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Sample records for anthropologist didier fassin

  1. Nos limites da intervenção: a antropologia crítica de Didier Fassin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Kopper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo explora algumas tensões presentes na obra do antropólogo e médico Didier Fassin, a partir de uma análise de argumentos desenvolvidos em pesquisas na França, com desempregados e imigrantes, e na África do Sul do pós-apartheid, com base na epidemia de AIDS. Ao longo da análise, aponta-se para algumas das implicações do trabalho nos limites da crítica e da intervenção, bem como seus efeitos para repensar o papel da antropologia no mundo contemporâneo. Por fim, encerra-se com uma discussão de sua investigação mais recente - a proposição de uma antropologia moral - e como ela permite articular diferentes pontos de sua obra.

  2. Didier Chanat 1959-2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We deeply regret to announce the death of Mr Didier CHANAT on 05.09.2007. Mr Didier CHANAT, born on 27.05.1959, worked in the AT Department and had been employed at CERN since 01.06.1992. The Director-General has sent his family a message of condolence on behalf of the CERN staff. Social affairs

  3. Entrevista com Didier Lamaison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Jean Abes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Didier Lamaison é tradutor, professor de Letras Clássicas, ensaísta e dramaturgo. É tradutor de literatura de língua portuguesa, principalmente a poesia brasileira, para o francês. Já traduziu Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Ferreira Gullar, Augusto dos Anjos, Machado de Assis, Fernando Pessoa assim como de letras de músicas de Chico Buarque e Geraldo Vandré. Veio ao Brasil em 1980, para trabalhar como Professor Leitor de francês na Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Aprendeu a língua portuguesa através de poemas como "Soneto de Fidelidade", de Vinícius de Moraes, e "José", de Carlos Drummond de Andrade. Recebeu o prêmio Nelly Sachs em 1991, pela sua tradução de Carlos Drummond de Andrade na França (La machine du monde - Gallimard, 1990. Didier Lamaison é também autor do romance noir Édipo Rei, publicado pela editora Gallimard em 1994. Foi eleito, no dia 4 de junho de 2009, na Academia Brasileira de Letras (sócio correspondente.

  4. Didier Chanat (1959-2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We deeply regret to announce the death of Mr Didier CHANAT on 05.09.2007. Mr Didier CHANAT, born on 27.05.1959, worked in the AT Department and had been employed at CERN since 01.06.1992. The Director-General has sent his family a message of condolence on behalf of the CERN staff. Social Affairs Tribute to Didier Chanat With a higher technical diploma and a specialisation in electrical engineering, Didier began his professional life at the CEA (France) in 1986. From then until 1990 he took part in developing control and supervision systems for the various Tore Supra tokamak systems at Cadarache, then in operating and upgrading the entire machine. From 1990 to 1992, Didier was a member of the Tore Supra Cryogenics Group, where he was responsible for operating and maintaining the cryogenic system. It was at this time that he developed an interest in cryogenics which was to remain the linchpin of the rest of his career...

  5. Privilegiets problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Devika

    2013-01-01

    In this article I explore a contemporary structure of feeling closely but ambivalently related to what moral anthropologist Didier Fassin has termed ”humanitarian reason”. I label this specific affective disposition ‘the predicament of privilege’. In the first part of the article I relate the pre...

  6. Anthropologists in the Looking Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bernice A.

    A historical and anthropological analysis of the nature of conventions held by the American Anthropological Association (AAA) is presented. The author, who is an anthropologist, plays the role of participant observer in studying the phenomenon of meetings of the AAA. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, AAA meetings were very small and…

  7. New Ethical Challenges for Anthropologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The first code of ethics by the American Anthropological Association, adopted in 1971, was forged during the Vietnam War, years after revelations that anthropologists had engaged in counterinsurgency research in Southeast Asia. Now, in response to issues raised by the war in Iraq, the author advocates that it is time for a new code. Members of the…

  8. Anthropologists in Global Health Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardon, Anita; Pool, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Can global health experiments be part of more flexible systems of knowledge generation, where different bodies of knowledge come together to provide understanding not only of the outcomes of new interventions but also of the mechanisms through which they affect people's well-being and health? Building past work in which they tried to transform how global health experiments are carried out and inspired by the articles in this special issue, the authors of this commentary argue that strategic collaboration is needed to break the hegemony of randomized controlled trials in designing global health technologies. More open-ended experiments are possible if anthropologists team up with innovative researchers in biomedicine to develop new conceptual models and to adopt novel observational techniques and 'smart' trials that incorporate ethnography to unravel complex interactions between local biologies, attributes of health systems, social infrastructures, and users' everyday lives. PMID:27618222

  9. The Kansas Anthropologist Reminlscence Project for Senior Plains Anthropologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlin F. Hawley

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations, ask thy father and he will show thee, thy elders, and they will tell thee. Deuteronomy 32: 7. For the past six years, 'The Kansas Anthropologist' has published an ongoing series of reminiscences or retrospective articles by senior Great Plains archaeologists. The aim of the project is to collect reminiscences from senior anthro­pologists regarding their experiences in pre-and post-World War II Plains archaeology, biological anthropology, and ethnology. The historian John Lukacs (1966:x once offered an elegant and concise comment on the value of history, one that I offer here: "I believe that history, as a form of thought, is one of the most precious and perhaps unique rational posssessions of Western civilizations. The character of a person may appear best from the reconstruc­tion of the history of his life; the same is true of the character of nations. The very history of a prob­lem may reveal its essential diagnosis. There is no human endeavor that may not be approached and studied profitably through its history." Fortunately, there hardly needs to be a justification anymore for such a project, as is attested by the recent prolifera­tion of research into the history of archaeology and anthropology on virtually a global scale.The intention of these retrospective articles is not to explore or diagnose any particular problem but rather to create a mosaic of first person narrratives informed by personal experience and illustrated with photos and anecdotes to illuminate the development of Plains anthropology in the 20th Century.

  10. Tooth wear: the view of the anthropologist

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Kaidonis

    2007-01-01

    Anthropologists have for many years considered human tooth wear a normal physiological phenomenon where teeth, although worn, remain functional throughout life. Wear was considered pathological only if pulpal exposure or premature tooth loss occurred. In addition, adaptive changes to the stomatognathic system in response to wear have been reported including continual eruption, the widening of the masticatory cycle, remodelling of the temporomandibular joint and the shortening of the dental ar...

  11. Techno-Anthropologists as Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone Stub

    2015-01-01

    Studying technology will often involve studying change – or in the perspective of this chapter should involve not just studying but also actively being involved with change. Your presence and the questions you ask shape the way people think and act and on the other hand their responses and your...... study of practice change the researchers perspective. For Techno-Anthropologist, this means that asking in specific ways about technology and having a focus on technology in the data collection and fieldwork will (should) influence what they see, the data they collect and their analysis – and also...... the way the informants think and the way people talk about practice and technology. The Techno-Anthropological researcher should be aware and actively use the potential for change in the empirical study of technology. In this chapter I exemplify and examine how and why change can be embraced and seen...

  12. AnthroSource: Designing a portal for anthropologists

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Michael; Chu, Melody; Khan, Shiraz; Lai, John; Lao, Elsy; Nardi, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the information needs of anthropologists to inform the design of a portal, AnthroSource. AnthroSource will digitize the publications of the American Anthropological Association and provide services for anthropologists and others who use anthropological materials.

  13. Medical humanitarianism: anthropologists speak out on policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Sharon; Marten, Meredith; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, anthropologists have become increasingly present in medical humanitarian situations as scholars, consultants, and humanitarian practitioners and have acquired insight into medical humanitarian policy and practice. In 2012, we implemented a poll on anthropology, health, and humanitarian practice in which 75 anthropologists discussed their experiences in medical humanitarianism. Our goal was to move beyond the existing anarchy of individual voices in anthropological writing and gain an aggregate view of the perspective of anthropologists working in medical humanitarian contexts. Responses lead to six inductively derived thematic priorities. The findings illustrate how anthropologists perceive medical humanitarian practice; which aspects of medical humanitarianism should be seen as priorities for anthropological research; and how anthropologists use ethnography in humanitarian contexts.

  14. Tooth wear: the view of the anthropologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidonis, John A

    2008-03-01

    Anthropologists have for many years considered human tooth wear a normal physiological phenomenon where teeth, although worn, remain functional throughout life. Wear was considered pathological only if pulpal exposure or premature tooth loss occurred. In addition, adaptive changes to the stomatognathic system in response to wear have been reported including continual eruption, the widening of the masticatory cycle, remodelling of the temporomandibular joint and the shortening of the dental arches from tooth migration. Comparative studies of many different species have also documented these physiological processes supporting the idea of perpetual change over time. In particular, differential wear between enamel and dentine was considered a physiological process relating to the evolution of the form and function of teeth. Although evidence of attrition and abrasion has been known to exist among hunter-gatherer populations for many thousands of years, the prevalence of erosion in such early populations seems insignificant. In particular, non-carious cervical lesions to date have not been observed within these populations and therefore should be viewed as 'modern-day' pathology. Extrapolating this anthropological perspective to the clinical setting has merits, particularly in the prevention of pre-mature unnecessary treatment. PMID:17938977

  15. For the Bicultural Happy Few Only: Didier Coste’s Days in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Jaccomard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Written by Didier Coste, a French essayist, translator and academic who worked for some years in Australia, Days in Sydney is a unique bilingual novel. Instead of the accepted custom of the original text printed on the opposite page of its translation Days in Sydney contains no translation. It alternates French and English in a seamless fashion that is the antithesis of the conventions of bilingual texts, resulting in a truly heteroglossic text, elliptical in its construction as it meanders between two languages and two main characters. In the publication announcement Didier Coste stated that this unusual book was the result of an ‘nécessité esthétique et une certaine idée de la bi-culture’ aimed at ‘le petit cercle des bilingues d'Australie’. Alongside his creative output Coste has published scholarly works since the late 1980s up to 2004. In English. By examining the principles and practice of heteroglossia and by drawing on one of Coste’s recent academic article, this paper explores the twin notions of ‘nécessité esthétique”, and ‘bi-cultural’ readership to account for the (not so global space between two languages and cultures Days in Sydney occupies.

  16. Anthropology with an Agenda: Four Forgotten Dance Anthropologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    In response to postcolonial, feminist and subaltern critiques of anthropology, this article seeks to answer the question, "For whom should research be conducted, and by whom should it be used?" by examining the lives and works of four female dance anthropologists. Franziska Boas, Zora Neale Hurston, Katherine Dunham and Pearl Primus used…

  17. Indians as Resources: The Changing Relationship between Indians and Anthropologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Michael M.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional academic or curatorial associations with North American Indians--treating them as informants, subjects, students, or specimens--is no longer sufficient because these associations imply unequal relations with anthropologists and curators in the superior position. Indians now want, expect, and demand equality; and new relationships are…

  18. Philippe Didier, secrétaire général du CNRS, 1983-1989

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    De 1983 à 1989, Philippe Didier a été le secrétaire général du CNRS auprès de Pierre Papon, puis de Serge Feneuille et de François Kourilsky. Dans la foulée du colloque de 2004 consacré au CNRS dans les années 1980, il a accepté d’évoquer son parcours au sein de l’établissement devant les membres du Comité pour l’histoire du CNRS. Notre revue, publie dans ce numéro quelques extraits de cet entretien, dont l’intégralité est conservée par le Comité pour l’histoire. L’occasion de revenir sur six...

  19. THE CONCEPTION OF THE I INDIGENOUS POETICS LITERARY PARTY BY AN ANTHROPOLOGIST-WRITER

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Goldemberg

    2009-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative anthropology approach, the text narrates the experience of an anthropologist-writer in contact with the universe of Brazilian indigenous literature and poetry, which inspired her to conception of the I Recital of the Indigenous Poetics of the Casa das Rosas, as an event to assemble Indians, indigenous and indianist writers from different backgrounds, both classic and contemporary. It discusses the issue of the social function of poetry & prose and it...

  20. Reagire alla dominazione sociale: classe, sesso e politica nelle narrazioni autobiografiche di Didier Éribon ed Édouard Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nugara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iscrivendosi nella scia dell’autobiografia sociologica di Bourdieu, Retour à Reims (2009 del sociologo Didier Éribon e En finir avec Eddy Bellegueule (2014 del suo allievo ventiduenne Édouard Louis raccontano l’esperienza dei rispettivi autori a partire dalle dinamiche di dominazione sociale e sessuale che l’hanno determinata. Entrambi i testi chiamano in causa la figura dell’intellettuale come transfuga di classe che tramite la scrittura rielabora i conflitti identitari che lo attraversano e apre a una riflessione sui rapporti tra potere politico e potere simbolico. Inoltre, questi due esempi di auto-socio-analisi possono essere interpretati come contributi a un dibattito pubblico che in Francia e non solo si confronta con il valore politico di identità sociali sempre più complesse e con dinamiche elettorali che dagli anni Sessanta a oggi hanno sciolto il legame tra forze politiche della sinistra e classi sociali più svantaggiate.

  1. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s.

  2. Sharing data and results with study participants: report on a survey of cultural anthropologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew

    2008-12-01

    A FIRST-EVER SURVEY of cultural anthropologists was conducted concerning the sharing of data, interpretations, and results with study participants. Briefly summarized, the study showed that almost all of the survey respondents had shared data or results with participants and almost all found this to be a positive experience. They had carried out research in many countries, some over long periods of time, and many had completed several field projects. Most believe that researchers, either alone or in consultation with participants and their groups, should decide whether, when, and what to share. Anthropologists find that sharing produces many benefits, for themselves as individuals and as researchers, for individual participants, and for the communities, groups, or institutions to which the latter belong. The perceived harms that might result from sharing have to do particularly with potential threats to privacy, confidentiality or anonymity, as well as the possibilities of social conflict and oppression. Thus, researchers have serious concerns about the sharing of certain kinds of data that might lead to such consequences. While many or most respondents think that sharing is the ethically proper course of action, they are very aware of the complexities of particular situations and the need for nuanced decision making. Most think that the researcher should play a major role in deciding whether sharing should take place and what should be shared. Hence, for these cultural anthropologists, in the end, sharing requires trying to balance the good of sharing with the good of doing no harm to those with whom they have done research. PMID:19385754

  3. An Engineer, an Architect, and an Anthropologist Walk into a Conference Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are urged to "be there", in the field, in order to gain insight about a particular culture. When the field is unreachable, or does not yet exist, the applied anthropologist must adapt their methods accordingly while maintaining the integrity of their research. The space industry presents a unique case study for such a dilemma. Drawing on Bourdieu's 1977 reflection on the structural constraints and the forming of unconscious schemes of thought imposed by the material world on the body, this paper considers the effect of the presence and absence of place in applied, collaborative anthropological work.

  4. Narrative Online and Offline spaces. Field Notes from the Becoming of an Anthropologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Florea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To look back and reflect upon past field diaries, field encounters and events is the invitation of this paper, constructed both as a research note and as a personal research story. The invitation isaddressed especially to young anthropologists. The paper recalls and re-analyses data from three past online fields – one interactive website calling itself the “Romanian online community in Vancouver”, one online forum entitled the “Indian online community in Germany”, and the real-time communication portal Yahoo Messenger. It highlights the out-of-the-ordinary events recorded on each field, which illustrate complex relationships between the online and offline worlds. Further interpreting the fields as what contemporary American anthropologist Timothy Simpson, following Richard Sennett, calls “narrative spaces”, I hope to reveal more of the social construction of these virtual spaces. The main hypothesis to be explored and proposed for further debate are 1 that interactive virtual spaces develop as narrative spaces, around the frame-story offered by theirinitiators and 2 that narratives are continuously transcending different online and offline spaces, connecting them, while being continuously re-negotiated and re-told.

  5. Techno-Anthropologists as Change Agents: A case in health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lone Stub

    2015-01-01

    Studying technology will often involve studying change - or in the perspective of this chapter should involve not just studying but also actively being involved with change. Your presence and the questions you ask shape the way people think and act and on the other hand their responses and your study of practice change the researchers perspective. For Techno-Anthropologist, this means that asking in specific ways about technology and having a focus on technology in the data collection and fieldwork will (should) influence what they see, the data they collect and their analysis - and also the way the informants think and the way people talk about practice and technology. The Techno-Anthropological researcher should be aware and actively use the potential for change in the empirical study of technology. In this chapter I exemplify and examine how and why change can be embraced and seen as an integral part of Techno-Anthropological studies in Health Informatics and beyond. This statement is supported through reflections on empirical examples, qualitative methods, and ethical and philosophical considerations on research and change. The chapter concludes that Techno-Anthropologists should actively consider and engage in the potential for change of the empirical studies of technology. PMID:26249196

  6. THE CONCEPTION OF THE I INDIGENOUS POETICS LITERARY PARTY BY AN ANTHROPOLOGIST-WRITER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Goldemberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative anthropology approach, the text narrates the experience of an anthropologist-writer in contact with the universe of Brazilian indigenous literature and poetry, which inspired her to conception of the I Recital of the Indigenous Poetics of the Casa das Rosas, as an event to assemble Indians, indigenous and indianist writers from different backgrounds, both classic and contemporary. It discusses the issue of the social function of poetry & prose and its independence from cultural context and concludes for talking of “poetics”, because the event will not host on one only poetic, western Aristotelean poetic, but the diversity that inhabits oral history and indigenous rituals, whether elaborated or not, which have in common the inventiveness and enchantment with words and their possibilities.

  7. L'homme et le climat : comprendre et agir. Discussion entre Didier Paillard (CEA), Amy Dahan-Dalmedico (MNHM), Olivier Godard (Ecole Polytechnique) animée par Marie-Odile Monchicourt.

    OpenAIRE

    Paillard, Didier; Dahan Dalmedico, Amy; Godard, Olivier; Monchicourt, Marie-Odile; de Pablo, Elisabeth; Stockinger, Peter; Fillon, Richard; Maestre, Alice; Bonnemazou, Camille

    2006-01-01

    Le changement climatique provoqué par les activités humaines est un problème d'une telle complexité qu'il nécessite une approche globale - relevant des domaines de la climatologie, de l'environnement, de la gestion des sources d'énergie, de l'économie - où la modélisation joue un rôle crucial, tant pour comprendre que pour agir.Trois scientifiques, Didier PAILLARD (climatologue,Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), Amy DAHAN-DALMEDICO (mathématicienne, historienne des sciences, Muséum National ...

  8. The Medical Anthropologist as the Patient: Developing Research Questions on Hospital Food in Japan through Auto-Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Runestad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I was an inpatient at a small maternity clinic in Japan in 2012–13 and found it impossible to separate the way I experienced medical care and my training as a medical anthropologist. As I was encouraged to eat and monitor my weight so that I would “grow” a healthy baby, I recalled how interviewees from my HIV/AIDS project described nourishing their bodies so they could fight disease. Because of my experience in the healthcare system in Japan, I ended up reframing my data to add questions about the role of hospital food in patient care. Meanwhile, I developed the social networks necessary to execute a new project, which I would later undertake. In this essay I argue that medical anthropologists working from a phenomenological perspective may regard their own bodies as assets rather than hindrances in research, and that because bodies are gendered, focusing on this facet of habitus can be particularly informative. I also illustrate how systematic reflection on personal experience in the field (autoethnography aids in the development of research questions and reframing data. Finally, I discuss how highlighting these steps in research methods courses can demystify the research process for students.

  9. Frederick Damon's Study on Anthropology---An Interview with Anthropologist, Professor Frederick Damon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FREDERICK Damon(Interviewee); BIAN Simei(Interviewer); JIN Jing(Transcriber)

    2014-01-01

    Dr.Bian Simei conducted an inter-view with Professor Frederick Damon of the Univer-sity of Virginia in 2012.Their discussions focused on Professor Damon's anthropological fieldwork ex-periences on the islands that make up the Kula Ring, and his new fieldwork spot-Fujian, China. Professor Damon started to do his ethnographic re-search on an island in the South Pacific based on the presumption that people understood the island as a body , and later he shifted to the study of trees.This is because he came to know that trees were very important for the Muyuw people .In July 1996, Professor Damon started to combine his re-search of trees with the research of boats .This was because he came to understand that the most impor-tant trees for the most import boats came from the relationship between people's gardens and forests . The trees were personified by the local people , and the Muyuw people had their own way to distinguish the trees as female or male .The Muyuw people al-so have their own classificatory system , and there are always analogies between sets of things that are related.In order to acquire more knowledge about trees, Professor Damon also interacted with scien-tists during his process of doing research , including geochemists .Although one of the things Professor Damon was involved with during the 1980 s post-modernism and the critique of western science , what he wanted to try to do with his research was to engage himself with natural scientists in order to expand his field as much as possible .Sometimes, when Professor Damon shared his knowledge on for-est systems learned from the natives , it would a-maze the scientists that “savages” could have that kind of knowledge .From his experience , Professor Damon found that cooperative work with natural scientists was very helpful for his research , and this kind of mutual -learning is necessary .Professor Damon also was critical that some of the anthropol-ogists or scientists were not good at

  10. [Social anthropology and anthropologists of the past and present: from exoticism and the imagined reciprocity to everyday inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, María Rosa

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine two moments in anthropology. First we characterize anthropology as a subject specialized in the study of "the others", which developed in those countries that led the European and North American colonial expansion. We underline the links that existed between this historical context, the features of ethnography -the theoretic-methodological approach developed by anthropologistsand the concept of culture, that became the core of this discipline. Secondly, we intend to further the understanding of some trends of contemporary anthropology: the fact that nowadays anthropologists work on the societies they belong to, their operations (documenting the undocumented, unveiling dayliness, de-naturalizing), which find their roots in earlier anthropology. It also highlights the shift of focus from reciprocity relations to power and inequity relations. Finally it sheds light on some original developments in Latin American anthropology, considering some cases in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

  11. A French Anthropologist’s Fieldwork Experience in China-An Interview with French Anthropologist Catherine Capdeville-Zeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Capdeville-Zeng; Zhao Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of the 1970s,French anthropologist Catherine Capdeville-Zeng has fo ̄cused her studies on China. Her research field in ̄cludes popular songs of China,rock music of Chi ̄na,Beijing Opera Amateur Sessions,shadow play, Nuo opera, and Sichuan opera, etc. She has pub ̄lished a series of her research findings related to China in the past years, including Le théâtredansl��espace du peuple,uneenquête de terrain en Chine ( in French ) , Rites et Rock à Pékin –Traditions sociales et modernitédans la musique rock en Chine( in French) ,and fengchangzuoxi or 逢场作戏(in Chinese)etc. On 23 March 2015,Profes ̄sor Capdeville-Zeng was invited to give a lecture on Popular Opera—An Anthropological Investiga ̄tion in China at the Southwest University for Na ̄tionalities. In the lecture,Professor Catherine Cap ̄deville-Zeng took Nuo opera,Sichuan torch opera troupe,and Beijing opera amateur sessions as case studies,and shared her ideas on the connection be ̄tween “ritual opera” and “entertainment opera”, the common structure of various operas, the rela ̄tionship between the audience and the actors/ac ̄tresses, the audience’s response to the opera and the actors/actresses’ attitudes, etc. After the lec ̄ture,Zhao Xiuyun,an editor of the Journal of Eth ̄nology published by the Southwest University for Nationalities,conducted a comprehensive interview with her regarding her anthropological investiga ̄   tions in China. In this interview,Professor Cather ̄ine Capdeville -Zeng talked about the process of conducting fieldwork in China as a French anthro ̄pologist. She stated that her research was deeply influenced by the theory of Louis Dumont, an im ̄portant representative scholar of French structural ̄ism. She used Dumont’s theory of “individualism”to make an in -depth analysis of the relationship between the“individual” and the“whole” in Chi ̄nese society. She mentioned that although the style of modern

  12. Didier Combeau, Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats-Unis. Saul Cornell, A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins of Gun Control in America.

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud Pacoud

    2008-01-01

    Deux ouvrages différents dans leur approche mais également passionnants permettent de saisir l’évolution du débat sur les armes à feu aux États-Unis. Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats Unis de Didier Combeau rend compte de la relation complexe que les Américains entretiennent avec les armes à feu depuis la fondation de la nation et de la polémique contemporaine sur la question du droit aux armes. A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins...

  13. Didier Combeau, Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats-Unis. Saul Cornell, A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins of Gun Control in America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Pacoud

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Deux ouvrages différents dans leur approche mais également passionnants permettent de saisir l’évolution du débat sur les armes à feu aux États-Unis. Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats Unis de Didier Combeau rend compte de la relation complexe que les Américains entretiennent avec les armes à feu depuis la fondation de la nation et de la polémique contemporaine sur la question du droit aux armes. A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins...

  14. Didier Machu. Lolita ou le tyran confondu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne FRAYSSE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Voici un livre écrit par l’un des nombreux amoureux de Lolita, par un chasseur manifestement enchanté, un érudit et un poète gravement atteint de nabokolepsie. Nabokov aurait certainement été fier et heureux de voir un lecteur caresser les détails, les divins détails, avec une telle gourmandise, débusquer avec une telle habileté des allusions intertextuelles que personne (et peut-être Nabokov compris n’avait vues avant lui. On sent dans ce travail universitaire une sorte d’exaltation et d’ex...

  15. De l’anthropologie appliquée à l’anthropologue impliqué From an Applied Anthropology to an Implicated Anthropologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Singleton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se sentant piégés par la dichotomie classique (et donc ethnocentrique séparant théorie et pratique, des anthropologues contemporains se sont précipités en aval en cherchant à la fois à personnaliser leur discipline (« pas d’anthropologie sans autobiographie » et à la rendre plus pertinente à notre avenir commun (d’où une anthropologie appliquée. Mais en un amont onto-épistémologique, là où se retrouvent certains philosophes modernes avec leurs idées relatives au réel comme relationnel (Marion, à la rencontre et à la reconnaissance (Ricoeur ou au moi altéré (Levinas, il se peut que l’anthropologue, qu’il le veuille ou non, soit impliqué d’emblée et d’office.Feeling trapped by the classical and consequently ethnocentric dichotomy between theory and practice, contemporary anthropologists have hurried downstream seeking at once to personalize their discipline (“no anthropology without autobiography” and render it more relevant to our common future (hence an “applied anthropology”. But upstream, onto-epistemologically, there where several modern philosophers find themselves with such notions as the real being relational (Marion, encounter and recognition (Ricoeur or the self as replying to the Other (Levinas, it could be that whether he or she wills it or not, an anthropologist is implicated from the outset.

  16. Les inégalités  sociales  de santé, un problème français

    OpenAIRE

    Fassin, Didier

    2013-01-01

    En ouverture de ce dossier, et alors que la table ronde nous a déjà permis de poser quelques jalons, Didier Fassin nous explique les arcanes d’une relégation. Celle dont les inégalités de santé ont été victimes, sacrifiées sur l’autel d’une politique libérale qui, là comme dans d’autres domaines, n’en finit pas d’imposer sa logique.

  17. Lehtmetalliline maailm / Kristiina Garancis, Didier Deschamps ; interv. Kristiina Garancis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garancis, Kristiina, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise uue tantsu festival - Augusti TantsuFestival. Vestlus Prantsuse Kultuuriministeeriumi tantsunõuniku D. Deschamps'iga prantsuse tantsukunsti olukorrast ja kultuuriministeeriumi tantsuosakonna tööst

  18. O antropólogo como "espião": das acusações públicas à construção das perspectivas nativas The anthropologist as 'spy': from public accusations to the construction of native perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Zenobi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, parte da academia norte-americana mobilizou-se em torno de um grande debate sobre "antropologia e espionagem". As acusações feitas sobre alguns colegas eram motivadas pela preocupação com o uso que poderia ser feito do conhecimento gerado no trabalho de campo. Elas expressavam que os antropólogos podem ser considerados sujeitos perigosos para as populações estudadas. Respondendo às mesmas inquietações, em algumas ocasiões, nós, os antropólogos, também somos objeto de acusações feitas pelos "nossos" nativos. Neste artigo, proponho-me a analisar dois episódios ocorridos durante o trabalho de campo que realizei junto a uma turma de parentes de vítimas de um incêndio na cidade de Buenos Aires. Enquanto desenvolvia meu trabalho, enfatizou-se publicamente e em duas oportunidades a possibilidade de que eu fosse um "infiltrado" que estivesse espionando as ações e debates em que eram protagonistas. Com o objetivo de reconstruir as perspectivas das pessoas que me acusaram, proponho transformar esses acontecimentos, de aparência anedótica e pessoal, em perguntas de pesquisa. Inspirado em algumas ideias surgidas no campo de estudos sobre acusações de bruxaria, proporei uma análise voltada para iluminar a dinâmica do campo no qual as acusações foram produzidas. Do mesmo modo, tentarei ressituar meu papel como produtor de conhecimento.In recent years, some American scholars have become embroiled in an extensive debate on 'anthropology and espionage.' The accusations levelled at some colleagues have been prompted by concerns over the potential use of knowledge generated during fieldwork. These accusations have shown that anthropologists can be regarded as 'dangerous' to the populations under study. Echoing the same kinds of concern, sometimes anthropologists are accused by 'their' natives themselves. In this article I discuss two episodes that occurred during my own fieldwork among a group of relatives of victims

  19. La figura dell’antropologo, le necessità di assistenza familiare e la costruzione di una “casa della salute”. Progetto di ricerca e sensibilizzazione nel quartiere Savena di Bologna - The role of the anthropologist, the needs of family caring and the creation of the “health house”. Research and awareness project in Savena district - Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Palmese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The author presents her research and awareness project about family caring initiated in the Savena District, Bologna. Through this experience, the author has had the opportunity to disclose the development of non-self-sufficiency among the elderly creating the so-called “health house” within the home. Using this expression, she specifies the alteration of the physical space and the combination of life stories and expectations of three subjects who dwell in this space: the elderly, relatives and family assistant (“badante”. Outside the house, however, economic and political interests are increasing. The anthropologist has to be fully aware of these power dynamics and, above all, has to develop an educational and mediation activity in order to create more possibilities of expression for the individuals involved in the care relationship.

  20. Didier Debaise, L’appât des possibles. Reprise de Whitehead

    OpenAIRE

    De Meyer, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Qu’est-ce qu’une proposition ? C’est la question qui a préoccupé Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) tout au long de sa vie. Avec Bertrand Russell, il publia entre 1910 et 1913 les trois tomes des Principia mathematica qui visent à réduire les propositions à leur valeur de vérité, vrai/faux. C’est contre lui-même et cette conception réductionniste qu’il a bâti ensuite sa philosophie du processus. Dans Procès et réalité, publié en 1929, il explique combien « il est difficile de croire qu’un log...

  1. Federal councillor for the Swiss federal department of the interior, Didier Burkhalter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Visited the ATLAS control centre at CERN on 23 August, together with Fabiola Gianotti, the ATLAS spokesperson. The federal councillor also toured the LHC superconducting magnet test hall and the Universe of Particles exhibition.

  2. [Rudolf Virchow 1821-1902. Physician, politician, historian and anthropologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, L

    1999-01-01

    Rudolf Virchow was born in Pomerania in 1821 in Prussia/Germany. His father was a cashier. He started his medical studies in 1839 and finished them in 1843. He became one of the most famous physicians of the 19th century, as he founded the "Cellular pathology" theory. This claims that disease and pathological change start in the cell and nowhere else. The ruling medical dogma at that time the "humoral pathology" stated that "body fluids" were in inbalance when a person got sick. Virchow's studies cleaned this out and the hallmark of the "cellular pathology" sounded "omnis cellula e cellula" ("behind every cell there is another cell"). Virchow was a Professor of Anathomy, Pathology and Physiology and was about the first medical doctor to introduce leukemia, embolus, trombosis and cancerous lymphoid glands into our vocabulary. He worked most of his time in Berlin. He was also a famous and powerful politician throughout his entire life, fighting for political rights, universal suffrage, economic reforms and loosening of the grip of the church. He was also struggling for peace and international understanding. Moreover he was engaged in Anthropology and active as an Archeologist-Historian. He was married and had 6 children. Rudolf Virchow is one of the most famous scientist of the nineteenth-century, referred to as a person of most authority by, among others, Darwin and Nietsche. He was the writer of numerous medical books, the founder of medical journals and the leader of several scientifical organizations. He died in 1902 in Berlin in the aftermath of a tramway-accident when he was on his way to an archeological scientific meeting, at 81 years of age. PMID:11625680

  3. An anthropologist in unexpected places: An Interview with Philippe Bourgois

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Johan Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Much contemporary anthropology has turned away from exclusive focus on so-called “primitive” tribes in far-away places. The study of urban people has become more prominent, and some researchers have also turned their gaze towards marginalized minorities in their communities. Philippe Bourgois is an example of this. He is well known for studying crack dealers in East Harlem, New York ( In Search of Respect) and homeless heroin addicts in San Francisco (Righteous Dopefiend). Kula Kula was lucky...

  4. The Need to Help. The Domestic Arts of International Humanitarism, de Liisa H. Malkki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fradejas-García

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La literatura crítica con el humanitarismo ha emergido en el ámbito político internacional para quedarse. Renombrados científicos sociales como Didier Fassin (2012 o Thomas G. Weiss (2016, entre otros, han trabajado sobre los efectos de las intervenciones humanitarias desde diferentes ángulos. Cambiando el clásico enfoque en los beneficiarios, las políticas y los programas para pasar a indagar sobre las organizaciones y los trabajadores humanitarios, Liisa Malkki ha hecho una gran contribución a esta literatura profundizando en el porqué y el cómo de las acciones humanitarias. La autora es conocida por sus reflexiones etnográficas sobre las situaciones de exilio y refugio causadas por las sucesivas guerras y genocidios que asolaron en el último cuarto del siglo XX la zona de los grandes lagos africanos. Durante el genocidio ruandés de 1994, Malkki estaba finalizando un libro sobre un conflicto previo y olvidado en Burundi que provocó la llegada de refugiados hutus a Tanzania. La etnografía resultante, Purity and Exile (1995, explora cómo la violencia política y la cotidianeidad del exilio transforman la identidad y la conciencia histórica de los refugiados.

  5. Revisión Crítica: Biopolíticas post-foucaultianas. Pensar el gobierno de la vida entre la filosofía política, la sociología y la cartografía del presente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Haidar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de la relación entre “política” y “vida”, que Michel Foucault problematizara, promediando la década del ’70, ha sido retomada por diferentes tradiciones intelectuales. Con sus propias “cajas de herramientas” y políticas de influencias, Giorgio Agamben, Didier Fassin y Dominique Memmi y Nikolas Rose, se ocuparon, todos, de la pregunta por la actualidad del ejercicio del poder sobre la vida. En ese intento recuperaron algunos de los problemas foucaultianos, enfocándolos con elaboraciones conceptuales críticas y recreativas. A pesar de esa inspiración común, las reflexiones sobre la biopolítica provenientes de la filosofía, la sociología y los governmentality studies han permanecido relativamente incomunicadas o, a lo sumo, la relación entre ellas se ha limitado al establecimiento de líneas de demarcación imposibles de cruzar. Como consecuencia de esa deliberada separación, las discusiones e investigaciones actuales que se ocupan de la relación entre “política” y “vida”, han terminado configurando formas archipielares, alertas respecto de la mera posibilidad de contaminarse con enunciados foráneos. En un intento por superar esa fragmentación, esta reseña contacta, intercepta y opone argumentos provenientes de esos tres enfoques en torno a un conjunto, común, de problemas.

  6. Hmong and Lao Refugee Women: Reflections of a Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dia Cha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, Ms. Dia Cha – then a graduate student in anthropology at Northern Arizona University – traveled to Chieng Kham Refugee and Napho Repatriation Camps in Thailand, and the village of Ban KM 52, inVientiane Province, Laos, to research issues concerning the repatriation to Laos of Lao Lum and Hmong women refugees. This article, originally written upon the return from these travels and in partial fulfillment of the requirements for her Master of Arts degree in Applied Anthropology, considers the findings made and the insights achieved on this journey of discovery. In particular, the work discusses changes and continuity in the lives of Lao Lum and Hmong refugee women in the camps. Also addressed in considerable detail is the impact of the author’s status as an educated Hmong-American woman and former refugee on her interactions with female and male informants residing in the two refugee camps. Ms. Cha, who spent much of her early life in such refugee camps as are herein described, has, in the intervening period, become Dr. Dia Cha, Associate Professor of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies at St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota, USA. The research project she describes was funded by the United Nations Development Fund for Women and executed by the American Friends Service Committee (The Quaker Services. Ms. Jacquelyn Chagnon joined Ms. Cha during the second phrase ofthe research, in Napho Repatriation Center, and later in Laos; however, the following article, produced originally in 1992, was written solely by Ms. Cha.

  7. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: a medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, R T

    1990-01-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources: food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead...

  8. French Anthropologist David Gibeault Talks about the Relationship between Structuralism and History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID Gibeault; ZHANG Yuan

    2014-01-01

    David Gibeault is a researcher from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Science So-cial ( EHESS ) .He specializes in anthropological method and theory .He concentrates his fieldwork in Southeast Asia and the central part of China .He focuses his research on the formation and succes-sion of knowledge structure .His research on the“singing masters” discusses the structure of Chi-nese history , the successive method of the knowl-edge and the anthropological concept of the “Oth-er”.In April, 2013, he was invited by the South-west University for Nationalities to give a lecture ti-tled “Religion and Society ”.During that time , the editorial department of Journal of Ethnology entrusted Prof .Zhang Yuan to do an interview with him.

  9. Morphological optimization of female combat sports athletes as seen by the anthropologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukiewicz Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body build and proportions are key determinants of athletic success. The effects of the athlete selection process and discipline-specific training are differentiated body dimensions. The aim of the study was to examine the physical characteristics of female combat athletes. The results of anthropometric measurements of 154 females aged 21.2±1.79 years competing in judo, jiu-jitsu, karate, taekwondo, and fencing for 7.5±3.43 years.

  10. Material Culture and Anthropology-An Interview with Anthropologist Michael Rowlands of the University College London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL Rowlands; BIAN Simei; ZHAO Xiuyun

    2014-01-01

    Prof.Michael Rowlands discusses how to use material culture to explore the for-mation and use of objects , the history of objects , and the relationship between objects and histo-ry .He uses examples drawn from his academic background , and his fieldwork done in Africa and China .He further gives an in-depth discussion on the relationship between material culture and anthropology as well as archaeology and anthropology .He proposes specific views on how to de-velop historical anthropology by using material culture , and the combination of archaeology with anthropology .He states that in the future , the focus of anthropology will shift or move away from America and Europe to the rest of the world , and that it is possible that the current understand-ing of anthropology that comes from European and American Anthropology will no longer be ac-cepted as being the truth .Therefore, finding new ways of thinking is necessary for the future de-velopment of anthropology .

  11. From science to art and back again: The pendulum of an anthropologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo guarda indietro quattro decenni di carriera da antropologo, iniziati con un orientamento fortemente sbilanciato verso le scienze naturali, per concludersi con un progetto che cerca di integrare l’antropologia con le pratiche artistiche, l’architettura e il design. È stato anche un periodo in cui la scienza è venuta perdendo sempre più il suo orientamento ecologico, mentre le arti lo hanno invece ulteriormente guadagnato. Nel tracciare il mio percorso di insegnamento e ricerca, mostro come sono mutati i punti di riferimento letterari, a partire da alcuni testi fondativi dell’ecologia umana e animale, ora per lo più dimenticati, attraverso tentativi di coniugare il sociale e l’ecologico ispirati al revival marxiano, fino alle scritture contemporanee sul post-umanesimo e la condizione dell’Antropocene. Era questa una scienza fondata sulla tacita meraviglia per la splendida bellezza del mondo naturale e in silenziosa gratitudine per ciò che ad esso dobbiamo per la nostra esistenza. La scienza odierna, tuttavia, ha mercificato la meraviglia e la gratitudine. Esse non guidano più le sue pratiche di ricerca, ma sono piuttosto invocate per pubblicizzarne i risultati. Finalità della scienza sono ormai la modellizzazione, la predizione e il controllo. Non è per questo motivo che ci volgiamo sempre più all’arte per riscoprire l’umiltà che la scienza ha perduto?

  12. The mind of primitive anthropologists: hemoglobin and HLA, patterns of molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert C

    2003-08-01

    Frank Livingstone played a central role in defining the population genetics of the sickle cell mutation at position 6 of the human beta globin gene, the most famous amino acid substitution in evolutionary biology. Its discovery occurred at a time when traditional, 19th-century principles of natural selection were being joined with the newly discovered mechanics of DNA structure and protein synthesis to produce Neo-Darwinian theory. When combined with the epidemiology of malaria in Africa, differential mortality for both homozygotes, and the resulting advantage of the heterozygote, sickle cell became the classic balanced polymorphism. Human HLA-A has 237 molecular alleles. The histocompatibility system has as its primary function the presentation of peptides to T-cell receptors and plays an essential role in the immune system. Nearly all of the alleles are codominant and fully functional. Despite almost 30 years of disease-association studies with HLA-A, no convincing evidence has been found for differential fertility or mortality at this locus. Yet the dogma in the histocompatibility field is that this extensive human polymorphism is maintained by "balancing selection." Explaining HLA-A polymorphism is what one might call the sickle-cell-effect. This one mutation, coming as it did at the historical convergence of Darwinian theory and modern genetics, and carrying with it the strong relationship between mutation, disease, and allele frequency, has conditioned our discussion of human genetic variation and population genetics. Has the strength of this early idea made evolutionary biologists uncritical of systems like HLA-A and retarded the search for new mechanisms of molecular evolution? Is it now time to move away from a focus on mutation and polymorphism in evolutionary genetics and toward a systems theory that would explain the origin and evolution of hemoglobin and HLA-A and the biochemical pathways that surround them?

  13. Two-Way Mirror. Anthropologists and Educators Observe Themselves and Each Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    This publication contains two separate reports. Part I, the report of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project (ACSP), is an accounting of the time, money, and human endeavor involved in curriculum development efforts toward a course in anthropology for the high school curriculum. The document includes four reports of ACSP staff members and nine…

  14. The Review of and Reaction to Selected Anthropology Projects by Professional Anthropologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynneson, Thomas L.; Taylor, Bob L.

    The main concern of this paper is to determine the accuracy and representativeness of anthropology material from: Anthropology Curriculum Project (ACP); Education Development Center's Man A Course of Study (MACOS); Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH); University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies; Anthropology Curriculum…

  15. Hmong and Lao Refugee Women: Reflections of a Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist

    OpenAIRE

    Dia Cha

    2006-01-01

    In 1992, Ms. Dia Cha – then a graduate student in anthropology at Northern Arizona University – traveled to Chieng Kham Refugee and Napho Repatriation Camps in Thailand, and the village of Ban KM 52, inVientiane Province, Laos, to research issues concerning the repatriation to Laos of Lao Lum and Hmong women refugees. This article, originally written upon the return from these travels and in partial fulfillment of the requirements for her Master of Arts degree in Applied Anthropology, conside...

  16. First record of Hydrolagus melanophasma James, Ebert, Long & Didier, 2009 (Chondrichthyes, Chimaeriformes, Holocephali from the southeastern Pacific Ocean Primer registro de Hydrolagus melanophasma James, Ebert, Long & Didier, 2009 (Chondrichthyes, Chimaeriformes, Holocephali en el Océano Pacífico suroriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bustamante

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Pacific black ghost shark, Hydrolagus melanophasma is reported from deep waters off Chile and is described from specimens collected off Valdivia at depths of 1150 to 1720 m. This species is distinguished from all other members of the genus by its large, curved dorsal fin spine, which extends beyond the dorsal fin apex; a second dorsal fin of uniform height along the caudal peduncle; large pectoral fins extending beyond the pelvic fin insertion; and a uniform black color of the body. Catch records of this species in Chile suggest a discontinuous distribution along the continental slope of the eastern Pacific Ocean, restricted to the Middle America and Atacama trenches. These observations elevate the number of chimaeroid fishes inhabiting Chile to five species.La quimera negra del Pacífico este, Hydrolagus melanophasma es reportada desde aguas profundas frente a Chile y se describe a partir de especímenes colectados en Valdivia en profundidades ente 1150 y 1720 m. Esta especie se diferencia de los otros miembros del género por su larga y curvada espina dorsal, la cual se extiende más allá del ápice de la aleta dorsal; presenta una segunda aleta dorsal de altura uniforme a lo largo del pedúnculo caudal; grandes aletas pectorales que se proyectan sobre la inserción de las aletas pélvicas, además de su coloración negra uniforme en el cuerpo. Los registros de captura de esta especie en Chile sugieren una distribución discontinua a lo largo del talud continental del océano Pacifico este, restringido a las fosas oceánicas de Atacama y Mesoamérica. Estas observaciones aumentan a cinco el número de especies de peces Chimaeriformes que habitan aguas chilenas.

  17. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: A medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, R.T. II (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (USA))

    1990-11-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.

  18. Translation, Adaptation or Amputation? Arctic Explorer-Writer-Anthropologist Peter Freuchen's Little-Known Danish Translation of Moby Dick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how the simplification of adaptation can actually empower a translation with a historically and culturally significant function. The study analyses and discusses the fairly unknown first Danish translation of Herman Melville’s classic novel Moby Dick made in 1942. The trans...... on the back cover of the book, but what is a man’s book? The aim of this study is to draw attention to an interesting story of translation strategies for a male readership as well as to provide new insight into verbal adaptations classified as interlingual translation...

  19. Didier Carnet, Sylvia Morgan, Félicie Pastoré, L’anglais pour la santé. Exercices d’appropriation de la langue à visée professionnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Pascaline

    2014-01-01

    L’anglais pour la santé. Exercices d’appropriation de la langue à visée professionnelle constitue la 3e édition d’un manuel publié en 2001. Il est destiné aux professionnels de la santé ainsi qu’aux chercheurs et étudiants en médecine francophones. Depuis, il s’est enrichi de nouveaux exercices et de fichiers audio (transcription des exercices de prononciation et explications grammaticales) accessibles via un flashcode. Cependant, la base est restée la même : vingt unités, qui reprennent, cha...

  20. Opening talk of Didier Houssin, head of the direction of raw materials and hydrocarbons. Talk of Gerard Piketty, head of CEP and M at the CEP and M-COPREP day of October 10, 2000, corresponding to the 50. anniversary of FSH. Talk of Gilbert Rutman head of COPREP; Discours d'ouverture de Didier Houssin Directeur des matieres premieres et des hydrocarbures. Allocation de Gerard Piketty, president du CEP and M a la journee CEP and M-COPREP du 10 octobre 2000, marquant par ailleurs le 50. anniversaire du FSH. Discours de Gilbert Rutman president du COPREP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houssin, D.; Piketty, G. [Comite d' Etudes Petrolieres et Marines, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Rutman, G. [COPREP, (France)

    2000-07-01

    These articles report on the different opening talks of D. Housin, G. Piketty and G. Rutman. D. Houssin, head of the direction of raw materials and hydrocarbons, analyzes the main events of the petroleum industry for the year 2000 (oil crisis, oil prices, hydrocarbons market, para-petroleum sector etc..). G. Piketty, head of CEP and M, recalls some highlights of CEP and M's history, while G. Rutman, head of COPREP, briefly evokes the activities of his own technical committee. (J.S.)

  1. The policy of development of renewable energies - Thematic public report, Synthesis of the thematic public report, Speech by Mr Didier Migaud, First President of the French Audit Office (Press presentation of the thematic public report on The policy of development of renewable energies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first outlines that renewable energies are developing without reaching the defined objectives. It describes the role of renewable energies within the French energy context (renewable heat and renewable electricity), gives an overview of European and French objectives, and outlines that results are significant but still insufficient. The second part reviews the various difficulties and obstacles: high production costs (methodology of cost calculation, differences among production costs), a complex support system with varying efficiency (support arrangements common to electricity and heat renewable production, and proper to each one), an unsteady legal framework which is a matter of dispute, a not adapted organization of public bodies, and strong physical constraints (grid, intermittency, limited potential). The third part outlines the need of long-term choices which must be sustainable in terms of financial costs, of social and economical impacts, of consistency conditions (with respect to environmental impacts, to electricity market, to adaptation of grids and consumption), of necessary arbitrations (between sectors, in terms of support arrangements, between contradictory imperatives of general interest, in terms of economic integration, in terms of investment in research). A set of recommendations is formulated. The report is completed by several appendices and by the answers of the concerned administrations and bodies (ministries, agencies, so on)

  2. Medical Anthropology and Anthropology Studies in Southwest China——An Interview with Professor Elisabeth Hsu, an Anthropologist%医学人类学与中国西南地区的人类学研究——人类学学者访谈录之七十八

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖坤冰; Elisabeth Hsu

    2016-01-01

    以英国牛津大学Elisabeth Hsu教授的学术经历为线索,介绍20世纪70年代以来医学人类学在欧洲的历史与发展,同时探讨了中国西南地区在世界民族志书写中的意义、影视人类学等新技术手段在田野调查中的应用及西南地区的物质文化研究等.

  3. Kaks uut näitust Kunstihoones

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    20. detsembrist Tallinna Kunstihoones kontseptuaalne kunstiprojekt "Expat-Art-Centre" (koostaja Mathieu Copeland, osalevad Brian Eno, Pierre Huyghe, Ben Kinmont, Claude Leveque, Didier Marcel, Olivier Mosset, Shimabuku, Dan Walsh, Ian Wilson) ning Tallinna Linnagaleriis Marko Mäetamme "Mälestusnäitus"

  4. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    ) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  5. Arhitektuuriuudiseid laiast maailmast - piiratud ruum / Mihkel Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Mihkel, 1983-

    2006-01-01

    Laevmaja Hollandis Muggenbeet'is (arhitekt Arnoud Olie, 2004-2005), noore pere korter Pariisis (arhitektid Nicola ja Adelaide Marchi, 2005), loft house Nagoyas (Shinichi Ogawa & Associates, 2005), eksperimentaalne elamu Lucky Drops Tokyos (Atelire Tekuto + Masahiro Ikeda CO., LMT., 2005), galeriikorter Cafe Au Lit Pariisis (arhitektid Didier Fuzia Faustino, Pascal Mazoyer, Bureau des Mesarchitectures, 2005), Studio D Tokyos (Hiroyuki Arima + Urban Fourth, 2005)

  6. CERN craftsman named Best in France

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Didier Lombard, metal worker in EST Division, was crowned 'France's Top Craftsman' during the 21st edition of the contest, which covered the period 1997 to 2000. CERN employs some of Europe's top crafts people to work on construction of components for experiments that are designed to a high degree of precision.

  7. The Jobs behind the Science

    CERN Multimedia

    Jacques Fichet; Jules Ordan; Anna Cook; Jacques Fichet

    2015-01-01

    Recruitments service promotes this clip "The Jobs behind the Science" Réalisé par Jules Ordan Produit par Jacques Fichet Voix off Anna Cook Musique : Unphased. Les musiciens: - Carlos Rosales - Tim McGarry - Ary Porat - Elio Jaillet - Jules Ordan - Didier Fellay

  8. Ligne Roset soliidne salong lõpuks ka Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Tartu mnt. 6 avati Prantsuse firma Ligne Roset sisustussalong. 1890. a. asutatud firmast, mis alates aastast 1946 keskendus modernsele mööblile. Firma tooteid on aidanud kujundada disainerid Didier Gomez, Peter Malay, Pascal Mourgue ja vennad Bouroullec'd

  9. ["There can be no unnecessary risks"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The psychoanalytical point of view regarding the notion of risks helps us to understand the concept of transference and counter transference. Practice analysis groups provide an opportunity for collective discussion and the sharing of experience of clinical situations. Interview with Didier Gauchy, a psychiatrist-psychoanalyst in Lyon.

  10. The team responsible for modifying the L3 magnet doors for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    First row from left to right: Vladimir Borkov (ITEP), Vladimir Bocharov (ITEP) and Vladimir Petrov(ITEP). 2nd row from left to right: Didier Anstett (SOTEB), Bernard Bourgade (DBS Transport), Sebastien Evrard (EST-LEA), Ferdinando Dalla Santa (EP-AIO), Igor Vetlitskiy (ITEP) and Luigi Pigni (EST-LEA)

  11. Pariisi kiri. Kevadine raamatuhooaeg : [1999. a.] / Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Marek, 1973-

    1999-01-01

    Ka Pariisi rahvusvahelisest raamatumessist. Rets. rmt.: Genette, Gérard. Figures IV. S. l. : Seuil, 1999; Eribon, Didier. Arutlused gay-küsimusest. Pariis : Fayard, 1999. Eco, Umberto. Kant ja nokkloom. Pariis : Grasset, 1999 (prantsuse keeles, originaal itaalia k.: Milaano: Bompiani, 1997)

  12. 異文化理解の諸相 : 束南アジア社会におけるジェンダーの考察を通して

    OpenAIRE

    花見, 槇子; HANAMI, Makiko

    2003-01-01

     Anthropologists Who study cultures other than their own are always bound by the cultural frames of their own. This article follows the developmental phases of research on gender in Southeast Asian societies by western and Japanese anthropologists who tend to seek a congruent ideology behind the set of observed behavior.  Southeast Asia has been known for its relatively egalitarian gender practice based on bilateral kinship. At the same time, it perplexes anthropologists by the widely spread ...

  13. Shifting positions between anthropology, religion and development: the case of Christianity

    OpenAIRE

    Geest, van der, A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropologists in Africa used to have an ambivalent relationship with missionary Christianity and international development work. Being active in the same areas but with different intentions reinforced mutual stereotypes and added to the uneasiness. This seems to be changing now. Christianity has passed its missionary stage and is now an African religion, interesting to study for anthropologists and ‘applied anthropology’ allows anthropologists to make their discipline more meaningful and re...

  14. Epidemiologists working together with anthropologists: lessons from a study to evaluate the epidemiological impact of a city-wide sanitation program Los epidemiólogos y antropólogos que trabajan juntos: lecciones de un estudio para evaluar el impacto epidemiológico de un programa de saneamiento urbano Epidemiologistas e antropólogos trabalhando juntos: lições de um estudo para avaliar o impacto epidemiológico de um programa de saneamento urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio L. Barreto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of qualitative approaches in epidemiological studies, beginning with a general discussion of epidemiological and anthropological methods. It focuses on a case study of the health impact of an environmental intervention carried out in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Most of the precedent studies fields, based on primary date, use to devote little attention to the methodological and theorethical questions attached to long-term studies. Four specific aspects of this experience are highlighted: (a drawing up epidemiological study; (b construction of an observational instrument to measure hygiene habits; (c an ethnographic study that was carried out before the epidemiological study; (d observation of the effects of health intervention on health inequalities. Finally, the report details how the findings of qualitative and quantitative studies might be synthesized. It provides a critical overview of follow-up strategies, illustrated with proper examples whenever possible.En este artículo se discute el papel de los enfoques cualitativos en los estudios epidemiológicos, comenzando con una discusión general de ambos métodos. Se centra en un estudio de caso sobre el impacto en la salud de una intervención ambiental en Salvador, Bahía, Brasil. La mayoría de los estudios en esta línea, que se deriven de la fuente principal de la investigación, aporta poca discusión sobre los aspectos metodológicos y teóricos que participan en estudios a largo plazo. Cuatro aspectos específicos de esta experiencia son especialmente prominentes: (a elaboración de cuestionarios para el estudio epidemiológico; (b la construcción de un instrumento para medir los hábitos de higiene de observación; (c un estudio etnográfico que precedió a la investigación epidemiológica; (d observación de los efectos de las intervenciones sanitarias sobre las desigualdades en salud. Por último, el estudio considera en detalle cómo los resultados de los estudios cualitativos y cuantitativos se pueden sintetizar. Proporciona una visión general y crítica de estrategias de seguimiento, ilustraciones siempre que sea posible, con ejemplos apropiados.Este artigo discute o papel das abordagens qualitativas em estudos epidemiológicos, começando com uma discussão geral de ambos os métodos. Centra-se em um estudo de caso sobre o impacto na saúde de uma intervenção ambiental em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. A maioria de estudos nesta linha, que derivam de pesquisas de fonte primária, traz pouca discussão sobre as questões metodológicas e teóricas envolvidas em estudos em longo prazo. Quatro aspectos específicos dessa experiência são especialmente destacados: (a elaboração de questionários para o estudo epidemiológico; (b construção de um instrumento observacional para medir os hábitos de higiene; (c um estudo etnográfico que antecedeu a pesquisa epidemiológica; (d observação dos efeitos da intervenção de saúde sobre as desigualdades de saúde. Finalmente, o estudo considera em detalhe como os resultados dos estudos qualitativos e quantitativos podem ser sintetizados. Ele fornece uma visão geral e crítica das estratégias de acompanhamento, ilustrada, sempre que possível, com exemplos apropriados.

  15. Eastern Europe - A new Field of Humanitarian History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves DENÉCHÈRE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining “humanitarian” is by no means a simple endeavour: that is a sign of the considerable polysemy of the term, as well as of the debates that animate it. “Humanitarian” refers to a form of action (humanitarian action, work (humanitarian work, commitment (humanitarian commitment for the benefit of people in need who require care, food, shelter; natural disasters, wars, economic crises generate deficiencies and violations of human dignity (imprisonment, abuse, torture. Philosophical and ideological debates, but also highly pragmatic considerations, have contributed to the emergence of humanitarian policies and of a global humanitarian space. Some even suggest a `humanitarian government`, meaning the deployment of moral sentiments in contemporary policies, with the advent of a genuine “humanitarian reason” (Fassin, 2010.

  16. Global health intervention from North to South: (Academic) preparation of students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Rasmussen, Louise Mubanda

    2015-01-01

    the subjects Health Promotion and International Development Studies at Roskilde University. The focus is on agents of intervention from the Global North with Global South targets. The theoretical framework of the course includes, among others approaches from cultural psychological (Valsiner), critical...... psychiatry/ psychology (Fernando), culture-centered health communication (Dutta) and medical anthropology (Farmer, Nguyen & Lock). The course is framed around a critical conceptualization of globalisation covering spatial and ideological dimensions (Fassin). Today’s practice of global health interventions......’ interactive participation is central to opening up a space where issues of power and identity in the encounter of global health interventions can be critically examined and reflected upon. We conclude the chapter by critically discussing the potential of analytic generalisation from the experience of running...

  17. "The Good Child": Anthropological Perspectives on Morality and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Anne-Meike

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no clearly delineated field that could be described as "the anthropology of morality". There exists, however, an increasingly visible and vocal interest in issues of morality among anthropologists. Although there has been a lack of explicit study, it has become clear that anthropologists have, in fact, been concerned…

  18. Näitus nagu kuu / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Näitusest "Expat-Art-Centre" Tallinna Kunstihoone fuajees, Ku fassaadil ja Ku-Ku kohvikus kuni 12. I. Näituse ja sellega kaasneva ajakirja on koostanud Mathieu Copeland, osalevad Brian Eno, Pierre Huyghe (sünd. 1962), Ben Kinmont, Claude Leveque (sünd. 1953), Didier Marcel, Olivier Mosset (sünd. 1933), Shimabuku (sünd. 1969), Dan Walsh (sünd. 1962), Ian Wilson (sünd. 1940)

  19. 传记中的死亡:鲁迅与福柯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹清华

    2009-01-01

    想来,我认真读过的传记有好多部了。而重复阅读的恐怕唯有鲁迅传与福柯传。前者是王晓明的《无法直面的人生——鲁迅传》,后者乃Didier Eribon所著Michel Foucault的英译本(Cambridge &Massachusetts)。

  20. Croissance démographique et marché du logement en France depuis 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Bonvalet; Didier Blanchet

    1985-01-01

    Blanchet Didier and Bonvalet Catherine. ? Population Growth and the Housing Market in France since 1954. In this article a model on the functioning of the housing market in France since the mid-fifties is presented which is based on the effects of population growth. First, population growth rates influence the demand for housing. Supply only readjusts slowly to changes in demand. Short-term adaptation thus increases pressure on the stock of vacancies. This pressure leads to a rise in prices, ...

  1. Les effets démographiques de différentes mesures de politique familiale : un essai d'évaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Didier Blanchet

    1987-01-01

    Blanch et Didier. ? The demographic impact of various measures of family policy : a tentative evaluation. This paper examines the demographic impact of different kinds of family allowances under the two assumptions that (1) the cost of children is actually one of the reasons why the level of fertility remains low and (2) that couples are willing to consider family allowances as indirect reductions of this cost The analysis relies on a model of fertility behavior which is of the multinomial lo...

  2. A glowing tribute to CERN craftsmanship

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Didier Lombard, metalworker in EST Division, has been crowned 'France's Top Craftsman'. It's the second time this prestigious title has been bestowed upon a CERN staff member. The reputation of CERN's craftsmanship outside the Laboratory just keeps on growing! For the second time in a row, a member of EST Division's Manufacturing Facilities Group has been named France's Top Craftsman. After Michel Caccioppoli in 1997, Didier Lombard has now taken his place on the roll of honour. This triennial competition seeks to honour workers and skilled craftspeople in two hundred different trades, from pastry-makers and painters to lacemakers and goldsmiths. To win the medal, competitors must produce an object on the basis of a compulsory specification. 3412 competitors entered this 21st edition of the contest, which covered the period 1997 to 2000. Only 846 of the original entrants eventually presented their work and in the end only 321 were honoured - just two in Didier Lombard's category, metalworking. To be fair, the...

  3. Amistades Internacionales como contribución a la paz. La correspondencia entre Paul Rivet y Theodor Koch - Grünberg en el contexto de la Primera Guerra Mundial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kraus.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the correspondence between the French anthropologist paul rivet (1876-1958, and the german anthropologist theodor Koch-grünberg (1872-1924 after the First World War. the letters illustrate how both anthropologists struggled to reactivate the scientifc exchange between the two nations which had been interrupted by the war. their interest in common research themes, which had always transcended their national borders, established a collaborative attempt to overcome hostility and further appreciate international discourses over national ideologies.

  4. Aide-toi, le ciel t’aidera !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Messu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur, qui a lui-même analysé les transformations des systèmes et dispositifs de la protection sociale française et en a fourni une interprétation socio-historique conduite en termes d’« assurance d’assistance », discute l’approche de Didier Vrancken dans son ouvrage Nouvel ordre protectionnel. Il s’attache d’abord à circonscrire en quoi cette approche nous amène à renouveler les conceptions qui avaient cours en matière d’analyse sociologique des systèmes de protection sociale élaborés au cours du xxe siècle. Il cherche ensuite à en apprécier l’exacte portée novatrice et les limites dans lesquelles elle se situe, avant de proposer, en repérant certains des travers de l’approche de Didier Vrancken, quelques éléments de compréhension, d’ajustement ou de développement de la thèse centrale de son ouvrage. Celui-ci comportant trois grands chapitres, ils sont discutés séparément.Help yourself, and the gods will help you! Concerning Didier Vrancken’s Nouvel ordre protectionnelThe author, who has himself analysed the transformation of French social policy systems and organisations and who has presented a social-historical interpretation in terms of an “insurance for state aids”, discusses Didier Vrancken’s approach in his book Nouvel ordre protectionnel. He concentrates first on identifying to what extent this approach leads us to renew the conceptions that dominated sociological analyses of social protection systems during the 20th century. He then critically examines the approach’s real pertinence as well as its limits. Finally, having identified some inconsistencies of Didier Vrancken’s argument, he proposes a number of ideas in order to understand, adjust or develop the central argument of his book.¡Ayúdate a ti mismo y el cielo te ayudará! Apuntes sobre Nouvel ordre protectionnel (Nuevo orden « protectivo » de Didier VranckenEl autor ha efectuado un análisis de las

  5. Evolving to the Beat of a Different Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents arguments against the recent "punctuated equilibrium" point of view expressed by evolutionists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. Reviews evidence for continuous and gradual change, as recently cited by four anthropologists in the July 9 issue of "Nature." (CS)

  6. Reflections on the future of anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-12-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference's theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline.

  7. Anthropology: The Long Lives of Fairy Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Anthropologists, borrowing techniques from evolutionary biology, have demonstrated that some common fairy tales can be traced back 5,000 years, or more, long before the development of written traditions. PMID:27046813

  8. Imaginative methodologies in the social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imaginative Methodologies develops, expands and challenges conventional social scientific methodology and language by way of literary, poetic and other alternative sources of inspiration. Sociologists, social workers, anthropologists, criminologists and psychologists all try to rethink, provoke a...

  9. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... condition. Dr. Robert Sundick, a physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western...

  10. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the human remains....

  11. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  12. Geographies of Difference: Dutch Physical Anthropology in the Colonies and the Netherlands, ca. 1900-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Fenneke Sysling

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses how physical anthropologists created scientific circuitsbetween the Netherlands and their colonies in the East Indies. It shows that national and imperial anthropology were not two separate spheres and that the movement of anthropologists and their objects was important both for the making of anthropology as a scientific discipline and for making anthropological ideas. Trying to define the physical features of people in Dutch fishing villages and in East Indies inland re...

  13. Bringing together Anthropology, Ethnology and Folklore: From Factions to Union

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, Laurent Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I first focus on the foundation of the AFEA (Association Française d’Ethnologie et d’Anthropologie) and I try to find out how this new association has been managing (or not) to bring together anthropology and folklore since its foundation in 2009. Using this French example, I also try to shed light on more global discussions going on between folklorists, ethnologists and anthropologists worldwide. I present different models of possible cooperation between anthropologists and fol...

  14. «El irracional es el otro»: Los mecanismos de la interpretación en Antropología

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Ricard Lanata

    2005-01-01

    This article examines two dialogues between the anthropologist and alpaca shepherds of the Ausangate mountains (Cusco region, province of Canchis). Parting from the description and analysis of the concrete interpretation mechanisms used in the anthropological discipline (establishment of a lexicon, logical inferences, etc.), and of its consequences (in particular, the attribution of a pre-rational or irrational mentality, on behalf of the anthropologist, to his farmer-indigent interpreters), ...

  15. Bioentropy, Aesthetics and Meta-dualism: The Transdisciplinary Ecology of Gregory Bateson

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Harries-Jones

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I am going to be dealing with Gregory Bateson, a theorist who is one of the founders of cybernetics, an acknowledged precursor of Biosemiotics, and in all respects highly transdisciplinary. Until his entry into cybernetics Bateson was an anthropologist and like anthropologists of his day, accepted a semantic approach to meaning through the classic work of Ogden and Richards and their thought-word-meaning triangle. Ogden and Richards developed their semantic triangle from Peirce,...

  16. Lenses – Light, Bodies and Representations. A paper on the optical device that enables visual perception through representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Mads

    I will discuss the many unique lenses available to visual anthropological research and how a nuanced and differentiated view on them can be the key to understanding the complexity of the representations we, as visual anthropologist, are creating.......I will discuss the many unique lenses available to visual anthropological research and how a nuanced and differentiated view on them can be the key to understanding the complexity of the representations we, as visual anthropologist, are creating....

  17. Understanding Christianity in the history of African religion: An engagement with theological and anthropological perspectives in the pursuit of interdisciplinary dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Retief M�ller

    2014-01-01

    There is ample ground and good motives for interdisciplinary engagement between theology and the �new� anthropology of Christianity. Theologians can learn much about the character of the church in all its plurality from the often insightful descriptions of anthropologists who have recently started to take a strong interest in Christianity. On the other hand, theologians can help anthropologists come to more complex understandings of the meaning of Christianity. Concerning contrasting anthropo...

  18. Abortion in Brazil: Contending Discourses and Women's Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Tussi, Fernanda P.

    2010-01-01

    It is a common practice for anthropologists to explore connections where scholars from different disciplines do not expect to search and find them. This is the theoretical and methodological orientation in which I was trained as an anthropologist and from which I approach the practice of abortion in Brazil in hope to reach an understanding of the constituent dimensions of this social fact. Before I move on the to discussion, I would like to provide some background on the practice of abortion ...

  19. Integrating forensic anthropology into Disaster Victim Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff, Amy Z

    2012-06-01

    This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration.

  20. PSYCHOANALYSTS FINDING FORM : (autofictional experiments in contemporary psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneleen Masschelein

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will look at two important voices in contemporary psychoanalysis, Didier Anzieu and Christopher Bollas, who from a theoretical perspective have tried to devise new genres to express their thinking. The result of this is hybrid texts that com-bine autobiography, essay, case study, fiction, comedy and poetry. In their theoretical work, Anzieu and Bollas have examined creativity and processes of thinking, predomi-nantly from the perspective of object-relations psychoanalysis, although both are known as eclectic thinkers, who do not belong to just one school of psychoanalysis.

  1. Monts Jura Jazz Festival

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Monts Jura Jazz Festival" will take place at the Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains, France on September 21 and 22. This festival organized by the CERN Jazz Club and supported by the CERN Staff Association is becoming a major musical event in the Geneva region. International Jazz artists like Didier Lockwood and David Reinhardt are part of this year outstanding program. Full program and e-tickets are available on the festival website. Don't miss this great festival!

  2. La voie militaire de la 'guerre au terrorisme' et ses enjeux

    OpenAIRE

    Bigo, Didier

    2001-01-01

    This article aims at putting into question the American military response, as a war against terrorism, and at consequently analysing the implications of such a choice. Didier Bigo shows how war against terrorism is a dangerous incantatory and ritual formula if efficiency towards the enemy is more important than law and ethics. In this sense the risk is to enter into a mimetic rivalry in which everything is permitted as long as the enemy does it, and to develop, as a consequence, a judicial ar...

  3. Psicología social, ambiental y de los medios masivos de comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann F., Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Reseña retrospectiva y autobiográfica de los estudios realizados por el profesor Gerard Marcel Zimmerman F.Unos datos autobiográficos previos: Nacido en Estrasburgo, efectué todos mis estudios, primarios, secundarios, universitarios y artísticos en esta misma ciudad alsaciana, ubicada en el Este de Francia. Muy influenciado, en mis estudios de pregrado, par los psicoanalistas Didier Anzieu y Max Pages, he venido alejándome posteriormente de este enfoque y, en mis estudios de Doctorado en Cien...

  4. Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

  5. Vejez homosexual: las heridas del lenguaje

    OpenAIRE

    Giribuela, Walter

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo abordamos algunos aspectos de la relación existente entre discurso, homosexualidad masculina y vejez, a partir de testimonios obtenidos en entrevistas realizadas a varones homosexuales en situación de vejez. Tomamos como anclaje teórico para ello principalmente dos propuestas: la de Judith Butler, quien sostiene en Lenguaje, poder e identidad (1997), que es posible ser herido por el lenguaje, y la de Didier Eribon, quien postula en Reflexiones sobre la cuestión gay (2001) la c...

  6. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon P; Guenette JA; Langer D; Laviolette L; Mainguy V; Maltais F; Ribeiro F.; Saey D

    2014-01-01

    Philippe Gagnon,1,2 Jordan A Guenette,3,4 Daniel Langer,5 Louis Laviolette,2 Vincent Mainguy,1 François Maltais,1,2 Fernanda Ribeiro,1,2 Didier Saey1,2 1Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 3Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, St Paul's Hospital, 4Department of...

  7. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm

    OpenAIRE

    André Omgbwa Eballe; Emillienne Epée; Godefroy Koki; Didier Owono; Côme Ebana Mvogo; Assumpta Lucienne Bella

    2008-01-01

    André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emillienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Didier Owono2, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Assumpta Lucienne Bella21Gynaeco Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomn...

  8. University of Geneva | Conferences in November

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    To celebrate the 20th anniversary of Michel Mayor and Didier Quelozof's discovery of the first extrasolar planet, the University of Geneva is organising a lecture featuring the two astrophysicists | On the occasion of the centenary of General Relativity, NCCR SwissMAP together with the mathematics and physics departments of the University of Geneva is organising a series of 4 colloquia.   Lecture in French. For more information, click here. Conferences in French (except on 24 November). For more information, click here.

  9. How did Annuncio Finance%Annuncio公司的融资历程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀兰; 闾声孚

    2003-01-01

    在本案例中,企业家Didier Moretti(以下简称Moretti),与风险资本家Promod Haque和Jos Henkens(以下分别简称为Haque和Henkens)共同构想要研发一种软件系统(Annuncio软件),他们合作发起建立了一家公司,并把这个想法付诸于实践。以下是对这个过程的具体描述。

  10. Chapitre 4. L’assistance publique

    OpenAIRE

    Crom, Jean-Pierre Le

    2015-01-01

    Des différentes formes de protection sociale, l’assistance publique, qui apparaît encore souvent comme une forme subsidiée de la charité, est certainement l’une des plus méconnues. À ce jour, il n’existe pas d’étude globale de ce secteur de la protection sociale obligatoire, mais non contributive. Depuis quelques années, l’intérêt porté à l’histoire de l’assistance est cependant manifeste. Les travaux pionniers de Didier Renard sur les relations entre assistance et assurance, celui de Christi...

  11. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Mauritius,Madagascar and La Reunion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang; Ruimin

    2014-01-01

    <正>In April,2014,a CPAFFC delegation led by Vice President Feng Zuoku visited Mauritius,Madagascar and the French overseas territory la Reunion.It held meetings with Rajkeswur Purryag,President of Mauritius,Michael Yeung Sik Yuen,Mauritian Minister of Tourism and Leisure,Didier Robert,President of the Regional Council of la Reunion,Gilbert Anette,Mayor of Saint-Denis City,and Ny Hasina Andriamanjato,Mayor of Tananarive City.President Rajkeswur Purryag

  12. Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this volume were presented at a conference entitled, 'Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology,' held November 28, 1990, at NASA's Science and Technology Laboratory. One reason for this conference was to facilitate information exchange among a diverse group of anthropologists. Much of the research in anthropology that has made use of satellite image processing, geographical information systems, and global positioning systems has been known to only a small group of practitioners. A second reason for this conference was to promote scientific dialogue between anthropologists and professionals outside of anthropology. It is certain that both the development and proper application of new technologies will only result from greater cooperation between technicians and 'end-users.' Anthropologists can provide many useful applications to justify the costs of new technological development.

  13. Reasons for eating: personal experiences in nutrition and anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christine S

    2002-02-01

    Social, ecological, physiological and cognitive processes all influence choices among foods that cumulate in dietary intake. This broad research field is studied by nutritionists, agricultural economists and consumer researchers, specialists in ingestive behaviour, biosocial psychologists and cognitive anthropologists of food acceptance, sociologists and anthropologists of social roles of food and historians, folklorists, geographers and other cultural scholars of belief systems surrounding food research. Each discipline has its primary concerns, sometimes with other close fields. This workshop considered merits and mechanisms of inclusive research meetings, journals and books as physical units as well as separate workers and facilities for virtual conferences, documents and organizations. PMID:11883919

  14. Organizational culture, Anthropology of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists have studied organizations since the 1930s. In the 1980s, anthropologists' concepts of culture were instrumentalized by nonanthropologists to promote ‘organizational culture’ as a management tool. In subsequent decades, concern shifted to welding employees from different ‘national...... cultures’ into transnational corporations and organizations concerned with international governance. In such organizations, anthropology graduates are increasingly employed as ‘cultural experts.’ We track the anthropological research on organizational culture and argue that the sensibilities and analytical...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....

  15. RACE RELATIONSHIPS: COLLEGIALITY AND DEMARCATION IN PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs Collopy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 1962, anthropologist Carleton Coon argued in The Origin of Races that some human races had evolved further than others. Among his most vocal critics were geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky and anthropologist Ashley Montagu, each of whom had known Coon for decades. I use this episode, and the long relationships between scientists that preceded it, to argue that scientific research on race was intertwined not only with political projects to conserve or reform race relations, but also with the relationships scientists shared as colleagues. Demarcation between science and pseudoscience, between legitimate research and scientific racism, involved emotional as well as intellectual labor.

  16. The Quest for Identities: Consumption of Wine in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Demossier

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In the study of the Anthropology of Food, Drinking has occupied a marginal and specific position. It is only recently that anthropologists have started to claim that they have a distinctive perspective on Drinking and if ‘according to Dwight Heath few anthropologists before the 1970s would set out deliberately to study patterns of thought and action concerning drink, they had nevertheless written a great deal on alcohol’. The publication in the 1980s of ‘Constructive Drinking’ by Mary Douglas...

  17. Shifting positions between anthropology, religion and development: the case of Christianity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest

    2011-01-01

    Anthropologists in Africa used to have an ambivalent relationship with missionary Christianity and international development work. Being active in the same areas but with different intentions reinforced mutual stereotypes and added to the uneasiness. This seems to be changing now. Christianity has p

  18. Who believes in witches? Institutional flux in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijspaarde, Van de H.; Voors, M.J.; Bulte, E.H.; Richards, P.

    2013-01-01

    Witchcraft has been documented across the globe. The widespread occurrence of such beliefs in modern Africa affects politics, economic development, and poverty alleviation. Anthropologists have analysed the semiotics of African witchcraft, but there is less information on distributional issues. An i

  19. The Indian Liberation and Social Rights Movement in Kollasuyu (Bolivia). IWGIA Document 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaza, Julio Tumiri, Ed.

    For some time the Aymara and Quechua Indians have been adopting resolutions and submitting them to the relevant authorities. Compiled by the Centro de Coordinacion y Promocion Campesina "Mink'A" for consideration by the "First Meeting of Anthropologists in the Andean Region" held in September 1975, this document gives a general outline of the most…

  20. Dynamics of Talk in Two Arctic Villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgounova, Daria

      As early as in the early 1970s the American linguist and anthropologist Dell Hymes (1980: 19) underlined that one of the goals of studying apparently dissimilar linguistic processes was to understand the "origins and foundations of inequality among speakers". Language shift as abandonment of a ...

  1. AIDS as Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  2. Interculturalism and Non-Formal Education in Brazil: A Buberian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Alexandre; Morgan, W. J.; Freire, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Gilberto Freyre, the great Brazilian historian and sociologist, described Brazil as a "racial paradise", a place where different races and nationalities have come to live together in a sort of "racial democracy". The literature on this topic has become extensive as anthropologists, social scientists and historians felt the need to either prove or…

  3. Women in History--Maria Montessori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierdt, Ginger L.

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Maria Montessori, an international ambassador for children who became known for her theories and methods of pedagogy, called the "Montessori Method." Montessori developed an educational theory, which combined ideas of scholar Froebel, anthropologists Giuseooe Serge, French physicians Jean Itard and Edouard Sequin, with…

  4. Magic among the Trobrianders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    to a classic area of research on magic, namely the Trobriand garden magic, as described by anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski. In the conclusion, results from this analysis will be related to long-standing problems and theoretical positions in the study of magic outlined in the introduction to the paper....

  5. The athlete's body and the global condition: Tongan rugby players in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Besnier

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of rugby professionals from Tonga to Japan and points beyond poses new questions about the role of the body as a mediator between the subjective and the objective, which anthropologists and other social scientists have generally examined within the confines of specific societies. Increa

  6. The critical ethnographer as trickster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I explore and elaborate similarities between the identity of mythological tricksters and ethnographic field researchers. As tricksters have multiple identities to mediate the unmediated (Basso 1996), so anthropologists adopt different identities in the field to reconcile the irreconci

  7. Striking a Balance in Educational Aid to the Handicapped: Some Thoughts on General Education and PL 94-142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, William

    A social anthropologist suggests that other decision making models besides the consensual one (which assumes that the public behaves in accordance with values and attitudes) should be adopted by education as a result of shrinking resources, and discusses approaches to making decisions resulting from P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped…

  8. Becoming Maya? Appropriation of the White Shaman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo, Victor D.

    1999-01-01

    The history of anthropology among the Maya consists of both the literal exploitation of archaeological finds and the appropriation of Maya culture and history by the Western academic world to construct distorted theories of the Maya past. In the ultimate disgrace, some Mayan priests are training White anthropologists to become shamans themselves…

  9. Religious Studies: The Shaping of a Field and a Guide to Reference Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of religious studies as an academic discipline. Examines the work of leading thinkers in the field, including anthropologists Sir James Fraser and Edward Burnett Taylor, sociologist Max Weber, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Identifies some of the many reference works that deal with religious studies. (SG)

  10. Nisaidie Nif Anye Mwenyewe, Pomogi Mne Eto Sdelat' Samomu: A Comparative Case Study of the Implementation of Montessori Pedagogy in the United Republic of Tanzania and the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Candy A.

    2010-01-01

    The system of education developed by Maria Montessori, noted Italian feminist, anthropologist and physician, is the single largest pedagogy in the world with over 22,000 public, private, parochial, and charter schools on six continents, enduring even as other teaching methods have waxed and waned. Despite its international diffusion and longevity,…

  11. Émile Durkheim between Gabriel Tarde and Arnold van Gennep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    critique of Durkheim's project. This ‘debate’ is little known among anthropologists and social scientists. The aim of this article is to situate Durkheim and the birth of the social sciences in France between both of these two figures. The aim is therefore also to bring together two disciplinary debates...

  12. Memory, Trauma, and Phantasmagoria in Claudia Llosa's "La Teta Asustada"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The film "La teta asustada" (Claudia Llosa, 2009) was inspired by the text titled "Entre prójimos: El conflicto armado interno y la política de la reconciliación en el Perú" by the medical anthropologist Kimberly Theidon. In this study, Theidon compiles the testimonies of a group of indigenous women who were sexually assaulted…

  13. An historical skull collection and its use in forensic odontology and anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, B; Lynnerup, N; Hejmadi, M

    2005-01-01

    The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Copenhagen, houses a collection of historical skulls of unclear origin, marked with a general geographic or "racial descriptor". Would these historical skulls be of any value for the forensic odontologist and anthropologist concerned with teaching and casework?...

  14. Alien origins: xenophilia and the rise of medical anthropology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest

    2012-01-01

    The beginnings of medical anthropology in the Netherlands have a ‘xenophile’ character in two respects. First, those who started to call themselves medical anthropologists in the 1970s and 1980s were influenced and inspired not so much by anthropological colleagues, but by medical doctors working in

  15. Within a range of possibilities: morality and ethics in social life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zigon

    2009-01-01

    Despite its now common currency the anthropological concept of morality remains underdeveloped. One anthropologist who has made several important attempts to work out a more precise theoretical concept of morality is Joel Robbins. In his most recent contribution to this endeavor Robbins addresses th

  16. De verklaringskracht van cultuur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Nan Dirk de

    2002-01-01

    The explanatory power of culture ‘Culture’ is a popular concept for the explanation of various kinds of behavior in various contributions in the social sciences. Anthropologists and sociologists who use the holistic approach are particularly prone to stress the importance of culture. I argue that po

  17. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  18. Complicating the Concept of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues against a simple, reified view of culture as a set of ideas and norms belonging to a group or nation, and considers the implications of a more complicated concept for discussion of world culture and the global/local nexus. Most anthropologists define culture as the making of meaning, with an emphasis on the process itself as…

  19. 78 FR 2433 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Fort Collins Museum of Discovery, Fort Collins, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... by physical anthropologists and by independent forensic scientists determined that the remains are of... from which this individual was most likely removed based on the collecting history of museum donors. In...; and the Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. Multiple lines of evidence, including treaties, Acts of...

  20. Is an Inuit Literary History Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keavy

    2010-01-01

    In 1921, the Greenlandic anthropologist Knud Rasmussen set out to travel twenty thousand miles by dog team across Inuit Nunaat--the Inuit homeland. During this three-year journey--the famous Fifth Thule Expedition--Rasmussen was struck by the similarities in the language and culture of Inuit communities across the entire Arctic. Considering the…

  1. Proceedings of the Conference on Joint Problem Solving and Microcomputers (San Diego, California, March 31 - April 2, 1983). Technical Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael; And Others

    A group of American and Japanese psychologists, anthropologists, linguists, and computer scientists gathered at the University of California, San Diego, to exchange ideas on models of joint problem solving and their special relevance to the design and implementation of computer-based systems of instruction. Much of the discussion focused on…

  2. Communication as an Organizing Principle in the National Standards: Sociolinguistic Aspects of Spanish Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Carol A.

    1998-01-01

    The Standards for Foreign Language Learning present a definition of language teaching that includes the sociolinguistic and cultural aspects of language. The article analyzes the concept of communicative competence as used by sociolinguists and anthropologists and examines some of the components of communication (interpersonal, interpretive, and…

  3. The Politics of Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    American athlete-turned-anthropologist hopes the Olympics will foster greater understanding between China and the rest of the world sjsan Brownell,an anthropology srofessor at the University of Missouri,St.Louis,guesses she might have been the only nonChinese person crying in front of

  4. Culture, Education, Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenne, Herve

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the anthropology of education must focus on what people do to educate themselves outside the constraints constituting the problematics of schooling. Anthropologists must do this precisely to fulfill their public role as legitimate participants in the conversations about understanding and transforming schooling. When…

  5. Dell H. Hymes: His Scholarship and Legacy in Anthropology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's…

  6. The 'relics of Joan of Arc'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlier, P.; Poupon, J.; Eb, A.;

    2010-01-01

    such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the modern...

  7. Language, Thought, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henle, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays intended for an integrated study of language by anthropologists, literary critics, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists. There is first a discussion of theories concerning the interrelationship of language, thought, and culture. This is followed by a discussion of the development of…

  8. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Lecocq, Baz

    2015-01-01

    -abolition, and post-emancipation share the hyphen in common. The hyphen in this context connects the past to the present, the work of the historian to the work of the anthropologist, the slave to the master. But the hyphen also indicates a temporal disruption or discontinuity. We must bridge the historical...

  9. Gender Bias in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The philosophical anthropologist Dorothy Dinnerstein, in her 1976 work "The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise," argued that in order for us to address the excesses of male-dominated rule in society (militarism, rapacious consumerism), we must attack the root cause of patriarchy--women's domination of early…

  10. The West African sports official : an insider's view of sports administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van W.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Using my own experience as a sports administrator, I describe and analyse the organisational culture of West African sports. As a cultural anthropologist and draughts player, I have been President of the Fédération Mondiale du Jeu de Dames for eleven years, followed by four years as Executive Vice-P

  11. Ch-ch-ch-ch-ch-changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature is on the move. They have a snazzy new home page design and their lead story takes us to San Francisco, where discomfited anthropologists are discussing books at the American Anthropological Association’s Annual Meeting. Science stays home and leads with a story about the lagging math and science skills of U.S. students.

  12. Grid-group cultural theory: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Mamadouh

    1999-01-01

    This article offers an introduction to grid-group cultural theory (also known as grid-group analysis, Cultural Theory or theory of socio-cultural viability), an approach that has been developed over the past thirty years in the work of the British anthropologists Mary Douglas and Michael Thompson, t

  13. Margaret Mead: Anthropological Perspective on Educational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Suzanne S.

    Anthropologist Margaret Mead focused much of her thinking, speaking, and writing on education and the impact of rapid change on educational theory and practice. The history of Mead's writings shows sensitivity to both tradition and change. A selection of 12 of Mead's publications provides insight into Mead's innovative and thought-provoking ideas.…

  14. A Century of Margaret Mead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes Margaret Mead's contributions, focusing on Mead as an anthropologist and educator. It discusses contradictions in her ethnographies and in her work on learning. The paper also discusses her beliefs about the problems of the contemporary United States, particularly her rarely noticed contributions to a theory of learning. (SM)

  15. CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION, REPORT OF THE FIRST ALL-INDIAN STATEWIDE CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORBES, JACK D.

    A CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION WAS HELD IN MARCH, 1967, AT STANISLAUS STATE COLLEGE. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDE ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS FROM REPRESENTATIVE SCHOOLS WITH A HIGH PROPORTION OF INDIAN STUDENTS IN CALIFORNIA, ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS FROM VARIOUS COLLEGES, AND INDIANS FROM REPRESENTATIVE AREAS…

  16. Beatrice Medicine and the Anthropology of Education: Legacy and Vision for Critical Race/Critical Language Research and Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Donna; McCarty, Teresa L.

    2007-01-01

    Over a 50-year professional career, Dr. Beatrice Medicine never failed to assert the importance of Indigenous language rights or to challenge racism in the academy, public schools, and society. She urged educational anthropologists to confront racism in our research with Indigenous peoples. She challenged linguicism and urged the teaching of…

  17. Socialité et co-operation dans l'oeuvre de Charles Goodwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    2016-01-01

    As a linguistic anthropologist, Goodwin elaborates a conceptual and methodological framework to describe the organization of human activities and conducts. The central notion of « co-operation » accounts for what is at stake in ordinary conversation as well as in professional practices, cultural ...

  18. Moved by Mary: The power of pilgrimage in the modern world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.; Jansen, W.H.M.; Notermans, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Virgin Mary continues to attract devotees to her images and shrines. In Moved by Mary, anthropologists, geographers and historians explore how people and groups around the world identify and join with Mary in their struggle against social injustice, and how others mobilize Mary to impose ideas a

  19. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  20. RSM Outlook Summer 2011 : Social Media: strategies for success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Connecting as a cultural imperative (Karen Stephenson) Before developing any strategy for social media, it is essential to understand the fundamentals of why it is humans need to connect and network with one another. Karen Stephenson, a corporate anthropologist, provides the in

  1. Statistical basis for positive identification in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe; Adams, Bradley J; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2006-09-01

    Forensic scientists are often expected to present the likelihood of DNA identifications in US courts based on comparative population data, yet forensic anthropologists tend not to quantify the strength of an osteological identification. Because forensic anthropologists are trained first and foremost as physical anthropologists, they emphasize estimation problems at the expense of evidentiary problems, but this approach must be reexamined. In this paper, the statistical bases for presenting osteological and dental evidence are outlined, using a forensic case as a motivating example. A brief overview of Bayesian statistics is provided, and methods to calculate likelihood ratios for five aspects of the biological profile are demonstrated. This paper emphasizes the definition of appropriate reference samples and of the "population at large," and points out the conceptual differences between them. Several databases are introduced for both reference information and to characterize the "population at large," and new data are compiled to calculate the frequency of specific characters, such as age or fractures, within the "population at large." Despite small individual likelihood ratios for age, sex, and stature in the case example, the power of this approach is that, assuming each likelihood ratio is independent, the product rule can be applied. In this particular example, it is over three million times more likely to obtain the observed osteological and dental data if the identification is correct than if the identification is incorrect. This likelihood ratio is a convincing statistic that can support the forensic anthropologist's opinion on personal identity in court.

  2. Reflections on Migration through Film: Screening of an Anthropological Documentary on Indian Youth in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rutten; S. Verstappen

    2015-01-01

    Visual anthropologists have seldom discussed audience reactions, and those that have done so have tended to focus on the reactions of informants featured in their films. This article shows that collecting and examining responses from a wider range of audiences, and broadening the discussion on the s

  3. Professional Culture: The Boundary Between Theory and Practice in Design. Revised Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Setha M.

    This paper describes two research projects in the anthropology of landscape architecture design which show that "professional culture" restrictions often prevent anthropologists from putting their theories into practice. The first research project grew out of the author's assumption that landscape architecture students were not producing socially…

  4. Body Language in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrick W.

    2005-01-01

    Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye…

  5. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  6. Socio-cultural dimensions to sharpen designer's cultural eyeglasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Boeijen, A.G.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper answers the question, how the dimensions that have been developed by anthropologists to typify cultures, can support designers in user-centred design processes. An analysis and evaluation of the use of cultural dimensions in design projects was performed. Although many of the dimensions f

  7. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  8. "Dem Wod Mo Saf": Materials for Reading Creole English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Ronald

    As part of a study that sought ways to improve the language arts educational experience for Grenadian children, an anthropologist investigated how Carriacou Creole English (CCE) reading materials could be provided and how these children would react to them. CCE is the native language of the inhabitants of Carriacou, a sister island of Grenada. The…

  9. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-01-01

    anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research...

  10. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  11. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  12. A Teutonic ethnologist in the Windhoek district : rethinking the anthropology of Guenther Wagner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; LeBeau, D.; Gordon, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the history of anthropology in Namibia, focusing on the work of Guenther Kurt F. Wagner, who was appointed as Assistant Government Anthropologist for South West Africa in 1949. Wagner's unpublished work, 'Ethnographic survey of the Windhoek district' (1951), shows that Windhoek

  13. Working with Child Prostitutes in Thailand: Problems of Practice and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Conducting anthropological fieldwork on the emotive issue of child prostitution raises difficult issues for anthropologists and other researchers. This article examines the ethical dilemmas of working with these extremely vulnerable children, focusing on the difference between the researcher's own interpretations and those given by the children…

  14. Program in Anthropology and Education: Research Center in Anthropology and Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this program was to discover and to help bring about a more effective articulation between anthropologists and the research and development needs of the schools. To that end, a number of crucial activities were undertaken coincident with the creation of university-based centers. A national conference was organized to assess the…

  15. Teaching Anthropology to Students and Teachers: Reaching a Wider Audience. Publication 82-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Patricia J., Ed.; Selig, Ruth O., Ed.

    These papers, presented at a 1980 American Anthropological Association seminar, address two topics: why the teaching of anthropology should be promoted, especially at the secondary level; and how anthropologists and educators might achieve this goal. Several of the papers have been substantially revised since the symposium. The papers are…

  16. Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl, Poul

    2005-01-01

    Deviance is a classic subject of study for sociologists, anthropologists and social education workers, but not yet for Danish historians, who have been concerned predominantly with political history or other aspects of social history. This article arises from a conference, the purpose of which wa...

  17. Developing Curriculum Materials for Endangered Language Education: Lessons from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    With the gloomy prospect of massive language extinction over the next 100 years, efforts by applied linguists, educational anthropologists, and multilingual educators to reverse the trends in language loss are increasing. Education in minority languages seems to be a key to maintaining endangered languages and cultures. One often cited challenge…

  18. The Language of Food: A Review of the 2009 Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the 2009 Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, which was held in St. Catherine's College, Oxford. This year's theme was Food and Language and over forty papers were delivered to and audience of over two hundred leading food writers, historians, scientists, anthropologists, linguists, culinary students, and general food enthusiasts.

  19. Ethnography and Ethics: A Critique of Gregory Bateson (1904-1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This essay about the work of a famous anthropologist is an attempt to illuminate one way that researchers could apply their findings about the behavior of people in particular groups to ethical considerations of social relations. I argue that Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) is a good example because he applied a few seminal ideas to a wide range of…

  20. Technologies and Levels of Learning: A Gregory Bateson Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Steven; Cummings, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the effective use of instructional technology and examines the use of instructional technology within the framework of anthropologist Gregory Bateson's theory of learning, which views learning as a function of expectation and engagement of the student within the context of the learning experience. (Author/LRW)

  1. Anthropology and social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    attention. That role should go much beyond representing a view from ‘below’ or a politically correct appreciation of cultural diversity. It involves attention to key theoretical concepts and insights developed by maverick anthropologists like Arnold van Gennep, Marcel Mauss, Victor Turner and Gregory...... Bateson, concepts that uniquely facilitate an understanding of some of the underlying dynamics of modernity....

  2. Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that peoples' encoded historical understandings are significant and therefore central to research. Delineates intellectual currents, such as an interest in the subjective world of humans, that have brought historians and anthropologists into a dialogue that has promoted cross-fertilization. Notes the impact of literary theory on that…

  3. Scholars Prescribe Freud's "Talking Cure" for Problems of Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Karen J.

    1986-01-01

    While Freud's reputation is in decline among psychiatrists and psychologists, it is on the rise among literary and film critics, historians, anthropologists, and political scientists, where it is being adopted as a tool to help analyze historical movements, literary works and films, cultural patterns, and political theories. (MSE)

  4. Individual and Group Aspects of Corporate Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe study of organizations has been approached by anthropologists, sociologists, (social) psychologists and economists. The share of economics has been modest. This seems surprising because economists have developed a "theory of the firm", but this theory is rather silent about the inter

  5. Regarding Chilcott's "Structural Functionalism as a Heuristic Device" Heuristically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, Richard K.

    1998-01-01

    The heuristic value of Chilcott's essay lies less in its support for structural functionalism and more in its concern to reexamine theory in the work of earlier educational anthropologists for what earlier theories and practices can add to current research. (SLD)

  6. Language: a social mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁钰

    2015-01-01

    <正>Language and gender studies have experienced a long history in the field of linguistics.Sociolinguists did various kinds of research concerning gender-differentiated use of language.The differences between man’s and woman’s language has long been noticed by anthropologists,historians and linguistics.Then there gradually emerged great gap between male and

  7. Moving toward an Indigenous Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2010-01-01

    In 1951 the anthropologist and psychoanalyst George Devereux wrote "Reality and Dream," on his analysis of an American Indian patient. In the prologue to the book, he summarizes his approach as such: "Whatever happened between Jimmy and myself on the personal level happened between two men of good will and concerns only us: it concerns two men…

  8. Optimeringseksperimenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross; Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2014-01-01

    , we thus engage such practices as non-reductive. This post-critical perspective further enables us to compare the knowledge work of environmental consultants and of anthropologists. While reduction of complexity are important aspects of relevant forms of optimization in both kinds of work...

  9. Studying Nomads on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn C.; Beall, Cynthia M.

    1986-01-01

    Noting that few western social scientists have been allowed to enter Tibet, this article describes the 5-month experience of 2 United States anthropologists. Included are 5 photographs of nomads, a description of the research conditions, and a collection of observations and tentative conclusions about these highland peoples (JDH)

  10. Culture and Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.What Is Culture In 1871,in his classic book Primitive Culture,British anthropologist Edward Tylor first gave the definition of culture which is widely quoted: "Culture…is that complex whole which includes knowledge,beliefs,arts,morals,law,custom and any other capacities and habits acquired by man as a member of society".

  11. Language Death: A Freirean Solution in the Heart of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Alex

    2013-01-01

    "Language death" is an undeniable phenomenon of our modern times as languages have started to disappear at an alarming rate. This has led linguists, anthropologists, philosophers and educationists to engage with this issue at various levels in an attempt to try to understand the decline in this rich area of human communication and culture. In this…

  12. European Influences on the Theory and Philosophy of Viktor Lowenfeld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John A.; Morris, Jerry W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how the work of art theorists, art educators, psychologists, and anthropologists who were predecessors or contemporaries of Viktor Lowenfeld influenced Lowenfeld's philosophy and theory of art education. Included are Friedrich Froebel, James Sully, Franz Cizek, Siegfried Levinstein, Max Verworn, Walter Krotzsch, George Luquet, and Karl…

  13. Clifford Geertz: A career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some concepts of the recently deceased American anthropologist Clifford Geertz, putting them into the specific context of his rich and interesting career, influences that he had, as well as some reactions to his ideas. A particular attention is placed upon the concept of culture, as the key concept in the 20th century American anthropology.

  14. The Perils of Public Anthropology? Quiescent Anthropology in Neo-Nationalist Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nordic anthropologists were remarkably absent from the news media in Scandinavia during the Muhammad Cartoon issue of 2005/6. This chapter discusses perils of public anthropology as seen in the research engagement with the lopsided and simplified representation of ethnic and religious minorities...

  15. On Teaching Ethnographic Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarfield, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

  16. Silent Song: a Performative Documentary Film

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Alan; O'Brien, A

    2000-01-01

    Screenings 2011: Leitrim Film Festival, Cinema Northwest (February). 2009:
 Seeing Cultures: Wellington Ethnographic Cinema, University of Victoria, New Zealand, Travelling Göttingen International Ethnographic Film Festival (January). 2008: Delhi International Ethnographic Film Festival, Department of Sociology, University of Delhi, India (November). Anthropological Film, Video and New Media Festival, 10th Biennial Conference, European Association of Social Anthropologists (EASA),...

  17. All Intimate Grammars Leak: Reflections on "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroskrity, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    In this discussion of a set of studies that fits the trope of "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places," I explore the obvious necessity of developing a relevant notion of linguistic "leakage" following a famous image from the writings of the linguistic anthropologist Edward Sapir. Though in its original use, the concept applied more to the order of…

  18. Some Ways to Endanger an Endangered Language Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Lindsay J.

    2011-01-01

    The success of programs that are focused on revitalizing an endangered language depends on careful implementation. This paper examines four common mistakes that are made when linguists and anthropologists get involved with documenting endangered languages or participating in revitalization efforts: a failure to appreciate the complexity of the…

  19. Why 400 Years to Discover Countless Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Paul H.

    2011-04-01

    In 1584, Dominican monk Giordano Bruno envisioned the stars as "countless suns with countless earths, all rotating around their suns." Searching for intellectual freedom, he fled his native Italy to Protestant Switzerland and Germany, but in 1600 the Roman Inquisition condemned him for heresy. He was burned at the stake. Fast-forwarding to 1995, the Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the discovery of a planet orbiting a star similar to our sun (51 Pegasi). In 2010, 500 planets had been found orbiting 421 stars. On Feb 2, 2011, NASA announced 1200 planet candidates. It took 400 years for telescope technology to advance and for Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Bradley, and Foucault to make major contributions, culminating in today's astrophysics with digital imaging and processing. Contrasting with Bruno, in 2010 Dominican Francisco Ayala, who had been president of the Sigma Xi and AAAS, won the 1.6M Templeton Prize for affirming life's spiritual dimension.

  20. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  1. Partial briquetting of coal charges as a means of utilizing lower-grade coal for coke making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, B.J. (Iscor Limited, Newcastle (South Africa))

    1991-08-01

    The paper describes the difficulties experienced with inferior coking coals as Iscor began using larger blast furnaces for the production of liquid iron. Research conducted at Iscor from 1977 to 1979 showed that benefits could be gained from the use of partially briquetted charges, and it was decided to install briquetting plants at the Vanderbijlpark and Newcastle Works. Details are given of the latter plant, which was supplied by a consortium consisting of Voest Alpine, Didier Engineering, and Sumitomo Metal Industries. Sumitomo also supplied information on the optimization of coke quality along the lines of their Sumicoal System. The results have been a marked improvement in coke quality, much better blast-furnace operation, and increased productivity. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Isolated bilateral ectopic microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Godefroy Koki2, Emilienne Epée2, Didier Owono2, Lucienne Bella Asumpta2, Côme Ebana Mvogo21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Douala Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé CameroonSummary: An eight-year-old school girl presented to us with a bilateral ectopic microspherophakia. She was surgically managed in the ophthalmology unit of the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaoundé in Cameroon. The postoperative follow up was uneventful, and the patient returned to school with a best corrected visual acuity of 4/10 in both eyes to the great satisfaction of her parents.Keywords: ectopic, microspherophakia, surgery

  3. Les frontières sonores de la voix-over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Abhervé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available À la sortie du film De Beaux Lendemains, le critique Didier Péron releva l’importance de la bande sonore dans le processus narratif : « […] Le motif sonore, ou vocal, traverse […] le film et devient vite essentiel […]. C’est […] bien le charme de la musique qui mène la danse et le son qui guide nos pas sur la plate-forme risquée du film, patinoire esthétique pour débâcles intérieures. » Ce motif vocal dont il est question, c’est bien l’argument que nous nous proposons de développer ici : étud...

  4. The role of EGFR-targeting strategies in the treatment of head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dequanter D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Didier Dequanter, Mohammad Shahla, Pascal Paulus, Philippe H LothaireDepartment of Surgery, CHU Charleroi (Hopital Andre Vésale, Montigny le Tilleul, BelgiumAbstract: With its targeted mechanism of action and synergistic activity with current treatment modalities, cetuximab is a potentially valuable treatment option for patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell cancer of the head and neck who have progressed on cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The use of cetuximab in combination with radiotherapy as definitive treatment for locoregionally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is generally restricted to patients unfit to receive cisplatin-based chemoradiation, which is still considered the standard of care. The effect of this epidermal growth factor receptor antagonist occurs without any change in the pattern and the severity of toxicity usually associated with head and neck radiation.Keywords: cetuximab, SCCHN, radiotherapy

  5. Report: L’inconscio, il tempo, il suono. Su psicoanalisi e musica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gardini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The system of classical psychoanalysis, as built by Freud, grants almost no space to the phenomenon of sound and music. Indeed, many aspects of music, though not all, appear incompatible with his conception of the unconscious. Only slowly and painfully, through the reflection and the analytical and aesthetic categories worked out by figures such as Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, Daniel Stern, Didier Anzieu and Michel Imberty, music has finally found its rightful place in the vast map of psychoanalytic science. Many metapsychological categories first elaborated by Freud appear now, retrospectively, as limited on the one hand to the iconic and linguistic dimension, on the other to specifically pathological situations and finally, from the musical point of view, to the "new music", testimony of the world in “era of the technique” and subject of the masterly analysis by Theodor Adorno.

  6. Orange将为客户提供量身定制的云计算服务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Orange公司近日在京举办了一场以”云计算”为主题的媒体推介会。会上,Orange Business Services全球服务部高级副总裁Didier Jaubert表示,该公司已经在整个亚太地区投入了大量的精力,中国是Orange一个不能忽略的市场,Orange Business Services已经与中国电信和中国联通建立了网络到网络的接口,可为国内约200座城市提供IPVPN接人。

  7. Borderline Personality: From Self Limits to Body Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Guerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  In  a  psychodynamic  pers-pective, one of the essential aspects of borderline  personality  is  the  insufficient  self integration, which  often  results  in  a  poor relation  with  the  body  and  self-destructive behaviours.Aims: We intend to approach self development in borderline personality, understand the  importance  of  the  body  in  its development, as well as the role of self-mutilating behaviour  in  the relationship  between  self and body.Methods:  Non  systematic literature  review based on Otto Kernberg and Didier Anzieu theories.Results  and  Conclusions:  On  the  one hand, we find that in borderline personality splitting remains the predominant defence mechanism, preventing  proper  differentia-tion between self and object, as well as the integration of good and bad aspects of self and object. Moreover, the concept of “skin-ego”, defined by Didier Anzieu, says that the tactile sensibility is an Ego and thought or-ganizing model and, in borderline personality, the development of this body envelope is severely compromised. Self-mutilation is, simultaneously, an attempt to re-establish the boundaries  of  self  and  a  communication type open to intersubjectivity that, although contains  a  destructive  aspect,  enables self repair.

  8. Indigenous AIDS Organizing and the Anthropology of Activist Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Morgensen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous AIDS activists join AIDS activists worldwide today in theorizing the AIDS pandemic as a construct of social relations of power. Their anti-colonial and transnational activism holds scholars accountable to studying how power structures the production of knowledge about AIDS. This essay first examines how Indigenous AIDS activists theorize the colonial and transnational conditions of AIDS, and challenge states and international agencies to respect the sovereignty of Indigenous communities and knowledges. The essay then cites Indigenous activist knowledge as inspiration for revisiting critiques of coloniality in anthropology, and their implications for the anthropology of AIDS. Anthropologists studying AIDS can respond to AIDS activists by addressing how colonial legacies shape the processes and products of research and writing. By working within intersubjective and reflexive relationships with people and communities affected by AIDS, anthropologists can enter accountable dialogue with AIDS activists and on that basis produce anti-colonial and transnational knowledge about AIDS.

  9. Himalayan Hermitess:The Life of a Tibetan Buddhist Nun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kurtis RSchaeffer; AuthorYang Gongwei

    2015-01-01

    In 1961 , anthropologist Corneille Jest was conducting fieldwork in Dolpo, the high-land region of the Nepal Himalayan region immedi-ately west of Mustang, when a local Buddhist lead-er told him the tale of a certain woman.Her name, the Tibetan-speaking Buddhist told the anthropol-ogist, was Ani Chokyi, meaning “Chokyi the Nun”.She had lived an exceptional life, and her story was well known throughout Dolpo.Jest noted that a written biography of Ani Chokyi was not a-vailable in the village where he conducted his re-search, though he was told that there was a copy in another temple.

  10. Alien origins: xenophilia and the rise of medical anthropology in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Sjaak

    2012-04-01

    The beginnings of medical anthropology in the Netherlands have a 'xenophile' character in two respects. First, those who started to call themselves medical anthropologists in the 1970s and 1980s were influenced and inspired not so much by anthropological colleagues, but by medical doctors working in tropical countries who had shown an interest in the role of culture during their medical work. Secondly, what was seen as medical anthropology in those early days almost always took place in 'foreign' countries and cultures. One can hardly overestimate the exoticist character of medical anthropology up to the 1980s. It was almost automatic for anthropologists to take an interest in medical issues occurring in another cultural setting, while overlooking the same issues at home. Medical anthropology 'at home' started only around 1990. At present, medical anthropology in the Netherlands is gradually overcoming its xenophile predilection.

  11. Critical Anthropology of Global Health "takes a stand" statement: a critical medical anthropological approach to the U.S.'s Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Abadía, Cesar; Mulligan, Jessica; Thompson, Jennifer Jo

    2014-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010--the U.S.'s first major health care reform in over half a century-has sparked new debates in the United States about individual responsibility, the collective good, and the social contract. Although the ACA aims to reduce the number of the uninsured through the simultaneous expansion of the private insurance industry and government-funded Medicaid, critics charge it merely expands rather than reforms the existing fragmented and costly employer-based health care system. Focusing in particular on the ACA's individual mandate and its planned Medicaid expansion, this statement charts a course for ethnographic contributions to the on-the-ground impact of the ACA while showcasing ways critical medical anthropologists can join the debate. We conclude with ways that anthropologists may use critiques of the ACA as a platform from which to denaturalize assumptions of "cost" and "profit" that underpin the global spread of market-based medicine more broadly.

  12. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume provides an introduction to the emerging field of design anthropology from the point of view of anthropologists engaging in its development. Contributors include young anthropologists with experience in the field and leading theoreticians, who combine to articulate the specific...... style of knowing involved in doing design anthropology. So far design anthropology has been developed mostly in the practice of industry and the public sector, in particular in Scandinavia and the US, and the sustained academic reflection to support this practice is still in its early stages. This book...... will contribute to this theoretical reflection and provide a reference for practitioners, teachers and students of anthropology, as well as design and innovation....

  13. «El irracional es el otro»: Los mecanismos de la interpretación en Antropología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Ricard Lanata

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two dialogues between the anthropologist and alpaca shepherds of the Ausangate mountains (Cusco region, province of Canchis. Parting from the description and analysis of the concrete interpretation mechanisms used in the anthropological discipline (establishment of a lexicon, logical inferences, etc., and of its consequences (in particular, the attribution of a pre-rational or irrational mentality, on behalf of the anthropologist, to his farmer-indigent interpreters, the article proposes reflection on the methodological obstacles for an adequate anthropological interpretation of the other cultures. It attempts in this way, to contribute to define, from the hermeneutic practice of anthropology, methodological protection that guarantee the constitution of real spaces of intercultural dialogue.

  14. Ngat is Dead. Studying Mortuary Traditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    , Russia, 2008 VISCULT 2008: The Festival of Visual Culture, Finland, 2008 SIEFF, Sardinia International Ethnographic Film Festival, Nuoro, Italy, 2008 XXII Pärnu International Film Festival, Estonia, 2008 Beeld voor Beeld, Amsterdam, 2008 Days of Ethnographic Film, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2008 Worldfilm......: Tartu Festival of Visual Culture, Estonia, 2008 BILAN, Jean Rouch International Film Festival, Paris, 2008 The International Ethnographic Film Festival of Quebec, Canada, 2008 XVI International Festival of Ethnological Film in Belgrade, Serbia, 2007 TIEFF, Taiwan International Ethnographic Film Festival......What do anthropologists mean when they claim to study the cultural traditions of others by participating in them? This film follows the Dutch anthropologist Ton Otto, who has been adopted by a family on Baluan Island in Papua New Guinea. Due to the death of his adoptive father, he has to take part...

  15. [Anthropology and synthetic Darwinism in the Third Reich: The Evolution of Organisms (1943)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Junker, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    This essay will analyse early attempts to base anthropology on the theoretical model provided by the emerging synthetic Darwinism of the 1940s. In the first section we will investigate the historical context of the publication of one of the central documents of synthetic Darwinism in Germany: Gerhard Heberer's Die Evolution der Organismen (1943). Anthropology was covered extensively in this book. The second section will give an impression of the live and work of the five anthropologists represented in Heberer's book: Christian von Krogh, Wilhelm Gieseler, Otto Reche, Hans Weinert, and Gerhard Heberer. The third part of our paper will clarify whether these anthropologists shared a common theoretical outlook with the founders of synthetic Darwinism, and to what degree they were committed to the racial ideas of the Third Reich.

  16. Thick prescriptions: toward an interpretation of pharmaceutical sales practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Anthropologists of medicine and science are increasingly studying all aspects of pharmaceutical industry practices--from research and development to the marketing of prescription drugs. This article ethnographically explores one particular stage in the life cycle of pharmaceuticals: sales and marketing. Drawing on a range of sources-investigative journalism, medical ethics, and autoethnography--the author examines the day-to-day activities of pharmaceutical salespersons, or drug reps, during the 1990s. He describes in detail the pharmaceutical gift cycle, a three-way exchange network between doctors, salespersons, and patients and how this process of exchange is currently in a state of involution. This gift economy exists to generate prescriptions (scripts) and can mask and/or perpetuate risks and side effects for patients. With implications of pharmaceutical industry practices impacting everything from the personal-psychological to the global political economy, medical anthropologists can play a lead role in the emerging scholarly discourse concerned with critical pharmaceutical studies.

  17. Towards a Class Struggle Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Menzies

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Dancing between review and argument this paper lays out a foundation for a class-struggle anthropology -that is, an anthropological practice that can be linked to the ultimate goal of achieving a classless society. To this end we will review those anthropologists who have gone before us, pulling out those works of theirs that we see as critical in (rebuilding a class-struggle anthropology. As part of this process we discuss the relationship between what has stood as Marxist anthropology in North America, the idea of socialism, the political development of the world working class during nine decades since the October Revolution, and the challenges of intellectual continuity in the face of differing generational experiences of Marxist anthropologists. Ultimately we argue that a progressive anthropology necessarily involves political activism in our work, communities, and schools.

  18. Anthropology as an inspiration to food studies: building theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Siewicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the role of anthropological inquiry in the development of a new, interdisciplinary approach to food in culture - namely: food studies. Early anthropologists, for example, Bronislaw Malinowski and Edward Evans-Pritchard, stressed the social meaning of food while analyzing the outcome of their fieldwork. When the functional approach had been replaced by structuralism, the symbolic meaning of food was given priority. Therefore, Claude Lévi-Strauss constructed his famous culinary triangle to show the connection between culture and nature in human thought; however, the triangle was not based on his own fieldwork, but rather many examples from other works were used to support this theoretical approach. This paper shows that without the theoretical and practical contribution of these three anthropologists, the flourishing of food studies as a new discipline would have been seriously delayed.

  19. Observing the other: reflections on anthropological fieldwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, P

    1994-01-01

    Aspects of anthropological fieldwork are examined from a psychoanalytic viewpoint using two sources: (1) Malinowski's A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term, a fieldwork journal he kept in New Guinea and the Trobriand Islands "as a means of self-analysis"; (2) the analysis of an anthropologist both before and after she returned from the field. Malinowski's Diary, written in a virtually free-associative form, illustrates how fieldwork stimulates derivatives of significant early infantile conflicts. The patient's analysis revealed the unconscious meaning of, and motivation for, fieldwork for this particular individual. Based on these data, it is postulated that during fieldwork a new, emotionally charged object relationship, with its concomitant transference responses, may be unconsciously established by the anthropologist with the alien society being studied.

  20. The problem of “culture” in the process of intercultural understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreana Marchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n1p251 The problem of “culture” in the process of intercultural understanding is one of the most discussed issues among scholars today. Anthropologists, linguists, literary critics, and philosophers, just to name a few, study this issue in a problem-based and research format. Culture and cultural understanding are hereby presented by demonstrating studies and observations of two cultural anthropologists, R. H. Robbins and Clifford Geertz, a literary critic, Lionel Trilling, and C. S. Lewis, a famous writer of both fiction and non-fiction. My intention here is to answer the question: how to describe and analyze a culture that is so different from the perspective of our own? In this sense, language and discourse are also analyzed in this paper as part of culture and can indicate some of our own moral perspectives and judgments on others’ cultures.

  1. Seeing (and Doing) Conservation Through Cultural Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard B.; Russell, Diane; West, Paige; Brosius, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss various vantage points gained through the authors’ experience of approaching conservation through a “cultural lens.” We then draw out more general concerns that many anthropologists hold with respect to conservation, summarizing and commenting on the work of the Conservation and Community Working Group within the Anthropology and Environment Section of the American Anthropological Association. Here we focus on both critiques and contributions the discipline of anthropology makes with regard to conservation, and show how anthropologists are moving beyond conservation critiques to engage actively with conservation practice and policy. We conclude with reflections on the possibilities for enhancing transdisciplinary dialogue and practice through reflexive questioning, the adoption of disciplinary humility, and the realization that “cross-border” collaboration among conservation scholars and practitioners can strengthen the political will necessary to stem the growing commoditization and ensuing degradation of the earth’s ecosystems.

  2. A critique of anthropological research on homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, T K

    1977-01-01

    Since the 1970 resolutions of the American Anthropological Association, encouraging more research activity among anthropologists on the topic of homosexuality, there has been less than enthusiastic response. Rather than directly attempting to provide reasons for this research failure, this paper takes a look at what actually has been done by anthropologists with an eye to assessment of their major contributions. Thus, summarized are the studies on the role of the "berdache" in primitive cultures, with a critique of the terminological problems associated; a review of some of the ethnographic accounts of homoerotic behavior among primitive folk, with comments on the weaknesses of such treatments; and, finally, a discussion of the current typological approach to the study of the homosexual community, with its multimodal rather than unimodal emphasis. In short, this is a review article that tries to assess the impact of anthropological research for the ultimate understanding of this facet of humankind.

  3. Ethnography at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    that of a rival firm. "Ethnography at Work" follows the experiences of the author as a participant observer in the day-to-day running of a Japanese advertising agency. The book reveals the intricate behind-the-scenes planning, discussion, negotiations and strategies needed to ensure that the agency's presentation......Follows the experiences of the author as a participant observer in the running of a Japanese advertising agency. This book reveals the behind-the-scenes planning, discussion, negotiations and strategies needed to ensure that the agency's presentation to a potential client will be preferred over...... their understanding of their companies' organizational structures, strategies and daily work practices. Asking crucial questions about the role of the anthropologist in the field, "Ethnography at Work" introduces students to ways in which anthropologists study social systems in business....

  4. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    of anthropological debates and theories about knowledge. This provides a perspective from which to look critically at ‘evidence’ and identify its multiple meanings and uses in policymaking. The analysis also leads to a refinement of anthropological concepts of knowledge. ‘Evidence’ is purported to be the objective...... and ideologies explicit. Furthermore, in relation to an anthropology of knowledge, sound knowledge also offers a reconsideration of the way anthropologists study knowledge, as it specifies that studying knowledge for anthropologists means studying what people consider as knowledge, in what circumstances......The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim...

  5. PROBLEMATIKA PENERAPAN METODE FIELD RESEARCH UNTUK PENELITIAN ARSITEKTUR VERNAKULAR DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon Priaji Martana

    2006-01-01

    Field research method was introduced into the academic world on the second half of 19th century. This method commonly used by anthropologist. According to Bronislaw Malinoski -field research pioneer in 1920s- social researcher must interact directly and live together with the indigene to study their tradition, belief, as well as their social process. As the time passing by, field research method also used by another branch of science, including architecture. The implementation of field resear...

  6. Introducing an Etnosemiotic Approach to develop Multimedia Material for Supporting the Alphabetization Process for a Mexican Indigenous Language

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Garcia

    2011-01-01

    One of the effects of globalization in countries’ education programs is the loss of their native languages. The loss of native languages does not only affect the research work of anthropologists, linguists, and ethnologists; moreover the country’s identity and culture. In this context, our research aims to establish some ethnic contexts which influence students’ learning and to provide dynamic material to support the learning process in an indigenous language. More specifically, in this paper...

  7. On the Advantages and Defects of the American Structuralism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓莹

    2004-01-01

    During the years at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century when Saussure was working out his ideas in Europe, synchronic linguistics was emerging independently, and in a very different style, in America, under the leadership of the anthropologist Franz Boas. Boas set a direction for American linguistics. The school founded by Boas was called structural linguistics. Beside Boas, the other two major representatives of this school during this period were: Sapir and Bloomfield.

  8. Trunk Orientation, Stability, and Quadrupedalism

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Wright, W. G.; St George, R. J.; Gurfinkel, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Tan and Colleagues (2005–2012) have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists, and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area has undergone a convincing critique (Downey, 2010) and ended with a call “… to move in a different direction … away from thinking solely i...

  9. Trunk orientation, stability and quadrupedalism

    OpenAIRE

    YuriPIvanenko; W.GeoffreyWright; RebeccaSt George

    2013-01-01

    Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Uner Tan and colleagues (2005-2012) have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area has undergone a convincing critique (Downey 2010) and ended with a call "... to move in a different direction … away from thinkin...

  10. 平遥:期待冲出围城的摄影节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋永权

    2003-01-01

    Of the various photography festivals in China, the Pingyao International Photography Festival is still the one of the highest professional standard, the most appealing. As a form of visual language, imagery should not get divorced from social reality. If we could invite to the festival more culture researchers, historians, anthropologists, sociologists, and painters, the photography festival would break the boundaries of photography, attrad more audience, have a more enduring life, and meanwhile offer a wider scope of knowledge to photographers.

  11. The People Paradox: Self-Esteem Striving, Immortality Ideologies, and Human Response to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Janis L Dickinson

    2009-01-01

    In 1973, Ernest Becker, a cultural anthropologist cross-trained in philosophy, sociology, and psychiatry, invoked consciousness of self and the inevitability of death as the primary sources of human anxiety and repression. He proposed that the psychological basis of cooperation, competition, and emotional and mental health is a tendency to hold tightly to anxiety-buffering cultural world views or “immortality projects” that serve as the basis for self-esteem and meaning. Although ...

  12. Kulturmorphologie und Neopaganismus. Der Glaube des Leo Frobenius - Kulturmorphologie and Neopaganism. The beliefs of des Leo Frobenius

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Streck

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists are used to describing the religions of others, nut not their own beliefs. In the human sciences we rarely find information about the religious beliefs of researchers. But carefully examining published and unpublished writings, we can still find some indications regarding the authors’ values, which they may not have always intended to disclose to the public. This is in spite of the fact or perhaps, more correctly, because they are closely related to the theory and practice ...

  13. Tourism Studies on the Cultural Values at National and Organizational Level

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpia State

    2005-01-01

    The anthropologists have pointed out the existence of many thinking currents and schools in the field of organizational culture. The study of this culture became more and more important as the transnational companies have developed day by day. Having in mind the process of internationalization and of cultural mix, these kinds of studies are also applied in the field of tourism both national and international. The present article presents three types of studies of the organizational cultural i...

  14. Feminicidio y legislación Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga Muñoz, Deysy Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The concept of femicide in Latin America was developed by the ethnologist and anthropologist Marcela Lagarde, specifically for the case of women murdered in Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). The term has spread to other countries and in Colombia it was built into the reform to the Penal Code (Act 1257 of 2008) in this law is to protect women in such circumstances, this paper intends to make a sketch and a made known this as fact.

  15. Dance anthropology and the impact of 1930s Haiti on Katherine Dunham's scientific and artistic consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Durkin, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Katherine Dunham (1909-2006) was one of the most critically and commercially successful dancers of the twentieth century. She established and ran the Katherine Dunham Dance Company, the earliest self-supporting predominantly black dance company and one of the first modern dance troupes to achieve international success. She was also one of the first African Americans to conduct anthropological fieldwork, and the first anthropologist to explore the function of dance in rituals and community lif...

  16. Human mobility, cognition and GISc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    psychologists, anthropologists, geographers, engineers, and computer scientists) for the mutual development of future concepts for experimenting with, recording, analyzing, simulating, visualizing, and communicating data and information regarding humans’ spatial behaviour. The conference is part...... exclusive) list of topics was suggested: • Wayfinding and navigation • Agent based simulation and modelling (ABM) • Movement analysis • Emerging and classic technologies for recording movement • Visualisation of moving objects • Spatial perception and memory • Efficient structures for storing movement data...

  17. De pueblo de indios a centro regional. Las transformaciones históricas de un municipio de Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbona Guillén, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    Research on the town of Tapilula, in the Mexican state of Chiapas, belies the alleged cultural and ethnic immutability of the state's indigenous population that anthropologists have trumpeted over the past decades. Instead of a paradise of resistence against the constant inroads of modernity and Mexico's national culture, Chiapas appears to be, as the case of Tapilula suggests, continuously enmeshing in the historical and cultural context to which this area has belonged since colonial times.E...

  18. Globalization and New Strategies of Ruling in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Aihwa

    2003-01-01

    Debates about globalization are a wake-up call for anthropologists to develop new approaches to the study of culture and society. There is a classical anthropological tradition concerned with the study of social function and organization on any scale, but we need new categories to analyze the strategic aspects of contemporary global interconnectedness. I will address the impact of economic globalization on the respatialization of state sovereignty, and the reterritorialization of capit...

  19. Evidence for a Common Origin of Blacksmiths and Cultivators in the Ethiopian Ari within the Last 4500 Years: Lessons for Clustering-Based Inference.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy van Dorp; David Balding; Simon Myers; Luca Pagani; Chris Tyler-Smith; Endashaw Bekele; Ayele Tarekegn; Thomas, Mark G; Neil Bradman; Garrett Hellenthal

    2015-01-01

    The Ari peoples of Ethiopia are comprised of different occupational groups that can be distinguished genetically, with Ari Cultivators and the socially marginalised Ari Blacksmiths recently shown to have a similar level of genetic differentiation between them (FST ≈ 0.023 - 0.04) as that observed among multiple ethnic groups sampled throughout Ethiopia. Anthropologists have proposed two competing theories to explain the origins of the Ari Blacksmiths as (i) remnants of a population that inhab...

  20. Focus Section on Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  1. Healers on the colonial market; Native doctors and midwives in the Dutch East Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    Healers on the colonial market is one of the few studies on the Dutch East Indies from a postcolonial perspective. It provides an enthralling addition to research on both the history of the Dutch East Indies and the history of colonial medicine. This book will be of interest to historians, historians of science and medicine, and anthropologists. How successful were the two medical training programmes established in Jakarta by the colonial government in 1851? One was a...

  2. Postsecularism, piety and fanaticism: reflections on Jürgen Habermas' and Saba Mahmood’s critiques of secularism

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses how recent critiques of secularism in political philosophy and cultural anthropology might productively be combined and contrasted with each other. I will show that Jürgen Habermas' postsecularism takes insufficient account of elementary criticisms of secularism on the part of anthropologists such as Talal Asad and Saba Mahmood. However, I shall also criticize Saba Mahmood’s reading of secularism by arguing that, in the end, she replaces the secular-religious divide with...

  3. Rearticulating the Social: Spatial Practices, Collective Subjects, and Oaxaca's Art of Protest

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation, titled "Rearticulating the Social: Spatial Practices, Collective Subjects, and Oaxaca's Art of Protest," explores how the popular uprising begun in Oaxaca, Mexico in 2006 is reconfiguring conceptions of public space and rights to the city, redefining political participation through novel practices of self-formation, and questioning the role of democratic government in Mexico's future. As both an architect and an anthropologist, my central research objective was to analyze how...

  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Involved in the Preservation of Non-Adult Skeletal Remains in Archaeology and Forensic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Manifold, BM

    2012-01-01

    Human skeletal remains offers the most direct insight into the health, well-being, and the lifestyles of both past and modern populations, as well as the study of violence and traumas encountered both from archaeological and forensic contexts. They also allow archaeologists and anthropologists to reconstruction demographic details, none more so than those of children, where mortality rates were high in most human populations until the twentieth century. The study of children within biological...

  5. Soft currencies, cash economies, new monies: Past and present

    OpenAIRE

    Guyer, Jane I.

    2012-01-01

    Current variation in the forms of money challenges economic anthropologists and historians to review theory and comparative findings on multiple currency systems. There are four main sections to the paper devoted to (i) the present continuum of hard to soft currencies as an instance of multiplicity, including discussion of different combinations of the classic four functions of money, especially the relationship between store of value and medium of exchange; (ii) the logic of anthropological ...

  6. Globalization, Class and Culture in Global Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Friedman

    2015-01-01

    The work of Immanuel Wallerstein has been criticized by certain anthropologists for not having taken culture into proper account. He has been accused of the sin of political economy, a not uncommon accusation, a re?ex of the 80s and post-80s anthropological jargon that might ?nally today be exhausted. Years earlier a number of social scientists were engaged in a critical assessment of the social sciences from a distinctively global perspective. Wallerstein, Frank and others were at the forefr...

  7. Grow first, gain fat in the meantime. Longitudinal study of anthropometric changes around menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Ziomkiewicz Anna; Kozieł Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    There is a long dispute among anthropologist over which factor is more important – skeletal maturation or energy accumulation – for menarche occurrence. Here we report results of longitudinal study conducted on the sample of 178 girls followed for the period from 2 years before to 2 years after the age of menarche. Each year during this period anthropometric measures of waist and hip circumference, pelvis breadth, subscapular, triceps and abdominal skinfold thickness were taken to document gi...

  8. Classification of Ancient Mammal Individuals Using Dental Pulp MALDI-TOF MS Peptide Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Thi-Nguyen-Ny Tran; Gérard Aboudharam; Armelle Gardeisen; Bernard Davoust; Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel; Christophe Flaudrops; Maya Belghazi; Didier Raoult; Michel Drancourt

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrom...

  9. Cooperation and the evolution of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    McNally, Luke; Brown, Sam P.; Jackson, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED EXIS Open Choice - full open access The high levels of intelligence seen in humans, other primates, certain cetaceans and birds remain a major puzzle for evolutionary biologists, anthropologists and psychologists. It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities (the `social intelligence hypothesis?), and in recent years decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions ha...

  10. Violence and memory: slavery in the museum

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Book synopsis: How have imperialism and its after-effects impacted patterns of cultural exchange, artistic creativity and historical/curatorial interpretation? World Art and the Legacies of Colonial Violence - comprised of ten essays by an international roster of art historians, curators, and anthropologists - forges innovative approaches to post-colonial studies, Indigenous studies, critical heritage studies, and the new museology. This volume probes the degree to which global histories ...

  11. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  12. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....

  13. A Unifying Account of Technological Knowledge: Animal Construction, Tool Use, and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Heflin, Ashley Shew

    2011-01-01

    Philosophers, historians of technology, and anthropologists often offer accounts of technology that include a â human clause,â some phrase to the effect that only humans use or make technologies. When these academics do consider tool use, they refer to a few cases, usually from chimpanzee studies, as special and unusual in the animal kingdom and whose similarities to human tool use can be explained through some shared evolutionary heritage. However, new observational and laboratory animal ...

  14. Dance and Costume. From the Tradition to Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabitsis Christos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available According to dance sociologists and anthropologists, folk dance is an aspect of human behaviour, a non-verbal system of communication in which society itself is reflected. Dance, apart from motion, also covers the areas surrounding it: the environment where it occurs and develops, the relationships between the dancers themselves and between the dancers and spectators, the objects used during the performance and even the dancers’ costumes.

  15. Estimation of stature from the vertebral column in physical and forensic anthropology.

    OpenAIRE

    Milani, C.; G.L. Panattoni

    2013-01-01

    Stature is one of the most important parameters in personal identification for physical and forensic anthropologists. Stature can be extimated from decomposed and fully or partially akeletonized human remains. Many Authors developed anatomical methods based on measurements of the whole skeleton or mathematical methods based on measurements of single bones, from which they obtained regression formulae for calculating the stature. In this review, we focused on the vertebral column and compared ...

  16. Identity and Schooling: Some Lessons for the Economics of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Akerlof, George A.; Rachel E. Kranton

    2002-01-01

    This review culls noneconomic literature on education--by sociologists, anthropologists, and practitioners to present a new economic theory of students and schools. This theory elaborates two themes that have eluded economic analysis. First is the student as decision-maker whose primary motivation is her identity. Second is a conception of the school as a social institution. This framework suggests a new perspective on questions such as resource allocation and school reform. It explains why s...

  17. Performing the Slaughterhouse: Making Meaning and Worlds in Daily Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Wentworth, Kara

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnography of the kill floor – the small concrete room where animals are killed and dismembered – in small U.S. slaughterhouses. From 2010-2014, I visited two dozen slaughterhouses and meat businesses, spending time with people and animals, asking questions, helping out, and trying to answer one overarching question: How is meaning made in practice?To answer this question, I take three different analytic approaches: In the first section, I work as an anthropologist....

  18. Culture, Urbanism and Changing Human Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, L M

    2014-01-01

    Anthropologists have long known that human activity driven by culture changes the environment. This is apparent in the archaeological record and through the study of the modern environment. Perhaps the largest change since the paleolithic era is the organization of human populations in cities. New environments can reshape human biology through evolution as shown by the evolution of the hominid lineage. Evolution is not the only process capable of reshaping our biology. Some changes in our hum...

  19. Back to Kinship: A General Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Dwight W; El Guindi, Fadwa

    2013-01-01

    In this collection, we retrace some of the historical development of the anthropological study of kinship and go back to the concepts and ideas that we, as anthropologists, had previously been circulating about kinship knowledge.  We address issues that have been raised about the study of kinship, the place of kinship in anthropological knowledge and what constitutes kinship on the basis of local knowledge.

  20. Le rôle écologique des bonobos : service écologique de dispersion de graine en forêt du Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Beaune, David

    2012-01-01

    Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are threatened with extinction. They are the largest primates, and the only apes (except human), of the southern bank of the Congo Basin. Along with chimpanzees, they are our closest living relatives and are studied by anthropologists to include/understand our hominid origins; but what about their functional role in the forest? Would their disappearance have serious consequences for forest ecology? Answering this question is the aim of this new project, with several yea...

  1. Legends of Organ Theft: The Moral Dilemma of Contemporary Society

    OpenAIRE

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-01-01

    Legends and rumors of organ theft became a global phenomenon in the beginning of the 80s, with the information originating from the "Third world" countries. Victims where poor and powerless, typically children. The rumor engaged a series of actions from anthropologists, NGO’s and media trying to ascertain their validity. Before long, the world was divided into two camps: on the one hand where those who believed the rumors, condemning the West for its exploitation of the underdeveloped and the...

  2. Forests, fields, and the edge of sustainability at the ancient Maya city of Tikal

    OpenAIRE

    Lentz, David L.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Scarborough, Vernon L.; Magee, Kevin S.; Thompson, Kim M.; Weaver, Eric; Carr, Christopher; Terry, Richard E.; Islebe, Gerald; Tankersley, Kenneth B.; Grazioso Sierra, Liwy; Jones, John G.; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Ramos Hernandez, Carmen E.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of complex societies and sustainable land use associated with urban centers has been a major focus for anthropologists, geographers, and ecologists. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the agricultural, agroforestry, and water management strategies of the inhabitants of the prominent ancient Maya city of Tikal, and how their land use practices effectively sustained a low-density urban population for many centuries. Our findings also reveal, however, that the productive lands...

  3. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, Eva; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  4. Evaluační výzkum

    OpenAIRE

    Kovář, Jakub; Katedra antropologických a historických věd, Filozofická fakulta, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni

    2008-01-01

    The article takes to task the well-established claim that academic anthropology should be free from traps of evaluation. Although, on the other hand, in applied anthropology we could see the strong accent on the evaluational research, as a new option for anthropologist. In this article are discussed the trends in evaluation research by means of their strategies, compared with academic research and with certain emphasis on theory-driven perspective introduced by Huey-tsyh Chen. In addition to ...

  5. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    OpenAIRE

    Addendum by Penny Edwards; Lorraine Paterson

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45). He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967) and...

  6. How the World Changed Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Daniel; Costa, Elisabetta; Haynes, Nell; McDonald, Tom; Nicolescu, Razvan; Sinanan, Jolynna; Spyer, Juliano; Venkatraman, Shriram; Wang, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    How the World Changed Social Media is the first book in Why We Post, a book series that investigates the findings of nine anthropologists who each spent 15 months living in communities across the world. This book offers a comparative analysis summarising the results of the research and exploring the impact of social media on politics and gender, education and commerce. What is the result of the increased emphasis on visual communication? Are we becoming more individual or more social? Why is ...

  7. The fate of nationalism in the new states: Southeast Asia in comparative historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sidel, John

    2012-01-01

    In two landmark essays published in 1973, the eminent anthropologist Clifford Geertz offered an early assessment of what he termed "The Fate of Nationalism in the New States," referring to the newly independent nation-states of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. 1 Ranging with characteristic ease and flair across Burma, India, Indonesia, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, and Nigeria, Geertz argued that an "Integrative Revolution" was under way, but one complicated and compromised by the inherent te...

  8. From a political anthropology to an anthropology of policy: interview with Cris Shore

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, Cris; Durão, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Cris Shore is one of the few anthropologists who have been studying “the makings of politics” and has put forward creative bridges connecting anthropology, political science, organisational studies and sociology. Shore is currently Chair of Anthropology and Head of Department at the University of Auckland (New Zealand), after lecturing at the Goldsmiths College, University of ­London (UK), between 1990 and 2003. Shore’s works include titles such as Anthropology of Policy: Critical Perspective...

  9. Cosmopolitan Narratives:Documentary Perspectives on Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Cosmopolitan Narratives: Documentary Perspectives on AfghanistanCosmopolitanism is a concept discussed in relation to globalization in contemporary societies by sociologists, anthropologists and media scholars (Beck 2006, Delanty 2006, Appadurai 1996). The concept indicates the dialectic between universal dimensions of human life and cultural differences in a more and more mediatized global media culture. How do individuals and groups imagine each other in this new, global media culture, in w...

  10. Business Ethics: A Double Bind

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Steven; Gallenga, Ghislaine; Soldani, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to special issue on Business Ethics, in the Journal of Business Anthropology. Today, business ethics can be found everywhere. But how can we define it intellectually? What does this concept include? How can we define it in explicitly anthropological terms? For the manager as well as the anthropologist, business ethics – in thoughts or in actions – involves dealing with opposing notions, often constructed as an opposition between efficiency versus ethics. As a matter of fact, an e...

  11. La Historia, los Antropólogos y la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Pineda Camacho

    2005-01-01

    Colombia’s anthropology of the Amazon, like the other Latin American anthropologists of the rain forest, was concerned whit developing a historical vision of the place, complementing in this way other metropolitan perspectives on basin that were centered, whit few exceptions, around a synchronic perspective. Understanding such situation demanded from them not only the explorations of oral traditions, but also conceiving the anthropology of the Amazon as a historical anthropology of the Andes,...

  12. Contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice in nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Ailinger Rita L.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: This article aims to identify the contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice in nursing. BACKGROUND: Qualitative research dates back to the 1920s and 1930s, when anthropologists and sociologists used qualitative research methods to study human phenomena in naturalistic settings and from a holistic viewpoint. Afterwards, other subject matters, including nursing, adopted qualitative methods to answer their research questions. The restructuring of health care over the ...

  13. Debating the Desirability of New Biomedical Technologies: Lessons from the Introduction of Breast Cancer Screening in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Boenink, M.

    2011-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) was developed in the 1970s and 1980s to facilitate decision making on the desirability of new biomedical technologies. Since then, many of the standard tools and methods of HTA have been criticized for their implicit normativity. At the same time research into the character of technology in practice has motivated philosophers, sociologists and anthropologists to criticize the traditional view of technology as a neutral instrument designed to perform a specif...

  14. Anthropology and Anarchy: their elective affinity. GARP11

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This essay brings together anthropology and anarchism, first by an examination of anthropologists who have expressed an interest in anarchism, then by discussion of classical anarchist thinkers who have drawn upon anthropological literature to develop their ideas. The second part of the essay offers some reflections on anarchism as a political tradition and deals with certain misconceptions that have been forwarded by its liberal and Marxist critics.

  15. METRIC ASSESSMENT OF FEMUR USING DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION ANALYSIS IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hema Nidugala; Bhagya Bhaskar; Sucharitha Suresh; Ramakrishna Avadhani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination from unidentified human skeletal elements is a challenge for forensic investigators and anthropologists. This study aims to detect the best variable for sex determination from different parameters of femur. Methods: We analyzed 75 (40 males and 35 females) femora of known sex from the Department of Anatomy. Eight parameters were measured and subjected to univariate statistics, multivariate analysis such as discriminant analysis and logistic regression analysis ...

  16. Many hands make hard work, or why agriculture is not a puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés

    2007-01-01

    The shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture, some 10,000 years ago, triggered the first demographic explosion in history. Along with population, working time increased, while food consumption remained at the subsistence level. For that reason, most anthropologists regard the adoption of agriculture as an economical puzzle. I show, using a neoclassical economic model, that there is nothing puzzling about the adoption of agriculture. Agriculture brings four technological changes: an ...

  17. Welcome Home, Descartes! Rethinking the Anthropology of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Ecks, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    For many scholars, the Cartesian mind/body split is one of the fundamental mistakes of the Western scientific tradition. Anthropologists who study notions of the body in cultures around the world regularly take Descartes as their point of departure. Many also suggest that breaking free from Descartes is politically liberating: if the mindful body could be rediscovered, society could move away from its materialist, positivist, and commodity-fetishizing ways. Beyond the Body Proper is anthropol...

  18. Understanding Gender Inequality Actions in the Pacific: Ethnographic Case-studies and Policy Options Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Crook, Tony; Farran, Sue; Roell, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Gender equity is a key plank to European Commission activities and aid-funded initiatives and yet, despite many years of engagement achieving gender equity is many parts of the world remains a huge challenge. The Pacific island states are no exception and indeed here in strongly traditional and patriarchal societies there may be particular obstacles to overcome. Drawing on the empirical research of social anthropologists, policy consultants, a documentary film maker and law researchers this r...

  19. Czy narracja o granicy kulturowej może zmieniać świat więzi?

    OpenAIRE

    Kunce, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Aleksandra Kunce Can the narration about the border may change the world? The essay makes a reflection about limits in the anthropological way of thinking. The Author has tried to outline and systemize this problem. Thinking about limits of culture limits, behavior limits, thinking of ethnic limits and organize space - was one of the basic pieces of reflection for the anthropologists. As the author has convinced, this is also a key for the humanistic research: b...

  20. Bill Maurer

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Tooker

    2014-01-01

    Professor Bill Maurer is a renowned cultural anthropologist who conducts research on law, property, money and finance, focusing on the technological infrastructures and social relations of exchange and payment. Professor Maurer graduated from Stanford University in 1994 with a PhD in Anthropology. He moved to UC Irvine in 1996 as Assistant Professor, going on to become Chair of UC Irvine’s Department of Anthropology (2005-2011) and Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies in the Socia...

  1. The Race Concept in Six Regions: Variation Without Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Leonard; Kaszycka, Katarzyna A.; Martinez, Antonio J.; Yablonsky, Fuentes Leonid; Kirk, Rodney C.; Štrkalj, Goran; Wang, Qian; Sun, Li

    2004-01-01

    Race, once the central concept in physical anthropology worldwide, now varies in the degree of support it receives in different regions. We present the currently available information on the status of the concept in the United States, the Spanish language areas, Poland, Europe, Russia, and China. Rejection of race ranges from high to low with the highest rejection occurring among anthropologists in the United States (and Canada). Rejection of race is moderate in Europe, sizeable in Poland and...

  2. Resonance of Unseen Things

    OpenAIRE

    Lepselter, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The Resonance of Unseen Things offers an ethnographic meditation on the “uncanny” persistence and cultural freight of conspiracy theory. The project is a reading of conspiracy theory as an index of a certain strain of late 20th-century American despondency and malaise, especially as understood by people experiencing downward social mobility. Written by a cultural anthropologist with a literary background, this deeply interdisciplinary book focuses on the enduring American preoccupation with c...

  3. "A new ethnography?" A "virtual ethnographic tour" as an example of applying ethnographic research methods in the age of the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Dlouhá, Marie; Fakulta sociálních věd, Univerzita Karlova v Praze; Sociologický ústav AV ČR, v.v.i.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnography is usually defined as a method (or set of methods), or as a research paradigm. The existence of multiple definitions is partly the result of ethnography being used by researchers from different fields of study; sociologists and anthropologists, for example. The purpose of this article is to try and determine whether a “new ethnography” really exists. While ethnography originally involved face-to-face contact, technological developments (especially the invention of the internet) ha...

  4. Le refus de la violence. Vies de femmes, entre l'Algérie et la France

    OpenAIRE

    Lebas, Clotilde

    2013-01-01

    "gender studies";"violence";"migration";"body" ''embodiement'';''gender technologies'';"life narratives";"Algeria";"France" My research stems from a strong interest for experiences and explorations able to blur the lines of division between genders. As an anthropologist, I endeavored to seize this trouble through an inquiry allowing to bring to light the modes of embodiment of gender assignments and the possibles created by those who, in a moment of their life, have rejected them. First of...

  5. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  6. From observing to constructing the Object in etnographic investigation: fieldwork on "botellón"

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Jesús Sánchez Hernández

    2007-01-01

    In the professional career of any anthropologist there is the inevitable rite of passage of fieldwork and later ethnographic writing; the following illustrates the development of the process in the construction of the object from the perspective of the student who, for the first time, has to face the task of defining and limiting the scope of her investigation: the phenomenon of “botellón” (public drinking) in two Spanish cities.

  7. From observing to constructing the Object in etnographic investigation: fieldwork on "botellón"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Sánchez Hernández

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the professional career of any anthropologist there is the inevitable rite of passage of fieldwork and later ethnographic writing; the following illustrates the development of the process in the construction of the object from the perspective of the student who, for the first time, has to face the task of defining and limiting the scope of her investigation: the phenomenon of “botellón” (public drinking in two Spanish cities.

  8. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  9. Sosiologiese en antropologiese insigte en die studie van die Hebreeuse Bybel: 'n Bestekopname1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Kruger

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociological and anthropological insights and the study of the Hebrew Bible: A review. This article reviews the main trends in the social-scientific study of the Hebrew Bible. It focuses on the following central issues: the theoretical principles underlying this approach, anthropologists and the Hebrew Bible, the Hebrew Bible and comparative anthropology, anthropological evidence from African cultures, and the Hebrew Bible in social-scientific research: perils and prospects.

  10. Fotoetnografia: a importância da fotografia para o resgate etnográfico Paulo César Boni, Bruna Maria Moreschi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Maria Moreschi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of photography in an ethnographical approach. It traces historically the growing importance of image in anthropological studies. It lists photographers and anthropologists, including Brazilians who employ photography to retrieve people and social groups. Based on available bibliography and on newly-published texts cited in the body of this work, it concludes that, throughout time, photography is increasingly being incorporated as a source for ethnographical research.

  11. A Comparative Fieldwork Experience in Spain and Mexico Or, Cultural Ecology Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Tomé Martín, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to frequent statements in the literature since the 19th century, the use of the comparative method in anthropology has been more apparent, or programmatic, than real. Worth mentioning exceptions in both Spanish anthropology and the anthropology of the Americas are studies by J. M. Arguedas, G. Foster, M. Gutierrez Estevez and C. Gimenez. Exceptions such as these confirm the rule. The author came across this methodological paradox while doing research with Mexican anthropologist Andre...

  12. Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Fábregas Puig, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the p...

  13. A CONCEPÇÃO DO I SARAU DAS POÉTICAS INDÍGENAS POR UMA ANTROPÓLOGA-ESCRITORA

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Goldemberg

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Adopting the interpretative anthropology approach, the text narrates the experience of an anthropologist-writer in contact with the universe of Brazilian indigenous literature and poetry, which inspired her to conception of the I Recital of the IndigenousPoetics of the Casa das Rosas, as an event to assemble Indians, indigenous and indianist writers from different backgrounds, both classic and contemporary. It discusses the issue of the social function of poetry & prose and its inde...

  14. Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 1: Nyeeruna and the Orion Story

    OpenAIRE

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-01-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE (1859-1951) recorded the daily lives, lore, and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as "Th...

  15. Political crimes in the transition to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This article is intended as a reflection piece on the question: what could be an anthropological contribution to the question of political crimes? The reflection will consist of three interrelated parts. In the first part, I wish to address the meaning of the words we use when bespeaking “crime” ...... anthropologists and sociologists, who, although known figures, have so far remained peripheral within political anthropology: Ferdinand Tönnies, Gabriel Tarde, Marcel Mauss, Gregory Bateson, Victor Turner and René Girard....

  16. The semi-structured interview in educational research : issues and considerations in native-to non-native speaker discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, John; アダムソン, ジョン

    2006-01-01

    This study has looked at the use of semi-structured interviewing in educational research between native speakers and non-native speakers of English. It has viewed this type of interviewing from various perspectives, particularly focusing on context, topic control, turn-taking and the interview as a speech event influenced by classroom discourse. It has argued that the role of context lays at an interface between conversation analysts and linguistic anthropologists who dispute the manner of it...

  17. Marcelijaus Martinaičio poezijos antropologiškumas | Anthropological poetry of Marcelijus Martinaitis

    OpenAIRE

    Akvilė Rėklaitytė

    2012-01-01

    Artists, philosophers, and cultural anthropologists claim that a human being is defined by the innate ability and aptitude to represent the world and oneself symbolically; this opens up an exclusive possibility of self-reflection, perception of the world, and creation of meanings. Clifford Geertz draws attention to the fact how a human being himself explicates and comments his culture – a net of meanings and their relationships spun by himself, where, as if suspended in a web, a man lives, sp...

  18. Ethical dilemmas? UK immigration, Legal Aid funding reform and caseworkers

    OpenAIRE

    James, Deborah; Killick, Evan

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the kinds of responsibilities anthropologists might have when working on immigration and asylum matters, particularly in the light of recent 'reforms' to the funding of legal aid in the UK. The article focuses on a single case study in its context, exploring an interaction between an immigrant applicant and a lawyer/case worker in a not-for-profit Law Centre. The paper shows how case workers find themselves caught in the middle, squeezed between increasing financial pres...

  19. Outcomes and Processes in Economics and Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Isha

    2006-01-01

    The premise of this article is that outcomes of economic models and process analyses of anthropology are both essential for understanding social phenomena, including those surrounding the commons. An explanation of any model outcome is invariably about process and structure--the outcomes of several models are compatible with many different causal processes. Anthropologists also pay equal attention to exclusions and inclusions, to the said as well as the unsaid. In that spirit, one must ask if...

  20. Hangover

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Otto Habeck

    2015-01-01

    Even though hangover is a widespread phenomenon in many societies, it has received very scant systematic attention in social sciences. This article is based on publications from different disciplines (medicine, cultural history, social anthropology, sociology, etc.), my own observations, and interviews with fellow social anthropologists. After a general outline of the phenomenon, I will focus on some psychological aspects of hangover: guilt and vulnerability, but also the idea of complicity. ...

  1. Exhibition: Urban Now. City Life in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    De Boeck, Filip; Baloji, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    This exhibition by photographer Sammy Baloji and anthropologist Filip De Boeck offers an exploration of different urban sites in Congo, through the media of photography and video. Focusing upon the “urban now”, a moment suspended between the broken dreams of a colonial past and the promises of neoliberal futures, the exhibition offers an artistic and ethnographic investigation of what living – and living together – might mean in Congo’s urban worlds. As elsewhere on the African continent,...

  2. R.E. Downs and S.P. Reyna (eds.) 1988, Land and Society in Contemporary Africa, Hanover: University of New Hampshire, London: University Press of New England.

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Eve

    2007-01-01

    In the six years since it was published, Land and Society in Contemporary Africa has remained one of the most innovative and significant contributions to theories and research on land tenure systems in Africa. Although the sixteen contributors to the volume come from academic, development, and policy backgrounds, the vast majority are anthropologists and all have followed an anthropological approach in their field research or in their use of anthropological literature. This disciplinary prope...

  3. Manioc beer and the Word of God : faces of the future in Makuma, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Cova, Victor

    2015-01-01

    How can anthropologists describe the relationship between Christian and Amazonian ontologies? Based on a 13 months-long fieldwork, this ethnography of the Evangelical mission town of Makuma in lowland Ecuador describes the relationship between the Shuar and North American missionaries. In Makuma “Christianity” and “Shuar” both refer to ways of relating particularity to a universal but put different emphases either on the body or on belief, and on relation or on boundaries. I argue th...

  4. Body Mass Index: knowledge, practice and health evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia, Rada

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The health related expenses whether direct or indirect for the overweight ‎individuals, the decrease of the quality of personal and social life of the obese individuals make ‎this subject a public health one. Specialized physicians, nutritionists, fitness trainers, ‎psychologists, anthropologists etc. agree that both the explanations and the interventions are ‎multidisciplinary and also include a series of factors.‎Objective: The determining of the socio-demographical characteri...

  5. The Anthropological Perspective on Disaster and the Key Concept of Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanna Hoffman; Chen Mei; Peng Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Like Professor Anthony Oliver -Smith, I wish to speak to the theories and analyses of disaster from an anthropological perspective. While Professor Oliver -Smith's paper covers the history of the anthropological concern, the ecologi-cal paradigm, reconstruction, and other positions, the intent of mine is to zero in on what anthropolo-gists consider the foremost factor in the creation, the unfolding, prevention and mitigation of disas-ter, and that is culture.

  6. Introduction: Urbanism and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Balasescu

    2011-01-01

    While we are preparing for an urban age with a population that will exceed 60 percent of the world's total, sustainability is the buzzword now in urban studies. It has become the goal of urban planners, city designers, administrators, economists, and anthropologists involved in the process of urbanization. Alexandru Balasescu goes further to argue that each one of us shapes the city in which we live. The city is the result of humanity's decisions regarding their habitat; it is the material fo...

  7. A Mother’s Heart is Weighed Down with Stones: A Phenomenological Approach to the Experience of Transnational Motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Although recent scholarship on transnational mothers has rigorously examined the effect of migration on gender constructs and ideologies, it neglects analysis of the lived experience of separated mothers and children. In privileging the exploration of transnational separations through the single analytical lens of gender, such research reduces the embodied distress of mothers and children to mere “gender false consciousness.” This paper calls upon anthropologists to redress this oversight by ...

  8. WILD PIG HUNTING IN PETUNGKRIONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujo Semedi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists have been studying hunting from the economic, ecological, and symbolical perspectives. The third perspective has been used to comprehend the hunting activities among the farmers of Petungkriono who have used hunting to show masculinity. Further investigation has revealed that the arena is created as a compensation for the fragile position of the local male inhabitants in the household social economic condition as connected to the matrilinear land inheritance system.

  9. Book review: Marilyn Strathern: “a truly inspirational and trailblazing anthropologist”

    OpenAIRE

    Pottage, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This recent collection of original and accessible essays on the work of Marilyn Strathern represents an accessible introduction to the work of one of the world’s leading anthropologists. Alain Pottage reflects on what this means for knowledge production and the ‘impact’ of scholarship. Recasting Anthropological Knowledge: Inspiration and Social Science. Jeanette Edwards and Maja Petrović-Šteger (eds), Cambridge University Press. September 2011. 206 pp.

  10. Crafting a new science: defining paleoanthropology and its relationship to prehistoric archaeology, 1860-1890.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    Paleoanthropology emerged as a science during the late nineteenth century. The discovery of prehistoric artifacts in Pleistocene deposits soon led to the excavation of fossilized human bones. The archaeologists and geologists who unearthed them were primarily concerned with determining whether the human fossils and the artifacts found with them actually dated from the Pleistocene, thus offering evidence for the geological antiquity of humans. Prehistoric archaeologists reconstructed the way of life of prehistoric peoples through the artifacts found, while anthropologists examined the human fossils. They wanted primarily to identify the races of prehistoric humans. It was within this context that French anthropologists began to use the term "paléo-anthropologie" to refer to a new scientific discipline devoted to the study of prehistoric human races and human paleontology. This essay examines how paleoanthropology was defined as a science during the 1870s and 1880s. It shows that a tension existed between the objectives and methods of archaeologists and anthropologists. Paul Topinard criticized archaeologists and argued that a new type of scientist; the paleoanthropologist trained in anatomy or zoology, was needed to study human fossils properly.

  11. [Anthropology at the heart of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    Anthropology and medicine share many concerns, but have had trouble collaborating in the past. The anthropologist has had to plead both with his colleagues and physicians to move beyond a vision that would confine him to the study of traditional or alternative medicines and representations of populations and the sick. The anthropologist's approach perceived as intrusive has also raised fears in the medical world. These reciprocal misunderstandings and stereotypes need to be overcome by an anthropology that studies the practices and knowledge of modern medicine as they are elaborated daily. Anthropology will dialogue with medicine without judging it. In its turn, medicine will open its sites of healing and teaching to the anthropologist. Anthropology at the heart of medicine is organized around the idea that the paths and expectations of health professionals reflect the specicifities of the local system of health. The individual dimensions of practices cannot be divorced from the functioning of structures of health and decision. Finally, like any other kind of anthropology, medical anthropology must scrutinize its own methods and ethics in a critical way.

  12. "Doctor, Why Didn't You Adopt My Baby?" Observant Participation, Care, and the Simultaneous Practice of Medicine and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Medical anthropology has long appreciated the clinical encounter as a rich source of data and a key site for critical inquiry. It is no surprise, then, that a number of physician-anthropologists have used their clinical insights to make important contributions to the field. How does this duality challenge and enhance the moral practice and ethics of care inherent both to ethnography and to medicine? How do bureaucratic and professional obligations of HIPAA and the IRB intersect with aspirations of anthropology to understand human experience and of medicine to heal with compassion? In this paper, I describe my simultaneous fieldwork and clinical practice at an urban women's jail in the United States. In this setting, being a physician facilitates privileged access to people and spaces within, garners easy trust, and enables an insider perspective more akin to observant participation than participant observation. Through experiences of delivering the infants of incarcerated pregnant women and of being with the mothers as they navigate drug addiction, child custody battles, and re-incarceration, the roles of doctor and anthropologist become mutually constitutive and transformative. Moreover, the dual practice reveals congruities and cracks in each discipline's ethics of care. Being an anthropologist among informants who may have been patients reworks expectations of care and necessitates ethical practice informed by the dual roles.

  13. Reconciling "stress" and "health" in physical anthropology: what can bioarchaeologists learn from the other subdisciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J; McIlvaine, Britney Kyle

    2014-10-01

    The concepts of "stress" and "health" are foundational in physical anthropology as guidelines for interpreting human behavior and biocultural adaptation in the past and present. Though related, stress and health are not coterminous, and while the term "health" encompasses some aspects of "stress," health refers to a more holistic condition beyond just physiological disruption, and is of considerable significance in contributing to anthropologists' understanding of humanity's lived experiences. Bioarchaeological interpretations of human health generally are made from datasets consisting of skeletal markers of stress, markers that result from (chronic) physiological disruption (e.g., porotic hyperostosis; linear enamel hypoplasia). Non-specific indicators of stress may measure episodes of stress and indicate that infection, disease, or nutritional deficiencies were present in a population, but in assessing these markers, bioarchaeologists are not measuring "health" in the same way as are human biologists, medical anthropologists, or primatologists. Rather than continue to diverge on separate (albeit parallel) trajectories, bioarchaeologists are advised to pursue interlinkages with other subfields within physical anthropology toward bridging "stress" and "health." The papers in this special symposium set include bioarchaeologists, human biologists, molecular anthropologists, and primatologists whose research develops this link between the concepts of "stress" and "health," encouraging new avenues for bioarchaeologists to consider and reconsider health in past human populations.

  14. "Doctor, Why Didn't You Adopt My Baby?" Observant Participation, Care, and the Simultaneous Practice of Medicine and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Medical anthropology has long appreciated the clinical encounter as a rich source of data and a key site for critical inquiry. It is no surprise, then, that a number of physician-anthropologists have used their clinical insights to make important contributions to the field. How does this duality challenge and enhance the moral practice and ethics of care inherent both to ethnography and to medicine? How do bureaucratic and professional obligations of HIPAA and the IRB intersect with aspirations of anthropology to understand human experience and of medicine to heal with compassion? In this paper, I describe my simultaneous fieldwork and clinical practice at an urban women's jail in the United States. In this setting, being a physician facilitates privileged access to people and spaces within, garners easy trust, and enables an insider perspective more akin to observant participation than participant observation. Through experiences of delivering the infants of incarcerated pregnant women and of being with the mothers as they navigate drug addiction, child custody battles, and re-incarceration, the roles of doctor and anthropologist become mutually constitutive and transformative. Moreover, the dual practice reveals congruities and cracks in each discipline's ethics of care. Being an anthropologist among informants who may have been patients reworks expectations of care and necessitates ethical practice informed by the dual roles. PMID:25697337

  15. In search of racial types: soldiers and the anthropological mapping of the Romanian nation, 1914-44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turda, Marius

    2013-02-01

    Turda's article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania's ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims. PMID:24363459

  16. Stéréotypes et discriminations ethnoraciales dans et par les albums illustrés pour la jeunesse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Francis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the French law, the integration of the European Directive 2000-43, 29/6/2000, regarding equal treatment among people, irrespective of racial or ethnic origin, and the official recognition of the racial discrimination issue (EUROSTAT, 2007; FASSIN, 2010; MASCLET, 2012 led the public agencies to develop actions towards the fight against race prejudice and stereotypes, and to promote education for diversity (DIM, 2012.This study is situated in the field of educational research on discrimination in children’s education from an early age (DERMAN-SPARKS, 1989; VANDENBROECK, 2005. It examines children and young people’s illustrated books, as well as the discourse of the professionals related to these works. It comes after two studies (FRANCIS; THIERY, 2011; THIERY; FRANCIS, 2013 whose authors observed the small number of fiction books, published between 1980 and 2010, whose main character is a black child. The books in which black kids live peaceful, happy childhood experiences are rare. Black children most often appear in situations dealing with the difference, tolerance, identity, exclusion, and racism (THIERY; FRANCIS, 2015. The study proposes an analysis of some emblematic books and the comments about them, produced by the institutions of the book and reading, librarians, teaching counselors and teachers, particularly from nursery schools. In fiction books, black children characters are usually associated with themes, toponyms, and objects. The body representations are notably partially or completely mute. The space representations are simultaneously limited and bounded by literary, aesthetic and plastic reasons. The themes, comments and references found in some books regarding others show the effects of stereotyping, prejudice and highlight ethnic-racial discrimination. The results of the study invite us to question the illusion of in-differentiation of white children’s and black children’s representations in the contemporary production

  17. Estereótipos e discriminação étnico-racial em e através dos livros ilustrados infanto-juvenis (Tradução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Francis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the French law, the integration of the European Directive 2000-43, 29/6/2000, regarding equal treatment among people, irrespective of racial or ethnic origin, and the official recognition of the racial discrimination issue (EUROSTAT, 2007; FASSIN, 2010; MASCLET, 2012 led the public agencies to develop actions towards the fight against race prejudice and stereotypes, and to promote education for diversity (DIM, 2012.This study is situated in the field of educational research on discrimination in children’s education from an early age (DERMAN-SPARKS, 1989; VANDENBROECK, 2005. It examines children and young people’s illustrated books, as well as the discourse of the professionals related to these works. It comes after two studies (FRANCIS; THIERY, 2011; THIERY; FRANCIS, 2013 whose authors observed the small number of fiction books, published between 1980 and 2010, whose main character is a black child. The books in which black kids live peaceful, happy childhood experiences are rare. Black children most often appear in situations dealing with the difference, tolerance, identity, exclusion, and racism (THIERY; FRANCIS, 2015. The study proposes an analysis of some emblematic books and the comments about them, produced by the institutions of the book and reading, librarians, teaching counselors and teachers, particularly from nursery schools. In fiction books, black children characters are usually associated with themes, toponyms, and objects. The body representations are notably partially or completely mute. The space representations are simultaneously limited and bounded by literary, aesthetic and plastic reasons. The themes, comments and references found in some books regarding others show the effects of stereotyping, prejudice and highlight ethnic-racial discrimination. The results of the study invite us to question the illusion of in-differentiation of white children’s and black children’s representations in the contemporary production

  18. Straight eye for the gay guy: composing queerness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Didier Eribon and his theorization of the construction of gay male subjectivity, this article examines different "texts," broadly defined, that grapple specifically with straight men attempting to represent male homosexuality: Norman Mailer's essay, "The Homosexual Villain"; the Bravo reality television series Boy Meets Boy, and Michael Griffith's short story, "Hooper Gets a Perm." These texts represent attempts by straight authors to grapple with queer experience in ways that move the imagination of queers beyond simple stereotypes or uncritical explorations of the sexual "other." In the process of examining these texts, the following questions are addressed: What happens when a straight man attempts to represent a gay man? Does he "get it right," and is such a question even useful? More specifically, what is the value in having straights imagine queerness? Is such an imagining possible? Is such desirable? And, if so, what are the contours of such an imagining-as well as its possibilities and limitations, pedagogically, personally, and politically? Ultimately, I contend that the straight imagining of queerness offers rich potential for mutual understanding; furthermore, attempting to understand what goes into the making of those representations tells us much about how queerness circulates in our culture as a subject, a figure of discussion, contention, and representation. PMID:20582798

  19. Youth plus experience: the discovery of 51 Pegasi b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenadelli, Davide; Bernagozzi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In 1995, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced they discovered 51 Pegasi b, the first planet ever found around a star other than the Sun. This discovery turned out to be a milestone of recent astronomy, as it opened up a new field of research that is growing impressively these days. However, 51 Pegasi b has surprising properties as compared to the planets of the Solar System, as it is a giant planet on a very close-in orbit around its parent star. Hence, its discovery was unexpected and its actual existence did not go unchallenged. In the following years, a passionate debate sprang up, and finally astronomers accepted it, but at the price of a deep revision of our understanding of how planetary systems are formed and evolve. In the present paper, we reconstruct the dynamics of the discovery of 51 Pegasi b and the first exoplanets, the quarrel that arose among astronomers and the final acceptance of the existence of planets with unexpected characteristics. This remarkable story is recounted by means of published literature as well as interviews with several of its main protagonists.

  20. The photovoltaic and the buildings architecture design; Le photovoltaique et la conception architecturale des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleuret, J.L. [Conseil Regional Rhone-Alpes (France); Juquois, F.; Beutin, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Jautard, Y. [Office du Tourisme d' Ales, 30 (France); Fromont, R.; Detry, N. [Auberge Royale des Pauvres (Italy); Ferrier, J. [Total 92 - Courbevoie (France); Prignot, I. [Association de Promotion des Energies Renouvelables Wallonie, Bruxelles (APERe) (Belgium); Pellegrin, F. [Union National des Architectes (UNSFA), 75 - Paris (France); Greipmeier, K. [Zentrum fur Rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt Gmbh ZREU (Germany); Jedlizka, M.; Lenoire, D. [Cler/ Hespul, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Mansot, J. [Ademe, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2003-07-01

    This second conference of the thematic work package ''building integrated photovoltaic'' was held exclusively in French. Primarily aimed at architects and technical services of local municipalities, this conference was opened by Jean-Loup FLEURET, Vice President of the Regional Government (Region Rhone Alpes). Following this opening speech, Didier LENOIR, President of the CLER, discussed the current energy context, followed by Fabrice JUQUOIS of the ADEME Renewable Energies Department who presented the French photovoltaic market. Alain GUIAVARCH, from the Ecole des Mines, Paris presented their new software for simulating the thermal impact of photovoltaic on buildings. The first Round Table gave architects the opportunity to discuss their past and future projects, whilst a series of images illustrating their projects were projected. Alain BANSAC, Vice-President of the National Architects Union (UNSFA) summarised the round table. The afternoon session of this conference was opened by PREDAC partner Klaus GREIPMEIER (ZREU) with a stimulating overview of the German BIPV market. Alain RICAUD from Cythelia then presented their software for sizing photovoltaic for building integration. The second Round Table gave the microphone to system owners - from private individuals to local councils and special use buildings, demonstrating the varied motivations and needs of final-end Clients. Marc JEDLICZKA (CLER Vice-president and Hespul General Director) and Philippe BEUTIN (ADEME RES Department Head) summarised the second round tables, before Jose MANSOT, the Regional ADEME Delegate, closed the day. (author)

  1. Club de pétanque

    CERN Multimedia

    Club de pétanque

    2013-01-01

    C'est sous une journée radieuse que s'est déroulé le jeudi 29 août 2013 notre concours interne "Challenge Jean-Claude Frot"pour la seizième année consécutive. Trente deux participants soit seize doublettes se disputaient en trois parties avec tirage à la mêlée. Notre concours ouvert à tous les amateurs de pétanque recevait Saint-Genis-Pouilly en la présence de leur président Didier Patroix,le club de Mouxy et son président Gino Nogare ainsi que des membres du club de Machilly. Après délibération de notre juge arbitre Claude Jouve quatre joueurs avaient gagné les trois parties et il fallait donc approfondir avec le goal avérage par les points faits et les points laissés faire. 1er : Jean-Jacques Stuppi,membre du club de Machilly et qui devient ...

  2. The Fukushima accident: radiological consequences and first lessons. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about the Fukushima accident, its radiological consequences and the first lessons learnt. Sixteen presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Accident progress and first actions (Thierry Charles, IRSN); 2 - Conditions and health monitoring of the Japanese intervention teams (Bernard Le Guen, EDF); 3 - The Intra Group action after the Fukushima accident (Michel Chevallier, Groupe Intra; Frederic Mariotte, CEA); 4 - Processing of effluents (Georges Pagis, Areva); 5 - Fukushima accident: impact on the terrestrial environment in Japan (Didier Champion, IRSN); 6 - Consequences of the Fukushima accident on the marine environment (Dominique Boust, IRSN); 7 - Territories decontamination perspectives (Pierre Chagvardieff, CEA); 8 - Actions undertaken by Japanese authorities (Florence Gallay, ASN); 9 - Japanese population monitoring and health stakes (Philippe Pirard, InVS); 10 - Citizen oversight actions implemented in Japan (David Boilley, ACRO); 11 - Implementation of ICRP's (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendations by Japanese authorities: first analysis (Jacques Lochard, CIPR); 12 - Control of Japan imported food stuff (David Brouque, DGAL); 13 - Questions asked by populations in France and in Germany (Florence-Nathalie Sentuc, GRS; Pascale Monti, IRSN); 14 - Labour law applicable to French workers working abroad (Thierry Lahaye, DGT); 15 - Protection of French workers working in Japan, Areva's experience (Patrick Devin, Areva); 16 - Fukushima accident experience feedback and post-accident nuclear doctrine (Jean-Luc Godet, ASN)

  3. Conference on wind energy and grid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the grid integration of wind farms. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 80 participants exchanged views on the evolutions of tariffs and licensing procedures, and on grid capacity improvements and production forecasts. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The necessary evolution of billing and procedures for wind turbines connection to the grid in France (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Improvement of wind turbines integration to the grid in the framework of the EEG 2009 law (Jens Boemer); 3 - Decentralized power generation on the French power grids - 15, 20 kV and low voltage (Jean-Luc Fraisse); 4 - GOTTESWIND? Solution for the future: towards a grid evolution (Herve Mignon); 5 - Production forecasts in Germany - State-of-the-art and challenges for the grid exploitation (Kurt Rohrig); 6 - High-voltage lines capacity evaluation in meteorological situations with high wind energy production (Matthias Lange); 7 - The IPES project for the integration of wind energy production in the exploitation of the French power system (Jean-Pierre Gonot); 8 - Experience feedback from a wind turbine manufacturer in France and in Germany (Daniel Bagusche); 9 - Solutions for grid security improvement and capacity enhancement: cooperation between grid and power plant operators (Stefan Wagner); 10 - Open questions on wind energy integration to French and German grids (Johannes Schiel)

  4. Staff members with 25 years' service at CERN in 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The following staff members with 25 years' service in 2003 were invited by the Director-General to a reception in their honour on 20 November 2003: ALLIOD Patrick/ATGESCHONKE Gunther/AB AYMON Marcel/HRGLASER Maurice/EP BAUDET Serge/TISHUGOT Bernard/AB BENOIT-JEANNIN Brigitte/SPLJOUVE Christian/AT BERRY Peter/HRJULLIARD André/ST BIERI Catherine/STLAFAGE Patrice/ST BLANC Didier/STLAJUST Danièle/DSU BLANC Michel/ITLEGRAND Dominique/AT BOCH Guy/ITLONG Serge/EST BONZANO Roberto/STLYONNET André/EP BURCKHART Doris/EPMALOD-DOGNIN Jean-Pierre/ST BURNS Alan/ABMAURY Stephan/AC BURTIN Gérard/ABMILES John/AT CARENA Wisla/EPMONET René/EST CASTEL André/ESTMULLER André/TIS CLIFF Frank/HRPERREAL Pierre/AT CUCCURU Giovanni/ATPETERSEN Jørgen/EP DAMIANI Michel/ABPETIT Patrick/EP DELUCINGE Evelyne/ATPIERRE Patrice/AB DHOTE Patrick/SPLROUX Jacques/EP FLUCKIGER François/ITSAMYN Dirk/EP FORESTE Antonio/ESTSAVIOZ Jean Jacques/AB FRAIS...

  5. Conference on renewable energies integration to power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on renewable energies integration to power grids. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 150 participants exchanged views on the perspectives and possible solutions of this integration in order to warrant the security of supplies and the grid stability in a context of increasing injection and decentralization of renewable power sources. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - French distribution grids - Overview and perspectives (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Distribution Grids in Germany - Overview and Perspective (Torsten Bischoff); 3 - Integration of renewable energies into distribution grids - a case example from Germany (Marcus Merkel); 4 - Regeneratives Kombikraftwerk Deutschland: System Services with 100 % Renewable energies (Kurt Rohrig); 5 - Overview of the different grid instrumentation-control and automation tools (Alain Glatigny); 6 - Which Ancillary Services needs the Power System? The contribution from Wind Power Plants (Eckard Quitmann); 7 - The Flexibility Aggregator - the example of the GreenLys Project (Guillaume Lehec); 8 - Energy Pool - Providing flexibility to the electric system. Consumption cut-off solutions in France (Thierry Teirlynck); 9 - Demand Response experiences from Germany (Oliver Stahl)

  6. 迪迪耶·达格诺:卢瓦尔河的膜拜酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈微然

    2013-01-01

    如果说勃艮第的黑品乐都有做一回罗曼尼·康帝的畅想,那么卢瓦尔河的长相思则有被酿成一瓶迪迪耶·达格诺燧石干白(Didier Dagueneau Silex)的夙愿。迪迪耶-达格诺——卢瓦尔问的坏孩子——他创造了当地备受“膜拜”的长相思,虽然他的生命被定格在2008年的一场空难,但当我品尝着由他一双儿女延续的果实,走在由他肆意命名的“切·格瓦拉”大道上,似乎还能听到肆意奔跑的马蹄声,看到他依然绑着最爱的头巾。

  7. Meeting of Directors and Heads of Department from CEA-Saclay, France

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Directors and Heads of Department from the Saclay centre of the French atomic energy commission (CEA) visited CERN in December. They are pictured here at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18. On the left behind the visitors are the test benches where magnets are prepared for installation in String 2: the 120-metre full-scale model of an LHC cell of the regular part of the arc, which can be seen to the right. Photos 01, 02: Left to right: Marc Dejardin, Alain Givernaud, Louis Laurent, François Kircher, Antoine Masurel, Joël Feltesse, André Menez, T. Taylor, Philippe Pradelles, Bernard Sevestre, Michel Roche, Jean-Yves Gascoin, Thierry Lieven, Michel Spiro, Jean-Pierre Pervès, Yves Lemoigne, Béatrice Reder, Georges Carola, Philippe Lebrun, Yves Bourlat, Bertrand Mercier, Jean-Paul Langlois, Patrick Laurent, Didier Moulin, Xavier Vitart, Marc Serre, Jean-Louis Pierrey, Patrick Jarry, Bruno Mansoulié, Stéphane Lequien, Hervé Barbelin, Philippe Pallier, Jean-Yves Guillamot, and Norbert Sioegel.

  8. “O Homem que Fora Consumido” – Um Conto da “Alma Exterior”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Ribeiro Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n2p43 Como ver o corpo além de sua materialidade é, obviamente, uma das maiores preocupações da ficção gótica de Edgar Allan Poe: “Metzengerstein”, “Morella”, “Ligeia”, “Uma estória das montanhas Ragged”, “Revelação mesmérica” e “Os fatos no caso de monsieur Valdemar” são alguns exemplos. Mas em seu grotesque cômico “O homem que fora consumido – Uma história das velhas campanhas dos Bugaboos e Kickapoos”, o humor negro e a sátira social prevalecem quando a trama centra-se no famoso brigadeiro por distinção John A. B. C. Smith e na obsessão do protagonista “Sobre este assunto – o do aspecto pessoal de Smith”. Este artigo pretende estabelecer algumas observações sobre as personagens do general Smith e do narrador não nomeado, utilizando como parâmetro teórico para esta análise os conceitos de patologia da adaptação, de Mahmoud Sami-Ali, e os de personalidade narcísica e estado-limite, desenvolvidos por Didier Anzieu.

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Course d'orientation Ces deux dernières semaines, le club a organisé la troisième puis la quatrième étape de la coupe de printemps, une dans la forêt de Collogny/Moissey près de Vulbens, l’autre vers le parcours vita de Trélex. Les résultats sont: Facile court Vulbens : 1er Léo Lonchampt, O’Jura (16:04), 2e Timothée Bazin (23:07), 3e Francesco Pieri (26:57) Trélex : 1er Noora Maurent (23:11), 2e Sarah Stuber, COLJ (26:51), 3e T. Bazin (28:17) Facile moyen Vulbens : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, CO CERN (25:36), 2e Didier Descourvières (28:03), 3e Konstantinos Haider, CO CERN (36:53) Trélex : 1er V. Kuznetsov, COLJ (38:01), 2e K. Haider, CO CERN (43:15), 3e ex aequo Olivia Nguyen et Sven Vietmeier (58:11) Technique court Vulbens : 1er Benoit Bazin (41:21), 2e Colas Gintzburger (55:12), 3e Nathan Freydoz (55:48) Trélex : 1...

  10. Chernobyl: 30 years after - Proceedings of the technical meeting of the French Society of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) organized a technical meeting on the present day situation of the Chernobyl site, 30 years after the accident of the nuclear power plant. The review deals with the situation of the facility and of its safety works, the environment, the management of wastes, the workers and populations exposure, and the health monitoring of the exposed populations. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - The main highlights 30 years after the Chernobyl accident (Didier CHAMPION, SFRP); 2 - Circumstances, progress and consequences of the Chernobyl accident - Lessons and experience feedback for the other RBMK reactors (Michel CHOUHA, IRSN); 3 - Chernobyl, a confinement arch for 100 years (Patrick CHABRIER, Thomas CHAUVEAU - BOUYGUES); 4 - The reactor wastes management and the dismantling operations (Guy DAMETTE - IRSN); 5 - Environment contamination in the vicinity of the site (Yves THIRY - ANDRA); 6 - Impact of the accident on agriculture (Vanessa DURAND - IRSN); 7 - The fate of remediation wastes (Francois BESNUS - IRSN); 8 - Chernobyl fallouts in France (Philippe RENAUD - IRSN); 9 - The ecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident (Christelle ADAM-GUILLERMIN - IRSN); 10 - Results of liquidators and populations exposure (Florence MENETRIER - CEA); 11 - Thyroid cancers monitoring in the Chernobyl area and the role of modifying genetic factors (Fabienne LESUEUR - Institut Curie); 12 - Results of the Chernobyl accident health impact studies (Dominique LAURIER - IRSN); 13 - Impact on populations living condition (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); 14 - Molecular signature of radiation induced thyroid tumors (Sylvie CHEVILLARD - CEA)

  11. 7 July 2011 - Members of the Swiss Federal Council (front row) in front of the Globe of Science and Innovation.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    CERN-HI-1107166 01 1er rang: La chancelière Corina Casanova, le conseiller fédéral Johann N. Schneider-Ammann, le conseiller fédéral Ueli Maurer, la conseillère fédérale Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf, la conseillère fédérale Simonetta Sommaruga, la Présidente de la Confédération Micheline Calmy-Rey, le Directeur général du CERN Rolf Heuer, la conseillère fédérale Doris Leuthard, le conseiller fédéral Didier Burkhalter. 2è rang: Le vice-chancelier André Simonazzi , le vice-chancelier Thomas Helbling, la chef des relations internationales Felicitas Pauss, le directeur de la recherche et du calcul scientifique Sergio Bertolucci. 3è rang: Les scientifiques suisses: Ulrich Straumann (LHCb, Zürich et délégué suisse au Conseil du CERN), Rainer Wallny (CMS, ETHZ), Günther Dissertori (CMS, ETHZ), Antonio Ereditato (ATLAS, Bern), Tatsuya Nakada (LHCb, EPFL), Olivier Schneider (LHCb, EPFL), Martin Pohl (ATLAS, Genève), Vincenzo Chiochia (CM, Zürich), Giuseppe Iacobucci (ATLAS, Genève), le C...

  12. El compromiso profético de los antropólogos sociales argentinos, 1960-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Guber

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Norbert Elias señalaba que calificar a las investigaciones según su grado de compromiso o distanciamiento de los objetos de estudio, es parte de los valores en tanto juicios prácticos que los intelectuales empleamos en el desarrollo de nuestra actividad. La profusa invocación al compromiso en la antropología latinoamerican, habla de lo que quienes lo invocan desean hacer con sus antropologías, y también de cómo este ideal nos ha modelado a los antropólogos. En este artículo muestro las formas y razones antropológicas y específicamente argentinas por las cuales la "antropología social" y el "compromiso" se constituyeron recíprocamente en el sentido común de nuestra subdisciplina en la Argentina. un doble posicionamiento-político-universitario y epistemológico-de un sector de los antropólogos argentinos que caracterizaré como profético.According to Norbert Elias, to qualify research according to its degree of commitment to, or detachment from its objects, is a practical value that intellectuals use in pursuing their job. Current references to commitment (compromiso by Latin American anthropologists, talk about those colleagues' perspectives on anthropology, and also about the ways in which such a notion has modeled them as anthropologists. Here I examine how and why Argentine anthropologists have made of "social anthropology" and "commitment" the backbone of their discipline in Argentina, both in university politics and in academic work in the 60-70s. I also suggest that anthropological debates on prophets and prophetism may cast some light upon this process.

  13. Marcelijaus Martinaičio poezijos antropologiškumas | Anthropological poetry of Marcelijus Martinaitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akvilė Rėklaitytė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artists, philosophers, and cultural anthropologists claim that a human being is defined by the innate ability and aptitude to represent the world and oneself symbolically; this opens up an exclusive possibility of self-reflection, perception of the world, and creation of meanings. Clifford Geertz draws attention to the fact how a human being himself explicates and comments his culture – a net of meanings and their relationships spun by himself, where, as if suspended in a web, a man lives, speaks, bleeds, wages wars, loves, jokes, and creates poems. The method of the interpretation of culture “thick description” by Geertz “is focused not on the recording of external parameters, but namely on that far more sophisticated net of relationships of meanings and perceptive structures upon the grasping whereof one could approximate to the “essence” – i.e. a system of meanings, world outlook, and culture of the other. This article analyses the creation of Marcelijus Martinaitis, a narrator, one of the most famous Lithuanian poets of the “outgoing generation”, descendant and successor of the declining ethnic community culture, increasingly distancing from the experience of a modern man in terms of cross-disciplinary literature anthropology. Also, a model of experimental anthropology, the so-called anthropological poetics that has not yet been discussed in Lithuanian, is presented. It treats poetry as an interpretation of ambivalent, complicated experience of an anthropologist. The article states that he is a peculiar cultural anthropologist, a witness, an intermediary of experience, whereas his poetry acts as Geertz’s “thick description”. Essayistic works of Martinaitis are read as an articulation of his ethnographic self-creation covering personality formation, testimony, and transfer of cultural meanings.

  14. Quem exotiza quem? Bastidores metodológicos do encontro de uma antropóloga e um grupo de doulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Fleischer

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A forma como a presença do(a antropólogo(a é construída coletivamente no campo define, em grande medida, o perfil dos dados que recolhe. Esse ensaio parte da relação estabelecida entre a pesquisadora e um grupo de 25 doulas durante seu curso de formação. Doulas são mulheres que oferecem apoio físico e emocional a parturientes antes, durante e depois do trabalho de parto. Aqui, pretendo apresentar e discutir alguns momentos desse curso em que o fato de haver uma antropóloga no grupo provocou experiências e sentimentos complexos de alteridade, permitindo pensar sobre os processos de exotização que acontecem de ambas as partes. É possível que estas reflexões iniciais possam ser úteis, como contraponto comparativo, a outros antropólogos enfrentando os dilemas de aceitação, inserção e trânsito no campo. Abstract The way in which the presence of the anthropologist is collectively constructed in the field defines, to a great extent, the profile of the data s/he collects. This essay is based on the relationship established between the researcher and a group of 25 doulas during their formation course. Doulas are women that provide physical and emotional support to pregnant women before, during and after labor. In this paper, we intend to present and discuss some situations that happened along this course in which the fact of having an anthropologist in the group aroused complex experiences and feelings of alterity. This perception led us to think about the exotization that took place on both sides. Possibly, these initial reflections may be useful as a comparative counterpoint to other anthropologists facing the dilemmas of acceptation, insertion and transit in the field.

  15. ORNL`s war on crime, technically speaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiques, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes research being carried out by the Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This program works on projects which are solvable, affordable, and outside the scope of the private sector. Examples are presented of work related to: the lifetime of childrens fingerprints compared to adults; the development of ways of providing cooler body armor; digital enhancement technology applied to security-camera images from crime scenes; victim identification by skeletal reconstruction for use by forensic anthropologists.

  16. Functionalists and zombis: Sorcery as spandrel and social rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Roland

    2009-12-01

    At one level, anthropologists remain functionalists in that they generally see acts and institutions as contributing to a greater social whole only through which they make sense. Thus, sorcery accusations have been traditionally interpreted in terms of maintaining social harmony and cohesion. In the case of Haitian zombification, the zombi seems a locally misidentified victim who is frequently mentally ill. As a hapless non-agent, the zombi cannot initiate the sorcery accusations, so how do we understand the recognition and rescue of the zombi, either in terms of social function or social action?

  17. Anthropology & Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present book is no ordinary anthology, but rather a workroom in which anthropologists and philosophers initiate a dialogue on trust and hope, two important topics for both fields of study. The book combines work between scholars from different universities in the U.S. and Denmark. Thus, besides...... bringing the two disciplines in dialogue, it also cuts across differences in national contexts and academic style. The interdisciplinary efforts of the contributors demonstrate how such a collaboration can result in new and challenging ways of thinking about trust and hope. Reading the dialogues may...

  18. THE PHILOSOPHY OF “DALIT”?...(A new theory on “JATIS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is focused that in human social system “Dalits” are considered as an “out-caste” and treated them as “Untouchables” and being ill-treated almost in every day of Life. If so, where did Dalits come from?... Since Ancient time global level Scientists, Scholars, Anthropologists could not exactly answer who are Dalits?... Further world wide Untouchability, Casteism discrimination being practiced besides “BLACK” and “WHITE”, ethnics. Further hundreds of castes, sub castes exist within main “Ethnic frame” of religions like Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, considering Dalits as distinguished out-caste.

  19. "Introduction to an Alternative History of Money"

    OpenAIRE

    Wray , L. Randall

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the various strands of an alternative, heterodox view on the origins of money and the development of the modern financial system in a manner that is consistent with the findings of historians and anthropologists. As is well known, the orthodox story of money's origins and evolution begins with the creation of a medium of exchange to reduce the costs of barter. To be sure, the history of money is "lost in the mists of time," as money's invention probably predates writing....

  20. Forced Migration and Muslim Rituals: An Area of Cultural Psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Ahlberg

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychological foundation of rites de passage have long been debated within the history of religion and related areas. The significance of such rites in facilitating emotional readjustment to a new life situation have been particularly stressed. Emotional reactions on the individual level largely remain outside the competence of anthropologists, despite their awareness of the general influence of culture on this as on other areas of human endeavour. Focusing on traumatized female refugees from Iran, a critical question is whether the changing living conditions which have provoked traumatic experiences in the lives of these refugees have been in any way related to Muslim ritual requirements or rites de passage.

  1. On Janie’s Self-actualization in Light of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹; 徐畔

    2013-01-01

      Zora Neale Hurston is an African-American novelist, anthropologist. Her famous novel Their Eyes Were Watching God to some extent reflects the pursuit of self-actualization of the female protagonist Janie. The psychological term Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is implemented in this study to help to analyze the process of Janie’s self-actualization, which illustrates how Janie realized self-fulfillment and appreciated the intrinsic worth of her surroundings and to experience the world deeply through marriages to three different men.

  2. History In and For Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ton

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the aspect of historicity in design. Following the leads of designers and design historians and inspired by the philosophy of G. H. Mead, it argues that design includes not only an orientation towards future change, but also an imagery and narration of the past. This aspect...... of historicity establishes both a motivation for change and evokes the agentive identities that can act to achieve the desired change. By analysing three cases of innovative cultural performances, involving intentional cultural change, the article also aims to show how anthropologists can make a critical...

  3. Reflections on “Crossing Borders in Birthing Practices”: Hmong in Northern Thailand and Saint Paul, Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a family physician and medical anthropologist, I have interacted with pregnant women and their families in Minnesota since 1983 and in one Hmong village in Northern Thailand since 1988. In the previous article I describe our recent research about Hmong families’ pregnancy and birth practices in Thailand. In this article, I reflect upon the differences in Minnesota and Thailand, consider what socio-cultural factors may be influencing people’s experiences, and speculate that Minnesota Hmong experiences could be helpful to Thai Hmong.

  4. Anthropology, social change and the reconstruction of South African society1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Jansen van Rensburg

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is argued that, since the abuse of anthropology in the colonial and apartheid eras, the responsive relationship between anthropology and society has been re-emphasised. In the reconstruction of South African society, therefore, anthropologists will not be allowed the luxury of evading their social responsibility. In their re-invention of anthropology as a humane science, and the reiteration of their commitment to accountability and relevance, these scientists ought to build their discipline upon the investigation of the major consequences of differential power and inequality. This could be helpful in creating new forms of co-existence in South Africa

  5. A century of Levi-Strauss

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    Bošković Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a critical overview of the life and career of Claude Lévi Strauss, who turned 100 on 28 November 2008. He has been labelled as one of the most influential anthropologists of the last century, and this paper presents a brief outline of the methodology associated with structural anthropology. The author emphasizes important shift from the total social fact to the actual understanding of the fundamentals of human society, as well as mentioning some of his key works.

  6. A sociologist's apprentice of social anthropology perplexities

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    Telmo Humberto Lapa Caria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the systematization of Communication presented in thematic panel on "Ethnography" at the Third Congress of Portuguese Anthropology, which took place in Lisbon, ISCTE / ICS, in April 2006. Bring therefore a few critical contributions to the reflection of Sociology in Anthropology in Portugal, only wanting to limit myself to a vision that results of my journey of learning between these two disciplines and at the same time, demand respect certain principles of the method anthropological So that my short words here, a contribution may be interesting for reflection between anthropologists.

  7. The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    ‘The Svendsens are urging all social scientists to think more as social scientists rather than just as anthropologists, economists, historians, political scientists, or sociologists. Their effort to broaden the way social scientists think about social organization is an important step, especially...... that the Svendsens have put in to crafting this study.' - From the foreword by Elinor Ostrom Is social capital the ‘missing link' in economics? In this vital new book, the authors argue that the ‘forgotten' production factor of social capital is as crucial in economic decision-making as the other more traditional...

  8. La Historia, los Antropólogos y la Amazonia

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    Roberto Pineda Camacho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia’s anthropology of the Amazon, like the other Latin American anthropologists of the rain forest, was concerned whit developing a historical vision of the place, complementing in this way other metropolitan perspectives on basin that were centered, whit few exceptions, around a synchronic perspective. Understanding such situation demanded from them not only the explorations of oral traditions, but also conceiving the anthropology of the Amazon as a historical anthropology of the Andes, from India and in the context of the certain metropolitan anthropologies.

  9. Anthropology, ethical dissonance, and the construction of the object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I discuss certain questions relating to the ethical difficulties faced by anthropologists when dealing with two different social groups and when one group holds a position of dominance over the other. In the first example, I draw on my work on doctor-patient relationships in France; in the second, on a study on reproduction in immigrant African families from Mali and Senegal, living in polygynous households in France. I use these examples to explore questions of positionality, beneficence, and potential harm. I show the choices I made in order to construct an epistemologically ethical object.

  10. Gods, Germs, and Petri Dishes: Toward a Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    This commentary calls on medical anthropology to become programmatically non-secular. Despite recent anthropological critiques of secularity, within and outside of anthropology, most contemporary medical anthropologists continue to leave deities and religiosity out of their examinations of healing practices, especially in their accounts of biomedicine. Through a critical, relational constructionist lens, which traces how all entities are both constructed and real, a non-secular medical anthropology would insist that when deities are part of medical practice, they are integral to analysis. Importantly then, within the symmetrical nature of this same constructionist lens, biomedical entities like germs and petri dishes need to be accounted for just as much as deities.

  11. Utilstraekkelig dokumentation af dødelighed ved krig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck; Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund

    2010-01-01

    Mortality estimates can be used for research, to inform or influence policy, for reconciliation processes, to plan health delivery and relief operations and for legal purposes. Many different methods have been applied and each has strengths and weaknesses. Recent years have seen an international...... effort in various disciplines like humanitarian actors, demographers and forensic anthropologists to cooperate, and efforts are being made to make data collection more systematic and valid. However, there are political, methodological and security-related challenges that must be overcome. Udgivelsesdato...

  12. Women, work, and poverty women centered research for policy change

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Heidi I

    2003-01-01

    Find out how welfare reform has affected women living at the poverty levelWomen, Work, and Poverty presents the latest information on women living at or below the poverty level and the changes that need to be made in public policy to allow them to rise above their economic hardships. Using a wide range of research methods, including in-depth interviews, focus groups, small-scale surveys, and analysis of personnel records, the book explores different aspects of women's poverty since the passage of the 1986 welfare reform bill. Anthropologists, economists, political scientists, socio

  13. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  14. Cane River: the archaeology of “free people of colour” in colonial Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin MacDonald

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The overseas dispersal and subsequent history of people of African descent – the African diaspora – has attracted much interest in recent decades from anthropologists, archaeologists and historians, particularly in the USA. But such studies have seldom been undertaken by archaeologists with experience of West Africa and its material culture. In a new project on the African heritage in colonial Louisiana, members of the Institute are collaborating with American colleagues to combine expertise on cultural contacts in the Americas between Native Americans, Africans and European colonists.

  15. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.

    2005-05-01

    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

  16. Clío y la antropología. Pensando con la historia en el presente de Ávila y de Évora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátedra, María

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available After a long period dominated by functionalism and structuralism, since the 1980's anthropology has benefited from its closeness to history, comparable with the increasing interest by historians in anthropology. The author has lived through this transformation, which has taken place at the time of her own development as an anthropologist and can be perceived in her publications. Her research on the symbolic construction of historyladen cities such as Avila and Evora facilitated this development. However, it is not a matter of easily complementing one discipline and approach with the other, as though each would have found at last its better half. Although anthropologists must study history, the classical approach of history —the analysis of documents from the past— will not be enough for them. Anthropologists must study history as source and organization of meanings in the present. Should he look closely, the anthropologist of the present will realize that his informants are not only heirs to history, but think with it too.

    Tras un largo periodo dominado por el funcionalismo y el estructuralismo, desde los años ochenta la antropología viene beneficiándose de un acercamiento a la historia, comparable al interés cada vez mayor de los historiadores por la antropología. La autora ha vivido de cerca esta transformación, que ha tenido lugar al tiempo de su desenvolvimiento profesional y que ha quedado registrada en sus publicaciones. El estudio de la construcción simbólica de ciudades cargadas de historia, como Ávila y Évora, le facilitó el cambio. Pero no se trata de una mezcla fácil de las dos disciplinas y enfoques, como si cada uno hubiera encontrado al final la media naranja que le faltaba. Aunque el antropólogo debe estudiar la historia, la lectura histórica clásica —el análisis de documentos del pasado— no le será suficiente. Debe estudiar la historia como fuente y organización de significados en el presente. Si

  17. Interdisciplinaridade e suas práticas em documentos de "avaliação e perspectivas" do CNPq 1978, 1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Sá

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available In two parts, this paper deals with the theme in interdisicplinarity and its place both in programs of higher education and services as well as in the frame of health related disciplines. The first part sums up an agenda far-research of the topic. The second part advances a step further and points to the use of an interdisciplinary approach within health programs of teaching and researching: basic data were taken from secondary sources "Avaliação e Perspectivas " (CNPq - 1979 and 1982. As an anthropologist, the author looks for a social anthropoloyg-land".

  18. Anthropometric measurements of the hand length and their correlation with the stature in Eastern Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwesa Pal

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSION: The result of this study can be used as baseline information for further population based study in the eastern part of India so that the anthropologist and forensic experts can estimate the height of adult individuals of either sex by use of either of the hand. Further nutritionists and the physicians can also use the results of this study as a reference while estimating the nutritional status of adult individuals specially the bedridden patients. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(4.000: 303-305

  19. Origins cosmos, earth, and mankind

    CERN Document Server

    Coppens, Yves; Simonnet, Dominique; de Rosney, Joel; Silk, Professor of Astronomy and Physics Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this potent book, three eminent scientists—an astrophysicist, an organic chemist, and an anthropologist—ponder and discuss some of the basic questions that have obsessed humankind through the ages, and offer thoughtful, enlightening answers in terms the layperson can easily understand. Until now, most of these questions were addressed by religion and philosophy. But science has reached a point where it, too, can voice an opinion. Beginning with the Big Bang roughly fifteen billion years ago, the authors trace the evolution of the cosmos, from the first particles, the atoms, the molecules, t

  20. Study of supracondylar process of humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supra condylar process is occasional beak like projection from anteromedial surface of distal 1/3 rd of humerus. It appears to be phylogenetic remnant of complete osseous bridge found in reptiles, marsupials, cats, lemurs and new world monkeys. Among 133 dried humeri studied only one right humerus showed SCP (incidence 0.75% whose dimensions were recorded and photographed. SCP is usually clinically silent but can be the cause for median or ulnar nerve and brachial artery compression syndrome especially when associated with Struthers ligament. Therefore the knowledge of presence of SCP is important for clinicians and radiologists along with anatomists and anthropologists.

  1. Do All Hemochromatosis Patients Have the Same Origin? A Pilot Study of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J Symonette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and Y-DNA analysis have been widely used to predict ancestral origin. Genetic anthropologists predict that human civilizations may have originated in central Africa one to two million years previously. Primary iron overload is not a common diagnosis among indigenous people of northern Africa, but hereditary hemochromatosis is present in approximately one in 200 people in northern Europe. MtDNA analysis has the potential to determine whether contemporary hemochromatosis patients have an ancient ancestral linkage.

  2. Richard Michael Suzman (1942-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Richard Michael Suzman, who died on April 16, 2015. Suzman was trained as a sociologist and anthropologist, but he was attracted to the approaches of demography and economics. He came to know a great deal about diverse fields of science, including health, physiology, psychology, genetics, and economics. He was a scientific leader who was on a quest to develop new transdisciplinary fields and to mobilize the best scientists to work in them. Suzman's passion for transdisciplinary science was fully expressed in his greatest achievement: the famous Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), which he initiated in 1988 and continued to guide and inspire. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504580

  3. “I Will Not Keep Her Book in My Home”: Representing Religious Meaning among Bauls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa I. Knight

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists have long been concerned with issues of representation and the problematic structures of power that characterize the relationship of researcher and subject. This article takes field work confrontations and anxieties as opportunities through which to examine some of the challenges of representing religious lives in comprehensible and meaningful ways, not simply to scholars but also—perhaps especially—to those from within the tradition we’re studying. Drawing on work that emphasizes dialogical processes of knowledge production and its ethical implications, the author considers moments of transformation during and resulting from fieldwork as a model for moving forward.

  4. A GIS-based Vegetation Map of the World at the Last

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ray

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary, broad-scale vegetation map reconstruction for use by archaeologists and anthropologists is presented here for the world at the Last Glacial Maximum (18,000 BP, but broadly representing the interval from 25,000 to 15,000 BP. The global LGM map was produced from a range of literature and map sources, and drawn on a GIS with topographic information. Extended coastlines due to LGM sea-level drop were obtained using bathymetric information. The map is available in image and Geographic Information System (GIS formats, on a global or regional basis.

  5. A new form of collaboration in cultural anthropology: Matsutake worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. K, Choy,; Tsing, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Experiments in collaboration open new investigative possibilities for cultural anthropologists. In this report, we use our research on matsutake mushrooms to show the promise of collaborative experiments for ethnographers of scale making, global connection, and human–nonhuman relations. Anna Tsing...... introduces. Mogu Mogu (Timothy Choy and Shiho Satsuka) argue that the mushroomic figure of mycorrhizal life illuminates workings of capital and power, nature and culture. Lieba Faier examines contingency—through the effect of weather and bugs on matsutake production—as a form of self-positioning that emerges...

  6. Gods, Germs, and Petri Dishes: Toward a Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    This commentary calls on medical anthropology to become programmatically non-secular. Despite recent anthropological critiques of secularity, within and outside of anthropology, most contemporary medical anthropologists continue to leave deities and religiosity out of their examinations of healing practices, especially in their accounts of biomedicine. Through a critical, relational constructionist lens, which traces how all entities are both constructed and real, a non-secular medical anthropology would insist that when deities are part of medical practice, they are integral to analysis. Importantly then, within the symmetrical nature of this same constructionist lens, biomedical entities like germs and petri dishes need to be accounted for just as much as deities. PMID:26930040

  7. An Analysis of the Humor between Chinese and Western from the Perspective of Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Jiatong

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Intercultural communication was originally developed by the American cultural anthropologist Edward T Hall,he believes communicative competence includes not only a form of language understanding and mastering the language,but also on when and where to What is the proper way for anyone to use language to communicate.This article will list some of the differences in the Western sense of humor in everyday life and explore the root causes of these differences to find ways to resolve these differences in Intercultural communication.

  8. Above and beyond superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    revitalizing of the body's own vis medicatrix naturae, from the early 20th century onwards medical anthropologists (especially those who became interested in the `savage mind') have built up an equally rigorous theory of symbolic efficacy in terms of narratives, symbols and a kind of cognitive homeostasis....... It was precisely as a mediating link between the somatic and the symbolic that I suggest a decriminalized placebo effect (as opposed to suggestion) could emerge in the middle of the 20th century. Taking the example of St John's Wort, I go on to show how notions of symbolic efficacy, spillover placebo efficacy...

  9. ['Fueguinos', Robert Lehmann-Nitsche, and the study of the Ona at the Buenos Aires National Exhibit (1898)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero, Diego A

    2011-01-01

    Among the first projects of German anthropologist Robert Lehmann-Nitsche as head of the Museum de La Plata's Department of Anthropology in Argentina was his research on the inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, deemed evolutionary 'relics' of humanity. The article explores the role of shows and exhibits as spaces where science was popularized and where late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century scholars could do field work. The focus is on the presentation of 'fueguinos' at European shows and exhibits, debates, and studies, especially the work of Robert Lehmann-Nitsche at the National Exhibit of Argentinean Industry, held in Buenos Aires, 1898. PMID:22012098

  10. Migrazioni al Río de la Plata e critica letteraria in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Cattarulla

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty-five years the transoceanic migrations have become object of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies (known as ";migrant studies";, by sociologits, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers, demographers, economists, and - this is of particular interest to us - scholars of literature.In fact, the migration streams have produced on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean a literary corpus regarding all genres of writings, creative and factual. This corpus has attracted the attention of scholars specialized in Italian literature and in Latin-American literatures from countries particularly affected by this phenomenon, like Argentina and Uruguay. This essay will deal with developments and perspectives of this literary production in Italy.

  11. A crafting of potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilbourn, Kyle

    In the movement from understanding the past towards creating the future design anthropology, as a discipline, will turn from one with archival qualities to one endowed with potentials for change. One challenge facing design anthropology is how to show relevance for theory generation while also in......-as is complemented by designing for as design anthropologists stage design workshops, span knowledge traditions, and make design moves. Reflecting on my own research process, I trace a few research tools that underline the craft of design anthropology....

  12. We and They in Romans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Malina

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available According to cultural anthropologists ingroup/outgroup divisions are fundamental to Mediterranean views of the world. This essay considers Paul’s  in-group/outgroup, or  “we/they” perceptions. The ethnocentrism revealed in this dichotomy indicates that Paul, like other Mediterraneans of his time, showed little interest in the outgroup. Not surprisingly, neither was the God of Israel. Non-Israelites simply did not fit into the divine plan of things until non-Israelites, some centuries  later, began to identify with Paul’s “we” – something Paul did not foresee.

  13. Diarios de campo extranjeros y diarios de campo nacionales. Indiferencias de José Pérez de Barradas y de Gregorio Hernández de Alba en Tierradrento y San Agustín.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Henrik Langebaek Rueda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the feld experience of two archaeologists and anthropologists who worked in colombia in the thirties of the twentieth century. The practices of professional exercise are discussed from the feld logs of spanish national José Pérez de barradas and colombian gregorio hernández de alba. this comparison serves to put the work of the foreigner and the colombian into perspective in relation with the construction of professional discipline, the image of nature and the indigenous, as well as the tension between the “nationalist” proposal and criticism of it by foreigners.

  14. Aldo Rossi, autobiografia scientifica: scrittura come progetto. Indagine critica tra scrittura e progetto di architettura

    OpenAIRE

    Poletti, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    «In altri termini mi sfuggiva e ancora oggi mi sfugge gran parte del significato dell’evoluzione del tempo; come se il tempo fosse una materia che osservo dall’esterno. Questa mancanza di evoluzione è fonte di alcune mie sventure ma anche mi appartiene con gioia.» Aldo Rossi, Autobiografia scientifica. The temporal dimension underpinning the draft of Autobiografia scientifica by Aldo Rossi may be referred to what Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, the well-known French anthropologist, defines as “prim...

  15. Cushing at Zuni: The Correspondence and Journals of Frank Hamilton Cushing, 1879-1884, edited by Jesse Green, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Reyman

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available Turn-of-the-century anthropologists were a colorful and controversial lot, some of whose exploits and antics have achieved near mythical status in the history of the discipline. Although they published enormous amounts of material, much of what is now regarded as classic work and essential reading, they also behaved in ways that make today's scholars shudder with anger or disgust and shake their heads in bewilderment. And if the best of these early field workers were geniuses, they were often flawed geniuses who behavior, at times, made it difficult, and sometimes nearly impossible, for later researchers to follow them in the field.

  16. Art as an Evolutionary Adaptation: Inspiration from the Visible Supernovae of AD 1054 and AD 3054

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbally, C. J.; Rappaport, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The authors, an astronomer/priest and an anthropologist/biologist, describe their use of the dramatic arts at the INSAP VIII meeting in their performance of two short skits on the sighting of a supernova in AD 1054 (creating the beautiful Crab Nebula) and a future “Rho Cas” stellar explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia, in AD 3054. They speculate on the emergence of science, religion, and art as bona fide adaptations, responding to natural selection, which served early hominins well in their struggle for existence. They draw parallels to the continued functions of science, religion, and art in modern society.

  17. El Neolítico y la discusión del problema indoeuropeo

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch-Gimpera, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    After the publication of the author's book "El problema indoeuropeo" (México, 1960) and of the French translation ("Les Indoeuropéens, Problémes archéologiques", Paris, Payot, 1961) a discussion of their origin and formation of their different groups has been again raised. The conclusions of the author who does not believe in a single origin and a single home of the Indoeuropean people seems to find agreement. Dr. M. Gimbutas ("American Anthropologist" 1963 and 1964, and other articles), beli...

  18. Defining Life

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they ...

  19. Business Anthropology, Family Ideology and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2012-01-01

    in Japan. It also looks at how the family ideology in Japanese business first described and explained by anthropologists has been taken up by those with an interest in the Japanese industrial system, but working in field of management and business studies without any particular specialization in "things...... Japanese." Their research often relies on second than first-hand knowledge, and can therefore be misleading. The author points to the perceived connections between the traditional household system, not just family ideology, and modern economic relations. He reminds us that what distinguishes anthropology...

  20. The translator’s disquietness: notes on a logic of parts in la chute du ciel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Schuler Zea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available From the composition process of La chute du ciel, the book by Davi Kopenawa and Bruce Albert, I seek to circumscribe in the tasks of the translator and of the anthropologist the reach of a formula which, by adopting diverse figures, repeatedly converts the relation into a form of unity. Alternatively, taking into account other passages of the same text where the terms resist to its dissolution into a relation, I indicate through moments of disquietness and clamor towards an eventual logic of parts as a different mode of articulation. Last but not least, I present some notes regarding the potential political effect of this distinction.

  1. 第四单元:中国少数民族题材纪录片(1949-2012)(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Fang

    2013-01-01

    China’s ethnological records date back to some of the earliest in history.Ever since Sima Qian’s THE BIOGRAPHY OF SOUTHWEST BARBARIANS was written about ethnic minorities in Southwestern China,the tradition has carried on for thousands of years.One of the first countries to record and study its ethnic culture,China has left a legacy of documentaries for generations to follow.Anthropological Documentaries This category first appeared in the 1930s.LING Chunsheng(1902—1987),after obtaining a doctorate in anthropology from the University of Paris,was among the first generation of anthropologists to turn to films

  2. Auteurism and the secondary agency of portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandvad, Sara Malou

    2015-01-01

    , they tend to become neglected when applicants step in. To consider the selection processes during the test, the paper draws inspiration from the anthropologist of art Alfred Gell's art nexus that consists of artist, recipients, art objects and prototypes. With these four cardinal points, it becomes possible...... conventions. However, based on the structure of the test, evaluators rank the subjectivity of candidates as paramount, while portfolios become in Gell's words ‘secondary agents’. By introducing a specific form of personhood as the final selection parameter, the admission test continues a long tradition...

  3. Ways of knowing: Howard Stein's border-crossing use of poetry to interrogate clinical medicine, medical education, and health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2016-09-01

    This article explores how medical anthropologist Howard Stein's poetry and his unique practice of sharing this poetry with the patients, physicians, and administrators who inspired it create ways of knowing that are at once revelatory and emancipatory. Stein's writing shows readers that poetry can be considered as a form of data and as a method of investigation into the processes of the human soul. Furthermore, it represents a kind of intervention that invites health professional readers toward connection, bridge building, and solidarity with their patients and with one another. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27632547

  4. Clinical Simulation: For What and How Can It Be Used in Design and Evaluation of Health IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    sector influences the development and application of health IT. When health IT is introduced in local clinical work practices, potential patient safety hazards and insufficient support of work practices need to be examined. Qualitative methods, such as clinical simulation, may be used to support Techno......-Anthropologists design and evaluate new technology navigating in the intersection between people and technology and between various interests in forms of experts and stakeholders. This chapter will introduce the reader to clinical simulation, present the general guidelines and recommendation conducting simulations...... and describe a simulation lab in Copenhagen. Illustrative examples and references to specific projects will be part of the contribution...

  5. The distribution of cultural and biological diversity in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Joslin L; Manne, Lisa; Brooks, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    Anthropologists, biologists and linguists have all noted an apparent coincidence in species diversity and human cultural or linguistic diversity. We present, to our knowledge, one of the first quantitative descriptions of this coincidence and show that, for 2 degrees x 2 degrees grid cells across...... sub-Saharan Africa, cultural diversity and vertebrate species diversity exhibit marked similarities in their overall distribution. In addition, we show that 71% of the observed variation in species richness and 36% in language richness can be explained on the basis of environmental factors, suggesting...

  6. Antropología y formación de colecciones: las producciones artesanales del pueblo Chané

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Mariana Benedetti

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology has performed an important role in the constitution of indigenous handcrafts collections in the first half of XX century. This article tries to analyse this process, focalising on chané group. In this way, we consider the interethnical relationships in the context of argentine Nation's consolidation, and their articulation with the theory and the practice of two anthropologist Alfred Métraux and Enrique Pa1avecino— who studied this group and formed important collections of their handcraft productions. Thus we will comprehend the preservation as a space generated by the relationships between National State and indigenous groups, between anthropology and the "otherness".

  7. Mr.J.F.McLennan's Study of Polyandry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Xueyan; Zhang Yahui

    2015-01-01

    John F.McLennan is well known for introducing the terms of “exogamy” and “en-dogamy” in Primitive Marriage:An Inquiry into the Origins of the Form of Capture in Marriage Ceremo-nies(1865) .In this book, McLennan hypothesized that polyandry had prevailed around the world, and broadly described and contrasted characteristics of different kinds of polyandry.He believed that pol-yandry occupied a significant place in the history of marriage.As a member of the school of classical evolutionism, McLennan's study of polyandry re-ceives little attention today, and few of his books or papers have been translated into Chinese.Since the nineteenth century, anthropologists have strug-gled to make some hypotheses regarding the causes of polyandry, but they have been far from reaching an agreement.Up to now, some areas of the Hima-layas still permit polyandrous unions.Both anthro-pologists and Tibetologists still have a substantial interest in explaining the origins of this rare form of marriage and to do this, it might be instructive to revive McLennan's Study.This paper mainly focu-ses on McLennan 's book Primitive Marriage and his paper Levirate And Polyandry ( produced in 1877) to explore McLennan's study of polyandry.

  8. Global Health, Medical Anthropology, and Social Marketing: Steps to the Ecology of Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners. PMID:26753444

  9. Global Health, Medical Anthropology, and Social Marketing: Steps to the Ecology of Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners.

  10. Thick prescriptions: toward an interpretation of pharmaceutical sales practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Anthropologists of medicine and science are increasingly studying all aspects of pharmaceutical industry practices--from research and development to the marketing of prescription drugs. This article ethnographically explores one particular stage in the life cycle of pharmaceuticals: sales and marketing. Drawing on a range of sources-investigative journalism, medical ethics, and autoethnography--the author examines the day-to-day activities of pharmaceutical salespersons, or drug reps, during the 1990s. He describes in detail the pharmaceutical gift cycle, a three-way exchange network between doctors, salespersons, and patients and how this process of exchange is currently in a state of involution. This gift economy exists to generate prescriptions (scripts) and can mask and/or perpetuate risks and side effects for patients. With implications of pharmaceutical industry practices impacting everything from the personal-psychological to the global political economy, medical anthropologists can play a lead role in the emerging scholarly discourse concerned with critical pharmaceutical studies. PMID:15484967

  11. Il Codice Argimusco: ierotopie e ierofanie fra cristianesimo ed eresia medievale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAZZO, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The anthropologist Mircea Eliade introduces the concept of sacred space by providing a clear description of this phenomenon. He explains that every sacred space implies a hierophany; a manifestation of the sacred itself. Hierotopy, on the other hand, according to Lidov, is the creation of the sacred space in order to make an everyday place symbolically different. It represents a form of creativity typical of every culture, and it is a manifestation which is still present in peoples lives and daily activities. Argimusco, a megalithic site in Sicily, seems to perfectly lend itself to this type of study, and although lots of studies in the field of archaeoastronomy have been carried out on this site, only few regarding anthropology have been done. The survey carried out has to take many historical and theological parameters into account, and it becomes difficult for an anthropologist not to form hasty opinions, as he tries to come to an understanding of the meaning that medieval men had given to those stones, still vivid in their collective imagination. The essay begins with the analysis of the ancient cult of the stone, and moves to the various sacred and heretical beliefs of Medieval Christianity. It continues with the study of “alchemical initiation”, and finally touches on the debate concerning the beliefs of gnosticism.

  12. Marmosets as model species in neuroscience and evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith M; Finkenwirth, Christa

    2015-04-01

    Marmosets are increasingly used as model species by both neuroscientists and evolutionary anthropologists, but with a different rationale for doing so. Whereas neuroscientists stress that marmosets share many cognitive traits with humans due to common descent, anthropologists stress those traits shared with marmosets - and callitrichid monkeys in general - due to convergent evolution, as a consequence of the cooperative breeding system that characterizes both humans and callitrichids. Similarities in socio-cognitive abilities due to convergence, rather than homology, raise the question whether these similarities also extend to the proximate regulatory mechanisms, which is particularly relevant for neuroscientific investigations. In this review, we first provide an overview of the convergent adaptations to cooperative breeding at the psychological and cognitive level in primates, which bear important implications for our understanding of human cognitive evolution. In the second part, we zoom in on two of these convergent adaptations, proactive prosociality and social learning, and compare their proximate regulation in marmosets and humans with regard to oxytocin and cognitive top down regulation. Our analysis suggests considerable similarity in these regulatory mechanisms presumably because the convergent traits emerged due to small motivational changes that define how pre-existing cognitive mechanisms are quantitatively combined. This finding reconciles the prima facie contradictory rationale for using marmosets as high priority model species in neuroscience and anthropology.

  13. [The dialogues between anthropology and health: contributions to public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Esther Jean

    2014-04-01

    In order to examine the development of anthropological paradigms and their dialogue with medicine, I divide the discussion into two general, but non-exclusive, approaches: one that focuses on health and disease as social and cultural experience and construction, and another that examines health from an interactional and political perspective. For the first approach, I focus on North American and French theories that find resonance in the anthropological dialogue in Brazil. For the second political approach, the discussion originates in the dialogue among anthropologists in Latin America who have been developing models to contribute to an interdisciplinary approach necessary for health policies and intervention in health. The concepts of practices in self-care and intermedicality, among others, are explored due to their contribution in anthropology to public policies in health. These anthropologists have argued that health practices should be understood through the notions of autonomy, collectivity, agency and praxis, as opposed to the notions of the biomedical perspective characterized as being universalist, biological, individualist and a-historical.

  14. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    The paper argues that African organization sand business relations reflect pre-industrial social norms found by anthropologists in kinship based, rural communities. African society is a hybrid mixture of an emerging industrial economy and a set of norms and behaviours which have been carried over......-industrial cultural traits and offers a theory showing their inner, social logic. Drawing on examples from the existing literature on African management it is shown how the pre-industrial norms are manifested in organizational practice and business.......The paper argues that African organization sand business relations reflect pre-industrial social norms found by anthropologists in kinship based, rural communities. African society is a hybrid mixture of an emerging industrial economy and a set of norms and behaviours which have been carried over...... from tribal and peasant communities. In modern, urban organizations the presence of pre-industrial norms is seen in the continued importance of in-group/out-group differention, gift exchange and kinship obligations. The paper suggests an explanation of the continued permanence of pre...

  15. Did "Kin-based societies" Exist? On the (DeConstruction of an Anthropological Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Ivanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept of a ‘kin-based society’ relies on the assumption that, in stateless societies, kinship served as a fundamental and sufficient principle of social and political organization. Developed within the evolutionary paradigm, this concept has acquired different forms during the discipline’s history, depending on the theoretical orientation of various anthropologists and their understanding of the notion of ‘kinship’. Speaking from significantly different theoretical positions, anthropologists ranging from Rivers to Malinowski and Radcliffe- Brown, to Evans-Pritchard, Fortes and Levi-Strauss, all maintained that kinship formed a basis of social organization, although they did not always agree on the definition of the concept and the type of kinship relations that had this special quality of integrating and organizing the whole of society. The debates were primarily about whether it was consanguinity or affinity that served as a fundamental factor of forming and reproducing social relations. As modern anthropology rejects the idea that kinship relations can form the basis for social, economic and political integration in any type of society, including those without the state, class or caste system, this article considers the assumptions underpinning the construction of the concept witch for long played such an important role in the discipline’s knowledge but later came to be seriously challenged.

  16. Acculturation and Its Discontents: A Case for Bringing Anthropology Back into the Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Anthropologists’ contribution to the study of cultural change is urgent in light of the increasing number of people of different backgrounds who are migrating around the globe and settling in new communities, and the opportunities and challenges that come along with that process. By examining the anthropological literature on acculturation going back to the 1936 Memorandum by Redfield, Linton and Herskovits, this paper reviews and assesses the discipline’s perspective on acculturation, and lays out the case for why it is critical for anthropologists to re-engage the concept. Although other disciplines, particularly psychology and sociology, have dominated the field of acculturation research more recently, they mostly have done so with a narrow focus. While it is important to acknowledge the pitfalls of anthropology’s past study of acculturation, there are important features of the acculturation construct that continue to be relevant. Among these are the study of acculturation as a process that is multidimensional; the investigation of how different kinds of power affect the acculturation process; the impacts of attitudes, actions and policies of the receiving group on how acculturation proceeds; the role of “real history” in understanding processes of acculturation; and the global perspective on these processes. We suggest ways in which anthropologists can reignite the field of acculturation research by engaging with Redfield, Linton and Herskovits’ framework and subsequent anthropological literature.

  17. Understanding Christianity in the history of African religion: An engagement with theological and anthropological perspectives in the pursuit of interdisciplinary dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retief M�ller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is ample ground and good motives for interdisciplinary engagement between theology and the �new� anthropology of Christianity. Theologians can learn much about the character of the church in all its plurality from the often insightful descriptions of anthropologists who have recently started to take a strong interest in Christianity. On the other hand, theologians can help anthropologists come to more complex understandings of the meaning of Christianity. Concerning contrasting anthropological perspectives of anti-essentialism and culture theory regarding the nature of Christianity, this article suggested that the work of missiologists, such as Andrew Walls, might usefully aid the progression of the debate and referred to the historical interplay and conflict between Christianity and indigenous knowledge in southern Africa by way of illustrating this point. The argument pursued in this article hinges on the prioritising of an interdisciplinary approach in theological studies, a cause which Prof. Julian M�ller has long championed. Therefore, this contribution sought to honour his legacy by illustrating a further avenue of interdisciplinary engagement.

  18. Darkness’s descent on the American Anthropological Association. A cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Alice

    2011-09-01

    In September 2000, the self-styled “anthropological journalist” Patrick Tierney began to make public his work claiming that the Yanomamö people of South America had been actively—indeed brutally—harmed by the sociobiological anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon and the geneticist-physician James Neel. Following a florid summary of Tierney’s claims by the anthropologists Terence Turner and Leslie Sponsel, the American Anthropological Association (AAA) saw fit to take Tierney’s claims seriously by conducting a major investigation into the matter. This paper focuses on the AAA’s problematic actions in this case but also provides previously unpublished information on Tierney’s falsehoods. The work presented is based on a year of research by a historian of medicine and science. The author intends the work to function as a cautionary tale to scholarly associations, which have the challenging duty of protecting scholarship and scholars from baseless and sensationalistic charges in the era of the Internet and twenty-four-hour news cycles.

  19. Ethics in Anthropological Research: Responsibilities to the Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Biswas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, in anthropological research, ethics has become more relevant, more meaningful as well as structured in nature. In USA, specially after World War II, American Anthropological Association enacted code of ethics for anthropological research. However, in India, we have no such ethical guidelines from any of the association of anthropology; rather promote a space where researcher can create and evolve their own code of ethics. Ethical issues for anthropologists are manifold- their relations with research participants, with institution and colleagues, with own and host government and with society and funding agency of the project. Among these, the first one is most important, and present paper intends to identify ethical issues related with research participants; which includes informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, vulnerability, risk-benefit, deception, compensation and so on. The present work also intends to identify issues for which anthropologists criticize some components of bioethics because of their abstract principles derived from arm-chair philosophy, ethnocentric view and lack of cross-cultural analysis for that they prepare a readymade ethical code of conduct which may differ significantly from culture to culture.

  20. Encuentros (polémicos en el Pacífico entre viajeros ilustrados y nativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monge, Fernando

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with explorers' encounters with natives in eighteenth century Pacific and how these encounters where interpreted by the formers and current anthropologists' as well. Though important as that encounters might have been, this paper is primarily concerned with anthropologist encounters with time and how such encounters have laid bare some of the way we do our interpretations. A big deal of the paper focuses on the death of Captain Cook and the Sahlins / Obeyesekere controversy prompted by the interpretation of this event.

    Este artículo aborda la peculiar naturaleza de los encuentros entre pueblos nativos del Pacífico y exploradores ilustrados, así como el modo en que esos exploradores y los antropólogos contemporáneos los han interpretado. No obstante y a pesar de la importancia que esos encuentros han tenido, el objetivo fundamental de este artículo es abordar cómo los antropólogos se han encontrado con el tiempo y cómo éste ha hecho evidente el modo en el que los antropólogos hacemos nuestras interpretaciones. Una parte importante del artículo se centra en la muerte del Capitán Cook y en la controversia que dicho acontecimiento provocó entre Sahlins y Obeyesekere.

  1. (Retelling a dog story from Newfoundland: Voice, alterity and the art of ethnographic description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of how and why we (anthropologists and sociologists tell stories of real people doing real stuff. It will consider this question by reflecting on three versions of a story that I have carried with me and told in variety of contexts over a couple of decades. The story is not mine but was originally told to me by a man while I was visiting a village on the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. In (retelling three versions of this story I will be focusing on the problem of “voice” and how the voice of the other is constituted. In answering the question of how and why we tell tales of the field, I will suggest that we do so in part so other people, other voices, come to inhabit our accounts thereby rendering them “ethnographic.” The paper will conclude by arguing that our finely detailed accounts play a crucial role in both constituting the authoritative voice of the anthropologist and troubling this voice with the ghostly whispers of other voices which inhabit our narratives even if, as is the way with ghosts, they can never be wholly conjured into full presence and complete intelligibility.

  2. Culture, Urbanism and Changing Human Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropologists have long known that human activity driven by culture changes the environment. This is apparent in the archaeological record and through the study of the modern environment. Perhaps the largest change since the paleolithic era is the organization of human populations in cities. New environments can reshape human biology through evolution as shown by the evolution of the hominid lineage. Evolution is not the only process capable of reshaping our biology. Some changes in our human biology are adaptive and evolutionary while others are pathological. What changes in human biology may be wrought by the modern urban environment? One significant new change in the environment is the introduction of pollutants largely through urbanization. Pollutants can affect human biology in myriad ways. Evidence shows that human growth, reproduction, and cognitive functioning can be altered by some pollutants, and altered in different ways depending on the pollutant. Thus, pollutants have significance for human biologists and anthropologists generally. Further, they illustrate the bio-cultural interaction characterizing human change. Humans adapt by changing the environment, a cultural process, and then change biologically to adjust to that new environment. This ongoing, interactive process is a fundamental characteristic of human change over the millennia. PMID:25598655

  3. Geodynamic evolution and sedimentary infill of the northern Levant Basin: A source to sink-perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawie, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nicolas Hawie a,b,c (nicolas.hawie@upmc.fr) Didier Granjeon c (didier.granjeon@ifpen.fr) Christian Gorini a,b (christian.gorini@upmc.fr) Remy Deschamps c (remy.deschamps@ifpen.fr) Fadi H. Nader c (fadi-henri.nader@ifpen.fr) Carla Müller Delphine Desmares f (delphine.desmares@upmc.fr) Lucien Montadert e (lucien.montadert@beicip.com) François Baudin a (francois.baudin@upmc.fr) a UMR 7193 Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/ Univ. Paris 06, case 117. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France b iSTEP, UMR 7193, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France c IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4 avenue du Bois Préau 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France d UMR 7207, Centre de Recherche sur la Paleobiodiversité et les Paleoenvironnements. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 46-56 5ème. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France e Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoléon Bonaparte, 95502 Rueil-Malmaison, France Sedimentological and biostratigraphic investigations onshore Lebanon coupled with 2D offshore reflection seismic data allowed proposing a new Mesozoic-Present tectono-stratigraphic framework for the northern Levant Margin and Basin. The seismic interpretation supported by in-depth facies analysis permitted to depict the potential depositional environments offshore Lebanon as no well has yet been drilled. The Levant region has been affected by successive geodynamic events that modified the architecture of its margin and basin from a Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift into a Late Cretaceous subduction followed by collision and Miocene-Present strike slip motion. The interplay between major geodynamic events as well as sea level fluctuations impacted on the sedimentary infill of the basin. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Levant Margin is dominated by the aggradation of a carbonate platform while deepwater mixed-systems prevailed in the basin. During the Oligo-Miocene, three major sedimentary pathways are expected to drive important

  4. PREFACE: European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Horst; Georg, Sören

    2014-12-01

    The European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis is an annual event that has been organised since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary and Denmark. The overall planning of the workshops is conducted by the Intelligent Control and Diagnosis (ICD) steering committee. This year's ACD workshop took place at HTW Berlin (University of Applied Sciences) and was organised by the Control Engineering group of School of Engineering I of HTW Berlin. 38 papers were presented at ACD 2014, with contributions spanning a variety of fields in modern control science: Discrete control, nonlinear control, model predictive control, system identification, fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control, control applications, applications of fuzzy logic, as well as modelling and simulation, the latter two forming a basis for all tasks in modern control. Three interesting and high-quality plenary lectures were delivered. The first plenary speaker was Wolfgang Weber from Pepperl+Fuchs, a German manufacturer of state-of-the-art industrial sensors and process interfaces. The second and third plenary speakers were two internationally high-ranked researchers in their respective fields, Prof. Didier Theilliol from Université de Lorraine and Prof. Carsten Scherer from Universität Stuttgart. Taken together, the three plenary lectures sought to contribute to closing the gap between theory and applications. On behalf of the whole ACD 2014 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who submitted papers and participated in the workshop. We hope it was a fruitful and memorable event for all. Together we are looking forward to the next ACD workshop in 2015 in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Horst Schulte (General Chair), Sören Georg (Programme Chair)

  5. GSE moves to a new system of submission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since October 10, 2005 the management of manuscripts submitted to GSE has moved to a new electronic system: Management Manuscript System or MMS. This system offers different services, which facilitate submission of manuscripts and contribute to their efficient and rapid processing. It is accessible at: http://www.edpsciences.org/gse. With this system, we expect to process your manuscripts quickly and efficiently. In the editorial board, two new scientific editors: Hélène Hayes (INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France and Philippe Baret (Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium have taken over from Francis Minvielle, after six years of active and successful participation as Scientific Editor. H. Hayes will address manuscripts in molecular biology, while P. Baret will deal with those in quantitative genetics. Didier Boichard (INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France will act as Editor-in-Chief. The journal thanks Michel Georges for his continuous help, as former Editor-in-Chief, to improve the quality and the international audience of GSE. For the fourth consecutive year, the impact factor of GSE is in progression (1.65 in 2004. Most of the articles published in GSE have focused on original research in quantitative and molecular genetics of farm and experimental animals, as well as related species. Since the number of submissions has markedly increased over the last two years, GSE has slightly modified its scope by restricting it to domesticated and experimental species and leaving articles on wild species to more specialised journals. The expected outcome is that GSE will specialize on papers with a strong methodological dimension to help understand, maintain and exploit animal genetic variability.

  6. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2009-03-15

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. This includes three recently acquired Transportable Array stations located at Cold Creek, Didier Farms, and Phinney Hill. For the Hanford Seismic Network, ten local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2009. All earthquakes were considered as “minor” with magnitudes (Mc) less than 1.0. Two earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), most likely in the Columbia River basalts; five earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the sub-basalt sediments); and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, four earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events.

  7. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagnon P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Gagnon,1,2 Jordan A Guenette,3,4 Daniel Langer,5 Louis Laviolette,2 Vincent Mainguy,1 François Maltais,1,2 Fernanda Ribeiro,1,2 Didier Saey1,2 1Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 3Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, St Paul's Hospital, 4Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Department of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a preventable and treatable lung disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. In a significant proportion of patients with COPD, reduced lung elastic recoil combined with expiratory flow limitation leads to lung hyperinflation during the course of the disease. Development of hyperinflation during the course of COPD is insidious. Dynamic hyperinflation is highly prevalent in the advanced stages of COPD, and new evidence suggests that it also occurs in many patients with mild disease, independently of the presence of resting hyperinflation. Hyperinflation is clinically relevant for patients with COPD mainly because it contributes to dyspnea, exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle limitations, morbidity, and reduced physical activity levels associated with the disease. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce hyperinflation and delay the onset of ventilatory limitation in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to address the more recent literature regarding the pathogenesis, assessment, and management of both static and dynamic lung hyperinflation in patients with COPD. We also address the influence of biological sex and obesity and new developments in our understanding of hyperinflation in patients with mild COPD and its evolution during

  8. Fukushima, 4 years after. Proceedings of the technical day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years after the 2012 meeting of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) devoted to the Fukushima accident, the SFRP organized a new technical meeting to take stock of the actual situation in Japan. The program comprises 5 topical sessions dealing with: the accident, the status of the facility and its fate, the terrestrial and marine environmental impacts, the human health impacts and the preventive actions, the remedial actions in contaminated territories, and the post-accident management of territories, populations and foodstuffs. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - The Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents: common points and differences (Didier CHAMPION, SFRP); 2 - Fukushima Dai-ichi: present day situation and fate of the facilities (Thierry CHARLES, IRSN); 3 - The Fukushima accident impact on the terrestrial environment and the related doses (Philippe RENAUD, IRSN); 4 - The Fukushima accident impact on the marine environment (Bruno FIEVET, IRSN); 5 - Short-term health effects and implementation of the long-term population monitoring (Laurence LEBARON-JACOBS, CEA); 6 - Radiations and thyroid cancer risk (Florence MENETRIER, CEA); 7 - Decontamination wastes management (Francois BESNUS, IRSN); 8 - Solutions offered by Areva for the cleansing of the Fukushima site (Jean-Christophe PIROUX, AREVA); 9 - Questions about wastes management in post-accident situation (Michael TICHAUER, IRSN); 10 - Experts involvement to the population (Thierry SCHNEIDER, CEPN); 11 - Management of local foodstuffs (Jean-Francois LECOMTE, IRSN); 12 - Lessons learnt at the national and international scale (Jean-Luc GODET, ASN)

  9. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catthoor K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten Catthoor,1,3 Dine J Feenstra,2 Joost Hutsebaut,2 Didier Schrijvers,3 Bernard Sabbe3 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatrisch Ziekenhuis Stuivenberg, ZNA Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium; 2Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, the Netherlands; 3Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium Background: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs. Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ. Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions: Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD

  10. On the dynamics of the world demographic transition and financial-economic crises forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaev, A.; Sadovnichy, V.; Korotayev, A.

    2012-05-01

    The article considers dynamic processes involving non-linear power-law behavior in such apparently diverse spheres, as demographic dynamics and dynamics of prices of highly liquid commodities such as oil and gold. All the respective variables exhibit features of explosive growth containing precursors indicating approaching phase transitions/catastrophes/crises. The first part of the article analyzes mathematical models of demographic dynamics that describe various scenarios of demographic development in the post-phase-transition period, including a model that takes the limitedness of the Earth carrying capacity into account. This model points to a critical point in the early 2050s, when the world population, after reaching its maximum value may decrease afterward stabilizing then at a certain stationary level. The article presents an analysis of the influence of the demographic transition (directly connected with the hyperexponential growth of the world population) on the global socioeconomic and geopolitical development. The second part deals with the phenomenon of explosive growth of prices of such highly liquid commodities as oil and gold. It is demonstrated that at present the respective processes could be regarded as precursors of waves of the global financial-economic crisis that will demand the change of the current global economic and political system. It is also shown that the moments of the start of the first and second waves of the current global crisis could have been forecasted with a model of accelerating log-periodic fluctuations superimposed over a power-law trend with a finite singularity developed by Didier Sornette and collaborators. With respect to the oil prices, it is shown that it was possible to forecast the 2008 crisis with a precision up to a month already in 2007. The gold price dynamics was used to calculate the possible time of the start of the second wave of the global crisis (July-August 2011); note that this forecast has turned out

  11. On the identification of Dragon Kings among extreme-valued outliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme values of earth, environmental, ecological, physical, biological, financial and other variables often form outliers to heavy tails of empirical frequency distributions. Quite commonly such tails are approximated by stretched exponential, log-normal or power functions. Recently there has been an interest in distinguishing between extreme-valued outliers that belong to the parent population of most data in a sample and those that do not. The first type, called Gray Swans by Nassim Nicholas Taleb (often confused in the literature with Taleb's totally unknowable Black Swans, is drawn from a known distribution of the tails which can thus be extrapolated beyond the range of sampled values. However, the magnitudes and/or space–time locations of unsampled Gray Swans cannot be foretold. The second type of extreme-valued outliers, termed Dragon Kings by Didier Sornette, may in his view be sometimes predicted based on how other data in the sample behave. This intriguing prospect has recently motivated some authors to propose statistical tests capable of identifying Dragon Kings in a given random sample. Here we apply three such tests to log air permeability data measured on the faces of a Berea sandstone block and to synthetic data generated in a manner statistically consistent with these measurements. We interpret the measurements to be, and generate synthetic data that are, samples from α-stable sub-Gaussian random fields subordinated to truncated fractional Gaussian noise (tfGn. All these data have frequency distributions characterized by power-law tails with extreme-valued outliers about the tail edges.

  12. Study of the electronic trigger system for HL-LHC project and search for new physics in top anti-top invariant mass spectrum with CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript describes my thesis work within the CMS experiment of the LHC collider. It presents both subjects on which I worked: a detector subject and a data analysis subject. The first subject, detector, is situated within the framework of the HL-LHC project which plans an increase by a factor five of the instantaneous luminosity. Such an increase and the preservation of the high level trigger (HLT) system, generate new constraints on the CMS detector. This is particularly true for the electronic trigger (L1) system. The CMS collaboration intends to implant this within tracker detector. Two methods are proposed: the stub modules method and the associative memory method. However, associative memory method requires a clever pre-selection of electric signals to be usable. The cluster width method is jointly proposed by Fabrizio Palla's team (Pisa) and by Didier Contardo's team (IPNL) to pre-select electric signals. The optimization of this method, in particular geometrical parameters of modules and thresholds applied for the electric signals pre-selection, is the result of my own work. It is detailed throughout the part III of this manuscript. The second subject concerns the analysis of data collected by CMS during 2011. This analysis has for objective to look for new particles in the spectre of anti-top top invariant mass. Due to its big mass, close to the electroweak symmetry breaking energy, the top quark plays an important role in numerous extensions of the Standard Model. The observation of narrow resonances in the spectre could be the sign of new particles. The analysis is subdivided into three parts, the selection of top anti-top events, the reconstruction of top anti-top invariant mass and a statistical study to quantify the presence of new physics. The results of this work are limits on the cross-section production of new particles. They are presented in the part IV of this manuscript. (author)

  13. ANATOMO-MORPHOLOGICAL FEUTURES OF THE ROOT CANAL SYSTEM IN GEORGIAN POPULATION - CONE-BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkenadze, E; Chipashvili, N

    2015-10-01

    Incomplete and superficial knowledge of morphological types and anatomical variations of the root canal system will become the reason leading to the failure of endodontic treatment. cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) - it is a technologically more sophisticated, interesting, reliable, non-invasive imaging technique with high degree of visualization, considered as a particularly important and useful tool to study complexity and variability of canal system. 2753 teeth of 228 patients have been studied by CT. Ages of the patients varied within 25-55 years. Among them 122 men and 106 women. Maxillary teeth - 1394 and mandibular - 1359, respectively. The aim of our study was investigation and evaluation of: tooth length, number of roots and canals, type of configuration, root canal curvature and degree of curvature in Georgian population. The results of the study revealed interesting data and anatomical characteristics, those replicating the racial signs and differs from the data recorded by the other researchers, became evident. In studying of dental form variations were interested anatomists (description and comparison) anthropologists, biologists, palaeontologists and stomatologists. The field of human dental anatomy has not been completely explored so, the modern human teeth still remain a matter of continual curiosity and research. The knowledge of anatomical characteristics of dental root canals will help clinicians to optimize the algorithm of endodontic treatment. Thus, statistic data are not the universal criterias, however, basing on these indicators anthropometrical data of roots and canals vary according to the geographic zones and nationalities. The study of variations in tooth form has interested anatomists (description and comparison), anthropologists, biologists, palaeontologists and dentists. The field of human dental anatomy has not been completely explored and the dentition of modern man still remains a matter of continual curiosity and research

  14. Franz Boas and his plans for an International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, R

    1977-07-01

    The expansionist policy of the United States at the turn of the century widened the horizons of American anthropology. The International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology was one of the first attempts by American anthropologists to carry out systematic research in foreign lands. Motivated partly by a wish to strengthen the quality of American anthropology, Franz Boas succeeded in gaining the cooperation of several European and American institutions. The purpose of the school was to conduct rigorous anthropological investigations in Mexico. Obsessed with professionalizing the discipline, Boas failed to take into account the turbulent political climate of Mexico when planning the school. Although it did good work for a number of years (1910-1914), the school was broken up forever in 1914 because of the Mexican revolution. Attempts at resurrection failed for numerous reasons. PMID:332760

  15. Communicating biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Shifting from risk-calculation orientations focusing on populations to preparedness perspectives that model uncertainty through scenario-based projections, biosecurity debates redefined notions of "health" and "security." Nevertheless, a key focus of biosecurity discussions--the domain labeled "communication"--has not been fundamentally rethought, even as it has expanded and professionalized. Bracketing preconceived ideas about the term's content, the article traces debates about biosecurity "communication" from the 1990s to the present, drawing on ethnography and textual analysis. Using a notion of biocommunicability, the cultural modeling of how discourse is produced, circulates, and is received, the article analyzes assumptions regarding subjects, subject-positions, objects, spatializing and temporalizing practices, scales, economies of affect, and regimes of ethics that are built into discourse about "communication." Ironically, the conviction that "communication" is of marginal importance as a focus of critical inquiry, seemingly shared by most medical anthropologists, enables these assumptions to fundamentally shape discussions of biosecurity and emergency management.

  16. The Allison V. Armour / William Henry Holmes 1895 Expedition to Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Haskin

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of the Field Museum's reputation as a place where serious science is practiced was laid by Allison V. Armour and William Henry Holmes in 1895, a little more than a year after the Museum was established. Looking back after a career of almost 60 years as an anthropologist, and having twice been honored as the outstanding practitioner in the field, Holmes described the trip to Mexico (the only expedition he led during his brief tenure as the Museum's first Curator of An­thropology as "one of the most gratifying and important events of my life." It was also one of the most important events in the history of anthropology at the Museum.

  17. An epidemiological description of a folk illness: a study of empacho in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S C; Ruebush, T K; Klein, R E

    1991-06-01

    Although anthropologists have provided descriptions of many folk illnesses, few have systematically evaluated their prevalence and determined who is at greatest risk for acquiring them. This report attempts to provide a systematic description of the folk illness empacho including the symptoms that define it. Illness prevalence was estimated and subpopulations at greatest risk were identified from illness histories collected from a random sample of households in rural Guatemala. Empacho was found to constitute a distinct cluster of symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, headache, and lack of appetite. It differed from other gastrointestinal illnesses in that headaches were more likely and stomachaches were less likely to be reported. Empacho was highly prevalent and occurred in adults and children. Further, results showed that although empacho was frequently diagnosed by residents, folk healers were rarely consulted for any illness. Nevertheless, a strong association exists between a household diagnosis of empacho and the use of folk healers by those households (p less than .001).

  18. Evidence of authentic DNA from Danish Viking Age skeletons untouched by humans for 1,000 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea; Kivisild, Toomas; Lynnerup, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    , pre-laboratory contamination occurring during excavation and archaeological-/anthropological handling of human remains as well as rapid degradation of authentic DNA after excavation are major obstacles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We avoided some of these obstacles by analyzing DNA from ten Viking...... Age subjects that at the time of sampling were untouched by humans for 1,000 years. We removed teeth from the subjects prior to handling by archaeologists and anthropologists using protective equipment. An additional tooth was removed after standard archaeological and anthropological handling. All pre...... with the "unhandled" teeth and there was no indication of contamination, while the latter was the case with half of the "handled" teeth. The results allowed the unequivocal assignment of a specific haplotype to each of the subjects, all haplotypes being compatible in their character states with a phylogenetic tree...

  19. Sex discrimination from the glenoid cavity in black South Africans: morphometric analysis of digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, P James

    2011-11-01

    Given that skeletal material recovered from medicolegal contexts is often incomplete or damaged, forensic anthropologists need to have a variety of techniques at their disposal in order to correctly determine the sex of unidentified human remains. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to produce practical standards for discriminating the sex of black South Africans using measurements of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Standardized digital photographs of the left glenoid fossa were taken for 60 males and 60 females drawn from the Pretoria Bone Collection. An image analysis software program was then used to collect height, breadth, area, and perimeter data from each digital photograph. All four dimensions of the glenoid cavity were highly sexually dimorphic in this population group (p Classification sex biases were below 5.0% for all equations. These results demonstrate that the analysis of glenoid cavity size provides a highly accurate method for discriminating the sex of black South Africans. PMID:20814691

  20. Anthropological Studies of Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the questions raised at the symposium "Our World, Other Worlds. Anthropology, Science Fiction and Cultural Identity", held in Belgrade in December 2009, is how anthropology is to study contemporary art forms: how research issues are to be defined and approached; how research is to be organized in a specific semantic area, which cannot always and with absolute certainty be said not to be an anthropological construction; whether the subject of research can be said to have the shared nature of cultural communication; whether the anthropologist is to interpret the author/artist’s intention, or that which is produced as a result of that intention, etc. The aim of this paper is to suggest some answers to these questions, from the point of view of a researcher focused on cultural communication.

  1. Half full or half empty? Shelter after the Jogjakarta earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Graeme; Hodgkin, David

    2011-01-01

    The international shelter response to the Jogjakarta earthquake in Indonesia in May 2006 is widely regarded as a success story, especially when compared with the response to the Indian Ocean tsunami 16 months earlier. This evaluation is largely in terms of the international aid system itself, which emphasises statistical measures of 'success' and internal coordination and efficiency. From the perspective of those closer to the ground, however, it was less successful, especially in terms of coordination and communication with and participation of local agencies and affected communities. This paper, by an aid worker resident in Jogjakarta and an anthropologist, examines the response from a perspective grounded both within and outside the aid system, local as well as global. It recognises the relative success of the response, but argues for an approach more grounded in local knowledge and responsive to local concerns, while also providing practical suggestions for improvement.

  2. The pain of ethnographic action: skinning to go between the ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Urraco Solanilla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I try to make a methodological reflection on the importance to develop a practical knowledge ("embodiment" in the fieldwork of sociologists, anthropologists and other researchers of social reality. This reflection is connected with different approaches that insist on the body's value as object and subject of knowledge. To do this, I put various authors and theoretical approaches in touch, using as excuse the Wacquant's work ("Body and Soul: Ethnographic Notebooks of An Apprentice-Boxer", which seems to have passed, at the moment, unnoticed for spanish-speaking academicians, despite the wealth of its efforts both in the methodological level as in the more purely 'ethnographic'. In the incursion into the world of sport as a privileged arena for carrying out this type of analysis, I will focus on the notions of time, sacrifice and discipline, applicable both boxers as any other type of athlete (and obviously also to the researchers.

  3. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  4. Tourist Roles, Gender and Age in Greece: A Study of Tourists in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Yfantidou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is set in the context of tourism marketing and refers specifically to tourist roles. A representative sample of 1675 tourists brings to light the tourist role preference in Greece, and allows us to examine the possible differences between men and women of varying ages. The Tourist Role Preference Scale (TRPS was used for this research. The findings of this study support the existence of Yiannakis and Gibson’s 15 leisure tourist roles in Greece. Sun lover, anthropologist, archaeologist, independent mass tourist and escapist were found to be the most prevalent tourist roles in Greece. A comparison between gender and age revealed more similarities than differences. TRPS was proven reliable and valid for the sample used in this study and the questions of the scale represented significantly the tourist roles measured.

  5. User experience in libraries applying ethnography and human-centred design

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Modern library services can be incredibly complex. Much more so than their forebears, modern librarians must grapple daily with questions of how best to implement innovative new services, while also maintaining and updating the old. The efforts undertaken are immense, but how best to evaluate their success? In this groundbreaking new book from Routledge, library practitioners, anthropologists, and design experts combine to advocate a new focus on User Experience (or UX ) research methods. Through a combination of theoretical discussion and applied case studies, they argue that this ethnographic and human-centred design approach enables library professionals to gather rich evidence-based insights into what is really going on in their libraries, allowing them to look beyond what library users say they do to what they actually do. Edited by the team behind the international UX in Libraries conference, "User Experience in Libraries" will ignite new interest in a rapidly emerging and game-changing area of resear...

  6. Urbanization, Ikization, and Replacement Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of Iks was first found by anthropologists and biologists, but it is actually a problem of human geography. However, it has not yet drawn extensive attention of geographers. In this paper, a hypothesis of ikization is presented that sudden and violent change of geographical environments results in dismantling of traditional culture, which then result in collective depravity of a nationality. By quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling, the causality between urbanization and ikization is discussed, and the theory of replacement dynamics is employed to interpret the process of ikization. Urbanization is in essence a nonlinear process of population replacement. Urbanization may result in ikization because that the migration of population from rural regions to urban regions always give rise to abrupt changes of geographical environments and traditional culture. It is necessary to protect the geographical environment against disruption, and to inherit and develop traditional culture in order t...

  7. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.

  8. En las Inmediaciones del fin del mundo. Los encuentro de Gustaf Bolinder y los Chimilas en 1915 y 1920.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Nino Vargas.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the early 20th century, the swedish anthropologist gustaf bolinder contacted the indigenous population of the ariguaní river in north colombia, known at the time as “chimila”. as had other explorers and ethnologists, bolinder portrayed them as seriously disintegrated group which was almost extinct. the present article analyzes the process that gave rise to this idea, moving further from those interpretations that understand the ethnographic reports as either neutral descriptions or ethnocentric constructions. it is argued that the conception of chimila decadence was the result of a complex process of cultural interaction, in which indigenous practices and representations oriented toward isolationism, catastrophism and rejection of outsiders had an important infuence. the article also introduces two unpublished texts of bolinder on the subject.

  9. Focus: Global histories of science. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasundaram, Sujit

    2010-03-01

    An interest in global histories of science is not new. Yet the project envisioned by this Focus section is different from that pursued by natural historians and natural philosophers in the early modern age. Instead of tracing universal patterns, there is value in attending to the connections and disconnections of science on the global stage. Instead of assuming the precision of science's boundaries, historians might consider the categories of "science" and "indigenous knowledge" to have emerged from globalization. New global histories of science will be characterized by critical reflection on the limits of generalization, as well as a creative adoption of new sources, methods, and chronologies, in an attempt to decenter the European history of science. Such a project holds the promise of opening up new conversations between historians, anthropologists, philosophers, and sociologists of science. It is of critical importance if the discipline is not to fragment into regional and national subfields or become dominated by structural frameworks such as imperialism.

  10. Listmania. How lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbourgo, James; Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2012-12-01

    Anthropologists, linguists, cultural historians, and literary scholars have long emphasized the value of examining writing as a material practice and have often invoked the list as a paradigmatic example thereof. This Focus section explores how lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science. Drawing on examples from the early modern period, the contributors argue that attention to practices of list making reveals important relations between mercantile, administrative, and scientific attempts to organize the contents of the world. Early modern lists projected both spatial and temporal visions of nature: they inventoried objects in the process of exchange and collection; they projected possible trajectories for future endeavor; they publicized the social identities of scientific practitioners; and they became research tools that transformed understandings of the natural order.

  11. What's in the 'treatment gap'? Ethnographic perspectives on addiction and global mental health from China, Russia, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas; Garriott, William; Raikhel, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a 'global mental health' agenda, focused on providing evidence-based interventions for mental illnesses in low- and middle-income countries. Anthropologists and cultural psychiatrists have engaged in vigorous debates about the appropriateness of this agenda. In this article, we reflect on these debates, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on the management of substance use disorders in China, Russia, and the United States. We argue that the logic of 'treatment gaps,' which guides much research and intervention under the rubric of global mental health, partially obscures the complex assemblages of institutions, therapeutics, knowledges, and actors framing and managing addiction (as well as other mental health issues) in any particular setting.

  12. On Three Viewing Mode of Visual Anthropology%论视觉人类学的三种观看模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2015-01-01

    Visual anthropology has appeared three dominant view modes in the process of its formation and development. The first is the “Colonial Gaze”represented by the Evolutionary school.It focuses on the observation,emphasizing the“Objective”.But this View Mode takes the observation object “Other”as the Materal Existence,and ignores the difference and subjectivity of the object of observation,while giving anthropologists the supreme authority of viewing.The second is the Participant Observation Method,represented by Malinowski and his School of Functionalism.It emphasizes “Reflexive”,and thinks highly of the interaction between anthropologists and indigenous people.But,as “Participants”and “Observer”,the anthropologist confronts a problem of how to reconcile his inherent contradictions.The last one is the Viewing Mode that rises in the globle digital era,represented by “Virtual”and “Share”.While emphasizing the democracy of participation and viewing, it leads to the digestion of the authotity of the anthropologist as the subject of observation.Therefore,by using correct Viewing Mode in different viewing situations,it can effectively suture the fracture between viewer and the object of observation.%视觉人类学在其形成发展过程中出现过三种主导性观看模式:第一种是以进化学派为代表的“殖民凝视”模式,它侧重观察,强调“客观”性,但这种观看模式在赋予人类学家至上观看权威的同时,又将作为观察客体的“他者”视同物般的存在,无视观察对象的主体性及差异性;第二种是以功能结构学派马林诺夫斯基为代表的“参与观察法”,它强调“反身”性,重视人类学家与土著居民之间的互动,但如何调和集“参与者”与“观察者”为一身的人类学家自身所固有的矛盾是个难题;第三种是在全球数字化时代兴起的“虚拟”和“共享”的观看模式,它在强调参与

  13. A multidisciplinary view on cultural primatology: behavioral innovations and traditions in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Pelletier, Amanda N; Vasey, Paul L; Nahallage, Charmalie A D; Watanabe, Kunio; Huffman, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Cultural primatology (i.e., the study of behavioral traditions in nonhuman primates as a window into the evolution of human cultural capacities) was founded in Japan by Kinji Imanishi in the early 1950s. This relatively new research area straddles different disciplines and now benefits from collaborations between Japanese and Western primatologists. In this paper, we return to the cradle of cultural primatology by revisiting our original articles on behavioral innovations and traditions in Japanese macaques. For the past 35 years, our international team of biologists, psychologists and anthropologists from Japan, France, Sri Lanka, the USA and Canada, has been taking an integrative approach to addressing the influence of environmental, sociodemographic, developmental, cognitive and behavioral constraints on the appearance, diffusion, and maintenance of behavioral traditions in Macaca fuscata across various domains; namely, feeding innovation, tool use, object play, and non-conceptive sex. PMID:26860933

  14. Il futuro dei Comuni minori. Etnografia di una trasformazione in corso - The future of small municipalities in Italy: Ethnography of a social and institutional change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele F. Fontefrancesco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What is the future for Italian inner areas? The article answers to this question by exploring the ongoing institutional and social transformations in a small municipality in North-Western Italy. This ethnography is based on the information gathered in the dual role of elected civil servant and anthropologist involved in the field for over a decade. The article reads abandonment, marginality, new forms of entrepreneurship and tourisms as elements of a paradoxical dynamic: while it is increasingly difficult for villagers to get access to the services offered in the cities, urban dwellers are getting more and more interested into the traditions and products made in the rural areas. This paradox of distance foreshadows the future of small municipalities; a time in which vital towns could become little more than ethnic zoos for the anthropological curiosity of city inhabitants.

  15. Blinded by Sight: Divining the Future of Anthropology in Africa Die Erforschung des Elefanten: Zur Zukunft der Ethnologie in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis B. Nyamnjoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the metaphor of the elephant and the three blind men, this paper discusses some elements of the scholarly debate on the postcolonial turn in academia, in and of Africa, and in anthropology in particular. It is a part of the context in which anthropology remains unpopular among many African intellectuals. How do local knowledge practices take up existential issues and epistemological perspectives that may interrogate and enrich more global transcultural debates and scholarly reflexivity? Many an anthropologist still resists opening his or her mind up to life-worlds unfolding themselves through the interplay between everyday practice and the manifold actions and messages of humans, ancestors and non-human agents in sites of emerging meaning-production and innovative world-making. African anthropologists seeking recognition find themselves contested or dismissed by fellow anthropologists for doing “native”, “self” or “insider” anthropology, and are sometimes accused of perpetuating colonial epistemologies and subservience by fellow African scholars who are committed to scholarship driven by the need to valorise ways of being and knowing endogenous to Africa. This essay calls on anthropologists studying Africa to reflect creative diversity and reflexivity in the conceptualisation and implementation of research projects, as well as in how they provide for co-production, collaboration and co-implication within anthropology across and beyond disciplines.Unter Rückgriff auf die Fabel vom Elefanten und den drei weisen Männern diskutiert dieser Beitrag einige Elemente der Debatte zur postkolonialen Wende in der Wissenschaft – innerhalb und außerhalb Afrikas und insbesondere in Bezug auf die Ethnologie. Unter vielen afrikanischen Intellektuellen ist die Ethnologie immer noch unbeliebt. Inwieweit greifen lokale Wissenspraktiken existentielle Fragen und epistemologische Perspektiven auf und stellen damit die globale transkulturelle

  16. Anthropology, humanism and civic responsibilities: a conversation with Thomas Hylland Eriksen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Angosto Ferrández

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hylland Eriksen is amongst the most prolific anthropologists of our days. His work, however, does not only address specialised audiences; he is also a leading example of public engagement in Norway and beyond and an author who finds social value in the popularisation of science. Juggling conventional academic work and active participation in the public arena is a challenging task, but Eriksen’s career demonstrates that these activities can not only be compatible, but also complementary. Through his work on the fields of ethnicity, nationalisms and globalization Eriksen has made substantial contributions to social theory and cross-disciplinary academic debate; out of his concern with the role of anthropology in society and his understanding of civic responsibility in the contemporarypolity, he has also shown how anthropological knowledge can positively feed into public debate. In this conversation we shall learn more about Eriksen’s anthropological work, views on current issues and personal experiences as a public academic.

  17. Entangled ethnography: imagining a future for young adults with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Faye; Rapp, Rayna

    2013-12-01

    Our article draws on one aspect of our multi-sited long-term ethnographic research in New York City on cultural innovation and Learning Disabilities (LD). We focus on our efforts to help create two innovative transition programs that also became sites for our study when we discovered that young adults with disabilities were too often "transitioning to nowhere" as they left high school. Because of our stakes in this process as parents of children with learning disabilities as well as anthropologists, we have come to think of our method as entangled ethnography, bringing the insights of both insider and outsider perspectives into productive dialog, tailoring a longstanding approach in critical anthropology to research demedicalizing the experience of disability.

  18. Listening to objects: an ecological approach to the decorative arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J. Campbell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To transcend the divisions in art historical research between high art and decorative art, this study proposes an ecological approach. Drawing on research in the social sciences and humanities, and using the early modern domestic interior as a case study, the essay develops the concepts of environment, ecology, meshwork, assemblage, distributive agency, vital materiality, and matter as social performance, which appear in the work of political scientist Jane Bennett, feminist philosopher Karen Barad, sociologist Bruno Latour, anthropologist Tim Ingold, and others. As the study argues, such concepts provide a phenomenological, integrative, and non-hierarchical framework for the study of the decorative arts within the institutions and practices of art history, allowing art historians to analyse the processes through which the human and the material are intertwined.

  19. From victim to heroine: children's stories revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Ann Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The need to escape reality and the taste for adventure with the unknown fills a universal need for both adults and children. Fairy tales have a powerful grip on the imagination because they are homespun versions of myths and have passionate intensity without epic grandeur. The happy ending of fairy tales reflects gender stereotyping because the heroine usually does very little except sit, wish, and wait for marriage. She has no control over her destiny and no active involvement in selecting or planning her future. These heroines are really passive victims. Sexism was once rampant in children's books. The Oz books, with their independent, courageous, and active heroine were way ahead of their time. The advent of women's liberation has led to a reappraisal of the female in folk literature. Anthropologists have now discovered stories of admirable women who were strong characters in their own epic dramas.

  20. Who was helping? The scope for female cooperative breeding in early Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Viliami Bell

    Full Text Available Derived aspects of our human life history, such as short interbirth intervals and altricial newborns, have been attributed to male provisioning of nutrient-rich meat within monogamous relationships. However, many primatologists and anthropologists have questioned the relative importance of pair-bonding and biparental care, pointing to evidence that cooperative breeding better characterizes human reproductive and child-care relationships. We present a mathematical model with empirically-informed parameter ranges showing that natural selection favors cooperation among mothers over a wide range of conditions. In contrast, our analysis provides a far more narrow range of support for selection favoring male coalition-based monogamy over more promiscuous independent males, suggesting that provisioning within monogamous relationships may fall short of explaining the evolution of Homo life history. Rather, broader cooperative networks within and between the sexes provide the primary basis for our unique life history.

  1. Carolina in the Carolines: a survey of patterns and meanings of smoking on a Micronesian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mac

    2005-12-01

    Tobacco use--especially smoking industrially manufactured cigarettes--kills nearly 5 million people annually and is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Tobacco is a widely used global commodity embedded in cultural meanings, and its consumption involves a set of learned, patterned social behaviors. Seemingly, then, tobacco offers a most appealing anthropological research topic, yet its study has been relatively ignored by medical anthropologists when compared to research on alcoholic beverages and illegal drugs. To help fill this gap, this article sketches the historical background of tobacco in Micronesia, presents the results of a cross-sectional smoking survey from Namoluk Atoll, and describes contemporary smoking patterns and locally understood symbolic associations of tobacco. Intersections among history, gender, local meanings, the health transition, and the transnational marketing of tobacco are addressed, and cigarette smoking is seen as part of a new syndemic of chronic diseases in Micronesia. PMID:16435645

  2. The verbal portrait: Erik H. Erikson's contribution to psychoanalytic discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2011-12-01

    This article makes the case that Erik H. Erikson developed a form of psychoanalytic discourse-the verbal portrait-which, although not unprecedented, became a focal feature of his work, and the testing ground for the cogency of his major contribution to psychoanalysis (the concept of identity). It suggests that Erikson was inspired to develop the verbal portrait because he came to psychoanalysis from art and was, in fact, a portrait artist. Drawing especially on the work of Richard Brilliant, it presents the view that a portrait is a portrayal of the subject's identity and goes on to show how Erikson's memorial to the cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict is representative of the verbal portrait. PMID:21744027

  3. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making. PMID:24919733

  4. What binds Bronisław Malinowski with social networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Meger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bronislaw Malinowski, a Polish anthropologist, ethnologist and sociologist, is the father of phatic communication. He has defined and described for the first time a phatic function of language and its importance in societies with low levels of development. As it turns, the phatic communication, which does not transfer any content, is also present today, and even - due social networks portals - comes into new stage of development. Although an impression that the phatic communication has low importance, it plays an important role in society. Also in educational activities this communication has an impact on interpersonal relationships. Through it, people better cooperate with each other and create groups of collaborating individuals. In this way are also built relationships between students and the educational institutions. They are also generated positive emotions which help in all processes of learning. Generally, the phatic communication can have a positive influence on educational processes.

  5. Focus: Global histories of science. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasundaram, Sujit

    2010-03-01

    An interest in global histories of science is not new. Yet the project envisioned by this Focus section is different from that pursued by natural historians and natural philosophers in the early modern age. Instead of tracing universal patterns, there is value in attending to the connections and disconnections of science on the global stage. Instead of assuming the precision of science's boundaries, historians might consider the categories of "science" and "indigenous knowledge" to have emerged from globalization. New global histories of science will be characterized by critical reflection on the limits of generalization, as well as a creative adoption of new sources, methods, and chronologies, in an attempt to decenter the European history of science. Such a project holds the promise of opening up new conversations between historians, anthropologists, philosophers, and sociologists of science. It is of critical importance if the discipline is not to fragment into regional and national subfields or become dominated by structural frameworks such as imperialism. PMID:20575491

  6. Race, ethnicity, and racism in medical anthropology, 1977-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Sweet, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    Researchers across the health sciences are engaged in a vigorous debate over the role that the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity" play in health research and clinical practice. Here we contribute to that debate by examining how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and racism are used in medical-anthropological research. We present a content analysis of Medical Anthropology and Medical Anthropology Quarterly, based on a systematic random sample of empirical research articles (n = 283) published in these journals from 1977 to 2002. We identify both differences and similarities in the use of race, ethnicity, and racism concepts in medical anthropology and neighboring disciplines, and we offer recommendations for ways that medical anthropologists can contribute to the broader debate over racial and ethnic inequalities in health.

  7. From application to implication in medical anthropology: political, historical and narrative interpretations of the world of sickness and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Mônica de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews some of the current writing on medical anthropology, and is guided by political orientation/implication in the choice of its study targets, its analysis and its construction of solutions for the problems investigated. Starting from the narratives of anthropologists, it goes on to show the historical and socio-political bases characteristic of the subject in their countries of origin or migration. Within a general overview of the three principal contemporary trends - critical medical anthropology, the anthropology of suffering and the anthropology of biopower - the focus is on theoretical and thematic choices to meet the demand for "politicization" of the anthropological debate in the field of health, on the basis of which an "implied" medical anthropology is advocated.

  8. Forensic anthropology casework-essential methodological considerations in stature estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Ghosh, Abhik

    2012-03-01

    The examination of skeletal remains is a challenge to the medical examiner's/coroner's office and the forensic anthropologist conducting the investigation. One of the objectives of the medico-legal investigation is to estimate stature or height from various skeletal remains and body parts brought for examination. Various skeletal remains and body parts bear a positive and linear correlation with stature and have been successfully used for stature estimation. This concept is utilized in estimation of stature in forensic anthropology casework in mass disasters and other forensic examinations. Scientists have long been involved in standardizing the anthropological data with respect to various populations of the world. This review deals with some essential methodological issues that need to be addressed in research related to estimation of stature in forensic examinations. These issues have direct relevance in the identification of commingled or unknown remains and therefore it is essential that forensic nurses are familiar with the theories and techniques used in forensic anthropology.

  9. Medical anthropology and the physician assistant profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lisa R

    2015-01-01

    Medical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that investigates how culture influences people's ideas and behaviors regarding health and illness. Medical anthropology contributes to the understanding of how and why health systems operate the way they do, how different people understand and interact with these systems and cultural practices, and what assets people use and challenges they may encounter when constructing perceptions of their own health conditions. The goal of this article is to highlight the methodological tools and analytical insights that medical anthropology offers to the study of physician assistants (PAs). The article discusses the field of medical anthropology; the advantages of ethnographic and qualitative research; and how medical anthropology can explain how PAs fit into improved health delivery services by exploring three studies of PAs by medical anthropologists.

  10. A Molecular Approach to the Sexing of the Triple Burial at the Upper Paleolithic Site of Dolní Věstonice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Jiří; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades ancient DNA research has brought numerous insights to archaeological research where traditional approaches were limited. The determination of sex in human skeletal remains is often challenging for physical anthropologists when dealing with incomplete, juvenile or pathological specimens. Molecular approaches allow sexing on the basis of sex-specific markers or by calculating the ratio of DNA derived from different chromosomes. Here we propose a novel approach that relies on the ratio of X chromosome-derived shotgun sequencing data to the autosomal coverage, thus establishing the probability of an XX or XY karyotype. Applying this approach to the individuals of the Upper Paleolithic triple burial of Dolní Věstonice reveals that all three skeletons, including the individual DV 15, whose sex has long been debated due to a pathological condition, were male. PMID:27706187

  11. Medical Anthropology in Africa: The Trouble with a Single Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2016-01-01

    In the growing number of publications in medical anthropology about sub-Saharan Africa, there is a tendency to tell a single story of medicine, health, and health-seeking behavior. The heavy reliance on telling this singular story means that there is very little exposure to other stories. In this article, I draw on five books published in the past five years to illustrate the various components that make up this dominant narrative. I then provide examples of two accounts about medicine, health, and health-seeking behavior in Africa that deviate from this dominant narrative, in order to show the themes that alternative accounts have foregrounded. Ultimately, I make a plea to medical anthropologists to be mindful of the existence of this singular story and to resist the tendency to use its components as scaffolding in their accounts of medicine, health, and health-seeking behavior in Africa.

  12. Age estimation using pulp/tooth area ratio: A digital image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidhar Singaraju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of the person. Estimation of the human age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists, and forensic scientists. Inspection of radiographs and subsequent comparison with radiographic images, in charts yield ′maturity scores′ that help us to assess the age of an individual. Alternative approaches based on digitalization of panoramic radiographs and their computerized storage have recently become available that exploit image analysis to obtain nondestructive metric measurements of both pulp chambers and teeth, which can be used to assess the age of an individual. The purpose of the present study was to present a method for assessing the chronological age based on the relationship between age and measurement of the pulp/tooth area ratio on single-rooted teeth, using orthopantomographs and a computer-aided drafting program AutoCAD 2000.

  13. The Social Life of Health Insurance in Low- to Middle-income Countries: An Anthropological Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Amy; Nichter, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The following article identifies new areas for engaged medical anthropological research on health insurance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Based on a review of the literature and pilot research, we identify gaps in how insurance is understood, administered, used, and abused. We provide a historical overview of insurance as an emerging global health panacea and then offer brief assessments of three high-profile attempts to provide universal health coverage. Considerable research on health insurance in LMICs has been quantitative and focused on a limited set of outcomes. To advance the field, we identify eight productive areas for future ethnographic research that will add depth to our understanding of the social life and impact of health insurance in LMICs. Anthropologists can provide unique insights into shifting health and financial practices that accompany insurance coverage, while documenting insurance programs as they evolve and respond to contingencies.

  14. Troubling objectivity: the promises and pitfalls of training Haitian clinicians in qualitative research methods.H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities.

  15. Who's Upsetting Who? Strangeness, Morality, Nostalgia, Pleasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Cowlishaw

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between negative sentiments towards different kinds of people and the actual difficulties posed by people with different habits and practices living close by one another? Such difficulties are a space of fear and silence because, in this multicultural postmodernworld, we are supposed to celebrate difference in all its manifestations. It is this orthodoxy I want to examine. Let me first note that difficult differences of social practices and preferences are experienced within cultural or racial groups, even within families, as those with teenaged children may be the first to admit. As an anthropologist I begin by taking up a cultural studies practice, turning the analytic eye onto ourselves. Where better to begin than at the dinner party, that quintessential ceremony of white middle-class urban social life, and as good a place as any to glimpse the role played by Aborigines in our tribe’s imagination.

  16. Becoming Buzz Lightyear and Other Clinical Tales: Indigenizing Disney in a World of Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, anthropologists are investigating the place of mass media in our lives, for we live, as Ortner (1999) notes, in a 'media-saturated world.' This paper explores the role of (globalized) children's mass media - with particular emphasis on Disney - and its influence on one particular community of consumers. The community consists of African American children who face serious disabilities and chronic illnesses, as well as the families who care for them. Disney films and characters permeate the lives and imaginations of these children and parenting kin. While the compelling power of Disney can legitimately be construed as a form of global domination, an emphasis on domination and on the consumer as unwitting victim easily underestimates the agency of the audience. PMID:21643552

  17. From victim to heroine: children's stories revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Ann Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The need to escape reality and the taste for adventure with the unknown fills a universal need for both adults and children. Fairy tales have a powerful grip on the imagination because they are homespun versions of myths and have passionate intensity without epic grandeur. The happy ending of fairy tales reflects gender stereotyping because the heroine usually does very little except sit, wish, and wait for marriage. She has no control over her destiny and no active involvement in selecting or planning her future. These heroines are really passive victims. Sexism was once rampant in children's books. The Oz books, with their independent, courageous, and active heroine were way ahead of their time. The advent of women's liberation has led to a reappraisal of the female in folk literature. Anthropologists have now discovered stories of admirable women who were strong characters in their own epic dramas. PMID:12064035

  18. What is Fundamental?

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  19. Familiarity breeds: incest and the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Sheila L

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of Ptolemaic incest from a variety of cross-disciplinary perspectives. Specifically, it seeks to establish the following: that there is little in the ancient record to support the common claim that the Ptolemies suffered extensively from the deleterious genetic effects of inbreeding; that the various theories so far put forward as explanations for Ptolemaic incest offer at best only a partial rationale for this dynastic practice; that the most compelling rationale for Ptolemaic incest is to be found in complex, and perhaps unconscious, symbolic motivations analogous to those observed by anthropologists in other cultures; and finally, that, for the Ptolemies, incest was, like the "truphê" for which they were so notorious, a dynastic signature which highlighted their singularity and above all, their power.

  20. Practical Considerations in Trace Element Analysis of Bone by Portable X-ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jennifer F; Bush, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Forensic anthropologists are more often turning to nondestructive methods to assist with skeletal analyses, specifically for trace elemental analyses. Portable XRF (pXRF) instruments are versatile and are able to be used in diverse settings or for specimens of a shape and size that cannot be accommodated by laboratory-based instruments. Use of XRF requires knowledge of analysis parameters such as X-ray penetration and exit depth. Analysis depth was determined by examining pure elements through known thicknesses of equine bone slices. Correlation between the element's X-ray emission energy and the depth of reading was observed. Bone surfaces from a small unknown historic cemetery were analyzed before and after sanding of the periosteal surface to observe possible changes in XRF readings based on potential diagenesis. Results validate the pXRF device as a powerful and convenient instrument for nondestructive analysis, while highlighting limitations and considerations for the analysis of osseous materials. PMID:27093090

  1. The Contribution of Applied Social Sciences to Obesity Stigma-Related Public Health Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Bombak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is viewed as a major public health concern, and obesity stigma is pervasive. Such marginalization renders obese persons a “special population.” Weight bias arises in part due to popular sources’ attribution of obesity causation to individual lifestyle factors. This may not accurately reflect the experiences of obese individuals or their perspectives on health and quality of life. A powerful role may exist for applied social scientists, such as anthropologists or sociologists, in exploring the lived and embodied experiences of this largely discredited population. This novel research may aid in public health intervention planning. Through these studies, applied social scientists could help develop a nonstigmatizing, salutogenic approach to public health that accurately reflects the health priorities of all individuals. Such an approach would call upon applied social science’s strengths in investigating the mundane, problematizing the “taken for granted” and developing emic (insiders’ understandings of marginalized populations.

  2. A Feminist Reflection on Ethnographic Research in China: Gender, Sex, and Power in Cross-Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne M. Gaetano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a feminist cultural anthropologist specializing in social transformations in contemporary China, my research and teaching necessarily involves exploring the construction of difference, the intersectionality of gender with other social positions, and how difference upholds or challenges power. In this essay, I employ biographical reflection to illustrate how my everyday experiences as a student, foreign English teacher, and scholarly researcher in China have refined my awareness of these important insights of feminist theory. As my attention to these processes increased, I became more mindful of the myriad ways women negotiate cultural configurations of gender and power in their everyday lives. Personal experiences also prompted me to reflect on how my identity and positionality impact the research process and outcomes. Thus experiential knowledge greatly enriched my study and understanding of the changing lives of women in China. I suggest how educators can impart these valuable lessons to students through experiential learning.

  3. The identification of living persons on images: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, D; Obertová, Z; Ritz-Timme, S; Gabriel, P; Arent, T; Ratnayake, M; De Angelis, D; Cattaneo, C

    2016-03-01

    Personal identification in the forensic context commonly concerns unknown decedents. However, recently there has been an increase in cases which require identification of living persons, especially from surveillance systems. These cases bring about a relatively new challenge for forensic anthropologists and pathologists concerning the selection of the most suitable methodological approaches with regard to the limitations of the photographic representation of a given person for individualization and identity. Facial features are instinctively the primary focus for identification approaches. However, other body parts (e.g. hands), and body height and gait (on videos) have been considered in cases of personal identification. This review aims at summarizing the state-of-the-art concerning the identification of the living on images and videos, including a critical evaluation of the advantages and limitations of different methods. Recommendations are given in order to aid forensic practitioners who face cases of identification of living persons. PMID:26980255

  4. Estimation of stature and length of limb segments in children and adolescents from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamyan, Davit O. [Debrousse Hospital and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Department of Imaging, Lyon (France); Sargsyan Military Institute, Medical Facility, Yerevan (Armenia); Gazarian, Aram [Debrousse Hospital, Service of Hand Surgery, Clinique du Parc Lyon, Lyon (France); Braillon, Pierre M. [Debrousse Hospital and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Department of Imaging, Lyon (France)

    2008-03-15

    Anthropometric standards vary among different populations, and renewal of these reference values is necessary. To produce formulae for the assessment of limb segment lengths. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of 413 Caucasian children and adolescents (170 boys, 243 girls) aged from 6 to 18 years were retrospectively analysed. Body height and the lengths of four long bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) were measured. The validity (concurrent validity) and reproducibility (intraobserver reliability) of the measurement technique were tested. High linear correlations (r > 0.9) were found between the mentioned five longitudinal measures. Corresponding linear regression equations for the most important relationships were derived. The tests of validity and reproducibility revealed a good degree of precision of the applied technique. The reference formulae obtained from the analysis of whole-body DEXA scans will be useful for anthropologists, and forensic and nutrition specialists, as well as for prosthetists and paediatric orthopaedic surgeons. (orig.)

  5. A STUDY OF SUPRACONDYLAR PROCESS OF HUMERUS

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    Prabahita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Supracondylar process, in human, is a rare, anomalous, beak-like bony process on the anteromedial surface of the humerus. It represents the embryologic vestigial remnant of climbing animals and seen in many reptiles, most marsupials, cats, lemurs and American monkeys. Aim is to study the supracondylar process of humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 adult dry humeri were collected from Anatomy Department, Gauha ti Medical College and were examined. RESULTS: Out of 80 humeri, we found one humerus of left sid e with a bony projection from antero- medial surface of its distal shaft. The bone was th en examined, studied, photographed and its dimensions were recorded. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of this variation may be of great importa nce to anatomists and anthropologists, because of possib le link to the origins and relations of the human races

  6. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members. PMID:19152536

  7. Virtual anthropology and forensic identification using multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedouit, F; Savall, F; Mokrane, F-Z; Rousseau, H; Crubézy, E; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2014-04-01

    Virtual anthropology is made possible by modern cross-sectional imaging. Multislice CT (MSCT) can be used for comparative bone and dental identification, reconstructive identification and lesion identification. Comparative identification, the comparison of ante- and post-mortem imaging data, can be performed on both teeth and bones. Reconstructive identification, a considerable challenge for the radiologist, identifies the deceased by determining sex, geographical origin, stature and age at death. Lesion identification combines virtual autopsy and virtual anthropology. MSCT can be useful in palaeopathology, seeking arthropathy, infection, oral pathology, trauma, tumours, haematological disorders, stress indicators or occupational stress in bones and teeth. We examine some of the possibilities offered by this new radiological subspeciality that adds a new dimension to the work of the forensic radiologist. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial and involves communication and data exchange between radiologists, forensic pathologists, anthropologists and radiographers.

  8. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains."

  9. The power of contextual effects in forensic anthropology: a study of biasability in the visual interpretations of trauma analysis on skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Hanson, Ian; Dozzi, Nathalie

    2014-09-01

    The potential for contextual information to bias assessments in the forensic sciences has been demonstrated, in several forensic disiplines. In this paper, biasability potential within forensic anthropology was examined by analyzing the effects of external manipulations on judgments and decision-making in visual trauma assessment. Three separate websites were created containing fourteen identical images. Participants were randomly assigned to one website. Each website provided different contextual information, to assess variation of interpretation of the same images between contexts. The results indicated a higher scoring of trauma identification responses for the Mass grave context. Furthermore, a significant biasing effect was detected in the interpretation of four images. Less experienced participants were more likely to indicate presence of trauma. This research demonstrates bias impact in forensic anthropological trauma assessments and highlights the importance of recognizing and limiting cognitive vulnerabilities that forensic anthropologists might bring to the analysis.

  10. Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Architecture and anthropology have always had a common focus on dwelling, housing, urban life and spatial organisation. Current developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore their boundaries and overlaps. Architects are inspired by anthropological insights and methods......, while recent material and spatial turns in anthropology have also brought an increasing interest in design, architecture and the built environment. Understanding the relationship between the social and the physical is at the heart of both disciplines, and they can obviously benefit from further...... collaboration: How can qualitative anthropological approaches contribute to contemporary architecture? And just as importantly: What can anthropologists learn from architects’ understanding of spatial and material surroundings? Recent theoretical developments in anthropology stress the role of materials...

  11. A Business Anthropological Approach to the Study of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and analyses preparations for the holding of an anthropologist potter's one-man show in a Japanese department store. It has two aims: first, to show the methodological and analytical strengths of business anthropology and second, to propose a sociological theory of multiple......, the southernmost of Japan's four main islands and home to a long tradition of porcelain and stoneware production. In so doing, it focuses on the main players in the ceramic art world; the social interaction underpinning an exhibition; the conflicting ideals of ‘aesthetics’, display and money (pricing......); and the ways in which different sets of values, and evaluating processes, affected the reception of the author's work. It concludes by developing a theory of values that could be usefully applied in fields such as cultural economics, consumer theory and design research....

  12. The ecological and evolutionary energetics of hunter-gatherer residential mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Rupley, Eric; Youn, Hyejin; West, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Residential mobility is deeply entangled with all aspects of hunter-gatherer life ways, and is therefore an issue of central importance in hunter-gatherer studies. Hunter-gatherers vary widely in annual rates of residential mobility, and understanding the sources of this variation has long been of interest to anthropologists and archaeologists. Since mobility is, to a large extent, driven by the need for a continuous supply of food, a natural framework for addressing this question is provided by the metabolic theory of ecology. This provides a powerful framework for formulating formal testable hypotheses concerning evolutionary and ecological constraints on the scale and variation of hunter-gatherer residential mobility. We evaluate these predictions using extant data and show strong support for the hypotheses. We show that the overall scale of hunter-gatherer residential mobility is predicted by average human body size, and the limited capacity of mobile hunter-gatherers to store energy internally. We then s...

  13. Wayfinding in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben-Nowell, David

    With the recent explosion of popularity of commercial social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace, the size of social networks that can be studied scientifically has passed from the scale traditionally studied by sociologists and anthropologists to the scale of networks more typically studied by computer scientists. In this chapter, I will highlight a recent line of computational research into the modeling and analysis of the small-world phenomenon - the observation that typical pairs of people in a social network are connected by very short chains of intermediate friends - and the ability of members of a large social network to collectively find efficient routes to reach individuals in the network. I will survey several recent mathematical models of social networks that account for these phenomena, with an emphasis on both the provable properties of these social-network models and the empirical validation of the models against real large-scale social-network data.

  14. History, aesthetics and resistence. Culture and art facing the state terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gargallo Celentani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiences of intervention in the social imaginary, brocken by violence that causes panic in Mexico, revealed as aesthetic actions to move our emotions, rescue the deepest sense of the politics, the arts and ethics. The RECO Group that rescued a place of death and disappearance through the work of artists, psychologists and anthropologists with members of a commonality determined to rescue his neighborhood, and the collective of collectives Bordando por la Paz, la Memoria y la Justicia (for Peace, Justice and Memory that takes public space to social life, transforming it in resistance to the horror of death and disappearance, show that art is the site of termination of this.

  15. [Scientific approaches to the Mexican mestizo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Beltran, Carlos; Deister, Vivette Garcia

    2013-06-01

    The colonial category of mestizo was an ideological tool that shaped national identity in the post-revolutionary period in Mexico. The Indian-mestizo axis functioned to organize the ethnic and political interactions of the state. Doctors and anthropologists reinforced this dual taxonomy in studies of human populations, using biomedical markers to produce differentiated descriptions of the Indian and the mestizo. Genomic descriptions have contributed both to the construction of the scientistic notion of the mestizo based on the percentage of Indian, European and African ancestry, and also to the rise of two technoscientific objects that we call the molecular mestizo and the bioinformatic mestizo. Here we describe the interactions between the ideological and scientific incarnations of the mestizo.

  16. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  17. Fieldwork and ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilianova Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak Association of Social Anthropologists initiated recently a discussion about the ethics in the ethnology, social and cultural anthropology. In January 2009 the association organized the seminar “Ethics in ethnology/social anthropology which brought vivid response in the academic community in Slovakia. The paper will deal with the question which are the most frequent ethic problems in field work such as for example the selection of research topic from the ethic point of view, ethic regulations during the conducting of field work, the protection of respondent’s personal data during the elaboration of data and archiving, the publication of research data etc. The author will inform about approaches and react to the current discussion about the possibilities how to solve the ethic questions in the field work.

  18. Thematic report on social psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social psychology is concerned with the interactions among people and groups, and with their gradual formation of shared - or conflicting - attitudes, opinions and understandings. In preparing to provide feedback to the FSC Turku Workshop, I anticipated that it would be useful to structure my observations around concepts like: As in other societal and study contexts, these concepts certainly had meaning here in the FSC Turku Workshop. They may form one set of tools with which we may consider further the background to a Decision in Principle, or stakeholder involvement. They may offer a lens through which the experience of the workshop itself may be perceived and evaluated. I found that one more concept (something to which linguists or anthropologists might refer as a semantic polarity) seemed to capture well the dynamic of our time together. That concept is: 'inside-outside'. (author)

  19. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  20. The effects of different maceration techniques on nuclear DNA amplification using human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J; Luedtke, Jennifer G; Allison, Jamie L; Arber, Carolyn E; Merriwether, D Andrew; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2010-07-01

    Forensic anthropologists routinely macerate human bone for the purposes of identity and trauma analysis, but the heat and chemical treatments used can destroy genetic evidence. As a follow-up to a previous study on nuclear DNA recovery that used pig ribs, this study utilizes human skeletal remains treated with various bone maceration techniques for nuclear DNA amplification using the standard Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) markers. DNA was extracted from 18 samples of human lower leg bones subjected to nine chemical and heat maceration techniques. Genotyping was carried out using the AmpFlSTR COfiler and AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus ID kits. Results showed that heat treatments via microwave or Biz/Na(2)CO(3) in sub-boiling water efficiently macerate bone and produce amplifiable nuclear DNA for genetic analysis. Long-term use of chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide is discouraged as it results in poor bone quality and has deleterious effects on DNA amplification.

  1. Balance and predominant perspectives in the history of written culture: an approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Moncada Patiño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects about the authors that are and will be paradigms in the historical studies about written culture. However, this article doesn't pretend to do an extensive analysis about them or their works. Therefore, the interest is to emphasize on the theorical and methodological perspectives of some of them, which are predominant in the new studies about written culture. Studies that show the complexity of the written culture as research matter are a mandatory and necessary homework to historians, literates, sociologists, anthropologists, librarians, among others, which initiated the study about this topic in Latin American context and whose monographic works have started a new historical stream in the region.

  2. Cooperation and the evolution of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Luke; Brown, Sam P; Jackson, Andrew L

    2012-08-01

    The high levels of intelligence seen in humans, other primates, certain cetaceans and birds remain a major puzzle for evolutionary biologists, anthropologists and psychologists. It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities (the 'social intelligence hypothesis'), and in recent years decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions has been conjectured to be of particular importance. Here we use an artificial neural network model to show that selection for efficient decision-making in cooperative dilemmas can give rise to selection pressures for greater cognitive abilities, and that intelligent strategies can themselves select for greater intelligence, leading to a Machiavellian arms race. Our results provide mechanistic support for the social intelligence hypothesis, highlight the potential importance of cooperative behaviour in the evolution of intelligence and may help us to explain the distribution of cooperation with intelligence across taxa.

  3. The Evolutionary Biology of Ourselves Unit Requirements and Organizational Change in United States History

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, C; Lipo, Carl; Madsen, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that the distinction between so-called "simple" and "complex" societies can be expressed by an increase in the number of levels at which functional organization, interaction, and thus selection, operate. In spite of the obvious links between this suggestion and research into complex social organization amongst insects and other social animals, the levels of selection model has seen little use among anthropologists. We suggest that the primary reason for lack of research into the evolutionary causes of social complexity has been the lack of descriptive units with which we can examine phenotypic variation and heritability of social organization above the level of the organism. The goal of our paper, therefore, is to begin constructing descriptive units which map to meaningful models of multi-level selection. In order to demonstrate how these units are useful in a real dataset, we examine the functional changes involved in the United States economy over the last 100 years, a period of t...

  4. Il viaggio e l’arte come forma di comunicazione con l’Altro - Travelling and art as means of comunication with the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Predasso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author interprets travelling as an activity of “watching, observing and seeing”. But this frenetic ocular activity meets the Other and, overcoming the plain visual perception it becomes graphics, sign and de-sign. It is a sign that “means to say”, thus becoming language and communication: visual thought and ideogramatic language, once the sign is finally offered to the sight of the Other. For the anthropologist, not only for the artist, this opens the endless investigation on figurative language: to look and to tell. The encounter of the different modes of reading (I am reading and representing and of visual expression (the other sees himself as I see him and looks at himself and at the images he has produced offer the possibility of unforeseen and unpredictable mutual approach: dialogue is made possible through a shared and recognizable language.

  5. The "childhood obesity epidemic": health crisis or social construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Tina

    2010-03-01

    There has been a meteoric rise over the past two decades in the medical research and media coverage of the so-called global childhood obesity epidemic. Recently, in response to this phenomenon, there has been a spate of books and articles in the fields of critical sociology and cultural studies that have argued that this "epidemic" is socially constructed, what Natalie Boero (2007) dubs a "postmodern epidemic." As an anthropologist who has studied child nutrition and obesity in relation to poverty and the school environment, I am concerned about both the lack of reflexivity among medical researchers as well as critical scholars' treatment of the problem as entirely socially constructed. In this article I present both sides of this debate and then discuss how wee can attempt to navigate a middle course that recognizes this health issue but also offers alternative approaches to those set by the biomedical agenda.

  6. Review of corruption in the health sector: theory, methods and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-03-01

    There is increasing interest among health policymakers, planners and donors in how corruption affects health care access and outcomes, and what can be done to combat corruption in the health sector. Efforts to explain the risk of abuse of entrusted power for private gain have examined the links between corruption and various aspects of management, financing and governance. Behavioural scientists and anthropologists also point to individual and social characteristics which influence the behaviour of government agents and clients. This article presents a comprehensive framework and a set of methodologies for describing and measuring how opportunities, pressures and rationalizations influence corruption in the health sector. The article discusses implications for intervention, and presents examples of how theory has been applied in research and practice. Challenges of tailoring anti-corruption strategies to particular contexts, and future directions for research, are addressed.

  7. The Man Who Came to Dinner, or Hooray for Mr Spaulding: A Peek at Historical Imagination Running Rampant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tarabulski

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Dorothy Pond (nee Long, 1900-1987 married anthropologist Alonzo W Pond (1894-1986 in July of 1926, little more than a month after they met. In the early years of their marriage she accompanied him into the field on excavations and helped him with his archaeological manuscripts (Pond 1930, Pond et al. 1928, 1937. Lonnie, after participating in the Rainbow Bridge-Monument Valley Expedition of 1933, and working at Jamestown and Mammoth Cave, left archaeology, as a liveli­hood, in 1935 for a series of other jobs. The Ponds retired to northern Wisconsin in 1958. There, Alonzo, with Dorothy's help, turned out several popular natural history books (Pond 1962, 1965, 1969b, 1969b, 1972.

  8. Neuroanthropology: evolution and emotional embodiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C Campbell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Decade of the Mind is a proposal for a research initiative focused on four areas of neuroscience, including mental health, high-level cognitive function, education, and computational applications. Organizing efforts to date have primarily included cognitive scientists, computer scientists, and engineers, as well as physicians. At the same time anthropologists have started to explore the implications of neuroscience for understanding culture. Here we suggest that evolutionary neuroscience can be used to bridge knowledge obtained by social scientists with that obtained in the neurosciences for a more complete appreciation of the mind. We consider such a perspective as neuroanthropology. We use embodiment, an anthropological concept that has been substantiated by recent findings in neuroscience, to illustrate an integrative biocultural approach within neuroanthropology and suggest future possible directions for research.

  9. A Hmong Birth and Authoritative Knowledge: A Case study of choice, control, and the reproductive consequences of refugee status in American childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Nibbs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One area in which anthropologists are concerned is in examining what the state of good health consists of from society to society, and what happens when practitioners of western medicine intersect with people who hold other explanations of well being. This paper explores how the western medical practices of childbirth in America are forced on Hmong refugee childbirth, and therefore, used as a continuation of governmentality, or refugee objectification. Ethnographic data is drawn from a case study of Hmong experiences with the birth process in an American hospital setting. Parallels are drawn between refugee resettlement programs which ultimately produce bodies that are objects of the state; and authoritative medical knowledge in childbirth which produces bodies that are objects of medicine. This research suggests that the American birth process becomes yet another site of refugee reprogramming and a struggle between western medicine and the refugee‟s understanding of experience.

  10. The emotional, political, and analytical labor of engaged anthropology amidst violent political conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rosa Cordillera

    2015-01-01

    Given the harsh realities that people live through in southern Philippines, where there is rife human rights violations and violent political conflict, it becomes difficult and arguably unethical for anthropologists to assume a position of neutrality. Following calls for engaged anthropology, I contend that engagement entails simultaneously an emotional, political, and analytical labor and troubles the separation of the self and other. I suggest that a way to labor through these challenges of researching suffering, and the reciprocal obligations this implicates, is to utilize feminist reflexivity and epistemic reflexivity. These necessitate an objectification of the self and one's intellectual field to achieve an epistemological break that would lead to an understanding of the other and their realities. PMID:25203771

  11. Troubling objectivity: the promises and pitfalls of training Haitian clinicians in qualitative research methods.H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities. PMID:25203930

  12. Medical Anthropology in Africa: The Trouble with a Single Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2016-01-01

    In the growing number of publications in medical anthropology about sub-Saharan Africa, there is a tendency to tell a single story of medicine, health, and health-seeking behavior. The heavy reliance on telling this singular story means that there is very little exposure to other stories. In this article, I draw on five books published in the past five years to illustrate the various components that make up this dominant narrative. I then provide examples of two accounts about medicine, health, and health-seeking behavior in Africa that deviate from this dominant narrative, in order to show the themes that alternative accounts have foregrounded. Ultimately, I make a plea to medical anthropologists to be mindful of the existence of this singular story and to resist the tendency to use its components as scaffolding in their accounts of medicine, health, and health-seeking behavior in Africa. PMID:26457563

  13. A simulation of the Neolithic transition in Western Eurasia

    CERN Document Server

    Lemmen, Carsten; Wirtz, Kai W

    2011-01-01

    Farming and herding were introduced to Europe from the Near East and Anatolia; there are, however, considerable arguments about the mechanisms of this transition. Were it people who moved and outplaced the indigenous hunter- gatherer groups or admixed with them? Or was it just material and information that moved-the Neolithic Package-consisting of domesticated plants and animals and the knowledge of its use? The latter process is commonly referred to as cultural diffusion and the former as demic diffusion. Despite continuous and partly combined efforts by archaeologists, anthropologists, linguists, paleontologists and geneticists a final resolution of the debate has not yet been reached. In the present contribution we interpret results from the Global Land Use and technological Evolution Simulator (GLUES), a mathematical model for regional sociocultural development embedded in the western Eurasian geoenvironmental context during the Holocene. We demonstrate that the model is able to realistically hindcast the...

  14. Evaluační výzkum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kovář

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article takes to task the well-established claim that academic anthropology should be free from traps of evaluation. Although, on the other hand, in applied anthropology we could see the strong accent on the evaluational research, as a new option for anthropologist. In this article are discussed the trends in evaluation research by means of their strategies, compared with academic research and with certain emphasis on theory-driven perspective introduced by Huey-tsyh Chen. In addition to theoretical reflections on evaluation research, provides the article particular examples based on research conducted in the domain of social programs. The interdependence between methodology and theory of evaluation research is also mentioned.

  15. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  16. On call Ethnography, Situational Ethics and Shared Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø

    could not be revealed to families still hoping for the survival of their loved one. The paper will discuss how to navigate such difficult ethical terrains using your informants, in this case doctors, nurses and donor families as advisors. Inspired by these premises for researching death regarding organ...... of practicing anthropology in the presence of sudden tragic deaths. Observing organ donation practices and family conversations on organ donation entails 3 being available 24/7 ready to travel to the hospital whenever such cases happen. The unpredictability of such research endeavors challenges the boundaries...... position of the anthropologist and the personal vulnerability of the researcher are one of the most powerful tools for investigating death issues when daring to share such emotions with your informants and your colleagues....

  17. Darwin's apes and "savages".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Contreras, Jorge

    2010-02-01

    Since his visit to Tierra del Fuego in the 1830s, Darwin had been fascinated by the "savages" that succeeded in surviving on such a "broken beach", and because they were certainly similar in behaviour to our ancestors. However, he was also fascinated by baboons' behaviour, according to Brehm's accounts: hamadryas baboons showed a strong altruism to the point of risking their own lives in order to save their infants from attack by dogs. In 1871, he mentions he would rather have descended from brave baboons than from "savages", considered egoistic. We study the two sources of these ideas and try to show how Darwin's comparative reflections on apes and "savages" made him the first evolutionist anthropologist. PMID:20338533

  18. DIGIT LENGTH DISPLAYS A SIGNIFICANT FRACTION IN STATURE ESTIMATION: A STUDY FROM COASTAL REGION OF SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Matheswaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relationship that exists between different part of the body and height had been of great interest to anthropologists, forensic and medical scientists for many years. This is because of the increase in the number of catastrophic events causing mass deaths from natural or manmade errors. Such disasters like flooding, tsunamis, earthquakes, plane crashes, train crashes , terrorist attacks usually requires the identification of victims from fragmentary and dismembered human remains. In present paper, study on stature estimation from digit length has been reported. In the present study, 200individuals (96 males and 104 females belonging to age group of 18 to 25years having no disease or deformity were examined anthropometrically in respect to their height and digit lengths (2D, 3D, 4D, 5D have been measured. The regression equations have been drawn from the data collected. It has been observed that stature can be estimated from the digit lengths

  19. Imagination, creation and literary origins: dreaming and waking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Farrar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quotation, allusion, mediumship and speaking with or through others’ voices is an established ad well-worked aspect of culture, indeed, it seems, across all cultures, an appropriate subject indeed for COMPASIO. So too has the inspiration artists have drawn for their creation from dreams and the voices of a world beyond themselves. This has been relatively well studied in such fields as visual art and music. Less attention, however, despite its clear centrality, has been given to literary creation. This paper, by a cultural anthropologist, uses a personal case study to illustrate how this can work through the interaction between dreams and narrative. The case here, though only singular in its detailed content and process has wider implications for the comparative anthropological and comparative study of culture, individuality, imagination and creativity.

  20. [Matter and spirit: the unconscious in Carl Gustav Carus's psychology (1779-1868)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, L

    1997-01-01

    Carl Gustav Carus, one of the originators of a doctrine centered on the unconscious, is an interesting figure from current viewpoints. The doctrine he espoused was psychological, but in addition, the author sought foundations for his thinking in the biological knowledge of his time. The unconscious that Carus postulated was simultaneously biological, material and psychological in nature. Thus the history of psychism--the history of the soul--was related with the individual's and the species's biological history. From this perspective the unconscious was recognized as an indispensable element of rational thought. This theory, which recalls in many aspects that of C.G. Jung, made possible the medical study of psychic life and the revaluation of unconscious factors of psychism which were usually denigrated by modern anthropologists and moralists.