the non-drinking group, the light-drinking group( ≤40 g per day) and the heavy-drinking group( >60g per day). Serum levels of VEGF were detected with ELISA. Results Coronary collateral circulations in the light-drinking group were better than those of the non-drinking group( P 0.05). Conclusion Light

  9. Aspects of Numerical Simulation of Circulation Control Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Anders, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The mass-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for circulation control airfoils. Numerical solutions are computed with a multigrid method that uses an implicit approximate factorization smoother. The effects of flow conditions (e.g., free-stream Mach number, angle of attack, momentum coefficient) and mesh on the prediction of circulation control airfoil flows are considered. In addition, the impact of turbulence modeling, including curvature effects and modifications to reduce eddy viscosity levels in the wall jet (i.e., Coanda flow), is discussed. Computed pressure distributions are compared with available experimental data.

  10. Influence of obesity and androgen deficiency on prostatic blood circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Study at 120 Diabetes Mellitus II type men the high frequency Obesity (71,7% and Androgen Deficiency (52,8—64,5% of the patients depending on a degree of the indemnification and them pathogenic authentic communications were shown. The blood level of total testosterone was represented by the critical factor of Prostatic arterial Blood Circulation. Obesity and Androgen Deficiency are seem as independent risk factors to development of ischemic prostatopathy, such as Prostatic blood circulation Disorders can develop earlier than other variants of the diabetic microangiophaty.

  11. Factors affecting the enterohepatic circulation of oral contraceptive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, M L; Back, D J

    1990-12-01

    Oral contraceptive steroids may undergo enterohepatic circulation, but it is relevant for only estrogens, because these compounds can be directly conjugated in the liver. Animal studies show convincing evidence of the importance of the enterohepatic circulation, but studies in humans are much less convincing. The importance of the route and the rate of metabolism of ethinyl estradiol are reviewed. Some antibiotics have been reported anecdotally to reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptive steroids, but controlled studies have not confirmed this observation. Although gut flora are altered by oral antibiotics, the blood levels of ethinyl estradiol are not reduced, and one antibiotic at least (cotrimoxazole) enhances the activity of ethinyl estradiol. PMID:2256523

  12. Winter atmospheric circulation over Europe and the North Atlantic: an intercomparison of reanalysis datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryhal, Jan; Huth, Radan

    2016-04-01

    Research on atmospheric circulation has been quite common lately and includes e.g. analyses of circulation properties and trends in both reanalysis datasets and circulation model outputs. In many cases, however, studies have been restricted to only one set of data and only one research method. The goal of our present work is to compare the properties of winter European atmospheric circulation in five reanalysis datasets (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, JRA-55, ERA-20C, and 20CRv2) over 1961-2000. The main research method we use is an automated circulation classification. In order to bring robust results, however, eight distinct circulation type calendars are defined based on the reanalysed daily mean sea level pressure patterns, for each of the reanalyses and over the total of eight European domains. Subsequently, basic properties of these calendars are computed and compared. Lastly, we show how results of GCM validation can vary if different reanalyses are taken as a benchmark.

  13. Ovarian expression of insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and its receptor (RXFP2) during development of bovine antral follicles and corpora lutea and measurement of circulating INSL3 levels during synchronized estrous cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchell, Leanne; Glister, Claire; Bleach, Emma C; Glencross, Richard G; Bicknell, Andrew B; Dai, Yanzhenzi; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Ivell, Richard; Knight, Philip G

    2013-05-01

    Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), a major product of testicular Leydig cells, is also expressed by the ovary, but its functional role remains poorly understood. Here, we quantified expression of INSL3 and its receptor RXFP2 in theca interna cell (TIC) and granulosa cell compartments of developing bovine antral follicles and in corpora lutea (CL). INSL3 and RXFP2 mRNA levels were much higher in TIC than granulosa cell and increased progressively during follicle maturation with INSL3 peaking in large (11-18 mm) estrogen-active follicles and RXFP2 peaking in 9- to 10-mm follicles before declining in larger (11-18 mm) follicles. Expression of both INSL3 and RXFP2 in CL was much lower than in TIC. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry confirmed abundant expression of INSL3 mRNA and protein in TIC. These observations indicate follicular TIC rather than CL as the primary site of both INSL3 production and action, implying a predominantly autocrine/paracrine role in TIC. To corroborate the above findings, we showed that in vitro exposure of TIC to a luteinizing concentration of LH greatly attenuated expression of both INSL3 and its receptor while increasing progesterone secretion and expression of STAR and CYP11A1. Moreover, in vivo, a significant cyclic variation in plasma INSL3 was observed during synchronized estrous cycles. INSL3 and estradiol-17β followed a similar pattern, both increasing after luteolysis, before falling sharply after the LH surge. Thus, theca-derived INSL3, likely from the dominant preovulatory follicle, is detectable in peripheral blood of cattle, and expression is down-regulated during luteinization induced by the preovulatory LH surge. Collectively, these findings underscore the likely role of INSL3 as an important intrafollicular modulator of TIC function/steroidogenesis, while raising doubts about its potential contribution to CL function. PMID:23546605

  14. A semi-diagnostic calculation of climatic circulation in the western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D.

    A 3-dimensional, semi-diagnostic circulation model is used to compute the climatic circulation in the upper levels of western tropical Indian Ocean (20 degrees S-30 degrees N and 35 degrees E-80 degrees E) during the premonsoon month of May...

  15. Through thick and thin: A circulating growth factor inhibits age-related cardiac hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    McPherron, Alexandra C

    2013-01-01

    In an intriguing new study, Loffredo et al., report that joining the circulation of old mice with that of young mice reduces age-related cardiac hypertrophy. They also found that the growth factor GDF11 is a circulating negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy which suggests that raising GDF11 levels may be useful to treat cardiac hypertrophy associated with aging.

  16. Ensemble meteorological reconstruction using circulation analogues of 1781–1785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yiou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a method of atmospheric flow analogues to reconstruct an ensemble of atmospheric variables (namely sea-level pressure, surface temperature and wind speed between 1781 and 1785. The properties of this ensemble are investigated and tested against observations of temperature. The goal of the paper is to assess whether the atmospheric circulation during the Laki volcanic eruption (in 1783 and the subsequent winter were similar to the conditions that prevailed in the winter 2009/2010 and during spring 2010. We find that the three months following the Laki eruption in June 1783 barely have analogues in 2010. The cold winter of 1783/1784 yields circulation analogues in 2009/2010. Our analysis suggests that it is unlikely that the Laki eruption was responsible for the cold winter of 1783/1784, of the relatively short memory of the atmospheric circulation.

  17. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  18. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor in the circulation in cancer patients may not be a relevant biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana M H Niers; Richel, Dick J.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have widely been used as biomarker for angiogenic activity in cancer. For this purpose, non-standardized measurements in plasma and serum were used, without correction for artificial VEGF release by platelets activated ex vivo. We hypothesize that "true" circulating (c)VEGF levels in most cancer patients are low and unrelated to cancer load or tumour angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY: We determined VEGF levels in PECT, a medi...

  20. Simulating the Upper Ocean Circulation on the Belize Shelf: An Application of a Triply Nested-Grid Ocean Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Jinyu; TANG Liqun; WANG Liang

    2005-01-01

    We present a three-level nested-grid ocean circulation modeling system for the Belize shelf of the western Caribbean Sea. The nested-grid system has three subcomponents: a coarse-resolution outer model of the western Caribbean Sea; an intermediate-resolution middle model of the southern Meso-American Barrier Reef System; and a fine-resolution inner model of the Belize shelf. The two-way nesting technique based on the semi-prognostic method is used to exchange information between the three subcomponents. We discuss two applications of the nested-grid system in this study. In the first application we simulate the seasonal mean circulation in the region, with the nested system forced by monthly mean surface fluxes and boundary forcing. The model results reproduce the general circulation features on the western Caribbean Sea and meso-scale circulation features on the Belize shelf. In the second application, we simulate the storm-induced circulation during Hurricane Mitch in 1998, with the nested-grid system forced by the combination of monthly mean forcing and idealized wind stress associated with the storm. The model results demonstrate that the storm-induced currents transport a large amount of estuarinc waters from coastal regions of Honduras and Guatemala to offshore reef atolls.

  1. Circulating Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Humans: An Important Tool to Define Adequate Nutritional Vitamin D Status

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce W Hollis; Wagner, Carol L.; Drezner, Mark K.; Binkley, Neil C

    2007-01-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is generally considered the means by which we define nutritional vitamin D status. There is much debate, however, with respect to what a healthy minimum level of circulation 25(OH)D should be. Recent data using various biomarkers such as intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), intestinal calcium absorption, and skeletal density measurements suggest this minimum level to be 80 nmol (32 ng/mL). Surprisingly, the relationship between circulating vitamin D3 and...

  2. The anticyclonic circulation in the southern South China Sea: Observed structure, seasonal development and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Rong; Fang, Wendong; Zhou, Sheng-Qi

    2016-02-01

    In situ hydrographic and current observations from cruises in 1998 and 1999, together with 20-year (1993-2012) sea level anomaly (SLA) data from satellite altermeter, have been used to study the vertical structure, seasonal development, and interannual variability of the anticyclonic circulation in the southern South China Sea (SCS). The relationship between the anticyclonic circulation and its northern flanking cyclonic eddy are described. Three associated circulation patterns are identified. The anticyclonic circulation is present for an average of 108 ± 30 days per year, while its northern flanking cyclonic eddy is present for an average of 54 ± 25 days per year. The intraseasonal variability of the anticyclonic circulation is intense as a result of advection with the flanking northern cyclone, which accompanies the gyre on average about 60% of the time. The vertical structure of the anticyclonic circulation in 1998 (1999) penetrated much deeper, and its horizontal scope became wider in June (July) than in April. The anticyclonic circulation shows some difference between 1998 and 1999, displaying earlier appearance, more northward position, and non-dipole pattern in 1998, suggesting that the interannual variability of the anticyclonic circulation is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The effect of Sverdrup balance via westward propagating Rossby wave on the seasonal development of the anticyclonic circulation has been discussed.

  3. Genome-wide association study of circulating retinol levels

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Yu, Kai; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Hong; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Major, Jacqueline M.; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Männistö, Satu; Hazra, Aditi; Hsing, Ann W.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Eliassen, Heather; Tanaka, Toshiko; Reding, Douglas J.; Hendrickson, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Retinol is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin A and is hypothesized to influence a wide range of human diseases including asthma, cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases and cancer. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 5006 Caucasian individuals drawn from two cohorts of men: the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We identified two independent single-nucl...

  4. Estimation of CT-derived abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots from anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie V Eastwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. DESIGN: 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70 ± 7 years underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. RESULTS: South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference, model fit was better in men (R(2 range 0.59-0.71 than women (range 0.35-0.59. Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R(2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively. For basic SAT equations, R(2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. CONCLUSION: We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available.

  5. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  6. Circulation of Venus upper mesosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, Ludmila; Gorinov, Dmitry; Shakun, Alexey; Altieri, Francesca; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Observation of the O2 1.27 μm airglow intensity distribution on the night side of Venus is one of the methods of study of the circulation in upper mesosphere 90-100 km. VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express made these observations in nadir and limb modes in Southern and Northern hemispheres respectively. Global map of the O2 night glow is published (Piccioni et al. 2009). In this work we use for analysis only data, obtained with exposure > 3 s to avoid high noisy data. It was found that intensity of emission decreases to poles and to terminators (similar to Piccioni et al.2009) in both hemispheres, which gives evidence for existence of SS-AS circulation with transport of the air masses through poles and terminators with ascending/descending flows at SS/AS areas. However, asymmetry of distribution of intensity of airglow is observed in both hemispheres. Global map for southern hemisphere (from nadir data) has good statistics at φ > 10-20° S and pretty poor at low latitude. Maximum emission is shifted from midnight by 1 - 2 hours to the evening (22-23h) and deep minimum of emission is found at LT=2-4 h at φ > 20° S. This asymmetry is extended up to equatorial region, however statistic is poor there. No evident indication for existence of the Retrograde Zonal Superrotation (RZS) is found: maximum emission in this case, which is resulting from downwards flow, should be shifted to the morning. The thermal tides, gravity waves are evidently influence on the night airglow distribution. VIRTIS limb observations cover the low northern latitudes and they are more sparse at higher latitudes. Intensity of airglow at φ = 0 - 20° N shows wide maximum, which is shifted by 1- 2 h from midnight to morning terminator. This obviously indicates that observed O2 night glow distribution in low North latitudes is explained by a superposition of SS-AS flow and RZS circulation at 95-100 km. This behavior is similar to the NO intensity distribution, obtained by SPICAV.

  7. Circulating CXCL16 in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease and, specifically, diabetic kidney disease, is among the fastest increasing causes of death worldwide. A better understanding of the factors contributing to the high mortality may help design novel monitoring and therapeutic approaches. CXCL16 is both a cholesterol receptor and a chemokine with a potential role in vascular injury and inflammation. We aimed at identifying predictors of circulating CXCL16 levels in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We have now studied plasma CXCL16 in 134 European patients with diabetic kidney disease with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR categories G1-G4 and albuminuria categories A1-A3, in order to identify factors influencing plasma CXCL16 in this population. Results: Plasma CXCL16 levels were 4.0±0.9 ng/ml. Plasma CXCL16 increased with increasing eGFR category from G1 to G4 (that is, with decreasing eGFR values and with increasing albuminuria category. Plasma CXCL16 was higher in patients with prior cardiovascular disease (4.33±1.03 vs 3.88±0.86 ng/ml; p=0.013. In multivariate analysis, eGFR and serum albumin had an independent and significant negative correlation with plasma CXCL16. Conclusion: In diabetic kidney disease patients, GFR and serum albumin independently predicted plasma CXCL16 levels.

  8. Linear thermal circulator based on Coriolis forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2015-02-01

    We show that the presence of a Coriolis force in a rotating linear lattice imposes a nonreciprocal propagation of the phononic heat carriers. Using this effect we propose the concept of Coriolis linear thermal circulator which can control the circulation of a heat current. A simple model of three coupled harmonic masses on a rotating platform permits us to demonstrate giant circulating rectification effects for moderate values of the angular velocities of the platform.

  9. The Ten Relationships in Rural Land Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhirong; Ren, Shuo; Zhang, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    The ten relationships during land circulation are discussed. Among them, the relationship between peasant household and government indicates that government should only carry out its service and regulatory functions and farmers should be the main body of land circulation, because peasants usually have no discourse power during land circulation. In the relationship between land ownership and contracting management right, we mainly discuss the transfer of land contracting management right and p...

  10. 循环酶法与荧光偏振免疫法测定血清同型半胱氨酸水平的结果比较%Comparing Circulation Enzymatic and Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay Method for Serum Homocysteine Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静

    2014-01-01

    To compare the results of circulating enzymatic and fluorescence polarization im-munoassay method for serum homocysteine levels , and discuss the quick and easy detection of homocysteine . Method:20 patients with diabetes , high blood pressure , coronary heart disease and 20 cases normal healthy volunteers were selected as the observation object , serum specimens were detected by circulating enzymatic and fluorescence polarization immunoassay method, and then serum homocysteine levels was compared .Re-sult:By the circulation enzyme method to detect serum homocysteine , in low serum batch CV was 3.06%, the median serum group within the CV was 3.97%, within the high value of serum CV was 4.01%;Low CV between serum group was 3.11%, the median CV between serum group was 3.92%, the high value of serum between CV was 4.05%;The recovery rate was 102.01%;Linear regression equation was Y =0.98X+0.06, r2=0.98;When blood ammonia concentration was less than 70μmoL/L, the deviation of the homocysteine concentrations of the original value and the measured value was less 5%.By circulating enzymatic detection of diabetes, hypertension , coronary heart disease group and healthy group , serum homocysteine concentra-tions were 8.87 ±1.21 (μmoL/L), 10.21 ±1.02 (μmoL/L), 14.52 ±1.31(μmoL/L) and 1.31 ±0.14 (μmoL/L) , which were no significant difference with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay measured results, the comparing differences were no statistical significance (P >0.05).Conclusion:The circulating enzymatic automatic biochemical analyzer has been applied to the determination of serum homocysteine with good precision and recovery , and reliable and accurate results can be obtained , and the cost is lower , the operation is simpler .%比较循环酶法和荧光偏振免疫法在血清同型半胱氨酸水平测定中的结果,探讨快速简便检测同型半胱氨酸的方法。方法:选取糖尿病、高血压、冠心病患者以及正常健康志愿者各20

  11. Circulating Immune Complexes among Diabetic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nicoloff

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is an autoimmune disease associated with the presence of different types of autoantibodies. The presence of these antibodies and the corresponding antigens in the circulation leads to the formation of circulating immune complexes (CIC. CIC are known to persist in the blood for long periods of time. Such CIC following deposition in the small blood vessels have the potential to lead to microangiopathy with debilitating clinical consequences. The aim of our pilot study was to investigate whether a correlation exists between CIC and the development of microvascular complications in diabetic children. Isolation of a new glycoprotein complement inhibition factor (CIF from the parasitic plant Cuscuta europea seed, which appears to bind specifically to complement component C3 has provided an unique tool for the measurement of immune complexes by means of ELISA-type techniques (CIF-ELISA. We studied the levels of CIC (IgG, IgM and IgA in 58 diabetic children (mean age 12.28±4.04 years, diabetes duration 5.3±3.7 years, 29 of them had vascular complications (group 1 and the other 29 were without vascular complications (group 2. As controls, we studied sera samples from 21 healthy children (mean age 13.54±4.03 years. Sera from the diabetic patients showed statistically significant higher levels of CIC IgG ( p=0.03 than sera from the control group. In sera from group 1 values of CIC IgG showed statistically significant higher levels than controls (0.720±0.31 vs. 0.46±0.045; p=0.011 Sera from 59% of the patients were positive for CIC IgG, 36% for CIC IgM and 9% for CIC IgA. Among 26 patients with microalbuminuria, sera from 17/26 (65% were positive for CIC IgG, 8/26 (31% for CIC IgM and 2/26 (8% for CIC IgA. CIC IgG correlated with HbA1c (r=0.51; p=0.005 and microalbuminuria (r=0.42, p=0.033. CIC IgA correlated with age (r=0.44, p=0.03. CIC IgM correlated with the duration of diabetes (r=0.63, p=0.02. These

  12. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Østergaard, Jane N;

    2016-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......-noncase study included 11,048 men and women from cohorts in the European Diet, Obesity and Genes study; 5552 were cases, defined as individuals with the greatest BW gain during follow-up, and 6548 were randomly selected, including 5496 noncases. We selected 4 genes [CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (CEBPB...

  13. The aerodynamics of circulation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Two dimensional subsonic wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 20% thickness: chord ratio circulation controlled elliptic aerofoil section equipped with forward and reverse blowing slots. Overall performance measurements were made over a range of trailing edge blowing momentum coefficients from 0 to 0.04; some included the effect of leading edge blowing. A detailed investigation of the trailing edge wall jet, using split film probes, hot wire probes and total head tubes, provided measurements of mean velocity components, Reynolds normal and shear stresses, and radial static pressure. The closure of the two dimensional angular momentum and continuity equations was examined using the measured data, with and without correction, and the difficulty of obtaining a satisfactory solution illustrated. Suggestions regarding the nature of the flow field which should aid the understanding of Coanda effect and the theoretical solution of highly curved wall jet flows are presented.

  14. Irregular Labellings of Circulant Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Anholcer, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the \\textit{irregularity strength} ($s(G)$) and \\textit{total vertex irregularity strength} ($tvs(G)$) of circulant graphs $Ci_n(1,2,...,k)$ and prove that $tvs(Ci_n(1,2,...,k))=\\lceil\\frac{n+2k}{2k+1}\\rceil$, while $s(Ci_n(1,2,...,k))=\\lceil\\frac{n+2k-1}{2k}\\rceil$ except the case when $(n \\bmod 4k = 2k+1 \\wedge k\\bmod 2=1) \\vee n=2k+1$ and $s(Ci_n(1,2,...,k))=\\lceil\\frac{n+2k-1}{2k}\\rceil+1$.

  15. Inflammatory response and extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (EC) frequently develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgical trauma, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxaemia and blood contact to nonendothelial circuit compounds promote the activation of coagulation pathways, complement factors and a cellular immune response. This review discusses the multiple pathways leading to endothelial cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. All these factors may induce cellular damage and subsequent organ injury. Multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery with EC is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. In addition to the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction after EC, this review deals with different therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate the inflammatory response and consequently multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery. PMID:26060024

  16. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Jie Lin; Zi-Zhuo Su; Shu-Min Liang; Yu-Yang Chen; Xiao-Rong Shu; Ru-Qiong Nie; Jing-Feng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis.Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed.The search terms were "circulating fibrocytes" and "cardiac fibrosis".Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected.Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics ofhematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+).They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines.It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis.Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts.Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis.

  17. The Rank of Integral Circulant Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hou-qing

    2014-01-01

    A graph is called an integral graph if it has an integral spectrum i.e., all eigen-values are integers. A graph is called circulant graph if it is Cayley graph on the circulant group, i.e., its adjacency matrix is circulant. The rank of a graph is defined to be the rank of its adjacency matrix. This importance of the rank, due to applications in physics, chemistry and combinatorics. In this paper, using Ramanujan sums, we study the rank of integral circulant graphs and gave some simple computational formulas for the rank and provide an example which shows the formula is sharp.

  18. A brief etymology of the collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E; Chilian, William M; Deindl, Elisabeth; van Royen, Niels; Simons, Michael

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that the protective capacity of the collateral circulation falls short in many individuals with ischemic disease of the heart, brain, and lower extremities. In the past 15 years, opportunities created by molecular and genetic tools, together with disappointing outcomes in many angiogenic trials, have led to a significant increase in the number of studies that focus on: understanding the basic biology of the collateral circulation; identifying the mechanisms that limit the collateral circulation's capacity in many individuals; devising methods to measure collateral extent, which has been found to vary widely among individuals; and developing treatments to increase collateral blood flow in obstructive disease. Unfortunately, accompanying this increase in reports has been a proliferation of vague terms used to describe the disposition and behavior of this unique circulation, as well as the increasing misuse of well-ensconced ones by new (and old) students of collateral circulation. With this in mind, we provide a brief glossary of readily understandable terms to denote the formation, adaptive growth, and maladaptive rarefaction of collateral circulation. We also propose terminology for several newly discovered processes that occur in the collateral circulation. Finally, we include terms used to describe vessels that are sometimes confused with collaterals, as well as terms describing processes active in the general arterial-venous circulation when ischemic conditions engage the collateral circulation. We hope this brief review will help unify the terminology used in collateral research.

  19. Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricart Wifredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue and negatively associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We aimed to study the effects of weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity on circulating omentin concentrations. Methods Circulating omentin-1 (ELISA concentration in association with metabolic variables was measured in 35 obese subjects (18 men, 17 women before and after hypocaloric weight loss. Results Baseline circulating omentin-1 concentrations correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.58, p Conclusion As previously described with adiponectin, circulating omentin-1 concentrations increase after weight loss-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  20. Circulating Biomarker Panels in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Sachli; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of diseases frequently represents an important unmet clinical need supporting in-time treatment of pathologies. This also applies to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, estimated to affect millions of individuals worldwide. The respective diagnostic and prognostic markers, especially for the preclinical stages of AD, are expected to improve patients' outcome significantly. In the last decades, many approaches to detecting AD have been developed, including markers to discover changes in amyloid-β levels [from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or using positron emission tomography] or other brain imaging technologies such as structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional-connectivity MRI or task-related functional MRI. A major challenge is the detection of AD using minimally or even noninvasive biomarkers from body fluids such as plasma or serum. Circulating biomarker candidates based on mRNAs or proteins measured from blood cells, plasma or serum have been proposed for various pathologies including AD. As for other diseases, there is a tendency to use marker signatures obtained by high-throughput approaches, which allow the generation of profiles of hundreds to thousands of biomarkers simultaneously [microarrays, mass spectrometry or next-generation sequencing (NGS)]. Beyond mRNAs and proteins, recent approaches have measured small noncoding RNA (so-called microRNA) profiles in AD patients' blood samples using NGS or array-based technologies. Generally, the development of marker panels is in its early stages and requires further, substantial clinical validation. In this review, we provide an overview of different circulating AD biomarkers, starting with a brief summary of CSF markers and focusing on novel biomarker signatures such as small noncoding RNA profiles.

  1. Change of level of plasma mitochondrial coupling factor-6 in coronary circulation of patients with coronary heart disease%血浆线粒体偶联因子-6在冠心病患者冠脉循环中浓度的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马健; 庞继恩

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究不同类型冠心病(CHD)[稳定型心绞痛(SAP)、不稳定型心绞痛(UAP)],以及急性心肌梗塞(AMI)]患者血浆线粒体偶联因子-6(MCF-6)在冠脉循环中浓度的变化.方法:用放免法分别测定不同类型心绞痛的冠心病患者与正常对照组外周、冠状静脉窦与主动脉根部血浆中MCF-6浓度,计算心脏局部分泌的MCF-6浓度(冠状静脉窦-主动脉根部浓度的差值).结果:与正常对照组比较,CHD患者MCF-6浓度:外周[(294±40)pg/ml∶(265±40) pg/ml]、主动脉根部[(310±47) pg/ml∶(259±43) pg/ml]、冠状静脉窦[(384±42) pg/ml∶(271±37) pg/ml]、心脏局部分泌(74 pg/ml∶12pg/ml)的明显升高 (P均<0.01),冠状静脉窦MCF-6浓度明显高于主动脉根部及外周循环的(P均<0.01);且在CHD患者,外周、主动脉根部与冠状静脉窦血浆中MCF-6浓度随CHD严重程度增加而明显升高,以AMI组患者最高(P均<0.01),分别为[(358±51)pg/ml,(366±48)pg/ml,(420±56)pg/ml].结论:结果提示血浆线粒体偶联因子-6参与了冠心病的病理生理过程,在冠心病的发展过程中有可能是一种较为重要的血管活性物质.%Objective: To investigate changes of level of plasma mitochondrial coupling factor 6 (MCF- 6) in coronary circulation of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) [ contain stable angina pectoris (SAP), unstable angina pec toris (UAP) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI)]. Methods: Radioimmunoassay was used to measure concentra tions of CF- 6 in peripheral circulation, aortic root (Ao) and coronary sinus (CS) of CHD patients and normal control group. The CS-Ao difference of MCF 6 was regarded as concentration of MCF- 6 secreted by local heart. Results:Concentrations of MCF- 6 in CHD patients were significantly higher than those in normal control group in peripheral circulation [ (294±40) pg/mlvs. (265±40) pg/ml], Ao [ (310±47) pg/mlvs. (259±43) pg/ml], CS[ (384±42) pg/mlvs. (271±37) pg/ml] andlocal heart (74 pg

  2. Nucleic acids in circulation: Are they harmful to the host?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indraneel Mittra; Naveen Kumar Nair; Pradyumna Kumar Mishra

    2012-06-01

    It has been estimated that 1011–1012 cells, primarily of haematogenous origin, die in the adult human body daily, and a similar number is regenerated to maintain homeostasis. Despite the presence of an efficient scavenging system for dead cells, considerable amounts of fragmented genetic material enter the circulation in healthy individuals. Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders. In addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is also found in circulation, as are RNA and microRNA. There is extensive literature that suggests that extraneously added nucleic acids have biological actions. They can enter into cells in vitro and in vivo and induce genetic transformation and cellular and chromosomal damage; and experimentally added nucleic acids are capable of activating both innate and adaptive immune systems and inducing a sterile inflammatory response. The possibility as to whether circulating nucleic acids may, likewise, have biological activities has not been explored. In this review we raise the question as to whether circulating nucleic acids may have damaging effects on the host and be implicated in ageing and diverse acute and chronic human pathologies.

  3. Glacial aridity in central Indonesia coeval with intensified monsoon circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecky, Bronwen; Russell, James; Bijaksana, Satria

    2016-03-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum was cool and dry over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), a key region driving global oceanic-atmospheric circulation. Both low- and high-latitude teleconnections with insolation, ice sheets, and sea level have been suggested to explain the pervasive aridity observed in paleoecological and geomorphic data. However, proxies tracking the H- and O-isotopic composition of rainfall (e.g., speleothems, sedimentary biomarkers) suggest muted aridity or even wetter conditions than the present, complicating interpretations of glacial IPWP climate. Here we use multiproxy reconstructions from lake sediments and modern rainfall isotopic measurements from central Indonesia to show that, contrary to the classical "amount effect," intensified Australian-Indonesian monsoon circulation drove lighter H- and O-isotopic composition of IPWP rainfall during the LGM, while at the same time, dry conditions prevailed. Precipitation isotopes are particularly sensitive to the apparent increase in monsoon circulation and perhaps also decreased moisture residence time implied by our data, explaining contrasts among proxy records while illuminating glacial IPWP atmospheric circulation, a key target for climate models.

  4. Improving the gas productivity of the alkaline electrolyzer through the circulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitipong Tangphant

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study and improve the efficiency of a KOH electrolyzer through the gas productivity of the electrolyzer with different the circulation technique. In this work, the conceptual design of an electrolyzer falls into 2 categories; without pumping and with pumping. Direct current electricity at 5 different levels of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 A are charged into the system and the gas flow rate generated from the electrolyzer is subsequently monitored. The results show that at 30 A the gas generated from the circulation with pumping and the circulation without pumping are 2.31 litre/min and 1.76 litre/min, respectively. It is also found that the energy consumed by both techniques is the same; however, the circulation with pumping design shows the better gas productivity than that of the circulation without pumping design.

  5. Kelvin's Canonical Circulation Theorem in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, thanks to the restoration of the legitimate connection between the current density and the plasma flow velocity in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Kelvin's Circulation Theorem becomes valid in Hall MHD. The ion-flow velocity in the usual circulation integral is now replaced by the canonical ion-flow velocity.

  6. On So's conjecture for integral circulant graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Sander

    2015-04-01

    According to a conjecture of {\\sc So} two integral circulant graphs are isomorphic if and only if they are isospectral, i.e. they have the same eigenvalues (counted with multiplicities. We prove a weaker form of this conjecture, namely, that two integral circulant graphs with multiplicative divisor sets are isomorphic if and only if their spectral vectors coincide.

  7. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DEPORTISTAS UNIVERSITARIOS DE FÚTBOL Y BALONCESTO: ANTROPOMETRÍA Y COMPOSICIÓN CORPORAL Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gil Gómez

    2011-01-01

    measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.

    Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players.  mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.

    Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.

    Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.

  8. Circulating Nonphosphorylated Carboxylated Matrix Gla Protein Predicts Survival in ESRD

    OpenAIRE

    Schlieper, Georg; Westenfeld, Ralf; Krüger, Thilo; Cranenburg, Ellen C.; Magdeleyns, Elke J.; Brandenburg, Vincent M.; Djuric, Zivka; Damjanovic, Tatjana; Ketteler, Markus; Vermeer, Cees; Dimkovic, Nada; Floege, Jürgen; Schurgers, Leon J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms for vascular calcification and its associated cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD are not completely understood. Dialysis patients exhibit profound vitamin K deficiency, which may impair carboxylation of the calcification inhibitor matrix gla protein (MGP). Here, we tested whether distinct circulating inactive vitamin K–dependent proteins associate with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. We observed higher levels of both desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) a...

  9. Disparity in circulating adiponectin multimers between term and preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Siahanidou, Tania; Garatzioti, Maria; Davradou, Maria; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Mandyla, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To study circulating levels and distribution of adiponectin multimers [low molecular weight (LMW)-, medium molecular weight (MMW)- and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin] in preterm and full-term infants. Methods: Total serum adiponectin and its multimers were measured in 40 healthy infants at the age of one month and associations with anthropometric parameters [body weight and length, body mass index (BMI)], weight gain and metabolic indices (glucose, insulin) were examined. Twen...

  10. Doppler velocimetry with emphasis on the fetal cerebral circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Noordam, Marja

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the following questions were addressed: 1. Are changes in placental vascular resistance associated with alterations in arterial down stream impedance at fetal level? To this purpose placental embolization was carried-out in the fetal lamb with subsequent Doppler velocimetry in the fetal descending aorta (chapter 2). 2. What happens to the human fetal cerebral circulation relative to normal and raised umbilical placental resistance? To answer this question, the human...

  11. 131I对Graves病外周血粒细胞集落刺激因子和白细胞的影响%Effects of 131I treatment on the circulating granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and leucocyte levels in patients with Graves' disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡强军; 潘芙蓉; 张琦; 李焕斌; 夏玉祥; 谢克俭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of 131I treatment on circulating granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF) and leucocyte levels of patients with Graves' disease (GD).Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),coulter three assortments,and radioimmunoassay were used to test the levels of circulating G-CSF,leucocytes and thyroid hormones of 65 incipient and untreated GD patients,all females,aged 21 -50,43 with normal leucocyte level and 22 with leucopenia before and after 131I treatment.Thirty age-matched healthy female subjects were used as controls.Results Before 131I treatment,the serous G-CSF level of the GD patients with normal leucocyte level was (28.4 ± 11.7)μg/L,significantly higher than that of the control [ ( 18.3 ± 6.98) μg/L,t =2.376,P < 0.05 ].The serous G-CSF level of the GD patients with leucopenia was (40.1 ± 13.8 ) μg/L,significantly higher than that of the patients with normal leucocyte level ( t =2.788,P < 0.01 ) and that of the control ( t =3.672,P<0.01 ).180 d after the initiation of 131 I treatment,the G-CSF level of the patients with normal leucocyte level was (18.9 ± 8.32) μg/L,not significantly different from that of the normal controls,however,the G-CSF level of the GD patients with leucopenia was (25.7 ± 11.5) μg/L,still significantly higher than that of the normal control (t =2.103,P < 0.05).The serous G-CSF level was negatively correlated with the titer of leucocyte ( r =- 0.38,P < 0.05 ),however,not significantly correlated with such clinical parameters,as free triiodothyronine (FT3),free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH).Conclusions Abnormal increment of G-CSF is observed in the GD patients,which may be related to the decrease of leucocyte.Effectively suppressing the auto-immune status in the GD patients,131I treatment is a safe and reliable therapy for GD patients with leucopenia and should be used as early as possible.%目的 探讨131I治疗Graves病(GD)对患者外周血粒细

  12. Simulating the three-dimensional circulation and hydrography of Halifax Harbour using a multi-nested coastal ocean circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shiliang; Sheng, Jinyu; Thompson, Keith Richard; Greenberg, David Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Halifax Harbour is located on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is one of the world's largest, ice-free natural harbours and of great economic importance to the region. A good understanding of the physical processes controlling tides, flooding, transport and dispersion, and hydrographic variability is required for pollution control and sustainable development of the Harbour. For the first time, a multi-nested, finite difference coastal ocean circulation model is used to reconstruct the three-dimensional circulation and hydrography of the Harbour and its variability on timescales of hours to months for 2006. The model is driven by tides, wind and sea level pressure, air-sea fluxes of heat, and terrestrial buoyancy fluxes associated with river and sewage discharge. The predictive skill of the model is assessed by comparing the model simulations with independent observations of sea level from coastal tide gauges and currents from moored instruments. The simulated hydrography is also compared against a new monthly climatology created from all available temperature and salinity observations made in the Harbour over the last century. It is shown that the model can reproduce accurately the main features of the observed tides and storm surge, seasonal mean circulation and hydrography, and wind driven variations. The model is next used to examine the main physical processes controlling the circulation and hydrography of the Harbour. It is shown that non-linear interaction between tidal currents and complex topography occurs over the Narrows. The overall circulation can be characterized as a two-layer estuarine circulation with seaward flow in the thin upper layer and landward flow in the broad lower layer. An important component of this estuarine circulation is a relatively strong, vertically sheared jet situated over a narrow sill connecting the inner Harbour to the deep and relatively quiescent Bedford Basin. Local wind driven variability is strongest in

  13. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-06-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis.

  14. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  15. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyi O. Toriola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa.Setting: A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used.Results: Body mass index (BMI classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal bodyweight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years’ measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH, boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of -0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ, bent arm hang (BAH and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders.Conclusion: Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the participating

  16. Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. Simulations and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean circulation imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic circulation - basin-wide cyclonic circulation with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer circulation in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. Simulated fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual simulation in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.

  17. Dominance-related seasonal song production is unrelated to circulating testosterone in a subtropical songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jenny E; Radford, Andrew N; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G; Young, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Circulating testosterone (T) is widely considered to play a key role in the production of sexual displays by male vertebrates. While numerous studies support a role for circulating T in promoting the production of song in male birds, this understanding is based primarily on evidence from seasonally breeding northern temperate species, leaving it unclear whether this mechanism generalizes to other regions of the world. Here we investigate whether variation in circulating levels of T can explain the marked within- and among-individual variation in male song performance observed in a subtropical population of the year-round territorial white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali mahali). Our findings reveal that both circulating T and male song production peaked at a similar time point, halfway through the population-level breeding season. However, while dominant males were more likely to sing and sang for longer than subordinate males, within-group paired comparisons revealed no dominance-related differences in circulating T. Moreover, comparisons both among and within individual dominant males revealed that song duration, syllable rate and proportion of time spent singing were all unrelated to circulating T. Together, our findings suggest that natural variation in male song production, at least in this population of white-browed sparrow weavers, is achieved principally through mechanisms other than variation in circulating T concentration. More widely, our results are in line with the view that male song production is not exclusively regulated by gonadally synthesized steroids. PMID:27179883

  18. Development of CO2 circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the basic machine types we have supplied has not been without problems. The Windscale AGR (the prototype AGR) was a small 1.2 MW vertically up circulator with an inlet temperature of 237 deg. C (459 deg. F). Oil leakage problems occurred and were cured in the works test facility and the machine went into service with no other problems. The Horizontal 5 MW machines for Hinkley/Hunterston were not so fortunate with vibration problems, interface corrosion problems (effecting the whole reactor) and material dimensional stability problems. Oil ingress problems did not show up in test work but were later reported from site. These reports were initially exagerated due to the measuring techniques which took the operators some time to resolve. In the vertical 5 MW machines for Hartlepool and Heysham 1 there are two interesting factors, firstly a spar failure and secondly shaft axial stability. Many of the problems were due to modifications at site or our inability to model all aspects of site installation from which lessons for the future can be learned. The latest stations Torness and Heysham II incorporate these lessons. The machines have been designed with so much margin that during the resolution of the reactor control rod gag problems the machines were run continuously at 20% overload (6.3 MW). From an initial accident case of 350 deg. C inlet temperature, this increased to 458 deg. C and now stands at 585 deg. C. No modifications to the impeller were required. The site experience to date is good with no operational problems reported. (author). 4 figs

  19. Identification of liver CYP51 as a gene responsive to circulating cholesterol in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for CVD, which is a leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The biosynthetic pathways for cholesterol metabolism are well understood; however, the regulation of circulating cholesterol by diet is still not fully elucidated. The present study aimed to gain more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between circulating cholesterol levels and molecular effects in target tissues using the hamster model. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed with chow or diets containing 36 % energy from fat with or without 1 % cholesteyramine (CA) as a modulator of circulating cholesterol levels for 35 d. It was revealed that the expression of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) instead of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase mRNA expression was responsive to circulating cholesterol in hamsters fed hypercholesterolaemic diets. The high-fat diet increased circulating cholesterol and down-regulated CYP51, but not HMG-CoA reductase. The CA diet decreased cholesterol and increased CYP51 expression, but HMG-CoA reductase expression was not affected. The high-fat diet and CA diet altered the expression level of cholesterol, bile acids and lipid metabolism-associated genes (LDL receptor, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor (LXR) α, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5/8 (ABCG5/8)) in the liver, which were significantly correlated with circulating cholesterol levels. Correlation analysis also showed that circulating cholesterol levels were regulated by LXR/retinoid X receptor and PPAR pathways in the liver. Using the hamster model, the present study provided additional molecular insights into the influence of circulating cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol metabolism pathways during hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:27110359

  20. Circulating miRNA and cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    miRNAs are a class of small RNA molecules with regulatory function, and play an important role in tumor development and progression. It has been demonstrated that tumor-derived miRNAs exist in the circulating nucleic acids of cancer patients. This phenomenon implies that detection of the circulating miRNA may be an effective method for non-invasive diagnosis of cancer. In this review, we summarize the applications of the circulating miRNA as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, as well as the latest research progress in this area.