WorldWideScience

Sample records for anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations

  1. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kizilirmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. 137Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg-1. From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough's Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides 40K, 212Pb and 214Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected

  3. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  4. Sea to land transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides to the North Wales coast, Part I: External gamma radiation and radionuclide concentrations in intertidal sediments, soil and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous projects specifically aimed at performing radiological assessments in the vicinity of North Wales, investigating the presence and transfer of radionuclides from sea to land, were in 1986 and 1989. Since then, changes have occurred in the radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Group Sellafield site. Annual discharges of 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,340Pu and 241Am have decreased markedly whereas, up until recent years, discharges of 99Tc have increased. It is therefore desirable to quantify current transfer processes of radionuclides in the North Wales region and thus provide an update on 15-year-old studies. A field campaign was conducted collecting soil samples from 10 inland transects and air particulates on air filters from three High Volume Air Samplers, along the northern coast of Wales at Amlwch, Bangor Pier and Flint. Complementary field data relating to external gamma dose rates were collected at the soil sites. The field data generated for 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,340Pu and 241Am were consistent with what had been reported 15 years previously. Therefore, there has been no increase in the supply of these Sellafield-derived radionuclides to the terrestrial environment of the North Wales coast. The 99Tc data in sediments were consistent with reported values within annual monitoring programmes, however, a relatively high activity concentration was measured in one sediment sample. This site was further investigated to determine the reason why such a high value was found. At present there is no clear evidence as to why this elevated concentration should be present, but the role of seaweed and its capacity in accumulating 99Tc and transferring it to sediment is of interest. The analysis of the field samples for 99Tc, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 241Am has provided a data set that can be used for the modelling of the transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides from sea to land and its subsequent radiological implications and is reported in an accompanying paper

  5. Anthropogenic radionuclides in Ottawa River sediment near Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ottawa River has received nuclear reactor effluent from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for more than 60 years, including releases from a NRX accident in 1952. Recent interest in the potential impact of these historical releases and the possible need for remediation of a small region immediately downstream from the release point has led to comprehensive studies to assess risk to people and wildlife. In this paper, the results of an extensive survey of gamma-emitting anthropogenic radionuclides in Ottawa River sediment in the vicinity of CRL are presented. Anthropogenic radionuclides detected in Ottawa River sediment include 60Co, 94Nb, 137Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu and 241Am. Concentrations of all anthropogenic radionuclides decline rapidly with distance downstream of the process outfall, reaching stable concentrations about 2 km downstream. All of these radionuclides are found at some sites within 2 km upstream of the process outfall suggesting limited upstream transport and sedimentation. Comparison of anthropogenic radionuclides with several representative primordial radionuclides shows that with the exception of sites at the process outfall and within 2 km downstream of the process outfall, primordial radionuclide concentrations greatly exceed CRL derived anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations. Thus, over 60 years of radionuclide releases from operations at CRL have had little impact on radionuclide concentrations in Ottawa River sediment, except at a few sites immediately adjacent to the process outfall. (author)

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.)

  7. Anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater of the Far Eastern Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been dumped in the Far Eastern Seas by the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation, and small amounts of radioactive wastes have been dumped by Japan and the Republic of Korea. In order to investigate the concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides in the nine dumping areas, a second expedition was conducted in 1995 by Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and IAEA, following the first expedition in 1994. The results show that 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu concentrations in surface and bottom waters at dumping areas do not significantly differ from the values observed in background areas, and from historical values. There is no clear effect of possible contamination due to radioactive waste dumping. The concentrations and water column inventories of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in the Far Eastern seas are controlled by physical oceanic processes such as horizontal transport and biogeochemical processes such as scavenging

  8. Anthropogenic radionuclides in biota samples from the Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian Sea has been recently a subject of many scientific studies mainly related to sea level changes and pollution. For this purpose, two sampling expeditions were organised by IAEA in the Caspian Sea in 1995 and 1996. The aim was to investigate oceanographic conditions, water dynamics and the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in the water column. Considering the unique biodiversity of the Caspian Sea, there has also been interest to obtain information on radionuclide concentrations in biota samples, first of all in sturgeons and in caviar as their production is strongly linked to economical regional needs. The radioactive contamination of Caspian Sea biota has been investigated by analyzing natural 210Po and anthropogenic 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am in biota samples collected in April 1999 offshore of Astrakhan, in the north Caspian Sea. More biota samples from the South West Caspian Sea (Artom Island, June 1999; Devechi District and Neftechala, November 1999) were collected and analyzed for 210Po, 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am. The sampled species were different types of sturgeons (Sevruga, Russkyi Osyotr and Beluga) as well as fresh spawn and caviar. Other fish species (e.g. Cyprinidae) and one algae sample (Cladofila) have also been analysed. Flesh parts have only been analysed in the case of fish samples. The samples were freeze-dried, ground sieved and canned to be counted by gamma-spectrometry for determination of 137Cs. Analytical separation and purification procedures were carried out later. 210Po, 239,240Pu as well as 241Am were measured by alpha-spectrometry whereas 90Sr was measured by beta-spectrometry. The data are reported. In general, radionuclide activities in fish and caviar do not represent any risk for their consumption as they are very low. 239,240Pu and 241Am were close to the limit of detection. When measurable, the 238Pu/239,240Pu ratio is close to the fallout value. 90Sr activities are quite

  9. Anthropogenic substances and products containing natural radionuclides. Radiation exposure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anthropogenic component of radiation exposure stems from man's activities. It can be induced both by artificial and natural radionuclides. Radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides can be attributed to anthropogenic materials and products: raw materials, wastes, consumer goods, aricles of daily use. The potential radiation exposure induced by artificial radionuclides is subject to monitoring and rigid regulatory provisions at international level. Recently, exposure from natural radionuclides has become an aspect attracting increasing attention, one major reason being the disturbance detected in the ''normal'' natural background radiation, which is a result of man's activities (modified natural radiation exposure). The lecture briefly reviews the existing laws and regulations and a list of the raw materials, wastes, consumer goods and articles of daily use which contain natural radionuclides. The concluding part discusses results of radiation exposure assessments for a variety of relevant situations and cases. (orig./DG)

  10. Intercalibration of selected anthropogenic radionuclides for the GEOTRACES Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenna, Timothy C.; Masqué, Pere; Mas, Jose Luis;

    2012-01-01

    As part of the GEOTRACES Program, six laboratories participated in an intercalibration exercise on several anthropogenic radionuclides of interest. The effort was successful for 239,240Pu activity, 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio, and 137Cs activity measured in filtered seawater samples from the Bermuda...

  11. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sediment in the Japan Sea: distribution and transport processes of particulate radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otosaka, S. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan)]. E-mail: otosaka.shigeyoshi@jaea.go.jp; Amano, H. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Ito, T. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Kawamura, H. [Research Group for Marine Environment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Research Group for Marine Environment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Togawa, O. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Research Group for Marine Environment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chaykovskaya, E.L. [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, 24, Fontanaya St., Vladivostok, 690990 (Russian Federation); Lishavskaya, T.S. [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, 24, Fontanaya St., Vladivostok, 690990 (Russian Federation); Novichkov, V.P. [Moscow State Engineering Physical Institute, 31, Kashirskiy Road, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Karasev, E.V. [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, 24, Fontanaya St., Vladivostok, 690990 (Russian Federation); Tkalin, A.V.; Volkov, Y.N. [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, 24, Fontanaya St., Vladivostok, 690990 (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Distributions of anthropogenic radionuclides ({sup 9}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+24}Pu) in seabed sediment in the Japan Sea were collected during the period 1998-2002. Concentration of {sup 9}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+24}Pu in seabed sediment was 0.07-1.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, 0.4-9.1 Bq kg{sup -1} and 0.002-1.9 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the northern basin of the sea (Japan Basin), {sup 239+24}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios in seabed sediment were higher and their variation was smaller compared to that in the southeastern regions of the sea. The higher {sup 239+24}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios throughout the Japan Basin were considered to reflect production of Pu-enriched particles in the surface layer and substantial sinking of particulate materials in this region. In the southern regions of the Japan Sea (<38{sup o}N), both inventories and {sup 239+24}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios in sediment were larger than those in the other regions. In the southern Japan Sea, observations suggested that supply of particulate radionuclides by the Tsushima Warm Current mainly enhanced accumulation of the radionuclides in this region.

  12. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. Distribution and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations have been determined in seawater and sediment samples collected in 1991, 1994 and 1996 in the Eurasian Arctic shelf and interior. Global fallout, releases from European reprocessing plants and the Chernobyl accident are identified as the three main sources. From measurements in the Eurasian shelf seas it is concluded that the total input of 134Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr from these sources has been decreasing during the 1990's, while 129I has increased. The main fraction of the reprocessing and Chernobyl activity found in Arctic Ocean surface layer is transported from the Barents Sea east along the Eurasian Arctic shelf seas to the Laptev Sea before entering the Nansen Basin. This inflow results in highest 137Cs, 129I and 90Sr concentrations in the Arctic Ocean surface layers, and continuously decreasing concentrations with depth. Chernobyl-derived 137Cs appeared in the central parts of the Arctic Ocean around 1991, and in the mid 1990's the fraction to total 137Cs was approximately 30% in the entire Eurasian Arctic region. The transfer times for releases from Sellafield are estimated to be 5-7 years to the SE Barents Sea, 7-9 years to the Kara Sea, 10-11 years to the Laptev Sea and 12-14 years to the central Arctic Ocean. Global fallout is the primary source of plutonium with highest concentrations found in the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. When transported over the shallow shelf seas, particle reactive transuranic elements experience an intense scavenging. A rough estimate shows that approximately 75% of the plutonium entering the Kara and Laptev Seas are removed to the sediment. High seasonal riverine input of 239, 240Pu is observed near the mouths of the large Russian rivers. Sediment inventories show much higher concentrations on the shelf compared to the deep Arctic Ocean. This is primarily due to the low particle flux in the open ocean

  13. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. Distribution and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsson, Dan

    1998-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations have been determined in seawater and sediment samples collected in 1991, 1994 and 1996 in the Eurasian Arctic shelf and interior. Global fallout, releases from European reprocessing plants and the Chernobyl accident are identified as the three main sources. From measurements in the Eurasian shelf seas it is concluded that the total input of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from these sources has been decreasing during the 1990`s, while {sup 129}I has increased. The main fraction of the reprocessing and Chernobyl activity found in Arctic Ocean surface layer is transported from the Barents Sea east along the Eurasian Arctic shelf seas to the Laptev Sea before entering the Nansen Basin. This inflow results in highest {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I and {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the Arctic Ocean surface layers, and continuously decreasing concentrations with depth. Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs appeared in the central parts of the Arctic Ocean around 1991, and in the mid 1990`s the fraction to total {sup 137}Cs was approximately 30% in the entire Eurasian Arctic region. The transfer times for releases from Sellafield are estimated to be 5-7 years to the SE Barents Sea, 7-9 years to the Kara Sea, 10-11 years to the Laptev Sea and 12-14 years to the central Arctic Ocean. Global fallout is the primary source of plutonium with highest concentrations found in the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. When transported over the shallow shelf seas, particle reactive transuranic elements experience an intense scavenging. A rough estimate shows that approximately 75% of the plutonium entering the Kara and Laptev Seas are removed to the sediment. High seasonal riverine input of {sup 239}, {sup 240}Pu is observed near the mouths of the large Russian rivers. Sediment inventories show much higher concentrations on the shelf compared to the deep Arctic Ocean. This is primarily due to the low particle flux in the open ocean

  14. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results for naturally occurring 7Be, 210Pb, 40K, 214Bi, 214Pb, 212Pb, 228Ac and 208Tl and anthropogenic 137Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The 212Pb and 208Tl, 214Bi and 214Pb, 7Be and 210Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The 7Be and 210Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the 7Be, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides

  15. Distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Moroccan marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morocco has a long coast of 3500 km of which 500 km are on the south Mediterranean sea where little information on artificial radionuclides concentrations is available. There is no existing data in the Atlantic Ocean coast. The aim of this study carried out within the regional Project RAF7 held in co-operation with IAEA is the exploration of levels of radionuclides concentrations in the Moroccan marine environment with special emphasis on the anthropogenic radioactive contaminants; 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am. In addition, concentration profiles of natural radionuclides as 210Pb and 226Ra in sediment were also determined allowing to estimate, through the excess Lead (210Pbex), the sedimentation rate and to reconstruct the history of contaminants. Samples were collected along 4 stations of which 3 are in the Mediterranean sea during a cruise aboard the oceanographic vessel Charif Al Idrissi of INRH. One station near 'Mdiq' (St.2) was extensively explored by collecting four samples of water at different depths until 900m and a bottom sediment core collected at a depth of 800 m using an Ocean Instrument Box corer. Sequential concentrations of radionuclides have been carried out on board by coprecipitating 239,240Pu and 241Am with MnO2 and the adsorption of 137Cs onto AMP. The sediment cores were sectioned into series of horizontal slices of 0.5 to 1 cm thickness to be analysed. 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra activities were measured by γ spectrometry using a CANBERRA HPGe detector with resolution of 2 keV and efficiency of 50%. For the α emitters as Pu and Am isotopes, a suitable radiochemical method was applied based on the separation of Pu from Am by anion -exchange resin AG1x8. Am was co-precipitated with calcium oxalate and extracted into DDCP and finally separated from rare earths by anion exchange in mineral acidsmethanol media. Both Pu and Am fraction are electrodeposited and the resulting alpha-sources are counted by ORTEC EG and G alpha spectrometry. The determination

  16. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  17. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses three case studies of greatly different types of discharges of anthropogenic radionuclides to the marine environment. The SNAP 9A satellite burnup dispersed almost pure 238Pu into the atmosphere over the Mozambique channel at about 25 deg. S latitude in 1964. A much more heterogeneous mixture of liquids and solids containing a variety of radionuclides of low activity levels were packaged in steel drums and sunk to the sea floor near the Farallon Islands off San Francisco, California, USA between 1994 and 1964. An extensive series of tests of nuclear and thermonuclear devices with a total yield of many megatons was conducted by the U.S. at the remote coral atolls of the Marshall Islands at 110 deg. N and 160-165 deg. E, making them the most radioactively contaminated parts of the marine environment. The chapter briefly summarizes each of these cases, and stresses the major points learned about radionuclide cycling and about environmental processes from each of them. (author)

  18. Sources and distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in different marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the distribution in time and space radiologically important radionuclides from different sources in different marine environments is important for assessment of dose commitment following controlled or accidental releases and for detecting eventual new sources. Present sources from nuclear explosion tests, releases from nuclear facilities and the Chernobyl accident provide a tool for such studies. The different sources can be distinguished by different isotopic and radionuclide composition. Results show that radiocaesium behaves rather conservatively in the south and north Atlantic while plutonium has a residence time of about 8 years. On the other hand enhanced concentrations of plutonium in surface waters in arctic regions where vertical mixing is small and iceformation plays an important role. Significantly increased concentrations of plutonium are also found below the oxic layer in anoxic basins due to geochemical concentration. (author)

  19. Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Seawater of the Middle and Southern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few decades, the most studied radioisotopes in the Adriatic Sea have been Cs137 and Sr90, especially after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. On the contrary, the distribution of transuranic radionuclides in general in seawater of the Adriatic Sea is insufficiently explored due to low concentrations, absence of significant local sources and cumbersome radiochemical procedures for their determination. As a part of TC Project (RER/7/003) ''Marine Environmental Assessment of the Mediterranean Sea'' carried out by the IAEA, the International Scientific Cruise to the Adriatic and Ionian Seas was conducted in 2007. Samples of seawater collected during the scientific cruise were analyzed in the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories in Monaco in 2009. The anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am and 239,240Pu were chosen as the most representative of anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment, comprising beta-, gamma- and alpha-emitters which have the highest potential contribution to radiation doses to humans via seafood consumption. This paper presents the results of the radionuclides distribution and behavior in the water column in the Jabuka Pit and South Adriatic Pit, and in the surface water of the inflowing and outflowing vein of the Otranto Strait. The vertical radionuclide profiles are different in the Jabuka Pit and South Adriatic Pit due to the different origin of dense water formation. In this report the first measured data for 239,240Pu and 241Am activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea are presented. From the Adriatic cruise the average concentrations of the radionuclides in seawater are comparable to the literature data for the values of the Mediterranean Sea. The knowledge of radioactive contamination could be used for estimation of the environment condition and protection of the Adriatic Sea. (author)

  20. A Simple Methodology For Estimating Radionuclide Concentrations In Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main sources of anthropogenic radionuclides to the marine environment is the radionuclides in liquid effluents from the nuclear power plant (NPP) which can either discharged routinely or by accident. An estimate of the radionuclides concentration in marine environment is one of the key parameter for the safety analysis of any nuclear facility to assess the dose received by an individual or population group using models. This study aims to describe simple methodology to estimate the concentration of radionuclides for critical locations; shoreline, fishing site and biota (fish) in marine environment. This study was carried are assuming routine radionuclide discharges of AP1000 NPP (around United Kingdom) into marine environment. The developed Fortran program used by the present study is based on mathematical models to estimate the concentrations of radionuclides (nickel-63, iron-55, cobalt-58, chromium-51, manganese-54 and sodium-24) along the shoreline, fishing and in biota (fish). This developed computer program can be applied on the different types of surface water bodies like canals, rivers and estuaries and also, it can help and give preliminary information about the behaviour of pollutants, which may be released at any point inside the surface water body. The effect of distance between point of release and beach, the depth of water at point of release and the current speed were examined.

  1. Vertical profiles and inventories of anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution in surface seawater specifically near Japan sea and the North-West Pacific ocean and in particular distribution of vertical profiles and inventories of such artificial radionuclide as cesium 137, strontium 90, plutonium isotopes (239 and 240), americium 241, and tritium are briefly explained using data based on IAEA-MEL research on worldwide marine radioactivity started in 1995 to which the present author participated. The concentration of strontium 90, cesium 137, and plutonium isotopes are graphically demonstrated as function of depth 0∼4,000 m, and inventory as integrated radioactivity for example 3.4 kBq / m2 unit surface sea area is given for cesium 137. (S. Ohno)

  2. Radioanalytical studies of anthropogenic radionuclides in an anoxic fjord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am, 99Tc, 137Cs and 134Cs has been studied in the permanently super-anoxic Framvaren fjord in southern Norway. The adjacent Helvik fjord (slightly below 14 m depth) was studied with the respect to the same radionuclides as a comparison for their distribution and levels during more normal conditions. Th was studied in both fjords as a representative for actinides in oxidation state +4. Vertical distribution of Pu, Am and Th in Framvaren all show increased concentration with depth. Complex formation with DOC is believed to be the main course for this behaviour. Increasing 232Th with depth in sediment indicate possible remobilization of this element from the sediments. The limited water exchange between the two fjords is illustrated by the low 238Pu/239+240Pu ratio and the higher 134Cs/137Cs ratio in Framvaren fjord. Concentration of 99Tc in Framvaren is also lower than compared to Helvik fjord. Concentration of 99Tc in Helvik and Framvaren fjord is approximately constant with depth

  3. Analysis of gamma emitting radionuclides (terrestrial and anthropogenic) in soil samples from Kilis province in south Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The study presents the activity of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in soil. • The activity concentrations of radionuclides are measured using gamma spectrometer. • Absorbed gamma dose rate from terrestrial radionuclides is estimated. • Annual effective dose due to external exposure is estimated. • In this study, the regional scale radioactivity map is produced. - Abstract: In recent years, there has been great concern about analysis of radionuclide content in environmental samples (soil, water, etc.) in many countries. The aim of the present study is to analyze the activity concentrations of terrestrial (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in surface soil samples collected from different locations in and around Kilis province using the high-resolution gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector and evaluate external ionizing radiation exposure in outdoor air. The mean values of the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in the soil samples were analyzed as 16.1, 15.0, 206.0 and 9.5 Bq kg−1, respectively. Evaluated values of absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor air and the corresponding external annual effective dose varied from 5 to 75 nGy h−1 with a mean value of 25 nGy h−1 and 6–92 μSv with a mean value of 31 μSv, respectively. These mean values were found to be within acceptable limits

  4. Anthropogenic radionuclide and trace elements of soil and celandine in Kharkiv city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of celandine and soil from Kharkiv city territory were researched. Gamma spectrometric measurements have shown that the samples contain natural radionuclides of families of 238U, 235U, 232Th, and also 40K and anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs. The average values of specific activities (Bq/kg) of radionuclides in the soil are 625.2, 38.4, 25.7, 21.5 for 40K, 228Ac, 226Ra, 137Cs, respectively.There is a strong fixation of 137Cs in studied soil. The accumulation factors for natural Sr and 40K in the celandine are significant in contrast to other radionuclides and elements.

  5. Radionuclides concentration in foods in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40) and artificial radionuclides (Cs-137) in fresh, dried and cooked foodstuffs from 30 major towns in Peninsular Malaysia were determined by gamma spectrometry system and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. A total of 232 samples representing a typical Malaysian community diet were analysed. The results showed that most of the samples contained only natural radionuclides. The percentage of radionuclides detected in the samples were found about 2% for U-238, 9% for Th-232, 49% for Ra-226, 77% for Ra-228, 99% for K-40 and 15% for Cs-137. The radionuclide concentrations were in the ranges of <6.1 - 29.3, <2.0 - 55.8, <0.1 - 34.4, <0.1 - 41, <0.1- 2552.3 and < 0.1 - 6.6 Bq/Kg dry weight for U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 and Cs-137 respectively. The study revealed that most of the foodstuffs did not contain U-238. Lentils were found to contain significant concentration of Th-232 (4 - 49 Bq/kg) and can be considered as thorium accumulators. The concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in leafy vegetables were higher than the fruit and root vegetables. These data can be used as a reference for future food radioactivity monitoring. As edible mushroom and fern had high concentrations of Cs-137, indicating their high ability to accumulate Cs-137, they could be used as indicator plants in the event of radioactive fall outs

  6. Translocation studies of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykva, Richard; Soudek, Petr; Podracká, Eva; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Antalya , 2002. s. 158. [International Conference on Nuclear Analytical Methods in the Life Sciences /7./. 16.06.2002-21.06.2002, Antalya ] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6055902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : radionuclides Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  7. Long term trends of the environmental levels of anthropogenic radionuclides and of their detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trends of the environmental levels of anthropogenic radionuclides observed during the last 30 years such as Cs-137, C-14, Ar-37, Kr-85 and Xe-133 and the corresponding cycles of atmospheric trace substances are discussed. The detection methods and strategies applied are briefly described. (orig.)

  8. Establishment of a database for Japan Sea parameters on marine environment and radioactivity (JASPER). Volume 1: Anthropogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database for Japan Sea parameters on marine environment and radioactivity (JASPER) has been established by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency as one of final products of the Japan Sea expeditions (phase I), carried out covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of Japan and Russian Federation. And now, the part of anthropogenic radionuclides in the JASPER database has been opened to the public, as the first volume in a series of partworks consisted of other radionuclides and oceanographic parameters. At the beginning of this report (chapter 1), backgrounds, objectives and a brief overview of this report are given as an introduction. Then, specifications of this database and methodologies in obtaining the concentration data are described in chapter 2. The data stored in the database are presented in tabular and figure forms in chapter 3. Finally, concluding remarks are assigned in chapter 4. In the present, 252 data records are stored in the database including 193 data for 90Sr and 137Cs, 163 data for 238Pu and 236 data for 239+240Pu obtained from seawater, seabed sediment and filtered particle with support data. By establishing the database, recent features of the Japan Sea environment have been recorded using very possible parameter for us. We believe that this database would be a strong tool for the purposes of monitoring for contamination of the Japan Sea by anthropogenic radionuclides, studies of material transport in the sea and development and validation of models for numerical simulations. Furthermore, it is being prepared that the database is linked to MARIS (Marine Information System) of International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratories in order to contribute the world-wide study and monitoring of anthropogenic radionuclides in marine environment. (author)

  9. Constraints on the use of anthropogenic radionuclide-derived chronologies for saltmarsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous studies have employed anthropogenic radionuclides deposited in accumulating sediments to derive chronologies for use in investigations of geomorphological processes and in reconstructing temporal trends in contaminant deposition. However, relatively few have interrogated their use in systems that erode as well as accrete sediment, or have addressed limitations in their applicability in systems that experience variable rates of accumulation. This paper examines the utility of Sellafield-derived radionuclides for reconstructing sedimentary processes in two contrasting saltmarsh systems in the south-west of Scotland. Sedimentation rates and patterns derived from the radionuclide chronologies are outlined and compared to results established through conventional geomorphological methods. The results confirm that the vertical distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides can be useful in determining sedimentation rates, but that these cannot always be used as indicators of contemporary processes, particularly where erosion is occurring. Their use is also limited unless profiles are obtained from spatially diverse geomorphological units. Integrating the use of chronologies with other independent methods secures more robust data for assessing both marsh sustainability and their longevity as radionuclide sinks

  10. Geochronology of anthropogenic radionuclides in Ribeira Bay sediments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeira Bay is located approximately 130 km south of the city of Rio de Janeiro and receives discharges of liquid effluent from the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant (NPP) site, where two pressurized water reactors are located. To test whether the presence of anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in Ribeira Bay could be correlated to the NPP operations, we sampled seven sediment cores and determined accumulation rates and chronologies. Only one sediment core did not exhibit a superficial mixing layer; this sample was used for dating purposes. Cesium-137 and 207Bi were observed in this sediment profile, but their presence was associated with atmospheric fall-out rather than the nearby NPP. The exponential decay of 210Pb concentration with sediment layer depth was verified below a superficial mixing layer for all other sediment cores. Calculated accumulation rates ranged from 1.2 mm y-1 in the inner bay to 6.2 mm y-1 close to its entrance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → We have dated seven sediment cores on the region close to the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant site. → Cs-137 and Bi-207 were detected and were used as a tool to validate the Pb-210 dating results. → The spatial variation of the Pb-210 flux indicates two main sources of sediments: the channel between Ilha Grande (Grande Island), and the continental and soil runoff from the adjacent hills.

  11. Geochronology of anthropogenic radionuclides in Ribeira Bay sediments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Gomes, Franciane de [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68.509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Godoy, Jose Marcus, E-mail: jmgodoy@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Caixa Postal 37750, Barra da Tijuca, 22642-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.; Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Caixa Postal 37750, Barra da Tijuca, 22642-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68.509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Osvath, Iolanda [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Premier, MC98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Drude de Lacerda, Luiz [Laboratorio de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Ribeira Bay is located approximately 130 km south of the city of Rio de Janeiro and receives discharges of liquid effluent from the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant (NPP) site, where two pressurized water reactors are located. To test whether the presence of anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in Ribeira Bay could be correlated to the NPP operations, we sampled seven sediment cores and determined accumulation rates and chronologies. Only one sediment core did not exhibit a superficial mixing layer; this sample was used for dating purposes. Cesium-137 and {sup 207}Bi were observed in this sediment profile, but their presence was associated with atmospheric fall-out rather than the nearby NPP. The exponential decay of {sup 210}Pb concentration with sediment layer depth was verified below a superficial mixing layer for all other sediment cores. Calculated accumulation rates ranged from 1.2 mm y{sup -1} in the inner bay to 6.2 mm y{sup -1} close to its entrance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > We have dated seven sediment cores on the region close to the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant site. > Cs-137 and Bi-207 were detected and were used as a tool to validate the Pb-210 dating results. > The spatial variation of the Pb-210 flux indicates two main sources of sediments: the channel between Ilha Grande (Grande Island), and the continental and soil runoff from the adjacent hills.

  12. Coupled anthropogenic anomalies of radionuclides and major elements in estuarine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, W. [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ 24020-150 (Brazil)], E-mail: wmachado@geoq.uff.br; Luiz-Silva, W. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Sanders, C.J.; Patchineelam, S.R. [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ 24020-150 (Brazil)

    2008-08-15

    Concentrations of fertilizer industry-derived P (up to 3.4%), Ca (up to 6.1%), {sup 226}Ra (up to 744 Bq kg{sup -1}) and {sup 210}Pb (up to 1317 Bq kg{sup -1}) at least one order of magnitude above natural levels were recorded in a sediment core from Morrao River estuary (SE Brazil). Unsupported {sup 210}Pb (=total {sup 210}Pb - {sup 226}Ra) activities unexplained by atmospheric fallout and deviations from the radionuclides secular equilibrium also indicated strong anomalies. Anomalous constituents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with clay mineral-bearing elements. These negative correlations were explained by a depletion of natural sediment constituents due to a dilution caused by elevated inputs of steel industry-derived elements (mainly by Fe levels up to 24%). Absolute data and normalizations by a proxy for clays (Al) and anthropogenic Fe evidenced variabilities in the quality of coastal and land-derived sediment inputs, mainly due to changes in the relative contributions from industrial sources.

  13. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil in Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; D. Jugder

    2011-01-01

    Recent climate change, especially during the 2000s, may be the primary reason for the expansion of the Asian dust source region. The change in the dust source region was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s, but there are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air (before the Fukushima nu...

  14. Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Spas of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters often have a very high mineral content because solubility increases with temperature. Ground waters are in close contact with soil and rocks containing radium. Once formed by decay from radium, radon gas (Rn-222) may diffuse through rocks pores and geological discontinuities and may dissolve in these waters. Radon and other natural radionuclides are transported to the surface where radon can easily diffuse into the atmosphere. Then it may be possible to find out significant radon levels at places like geothermal spas. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public. Three passive methods were used to measure radon in air. One of them is an screening method based on the radon adsorption on activated charcoal. The other two methods are time integrated ones, CR-39 or Makrofol tracks detectors, which can be exposed between two and three months. To characterize waters other natural radionuclides have been also measured. Uranium concentration was measured by fluorimetry. Ra-226 and Pb-210 measurements were performed by radiochemical methods and liquid scintillation. The results obtained were compared with the guidelines values recommended by WHO and EPA for drinking waters and, in the case of radon in air, the results were compared with values established by BSS-115. In order to assess worker doses, the higher value measured for radon in air and real scenario data were taken into account. Moreover, in situ dose rate measurements were also performed and then compared with natural background values. In relation with water characterization, almost all values obtained for the geothermal waters analyzed were below the corresponding guidance levels. Taking into account the highest value measured of radon

  15. Temporal variations of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in sea otter skull tissue in the North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine mammals being among the top predators in the food web tend to accumulate organic and inorganic contaminants from the environment. The body burden of contaminants in these species could reflect their foods and thus contaminant levels could serve as proxies on the changes of ecosystem. A pilot study was carried out to investigate the possibility of radionuclide leakage at Amchitka using a suite of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) skulls collected near Amchitka nuclear test-sites before (1950s) and after the testing (1990s), and at Adak, another Aleutian Island, about 300 km from Amchitka, where the potential impact of radionuclide leakage from Amchitka is expected to be negligible. In addition, the naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclide content on the sea otter skull was also utilized to investigate if there was any significant ecosystem changes in the environment. Concentration of 210Pb in sea otter bones collected during the 1950s was significantly higher than those collected in the 1990s. We propose that among the various factors that could cause this higher enrichment in 210Pb, changes in the sea otter prey is the most likely one. Comparison of the 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu concentrations appear not to be significantly higher in sea otter skulls collected in 1990s from Amchitka where the underground tests in 1965-71 than those from Adak, although significant differences were detected among different groups collected at various times

  16. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Brazilian commercial dog food: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, the exposure of non-human species to ionizing radiation, as well as its effects, has been given a different focus; on the one hand due to the increasing knowledge on different exposure situations that these species are subjected to and on the other hand, due to the concern regarding biodiversity and its protection. To estimate the effects of ionizing radiation over non-human biota, several key points must be considered, such as radionuclide concentration, dosimetry models, reference biota and others. A vast number of non-human individuals can be represented by reference organisms defined by different international organisms (UNSCEAR, ICRP and the FASSET project), to facilitate the assessment of exposure, absorbed dose and radiation effect for individuals from alike environments. There is, however, no specific representative for domestic animals, like dogs and cats. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world, consuming over 2 million tons of feed every year. The Brazilian Association of the Industry of Products for Pets (ABINPET) foresees, for the year of 2013, an economic growth of 8.1% that may represent 0.34% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Animal food content and quality evaluations have been presented elsewhere, while no radiological study and the consequences from its ingestion have ever been conducted in the country. Hence, the present study will evaluate absorbed doses for domestic animals (i.e. dogs and cats) due to ingestion of food designed for them, by determining the radioactivity content of natural and anthropogenic cause. Initially, the activity concentrations in different brands of dry dog and cat food will be assessed by high resolution gamma spectrometry. Several brands usually consumed in Brazil were selected for the study. Eighteen dog food samples were prepared (crushed into powder and kiln dried) and tightly sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks, with a plan screw cap and bubble

  17. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Brazilian commercial dog food: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, the exposure of non-human species to ionizing radiation, as well as its effects, has been given a different focus; on the one hand due to the increasing knowledge on different exposure situations that these species are subjected to and on the other hand, due to the concern regarding biodiversity and its protection. To estimate the effects of ionizing radiation over non-human biota, several key points must be considered, such as radionuclide concentration, dosimetry models, reference biota and others. A vast number of non-human individuals can be represented by reference organisms defined by different international organisms (UNSCEAR, ICRP and the FASSET project), to facilitate the assessment of exposure, absorbed dose and radiation effect for individuals from alike environments. There is, however, no specific representative for domestic animals, like dogs and cats. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world, consuming over 2 million tons of feed every year. The Brazilian Association of the Industry of Products for Pets (ABINPET) foresees, for the year of 2013, an economic growth of 8.1% that may represent 0.34% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Animal food content and quality evaluations have been presented elsewhere, while no radiological study and the consequences from its ingestion have ever been conducted in the country. Hence, the present study will evaluate absorbed doses for domestic animals (i.e. dogs and cats) due to ingestion of food designed for them, by determining the radioactivity content of natural and anthropogenic cause. Initially, the activity concentrations in different brands of dry dog and cat food will be assessed by high resolution gamma spectrometry. Several brands usually consumed in Brazil were selected for the study. Eighteen dog food samples were prepared (crushed into powder and kiln dried) and tightly sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks, with a plan screw cap and bubble

  18. Anthropogenic radionuclides in fish, shellfish, algae and sediments from the Sudanese Red Sea coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of fallout radionuclides viz. 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs and 90Sr has been measured in some species of multicellular marine algae, coral fishes and shellfish, and surface sediments collected from the fringing reef at different locations along the Sudanese coast of the Red Sea. The measurements were carried out using alpha-particle spectrometry, high-resolution gamma spectrometry and gas-flow proportional counter. In the sediments analyzed, the activity concentration averaged 2.65 ± 1.3 (238Pu), 47.96 ± 26.3 (239+240Pu), 19.1 ± 6.5 (241Am), 273 ± 157 (137Cs) and 140.8 ± 73.9 (90Sr) mBq/kg dry weight. Activity concentration ratios were 0.066 ± 0.041 (238Pu: 239+240Pu), 0.22 ± 0.04 (239+240Pu:137Cs), and 0.43 ± 0.1 (241Am:239+240Pu). These values are typical of those reported in the literature from the regions unaffected directly by nuclear accidents or nuclear reprocessing plant discharges and can thus be attributed to global fallout. Average activity concentrations (mBq/gk Dry weight) in marine algae from different locations were found to be 20.1 ± 14.1, 21.6 ± 13.3 and 8.5 ± 3.8 (239+240Pu), 6.2 ± 4.0, 11.7 ± 6.1 and 5.1 ± 3.5 (241Am) and 688 ± 242, 868 ± 713 and 116 ± 14.8 (137Cs) for brown, red and green algae, respectively. These results were found to be consistently decrease towards the south from Portsudan harbour and comparable to global fallout values. High levels of 137Cs were observed in brown algae (Cystoseria species) and red algae (Lauranthia species). This possibly suggests their suitability to be used as bioindicators since algae are known to be effective bioindicators for monitoring the anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment. Plutonium isotopes were measured in some species of coral fishes and shellfish samples from the fringing reefs area at Port Sudan. Activity concentrations of both 238Pu, 239+240Pu in fish are close to detection limits, while shellfish show values an order of

  19. Anthropogenic radionuclides in fish, shellfish, algae and sediments from the Sudanese Red Sea coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of fallout radionuclides v.z.,238Pu ,239+240Pu, 241Am,137Cs and 90Sr has been measured in some species of multicellular marine algae, coral fishes and shellfish, and surface sediments collected from the fringing reef at different locations along the Sudanese coast of the Red Sea. The measurements were carried out using alpha-particle spectrometry, high-resolution gamma spectrometry and gas-flow proportional counter. In the sediments analyzed, the activity concentration averaged 2.65±1.3 (238Pu), 47.96 ± 26.3 (239+240Pu), 19.1± 6.5 (241Am), 273 ± 157 (137Cs) and 140.8±73.9 (90Sr) mBq/kg dry weight. Activity concentration ratios were 0.066±0.041 (238Pu: 239+240Pu), 0.22±0.04 (239+240Pu:137Cs), and 0.43±0.1 (241Am:239+240Pu). These values are typical of those reported in the literature from the regions unaffected directly by nuclear accidents or nuclear reprocessing plant discharges and can thus be attributed to global fallout. Average activity concentrations (mBq/gk Dry weight) in marine algae from different locations were found to be 20.1±14.1, 21.6±13.3 and 8.5±3.8 (239+240Pu), 6.2±4.0, 11.7±6.1 and 5.1±3.5 (241Am) and 688±242, 868±713 and 116±14.8 (137Cs) for brown, red and green algae, respectively. These results were found to be consistently decrease towards the south from Portsudan harbour and comparable to global fallout values. High levels of 137Cs were observed in brown algae (Cystoseria species) and red algae (Lauranthia species). This possibly suggests their suitability to be used as bioindicators since algae are known to be effective bioindicators for monitoring the anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment. Plutonium isotopes were measured in some species of coral fishes and shellfish samples from the fringing reefs area at Port Sudan. Activity concentrations of both 238Pu ,239+240Pu in fish are close to detection limits, while shellfish show values an order of magnitude higher relative to coral

  20. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M and O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types

  1. Soil and sediment sample analysis for the sequential determination of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Levent, D; Barci, V; Barci-Funel, G; Hurel, C

    2008-02-15

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: transuranic (TRU) and strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by uranium and tetravalent actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium-238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. Plutonium isotopes in alpha spectrometry planchet deposits could be also analysed by ICPMS. PMID:18371813

  2. Accumulation of anthropogenic radionuclides in crops in conditions of water stream and classical hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrapetyan, Khachatur; Hovsepyan, Albert; Daryadar, Mahsa; Alexanyan, Julietta; Tovmasyan, Anahit; Ghalachyan, Laura; Tadevosyan, Anna; Mayrapetyan, Stepan [Institute of Hydroponics Problems, NAS, Noragyugh 108, 0082, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2014-07-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides (RN) dangerous for health are emitted into ecosystems because of human anthropogenic activities in the field of nuclear energetics. Biologically artificial RN {sup 90}Sr(T{sub 1/2}=28,6 years) and {sup 137}Cs (T{sub 1/2}=30,1 years)are very dangerous. Therefore obtaining radio-ecologically safe raw material of high quality is a very urgent problem now. Taking into account the above mentioned, in order to obtain ecologically safe raw material we carried out comparative radiochemical investigations on essential oil and medicinal plants peppermint(Mentha piperita L.) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown in new water-stream (continuous, gully, cylindrical) and classical hydroponics, with the aim of revealing accumulation peculiarities of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. The results of experiments have shown that in classical hydroponics peppermint and sweet basil exceeded the same indices of water-stream hydroponics with {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content 1,1-1,2; 1,2-1,3 and 1,5-1,8; 1,4-1,8 times, respectively. Moreover, sweet basil exceeded peppermint in water-stream hydroponics {sup 90}Sr 1,3-1,6; {sup 137}Cs 1,2-1,4 times and in classical hydroponics {sup 90}Sr 1,6; {sup 137}Cs 1,2 times. The content of controlled artificial RN in raw material did not exceed the allowed concentration limit (ACL). New water-stream hydroponics system worked out in Institute of Hydroponics Problems is a radio-ecologically more profitable method for producing raw material than classical hydroponics. At the same time water-stream hydroponics system in comparison with classical hydroponics promoted productivity (dry raw material) increase of peppermint and sweet basil 1,1-1,4 times. (authors)

  3. Bioavailability of anthropogenic radionuclides in mussels along the french mediterranean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the Water Management Master-plan, a bio-indicator network (RINBIO) was deployed all along the French Mediterranean coast (1,800 km), using man-made cages containing mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to assess contamination by heavy metals, persistent organic products and radionuclides. The caging technique compensated for the scarcity of natural shellfish stocks in significant parts of the coast and enable comparison between sites regardless of their physicochemical and trophic characteristics. Among the 103 stations of the entire program, 40 were selected for the measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides by high-efficiency gamma-spectrometry. Biometrics parameters of the each mussel samples, including 'condition index' as an indicator of soft part growth, will be correlated with radionuclides activities, allowing to correct raw data from differences in bioaccumulation between the various sites in relation to their trophic levels. A comprehensive picture of the distribution of radionuclides at a such a large spatial scale will be provided and the contribution of the Rhone river input, so far the main source for the coastal zone, will be investigated. (author)

  4. Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg-1 for 238Th and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg-1 for 40k. No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

  5. Features of anthropogenic radionuclide distribution in soil and plants of the agricultural lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclide Am 241, Cs 134, 137 and Sr 90 in soils and plants of agricultural lands of Braginskij district bordering the resettlement and alienation zones around the Chernobyl NPP has been studied. It is shown that radionuclide contamination of soil on these sites (N = 45) corresponds to the sequence Cs 137>Sr 90>Am 241>Cs 134. The specific activity of Cs 137 (the maximum value of 6 892,8 Bq/kg) in soil exceeds the contents of Sr 90 (the maximum value of 111,9 Bq/kg) approximately by an order. The average level of contamination in soil for Am 241 is 3,7±2,3 Bq/kg and the maximum is 11,9 Bq/kg. The content of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in plants (N = 74) in all tests does not exceed the national permissible level of radionuclide content in agricultural production and forages. Am 241 and Cs 134 were not detected in any plant sample. An uptake of Am 241 from plough-land to grain is estimated and is shown that Am 241 content in soil of the studied agricultural lands even at the level of maximum values can not lead to uptake by grain to the rate exceeding the annual limits of the national radiation safety standards. (authors)

  6. Sources and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Ob River system, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, J. Kirk; Moran, S. Bradley; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Beasley, Thomas M.; Kelley, James M.

    2000-06-01

    The potential sources of anthropogenic radionuclides to the Ob River system of western Siberia include global stratospheric fallout, tropospheric fallout from atomic weapons tests and releases from production and reprocessing facilities. Samples of water, suspended and bottom sediments collected in 1994 and 1995 have been used to characterize the sources and transport of 137Cs, Pu isotopes, 237Np and 129I through the system. For the radionuclides that associate with particles, isotope ratios provide clues to their sources, providing any geochemical fractionation can be taken into account. Activity ratios of 239,240Pu/ 137Cs in suspended sediments are lower than the global fallout ratio in the Irtysh River before its confluence with the Ob, comparable to fallout in the central reach of the Ob, and greater than the fallout values in the lower Ob and in the Taz River. This pattern mirrors the downriver decrease in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. Laboratory adsorption experiments with Ob River sediment and water show that Kd values for Am (and presumably other actinides) are depressed by two orders of magnitude in the presence of Ob DOC concentrations, relative to values measured in DOC-free Ob water. Iodine and cesium Kd values show little or no (less than a factor of 2) dependence on DOC. Mixing plots using plutonium isotope ratios (atom ratios) show that Pu in suspended sediments of the Ob is a mixture of stratospheric global fallout at northern latitudes, tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test site at Semipalatinsk and reprocessing of spent fuel at Tomsk-7. Plutonium from Semipalatinsk is evident in the Irtysh River above its confluence with the Tobal. Suspended sediment samples taken in the Ob above its confluence with the Irtysh indicate the presence of Pu derived from the Tomsk-7 reprocessing facilities. A mixing plot constructed using 237Np/ 239Pu vs. 240Pu/ 239Pu shows similar mixtures of stratospheric and tropospheric fallout

  7. Scaling of The Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations and Anthropogenic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audiffren, N.; Duroure, C.

    The statistical characteristics of long time series of ozone mixing ratios in free tro- posphere and in urban environment are compared.We use a five year dataset with 15 minute resolution of ozone concentrations in a free tropospheric condition (Puy de Dôme) and in four different towns in the mesoscale vicinity (Auvergne region), (data from Atmo-Auvergne) The free tropospheric ozone field have the same scaling behaviour (Fourier spectrum, structure functions and intermittency measure) than a passive scalar in a 3D higthly turbulent dynamic field. We don't observe a mesoscale gap and the inertial range is ranging from (at least) one minute to a few days for eule- rian measurements (from hundred meters to hundreds of kilometers for the lagrangian space scale). The probability density functions (PDF) of the ozone mixing ratio incre- ments are higthly non gaussian, with tails decreasing slower than negative exponential, indicating an "intermittent" behaviour. The scale evolution of the intermittency is esti- mated using the normalized fourth moment of the discrete laplacian and is compared with other turbulent geophysical fields (mesoscale cloud coverage, updraft velocity, rainfall serie). On the opposite, for the urban measurements, the modifications of the statistical properties not only affect the mean but also the scaling exponent (Fourier slope closer to -1) and the intermittency structure function. The one day periodic peak is more pronounced than for the free troposphere measurements and appears a (purely anthropogenic) peak of seven days. For large towns ,the PDF of gradient are close to a Levy-stable PDF with a characteristic exponent close to 2 (the Gaussian limit). The anthropogenic effects on ozone concentration make the statistical characteristics closer to those observed for the web flux, the traffic jams, or the properties of speach and music.

  8. Caspian Sea water balance and dynamics studies using anthropogenic radionuclides: Implications for environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Environmental changes in the Caspian Sea have recently become of great interest in connection with fluctuations in sea level changes. Radioactive and stable isotopes have been used as powerful tracers to investigate water balance and dynamics and have contributed significantly to understanding climatically driven environmental changes in the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the world largest inland water body with a surface area of about 386000 km2 and a volume of about 67000 km3, located in a large continental depression about 28 m below sea level. With no surface outlet, the Caspian Sea is particularly sensitive to climatic variations. The drainage area of the Caspian Sea is approximately 3.7 million square kilometers. The Volga, Ural and Terek empty into the North Caspian, with their combined annual flow accounting for 88% of all water entering the sea. The Sulak, Samur, Kura and a number of small rivers contribute about 7% of the inflow, the remainder comes from the rivers of the Iranian shore. The Caspian Sea is divided into three basins with approximately the same surface. The North Caspian Basin, maximum depth 15 m, average depth 5 m, contains 1% of the total water. The Middle Caspian (or Central) Basin has a maximum depth of 800 m and contains 22% of the total water. The South Caspian Basin, maximum depth 1024 m, average depth 330 m, contains 77% of the total Caspian Sea water. Recently there have been concerns over the environmental conditions of the Caspian Sea, especially over observed sea level changes, which have had a strong impact on the region. Anthropogenic radionuclides like 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu are particularly useful tracers for the investigation of water dynamics. Two research-training cruises were carried out in September 1995 and August-September 1996. At every station, 60-70 liters samples of seawater from different depths were processed for sequential separation of plutonium, cesium and strontium isotopes. This was done by

  9. Radionuclides in the environment in the south of Spain, anthropogenic enhancements due to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G. [Depto. de Fisica Aplicada 2, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 - Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Levels of natural radionuclides in the environment are affected by human activities in the South of Spain. Industry wastes, such as phospho-gypsum, have been released to an estuary since sixties until 1997. Nowadays the wastes management is careful with environment protection, which can be clearly observed today in the radionuclides pattern. Different sources of radionuclides (industry wastes, tidal action and mining) can be distinguished in the estuary. Uranium isotopes, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were determined in water and sediment samples for this study. An iron recycling factory is working close to Seville (South of Spain). A {sup 137}Cs source was accidentally burnt in a furnace of this factory in 2001. The environmental impact of this accident was immediately denatured. Monitoring procedure and results are sho vn in this contribution. Radionuclides measurement involves difficult techniques. In this communication a procedure to determine the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb by liquid scintillation counting is presented. Two quality tests, using gamma- and alpha-spectrometry were applied to the {sup 210} Pb results. (Author)

  10. Radionuclides in the environment in the south of Spain, anthropogenic enhancements due to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of natural radionuclides in the environment are affected by human activities in the South of Spain. Industry wastes, such as phospho-gypsum, have been released to an estuary since sixties until 1997. Nowadays the wastes management is careful with environment protection, which can be clearly observed today in the radionuclides pattern. Different sources of radionuclides (industry wastes, tidal action and mining) can be distinguished in the estuary. Uranium isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po were determined in water and sediment samples for this study. An iron recycling factory is working close to Seville (South of Spain). A 137Cs source was accidentally burnt in a furnace of this factory in 2001. The environmental impact of this accident was immediately denatured. Monitoring procedure and results are sho vn in this contribution. Radionuclides measurement involves difficult techniques. In this communication a procedure to determine the activity concentration of 210Pb by liquid scintillation counting is presented. Two quality tests, using gamma- and alpha-spectrometry were applied to the 210 Pb results. (Author)

  11. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the relationship between anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil and precipitation in Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; D. Jugder

    2011-01-01

    The Asian dust source region may be expanding primarily as a result of recent climate change, especially during the 2000s. This change was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s. There are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air, so the radionuclides in the atmosphere are mainly carried ...

  12. Concentration of selected radionuclides in seawater from Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Aba, Abdulaziz; Behbehani, Montaha

    2012-06-01

    No baseline existed for the radionuclides in Kuwait territorial water. With changing trend in the region to embrace nuclear energy, the baseline study is imperative to create a reference and to record the influence-functioning of upcoming power plants. The first one in Bushehr, Iran is ready to start and several more are likely to come-up in UAE, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The present baseline concentration of the four considered radionuclide's show low concentration of tritium, polonium, strontium and cesium; their concentration is comparable to most oceanic waters. PMID:22444480

  13. The concentration of fission products and other radionuclides in the surface air between 1971 and 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aerosols collected with high-efficiency portable dust samplers in Brunswick and Tromsoe are analyzed in a Ge(Li) spectrometer. The mean monthly activity concentrations are given for a number of cosmogenic and induced radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests as well as for some cosmogenic and natural radionuclides. The annual curve exhibits marked seasonal variations with a pronounced peak - caused by an influx from the stratospheric reservoir - in late spring for all radionuclides studied except for 35S, 210Pb and 226Ra. This peak decreases continuously from 1971 - 1973 for the fission products and induced radionuclides which for the most part had been produced in Chinese nuclear weapons tests. In contrast to 7Be and 22Na, the behaviour of 35S suggests that it is partly anthropogenic in origin. The activity concentration of 226Ra in air has been measured directly for the first time. The findings are discussed and finally compared with the maximum permissible concentration for the population. (orig./AK)

  14. A contaminação dos oceanos por radionuclídeos antropogênicos The contamination of the oceans by anthropogenic radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens C. L. Figueira

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Several hundreds of artificial radionuclides are produced as the result of human activities, such as the applications of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, testing of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. Many of these radionuclides are short-lived and decay quickly after their production, but some of them are longer-lived and are released into the environment. From the radiological point of view the most important radionuclides are cesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium-239, due to their chemical and nuclear characteristics. The two first radioisotopes present long half life (30 and 28 years, high fission yields and chemical behaviour similar to potassium and calcium, respectively. No stable element exists for plutonium-239, that presents high radiotoxicity, long half-life (24000 years and some marine organisms accumulate plutonium at high levels. The radionuclides introduced into marine environment undergo various physical, chemical and biological processes taking place in the sea. These processes may be due to physical dispersion or complicated chemical and biological interactions of the radionuclides with inorganic and organic suspend matter, variety of living organisms, bottom sediments, etc. The behaviour of radionuclides in the sea depends primarily on their chemical properties, but it may also be influenced by properties of interacting matrices and other environmental factors. The major route of radiation exposure of man to artificial radionuclides occuring in the marine environment is through ingestion of radiologically contamined marine organisms. This paper summarizes the main sources of contamination in the marine environment and presents an overview covering the oceanic distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the FAO regions. A great number of measurements of artificial radionuclides have been carried out on various marine environmental samples in different oceans over the world, being cesium-137 the most widely

  15. Airborne remote sensing of estuarine intertidal radionuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to map industrial discharges through remote sensing provides a powerful tool in environmental monitoring. Radionuclide effluents have been discharged, under authorization, into the Irish Sea from BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Pic.) sites at Sellafield and Springfields since 1952. The quantitative mapping of this anthropogenic radioactivity in estuarine intertidal zones is crucial for absolute interpretations of radionuclide transport. The spatial resolutions of traditional approaches e.g. point sampling and airborne gamma surveys are insufficient to support geomorphic interpretations of the fate of radionuclides in estuaries. The research presented in this thesis develops the use of airborne remote sensing to derive high-resolution synoptic data on the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the intertidal areas of the Ribble Estuary, Lancashire, UK. From multidate surface sediment samples a significant relationship was identified between the Sellafield-derived 137Cs and 241Am and clay content (r2 = 0.93 and 0.84 respectively). Detailed in situ, and laboratory, reflectance (0.4-2.5μm) experiments demonstrated that significant relationships exist between Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) simulated reflectance and intertidal sediment grain-size. The spectral influence of moisture on the reflectance characteristics of the intertidal area is also evident. This had substantial implications for the timing of airborne image acquisition. Low-tide Daedalus ATM imagery (Natural Environmental Research Council) was collected of the Ribble Estuary on May 30th 1997. Preprocessing and linear unmixing of the imagery allowed accurate sub-pixel determinations of sediment clay content distributions (r2 = 0.81). Subsequently, the established relationships between 137Cs and 241Am and sediment grain-size enabled the radionuclide activity distributions across the entire intertidal area (92 km2) to be mapped at a geomorphic scale (1.75 m). The accuracy of these maps was

  16. Concentration of some radionuclides in Moringa Oliefera plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been conducted to determine the radioactivity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 228U, 232Th, and 40K in samples of Moringaoliefera plants in Khartoum Bahry Elsamrab by using γ ray spectrometry sodium iodide detector and high purity germanium detector. A total of 30 samples, 10 samples from leaves, 10 samples from seeds and 10 samples from soil of samples have been collected. For leaves the radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed with the mean of 2767.266±78.6741 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 3486.817±80.98811 Bq kg-1 for 238Th and 2273.386±54.152 Bq kg-1 for 40K. For seeds the radionuclide activity concentration in samples analyzed with the mean of 2839.224±72.6016 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 2844.372±78.74919 Bq kg-1 for 238Th and 2377.005±91.8838 Bq kg-1 for 40K. No trace of artificial radionuclide has been determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides has been estimated and found 0.89μSv/year and 0.1015μSv/year for 232Th, 238U and 40K, respectively.(Author)

  17. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Igarashi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent climate change, especially during the 2000s, may be the primary reason for the expansion of the Asian dust source region. The change in the dust source region was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s, but there are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air (before the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011. Radionuclides in the atmosphere are therefore carried mainly by wind-blown dust from surface soil, that is, aeolian dust. Asian dust carries traces of 90Sr, 137Cs, and other anthropogenic radionuclides; the heaviest deposition occurs in spring and has been recorded in Japan since the early 1990s. The composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric depositions would be affected by a change in the dust source. Previous studies of atmospheric deposition at long-term monitoring sites (e.g. in Tsukuba, Japan have detected changes in the 137Cs/90Sr ratio and in the specific activity of the radionuclides. These changes in the composition of observed atmospheric depositions are supposed to reflect changes in the climatic conditions of the dust source region. To investigate this dust source change, we conducted a field survey of radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs in surface soil samples in September 2007 in the eastern and southern regions of Mongolia, where dust storms have occurred more frequently since 2000. The specific activities of both radionuclides as well as the 137Cs/90Sr ratio in the surface soil were well correlated with annual average precipitation in the Mongolian desert-steppe zone. Higher specific activities and a higher 137Cs/90Sr ratio were found in grassland regions that experienced greater

  18. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for the protection of people from the harmful consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation, for the safety of radiation sources and for the protection of the environment are established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. GSR Part 3 requires that the regulatory body or other relevant authority establish specific reference levels for exposure due to radionuclides in commodities, including food and drinking water. The reference level is based on an annual effective dose to the representative person that generally does not exceed a value of about 1 mSv. International standards have been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission for levels of radionuclides contained in food traded internationally that contains, or could potentially contain, radioactive substances as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological emergency. International standards have also been developed by the WHO for radionuclides contained in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. These international standards provide guidance and criteria in terms of levels of individual radiation dose, levels of activity concentration of specific radionuclides, or both. The criteria derived in terms of levels of activity concentration in the various international standards differ owing to a number of factors and assumptions underlying the common objective of protecting public health in different circumstances. This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and

  19. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.; James, I.; Jennings, P.J.; Keoyers, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of rad

  20. Factors affecting the distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal Burullus Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, measurements of naturally occurring radioactive materials and 137Cs activity in sediment were conducted for locations covering the entire Burullus Lake in order to gather information about radionuclides mobility and distribution. Low-background γ-spectrometry was employed to determine the activity concentrations of water and sediment samples. The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th are close to uniform distribution in the lake environment. Among the different physical and chemical characteristics measured for water and sediment, only salinity and total organic matter content have the potential to affect the mobility of 137Cs and 40K. The results suggest that these two radionuclides are attached to different mobile particulates. Increasing salinity tends to strengthen the adsorption of 137Cs and solubilization of 40K in sediment. On the other hand, sediment with high organic matter content traps 137Cs and 40K associated particulates to bottom sediment. - Highlights: • 226Ra and 232Th are uniformly distributed in Burullus Lake. • Increasing salinity increases the adsorption of 137Cs and solubilization of 40K in sediment. • Sediment with high organic matter content traps 137Cs and 40K. • 137Cs and 40K are not associated with the same particulate material

  1. Studies on influence of biological factors on concentration of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological factors influencing the concentration of radionuclides were studied from the points of uptake through digestive tract, food as pathways, and metabolic activities. The uptake of radionuclides by marine fishes through digestive tract was determined by whole body counter. 137Cs, 65Zn, 131I, 54Mn, 60Co, 85Sr, and 144Ce were used as tracers and was given with solid feed. The feed given was excreated 24 to 48 hours later in small of middle sized fishes, and 20 to 48 hours later in large sized fishes. The uptake rate of 137Cs and 65Zn was high absorption of 20 to 80 per cent, that of 131I, 60Co and 54Mn was not remarkable, and that of 85Sr and 144Ce was low absorption. The biological concentration of 137Cs through pathways of food. In fishes taking up radionuclides through contaminated food, concentration factor increased in accordance with contamination level. In addition, radionuclides with small uptake but delayed excretion and those with high concentration rate could be the factors to decide the concentration factors of marine organisms. In order to study the relationship between metabolic activities and concentration, the uptake of one-year old fishes and adult fishes, and fishes fed and those non-fed were compared. One-year fishes took up large amount of 85Sr during short period, however, concentration by metabolism in adult fishes was slow. Comparing feeding group and non-feeding group, the former showed 85Sr concentration factor of 1.5 to 2 times that of the later, and the later showed 137Cs concentration factor of 2 to 4 times that of the former. However, both uptake and excretion were rapid suggesting that taking food activated the metabolism of substances. (Kanao, N.)

  2. Concentration of selected radionuclides in seawater from Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No baseline existed for the radionuclides in Kuwait territorial water. With changing trend in the region to embrace nuclear energy, the baseline study is imperative to create a reference and to record the influence-functioning of upcoming power plants. The first one in Bushehr, Iran is ready to start and several more are likely to come-up in UAE, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The present baseline concentration of the four considered radionuclide’s show low concentration of tritium, polonium, strontium and cesium; their concentration is comparable to most oceanic waters.

  3. Distributions of long-lived anthropogenic radionuclides (14C, 129I and 239+240Pu) in coastal water columns off Sanriku, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first commercial facility for reprocessing nuclear spent fuel in Japan is going to run in July 2006 and routine release of radionuclides to marine environment off Rokkasho will begin. Off Rokkasho area is located in the boundary where subarctic (Oyashio) and subtropical (Kuroshio) gyre mixes. And the Tsugaru Warm Current (TWC) flows into this region through the Tsugaru Strait and originates in the Kuroshio flowing in the Sea of Japan/the East Sea. Those three water masses of different origins and coastal water mass coexist in the surface layer of this domain. So it is important to clarify the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides and their behaviors in the coastal seawater. Seawater samples were collected by use of CTD/Multi-Bottle Samplers (MBS) and large volume samplers (LVS) in October 2001 and June 2002. Carbon-14 and 129I were analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and 239,240Pu was determined by the method of radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometry. Th long- lived radionuclide concentrations for all samples were in the range -233 - 75 per mille for Δ14C, not detected (N.D.) - 2.5x107 atoms/l for 129I, and N.D. - 0.025 mBq/l for 239,240Pu, respectively. The other anthropogenic radionuclides have the same concentration as those reported by the other organization. The vertical profiles of 14C and 129I decreased monotonically with depths. On the other hand, 239,240Pu profile have maximum at a depth of 500 - 700 m. The plots of potential density versus the concentrations designate that 14C and 129I virtually occurred in the water column lighter than the density of 26.6 - 26.8 and slightly penetrate into dense deeper layer. The maximum of Pu concentration existed at a density of 26.8 - 27.2. There is no difference of 129I concentration between two water masses (Oyashio and TWC) classified according to water temperature and salinity. Δ14C concentrations in TWC are higher than those in Oyashio, because TWC flows in sea surface over

  4. Concentration factors of radionuclides in the marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameters related to the bioconcentration of radionuclides in the marine were shown by 'Assessment and guideline to the target value of dose in the environment of the power light water reactor facilities' (Nuclear Safety Commission), but the guideline data did not contain Ru and Ce relating to the reprocessing plant. So that more new data than these of 'Technical Reports Series No. 247' (published by IAEA in 1985) were mainly collected. Especially the data of nuclides with poor data of concentration factors (CF) and natural radionuclides (Po-210, Pb-210) were gathered. These data were pigeonholed and many tables (element, kinds of organisms, experimental methods) were made by separating the general remarks from the original experimental reports. The contents of this report are given as under, history of concentration factor (CF), determination method of CF, CF calculation method, calculation models related to CF, tables of metabolic parameters, tables of CF, the present conditions of studies for uptake of radionuclides with long half-life into the marine organisms, CF abstract tables and trial calculation of human exposure by eating the marine organisms. (S.Y.)

  5. Radionuclide concentration from peat burning after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the radionuclide concentrations in byproducts and releases from a 30 MW peat-burning power plant in central Sweden. The plant is located in an area that received high levels of radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl accident. After the accident at Chernobyl, the plant carried out a test run before the beginning of the normal running season. Samples of peat and ash were collected during a 2 month period and were studied in order to ascertain whether radiation protection was necessary for workers handling the peat and byproducts. In spite of the high ground contamination of radionuclides (20-80 kBq/M2) of the peat, the radionuclide concentration in the peat was only about 1 kBq/kg (and half of this one year later). This is due to the process in which the top 50 cm layer of peat is continously mixed and turned over. Samples of fly ash from different parts of the plant, analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy, were found to have activity concentrations of 10-50 kBq/kg Cs-137, while the activity concentrations of bottom ash was 4-10 kBq/kg. During the winter of 1984-85 the average level of Cs-137 in the flyash was 340 Bq/kg. Condensed water from the chimney did not contain any measurable amounts of Cs-137. Emission measurements of the gases in the chimney gave rather high activity concentrations of Cs-137. The maximum value of 70 kBq/kg was probably due to the ease with which caesium escapes during heating. No special radiation steps were found to be necessary

  6. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples from Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, S. F.; Cesur, A.; Boztosun, I.; Yavuz, M.

    2014-10-01

    Following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a huge amount of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. It's impact on the environment is of great concern to the good of the public at large. In this regard environmental radioactivity monitoring such as external dose rate and radioactivity measurements in environmental samples has been carried out. For this purpose, several beach sand samples were collected from south coast of the Turkey in September 2011 and radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra (238U), 228Ac (232Th), 40K, 134Cs and 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity Germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in beach sand samples ranged from 4.0±0.5 to 21.5±1.8 Bq/kg, 1.8±0.4 to 27.9±2.4 Bq/kg, 19.0±2.2 to 590.3±28.6 Bq/kg and 0.1±0.0 to 1.0±0.1 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs, respectively. However there was no sign of 134Cs in the sample spectrum after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Hence we can safely conclude that there was no significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. The other activities are in good agreement with the published results of neighboring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose (AED) of beach sand samples were below the world wide average implying that the radiation hazard is insignificant. The data presented in this study would also be very useful to determine the possible future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment.

  7. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples from Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a huge amount of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. It's impact on the environment is of great concern to the good of the public at large. In this regard environmental radioactivity monitoring such as external dose rate and radioactivity measurements in environmental samples has been carried out. For this purpose, several beach sand samples were collected from south coast of the Turkey in September 2011 and radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra (238U), 228Ac (232Th), 40K, 134Cs and 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity Germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in beach sand samples ranged from 4.0±0.5 to 21.5±1.8 Bq/kg, 1.8±0.4 to 27.9±2.4 Bq/kg, 19.0±2.2 to 590.3±28.6 Bq/kg and 0.1±0.0 to 1.0±0.1 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs, respectively. However there was no sign of 134Cs in the sample spectrum after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Hence we can safely conclude that there was no significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. The other activities are in good agreement with the published results of neighboring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose (AED) of beach sand samples were below the world wide average implying that the radiation hazard is insignificant. The data presented in this study would also be very useful to determine the possible future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment. - Highlights: • Activity values of all samples are lower than the world wide average values. • Gamma dose rates of beach sand samples are in the range of 10–200 nGy/h. • Raeq activity and AED values of samples are less than world wide average values. • No significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. • Strong correlations detected in between elemental and radioactivity concentration

  8. Background and anthropogenic radionuclide derived dose rates to freshwater ecosystem - Nuclear power plant cooling pond - Reference organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological assessment of non-human biota to demonstrate protection is now accepted by a number of international and national bodies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a scientific basis to assess and evaluate exposure of biota to ionizing radiation. Radionuclides from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Lithuania) were discharged into Lake Druksiai cooling pond. Additional radionuclide migration and recharge to this lake from a hypothetical near-surface, low-level radioactive waste disposal, to be situated 1.5 km from the lake, had been simulated using RESRAD-OFFSITE code. This paper uses ERICA Integrated Approach with associated tools and databases to compare the radiological dose to freshwater reference organisms. Based on these data, it can be concluded that background dose rates to non-human biota in Lake Druksiai far exceed those attributable to anthropogenic radionuclides. With respect the fishery and corresponding annual committed effective human dose as a result of this fish consumption Lake Druksiai continues to be a high-productivity water body with intensive angling and possible commercial fishing. - Highlights: → Dose rates to the reference organisms are lower than expected from the background radioactivity. → Pelagic fish part of adult human annual committed effective dose would be as small as a few μSv y-1. → With respect the fishery Lake Druksiai continues to be a high-productivity water body.

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in bivalves collected along the coastal United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program initiated a study of artificial radionuclides (241Am, 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 137Cs, 110Ag, 90Sr, 65Zn, 60Co, and 58Co) in oysters and mussels collected along the coastal US. The results of this study show that activation products 110Ag, 65Zn, 60Co and 58Co are sometimes present close to nuclear facilities. In addition, based on a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis statistical test, it appears that 241Am and 137Cs concentrations as well as 241Am/239+240Pu and 137Cs/40K activity ratios are highest along the West Coast of the US. For 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 90Sr activities and the other ratios, the differences observed in the distribution of the radionuclides between the various coasts are not statistically significant. There is also a statistical difference between the values of the 239+240Pu/90Sr ratio in oysters vs mussels collected along the East Coast and of the 241Am/239+240Pu ratio between two species of mussels collected along the West Coast. Finally, when the NOAA results for 241Am, 239+240Pu, and 137Cs are compared with those of an earlier (1976-1978) Mussel Watch Program sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency, the statistical Sign Test generally shows a significant decrease in the concentrations between the mid-1970s and the early 1990s. (author)

  10. Patterns of radionuclide concentrations in life-cycle of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding populations of Great Tit Parus major and Pied Flycatcher Ficedida hypoleuca was studied to determine radionuclide (137Cs, 90Sr) concentrations in bodies and foods (contents of gastrointestinal tracts) at different stages of the life-cycle and radiation effects upon the populations. The study was carried out in 1989--1992 near Chernobyl (in two areas with differed contamination levels: 90 Ci/km2, 5 Ci/km2) and East-Ural radioactive trace (Russia) (1,500 Ci/km2, 2 Ci/km2). Concentrations of 90Sr in egg shells of Great Tit collected near Chernobyl were 65 times higher in the more radioactive area than in the less contaminated area and varied from 56.6 to 79.7 Bq/g. Concentration of 90Sr in the contents of gastrointestinal tracts were from 0 to 10.8 Bq/g. Concentrations of radionuclides in the food increased in the sequence ''nestlings 90Sr content in bodies of nestlings varied from 1 to 5 Bq/g at contaminated site and from 0.2 to 0.5 Bq/g at less polluted area, from 1 to 9 Bq/g and from 0.1 to 0.5 Bq/g in fledglings relatively in two areas. It was assumed that the ration of pairs numbers and breeding success of Pied Flycatcher (East-Ural) on the control site was significantly higher than that on contaminated site. The pathology in development of Pied Flycatcher's nestling was recorded. The radiation influenced on age-structure of bird populations decreasing the ratio of the young

  11. Estimating radionuclide air concentrations near buildings: a screening approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some facilities that routinely release small amounts of radionuclides to the atmosphere, such as hospitals, research laboratories, contaminated clothing laundries, and others, it is necessary to estimate the dose to persons very near the buildings from which the releases occur. Such facilities need simple screening procedures which provide reasonable assurance that as long as the calculated dose is less than some fraction of a relevant dose limit no individual will receive a dose in excess of that limit. Screening procedures have been proposed for persons living within hundreds of meters to a few kilometers from a source of radioactive effluent. This paper examines a screening technique for estimating long-term average radionuclide air concentrations within approximately 100 m of a building from which the release occurs. The technique is based on a modified gaussion plume model (HB model) which considers the influence of the tallest building within 100 m and is independant of atmospheric stability and downwind distance. 4 references, 2 tables

  12. Anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater in the East Sea/Japan Sea: Results of the first-stage Japanese-Korean-Russian expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater samples near dumping sites of the East Sea/Japan Sea were conducted, as the first-stage Japanese-Korean-Russian Joint Expedition, in March-April 1994, to assess radioactive contamination of the East Sea/Japan Sea after the dumping of radioactive wastes by the former Soviet Union and Russian Federation. Concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in surface waters of the East Sea/Japan Sea near dumping sites were in the ranges of 2.8-3.6,1.6-2.0, and 8-25 Bq kg-1, respectively. Surface 137Cs and 90Sr concentrations were the same order of magnitude as those observed in the North Pacific, whereas surface 239,240Pu concentration was significantly higher than those observed in the North Pacific. Vertical profiles of 137Cs and 90Sr, with surface maxima and decreasing with depth, showed higher depth gradients than those observed in the North Pacific, reflecting deep convection in the north central East Sea/Japan Sea. The higher 239,240Pu concentration in the surface waters of the north central East Sea/Japan Sea may reflect rapid recycling of deep Pu. The results revealed that most of the recent radioactivity observed in the north central East Sea/Japan Sea was of global fallout origin from atmospheric nuclear testing and partly the Chernobyl fallout. In this survey, there was no clear evidence of an increase in radionuclide concentrations due to the dumping of radioactive wastes by the former Soviet Union and Russian Federation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Ambient concentrations of radionuclides in air at Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this component of the study was to obtain data on the radioactive content of dust resuspended under natural (ambient) conditions at various sites around Maralinga and at Emu. Ambient concentrations in air of radionuclides and the toxic chemical beryllium have been monitored by use of both high and low volume samplers over several years during calm conditions and during dust storms. Data are presented for the contaminated sites which indicate that airborne concentrations of plutonium are low most of the time (10-4 Bq/m3). Annual average ambient activity concentrations of plutonium at the most heavily contaminated sampling sites were ca. 10-3 Bq/m3 at a height of 1.1 m above ground level. The highest concentrations measured were ca. 2 x 10-2 bq/m3 averaged over a few days. The results indicate that the radiological risk due to naturally resuspended dust is dominated by a rare event, such as the occasional dust storms that resuspends considerable activity. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 2 figs., ills

  14. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in post-Fukushima Pacific seawater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutter Guillaume

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the accident at the Daiichi Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011, a vast number of Pacific seawater samples from many locations far from Fukushima have been collected by Japanese investigators. Due to dilution, the activities of radionuclides from North Pacific seawater samples are very low, which calls for extraordinary measures when being measured. This study focuses on the metrological aspects of the gamma-ray spectrometry measurements performed on such samples in two underground laboratories; at HADES (by JRC-IRMM in Belgium, and at Ogoya (by Kanazawa University in Japan. Due to many samples and long measurement times, all available HPGe detectors needed to be employed. In addition to single coaxial detectors, this involved multidetector systems and well detectors. Optimization of detection limits for different radionuclides and detectors was performed using Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the Western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gi Hoon [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sa 2 dong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, Mark, E-mail: Baskaran@wayne.edu [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Molaroni, Shannon Marie [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Lee, Hyun-Mi [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sa 2 dong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) and natural radionculides ({sup 40} K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of {sup 90}Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 137}Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}.{sup 137}Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average {sup 137}Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40} K, and {sup 226}Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total {sup 210}Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported {sup 210}Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess {sup 210}Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, {sup 137}Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, {sup 210}Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 {mu}SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological

  16. Anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in black poplar tree (Populus nigra l.) bark sampled in one of the residential districts of Kyiv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tree bark is known to be a good alternative biological substrate that can be successfully used in the air pollution monitoring studies, especially in urban and industrialized areas suffering from the severe anthropogenic pressure. In Kyiv black poplar is a widespread tree species, whose bark was used as a biological indicator in our research. The bark samples were collected within one of the residential districts of Kyiv and were subject to comprehensive analysis for the content of stable elements and anthropogenic radionuclides. Thermal and epicadmium NAA in short- and long-term irradiation modes, respectively, were used for the determination of concentrations of up to 40 heavy metals, while gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and radiochemical extraction-ion-exchange techniques were applied to determine137Cs, 90Sr, Pu and Am radioactive isotopes in single bark samples. The analytical data obtained were subject to correlation and factor analysis, which revealed basic air pollution sources in the investigated region. It was shown that no significant correlations exist between radionuclides and any determined stable elements in the analyzed samples. All measured radioactive isotopes turned out to fall into a separate factor, which is believed to present the direct deposition of fuel microparticles from the Chernobyl NPP's Unit 4 from the atmosphere into the substratum during radioactive fallouts in spring 1986. This conclusion was supported by the evaluated isotopic ratios 137Cs/90Sr = 1.1 ± 0.4, 137Cs/239+240Pu = 100 ± 40, 239+240Pu/238Pu = 1.0 ± 0.6, as well as by the observed significant variation of the radionuclide concentrations (e.g. 10 Bq/kg - 1540 Bq/kg for 137Cs, 0.1 Bq/kg - 21 Bq/kg for 238,240Pu), which is believed to reflect a microparticle character of the pollution. The obtained data suggest that re-suspension does not play a significant role in the formation of atmospheric air pollution by radioactive substances in the investigated region

  17. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the Western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic (90Sr and 137Cs) and natural radionculides (40 K, 210Pb and 226Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of 90Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg-1 and 137Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg-1.137Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average 137Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in 210Pb, 40 K, and 226Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total 210Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported 210Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess 210Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, 137Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, 210Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, 40K and 226Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to 90Sr and 137Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 μSV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. - Highlights: → Quantification of radiation dose to humans from the ingestion of fish, muskox, and caribou Arctic

  18. Impact of Chinese anthropogenic emissions on submicrometer aerosol concentration at Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Asian economic development might engender secondary impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles over the western Pacific after conversion of gaseous pollutants such as SO2. To elucidate changes in aerosol concentrations in leeward areas undergoing remarkable industrialization, the number-size distributions of submicrometer (0.3–1.0 μm aerosols were measured at Murododaira (36.6° N, 137.6° E, 2450 m a.s.l. on the western flank of Mount Tateyama in central Japan during January 1999–February 2009. Nighttime data obtained from 2400 to 0500 were used to analyze free-tropospheric aerosol concentration. Monthly average volume concentrations were calculated for months with >50% daily data coverage. Volume concentrations of submicrometer aerosols were high in spring to early summer and low in winter. Significant increasing trends at 95% confidence levels were found for volume concentrations in winter–spring. Simulated monthly anthropogenic aerosol concentrations at Mt. Tateyama from results of regional aerosol modeling with emission inventory up to 2005 showed seasonal variation and winter–spring increasing trends similar to those of observed aerosol concentration. According to the model analyses, the contribution of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations derived from China was high during winter–spring (60–80% of total anthropogenic aerosols at Mt. Tateyama. This accords with the increasing trend observed for winter–spring. Because SO42− is the dominant component of total anthropogenic aerosols, these results suggest that increasing anthropogenic emissions, especially for SO2, in China, engender enhancement of submicrometer-diameter aerosols over Japan during winter–spring.

  19. Concentrating of natural origin radionuclides using nuclear filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Presently, territories of uranium mines have accumulated plenty of dumps which processing is unprofitable because of low concentration of uranium. However, mining rocks in these dumps are subject to natural influence (atmospheric precipitations, wind) as a result of which there is an environmental contamination. The purpose of this work is to study the element contents of water from these dumps with the help of nuclear filters. The factor of radionuclides filtration by nuclear filters was defined by means of water in which some weeks earlier rocks from uranium mine dumps were crushed. Acidity of the solution was pH =5. The analysis was performed on the gamma-spectrometer with the Ge-detector with relative efficiency of 20%. Gamma-spectra have shown presence in this solution of five radionuclides: 214Bi, 214Pb, 234Th, 234mPa and 235U, activities of which were measured daily. Initial activity of 214Bi and 214 Pb was 6 * 103 Bq/l, but quickly reduced, and in 10 days reached 6*10 Bq/l. On the contrary, activities of 234Th and 234Pa grew, and from approximately 100 Bq/l in 20 days increased up to 800 Bq/l and 1700 Bq/l, respectively. Activity of 235U radionuclide was constant and made (115 ± 2) Bq/l. In 20 days, the behavior of radionuclides in a studied solution has been determined. The solution has been passed consequently through nuclear filters with diameter of holes 0.2 and 0.03 microns, and then the activities of this solution and a deposit were measured by filters. It was revealed, that 234Th and 234mPa activities have decreased 8 - 9 times, and then increased with the same rate, as that for initial solution. Activity of 235U after filtration has not changed. In 27 days after filtration when activities of 234Th and 234mPa have considerably increased (up to ∼1* 103 Bq/l and ∼ 2 * 103Bq/l, respectively), the solution has been passed again through the 0.2 micron nuclear filter. The subsequent analysis has shown similar result of 234Th and 234m

  20. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in post-Fukushima Pacific sea water samples

    OpenAIRE

    Lutter Guillaume; Tzika Faidra; Hult Mikael; Aoyama Michio; Hamajima Yasunori; Marissens Gerd; Stroh Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Following the accident at the Dai-ichi Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011, a vast number of Pacifîc sea water samples from many locations far from Fukushima have been collected by Japanese investigators. Due to dilution, the activities of radionuclides from North Pacifîc sea water samples are very low, which calls for extraordinary measures when being measured. This paper focusses on the metrological aspects of the gamma-ray spectrometry measurements performed on such samples in two underg...

  1. Metal and radionuclide concentrations in L-lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cycling of iron, manganese and other metals can have important ecological implications in acidic southeastern lakes and reservoirs. When water in a lake's hypolimnion is anoxic, as typically occurs in summer, the solubility of certain elements, such as iron and manganese, increases. During such anoxic conditions, remobilization of elements from lake sediments into the hypolimnion may also occur. Concentrations of these elements can reach levels that are toxic to organisms. Perhaps more importantly, when turnover of the water column occurs in autumn, oxygenation of the anoxic hypolimnion may cause precipitation of metal oxides, forming colloids that can be harmful to fish and other organisms, e.g., by physically obstructing gills. all of these processes can have bearing on the development of a balanced biological community in L-Lake. The inventory of metal and radionuclide concentrations in L-Lake basin sediments will be used to assess potential remobilization of these elements from the lake sediments into the overlying water column. These data will be used in conjunction with laboratory microcosm studies and lake measurements to determine the potential for element remobilization under existing lake conditions. 1 figure, 2 tables

  2. Rapid determination of radionuclide activity concentrations in contaminated drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of an incident at the Ranger Uranium Mine in which drinking water was contaminated with process water, it was necessary to perform quick analysis for naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclide activity concentrations, including 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, U and Th isotopes. The methods which were subsequently used are presented here. The techniques used were high-resolution gamma spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and high-resolution alpha spectrometry. Routine methods were modified to allow for rapid analyses on priority samples in 1-2 days, with some results for highest priority samples available in less than 1 day. Comparison of initial results obtained using the modified procedures, with results obtained through standard procedures, is discussed. An emphasis is placed on high-resolution alpha spectrometry of major alpha-emitting nuclides, specifically 226Ra, 230Th and 238U. The range of uranium concentrations in the samples investigated was from background levels to 6.6 ppm. Implications for radiological dose assessment in contamination incidents involving process water are presented. The worst-case scenario for the incident at Ranger Uranium Mine indicates that the maximum committed effective dose to workers was well below the ICRP limit for worker-related dose and below the dose limit for a member of the public, with 230Th being the highest contributor.

  3. Rapid Multisample Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Marine Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Shi, Keliang; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2014-01-01

    An automated multisample processing flow injection (FI) system was developed for simultaneous determination of technetium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium in large volume (200 L) seawater. Ferrous hydroxide coprecipitation was used for the preliminary sample treatment providing the merit...... of simultaneous preconcentration of all target radionuclides. Technetium was separated from the actinides via valence control of technetium (as Tc(VII)) in a ferric hydroxide coprecipitation. A novel preseparation protocol between uranium and neptunium/plutonium fractions was developed based on the observation...... of nearly quantitative dissolution of uranium in 6 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. Automated extraction (TEVA for technetium and UTEVA for uranium) and anion exchange (AGMP-1 M for plutonium and neptunium) chromatographic separations were performed for further purification of each analyte within the FI...

  4. The effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on marine cloud droplet concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakov, T.; Rivera-Carpio, C.; Penner, J. E.; Rogers, C. F.

    1994-04-01

    Nonseasalt sulfate (nss SO42-) mass concentrations, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, and cloud droplet concentrations in warm cumulus and stratocumulus clouds were simultaneously measured in situ in marine air masses on El Yunque peak in Puerto Rico. Our results show that CNN number concentrations (measured at 0.5% supersaturation) and nss SO42- mass concentrations (in the range of ˜ 400 1700ng m-342- mass concentrations (in the range of ˜ 300 1400ng m-3). In stratocumulus clouds, a small increase in droplet concentration with nss SO42- mass concentrations in the range of ˜ 300 1100ng m-3 was observed. We attribute the low sensitivities of the droplet number concentrations to nss SO42- mass concentrations to the entrainment/mixing processes in these clouds. The magnitudes of the empirically derived sensitivities are considerably lower than those assumed in recent assessments of the effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on cloud albedo.

  5. Determination of Natural Radionuclides Concentrations in Portable Water Supply of Northern Part of Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Onoja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the natural radionuclides in portable water, samples were collected from fifty locations in Northern part of Kaduna state and were subjected to the investigation of the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides. The radionuclides investigated are potassium-40, uranium-238 and thorium-232 using sodium iodide detector (NaI (Ti. Results showed that potassium-40 concentration in the water samples has minimum and maximum concentration as 0.124 and 0.849 Bq/L, respectively. The mean value of potassium-40 concentration found in water is 0.416 Bq/L. Also, uranium-238 and thorium-232 investigated in the samples gave mean concentration of 0.0011 and 0.00006 Bq/L, respectively. The results obtained from these analysis shows that samples have radionuclides activity concentration below the recommended value for the radionuclides.

  6. Concentration and speciation of radionuclides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper will describe three examples dealing with the measure of some natural (U, Th, 210Pb, 40K) and artificial (137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am) radionuclides in environmental samples such as mosses, sediments, soils. Extraction chromatography, liquid extraction, selective precipitation and electroplating were used to isolate the radionuclides, except for gamma emitters which were detected by gamma spectrometry. Alpha spectrometry were used to measure the alpha emitters and low background beta detector to measure the beta emitters

  7. Estimation of sedimentation processes in Tokyo Bay using radionuclides and anthropogenic molecular markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Sato, Futoshi; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Takada, Hideshige [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Yamamoto, Ai; Kato, Yoshihisa; Ueno, Takashi

    1999-06-01

    To estimate the sedimentation rate and to understand the sedimentation processes in Tokyo Bay, vertical distributions of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were determined for two sediment cores (F-2 and F-5) from Tokyo Bay and one from the moat of Imperial Palace for the Tokyo. Molecular stratigraphy was applied to one of the Tokyo Bay sediment cores using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and linear and tetrapropylene-based alkylbenzenes (LABs and TABs). {sup 210}Pb showed exponential downcore decrease with substantial fluctuation. In the sediment core of the bay (F-2), radiocesium maximum, corresponding to the atmospheric deposition maximum at 1963, was observed. Good agreement between the deposition date estimated using radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb) and the vertical distributions of PCBs, LABs and TABs, suggests the utility of multiple markers approach for sediment stratigraphy. In the Tokyo Bay sediments, only slight or negligible decrease in {sup 137}Cs activity was observed toward the surface layer where significant amounts of {sup 137}Cs was detected, whereas a sharp peak of {sup 137}Cs were observed for the Moat which has no inflowing rivers. PCBs and TABs, whose productions and usage cased by early 1970s, decreased gradually to the sediment-water interface in the Tokyo Bay and were found significantly in the surficial sediments. All these markers suggest that riverine and estuarine sediments play a role of a reservoir of the pollutants, that is, particle-reactive pollutants are temporally deposited and stored in riverine and estuarine sediments which are intermittently supplied to Tokyo Bay during flood events with resuspension. (author)

  8. Behaviors and transfers of anthropogenic radionuclides (137Cs, 239+240Pu and 241Am) in a protected alpine wetland (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to confirm and increase the knowledge on anthropogenic radionuclide (RN) behavior (137Cs, 239+240Pu, 241Am) in natural compartments (artificial pool in a protected upland area). The novelty lies on comparisons of the three main compartments (pool water, soil, sediments) of this original mountainous site. Migration processes and transfers were particularly detailed in the light of two processes: lixiviation and leaching. Regarding 238U, anthropogenic RNs, lithology, organic matter contents, sedimentation rates (210Pb) and isotopic mass balances, RNs are mainly transported by leaching processes with higher 241Am in-depth mobility compared to 137Cs (intermediate for 239+240Pu). (author)

  9. Assessment of radionuclide concentration in three crustaceans species of the bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural (226Ra, 228Th, 232Th and 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides concentrations in three crustaceans species (Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros and Panulirus versicolor), collected from the bay of Bengal, were determined with an aim of assessing any internal radiation hazard due to consumption of the shell fishes and establishing a database for radioactivity levels of the species. Very low level of radioactivity was observed in all the species. The average activity of 226Ra observed in P. monodon was 1.21 ± 0.27 Bq kg-1 fw; in M. monoceros was 0.70 ±0.08 Bq kg-1 fw, and in Panulirus versicolor was 1.04 ± 0.09 Bq kg-1 fw. The activity of 232Th observed in these species was 1.30 ± 0.37, 0.76 ± 0.34 and 1.32 ± 0.70 Bq kg-1 fw, and 228Th was 0.55 ± 0.26, 0.31 ± 0.14 and 0.74 ± 0.22 Bq kg-1 fw, respectively. The average activity of 40K observed in these species was 12.56 ± 1.18, 6.38 ±1.02 and 10.07 ± 1.52 Bq kg-1 fw, respectively. The activity of radiocaesium (137Cs) was below detection limit. The results indicate that the natural and artificial radionuclides observed in three crustaceans species are safe for human health. A significant relationship was observed between 226Ra and 232Th in both the P. monodon (r = 0.839, p ≤ 0.05, df = 4) and the Panulirus versicolor (r = 0.906, p ≤ 0.05, df = 4). (authors)

  10. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the relationship between anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil and precipitation in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Igarashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asian dust source region may be expanding primarily as a result of recent climate change, especially during the 2000s. This change was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s. There are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air, so the radionuclides in the atmosphere are mainly carried by dust from wind-blown surface soil, that is, aeolian dust. Asian dust carries 90Sr, 137Cs, and other anthropogenic radionuclides; the heaviest deposition occurs in spring and has been recorded in Japan since the early 1990s. The composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric depositions would be affected by a change in the dust source. Previous studies of atmospheric depositions at long-term monitoring sites (e.g. in Tsukuba, Japan have detected changes in the 137Cs/90Sr ratio and in the specific activity of the radionuclides. These changes in the composition of observed atmospheric depositions should be a reflection for a change in the climatic conditions of the dust source region. To investigate this dust source change, a field survey for radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs in surface soil samples was conducted in September 2007 in the eastern and southern regions of Mongolia, where dust storms have occurred more frequently since 2000. It was found that specific activities of both radionuclides as well as the 137Cs/90Sr ratio in the surface soil correlated well with annual average precipitation in the Mongolian desert-steppe zone. The higher specific activities and the higher 137Cs/90Sr ratio were found in the grassland region with the greater precipitation. This finding suggests that the increased specific activities and the activity ratio

  11. Proposal of limits for the concentration of radionuclides activity in drinking water for Polish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discussed the influence of the radionuclides contents in drinking water on the exposure of the population. The way of transformation of the limits of effective dose into the relevant concentration of radionuclides in drinking water is presented together with the results of these calculations. We propose to approve these limits for particular radionuclides. The suggestion for the methodology and organization of measurements are also given. (author)

  12. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. Results of the 1994-1995 Japanese-Korean-Russian expeditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of contamination of anthropogenic radionuclides from past dumping of radioactive waste in areas of the Okhotsk Sea, NW Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan/East Sea has been performed. Two joint Japanese-Korean-Russian scientific expeditions were carried out in 1994-1995, where seawater and seabed sediments were samples from 22 sites. Results of sediment analysis are reported here, where concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 241Am in surface layer and bulk sediments showed on large spatial variations, ranging between -1 dry wt., -1 dry wt., -1 dry wt., 0.006 and 2.0 Bq kg-1 dry wt., 0.03 and 1.8 Bq kg-1 dry wt., respectively. However, the concentrations are comparable with those found in reference sites outside the dumping areas and they generally fall within ranges previously reported for non-dumping areas of the investigated seas. Estimates of sediment inventories indicated differences in radionuclide load between shelf/slope and basin type sediments as well as dependence on water depth. Except for the shallow areas, most of the inventories of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes are still to be found in the water column. Total inventories (in water+sediment) show a surplus of 137Cs and Pu-isotopes compared to expected integrated global fall-out deposition, which is consistent with previous observations in non-dumping areas in the seas investigated. Analysis of sediment 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratios showed values in accord with that of global fall-out. Analysis of radionuclide depth distributions in core samples from areas of the Sea of Okhotsk showed sedimentation rates of 0.2-0.4 g cm-2 year-1 and 0.03 g cm-2 year-1 for shelf and basin areas respectively, which is similar to values found in the Sea of Japan/East Sea. Depth profiles of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes in cores of the basin area indicate a typical delay compared to the input records of global fall-out

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in agricultural products near the Hanford Site, 1982 through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed monitoring data for agricultural products collected from 1982 through 1992 near the Hanford Site to determine radionuclide concentration trends. While samples were collected and analyzed, and results reported annual in Hanford Site environmental reports, an 11-year data set was reviewed for this report to increase the ability to assess trends and potential Hanford effects. Products reviewed included milk, chicken, eggs, beef, vegetables, fruit, wine, wheat, and alfalfa. To determine which radionuclides were detected sufficiently often to permit analysis for trends and effects, each radionuclide concentration and its associated uncertainty were ratioed. Radionuclides were considered routinely detectable if more than 50% of the ratios were between zero and one. Data for these radionuclides were then analyzed statistically, using analyses of variance. The statistical analyses indicated the following: for the most part, there were no measurable effects for Hanford operations; radionuclide concentrations in all products reviewed remained relatively low when compared to concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to an individual; radionuclide concentrations are decreasing in general; however, 90Sr concentrations in all media and 129I in milk increased from 1982 to 1986, then decreased gradually for the remainder of the review period. The 129I concentrations may be correlated with processing of irradiated reactor fuel at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant

  14. Monitoring Anthropogenic Airborne Natural Radionuclides in the Vicinity of a TENORM Industry Using Lichen as Bio-Indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to study the viability of using lichen species from the family Parmeliaceae as bio-indicator of air pollution by natural radionuclides of the U and Th series (238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th and 228Ra) in the surroundings of a tin and lead industry. The raw material used is the cassiterite, which presents in its composition concentrations of U and Th up to 60 kBq kg-1. The radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were determined by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter. Uranium and thorium were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Concentration values obtained for lichen samples varied from 19 Bq kg-1 to 473 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 21 Bq kg-1 to 265 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 401 Bq kg-1 to 1083 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 16 Bq kg-1 to 574 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, from 175 Bq kg-1 to 389 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra; therefore, they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of a TENORM industry. (author)

  15. Anthropogenic lead concentrations and sources in Baltic Sea sediments based on lead isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pb concentrations reach even 147 μg/g at Gdansk Basin sediments. • Marine sediments deposited before 1860 are not contaminated by Pb. • Contemporary inventories of anthropogenic Pb in marine sediments was of 0.5–11 g for m2. • The lowest 206Pb/207Pb (1.165) were measured in sediments deposited between 1970s–90s. • Coal burning was always the most important Pb source in Poland. - Abstract: The Gulf of Gdańsk is influenced by heavy metals of anthropogenic origin. In this study, temporal concentration changes of Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were studied in six, 50 cm long sediment cores. The main aim of the study was to concentrate on the history of Pb fluxes and Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) to trace Pb sources. The lowest Pb concentrations (19 μg g−1) were measured in sediments deposited circa 1860, while the highest Pb concentrations (63–147 μg g−1) were measured in sediments deposited between 1960s and 70s. Pre-industrial Pb fluxes were 7 Pb m2 year−1, while after WWII they reached 199 Pb m2 year−1. Highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios (∼1.22) were measured in the oldest sediment layers, and the lowest 206Pb/207Pb ratios (∼1.165) were measured in the sediments deposited in 1970s–90s. During the period of highest Pb contamination, the anthropogenic Pb fraction reached up to 93%. A general discussion of the Pb sources, emissions, and loads for Poland is included

  16. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther H D Carlitz

    Full Text Available Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates, compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129 = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178 = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC. With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88 = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species.

  17. Sequential determination of natural (232Th, 238U) and anthropogenic (137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am, 239+240Pu) radionuclides in environmental matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: Transuranic (TRU) and Strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by Uranium and Tetravalent Actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium- 238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. (authors)

  18. Estimates of Columbia River radionuclide concentrations: Data for Phase 1 dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project to estimate the radiation doses people may have received from historical Hanford Site operations. Under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel, the project is being conducted in phases. The objective of the first phase is to assess the feasibility of the project-wide technical approach for acquiring data and developing models needed to calculate potential radiation doses. This report summarizes data that were generated for the Phase 1 dose calculations. These included monthly average concentrations of specific radionuclides in Columbia River water and sediments between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam for the years 1964 to 1966. Nine key radionuclides were selected for analysis based on estimation of their contribution to dose. Concentrations of these radionuclides in the river were estimated using existing measurements and hydraulic calculations based on the simplifying assumption that dilution and decay were the primary processes controlling the fate of radionuclides released to the river. Five sub-reaches between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam, corresponding to population centers and tributary confluences, were identified and monthly average radionuclide concentrations were calculated for each sub-reach. The hydraulic calculations were performed to provide radionuclide concentration estimates for time periods and geographic locations where measured data were not available. The validity of the calculation method will be evaluated in Phase 2. 12 refs., 13 figs., 49 tabs

  19. Calculation of the radionuclides concentrations from in-situ spectrometry data measured by semiconductor spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code based on the described method was designed including calculation of conversion factors for user defined depth distribution models. Inputs of the code are peak areas of the considered radionuclides energy lines (measured in the given arrangement and calculated by any spectra analysis software), known or expected depth distribution models for individual radionuclides (including user defined models) and soil density. The activity concentrations of considered radionuclides and depth distribution models are calculated by the code. Described method was successfully tested and is used for processing of in-situ gamma spectrometry data measured by the spectrometer with semiconductor detector

  20. Activity concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in marine sediments close to the estuary of Shatt al-Arab/Arvand Rud River, the Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiris, D L; Tsabaris, C; Anagnostou, C L; Androulakaki, E G; Pappa, F K; Eleftheriou, G; Sgouros, G

    2016-06-01

    Tigris and Euphrates rivers both emerge in eastern Turkey and cross Syria and Iraq. They unite to Shatt al-Arab/Arvand Rud River and discharge in Arabic/Persian Gulf. The activity concentration of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides was measured during the August of 2011 in a number of surficial sediment samples collected from the seabed along an almost straight line beginning near the estuary mouth and extending seaward. The results exhibited low activity concentration levels and an almost homogeneous spatial distribution except locations where sediment of biogenic origin, poor in radionuclides, dilute their concentrations. Dose rates absorbed by reference marine biota were calculated by the ERICA Assessment Tool considering the contribution of 40 K. The results revealed a relatively low impact of 40 K mainly to species living in, on and close to the seabed. Also, statistical association of radionuclides with selected stable elements (Ca, Ba and Sr) did not indicate presence of by-products related with oil and gas exploitation and transportation activities. Moreover, a semi-empirical sedimentology model applied to reproduce seabed granulometric facies based entirely on radionuclides activity concentrations. PMID:26945883

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in wild waterfowl using the test reactor area radioactive leaching pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterfowl use the Test Reactor Area (TRA) Radioactive Leaching Pond on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site (INEL Site) as a resting area. Daily observations of waterfowl were made to determine species composition and numbers. Eight ducks and one coot were collected from the TRA pond during 1976 and 1977. Seven background samples were also collected. Each bird was dissected and tissue samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Duck tissues contained 25 radionuclides. Average and maximum radionuclide concentrations were highest in gut followed by feathers, liver, and muscle, Chromium-51 had the highest concentrations of all radionuclides identified 130,000 pCi/g (4800 Bq/g) in the gut and 37,500 pCi/g (1390 Bq/g) on the feathres). Neodymium-147 had the highest concentration on feathers of any radionuclide (104,000 pCi/g, 3850 Bq/g). Cesium-137 was the predominant radionuclide in muscle with a maximum concentration of 4,070 pCi/g (150 Bq/g). The ducks had lower radionuclide concentrations in the edible tissues than in the non-edible tissues. Potential whole-body and thyroid dose commitments to man consuming contaminated ducks were calculated using muscle concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137, and I-131. Although assumptions used for dose calculations maximized the dose commitment to man, results indicated that consumption of contaminated duck tissue is not a radiation hazard to humans. Even the highest dose commitments were below the limits recommended for individuals of the general population by the Internatioal Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The highest potential dose commitment to man would result from the consumption of an American coot known to have spent 20 days on the TRA pond. The average dose commitment to man would be 20 mrem

  2. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected radionuclide in fuels. It's activity concentration in Bq/kg normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from K in emission from combustion is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to man are the U- and Th-isotopes and 210Pb and 210Po. 137Cs is the most common nuclide among the fission products in fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approx. only a few μSv from inhalation can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 manSv/year. 143 refs

  3. Environmental parameters series. 3. Concentration factors of radionuclides in freshwater organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines recent research activities of Radioactive Waste Management Center. Aiming to estimate the radiation dose of man exposed to radioactive materials in an environment, construction of a calculation model on the transfer of radionuclide in the environment was attempted. This issue, Environmental parameter series No.3 includes six reports on the factors related to environmental concentration for radionuclides. The title of the reports are as follows; Factors modifying the concentration factor (CF), Evaluation of accumulation of radionuclides in brackish water organisms, Dose assessment, CF derived from Japanese limnological data, Data table of CF and Metabolic parameters in relation to bioaccumulation of elements by organisms. In addition to collect and arrange the existing data, CF was calculated based on the concentration of stable elements in various lakes and rivers in Japan. (M.N.)

  4. Survey of the natural radionuclides concentrations using a car-borne survey method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992-1996, we estimated the environmental radiation dose rates and the natural radionuclides concentrations in soil Tokai area in central Japan using a car-borne survey method. In this paper, the distribution and the variation of natural radionuclides (potassium, uranium and thorium) concentrations were described, because the natural radiation dose rates were reported in the former paper. In this survey, all concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium were highest in Gifu Prefecture, followed by Mie Prefecture and Aichi Prefecture, and the variation of radionuclide concentration due to region was observed. And, from the correlation analysis between concentration of natural radionuclides and absorbed dose rates in air due to γ-ray, it was shown that potassium and thorium have greatly contributed to dose rates in air, and among concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium, strong correlation was shown between potassium and thorium. Lastly, we showed results of correlation analysis between terrestrial γ-ray dose rates obtained from this survey and annual mean radon concentration obtained by other researchers. (author)

  5. Concentrations of natural radionuclides in imported zirconium minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural radioactivity in imported zircon samples used as glaze for ceramic tiles in the ceramics industry has been presented in this paper. The measurements were made by gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detector. The average activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th determined in the measured samples (3250 Bq/kg, and 556 Bq/kg, respectively are much higher than the concentrations found in the Earth’s crust. The activity concentration of 226Ra is also high in all analyzed samples, while 40K was not detected. The gamma index, I, the external hazard index, Hex, the internal hazard index, Hin, and the radium equivalent activity, Raeq, were calculated. Due to relatively high activity concentration level of uranium in imported zircon samples, specific regulations are necessary for zircon compound used in ceramic industry. It can be concluded that the investigated samples can be used as the component of ceramic glaze in the concentrations not above 3%.

  6. Natural radionuclide concentrations in processed materials from Thai mineral industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) distributed in products, by-products and waste produced from Thai mineral industries were investigated. Samples were analysed for radioactivity concentrations of two principal NORM isotopes: 226Ra and 228Ra. The enrichment of NORM was found to occur during the treatment process of some minerals. The highest activity of 226Ra (73 107 Bq kg-1) was in the scale from tantalum processing. The radium concentration in the discarded byproduct material from metal ore dressing was also enriched by 3-10 times. Phosphogypsum, a waste produced from the production of phosphate fertilisers, contained 700 times the level of 226Ra concentration found in phosphate ore. Hence, these residues were also sources of exposure to workers and the public, which needed to be controlled. (authors)

  7. Statistical analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations for three fields in southern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1988, the spatial variability of the natural gamma-emitting radionuclides (238U, 232Th, and 40K) and the artificial radionuclide 137Cs were studied in three near-level unfertilized fields in Saskatchewan, Canada. One field was used as a native (uneroded) control site; the other two sites have been cultivated, one since 1979 and the other since at least the 1940s. The two cultivated sites have been eroded by aeolian processes and tillage practices. Autocorrelation analysis indicated that most of the radionuclides were not serially correlated for the two depth increments sampled (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm). Autocorrelation is a necessary procedure when equally spaced transect sampling is employed, since sample independence cannot be assumed. Robust and nonrobust statistical summaries are presented for the selected gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations. Robust statistical estimates of location and dispersion are favored when distributions are not normal or when the distribution is skewed. Median concentrations for the three fields indicated that 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs were similar to areas in the U.S. and to other areas in southern Saskatchewan. Median 238U activity concentrations were between 31.4 and 34.1 Bq kg-1; 232Th concentrations were between 29.6 and 31.2 Bq kg-1; 40K concentrations were between 471 and 502 Bq kg-1; and 137Cs concentrations were between 10.0 and 12.6 Bq kg-1. The variability of natural radionuclides in a given field for a specific depth increment was generally low, with coefficients of variation less than or equal to 10%. The variability of 137Cs concentrations was greater, ranging from 18% to 23%. Nonparametric tests indicated a significant decrease in 214Bi concentration (238U indicator corrected for 222Rn) with depth of the 1979 field, and an increase in 228 Ac (232Th) with depth in the 1940s field

  8. Concentrations of radionuclides in reef and lagoon pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent man-made radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands of the Northern Marshall Islands. The atolls and islands include Rongelap, Utirik, Taka, Bikar, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Likiep, Jemo, Ailuk, Mejet, Wotho, Ujelang and Bikini. Over 4000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef fish, pelagic species, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. A report is given of all available concentration data for 137Cs, 90Sr, /sup 239+240/Pu, 238Pu, 241Am as well as naturally occurring 40K and other gamma emitting radionuclides in tissues and organs of different species of fish collected from the atolls

  9. An international database of radionuclide concentration ratios for wildlife: development and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key element of most systems for assessing the impact of radionuclides on the environment is a means to estimate the transfer of radionuclides to organisms. To facilitate this, an international wildlife transfer database has been developed to provide an online, searchable compilation of transfer parameters in the form of equilibrium-based whole-organism to media concentration ratios. This paper describes the derivation of the wildlife transfer database, the key data sources it contains and highlights the applications for the data. -- Highlights: • An online database containing wildlife radionuclide transfer parameters is described. • Database underpins recent ICRP and IAEA data wildlife transfer compilations. • Database contains equilibrium based whole organism to media concentration ratios

  10. Recent radionuclide concentrations in the North Sea as a result of discharges from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years, discharges of most radionuclides from the reprocessing plants at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (F) were reduced significantly. Consequently, concentrations in water and biota for the dose-relevant radionuclides decreased accordingly. The highest discharges took place in the middle of the seventies at Sellafield. Since the beginning of the seventies, concentrations could be observed in the North Sea, resulting from discharges from the reprocessing plant at Cap de La Hague into the Channel and from Sellafield into the Irish Sea. Current patterns with their water mass transport through the North Sea into adjacent sea areas such as Baltic Sea, Norwegian Sea, Greenland Sea and Arctic Ocean could be observed by means of these artificial water mass tracers. On the other hand, particularly the discharges of Tc-99, I-129, Sr-90, C-14, and Tritium increased during the recent years. The consequences for the environment due to the higher discharges of the radionuclide Tc-99 are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Basement Fill Model Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Concentrations for Initial Suite of Radionuclides. Zion Station Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Terry [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Sciences Dept.

    2014-12-10

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y⁻¹ as specified in 10 CFR 20 Subpart E. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on radionuclide concentrations in the fill material and the water in the interstitial spaces of the fill. (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use by ZSRP in selecting ROCs for detailed dose assessment calculations.

  12. Basement Fill Model Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Concentrations for Initial Suite of Radionuclides. Zion Station Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y-1 as specified in 10 CFR 20 Subpart E. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on radionuclide concentrations in the fill material and the water in the interstitial spaces of the fill. (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use by ZSRP in selecting ROCs for detailed dose assessment calculations.

  13. The occurrence of high concentration of natural radionuclides in black sands of Malaysian beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to measure the concentration of natural radionuclides in black sands of Pasir Hitam (Langkawi Island) and Batu Feringhi (Penang Island) beaches of Malaysia. Black sand was found to be more concentrated in the beach of Pasir Hitam as compared to Batu Feringhi where it occurred only in patches. Sample analysis was conducted using a gamma spectrometer. This study showed that most of black sands of Pasir Hitam beach and some of Batu Feringhi beach contain high concentrations of natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series. The mean concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 in black sand of Pasir Hitam beach were 1150 ± 800 Bq/kg and 500 ± 300 Bq/kg respectively. This is much higher than the normal beach sands with activity levels of 13 ± 7 Bq/kg Ra-226 and 11 ±6 Bq/kg Ra-228. The mean concentrations of 1350 ± 1300 Bq/kg Ra-226 and 805 ± 757 Bq/kg Ra-228 of two black sans samples of Batu Feringhi beach were similar to those of the Pasir Hitam. However, some black sand mixtures of Batu Feringhi contain normal level of natural radionuclides. In general, the activity levels of natural radionuclides in black sand of Malaysian beaches vary very significantly. (Author)

  14. Radionuclide concentrations in some cattle and sheep from West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tables are presented of concentrations of 238Pu, 239pu, 240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs, and 90Sr found in various tissues of three cows and three sheep reared on coastal and estuarine pastures contaminated by seaborne and windborne radioactivity in the region of the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd reprocessing plant at Windscale. The levels were well below those which could be regarded as acceptable for long-term continuous intake. (U.K.)

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in terrestrial vegetation and soil on and around the Hanford Site, 1983 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews concentrations of 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, U isotopes, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am in soil and vegetation samples collected from 1983 through 1993 during routine surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling locations were grouped in study areas associated with operational areas on the Site. While radionuclide concentrations were very low and representative of background concentrations from historic fallout, some study areas on the Site contained slightly elevated concentrations compared to other study areas onsite and offsite. The 100 Areas had concentrations of 60Co comparable to the minimum detectable concentration of 0.02 pCi/g in soil. Concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am in 200 Area soils were slightly elevated. The 300 Area had a slight elevation of U in soil. These observations were expected because many of the sampling locations were selected to monitor specific facilities or operations at the operational areas. Generally, concentrations of the radionuclides studied were greater and more readily measured in soil samples compared to vegetation samples. The general pattern of concentrations of radionuclide concentrations in vegetation by area mirrored that observed in soil. Declines in 90Sr in soil appear to be attributed to radioactive decay and possibly downward migration out of the sampling horizon. The other radionuclides addressed in this report strongly sorb to soil and are readily retained in surface soil. Because of their long half-lives compared to the length of the study period, there was no significant indication that concentrations of U isotopes and Pu isotopes were decreasing over time

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in mussels collected from the southern coast of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs were determined in whole soft tissues (WST) and shells of groups of different size of marine mussel Perna viridis L. and estuarine mussel Modiolus striatulus H. and water samples which were collected from the southern coast of Bangladesh. Correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of radionuclides vary with mussel size. A positive correlation existed for 238U and 40K and a negative one for 232Th between the radionuclide concentration and mussel size; 232Th concentrations in WST and shells of the mussels showed an inverse relationship with those of 238U and 40K, while 238U showed positive correlation with 40K. The concentration factors (CF) for 226Ra, 232Th and 238U in both P. viridis and M. striatulus were higher than those for 40K. The contents of 137Cs in both mussels were below the detection limit

  17. Concentration of radionuclides in fresh water fish downstream of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish were collected for radionuclide analysis over a 5-month period in 1984 from creeks downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant, which has been discharging quantities of some fission and activation products to the waterway since 1981. Among the fish, the bluegill was selected for intensive study because it is very territorial and the radionuclide concentrations detected should be representative of the levels in the local environment at the downstream locations sampled. Among the gamma-emitting radionuclides routinely released, only 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in the edible flesh of fish. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased with distance from the plant. The relationship between concentration and distance was determined to be exponential. Exponential equations were generated to estimate concentrations in fish at downstream locations where no site-specific information was available. Mean concentrations of 137Cs in bluegill collected during April, May, July and August from specific downstream stations were not significantly different in spite of the release of 131 mCi to the creeks between April and August. The concentrations in fish are not responding to changes in water concentrations brought about by plant discharges. Diet appears to be a more significant factor than size or weight or water concentration in regulating body burdens of 137Cs in these fish

  18. Determination of radionuclide concentrations of U and Th in unprocessed soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work with systems used to assay soil samples for U-238 and Th-232 indicated that the need existed to more directly measured the concentration of these radionuclides. An X-ray fluorescent analysis system was developed to directly measure the concentrations of these radionuclides in bulk (125 gm), unprocessed (not dried and not ground to uniform particle size), soil samples. The assay system developed equates a measured Kα1 X-ray peak area to a calculated Geometry Factor (GF) times the unknown soil samples radionuclide concentrations. From this equation the radionuclide concentration is determined. Spectral data are generated by irradiating the soil sample with Co-57 gammas to induce fluorescent X-rays which are measured using an intrinsic Ge detector. Transmission gamma rays are then used to determine the sample linear attenuation coefficient at the Kα1 energy of interest. Peak areas are determined by shaping spectra data to a Voigt Profile using an algorithm from the peak shaping program GRPANL. The steeply sloping nature of the Compton backscatter hump on which the Kα1 X-ray peaks rest necessitated the development of a unique polynomial/erfc background function which is subtracted prior to peak shaping. Experimentally, thirteen test samples were analyzed using this method, gamma spectroscopic analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Results compared very well with gamma spectroscopic analysis. Neutron activation analysis of small portions or each sample did not match well with the results of either of the other methods due to sample inhomogeneities

  19. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1991--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1991 through 1994 and is the fifth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at PBAPS in 1979

  20. Alternative procedure to determine radionuclide concentrations for marine sediment dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an alternative method to prepare and to measure marine sediment samples for dating purpose using high resolution gamma spectrometry is given. To calculate the 137 Cs and the supported and unsupported 210 Pb concentrations, cylindrical tablets subjected to different pressures were analyzed. Mass attenuation coefficients (MAC) were determined by our variant of the transmission method, the Bragg law (using MACs provided by the web program XCOM) and the method of average composition of the analyzed sediment samples. The differences between obtained results are smaller than the experimental error (10%). The influence of pressure and sediment mass on the MAC, mechanical stability of the sample, and self-absorption corrections for different gamma energies is studied. Optimal dimensions of the tablets were determined from considerations on the infinite thickness, minimum detectable activity, precision of results, radiation self-absorption and geometric efficiency. Based on the differential peak absorption analysis, through a relative efficiency curve, a new method to evaluate the existence of radioactive equilibrium between 226 Ra, 222 Rn and its progeny is given. Experimental error of the proposed methodology is evaluated, as well as accuracy, precision and detection limit. With the use of developed methodology, the 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs activities in recent sediment samples from near shore of the Orinoco River Delta were determined. The results were comparable with the obtained by two of the most used methods, while precision is improved and radiation self-absorption in sample container is avoided since sample encapsulation is not required. (Full Text)

  1. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40K (31-121 Bq kg-1), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y-1, a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  2. Radionuclide Concentrations in Honey Bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jemez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for various radionuclides. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for 239,240Pu, 3H, and total uranium. Sample results from one colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for 238Pu

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in oil extraction and production processes in Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) was detected in the water and oil extracted from wells both onshore and offshore. The oil is extracted together with water and sediments which contain radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series. Among the radionuclides present, especial attention should be given to 226Ra and 228Ra, due to its long half-life and importance, from the radiological point of view. The objective of this work was to identify the natural radionuclides in the oil industry, to determine their activity concentration, and from these results, to evaluate the risks the employees of the oil industry are exposed to. Samples of sludge, scale and produced water extracted with the oil were collected from three oil processing stations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined in the solid samples before and after the extraction of the oil. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the samples without oil was evaluated. Water samples, on the other hand, were analyzed for their contents of radionuclides and barium concentration. It was observed that the activity concentrations of the analyzed radionuclides (226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 210Pb) in sludge and scales were very high when compared with the literature, particularly much higher than the values for 226Ra and 228Ra obtained for sludge and scales from the oil platforms near the city of Campos, state of Rio de Janeiro. The maximum concentration values for 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 210Pb (3,500, 2,195, 2,248.6 and 201 kBq kg-1, respectively) were obtained for the scales after the extraction of the oil. The analysis of the samples showed that barium sulphate (barite) and strontium sulphate (celestite) are the main constituents of the scales, while carbonates and silicates, together with other compounds are the components of sludge. A correlation between barium, 226Ra and 228Ra was

  4. Participation in IAEA-TEL-201304/28 ALMERA Proficiency Test Exercise on Determination of Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Water and Flour Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visetpotjanakit, S; Kaewpaluek, S; Udomsomporn, S

    2016-03-01

    The Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) participated in the IAEA-TEL-201304/28 ALMERA Proficiency Test Exercise, "Determination of Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Water and Flour Samples," organized by the ALMERA network. There were three test samples sent together with one known activity sample for quality control purpose. Two of the test samples were spiked water: one contained (134)Cs and (137)Cs and the other contained (90)Sr, (60)Co, (152)Eu and (241)Am. The third sample was wheat flour spiked with (134)Cs and (137)Cs. OAP submitted all results to IAEA after determining (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (60)Co, (152)Eu and (241)Am activities by direct gamma-ray counting and (90)Sr by chemical separation and Cerenkov measurement. Our results with critical comments and statistical analysis are described in this paper. PMID:26688353

  5. A simplified method to compute radionuclide concentrations under sea breeze situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present an alternate method to compute ground-level radionuclide concentrations for the use under emergency conditions at a coastal nuclear power plant for sea breeze cases. The method involves the use of a work sheet and graphs. The results are compared with the EPA method given in ''Manual of Protective Action Guides and Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents.'' A method has been developed to predict ground-level concentrations of radionuclides under sea-breeze conditions. Using the procedure outlined in this report in conjunction with Figures 2-9, an estimate of concentration/dose for Xe-133 and I-131 versus downwind distance can be obtained quickly. A comparison of the data from this study and the currently recommended EPA procedures shows a large discrepancy between the two methods and indicates a need for their revision

  6. Investigation of Radionuclide Concentrations in Pine Needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of measurements concentrations in pine needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl accident. Investigations were made since second half of 1986 to 1988. Increasing of concentration radionuclide levels in 1986 was not significant and was ended at the end of 1987. The concentrations of radionuclide Cs-137 in pine needles were compared with those in precipitations. The pine needles can be recommended as a useful and accessible material for supplementary monitoring of radioactive situation in the environment. The results obtained can contribute to the overall picture of studies on the dynamics of radioactive distribution and global fallouts formed by macro scale nuclear accidents. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in bird tissues, their foods and feeding areas near Ravenglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about an apparent decline in the numbers of waterfowl, waders and gulls in the Ravenglass estuary, particularly of the black-headed gulls nesting on the Drigg dunes; it was suggested this might be due to the radionuclide concentrations in their diet and general environment. Oystercatchers and shelduck had some of the highest concentrations of Cs-137 in their tissues, yet their breeding and numbers remained unaffected. Calculations of the total dose equivalent to the whole body of gulls spending 4 months in the estuary before laying eggs, amounted to 2.8 mSv (≅ 2.4 m Gy), and to the gut lining 40.3 mSv. As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 m Gy d-1 has been found to be necessary to retard the growth of chicks or cause 50% mortality among gull chick embryos before full development, radionuclide concentrations at Ravenglass were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have any effect. 12 species of marine invertebrates were also analysed, but no evidence was found that radionuclides from Sellafield were being accumulated in any species to the point where concentrations were of potential importance to birds feeding on them. (author)

  8. Assessment of radionuclide concentration in three crustaceans species of the bay of Bengal; Mesure de la concentration de radionucleides dans trois especes de crustaces du golfe du Bengale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, C.K.; Zafar, M. [Chittagong Univ., Institute of Marine Sciences (Bangladesh); Chowdhury, M.I.; Kamal, M. [Radioactivity Testing and Monitoring Laboratory, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Chittagong (Bangladesh)

    2006-10-15

    The natural ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs) radionuclides concentrations in three crustaceans species (Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros and Panulirus versicolor), collected from the bay of Bengal, were determined with an aim of assessing any internal radiation hazard due to consumption of the shell fishes and establishing a database for radioactivity levels of the species. Very low level of radioactivity was observed in all the species. The average activity of {sup 226}Ra observed in P. monodon was 1.21 {+-} 0.27 Bq kg{sup -1} fw; in M. monoceros was 0.70 {+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and in Panulirus versicolor was 1.04 {+-} 0.09 Bq kg{sup -1} fw. The activity of {sup 232}Th observed in these species was 1.30 {+-} 0.37, 0.76 {+-} 0.34 and 1.32 {+-} 0.70 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and {sup 228}Th was 0.55 {+-} 0.26, 0.31 {+-} 0.14 and 0.74 {+-} 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The average activity of {sup 40}K observed in these species was 12.56 {+-} 1.18, 6.38 {+-}1.02 and 10.07 {+-} 1.52 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The activity of radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) was below detection limit. The results indicate that the natural and artificial radionuclides observed in three crustaceans species are safe for human health. A significant relationship was observed between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in both the P. monodon (r = 0.839, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4) and the Panulirus versicolor (r = 0.906, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4). (authors)

  9. Radionuclide Concentrations in Honey Bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. K. Haarmann; P. R. Fresquez

    2000-06-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jemez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for various radionuclides. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 3}H. Sample results from one colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for total uranium, while sample results from the other colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 90}Sr.

  10. Radionuclide Concentrations in Honey Bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jemez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for various radionuclides. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for 3H. Sample results from one colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for total uranium, while sample results from the other colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for 90Sr

  11. Contamination of North Sea and Baltic Sea with long-living iodine-129 and other anthropogenic radionuclides; Kontamination von Nord- und Ostsee mit langlebigem Iod-129 und anderen anthropogenen Radionukliden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, Luebbert

    2010-10-12

    The radionuclide iodine-129 (T{sub 1/2} = 15.7 Ma) is produced in nature by spontaneous fission of uranium-238 and by cosmic ray induced spallation of xenon. Due to the military and civil use of neutron-induced fission of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 a huge amount of iodine-129 has been released into the environment. The main sources of anthropogenic {sup 129}I are the reprocessing plants in La Hague (France) near the English Channel and in Sellafield (UK) close to the Irish Sea. The natural equilibrium {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios are estimated to 1.5 . 10{sup -12} for the marine hydrosphere and to 3.0 . 10{sup -13} for the terrestrial biosphere respectively. Due to the emissions of anthropogenic iodine-129 the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios have been increased in all compartments of the environment. Surface water samples taken from the English Channel, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Irish Sea, and the North Atlantic give information about anthropogenic changes. Iodine turns out to be a conservative tracer in seawater. The iodine-127 concentrations in seawater except for coastal areas are rather constant (40.7 ± 6.2 ng/g). The observed {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios range between 10{sup -10} and more than 10{sup -6}. The variation of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios is caused by the admixture of anthropogenic iodine-129. Water samples taken far away from the reprocessing plants show the lowest isotopic ratios. The highest {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios are found near the reprocessing plants. The transport of {sup 129}I from La Hague has a rather clear pattern. It can be observed along the coasts of France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The iodine-129 emissions from Sellafield can be followed northbound along the Scottish coast. The results of other anthropogenic radionuclides are used for discussing transport processes in the North Sea and the Irish Sea. Large areas in the North Sea are characterised by

  12. Trend Analysis of Gamma Exposure Rates and Soil Radionuclides Concentrations in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho Kyung; Maeng, Seongjin; Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kyung Won [G and G Radcon Co, Ltd,, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Korea institute of nuclear safety has operated monitoring system(Ion chamber, Scintillation detector, Thermoluminescence Dosimeter). Gamma exposure rate dependent on regional environment, season and diurnal(daily) variation, meteorological factor etc. There are many variable so that analysis of gamma exposure rate is too complicated. This paper confirmed diurnal variation and analyzed relation radionuclides in the soil and gamma exposure rate. For 10 monitoring locations, we compared diurnal(daily) variation of gamma exposure rate measured by monitoring ion chambers with the concentrations of radionuclides of the soils nearby the ion chambers. Using the data provided by IERNet, the gamma exposure rates are analyzed into four types. The concentrations of radioisotopes of the soil nearby 10 monitoring locations are obtained using a HPGe detector system.

  13. Background concentrations of radionuclides in soils and river sediments in northern New Mexico, 1974-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Buhl, T.E.; Maes, M.N.; Brown, F.H.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the range and the upper limit for background concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivity in soils and river sediments that occur as natural rock-forming minerals and worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Documentation is based on the collection of soil and sediment in northern New Mexico and analyzed for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, /sup 90/Sr, total uranium, gross gamma, and tritium. The data used to establish the statistical range and upper limit of background concentration cover a 9- or 13-year period ending in 1986. The knowledge of background levels is necessary to interpret soil and sediment data collected for the annual environmental surveillance report and other reports relating to radionuclides or radioactivity in soils and sediments. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of maximum radionuclide concentration from decay chains migration in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical formulation of the mechanisms involved in the transport of contaminants in aquifers is presented. The methodology employed is described. A method of calculation the maximum concentration of radionuclides migrating in the underground water, and resulting from one decay chain, is then proposed. As an example, the methodology is applied to a waste basin, built to receive effluents from a hypothectical uranium ore mining and milling facility. (M.A.C.)

  15. Properties of deterministic models for prediction of radionuclide concentrations in river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deterministic model was used for predicting the activity concentration of radionuclides in rivers. The model was validated in the framework of VAMP, aquatic working group, river subgroup, where scenarios as Clinch-Tennessee rivers as well as Dnjepr river were provided. This was a good chance to test the predictive power of the model. Some of the results of this exercise are presented. (author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of manganese dioxide impregnated resin for radionuclide pre-concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An easy and reproducible preparation of manganese dioxide impregnated resin of homogeneous particles has been described. The characteristics of radium, thorium, uranium and plutonium uptake (pH dependency, kinetic studies and matrix dependency) have been determined in batch mode. The resin due to its high efficiency for radium, uranium and thorium at neutral pH values can be an effective tool for radionuclide pre-concentration from liquid samples even with high dissolved solid content

  17. On the substantiation of permissible radionuclides concentration in concrete at utilization of dismounted reactor installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three scenario on utilization of concrete released after dismantling: stockpiling and storage as nonradioactive wastes at the production site and its utilization for road and production building construction are considered. Calculational results on permissible radionuclides concentration in the concrete for each scenario, estimated from the permissible dose, equal to 0.01 of the background dose (10 μSv/year), are presented. 19 refs.; 1 tab

  18. Concentrating anthropogenic disturbance to balance ecological and economic values: applications to forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittler, Rebecca; Messier, Christian; Fall, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    To maintain healthy ecosystems, natural-disturbance-based management aims to minimize differences between unmanaged and managed landscapes. Two related approaches may help accomplish this goal, either applied together or in isolation: (1) concentrating anthropogenic disturbance through zoning (with protected areas and intensive management); and (2) emulating natural disturbances. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of these two approaches, applied both in isolation and in combination, on the structure of the forest landscape. To do so, we use a spatially explicit landscape simulation model on a large fire-dominated landscape in eastern Canada. Specifically, we examine the effects of (1) increasing the maximum size of logged stands (cutblocks) to better emulate the full range of fire sizes in a fire-dominated landscape, (2) increasing protected areas, and (3) adding aggregated or dispersed intensive wood production areas to the landscape in addition to protected areas (triad management). We focus on maximizing the amount and minimizing the fragmentation of old-growth forest and on reducing road construction. Increasing maximum cutblock size and adding protected areas led to reduced road construction, while the latter also resulted in less fragmentation and more old growth. Although protected areas led to reduced harvest volume, the addition of an intensive production zone (triad management) counterbalanced this loss and resulted in more old growth than equivalent scenarios with protected areas but no intensive production zone. However, we found no differences between aggregated and dispersed intensive wood production. Our results imply that differences between unmanaged and managed landscapes can be reduced by concentrating logging efforts through a combination of protected areas and intensive wood production, and by creating some larger cutblocks. We conclude that the forest industry and regulators should therefore seek to increase protected areas

  19. Nominal Range Sensitivity Analysis of peak radionuclide concentrations in randomly heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Uncertainty quantification problem associated with the radionuclide migration. ► Groundwater transport processes simulated within a randomly heterogeneous aquifer. ► Development of an automatic sensitivity analysis for flow and transport parameters. ► Proposal of a Nominal Range Sensitivity Analysis approach. ► Analysis applied to the performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository. - Abstract: We consider the problem of quantification of uncertainty associated with radionuclide transport processes within a randomly heterogeneous aquifer system in the context of performance assessment of a near-surface radioactive waste repository. Radionuclide migration is simulated at the repository scale through a Monte Carlo scheme. The saturated groundwater flow and transport equations are then solved at the aquifer scale for the assessment of the expected radionuclide peak concentration at a location of interest. A procedure is presented to perform the sensitivity analysis of this target environmental variable to key parameters that characterize flow and transport processes in the subsurface. The proposed procedure is exemplified through an application to a realistic case study.

  20. Waste Form and Indrift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Aguilar

    2003-06-24

    This Model Report describes the analysis and abstractions of the colloids process model for the waste form and engineered barrier system components of the total system performance assessment calculations to be performed with the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application model. Included in this report is a description of (1) the types and concentrations of colloids that could be generated in the waste package from degradation of waste forms and the corrosion of the waste package materials, (2) types and concentrations of colloids produced from the steel components of the repository and their potential role in radionuclide transport, and (3) types and concentrations of colloids present in natural waters in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. Additionally, attachment/detachment characteristics and mechanisms of colloids anticipated in the repository are addressed and discussed. The abstraction of the process model is intended to capture the most important characteristics of radionuclide-colloid behavior for use in predicting the potential impact of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport on repository performance.

  1. Monitoring of concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs, drinking water and construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foodstuff, drinking water and construction materials are the most important sources of exposure except for indoor radon. Monitoring of radioactivity in these bodies are performed in Lithuania with the aim of determination of exposure and comparison of levels of activity in samples taken in vicinity of Ignalina NPP and other areas. Concentrations of man-made radionuclides in main foodstuffs (potatoes, milk, meat, cereals, leafy vegetables, fish) and mushrooms are controlled. The mean total annual effective dose due to 90Sr, 137Cs and 40K in foodstuff is 0.19 mSv. 40K is responsible for 99% of this dose. Conservative estimation of dose due to 137Cs in wild mushrooms gives 0.085 mSv of annual effective dose. No differences between concentrations of man-made radionuclides in foodstuff taken in Ignalina NPP 50 km area and foodstuff taken in other locations of Lithuania are detected. No samples with concentrations of man-made radionuclide 137Cs higher than permitted limits taken from foodstuff for import or for export were detected in 2001. Construction materials with activity indexes close or higher than 1 are identified

  2. Waste Form and Indrift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Model Report describes the analysis and abstractions of the colloids process model for the waste form and engineered barrier system components of the total system performance assessment calculations to be performed with the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application model. Included in this report is a description of (1) the types and concentrations of colloids that could be generated in the waste package from degradation of waste forms and the corrosion of the waste package materials, (2) types and concentrations of colloids produced from the steel components of the repository and their potential role in radionuclide transport, and (3) types and concentrations of colloids present in natural waters in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. Additionally, attachment/detachment characteristics and mechanisms of colloids anticipated in the repository are addressed and discussed. The abstraction of the process model is intended to capture the most important characteristics of radionuclide-colloid behavior for use in predicting the potential impact of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport on repository performance

  3. Derived air concentration (public) for radionuclides released into air from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the values of Derived Air Concentration (DAC) (public) computed for important radionuclides (3H, 131I, 90Sr and 137Cs) which are likely to be released to atmosphere during Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation. DAC (public), as used here, represents the concentration in air, which will result in an effective dose of 1 mSv per year to members of the public from all important pathways of exposure. The pathways of exposure considered are inhalation, ingestion of milk and leafy vegetables and external dose from ground contamination and cloud immersion. The DAC (public) calculated here can be directly used for establishing authorized discharge limits for the above radionuclides from the knowledge of the site specific annual average atmospheric dilution factor and dose apportionment for the radionuclide in air route. Also a conservative assessment of dose to members of the public from important pathways of exposure can be made by comparing the air concentration values available from environmental surveillance with DAC (public) values. (author)

  4. A qualitative evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Site Wildlife, 1983 through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State since 1945. Fish and wildlife have been monitored since 1945, however, a major emphasis on mammals did not occur until the 1970s. This report focuses on the 10-year period from 1983 through 1992. The objectives of this report are to evaluate 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in Site wildlife populations and, when possible, evaluate trends in concentrations over this period of time. No distinct trends in radionuclide concentrations were apparent in most species sampled. Many measurements were at or below the analytical limit of detection. This evaluation found that concentrations of 90Sr in rabbit and deer bone were elevated in animals collected from areas adjacent to industrialized areas. Similarly, radionuclide concentrations in duck muscle from waterfowl collected at B Pond were elevated with 137Cs when compared to background concentrations. None of the measured concentrations were high enough to pose any risk to theoretical human consumers of game animals inhabiting the Hanford Site. Estimates of the annual dose from the consumption of 40 kg (88 lb) of Hanford Site wildlife were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the DOE guideline of 100 mrem/yr

  5. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  6. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  7. Vegetation concentration and inventory of metals and radionuclides in the old F-area seepage basin, 904-49G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured concentrations of radionuclides and toxic metals are used to calculate the total inventory of in the vegetation growing on the Old F-Area Seepage Basin. Air concentrations and inhalation doses from exposure to smoke from burning the vegetation are calculated to evaluate the effect of open air burning. Radionuclide inventory is one order of magnitude (10 x) less than those necessary to produce a 1 mrem dose. Air concentrations of toxic metals are less than one third the permissible occupational dose

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. J. Gonzales; P. R. Fresquez; M. A. Mullen; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes and evaluates the concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, and total U in understory and overstory vegetation collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), its perimeter, and regional background areas in 1998. Comparisons to conservative toxicity reference value safe limits were also made. The arithmetic mean LANL radionuclide concentrations in understory were 501 pCi L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 3}H, 0.581 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 137}Cs, 0.001 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 238}Pu, 0.008 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 0.007 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 241}Am, 1.46 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 90}Sr, and 0.233 {micro}g ash g{sup {minus}1} for total uranium. The mean LANL radionuclide concentrations in overstory were 463 pCi L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 3}H, 1.51 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 137}Cs, 0.0004 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} {sup 238}Pu, 0.008 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 0.014 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 241}Am, 1.97 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 90}Sr, and 0.388 {micro}g ash g{sup {minus}1} for total uranium. Concentrations of radionuclides and total U in both understory and overstory vegetation at LANL generally were not statistically higher than in perimeter and regional background vegetation ({alpha} = 0.05). The exceptions were LANL {sup 3}H > perimeter {sup 3}H (understory) and LANL {sup 3}H background {sup 3}H (overstory). All maximum radionuclide concentrations were lower than toxicity reference values. With the exception of total U, the relationship between contaminant concentration in soil vs. vegetation was insignificant ({alpha} = 0.05). Generally, as the concentration of total U in soil decreased, the concentration in vegetation increased. This held true for both understory and overstory and regardless of whether data were separated by general location (LANL, perimeter, and background) or not. There was no

  9. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m3 (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m3 (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 μBq m-3 and 0.2 μBq m-3 for 137Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m3 per week and lowers the detection limit to -3 for 137Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine)

  10. Radionuclide Concentrations in Honey Bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1999-06-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jemez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for various radionuclides. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 3}H, and total uranium. Sample results from one colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu.

  11. Radionuclides concentration in marine environmental samples along the coast of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on radioactivity inventories in environmental samples are necessary as they will serve as baseline data for assessing any environmental impact usage of nuclear-based activities. Approximately 700 data on 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu activity concentrations in 150 samples i.e. sea water, sediment, fish, mollusc, crustaceans, oyster and weeds samples collected from 7 various locations in Vietnam (Hai Phong, Nghe An, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Vung Tau, Tien Giang) throughout 1999-2008 are summarised and presented in this paper. Generally, the levels of artificial radionuclides in the studied marine environmental samples are lower as compared to other Asia-Pacific countries while naturally occurred radionuclides activity concentrations obtained were found to be in accordance with respective data from other studies within Pacific region. The radionuclides bioaccumulation factors studied in Red laver and oyster were mostly found to be high; therefore, further reinvestigation should be done for these biota that will be used as bio-fingerprint indicators in monitoring the marine environment from nuclear-based pollutions. The data set obtained from this study is available to the Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database. (author)

  12. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlitz, Esther H. D.; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C.; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with h...

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo Gardens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide (3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu, and total uranium) concentrations were determined in soils and produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens. All radionuclides in soils from Pueblo areas were within or just above regional statistical (natural and/or worldwide fallout) reference levels. Similarily, the average levels of radionuclides in produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens were not significantly different in produce collected from regional (background) locations. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 352 lb of produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.036 (±0.016), 0.072 (±0.051), 0.012 (±0.027), and 0.110 (±0.102) mrem/yr, respectively. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 std dev (95% confidence level), was 0.314 mrem/yr; this was <0.4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public

  14. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo Gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-05-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) concentrations were determined in soils and produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens. All radionuclides in soils from Pueblo areas were within or just above regional statistical (natural and/or worldwide fallout) reference levels. Similarily, the average levels of radionuclides in produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens were not significantly different in produce collected from regional (background) locations. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 352 lb of produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.036 ({+-}0.016), 0.072 ({+-}0.051), 0.012 ({+-}0.027), and 0.110 ({+-}0.102) mrem/yr, respectively. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 std dev (95% confidence level), was 0.314 mrem/yr; this was <0.4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  15. The Concentration Levels Of Some Isotopic Radionuclides In The Coastal Sediments Of The Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry system. The total organic matter (TOM) and carbonate contents were also measured in the surface sediments of three valleys downstream at the southern Egyptian Red Sea coast. These localities are characterized by the presence of mangrove swamps with dense aerobic roots that provide calm conditions for particulate and fine sediments settlement. 238U and 232Th recorded almost equal activity values in the studied localities and their occurrence in the localities indicated that the metal accumulation are due to the complex and multiple processes that characterize the mangrove environments including accumulation in particulate form with the fine sediments, absorption on iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides from the sea water, incorporation inside the carbonate frameworks and as detrital phase. 40K showed obvious radioactivity in the three localities indicating the presence of terrestrial radionuclide. 137Cs concentrations were not evident in the studied localities which may indicate non-significant artificial source of radionuclide activity.

  16. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  17. Concentrations of radionuclides in imported foods from foreign countries in Japan (2000-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese law concerning prohibition against marketing insanitary foods, etc, has defined the limit of radioactivity level in imported foods (370 Bq/kg in total of 137Cs and 134Cs radioactivities) post Chernobyl accident and check for this has been performed by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The present report describes results of additional examination, conducted by National Institute of Public Health, or the Kobe or Yokohama Quarantine Station, of radionuclide (γ-emitters) concentration in imported foods during the period 2000-2003. Foods examined are from northern (40 samples) and southern (8) America, Asia (66), Oceania (9), Africa (8) and Europe (12), and are 13 kinds of grains, 12 nuts/seeds, 1 potato, 17 fruits, 12 green/yellow vegetables, 13 other vegetables, 19 mushrooms, 4 seaweeds, 15 nonessential taste items like tea leaves, 19 fishes and 12 meats. Samples are those homogenized, freeze-dried or mineralized. The Ge-semiconductor detector connected with a pulse-height analyzer is used for γ-ray detection, mainly that of 137Cs and 134Cs, and for 40K as a natural radionuclide. Sample weights are 1,000-2,000 g and counting times, 100,000-300,000 seconds. Results reveal that 137Cs alone is detectable as a artificial radionuclide but its level is as low as that in similar Japanese foods. Thus the annual effective dose due to intake of 137Cs in imported foods is evaluated enough low in adults. (N.I.)

  18. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well

  19. Distribution, enrichment and principal component analysis for possible sources of naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides in the agricultural soil of Punjab state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Joshi, Vikram M; Mishra, Manish K; Karpe, Rupali; Rout, Sabyasachi; Narayanan, Usha; Tripathi, Raj M; Singh, Jaspal; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hegde, Ashok G; Kushwaha, Hari S

    2012-06-01

    Enrichment factor (EF) of elements including geo-accumulation indices for soil quality and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify the contributions of the origin of sources in the studied area. Results of (40)K, (137)Cs, (238)U and (232)Th including their decay series isotopes in the agricultural soil of Mansa and Bathinda districts in the state of Punjab were presented and discussed. The measured mean radioactivity concentrations for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the agricultural soil of the studied area differed from nationwide average crustal abundances by 51, 17 and 43 %, respectively. The sequence of the EFs of radionuclides in soil from the greatest to the least was found to be (238)U > (40)K > (226)Ra > (137)Cs > (232)Th > (228)Ra. Even though the enrichment of naturally occurring radionuclides was found to be higher, they remained to be in I(geo) class of '0', indicating that the soil is uncontaminated with respect to these radionuclides. Among non-metals, N showed the highest EF and belonged to I(geo) class of '2', indicating that soil is moderately contaminated due to intrusion of fertiliser. The resulting data set of elemental contents in soil was also interpreted by PCA, which facilitates identification of the different groups of correlated elements. The levels of the (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th radionuclides showed a significant positive correlation with each other, suggesting a similar origin of their geochemical sources and identical behaviour during transport in the soil system. PMID:21893521

  20. Radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992-93, Los Alamos National Laboratory collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey in an effort to characterize radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin from Colorado to Texas. Bed sediment was sampled from 18 locations for cesium (137Cs), tritium (3H), strontium (90Sr), plutonium (238Pu and 239Pu), americium (241Am), total uranium (totU) and alpha, beta, and gamma activity. Fish tissue was sampled from 12 locations for 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu and totU

  1. Sediment Ksub(d)s and concentration factors for radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the biological and geochemical processes, which are dependent on the chemical form of the element in question, and the radioactive decay of the nuclide are important parameters in the models used for the calculation of dumping limits for radioactive wastes disposed of in the deep sea. The geochemical processes were not adequately represented in earlier models and only rough approximations of parameters were used in the calculations. This report provides an approach for the calculation of deep-sea sediment distribution coefficients and coastal sediment concentration factors for radionuclides in marine biological materials based, whenever possible, on field data

  2. Natural radionuclides concentration in agricultural products and water from the Monte Alegre region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements to determine the content of natural radionuclides were performed in agricultural products in the brazilian Central Amazon Basin Monte Alegre region, for the soil-plant transfer calculation. these measurements were concentrated in the Ingles de Souza agricultural settlement, were several uranium and thorium occurrences exist in geological formations called Monte Alegre and Faro. The values obtained in foodstuff cultivated in the anomalous region are 10 times higher than those ones observed in the Alenquer region, which is the chosen region due to its low level natural radioactivity and its proximity to the anomalous region. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booher, J.L.; Fresquez, P.R.; Carter, L.F.; Gallaher, B.M.; Mullen, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    In 1992-93, Los Alamos National Laboratory collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey in an effort to characterize radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin from Colorado to Texas. Bed sediment was sampled from 18 locations for cesium ({sup 137}Cs), tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), americium ({sup 241}Am), total uranium ({sup tot}U) and alpha, beta, and gamma activity. Fish tissue was sampled from 12 locations for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup tot}U.

  4. Polychaete richness and abundance enhanced in anthropogenically modified estuaries despite high concentrations of toxic contaminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Dafforn

    Full Text Available Ecological communities are increasingly exposed to multiple chemical and physical stressors, but distinguishing anthropogenic impacts from other environmental drivers remains challenging. Rarely are multiple stressors investigated in replicated studies over large spatial scales (>1000 kms or supported with manipulations that are necessary to interpret ecological patterns. We measured the composition of sediment infaunal communities in relation to anthropogenic and natural stressors at multiple sites within seven estuaries. We observed increases in the richness and abundance of polychaete worms in heavily modified estuaries with severe metal contamination, but no changes in the diversity or abundance of other taxa. Estuaries in which toxic contaminants were elevated also showed evidence of organic enrichment. We hypothesised that the observed response of polychaetes was not a 'positive' response to toxic contamination or a reduction in biotic competition, but due to high levels of nutrients in heavily modified estuaries driving productivity in the water column and enriching the sediment over large spatial scales. We deployed defaunated field-collected sediments from the surveyed estuaries in a small scale experiment, but observed no effects of sediment characteristics (toxic or enriching. Furthermore, invertebrate recruitment instead reflected the low diversity and abundance observed during field surveys of this relatively 'pristine' estuary. This suggests that differences observed in the survey are not a direct consequence of sediment characteristics (even severe metal contamination but are related to parameters that covary with estuary modification such as enhanced productivity from nutrient inputs and the diversity of the local species pool. This has implications for the interpretation of diversity measures in large-scale monitoring studies in which the observed patterns may be strongly influenced by many factors that covary with anthropogenic

  5. Contributions by emissions from nuclear installations to concentrations of radionuclides in milk

    CERN Document Server

    Green, N

    1983-01-01

    A year-long study has been carried out to determine whether milk produced near nuclear sites contains concentrations of radionuclides that can be attributed to discharges from the installations, and, as a consequence, whether there is enhanced exposure of those members of the public who consume this milk. Eight creameries were chosen and monthly samples of milk were taken for analysis. The concentrations of caesium-137 and strontium-90 were measured and compared with results from a national survey conducted as part of the Board's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme. No effect attributable to discharges from the nuclear establishments was identified. The activity concentrations ranged between 0.1 and 3 times the national average; the variation relates mainly to rainfall in the area, although other factors may also have an effect. However, milk contributes only a small fraction of the total dietary intake of caesium-137 and strontium-90, and so the exposure of persons consuming the milk varies on...

  6. The effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on marine cloud droplet concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Novakov, T.; RIVERA-CARPIO, C.; Penner, J. E.; Rogers, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    Nonseasalt sulfate (nss SO42-) mass concentrations, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, and cloud droplet concentrations in warm cumulus and stratocumulus clouds were simultaneously measured in situ in marine air masses on El Yunque peak in Puerto Rico. Our results show that CNN number concentrations (measured at 0.5% supersaturation) and nss SO42- mass concentrations (in the range of ∼ 400–1700 ng m-3) are significantly correlated at this site. Droplet concentrations in th...

  7. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlitz, Esther H. D.; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C.; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p nests [F(2,178) = 20.3, p chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species. PMID:27050418

  8. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species. PMID:27050418

  9. Concentration of natural radionuclides in coal and its end products in steel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal industry and natural radioactivity in coal ash was one of the first major beneficiaries of nucleonics control system (NCS) utilization. Coal as most earth materials contains low concentrations of 238U and 232Th and their radioactive progeny, also 40K. Fly ash and slag are end products of coal combustion industries. Burning of coal and other fossil fuels is one source of radiation exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) wastes, which is released to the environment. About one fourth of the produced coal is used in iron and steel production. In this work high resolution gamma spectrometry were applied to measure the concentration of different radionuclides in Bq kg-1 in coal ore, coke, limestone, iron ore, also ash and slag produced as waste products from blast furnaces. Concentration of different radionuclides in both ash and slag, measured in this work, show low contents, compared to the concentrations of ash and slag obtained as (NORM) wastes from coal fired power plant. Slag is used in Egypt for high way construction purposes, as embankment. It has concentrations of 90 Bq kg-1 for 234Th, 73 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 46 Bq kg-1 for 214Pb and 41 Bq kg-1 for 214Bi in uranium series, and 29 Bq kg-1 for 228Ac, 33 Bq kg-1 for 212Bi and 24 Bq kg-1208 Tl in the thorium series as well as 97 Bq kg-1 for 40K, so it will give slight increase of exposure compared to natural radiation. (author)

  10. Radon concentration, absorbed dose rate in air and concentration of natural radionuclides in soil in the Osaka district of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentrations in outdoor air at 18 sites in the Osaka district, in the central part of Japan's main island, were measured with electrostatic integrating radon monitors which were developed by Y Ikebe et al of the Osaka survey centre as part of a nationwide survey of radon indoors and outdoors in Japan conducted by the National Institute of Radiological Science. The mean radon concentration in outdoor air during 2-month periods was measured over a period of a year and a half. In addition, the absorbed dose rate in air and the concentration of natural radionuclides in soil were measured at 40 sites in Osaka Prefecture which is located in the central part of the Osaka district using thermoluminescence dosemeters and with gamma ray spectrometry, respectively. Radon concentration in outdoor air showed a seasonal pattern, reaching its maximum during the winter and its minimum during the summer, but this variation was not significant at the coastal sites. It was concluded that this variation is correlated with a seasonal wind which blows from the continental interior to the ocean in winter and in the opposite direction in summer, as well as with geographical factors. Radon concentration in outdoor air in the Osaka district ranged from 0.6 to 17.9 Bq.m-3 and mean annual radon concentration in outdoor air at the 18 sites ranged from 2.7 to 6.9 Bq.m-3. It was discovered that radon concentration in outdoor air decreased with wind speed in both winter and summer. The absorbed dose rate in air ranged from 66 to 114 nGy.h-1, and the concentration of 226Ra in soil ranged from 20 to 60 Bq.kg-1 respectively. (author)

  11. Modeling the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in animal derived products after an accident in tropical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere with the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed to estimate radiological consequences and optimize decisions to the protection of the public. The German model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM - Integrated Emergency System, developed by IRD/CNEN to assess the doses to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The use the model demands a considerable effort in adapting scenarios to fit the specific conditions of a location, considering the differences related to climate, environmental characteristics, agricultural calendar and practices, along with population diet. The area selected to start this adaptation considers the characteristics of the 50 km radius area surrounding the nuclear power plants at Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. At a first stage, the concentration on vegetal food products has been studied. This work describes the methodology used to select scenarios and presents results of the dynamics of the predicted concentration of radionuclides in different kinds of animal derived food products. The work provides guidance to the need of radioecological research needed to improve the adequacy of the estimates to actual Brazilian scenarios. (author)

  12. Transuranics and other radionuclides in Bikini Lagoon: concentration data retrieved from aged coral sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X radiography and autoradiography of thin vertical sections were used to estimate the growth rate of a specimen of Favites virens from Bikini Lagoon. Discrete bands of radioactivity were identifiable with specific nuclear test series. The coral growth rate of 8.0 mm year-1 determined by autoradiography is in good agreement with the rate of 8.1 +- 2.2 mm year-1 derived from the ''seasonal'' alternating light and dark bands on x radiographs. With these bands as growth rate indicators, the coral was sectioned into yearly increments and analyzed by low-level, nondestructive gamma spectrometry, radiochemical techniques, and mass spectrometry to reconstruct the variations in the concentration of transuranics and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini since 1954. From the concentration data retained in this indicator species, the exchange rate of radionuclides between the lagoon and the open ocean is computed to be longer than exchange rates based on physical circulation data. There is no constant ratio of plutonium isotopes in the coral growth sections, suggesting that the redistributions of the several plutonium isotopes in the environment may be governed by different biogeochemical processes. Increased levels of 210Po (210Pb) were found in test-year growth sections, contradicting previous arguments that no 210Pb has resulted from weapons testing

  13. The concentration of natural radionuclides in various types of building materials in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of the natural radionuclides in various types of building materials was determined by the gamma spectrometry analysis using 130 cm3 high purity germanium detector and MCA LIVIUS 2000. Radium-226 and thorium-232 was assessed through their progeny photo peaks. The specific activity of both nuclides as weighted average of their photo peaks was determined. Potassium-40 was measured directly via its 1460 keV peak. The radium equivalent activity was calculate from specific activities of radium-226, thorium-232 and potassium-40. All samples were measured in 4pigeometry. The building materials and products were milled and screened with 2-3 mm sieve. After drying the samples were stored in 450 cm3 sealed polyethylene container for 30 days ingrowing period. The results of analysis are corrected to the background distribution and to the self absorption in the volume of the samples. The efficiency calibration is realized using the reference sources distributed by IAEA in Vienna and by the Institute for Radionuclide Production in Prague The measured activity concentrations of the buildings materials are given. There are shown the minimum and maximum values for different investigated materials. (J.K.) 4 tabs., 5 refs

  14. Radionuclide concentrations in soil and lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and map soil radionuclides' activity concentrations and environmental outdoor gamma dose rates (terrestrial and cosmic) in Kirklareli, Turkey. The excess lifetime cancer risks are also calculated. Outdoor gamma dose rates were determined in 230 sampling stations and soil samples were taken from 177 locations. The coordinates of the readings were determined by the Global Positioning System (GPS). The outdoor gamma dose rates were determined by Eberline smart portable device (ESP-2) and measurements were taken in air for two minutes at 1 m from the ground. The average outdoor gamma dose rate was 118 ± 34 nGy h-1. Annual effective gamma dose of Kirklareli was 144 μSv and the excess lifetime cancer risk of 5.0 x 10-4. Soil samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. The average 226Ra, 238U, 232Th, 137Cs, and 40K activities were 37 ± 18 Bq kg-1, 28 ± 13 Bq kg-1, 40 ± 18 Bq kg-1, 8 ± 5 Bq kg-1 and 667 ± 281 Bq kg-1, respectively. The average soil radionuclides' concentrations of Kirklareli were within the worldwide range although some extreme values had been determined. Annual effective gamma doses and the excess lifetime risks of cancer were higher than the world's average

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in a recent McNary Dam sediment core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 2, 1971, a bed sediment core sample was obtained from behind McNary Dam for radioanalysis. This sample was obtained by Environmental Evaluations after learning, in late 1970, that the Radiological Sciences Department had terminated their core sampling programs. Since occasional core sampling was considered to be a useful adjunct to the environmental evaluation program, the fine-sediment corer was borrowed from Radiological Sciences, and two cores were obtained, one of which was analyzed by the Technical Analysis Section. Concentrations of 46Sc, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, 152Eu, 154Eu, and 155Eu, the only radionuclides for which analyses were requested, are plotted as a function of depth. Concentrations of 46Sc, 60Co, and 65Zn found in an October 1965 core are plotted for comparison. An interesting similarity exists between these two sets of data obtained more than five years apart. 1 ref., 5 figs

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso Tribal Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide concentrations (90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu,and total uranium) were determined in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso tribal lakes. With the exception of 137Cs, all other radionuclides were not significantly different in (stocked) rainbow trout collected from Jemez and Nambe as compared with game fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado Reservoirs. Although 137Cs levels in trout from Jemez (3.2 x 10-2 pCi per dry gram) and Nambe (7.5 x 10-2 pCi per dry gram) were significantly higher than 137Cs concentrations in fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado, they were still well below the regional statistical (worldwide fallout) reference level (i.e., -2 pCi per dry gram). Game and nongame fish collected from San Ildefonso contained higher and significantly higher concentrations of uranium, respectively, as compared with fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado. The higher uranium concentrations in fish from San Ildefonso as compared with fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado were attributed to the higher natural soil uranium contents in the area as compared with the geology of the area upstream of San Ildefonso. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent (EDE) from consuming 46 lb of game fish from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso lakes, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.013 (±0.002), 0.019 (±0.012), and 0.017 (±0.028) mrem/yr, respectively. Similarly, the EDE from consuming nongame fish from San Ildefonso was 0.0092 (±0.0084) mrem/yr. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 standard deviation (95% confidence level), was 0.073 mrem/yr; this was <0.08% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public

  17. Modeling the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in food after an accident in tropical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences as a base to propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The German model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM - Integrated Emergency System, developed by IRD/CNEN to assess the doses to the public at the short, medium and long term after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The use of such a model demands a considerable effort in adapting the scenarios to fit the specific conditions of the location where it is to be applied, in particular considering the differences on climate, environmental characteristics, agricultural calendar and practices, along with population diet. The area selected as reference to start this adaptation process is the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, at Angra dos Reis County, in Rio de Janeiro State. Radionuclides included in this study were 137Cs, 90Sr and 131I. This work describes the methodology used to select scenarios and describes the results related to the dynamics of the predicted concentration of radionuclides in different kinds of vegetable foods. It also discusses the relevance of criteria, parameter values and site specific aspects that are to be considered in performing assessments of public exposure. The work provides guidance to the need of radioecological research and on the database needed to perform the simulations, in order to improve the adequacy of the estimates to actual Brazilian scenarios. (author)

  18. Characterizing the influence of anthropogenic emissions and transport variability on sulfate aerosol concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lauren E.

    Sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere has substantial impacts on human health and environmental quality. Most notably, atmospheric sulfate has the potential to modify the earth's climate system through both direct and indirect radiative forcing mechanisms (Meehl et al., 2007). Emissions of sulfur dioxide, the primary precursor of sulfate aerosol, are now globally dominated by anthropogenic sources as a result of widespread fossil fuel combustion. Economic development in Asian countries since 1990 has contributed considerably to atmospheric sulfur loading, particularly China, which currently emits approximately 1/3 of global anthropogenic SO2 (Klimont et al., 2013). Observational and modeling studies have confirmed that anthropogenic pollutants from Asian sources can be transported long distances with important implications for future air quality and global climate change. Located in the remote Pacific Ocean (19.54°N, 155.58°W) at an elevation of 3.4 kilometers above sea level, Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is an ideal measurement site for ground-based, free tropospheric observations and is well situated to experience influence from springtime Asian outflow. This study makes use of a 14-year data set of aerosol ionic composition, obtained at MLO by the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Daily filter samples of total aerosol concentrations were made during nighttime downslope (free-tropospheric) transport conditions, from 1995 to 2008, and were analyzed for aerosol-phase concentrations of the following species: nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), methanesulfonate (MSA), chloride (Cl-), oxalate, sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH 4+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg 2+), and calcium (Ca2+). An understanding of the factors controlling seasonal and interannual variations in aerosol speciation and concentrations at this site is complicated by the relatively short lifetimes of aerosols, compared with greenhouse gases which have also been sampled over long time periods at MLO. Aerosol filter

  19. Concentration peculiarities of radionuclides by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs content in molluscs tissue of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. The age dynamics of radionuclides content in some species of Gastropoda was studied

  20. Increases in Anthropogenic Gadolinium Anomalies and Rare Earth Element Concentrations in San Francisco Bay over a 20 Year Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, Vanessa; Bruland, Kenneth W; Flegal, A Russell

    2016-04-19

    We evaluated both the spatial distribution of gadolinium (Gd) and other rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters collected in a transect of San Francisco Bay (SFB) and their temporal variations within the Bay over two decades. The REE were preconcentrated using the NOBIAS PA-1 resin prior to analysis by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Measurements revealed a temporal increase in the Gd anomaly in SFB from the early 1990s to the present. The highest Gd anomalies were observed in the southern reach of SFB, which is surrounded by several hospitals and research centers that use Gd-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Recent increases in that usage presumably contributed to the order of magnitude increase in anthropogenic Gd concentrations in SFB, from 8.27 to 112 pmol kg(-1) over the past two decades, and reach the northeast Pacific coastal waters. These measurements (i) show that "exotic" trace elements used in new high-tech applications, such as Gd, are emerging contaminants in San Francisco Bay and that anthropogenic Gd concentrations increased substantially over a 20 year period; (ii) substantiate proposals that REE may be used as tracers of wastewater discharges and hydrological processes; and (iii) suggest that new public policies and the development of more effective treatment technologies may be necessary to control sources and minimize future contamination by REE that are critical for the development of new technologies, which now overwhelm natural REE anomalies. PMID:26742888

  1. Concentration Of 228Th, 226Ra, And 40K Radionuclides In Drinking Water In Southern Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of 228 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K concentrations in drinking water on several places in Southern Sumatera (1997-1999) have been carried out. The sample were collected from the Province of Lampung (Kalianda, Bandar Lampung, Kotabumi, Talangpadang, Kotaagung, Liwa, Manggala, and Pakuanratu), and the Province of Southern Sumatera (Palembang-1, Palembang-2, Plaju, Lahat, and Sekayu). Measurements of 228 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K concentrations in drinking water using the gamma spectrometer with the HP-Ge detector. The results of measurement showed that the concentration was the range of undetectable (228 Th concentration, the range of undetectable (226 Ra, radionuclide and the range of undetectable (< 128.96 mBq/l) to (880.54 n 22.75) mBq/l with average of (412.12 n 5.02) mBq/l, and the data mentioned above were still far under the maximum permissible concentration. The estimated of annual dose equivalent effective in drinking water was 0.03 mSv/year for public (5 mSv/year)

  2. Trends in radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Reach fish, 1982 through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State since 1945. Fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, which borders the Site, are monitored annually. The two objectives of this report were (1) to evaluate trends in the concentrations of radionuclides [e.g., 90Sr and 137Cs] in two species of Columbia River fish [smallmouth bass and mountain whitefish] sampled from the Hanford Reach from 1982 through 1992; and (2) to determine the impact of Hanford Site releases on these two species and carp and fall chinook salmon collected during this time frame. The evaluation found gradual reductions of 137Cs in bass muscle and 90Sr in bass and whitefish carcass from 1982 through 1992. Concentrations of 90Sr in bass and whitefish followed the pattern established by reported Hanford Site releases from 1982 through 1992 and was supported by significant regression analyses comparing annual releases to sample concentration. Because data for carp have been collected only since 1990, the data base was inadequate for determining trends. Moreover, fall chinook salmon were only sampled once in this 11-year period. Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in fish samples collected from distant background locations exceeded concentrations in Hanford Reach fish. Estimates of the dose from consumption of Hanford Reach fish were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the US Department of Energy guideline of 100 mrem/yr

  3. Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task

  4. Concentration and depuration of some radionuclides present in a chronically exposed population of mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors are described which affect the concentration (p Ci g-1 dry wt) and loss of 241 Am, 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 144Ce, 137Cs, 134Cs, 106Ru, 95Zr and 95Nb in an exposed population of mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Ravenglass on the Esk estuary, Cumbria, UK which receives radioeffluents from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) plant at Sellafield, some 10 km to the north. Tidal position and mussel body size have a negligible influence on the concentration of 241Am, 137Cs and 106Ru in the total soft tissue, but variation in soft tissue weight throughout the year has a considerable influence on the apparent concentration and depuration times of these radionuclides. Apart from the clearance (tsub(1/2) biol, 1 to 3 h) of sediment-associated activity from the digestive tract, the depuration rate profiles follow a single component clearance curve with a biological half-life in excess of 200 d for 241 Am, 239+240Pu, 238Pu and 144Ce, and of 40 d for 137Cs. The clearance of 106Ru is more complex and consists of a 3 component depuration profile with biological half-lives of 6 h, 12 d and 260 d. The depuration profiles presented in this work are for chronically ingested isotopes under natural conditions; acute exposure will most likely result in different profiles, especially those derived from laboratory spiking experiments. Isotope ratio data support the hypothesis that the main route of entry into the mussel for the majority of the radionuclides studied is from the water. (orig./WL)

  5. Determination of radionuclide concentrations of U and Th in unprocessed soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technique improves on gamma spectroscopic analysis because progeny equilibrium is not required, improves on neutron activation analysis because bulk samples are assayed, and improves on both methods because standard soil samples are not needed for system calibration. The assay system developed equates a measured K/sub α1/ x-ray peak area to a calculated ''Geometry Factor'' (GF) times the unknown soil sample radionuclide concentration. From this equation the radionuclide concentration is determined. Spectral data are generated by irradiating the soil sample with Co-57 gammas to induce fluorescent x-rays which are measured using an intrinsic Ge detector. The Co-57 sources, the sample, and the detector are oriented to optimize the production of fluorescent x-rays. Transmission gamma rays are then used to determine the sample linear attenuation coefficient at the K/sub α1/ energy of interest. Peak areas are determined by shaping spectral data to a Voigt Profile using an algorithm from the peak shaping program GRPANL. The steeply sloping nature of the Compton backscatter hump on which the K/sub α1/ x-ray peaks rest necessitated the development of a unique polynomial/erfc background function which is subtracted prior to peak shaping. The GF of a sample is the calculated number of K/sub α1/ x-rays which would be counted in the full energy spectral peak if the contamination concentration in the sample were one picoCurie per gram. This calculated GF includes considerations of the sample linear attenuation coefficient, fluorescence induced by unscattered source gammas, fluorescence induced by singly scattered Compton gammas which account for approximately 15% of all production, and natural fluorescence production. 28 refs., 14 figs., 54 tabs

  6. Concentrations of heavy metals and aquatic macrophytes of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar an anthropogenic lake affected by coal mining effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Upadhyay, Alka Rani; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-06-01

    Five heavy metals Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg were found in high concentration from three sampling sites located in Asia's largest anthropogenic lake Govind Ballabh Pant GBP Sagar. Concentrations of these heavy metals were measured in Water, bottom sediment and in different parts of the aquatic macrophytes collected from the reservoir. Plants collected from the lake were Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla pinnata, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Potamogeton pectinatus, Marsilea quadrifolia, Pistia stratiotes, Ipomea aquqtica, Potamogeton crispus, Hydrilla verticillata and Aponogeton natans. These plants have shown the high concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg in their different parts due to bioaccumulation. In general plant roots exhibited higher concentrations of heavy metals than corresponding sediments. A comparison between different morphological tissues of the sampled plants revealed the metal concentration in following order roots > leaves. Analyses of bottom sediment indicated the higher concentrations of Cd, Mn, Cu and Pb. Strong positive correlations were obtained between the metals in water and in plants as well as between metal in sediment and in plants. Indicating the potential of these plants for pollution monitoring of these metals. PMID:17674134

  7. Diffusion dialysis aided electrodialysis process for concentration of radionuclides in acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the separation of the long-lived heat generating fission products 137Cs and 90Sr from acidic solutions has been carried out using a specially fabricated electrodialytic cell equipped with a pair of cation and anion exchange membranes forming a catholyte and anolyte, respectively, and a radioactive feed chamber. The studies were done with feed solutions containing different concentrations of Na+, Cs+ and Sr2+ individually and with a mixture of these cations in 0.3M HNO3. In all the cases, the transfer of Cs and Sr was found to be greater than 90%. To facilitate the separation of the above radionuclides from higher acidity (∼ 3.0M HNO3), diffusion dialysis was taken as a possible pretreatment step using a two compartment diffusion cell with an anion exchange membrane in between. All the experiments were done under non-stirring mode. (author)

  8. Radionuclide concentrations and impact assessment of the jos tin mining soil residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to measure the radionuclides in the tin mining soil mounds from the Jos Plateau, Nigeria and to evaluate the impact of radiation on the environment where the soils are used as building materials. Gamma spectrometry was employed via a NaI(Tl) detector to determine the activities of the radionuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th in ten (10) samples from points within a distance of 20 km along the mining trail. The results of measurements of natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th and 40K) in soil samples show that the concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged between 1.51 - 4.98, BDL - 8.64 and 10.3 -35.2 Bq/kg with mean concentrations of 3.20 1.16, 1.31 2.75 and 25.60 8.89 Bq/kg, respectively. The external hazards ranged between 0.008 - 0.044 with mean value of 0.019 0.009 while the internal hazards ranged between 0.014 - 0.048 with mean value of 0.028 0.009. These hazard values are less than 1. The annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) ranged between 10.28 - 55.87 Svy-1 with mean value of 24.22 12.16 Svy-1. The radium equivalent activities ranged from 3.07 - 16.23 Bq/kg with a mean value of 7.04 3.53 Bq/kg. The external absorbed dose rate ranged from 5.35- 18.76 Gyh-1 with a mean value of 12.95 4.26 Gyh-1. The internal absorbed dose rate ranged from 10.34 - 35.53 Gyh-1 with an average value of 24.87 8.13 nGyh-1. The external absorbed dose equivalent rate ranged from 0.007- 0.023 with a mean value of 0.016 . The internal absorbed dose equivalent rate ranged from 0.051 - 0.174 with an average value of 0.122 . All the calculated radiological indices fall within the recommended safe limits and world averages. The soil mounds, therefore, do not constitute environmental radiation risks and the soils could be used in construction. (author)

  9. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Cementitious Near-Field of an ILW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U

    2003-05-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from ILW wastes, disposed of in a chemically reducing, cementitious environment. From a chemical point of view, the pore waters of hydrated cement matrices provide an exceptional environment. Compared with usual ground waters exhibiting pH-values of around 8, cement pore waters are strongly alkaline with pH-values from 12.5 to 13.5 and contain nearly no carbonate and only little sulfate. Oxides and hydroxides mainly determine solubility and speciation of the elements. Solubility and speciation calculations in cementitious pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 36 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Wherever possible, maximum concentrations compiled in this report were based on geochemical calculations. In order to ensure full traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the TDB are explicitly specified in the document. For similar reasons the compilation of results (Table 1) clearly distinguishes between calculated and recommended items. The heading 'CALCULATED' lists maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the TDB; results under the heading 'RECOMMENDED' include data from other sources. The pH sensitivity of the results was examined by performing calculations at pH 13.4, in accordance with the pH of non-altered cement pore water. Solubility increases predominantly for elements that tend to form anionic hydroxide complexes (Sn, Pd, Zr, Ni, Eu, Cd, Mo, Co). Oxidizing conditions around +350 mV might be expected in the environment of nitrate-containing wastes. In

  10. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Cementitious Near-Field of an ILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from ILW wastes, disposed of in a chemically reducing, cementitious environment. From a chemical point of view, the pore waters of hydrated cement matrices provide an exceptional environment. Compared with usual ground waters exhibiting pH-values of around 8, cement pore waters are strongly alkaline with pH-values from 12.5 to 13.5 and contain nearly no carbonate and only little sulfate. Oxides and hydroxides mainly determine solubility and speciation of the elements. Solubility and speciation calculations in cementitious pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 36 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Wherever possible, maximum concentrations compiled in this report were based on geochemical calculations. In order to ensure full traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the TDB are explicitly specified in the document. For similar reasons the compilation of results (Table 1) clearly distinguishes between calculated and recommended items. The heading 'CALCULATED' lists maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the TDB; results under the heading 'RECOMMENDED' include data from other sources. The pH sensitivity of the results was examined by performing calculations at pH 13.4, in accordance with the pH of non-altered cement pore water. Solubility increases predominantly for elements that tend to form anionic hydroxide complexes (Sn, Pd, Zr, Ni, Eu, Cd, Mo, Co). Oxidizing conditions around +350 mV might be expected in the environment of nitrate-containing wastes. In this case, significant

  11. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, 137Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of 137Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. 90Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of 60Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of 60Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of 207Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of 207Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, 207Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of 207Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither 239+240Pu nor 241Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, 238Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than 239+240Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines

  12. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, /sup 137/Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. /sup 90/Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sup 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sup 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sup 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines.

  13. Equilibrium concentration of radionuclides in cement/groundwater/carbon steel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium concentration of major elements in an underground repository with a capacity of 100,000 drums have been simulated using the geochemical computer code (EQMOD). The simulation has been carried out at the conditions of pH 12 to 13.5, and Eh 520 and -520 mV. Solubilities of magnesium and calcium decrease with the increase of pH. The solubility of iron increases with pH at Eh -520 mV of reducing environment, while it almost entirely exists as the precipitate of Fe(OH)3(s) at Eh 520 mV of oxidizing environment. All of cobalt and nickel are predicted to be dissolved in the liquid phase regardless of pH since the solubility limit is greater than the total concentration. In the case of cesium and strontium, all forms of both ions are present in the liquid phase because they have negligible sorption capacity on cement and large solubility under disposal atmosphere. And thus the total concentration determines the equilibrium concentration. Adsorbed amounts of iodide and carbonate are dependent on adsorption capacity and adsorption equilibrium constant. Especially, the calcite turns out to be a solubility-limiting phase on the carbonate system. In order to validate the model, the equilibrium concentrations measured for a number of systems which consist of iron, cement, synthetic groundwater and radionuclides are compared with those predicted by the model. The concentrations between the model and the experiment of nonadsorptive elements - cesium, strontium, cobalt, nickel and iron, are well agreed. It indicates that the assumptions and the thermodynamic data in this work are valid. Using the adsorption equilibrium constant as a free parameter, the experimental data of iodide and carbonate have been fitted to the model. The model is in a good agreement with the experimental data of the iodide system. (author)

  14. Correlations between Natural Radionuclide Concentrations in Soil and Vine-Growth Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellenbosch district is known as one of the best wine-producing regions in South Africa and lies 45 km east of Cape Town. It has a large number of estates, of which one of them was earmarked for vineyard development and is of much importance to this study. Soil plays an important role in the development of the vine and ultimately the grapes harvested from the vine. It is therefore important to characterise vineyard soils (quantitatively and qualitatively) and to study the impact of soil properties on the vine. These properties include among others and of importance to this study, the soil ph, concentrations of trace elements, clay content and natural radioactivity concentrations (1). In this study correlations between radiometric data and traditional chemical data in vineyard soils used to infer growth potential were studied. Discussed below are experimental techniques used in the determination of activity concentration of natural radionuclide (40K, 232Th and 238U) in soil, data analysis, results and conclusions

  15. Contributions by emissions from nuclear installations to concentrations of radionuclides in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A year-long study has been carried out to determine whether milk produced near nuclear sites contains concentrations of radionuclides that can be attributed to discharges from the installations, and, as a consequence, whether there is enhanced exposure of those members of the public who consume this milk. Eight creameries were chosen and monthly samples of milk were taken for analysis. The concentrations of caesium-137 and strontium-90 were measured and compared with results from a national survey conducted as part of the Board's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme. No effect attributable to discharges from the nuclear establishments was identified. The activity concentrations ranged between 0.1 and 3 times the national average; the variation relates mainly to rainfall in the area, although other factors may also have an effect. However, milk contributes only a small fraction of the total dietary intake of caesium-137 and strontium-90, and so the exposure of persons consuming the milk varies only slightly about the national average. (author)

  16. Some environmental aspects of fusion reactor waste: Potential environmental concentrations of relevant radionuclides in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If traces of 1 ppm of any element are irradiated in a flux of 14 MeV neutrons corresponding to 1 MW/m2 (4.5x1013cm-2s-1) or by an equal flux of thermal neutrons, an important contribution to the long lived (T>102a) overall biological hazard potential of all impurities stems from the activated metals of the following three groups: (a) Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Bi; (b) Be, Al, Zr; (c) Mo, Tc. An evaluation of the potential hazards originating from those radionuclides for man should not only consider the activities and their radiotoxicities alone, as does the biological hazard potential, but should also include properties that describe the mobility of the radionuclides in the environment. Here it is proposed to use the solubilities of compounds of the radionuclides in pure water as a first approximation. For relevant environmental Esub(H)/pH domains (Esub(H) = electrochemical potential) group (a) metals are potentially soluble releasing positively charged ions (cations) in aqueous solution. Group (b) metals have a low solubility, but form again cations. Group (c) metals are readily soluble forming negatively charged complexes (H)MeO4-. Using the specific activity generated in the neutron fields mentioned above, one can convert the solubility into a potential contamination level. Based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (reference) levels of contamination are defined, which may be accepted for drinking water. The potential levels for Mn, Be and Zr lie below the reference levels, whereas Ni, Mo, Bi, Al and Pb lead potentially to an excessive equilibrium contamination of pure water. Measurements of the concentrations of metal cations in equilibrium soil solutions have yielded values that are lower by many orders of magnitude than the ones in pure water. If calculations of potential radioactive contaminations take into account the weathering conditions (i.e. the additional ions present in soils) and the interaction of the contaminant

  17. Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and 90Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and 90Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km2. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years

  18. Measuring Radionuclides Concentration in Rice Field Soils Using Gamma Spectroscopy in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MZ Zareh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few elements of soil are radioactive. Soil can transfer radionuclide into plants feeding human. Sometimes their levels are as high as to be concern of human healthy. Rice has an important share for Iranian foods especially in north of Iran. Therefore we decided to obtain radionuclides concentration emitting g rays in Lahijan City (Northern Iran rice fields using g spectroscopy.Methods: Twenty eight samples from rice field's soils and 12 samples from superficial soils were collected at a square of 10*10 m2 to get 2kg weight. To make dry samples were put into oven at 105oC for 24h. Then they were milled and 950 gr of each sample was transferred to Marinelli container with 1000cc volume, sealed and left for 40 days to get secular equilibrium. After measuring Ph, Electric conductivity and organic carbon, g spectroscopy was done to get sample gamma spectrum at 2000-6000 sec using HpGe detector.Results: It was found 226Ra activity in rice fields of 29.273±0.72 Bqkg-1 and city soil of 31.02±1.1 Bqkg-1 and also 232Th activity of 37.47±1.12 Bqkg-1 for rice fields' soils and 40.47±1.68 Bqkg-1 for city soil were in standard mode.Conclusion: 40K activities mean value according to UNSCEAR; 2000 was found a little greater than standard. A little value of 137Cs was found in Lahijan rice fields and city soils that could be as a result of Chernobyl accident. In except of 137Cs, for three other under studied city soil elements, activities were greater than that of rice fields.

  19. Biological concentration of radionuclides in plants and animals after Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Ryo, Haruko; Nomura, Taisei [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Tadashi; Yeliseeva, K.G.; Piskunov, V.S.; Krupnova, E.V.; Voitovich, A.M.

    2000-07-01

    The {sup 137}Cs radioactivity and its distribution in plants (trees, mushrooms, berries, duckweed, and etc.) and animals (insects, mice, fish, and etc.) were measured in contaminated areas of southern Belarus, which was highly polluted by radionuclides as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Ukraine in 1986. Gamma spectrometry of {sup 137}Cs was carried out, and a computer graphic imaging analysis was performed to visualize the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the organisms. The specimen was placed on the imaging plate, the plate was exposed for 20 h. High {sup 137}Cs radioactivity was detected in both the animals (mice, moles, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and fish) and the plants (pine trees, oak leaves, mushrooms, berries, duckweed). The {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the organisms was proportional to the radioactivity in the soil. Assessment of its distribution showed that {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated in muscle, but there were no substantial differences in {sup 137}Cs radioactivity according to organ or species. Computer graphic imaging analysis clearly revealed non-uniform distribution of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the animals and plants. In pine trees, the highest level of radioactivity was found in the bark, and it decreased toward the center of the tree. In conclusion, the authors suggest that self-cleaning of the soil will require a very long time and that the biological concentrations will persist and increase in higher animals for a long time, resulting in accumulation of both external and internal radiation exposure in animals. (K.H.)

  20. Concentrations of radionuclides in cassava growing in high background radiation area and their transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of several natural radionuclides in common cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing in Yangjiang County, a high background radiation area in Guangdong Province, and their uptake from soil and distribution in the plant were investigated. The results show that the concentrations of natural uranium and thorium in cassava root are of the order of 10-6 g/kg, and those of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210 and polonium-210 are of the order of 10-11 Ci/kg. The highest level is 9.30 +- 0.30 x 10-11 Ci/kg (lead-210), and the lowest is 3.99 +- 0.20 x 10-11 Ci/kg (radium-226). The levels of natural uranium, thorium, radium-226 and polonium-210 in cassava are below the limits stipulated by the regulations for food hygiene in China, while the lead-210 level approaches the limit. It is noticeable that the highest level of radium-228 is 7.28 +- 1.03 x 10-11 Ci/kg, 10.4 times higher than the limit. The transfer of all he nuclides from soil to different parts of cassava shows a pattern contrary to that of he nuclides in the other regions where uranium-and radium-containing waste water and phosphate fertilizer are used in agriculture

  1. Biological concentration of radionuclides in plants and animals after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 137Cs radioactivity and its distribution in plants (trees, mushrooms, berries, duckweed, and etc.) and animals (insects, mice, fish, and etc.) were measured in contaminated areas of southern Belarus, which was highly polluted by radionuclides as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Ukraine in 1986. Gamma spectrometry of 137Cs was carried out, and a computer graphic imaging analysis was performed to visualize the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the organisms. The specimen was placed on the imaging plate, the plate was exposed for 20 h. High 137Cs radioactivity was detected in both the animals (mice, moles, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and fish) and the plants (pine trees, oak leaves, mushrooms, berries, duckweed). The 137Cs radioactivity in the organisms was proportional to the radioactivity in the soil. Assessment of its distribution showed that 137Cs was highly concentrated in muscle, but there were no substantial differences in 137Cs radioactivity according to organ or species. Computer graphic imaging analysis clearly revealed non-uniform distribution of 137Cs radioactivity in the animals and plants. In pine trees, the highest level of radioactivity was found in the bark, and it decreased toward the center of the tree. In conclusion, the authors suggest that self-cleaning of the soil will require a very long time and that the biological concentrations will persist and increase in higher animals for a long time, resulting in accumulation of both external and internal radiation exposure in animals. (K.H.)

  2. Uptake of radionuclides by vegetation at a High Arctic location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide levels in vegetation from a High Arctic location were studied and compared to in situ soil concentrations. Levels of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs and the natural radionuclides 40K, 238U, 226Ra and 232Th are discussed and transfer factor (TF) values and aggregated transfer (Tag) values are calculated for vascular plants. Levels of 137Cs in vegetation generally followed the order mosses > lichen > vascular plants. The uptake of 137Cs in vascular plants showed an inverse relationship with the uptake of 40K, with 137Cs TF and Tag values generally higher than 40K TF and Tag values. 40K activity concentrations in all vegetation showed little correlation to associated soil concentrations, while the uptake of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th by vascular and non-vascular plants was generally low. - Uptake of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs is highest for moss species

  3. Radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of radionuclides to biota is discussed especially with reference to specific elements in local soils. Two annual plant species have received concentrated study. These are cheatgrass and tumbleweed, both important inhabitants of waste burial sites. Little is known concerning the radionuclide dynamics of perennial grasses, forbs, or shrub species. The potential for radionuclide transport by jackrabbits, waterfowl, small mammals, and biota inhabiting pond systems is discussed. Concentration ratios are tabulated

  4. Trends in radionuclide concentrations for wildlife and food products near Hanford for the period 1971-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the Hanford environmental data base for trends in radionuclide concentrations in wildlife and food products sampled from 1971 through 1988 on or near the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Although statistical analyses showed short-term changes, no upward trends in radionuclide concentrations were detected. Many samples showed a significant decline in some radionuclides, particularly for 137Cs. Concentrations of 65Zn also showed a downward trend in many samples. Cessation of atmospheric testing by the United States and the USSR in 1971 contributed to the decline in radionuclide levels in some samples. Contaminants discharged to the Columbia River at Hanford were reduced after shutdown of the last once-through cooling-water reactor in 1971. A decline in concentrations of 65Zn in oysters from Willapa Bay and 60Co and 65Zn in mountain whitefish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are attributable to reactor closure. There was also an apparent reduction in availability of radiological contamination to Hanford wildlife after decommissioning of waste-water disposal ponds and remediation of contaminated terrestrial sites

  5. Options for cost-effectively reducing atmospheric methane concentrations from anthropogenic biomass sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane is a major greenhouse gas, second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to future global warming. Methane concentrations have more than doubled over the last two centuries and continue to rise annually. These increases are largely correlated with increasing human populations. Methane emissions from human related activities currently account for about 70 percent of annual emissions. Of these human related emissions, biomass sources account for about 75 percent and non-biomass sources about 25 percent. Because methane has a shorter lifetime than other major greenhouse gases, efforts to reduce methane emissions may fairly quickly be translated into lower atmospheric concentrations of methane and lower levels of radiative forcing. This fairly quick response would have the benefit of slowing the rate of climate change and hence allow natural ecosystems more time to adapt. Importantly, methane may be cost-effectively reduced from a number of biomass and non-biomass sources in the United States and worldwide. Methane is a valuable fuel, not just a waste by-product, and often systems may be reconfigured to reap the fuel value of the methane and more than justify the necessary expenditures. Such options for reducing methane emission from biomass sources exist for landfills, livestock manures, and ruminant livestock, and have been implemented to varying degrees in countries around the world. However, there are a number of barriers that hinder the more widespread use of technologies, including institutional, financial, regulatory, informational, and other barriers. This paper describes an array of available options that may be cost-effectively implemented to reduce methane emissions from biomass sources. This paper also discusses a number of programs that have been developed in the United States and internationally to promote the implementation of these methane reduction options and overcome existing barriers

  6. ORION: a computer code for evaluating environmental concentrations and dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code ORION has been developed to evaluate the environmental concentrations and the dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from air-borne radionuclides released from multiple nuclear installations. The modified Gaussian plume model is applied to calculate the dispersion of the radionuclide. Gravitational settling, dry deposition, precipitation scavenging and radioactive decay are considered to be the causes of depletion and deposition on the ground or on vegetation. ORION is written in the FORTRAN IV language and can be run on IBM 360, 370, 303X, 43XX and FACOM M-series computers. 8 references, 6 tables

  7. Cirrus scavenging as a mechanism for the production of radionuclide concentration minimums between 6 and 9 km

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and radiochemical composition of atmospheric aerosols is being measured to aid in assessing the present and future hazards to the environment presented by radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants. The rates and mechanisms by which airborne particulates are mixed in the atmosphere, and transported to and deposited on the earth's surface are also under study. One facet of this program involves the measurement of radionuclide concentrations above, below, and in cirrus. These measurements indicate that the scavenging of radionuclides by cirrus, followed by the settling of cirrus ice particles, may result in considerable transport of radioactivity. (U.S.)

  8. Mass balance approach to estimating radionuclide loads and concentrations in edible fish tissues using stable analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humans can consume a number of types of biota tissues, which have varying propensities to accumulate radionuclides. As a result, depending upon the biota species, the radionuclide and the tissue under consideration, it may be necessary to estimate the percent radionuclide load in specific edible tissues, and in cases where whole organisms are consumed, to estimate the radionuclide load in the whole body of an organism, based on data that have been collected for individual tissues. To accomplish this, data were compiled that can be used to estimate the partitioning patterns and percent loads of various groups of elements in edible tissues of freshwater fishes. General trends in partitioning, such as those provided in this paper, can be used to predict radionuclide transfer to humans and the corresponding potential radiological dose to humans via dietary pathways, in this case following the consumption of fish.

  9. Anthropogenic Vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visschedijk A. H. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were calculated bottom-up using energy use activity data and collected fuel and sector-specific emissions factors, taking into account various emission control measures. The NW European emissions were dominated by combustion of heavy fuel oil and petroleum cokes. Total emissions for 2005 amounted to 1569 tons/yr. The major sources are sea going ships (39%, petroleum refineries (35% and industry (19%. Emission is strongly concentrated at the densely populated cities with major sea ports. The location of sources at or near the major port cities was confirmed by observational data, as was the downward trend in emissions due to emission control, fuel switches in industry and fuel quality improvement. The results show the positive impact of lower sulphur fuels on other possible health relevant air pollutants such as particle bound Vanadium. The emission inventory can be expanded to the full European domain and can be used to for air quality modeling and particularly for the tracing of source contributions from certain types of fossil fuels (petroleum coke and residual fuel oil. Moreover, it will allow the monitoring of changes in fuel use over time.

  10. Evaluation of the radionuclide concentrations in soil and plants from the 1975 terrestrial survey of Bikini and Eneu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1975 a radiological survey was conducted of the terrestrial environment of Bikini and Eneu islands (Bikini Atoll) to evaluate the potential radiation dose to the returning Bikini population. In this report, we present measurements of the radionuclide concentration in soil profiles and in dominant species of edible and nonedible, indicator plants. The use of these data to derive relationships to predict the plant uptake of radionuclides from soil is described. Approximately 620 soil and vegetation samples from Bikini and Eneu Islands were analyzed by Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry. The predominant radionuclides in these samples were 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241Pu, and 241Am

  11. Calibration of non-discriminating scintillating instruments for sensitivities to naturally occuring gamma radiation emitting radionuclides at environmental concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of calibrating non-discriminating gamma radiation detectors for environmental level measurements is described. It is based on a method used to calibrate field gamma spectrometers, and has several advantages over the more traditional point-source approach. Radiological measurements are taken on pads with known concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium, and the sensitivities to these naturally occurring terrestrial sources of gamma radiation are determined. Measurements can then be converted into radionuclide concentration or exposure rates. (author)

  12. Activity Concentrations of radionuclides in sea water in some Coastal Egyptian Regions and Their Public Health Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive investigations have been carried out monthly for one year period in order to find out the average activity concentrations of the natural radionuclide in some Egyptian coastal aquatic environment and to assess the annual radiation doses likely to be received by population near by. The determinations were mainly for the measurement of gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples and some of its constituents. It has been found that; the average gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples for the different studied locations ranged from (0-52) x 10-3,(3-68) x10-3 and (13-283) x10-3 Bq.l-1 respectively but still below the recommended permissible limits in most locations. It was found that Rashid area posses the highest concentrations of uranium and thorium. The present results have shown that the radio activities of most of the locations are mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclide. No regular tendency increase was observed in activity concentrations of any particular radionuclide in the studied period. Calculations have shown that, the average external dose from the γ- emitting radionuclide is ranged over (0.5-177)x10-3 nGy/hr with annual exposure dose ranged from (1.04-29)x10-3 nGy in most locations except Rashid. This exposure dose does not present radiological injuries to the population

  13. The spatial distribution pattern of heavy metal concentrations in urban soils — a study of anthropogenic effects in Berehove, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, Tímea; Szabó, György; Csoma, Zoltán; Sándor, Gábor; Szabó, Szilárd

    2014-09-01

    In the present study we examined the Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination levels of the soils of Berehove, a small city in West-Ukraine. As a first step we determined the spatial distribution of the heavy metal contents of the urban soils; then, by studying the land use structure of the city and by statistical analysis we identified the major sources of contamination; we established a matrix of correlations between the heavy metal contents of the soils and the different types of land use; and finally, we drew a conclusion regarding the possible origin(s) of these heavy metals. By means of multivariate statistical analysis we established that of the investigated metals, Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn accumulated in the city's soils primarily as a result of anthropogenic activity. In the most polluted urban areas (i.e. in the industrial zones and along the roads and highways with heavy traffic), in the case of several metals (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) we measured concentration levels even two or three times higher than the threshold limit values. Furthermore, Cr, Fe and Ni are primarily of lithogenic origin; therefore, the soil concentrations of these heavy metals depend mainly on the chemical composition of the soil-forming rocks.

  14. Concentration activities of natural radionuclides in three fish species in Brazilian coast and their contributions to the absorbed doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 e Ra-228 were analysed in three fish species at the Brasilian Coast. The fish 'Cubera snapper' (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828), in the region of Ceara and 'Whitemouth croaker' (Micropogonias furnieri, Desmarest, 1823) and 'Lebranche mullet' (Mugil liza, Valenciennes, 1836) in the region of Rio de Janeiro. These concentrations were transformed in absorbed dose rate using a dose conversion factor in unit of gray per year (μGy y-1), per becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg-1). Only the absorbed dose due to intake of radionuclides was examined, and the contributions due to radionuclides present in water and sediment were disregarded. The radionuclides were considered to be uniformly distributed in the fish body. The limit of the dose rate used, proposed by the Department of Energy of the USA, is equal to 3.65 1003 mGy y-1. The average dose rate due to the studied radionuclides is equal to 6.09 1000 μGy y-1, a value minor than 0.1% than the limits indicated by DOE, and quite similar to that found in the literature for 'benthic' fish. The most important radionuclides were the alpha emitters Ra-226 having 61 % of absorbed dose rate. U-238 and Th-232, each contributes with approximately 20 % of the absorbed dose rate. These three radionuclides are responsible for almost 100% of the dose rate received by the studied organisms. The beta emitters Ra-228 and Pb-210 account for approximately 1 % of the absorbed dose rate. (author)

  15. Rodent movements, densities and radionuclide concentrations at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movements and densities of rodents at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area were studied from June to September 1981 using trap line and assessment line techniques. The average distance between points of successive capture was 42 +- 25 (SD) m for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and 37 +- 21 m for kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii). Densities of deer mice averaged 10.2/ha with a population estimate of 57 within the area of rodent captures. The population estimate of 4 species of small mammals at the waste pond complex was 93. Radionuclide concentrations averaged 133 +- 97 pCi/g for rodents captured inside the disposal area boundary, 18 +- 22 pCi/g for those captured outside of the dispoal area fence and 0.50 +- 0.6 pCi/g for control animals. Species captured outside of the waste area boundary had significantly lower (P 137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co and 65Zn) in rodents at the liquid waste disposal area was estimated to be about 162 nCi

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium (3H), strontium (90Sr), plutonium (238 Pu and 239Pu), cesium (137Cs), americium (241Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137Cs, and 241Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities

  17. Studies on radionuclide concentration along the Northern Coast of Krusadai Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusadai Island - The Biologist's Paradise, is situated in Gulf of Mannar (GaM) near Rameswaram of Tamilnadu, India. It has been recognized as Ecological sensitive area under Coastal regulation zone notification 1991 because these area act as the breeding zone for a variety of marine species, most of which are consumed by human population. Above all Govt. of India and Govt. of Tamil Nadu jointly declared Gulf of Mannar as Marine National Park under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. So it is essential to have a periodic radiological survey in this area in order to check the concentrations of various radionuclide. Apart from this 2004 Tsunami had many devastating effects along the coastal Tamil Nadu. GOM (Especially Rameswaram coast) didn't suffer a lot due to the barricade-like protection given by the island nation Sri Lanka. But reports suggest that northeastern part of the Krusadai Island had noticeable effects due to Tsunami, which interests to study this area. Current study is a preliminary radioactive report on the northern part of the Krusadai Island

  18. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  19. Effect of SO2 concentration on SOA formation in a photorreactor from a mixture of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and HONO

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vivanco, Marta; Santiago, Manuel; García Diego, Cristina; Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Milagros; Martínez-Tarifa, Adela

    2010-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important urban atmospheric pollutant, mainly produced by the combustion of fossil fuels containing sulfur. In the atmosphere, SO2 can react with OH radicals to form sulfuric acid, which can condense to form acidic aerosol. Sulfuric acid particles act as an acid catalyst for some heterogeneous carbonyl reactions like hydration, polymerization or acetals formation, which may lead to a large increase on SOA mass. In order to evaluate the effect of the SO2 concentration on SOA formation, 3 experiments were performed during the campaign carried out by CIEMAT on the EUPHORE facility (CEAM, Valencia, Spain) during June- July 2008. The objective of the campaign was to evaluate the effect of different experimental conditions on SOA formation from the photooxidation of some anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs using HONO as oxidant. Experiment on 6/17/08 was selected as base case (no SO2 was introduced) and experiments 6/26/08 and 7/1/08 were selected as high SO2 (2600 ug/m3) and low SO2 (60 ug/m3) concentration experiments respectively. In the three experiments a mixture of toluene, 1,3,5-TMB (trimethylbenzene), o-xylene and octane was selected as the parent VOCs. Single and coupled to mass spectroscopy gas cromatography (GC and GC/MS), as well as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to measure the initial VOCs and oxidant concentrations decay and the formation of gas phase oxidation products through the experiments. Aerosol size distribution and concentration were measured with SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer) and TEOM (tapered element oscillating monitor) respectively. In addition, analysis of the organic and inorganic aerosol content was also performed via filter sampling followed by GC/MS and ionic chromatography (for organic and inrganic content respectively). Comparing the filters collected in the three experiments, clearly the largest mass aerosol formation is observed

  20. Sludge Batch 7 Acceptance Evaluation: Radionuclide Concentrations In Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample Prepared At SRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Seven (SB7) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB7 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB6. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter qualification sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-10-125) received on September 18, 2010. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. With consultation from the Liquid Waste Organization, the qualification sample was then modified by several washes and decants, which included addition of Pu from H Canyon and sodium nitrite per the Tank Farm corrosion control program. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task III.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB7 will be taken and transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides

  1. Study on the primordial concentration of radionuclides in the soil samples of Pachamali Hills,Tiruchirappalli district,Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every living organism on this planet is constantly exposed to naturally occurring ionizing radiations, which are referred to as background radiation or natural radiation. Exposure of this ionizing radiation due to naturally occurring radionuclides present in soil and rocks is unavoidable. 238U, 232Th and 40K are the major radionuclides present abundantly in nature. These radionuclides vary in concentration over different areas due topographical, geographical, geochemical conditions of the areas concerned. Present study has been undertaken with the aim to generate baseline data on the radiation profile on the background radiation of Pachamalai Hill environment located in Tiruchirappalli dist. Totally 60 soil samples have been collected from six major sampling stations and processed and analysed using NaI(TI) gamma ray spectrometer. The activity of 232Th has been found to be varied from 23.12 to 103.4 Bqkg-1. The activity of 238U has been found to be varied form 10.64 to 47.25 Bqkg-1 and the activity of 40K varies from 120 to 324.12 Bqkg-1. The depth profile study also has been carried out. In the case of depth profile study concentration of 238U and 232Th has been found to decrease with depth in soil. However, the activity due to 40K remains more or less uniform. The mean absorbed dose rate due to primordial radionuclides is found to be 59.7 nGy h-1. (author)

  2. Investigation of the concentration, distribution, and inventory of radionuclides in the sediment of Process Waste System Basin 3524

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process Waste System Basin 3524 is used as a collection basin for process liquid waste from facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This investigation was conducted to determine the radionuclide concentrations, distributions, and inventory of the sediments in this basin in preparation for future decontamination and decommissioning activities. Twenty-four sediment cores were extracted from the basin and 80 aliquots were analyzed for their radionuclide concentrations. The sediment is estimated to contain a total of 5.5 x 1012 Bq (150 Ci) of activity, 87% of which is contributed by two radionuclides, 137Cs (68%) and 90Sr (19%). The radionuclide content is estimated as follows: 137Cs, 3.77 x 1012 Bq (102 Ci); 90Sr, 1.07 x 1012 Bq (29 Ci); gross alpha, 4.06 x 1011 Bq (11 Ci); 241Am, 1.70 x 1011 Bq (4.6 Ci); 60Co, 8.32 x 1010 Bq (2.2 Ci); and 154Eu, 3.35 x 1010 Bq (0.9 Ci). 9 references, 8 figures, 7 tables

  3. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  4. Diurnal variation of CO2 concentration, Δ14C and δ13C in an urban forest: estimate of the anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hiroshi A.; Konohira, Eiichi; HIYAMA, TETSUYA; MINAMI, Masayo; Nakamura, Toshio; YOSHIDA, Naohiro

    2002-01-01

    Diurnal variation in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the carbon isotopic composition (Δ14C and δ13C) was measured in a forest in an urban area on 9 February 1999. The carbon isotope approach used in the present study differentiated between the quantitative contributions from anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 sources in the urban atmosphere. The anthropogenic (fossil fuel) and biogenic (soil respiration) contributions was estimated, and they ranged from 1 to 16% and from 2 to 8% of the tota...

  5. Baseline concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils and vegetation around the DARHT facility: Construction phase (1997). Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Department of Energy's Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), baseline concentrations of radionuclides (3H, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and totU) and heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil, sediment, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1997 were determined. Most radionuclides and heavy metals in soils, sediments, and vegetation, with the exception of 90Sr in soils and sediments, were within upper (95%) limit background concentrations. Although the levels of 90Sr in soils and sediments around the DARHT facility were higher than background, they were below LANL screening action levels (-1 dry) and are of no concern

  6. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash grown in Los Alamos Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    Pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo var. black beauty) were grown in a randomized complete-block field/pot experiment at a site that contained the highest observed levels of surface gross gamma radioactivity within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Soils as well as washed edible and nonedible crop tissues were analyzed for various radionuclides and heavy metals . Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup tot}U, in soil from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p <0.01) than in soil collected from regional background (RBG) locations. Similarly, most radionuclides in edible crop portions of beans, squash, and corn were detected in significantly higher (p <0.01 and 0.05) concentrations than RBG. Most soil-to-plant concentration ratios for radionuclides in edible and nonedible crop tissues from LAC were within the default values given by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Environmental Protection Agency. All heavy metals in soils, as well as edible and nonedible crop tissues grown in soils from LAC, were within RBG concentrations. Overall, the total maximum net positive committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)--the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background and then all positive doses summed--to a hypothetical 50-year resident that ingested 160 kg of beans, corn, and squash in equal proportions, was 74 mrem y{sup -1}. This dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit (PDL) of 100 mrem y{sup -1} from all pathways; however, the addition of other internal and external exposure route factors may increase the overall dose over the PDL. Also, the risk of an excess cancer fatality, based on 74 mrem y{sup -1}, was 3.7 x 10{sup -5} (37 in a million), which is above the Environmental Protection Agency`s (acceptable) guideline of one in a million. 31 refs., 15 tabs.

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in game and nongame fish upstream and downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1981 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide concentrations were determined in game (surface-feeding) and nongame (bottom-feeding) fish collected from reservoirs upstream (Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado) and downstream (Cochiti) of Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1981 to 1993. The average levels of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, and 239Pu in game and nongame fish collected from Cochiti reservoir were not significantly different in fish collected from reservoirs upstream of the Laboratory. Total uranium was the only radionuclide that was found to be significantly higher n both game and nongame fish from Cochiti as compared to fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado. Uranium concentrations in fish collected from Cochiti, however, significantly decreased from 1981 to 1993, and no evidence of depleted uranium was found in fish samples collected from Cochiti in 1993. Based on the average concentration of radionuclides over the year the effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 46 lb of game fish and nongame fish from Cochiti reservoir after natural background has been subtracted was 0.005 and 0.009 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was <0.01% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  10. Measurement of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in the topsoil of IITA Ibadan by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the soils at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, (IITA), Idi-Ose, Moniya, Ibadan, Nigeria were investigated using a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector coupled with a Canberra series 10 plus multichannel analyser as the detecting device for gamma scintillation spectroscopy. The whole area was divided into grids and soil samples were collected from the points of intersection of the grids. The average activity concentrations obtained for the three radionuclides (40K, 238U and 232Th) were 180.08 ± 90.54 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 8.901 ± 5.063 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 11.01 ± 7.686 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. The average values of the absorbed dose rate for each radionuclide were found to be 7.33 nGy h-1 for 232Th, 7.55 nGy h-1 for 40K and 3.82 nGy h-1 for 238U. The average (baseline) of the total absorbed dose rate was found to be 18.72 ± 8.11 nGy h-1. The baseline average outdoor annual effective dose equivalent at IITA due to the concentrations of the radionuclides was found to be 22.95 ± 9.94 μSv y-1. This value is low compared to the world average of 70 μSv y-1 specified by UNSCEAR for an outdoor effective dose. Hence the probability of occurrence of any of the health effects of radiation is low

  11. Baseline Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Soils and Vegetation around the DARHT Facility: Construction Phase (1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; H. T. Haagenstad; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    1999-12-01

    The Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory mandates the establishment of baseline concentrations for potential environmental contaminants. To this end, concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup tot}U and Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl were determined in surface and subsurface soils, sediments, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1998 (this is the third of a four year baseline study). Also, volatile (VOC) and semivolatile (SVOC) organic compounds were measured in soils and sediments. Most radionuclides and trace metals in soil, sediment, and vegetation were similar to past years at DARHT and were within regional background concentrations. Exceptions were concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, Be, Ba, and total U in some samples--these elements exceeded upper limit regional background concentrations (e.g., >mean plus two std dev). No VOCs and very few SVOCs were detected in soils and sediments at DARHT. Mean ({+-} std dev) radionuclide and trace element concentrations measured in soil, sediment, and vegetation summarized over a three-year period (construction phase) are summarized.

  12. SLUDGE BATCH 5 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-07-28

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Five (SB5) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Part of this SB5 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40 to complete the formation of SB5. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB4. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry taken on March 21, 2008. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by five washes, six decants, an addition of Pu/Be from Canyon Tank 16.4, and an addition of NaNO2. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Ta Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task 2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task 5) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB5 will be taken and

  13. Pre-monsoon study on primordial radionuclide concentration along Krusadai Island mangrove at Gulf of Mannar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulf of Mannar, one of the four major ecologically sensitive areas of Tamil Nadu and has the maximum bio-diversity. As compared to the other three ecologically sensitive areas of Tamil Nadu, literature survey indicates that the available data on the quantum of presence of NORM in the island regions of Gulf of Mannar is very scarce. This assumes more importance and hence studies have been undertaken to estimate NORM along the Krusadai Island mangroves in Gulf of Mannar region. Sediment samples from nine locations, comprising of four from the hinterland (1 to 4) and five from shallow inner shelf regions (5 to 9) were collected during the pre-monsoon period. All the samples were subjected to gamma spectral analysis using 3 inch x 3 inch NaI (Tl) detector. IAEA Standard sources were used for efficiency determination. The estimated Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) values for 238U, 232Th and 40K are 5.05 Bq/kg, 4.73 Bq/kg and 23.75 Bq/kg respectively. On the basis of estimated radioactivity levels of the three primordial radionuclides for each sample, Raeq activity and the absorbed dose rate at each location were estimated using UNSCEAR data. It is inferred that 238U and 40K activity are Below Detectable Limit (BDL) at all locations except in one, while 232Th activity has been observed in majority of the locations. During the pre-monsoon period (July-Sept), the tidal currents cause the movements of the underwater sediments from the Gulf of Mannar to Palk Bay through Pamban pass and Adam's Bridge. This may be the reason for the BDL activity of the 238U observed in most of the locations besides the solubility and corroding nature of Uranium (238U) bearing iron oxide minerals in sea water and the leaching action of the water currents in the sea bed. 232Th activity was higher than that of Uranium which is understandable that most part of the TN coast is known to have higher 232Th content and its minerals are fairly insoluble in water. The reason for the 40K activity to

  14. 'In field' measurements of the concentrations of radionuclide gamma activities in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are going to show you how to proceed for a rapid measurement in the field of the radionuclides gamma activities in soil, with the right calibration factors. This methodology is useful for simple and quick gamma-analysis in environmental study or during nuclear emergency situation. Comparison from the 'in situ' and laboratory measures are reported to provide an accurate methodology valuation. (author)

  15. Dependence of activity concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides on depth in soil samples from Antalya in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Canel; Agar, Osman; Boztosun, Ismail

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we attempt to determine the dependence of activity concentration of natural (238U, 232Th, 40K) and artificial (137Cs) radionuclides on depth in soil samples from Antalya in Turkey. Soil samples were collected at different depths (0-10 cm, 10-30 cm, 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm, 70-100 cm and 100-200 cm). Each soil samples were counted by using a high purity Germanium detector (HpGe). For each soil sample, activity concentration, absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard index were calculated and compared with the published results.

  16. Specific surface of thin-layer inorganic sorbents and possibilities of radionuclides concentration and elements determination by isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methodological features of application of heterogeneous isotope exchange on an example of thin-layer sulfide sorbents depending on conditions (solubility and chemical purity of sulfide layer) is considered in this work. The rate of reaction of isotope exchange at different temperatures ranges and metal concentrations is defined. The activation energy is defined as well. Dependencies of sorption ratio on element concentration in solution are obtained. Data on dynamics of isotop exchange on granular sorbents samples is presented. As radionuclides were used zinc-65, cadmium-115, and lead-212. As carrier were used triacetate cellulose layer, cellulose granules and titanium hydroxide, obtained by sol gel method.

  17. An assessment of radionuclide concentration in some well water samples from Ago-Iwoye, South western Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity levels and dose rate due to natural radionuclide in well water sample from, in and around four active areas(Aiyegbami, Itamerin, Igan Road and Ijesha Road) in Ago-Iwoye have been determined using a total of ten samples which were collected across the site. Measurement of radionuclide concentrations in the samples were made using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The net area under peak ranges from 717±17.72% to 989±12.7% for 40K, 11.5±56.32% to 98±66.47% for 238U and 132±53.28% to 537±13.94% for 232Th. The total absorbed dose rate determined due to the radionuclide concentrations was 1.2±0.2 nGyh-1 for 40K, 0.0±1.0 nGyh-1 for 238U and 2.5±1.0 for 232Th.

  18. Influence of the anthropogenic changes of gamma dose radiation connected connected with uranium mining upon selected plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation of flora in the regions with expressive anthropogenic changes in the background of gamma radiation and concentration of the radon in atmospheric air was observed. The content of heavy metals in the depth of the anomaly terrain was analyzed. The analyses of the selected radionuclides in plant ash by method in thin layer were performed. The concentration of radionuclides and situation of flora was correlated. (authors)

  19. Concentrations of trace elements and radionuclides in four fish species from the Black Lake area of northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future expansion of uranium mines in northern Saskatchewan, as well as the presence of the small abandoned Nisto uranium mine on the north shore of Black Lake, have raised concerns over potential contaminants in fish consumed by local residents. This report presents results of analyses of six fish caught in Black Lake and Stony Lake by local residents and analyzed for radionuclides and trace elements. For comparison, a rainbow trout raised on a British Columbia fish farm was also analyzed. Food chain transfer of radionuclides and other elements was estimated by using concentrations in gastrointestinal tract samples to represent the food source of the fish. Elements analyzed include uranium, radium-226, lead-210, calcium, potassium, mercury, and chromium

  20. Comparison of concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in Plankton from French Polynesian and Australian coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton samples from French Polynesian and Australian coastal waters were analysed for natural and artificial radionuclides. Quality control was assured by correlating replicate analyses between three laboratories and by participation in an international intercomparison exercise. Pu239/240 was detected sporadically among samples from both regions, with the highest levels being more consistently found in Tuamotu-Gambier samples. The artificial radionuclides Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90 and Co-60 were not detected. Of the natural nuclides, Ac-228 was detected in shallow continental waters off Northern Australia and an inverse relationship (P<0.02) was established between plankton density and their Po-210 concentration. (authors). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  1. Fins coloration of perch in relation to external activity concentration of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Techa River is significantly polluted by radionuclides. This time the content of 90Sr varies from 5 Bq/l in water of lower Techa to 40 Bq/l in higher Techa, and the concentration of 137Cs fluctuates from background content to 0,5 Bq/l, and tritium from 100 Bq/l to 450 Bq/l. Miass River are not polluted in the same extent. The perch in these rivers are suitable for examine the potential effect of environmental perturbation on carotenoid based coloration. As vertebrates could not produce carotenoids themselves, and would use more carotenoids due to oxidative stress when exposed radiation, we hypothesized that fish caught in upper part of Techa River will be more pale than fish from lower part and the control river Miass. We used a cost effective method to estimate coloration by photographing the fins in standardized setting. The measuring of fish fins as performed under standardized condition by Adobe Photoshop software in color spaces CIE 1976 L*a*b* and sRGB IEC61966-2.1 was used. In sRGB color space the values of Red, Green, Blue channels were measured and an average wave length was calculated as a function of three elementary light streams of different intensity, appeared as reflection from a fin. In L*a*b color space the values of *a and *b channels shows the position of a color in a color space. To evaluate the red color of a perch fin the most usable channel is the *a channel which shows the position of the color on the red-green axis. Due to low sample size we pooled males and females in our analysis. We used three different station in the Techa: RT-1 in the higher Techa, RT-2 in the middle Techa, and RT-3 in lower Techa. As a control group was taken the fish from Miass river (RM station). Our results shows that perch from RT-3 (570.7 nm) significantly differ in coloration from the perch from RT-2 and RT-1 (p=0.00001 and p=0.0014 respectively, hereinafter used Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test with Nemenyi-Damico-Wolfe-Dunn test as post-hoc criterion, number

  2. Fins coloration of perch in relation to external activity concentration of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegoreichenkov, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and University of Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Techa River is significantly polluted by radionuclides. This time the content of {sup 90}Sr varies from 5 Bq/l in water of lower Techa to 40 Bq/l in higher Techa, and the concentration of {sup 137}Cs fluctuates from background content to 0,5 Bq/l, and tritium from 100 Bq/l to 450 Bq/l. Miass River are not polluted in the same extent. The perch in these rivers are suitable for examine the potential effect of environmental perturbation on carotenoid based coloration. As vertebrates could not produce carotenoids themselves, and would use more carotenoids due to oxidative stress when exposed radiation, we hypothesized that fish caught in upper part of Techa River will be more pale than fish from lower part and the control river Miass. We used a cost effective method to estimate coloration by photographing the fins in standardized setting. The measuring of fish fins as performed under standardized condition by Adobe Photoshop software in color spaces CIE 1976 L*a*b* and sRGB IEC61966-2.1 was used. In sRGB color space the values of Red, Green, Blue channels were measured and an average wave length was calculated as a function of three elementary light streams of different intensity, appeared as reflection from a fin. In L*a*b color space the values of *a and *b channels shows the position of a color in a color space. To evaluate the red color of a perch fin the most usable channel is the *a channel which shows the position of the color on the red-green axis. Due to low sample size we pooled males and females in our analysis. We used three different station in the Techa: RT-1 in the higher Techa, RT-2 in the middle Techa, and RT-3 in lower Techa. As a control group was taken the fish from Miass river (RM station). Our results shows that perch from RT-3 (570.7 nm) significantly differ in coloration from the perch from RT-2 and RT-1 (p=0.00001 and p=0.0014 respectively, hereinafter used Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test with Nemenyi-Damico-Wolfe-Dunn test as post

  3. Phenomenological uncertainties in the suspended radionuclide concentrations in containment during severe LWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONTAIN, a code for integrated analysis of containment phenomenologies in complex LWR sever accident sequences, is being applied in a program for evaluating the uncertainties in USNRC-sponsored efforts to better define LWR accident source terms. The Surry TMLB sequence is studied in detail. Aerosol agglomeration uncertainties are found to contribute about an order of magnitude to the overall uncertainty in suspended radionuclides (almost entirely downward uncertainty; i.e., downward with respect to current base case estimates such as BMI-2104). Containment compartmentalization effects contribute substantial uncertainties in either direction, while effects due to complex multicomponent aerosol compositions contribute lesser, but still potentially significant uncertainties (mostly downward). Incomplete treatment of radionuclide decay chains can contribute factor-of-two upward uncertainties

  4. Radionuclides in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations and bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. This study reports results indicating that the presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bioavailability of radium (and barium) will be larger than anticipated. Also, the bioavailability of food-borne radium is shown to increase due to presence of such chemicals. (author)

  5. Phenomenological uncertainties in the suspended radionuclide concentrations in containment during severe LWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONTAIN, a code for integrated analysis of containment phenomenologies in complex LWR severe accident sequences, is being applied in a program for evaluating the uncertainties in USNRC-sponsored efforts to better define LWR accident source terms. The Surry TMLB sequence was studied in detail. Aerosol agglomeration uncertainties were found to contribute about an order of magnitude to the overall uncertainty in suspended radionuclides (almost entirely downward uncertainty; i.e., downward with respect to current base case estimates such as BMI-2104). Containment compartmentalization effects contribute substantial uncertainties in either direction, while effects due to complex multicomponent aerosol compositions contribute lesser, but still potentially significant uncertainties (mostly downward). Incomplete treatment of radionuclide decay chains can contribute factor-of-two upward uncertainties

  6. Radionuclide activities and metal concentrations in sediments of the Sebou Estuary, NW Morocco, following a flooding event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laissaoui, A; Mas, J L; Hurtado, S; Ziad, N; Villa, M; Benmansour, M

    2013-06-01

    This study presents metal concentrations (Fe, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sr and V) and radionuclide activities ((40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th and (212)Pb) in surface deposits and a sediment core from the Sebou Estuary, Northwest Morocco. Samples were collected in April 2009, about 2 months after a flooding event, and analysed using a well-type coaxial gamma-ray detector and inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Activities of radionuclides and concentrations of almost all elements in surface samples displayed only moderate spatial variation, suggesting homogenous deposition of eroded local soil in response to intense precipitation. Excess (210)Pb displayed relatively constant activity throughout the sediment core, preventing dating and precluding determination of the historical accumulation rates of pollutants at the core site. Some elements showed non-systematic trends with depth and displayed local maxima and minima. Other elements presented relatively systematic concentration trends or relatively constant levels with discrete maxima and/or minima. Except for Mn, Sr and Cr, all metal concentrations in sediment were below levels typical of polluted systems, suggesting little human impact or losses of metals from sediment particles. PMID:23054286

  7. SLUDGE BATCH 6 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION: RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

    2010-05-21

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Six (SB6) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB6 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB5. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-09-110) taken on October 8, 2009. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by eight washes, nine decants, an addition of Pu from Canyon Tank 16.3, and an addition of NaNO{sub 2}. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2009-0014. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task II.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB6 will be taken and transferred

  8. Sludge Batch 6 Acceptance Evaluation: Radionuclide Concentrations In Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample Prepared At SRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Six (SB6) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB6 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB5. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-09-110) taken on October 8, 2009. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by eight washes, nine decants, an addition of Pu from Canyon Tank 16.3, and an addition of NaNO2. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2009-0014. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task II.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB6 will be taken and transferred to

  9. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The 90Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The 239+240Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, 137Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow

  10. Radionuclides and radioactivity in soils within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1974 through 1994: Concentrations, trends, and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Ferenbaugh, J.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perona, R.A. [ERM/Golder Los Alamos Project Team, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A soil sampling and analysis program is the most direct means of determining the concentration, inventory, and distribution of radionuclides and radioactivity in the environment within and around nuclear facilities. This report summarizes and evaluates the concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, total uranium, and gross alpha, beta, and gamma activity in soils collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), perimeter, and regional (background) areas over a 21-year period (1974 through 1994). Also, trends in radionuclide concentrations and radioactivity over time and the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) were determined for each site. The upper-limit regional background concentration (95% upper-confidence level) for each radionuclide and level of radioactivity were as follows: {sup 3}H (6.34 pCi mL{sup {minus}1}), {sup 137}Cs (1.13 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 238}Pu (0.008 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 239,240}Pu (0.028 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 241}Am (0.208 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 90}Sr (0.82 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), total uranium (4.05 {micro}g dry g{sup {minus}1}); and gross alpha (35.24 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), beta (13.62 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), and gamma (7.33 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}) activity. Based on the average over the years, most LANL and perimeter soils contained three or more radionuclides and/or gross radioactive that were significantly higher in concentration (p < 0.05) than regional background. The net dose (TEDE minus background) for residents living on-site at LANL or along its perimeter ranged from {minus}0.3 mrem y{sup {minus}1} (east of TA-54) to 3.8 mrem y{sup {minus}1} (east of Ta-53) and from {minus}0.4 mrem y{sup {minus}1} (White Rock) to 3.6 mrem yy{sup {minus}1} (west of LANL on Forest Service land across from TA-8GT site).

  11. Radioecology teaching: evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic which is not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers are not able to show experimentally or discuss with their students the effects of exposure to terrestrial radiation. This paper presents a laboratory experiment in a teaching programme on the physics of ionizing radiation. It is based on the evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of natural or artificial radionuclides in the soil. A brief analysis of the theory behind the technique and a description of some measurements, including their interpretations, are presented

  12. The concentrations of radionuclides, heavy metals, and poloychlorinated biphenyls in field mice collected from regional background areas. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, Philip R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-01-21

    Field mice are effective indicators of contaminant presence. This paper reports the concentrations of various radionuclides, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, high explosives, perchlorate, and dioxin/furans in field mice (mostly deer mice) collected from regional background areas in northern New Mexico. These data, represented as the regional statistical reference level (the mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level), are used to compare with data from field mice collected from areas potentially impacted by Laboratory operations, as per the Environmental Surveillance Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  13. Reconstruction of radionuclide concentrations in the Columbia River from Hanford, Washington to Portland, Oregon, January 1950--January 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories conducted this study of the Columbia River for the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received from operations that began at the Hanford Site in 1944. The purpose of the study was to reconstruct concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River water for estimating doses to humans from the river pathway

  14. Concentrations of particulate matter and humic substances in deep groundwaters and estimated effects on the adsorption and transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of particulate matter such as colloids and microbes in deep Swedish groundwaters has been measured and has been found to be low in all waters. The results are summarized in this paper. The sorption capacity of relevant radionuclides on the particulate matter has been assessed based on many direct measurements and on comparisons with measurements on similar systems. The maximum transport capacity of nuclides by the particulate matters has been estimated for reversible as well as irreversible sorption of nuclides to particles. (au)

  15. Elucidation of the character of radionuclide concentration changes in the near ground layer of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fokker Planck equation was used to analyze the probability of the appearance of radionuclide impulses of any type. Distribution functions for the stationary state and conditions when different factors influence the impulse amplitude and duration are presented. A high degree of correlation was obtained between our results and an analysis of distribution functions of radioactivity and seismic noises in certain regions in Europe and Japan found in the literature. This presents a contribution to the further explanation of the mechanism of radioactivity changes in the near ground layers of air. (author)

  16. Heavy metal and radionuclide concentration in maize, forage grass and soil in polluted areas in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Redek, Andreja

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of soil and feed on the area of Celje, Jesenice, Mežica and Žirovski Vrh represent an important source of intake of contaminants into the bodies of animals and humans. The purpose of study was to assess the level of contamination of the soil and feed with potentially toxic metals and radioactive isotopes. At each site 2-7 samples were collected. Sample was analyzed using three different methods: XRF, AAS and VLG, by which elements and radionuclides in maize, grass and soil were det...

  17. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average. PMID:26606067

  18. An analytical method to determine activity concentrations of uranium- and thorium-series radionuclides in outdoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozas, S.; Moja, M.; Alegria, N.; Idoeta, R.; Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n, E-48013, Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Radon and its progeny in the outdoor air are one of the contributors to human exposure from natural sources. However, not only are their concentrations in the low layers of the atmosphere very low and affected by atmospheric mixing phenomena, some of these radionuclides have quite a low or very low half-life as well. These facts make the assessment of an independent activity concentration value for each of them difficult and as the existence of radioactive equilibrium in free air among the different radionuclides from the radioactive series cannot be considered, some approaches like the use of an established equilibrium factor are usually taken into account. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to characterize the outdoor air of Bilbao (Spain) in terms of natural radionuclides composition and to obtain the specific value of the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny. To achieve these objectives a set of experimental steps have been carried out: aerosols and particles have been collected from the air using an aerosol sampling station with a nominal flow rate of 500 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and, simultaneously, the Rn activity concentration was obtained by means of an automatic radon probe which provides values applying a pseudo-coincidence technique. Obtained particle filters were immediately measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and also one week and one month after the first measurement. After that, an analytical method, based on Bateman equations, has been used to obtain the activity concentrations of short-lived radionuclides in the sampled air from the values obtained in the early gamma-ray measurements. This analytical method has been previously used to determine the activity concentration of these radionuclides during a welding process and results have been published. As a result of this process, the air is characterized and the data needed to assess the equilibrium factor, by means of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration, obtained. Achieved

  19. An analytical method to determine activity concentrations of uranium- and thorium-series radionuclides in outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its progeny in the outdoor air are one of the contributors to human exposure from natural sources. However, not only are their concentrations in the low layers of the atmosphere very low and affected by atmospheric mixing phenomena, some of these radionuclides have quite a low or very low half-life as well. These facts make the assessment of an independent activity concentration value for each of them difficult and as the existence of radioactive equilibrium in free air among the different radionuclides from the radioactive series cannot be considered, some approaches like the use of an established equilibrium factor are usually taken into account. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to characterize the outdoor air of Bilbao (Spain) in terms of natural radionuclides composition and to obtain the specific value of the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny. To achieve these objectives a set of experimental steps have been carried out: aerosols and particles have been collected from the air using an aerosol sampling station with a nominal flow rate of 500 m3 h-1 and, simultaneously, the Rn activity concentration was obtained by means of an automatic radon probe which provides values applying a pseudo-coincidence technique. Obtained particle filters were immediately measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and also one week and one month after the first measurement. After that, an analytical method, based on Bateman equations, has been used to obtain the activity concentrations of short-lived radionuclides in the sampled air from the values obtained in the early gamma-ray measurements. This analytical method has been previously used to determine the activity concentration of these radionuclides during a welding process and results have been published. As a result of this process, the air is characterized and the data needed to assess the equilibrium factor, by means of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration, obtained. Achieved results

  20. Report on the intercomparison run and certified reference material IAEA-381. Radionuclides in Irish sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate and precise determinations of radionuclide concentrations in marine samples are important aspects of marine radioactivity assessments and the use of radionuclides in studies of oceanographic processes. To address the problem of data quality, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's programme of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). For this intercomparison exercise, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Hamburg, Germany (BSH) collected sea water from the Irish Sea in 1993. IAEA-MEL distributed sample aliquots during 1995-1996 for intercomparison of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. About 80 laboratories world-wide were approached with a questionnaire for participation. Of these, only 43 accepted the invitation because of financial constraints (the participating laboratories were asked to pay transportation expenses). As the sample was collected in the Irish Sea, elevated levels of anthropogenic radionuclides were expected due to discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. Participants were informed that the expected activities for anthropogenic radionuclides would be in the ranges: 90Sr: 50-500 Bq/kg, 137Cs: 100-1000 Bq/kg, 239+240Pu: 1-50Bq/kg, 241Am: 1-50Bq/kg. This report describes the results obtained from 28 laboratories on anthropogenic and natural radionuclide determinations in sea water

  1. Food habits and radionuclide tissue concentrations of Nevada desert bighorn sheep, 1972--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The botanical composition of the diet and radionuclide content of selected tissues of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) collected during the 1972 and 1973 hunting seasons were determined by analyzing rumen contents, and lung, liver, kidney, and bone tissues. Botanical examination of the rumen contents showed that grass exceeded 50 percent of the diet of 10 to 14 animals collected in 1972 and 12 of 18 animals collected in 1973. Desert needlegrass (Stipa speciosa), Indian rice grass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), and squirrel tail (Sitanion hystrix) were the major grasses utilized. The dominant shrub species consumed included the joint firs (Ephedra viridis) and (Ephedra nevadensis), Mohave yucca (Yucca schidigera), and cliff rose (Cowania mexicana). With the exception of potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were not detected in desert bighorn sheep tissue. The tritium levels reported were within environmental levels. Strontium-90 levels averaged 4.9 and 4.1 pCi/gram of bone ash for 1972 and 1973, respectively, continuing the downward trend observed in recent years. Uranium levels were similar to those reported from cattle grazing the same general geographic areas. The daily consumption for one year of 500 grams of liver containing the highest levels of plutonium and uranium would result in a dose to the human bone, the tissue expected to receive the highest dose, of approximately 1 mrem/year. This is less than 1% of the radiation protection guides for the general population

  2. Determination of derived concentration level of radionuclides in soil based on the ICRP-60 recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of a policy for decommissioning nuclear facilities requires establishing a relationship between potential dose to an individual and the radioactive contaminant existing on the surface soil of the site. Dose assessment of residual radioactivity in soil is, therefore, important to make the guideline and to evaluate the post-decontamination radiological effects. It is an activity of radionuclides in soil that is the significant factor of the decontamination. Allowable residual contamination level in soil has been estimated using dose assessment methodology with radiation exposure pathway. First of all, three pathways of external, inhalation and ingestion have been modeled in order to evaluate the radiation dose from the contaminated soil and the radiation dose has been derived based on the ICRP's new radiation protection concepts. Many models and methodologies currently used to calculate the dose are based on the ICRP 26. However, since the ICRP 60 published in 1990 have many significant differences in radiation protection, the modified dose assessment model adopting the new recommendation is required. In this study, new conversion coefficients have been introduced to evaluate radiation dose from the contaminated soil. Effective dose based on new dose conversion coefficients for some key radionuclides has been calculated with Korean data and compared with the result based on old coefficients and with other study's result. There are differences between the result of this study and that of other references, since it seems that the change of dose conversion coefficients could affect the total dose and ARCL

  3. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-384. Radionuclides in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate and precise determinations of radionuclide concentrations in marine samples are important aspects of marine radioactivity assessments and the use of radionuclides in studies of oceanographic processes. To address the problem of data quality, and to assist Member States in verifying the performance of their laboratories, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's programme of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). For this intercomparison exercise, in 1996 IAEA-MEL collected sediment in Fangataufa lagoon, French Polynesia. The sample aliquots were distributed during 1997-1998 for intercomparison of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. 110 laboratories worldwide agreed to participate. Of these, only 94 sent results which could be used in the evaluation of this intercomparison exercise. This report describes the results obtained from 94 laboratories on anthropogenic and natural radionuclide determinations in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

  4. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included 3H, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 234U, 235U, and 238U for soils and 3H, 238Pu, and 239,240Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of 3H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the 3H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards

  5. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) accepance evaluation: Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a compositioniv expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  6. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) acceptance evaluation. Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  7. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  8. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) accepance evaluation: Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a compositioniv expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  9. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) acceptance evaluation. Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  10. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1996--1997. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant-produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the 1996 and 1997 calendar years. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, historic atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS

  11. Analysis for naturally occurring radionuclides at environmental concentrations by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical potential of low level, high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry for naturally occurring radionuclides at environmental levels is described. Comparisons are drawn between the performance of a specially designed low background detector system, and that of standard 'off the shell' devices. Sample characteristics, calibration procedures and checks are described and empirical minimum detection limits of between 0.4 Bqxkg-1 (226Ra, 228Th) and 10 Bqxkg-1 (210Pb) are derived for soil or sediment samples of about 250 g. Representative analyses of a variety of environmental samples, including water, plant material, animal tissue and sediment, are given to illustrate the routine use of the spectrometer. (author) 14 refs.; 8 figs.; 7 tabs

  12. Relation between natural and anthropogenic factors in the redistribution of radionuclides on the 30 km Chernobyl NPP territory, including the result of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the accident natural and anthropogenic ecosystems occupied about 90% of 30-km zone area, including 36% of forest ecosystem, ploughed lands -28%, meadows and bogs - 18%. About 10% of total areas were occupied by ameliorated lands, separate water reservoirs - 2.8% relatively large area. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident the lands structure was changed: Areas of forest territories became larger (up to 12-13%). Areas of territories occupied by different technical constructions, roads were increased too. Contamination of different objects of 30-km zone territory is very uneven, for instance variation of 137Cs contamination of soil reaches the same thousand times (From 0.1-5 up to 10000 and more Ci/km2)

  13. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  14. HARAD: a computer code for calculating daughter concentrations in air following the atmospheric release of a parent radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HARAD computer code, written in FORTRAN IV, calculates concentrations of radioactive daughters in air following the atmospheric release of a parent radionuclide under a variety of meteorological conditions. It can be applied most profitably to the assessment of doses to man from the noble gases such as 222Rn, 220Rn, and Xe and Kr isotopes. These gases can produce significant quantities of short-lived particulate daughters in an airborne plume, which are the major contributors to dose from these chains with gaseous parent radionuclides. The simultaneous processes of radioactive decay, buildup, and environmental losses through wet and dry deposition on ground surfaces are calculated for a daughter chain in an airborne plume as it is dispersed downwind from a point of release of a parent. The code employs exact solutions of the differential equations describing the above processes over successive discrete segments of downwind distance. Average values for the dry deposition coefficients of the chain members over each of these distance segments were treated as constants in the equations. The advantage of HARAD is its short computing time

  15. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and fish collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) contents were determined in soil, vegetation (overstory and understory), and fish (rainbow trout) collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon in 1995. All heavy metal and most radionuclide contents around or within the lake, except for U in soil, vegetation, and fish, were within or just above upper limit background. Detectable levels (where the analytical result was greater than two times counting uncertainty) of U in soils, vegetation, and fish were found in slightly higher concentrations than in background samples. Overall, however, maximum total committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)(95% confidence level)--based on consumption of 46 lb of fish--from Tsicoma Lake (0.066 mrem/y) was within the maximum total CEDE from the ingestion of fish from the Mescalero National Fish Hatchery (background)(0.113 mrem/y).

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash grown in Los Alamos Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo var. black beauty) were grown in a randomized complete-block field/pot experiment at a site that contained the highest observed levels of surface gross gamma radioactivity within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Soils as well as washed edible and nonedible crop tissues were analyzed for various radionuclides and heavy metals . Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3H and totU, in soil from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p -1. This dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit (PDL) of 100 mrem y-1 from all pathways; however, the addition of other internal and external exposure route factors may increase the overall dose over the PDL. Also, the risk of an excess cancer fatality, based on 74 mrem y-1, was 3.7 x 10-5 (37 in a million), which is above the Environmental Protection Agency's (acceptable) guideline of one in a million. 31 refs., 15 tabs

  17. An Innovative Approach for the Calculation of Exposure Point Concentrations for Large Areas of Surface Radionuclide Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Rocky Flats site was designated as a wildlife refuge by the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Act of 2001. Rocky Flats was considered to be one of the most highly contaminated radiological sites in the country. Some portions of the site have low-level radionuclide contamination in surface soils. A site-wide risk and dose assessment to evaluate threats to human health and the environment were performed, so that the site could be released for this land use. The aggressive accelerated action program combined with defensible and innovative risk assessment methods resulted in there being no radionuclides of concern in the final comprehensive risk assessment (DOE 2006). An innovative approach for delineating functional exposure areas and area-weighted exposure point concentration-activities (EPCs) was negotiated with the regulatory agencies in Colorado. This procedure leads to realistic estimates of risk and dose to workers and visitors. This innovative approach to the calculation of EPCs was negotiated with both State and Federal regulators. The value of developing and maintaining good working relationships with regulators responsible for a site can not be overestimated. The building of trust and confidence among responsible parties and regulators is essential for the development and implementation of innovative methods and technologies

  18. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and fish collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide (3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu, total U) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) contents were determined in soil, vegetation (overstory and understory), and fish (rainbow trout) collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon in 1995. All heavy metal and most radionuclide contents around or within the lake, except for U in soil, vegetation, and fish, were within or just above upper limit background. Detectable levels (where the analytical result was greater than two times counting uncertainty) of U in soils, vegetation, and fish were found in slightly higher concentrations than in background samples. Overall, however, maximum total committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)(95% confidence level)--based on consumption of 46 lb of fish--from Tsicoma Lake (0.066 mrem/y) was within the maximum total CEDE from the ingestion of fish from the Mescalero National Fish Hatchery (background)(0.113 mrem/y)

  19. Concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial vegetation on the Hanford site of potential interest to Native Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in Carey's balsamroot (Balsamorhiza careyana) and Gray's desert parsley (Lomatium grayi) were similar to concentrations observed in other plants collected on the Hanford Site and from offsite locations surrounding the Site as part of annual Hanford Site surveillance. Observed concentrations may be attributed to historic fallout more than to Hanford Site emissions, although the observation that 200 Area plants had slightly higher concentrations of 137Cs than 100 Area plants is consistent with other monitoring data of radioactivity in soil and vegetation collected onsite. The present concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in balsamroot and parsley fluctuate around background levels with some of the higher observed concentrations of 90Sr found on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. Analytical results and summary statistics by species and location are presented in the appendixes

  20. NEW CONSTRAINT ON ESTIMATION OF THE ANTHROPOGENIC CO_2 BUDGET : RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONCENTRATION AND δ^<13>C OF ATMOSPHERIC CO_2 DETERMINED FROM ICE CORE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    カトウ, キクオ; コマキ, カオリ; Kikuo, Kato; Kaori, KOMAKI

    1997-01-01

    Studies on ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland revealed variations in the concentration and δ^C of ancient atmospheric CO_2. Since the Industrial Revolution, addition of anthropogenic CO_2 to the atmosphere has caused a significant increase in atmospheric CO_2,accompanied by a decrease in δ^C of atmospheric CO_2. The relationship between them shows that the δ^C value of CO_2 which remained in the atmosphere is significantly larger than -25‰ of that originated from coal burning and defores...

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in elk that winter on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elk spend the winter in areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This study was initiated to determine the levels of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu, and total uranium in various tissues (brain, hair, heart, jawbone, kidneys, leg bone, liver, and muscle) of adult cow elk that use LANL lands during the fall/winter months. No significant differences in radionuclide contents were detected in any of the tissue samples collected from elk on LANL lands as compared with elk collected from off-site locations. The total effective (radiation) dose equivalent a person would receive from consuming 3.2 lb of heart, 5.6 lb of liver, and 226 lb of muscle from elk that winter on LANL lands, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.00008, 0.0001, and 0.008 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was less than 0.01% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting the public

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in elk that winter on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elk spend the winter in areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This study was initiated to determine the levels of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu, and total uranium in various tissues (brain, hair, heart, jawbone, kidneys, leg bone, liver, and muscle) of adult cow elk that use LANL lands during the fall/winter months. No significant differences in radionuclide contents were detected in any of the tissue samples collected from elk on LANL lands as compared with elk collected from off-site locations. The total effective (radiation) dose equivalent a person would receive from consuming 3.2 lb of heart, 5.6 lb of liver, and 226 lb of muscle from elk that winter on LANL lands, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.00008, 0.0001, and 0.008 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was less than 0.01% of the International Commission of Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting the public

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in elk that winter on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.A.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-07-01

    Elk spend the winter in areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This study was initiated to determine the levels of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium in various tissues (brain, hair, heart, jawbone, kidneys, leg bone, liver, and muscle) of adult cow elk that use LANL lands during the fall/winter months. No significant differences in radionuclide contents were detected in any of the tissue samples collected from elk on LANL lands as compared with elk collected from off-site locations. The total effective (radiation) dose equivalent a person would receive from consuming 3.2 lb of heart, 5.6 lb of liver, and 226 lb of muscle from elk that winter on LANL lands, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.00008, 0.0001, and 0.008 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was less than 0.01% of the International Commission of Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting the public.

  4. Specific Activities and Radioactive Contour Maps of Natural (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K ) and Anthropogenic (137Cs) Radionuclides in Beach Sand Samples Collected from Nai Yang Beach of Phuket Province After Tsunai Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Specific activities of natural (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K) and artificial anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 50 beach sand samples collected from Nai Yang beach in Phuket province which was effected from 2004 tsunami disaster, have been studied and measured. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system and also evaluated by using the standard reference materials IAEA/RGU-1, IAEA/RGTh-1, KCL and SL-2 which were obtained from Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkhla University Hat Yai Campus. Experimental set-up and measurements were operated and carried out at Nuclear and Material Physics Laboratory in Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University Songkhla Campus. It was found that, the beach sand specific activity ranges from 862.50 to 3,356.35 Bq/kg for 40K, 3.51- 28.58 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 10.15 to 30.22 Bq/kg for 232Th and 0.00 to 2.39 Bq/kg for 137Cs with mean values of 1,843.03 ± 152.49 Bq/kg, 14.88 ± 3.30 Bq/kg, 19.19 ± 2.80 Bq/kg and 0.14 ± 0.11 Bq/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the results were also used to evaluate the absorbed dose rates in air (D), the radium equivalent (Raeq), the external hazard index (Hex) and the annual effective dose rate (AED) in all beach area. Moreover, experimental results were also compared to the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) research data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurements and evaluation, the recommended values which were proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 1979) and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1988, 1993, 2000). Specific activities of natural and artificial anthropogenic radionuclides in all of Nai Yang beach sand samples could be also used to create the radioactive contour maps

  5. Determination of activity concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in sand samples from mediterranean coast of Antalya in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we attempt to determine the activity concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in 37 sand samples from the Mediterranean coast of Antalya in Turkey by using a high purity Germanium (HpGe) detector. 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard index of sand samples are determined respectively. The average values are 13.43 ± 0.21 Bq/kg, 6.96 ± 0.06 Bq/kg and, 122.46 ± 18.58 Bq/kg, for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively. Most of the activity concentration values are less than below minimum detection limit for 137Cs. The average values of the absorbed dose rate D (nGy/h), annual effective dose equivalent AEDE(μSv/y), radium equivalent activity Raeq (Bq/kg), external hazard index Hex and internal hazard index Hin are 15.52 nGy/h, 19.03 μSv/y, 32.81 Bq/kg, 0.09 and 0.12 respectively. It is observed that 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity are in the limit of the published values, external and internal hazard index values are less than unity.

  6. Activity concentration and population dose from natural occurring radionuclide (40K) due to consumption of fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of natural occurring radionuclide (40K) in different fresh water fish collected from Moticher lake near Kakrapar, Gujarat. The three types of commonly available fresh water fish in Moticher lake are Notopterus sps, Ophiocephalus sps. and Tor sps. The 40K activity (Bq/kg flesh wt.) was found to be in the range of 38-100 (Notopterus sps.), 33-123 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 80-116 (Tor sps.) respectively. The ingestion dose (μSv/y) to the adult population around Kakrapar was estimated due to the consumption of fresh water fish and found to be in the range of 7.7-20.5 (Notopterus sps.), 6.8-25.0 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 16.0-24.0 (Tor sps.) respectively. (author)

  7. The concentrations of Chernobyl derived radionuclides in species characteristic of natural and semi-natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of radiocaesium in individual plant species from different habitats in Cumbria, England is reported. There is a high degree of variability between species which seems more related to the mobility of radiocaesium in the soils than to the absolute amount present. Radiocaesium concentrations in ericaceous species were found to be in good agreement with those in the published literature. The bryophytes sampled often gave greater concentrations than higher plants from the same habitat; this is probably on account of their mode of nutrition. (author)

  8. Variations of radionuclides and major ions concentrations of individual rain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radioactive-nuclides adhered to aerosol are existing in the atmosphere such as 7Be and 210Pb are removed from the atmosphere as atmospheric deposition. Rain is one of the most effective pathways to remove the aerosol from the atmosphere. Concentrations of 7Be, 210Pb and major ions in each rain sample were measured for 10 samples collected from June 2001 to October 2001 at Kumamoto, Japan. The concentrations of 210Pb and 7Be were 26.7 - 140.8 mBq/L, 106 - 1927 mBq/L, respectively. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3- and SO42- as major anions were 0.22 - 1.07 mg/L, 0.23 - 2.36 mg/L, 0.93 - 4.26 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and NH4+ as major cations were 0.10 - 0.59 mg/L, 0.03 - 0.57 mg/L, 0.03 - 0.17 mg/L, 0.23 - 1.01 mg/L, 0.08 - 1.06 mg/L, respectively. The higher concentrations of 7Be and 210Pb were observed at low precipitation and decreased with precipitation. This tendency is also observed on the major ions, indicating that dry deposition and wash out are controlling the concentrations at low precipitation and rain out shows a larger contribution at high precipitation. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Groundwater Concentrations for Basement Fill Model. Zion Station Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Terry [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental, and Climate Sciences Dept.

    2014-12-02

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y⁻¹. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on contaminant concentrations in the fill material; (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use in dose assessment calculations; (c) Estimate the maximum concentration in a well located outside of the fill material; and (d) Perform a sensitivity analysis of key parameters.

  10. Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Groundwater Concentrations for Basement Fill Model. Zion Station Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y-1. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on contaminant concentrations in the fill material; (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use in dose assessment calculations; (c) Estimate the maximum concentration in a well located outside of the fill material; and (d) Perform a sensitivity analysis of key parameters.

  11. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects's New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup

  12. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects`s New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup.

  13. On monitoring anthropogenic airborne uranium concentrations and (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio by Lichen - bio-indicator technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, A V; Golubeva, V N; Krylov, N G; Kuznetsova, V F; Mavrin, S V; Aleinikov, A Yu; Hoppes, W G; Surano, K A

    2005-01-01

    Lichens are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. However, few studies are available in publications on using lichens to qualitatively assess the atmospheric pollution levels. The paper presents research results applying epiphytic lichens as bio-monitors of quantitative atmospheric contamination with uranium. The observations were conducted during 2.5 years in the natural environment. Two experimental sites were used: one in the vicinity of a uranium contamination source, the other one - at a sufficient distance away to represent the background conditions. Air and lichens were sampled at both sites monthly. Epiphytic lichens Hypogimnia physodes were used as bio-indicators. Lichen samples were taken from various trees at about 1.5m from the ground. Air was sampled with filters at sampling stations. The uranium content in lichen and air samples as well as isotopic mass ratios (235)U/(238)U were measured by mass-spectrometer technique after uranium pre-extraction. Measured content of uranium were 1.45 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 2.09 E-04 microgm(-3) in air and 0.106 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 1.13 E-05 microgm(-3) in air. The relationship of the uranium content in atmosphere and that in lichens was determined, C(AIR)=exp(1.1 x C(LICHEN)-12). The possibility of separate identification of natural and man-made uranium in lichens was demonstrated in principle. PMID:16083999

  14. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclide levels in well waters of Ago Iwoye, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural Radioactivity, though natural requires concentration monitoring, especially for the health/ environmental checks of the populace. Materials and Methods; The activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th in the waters from wells with depths ranging between 141.0 214.0 feet were randomly sampled and determined from 20 locations in Ago-Iwoye town in South Western, Nigeria. Results: The activity concentrations obtained were in the ranges of (9.9-50.9)Bq/kg with mean value of (25.1±10.7) Bq/kg for 40K, (BDL-15.0) Bq/kg with mean value of (1.2±3.2) Bq/kg for 238U and (BDL-6.2) Bq/kg with mean value of (1.6±1.7) Bq/kg for 232Th. Conclusion: According to the results obtained for the activity concentrations from 20 well water samples in Ago Iwoye, Southwestern, Nigeria it was observed that the V40K, 238U and 232Th values were still within the tolerance level indicating minimal radiological health burden on the human populace and the environment.

  15. Determination of the concentration of radionuclides in soil and water next the uranium mine of Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, Susana O. [Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Campos, Simara S.S. [State University of Southwest Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. of Basic and Instrumental Studies; Gennari, Roseli F., E-mail: rgennari@dfn.if.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics. Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    2011-07-01

    The economic growing in Brazil is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. Uranium is the fuel used to generate nuclear power. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world and, nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, state that the explored uranium mine is dangerous and polluting, causing water contamination by uranium. So, the population would be receiving radiation doses above permissible limits. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) the company in charge of the complex extraction and production of yellow cake rejected these accusations. The main purpose of this work is the determination of the composition of natural radionuclides in the Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real in order to determine if the nearest population is exposed to environmental radiation. It was checked if there is water contamination due to the natural transport in the uranium mining surroundings. Soil and water samples from Caetite mine and also from nearby town were collected. Only one water sample collected had concentrations higher than the limits recommended by World Health Organization. The presence of radionuclides in soil samples is considered independent of mineral exploration. The effective dose rates in almost all samples are above the world average which is 2.4 mSv/y. To sum up, the presence of uranium in water and soil of the tested areas is probably due to the nature of the soil and not to the exploration of mine. (author)

  16. Determination of the concentration of radionuclides in soil and water next the uranium mine of Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic growing in Brazil is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. Uranium is the fuel used to generate nuclear power. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world and, nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, state that the explored uranium mine is dangerous and polluting, causing water contamination by uranium. So, the population would be receiving radiation doses above permissible limits. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) the company in charge of the complex extraction and production of yellow cake rejected these accusations. The main purpose of this work is the determination of the composition of natural radionuclides in the Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real in order to determine if the nearest population is exposed to environmental radiation. It was checked if there is water contamination due to the natural transport in the uranium mining surroundings. Soil and water samples from Caetite mine and also from nearby town were collected. Only one water sample collected had concentrations higher than the limits recommended by World Health Organization. The presence of radionuclides in soil samples is considered independent of mineral exploration. The effective dose rates in almost all samples are above the world average which is 2.4 mSv/y. To sum up, the presence of uranium in water and soil of the tested areas is probably due to the nature of the soil and not to the exploration of mine. (author)

  17. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 2. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the aquatic environment of the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A marine monitoring programme was carried out within the framework of the IAEA's project entitled ''Study of the Radiological Situation at Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls'' with the aim of assessing present radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls. The terms of reference of the marine working group (WG2) included a review of the data provided by the French authorities on radionuclide distributions in the littoral and sub-littoral environments at the atolls. Further, using accredited international laboratories, it was decided to carry out sufficient and new independent monitoring work at and around the atolls in order to validate existing French data and, the same time, to provide a representative and high quality data set on current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, with particular reference to the requirement of Task Group A for radiological assessment purposes. This work included measurements of the current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, and estimation of concentration factors and Kd values appropriate for the region. The variations in activity concentrations in the lagoons over the past few years are discussed, and the likely sources of activity implied by these data are identified where possible

  18. Some man-made and natural radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the Caspian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The aim of this study was determination Radionuclides concentration in Caspian Sea sediments in Azerbaijan sector. For the study of the distribution of radionuclides in sea sediment was chosen south-east part of Caspian Sea as investigation zone on the basis of known Sea current systems and, the probability of a relatively uniform distribution of some radionuclides. The bottom sediments collected in different parts of the Caspian Sea were analyzed for some natural and man-made radionuclides. Sample preparation was spent on standard methods. The results confirm that the extraction, transportation and production of oil production in Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea didn't change radionuclide background in bottom sediments and dominant source of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Sea environment is global fallout and runoff from rivers Kura and Volga

  19. The effects of fluvial transport on radionuclide concentrations on different particle size classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the effects of grain abrasion and disaggregation on the distribution of 137Cs with respect to particle size and the effects this may have on the use of 137Cs for determining the origin of recent sediment. Cs-137 is a product of above ground nuclear testing and has been deposited on the earth's surface by rainfall. On contact with soil,137Cs is strongly adsorbed by soil particles and there is a direct correlation between 137Cs concentration and decreasing particle size. Rapid adsorption means that 137Cs is preferentially concentrated in surface soils, and it's subsequent redistribution by physical processes rather than chemical has lead to 137Cs being widely used to study soil erosion

  20. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium (137Cs), americium (241Am), plutonium (238Pu and 239,240Pu), tritium (3H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for 238Pu and 3H

  2. Derived air concentrations of the radionuclides not listed in the present regulations and ICRP publications 68 and 72. Supplement of JAERI-Data/Code 2000-001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Katsuo; Endo, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    Derived air concentrations, etc, based on internal dose assessment models of ICRP were calculated and presented in the preceding report, JAERI-Data/Code 2000-001, to satisfy the regulatory requirement for the introduction of the concept of ICRP 1990 recommendations to the Japanese regulations related to radiological protection. The report includes the derived air concentrations, etc, of 794 radionuclides of 97 elements in total, which are considered in the present regulations and are listed in ICRP Publications 68 and 72. In this study, dose coefficients and derived air concentrations, etc, are calculated for 248 radionuclides that are not included in JAERI-Data/Code 2000-001 and are considered to be important in accelerator and fusion reactor facilities. The dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion and derived air concentrations are presented as tables. The derived air concentrations were categorized with half-life and compared with those of JAERI-Data/Code 2000-001. (author)

  3. Concentration and distribution of natural radionuclides at Klipperaasen and Bjulebo, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recipient areas Klipperaasen and Bjulebo are completely different. Bjulebo is a coastal site at the Baltic where two types of recipients are identified: a brackish bay and a lake. Klipperaasen on the other hand is an inland site where lake and situated above a marked fracture zone in the bedrock. Gamma ray surveys, which covered representative soil types, gave average exposure rate values of about 18 μR/h for both sites. This corresponds to a radiation dose of about 1.5 mSv/y. Concentrations of Th and U were determined in rock, soil and plant samples and activities of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, Cs-137 and K-40 in soil and plant samples. Average concentrations in Klipperaasen samples are for granite (dominating rock) 20.7 ppm, Th and 6.6 ppm U, for soil (upper zone) 5.6 ppm Th and 2.9 ppm U and for peat 1.8 ppm Th and 2.4 ppm U (dry weight). Fairly high concentrations were observed in some organic soil samples, 11.5 ppm Th and 13.1 ppm U. The nuclides in the U and Th decay chains are usually in disequilibrium, indicating different migration patterns for the radium, uranium and thorium isotopes. A much higher root uptake of radium isotopes as compared to uranium and thorium isotopes was observed. The water quality and the content of U, Ra-226 and Rn-222 in ground and surface water samples were determined. The Ra-226/U-238 activity ratio is in average 0.1 for the Bjulebo and 3.1 for the Klipperaasen water samples, i.e. the uranium content is roughly the same whereas the Ra-226 content is very low in the Bjulebo water samples. (author)

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1996 growing season. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G--a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National laboratory--were analyzed for 3H, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137Cs, 234U, 235U, 238U, totU, 228Ac, 214Bi, 60Co, 40K, 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb, and 208Tl. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil and vegetation were determined. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3H and 239Pu, in soils and washed and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper limit background concentrations. Tritium was detected as high as 14,744 pCi mL-1 in understory vegetation collected from transuranic (TRU) waste pad number-sign 4, and the TRU waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1996 growing season. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G--a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National laboratory--were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup tot}U, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 60}Co, {sup 40}K, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 22}Na, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 208}Tl. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil and vegetation were determined. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu, in soils and washed and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper limit background concentrations. Tritium was detected as high as 14,744 pCi mL{sup {minus}1} in understory vegetation collected from transuranic (TRU) waste pad {number_sign}4, and the TRU waste pad area contained the highest levels of {sup 239}Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  6. Climate and Physiography Predict Mercury Concentrations in Game Fish Species in Quebec Lakes Better than Anthropogenic Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucotte, Marc; Paquet, Serge; Moingt, Matthieu

    2016-05-01

    The fluctuations of mercury levels (Hg) in fish consumed by sport fishers in North-Eastern America depend upon a plethora of interrelated biological and abiological factors. To identify the dominant factors ultimately controlling fish Hg concentrations, we compiled mercury levels (Hg) during the 1976-2010 period in 90 large natural lakes in Quebec (Canada) for two major game species: northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus). Our statistical analysis included 28 geographic information system variables and 15 climatic variables, including sulfate deposition. Higher winter temperatures explained 36 % of the variability in higher walleye growth rates, in turn accounting for 54 % of the variability in lower Hg concentrations. For northern pike, the dominance of a flat topography in the watershed explained 31 % of the variability in lower Hg concentrations. Higher mean annual temperatures explained 27 % of the variability in higher pike Hg concentrations. Pelagic versus littoral preferred habitats for walleye and pike respectively could explain the contrasted effect of temperature between the two species. Heavy logging could only explain 2 % of the increase in walleye Hg concentrations. The influence of mining on fish Hg concentrations appeared to be masked by climatic effects. PMID:26825460

  7. Anomalies in Natural Background Levels Associated with Minerals with Elevated Radionuclide Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, the results of terrestrial natural background measurements in seven Chinese provinces are discussed. They have been generated as part of a mapping system based on sampling grids of 4 and 16 km2 to provide geochemical data for uranium, thorium and potassium, and complemented by gamma dose rate measurements 1 m above the ground. Points of elevated dose rates were identified as being due to human activities involving minerals with elevated activity concentrations. The number of these instances, and thus the general level of background radiation, is increasing. The result of the analysis indicates that control of activities involving such minerals needs to be considered. (author)

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1998-07-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu), tritium ({sup 3}H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu and {sup 3}H.

  9. Concentration of natural radionuclides in raw water and packaged drinking water and the effect of water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Raw Water (RW) collected from natural sources are subjected to water treatment process including Reverse Osmosis, and are packed in bottles as packaged drinking water (PDW). Raw water (21 nos) taken from deep wells of Chennai and Secunderabad which are used in the production of packaged drinking water, were analysed for 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb concentration levels. Concentration levels of 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in packaged drinking water were also analysed. Uranium was chemically separated using anion exchange method and the activity was estimated by alpha spectrometry. 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in the water samples were pre-concentrated by passing through manganese impregnated acrylic fibre. 226Ra was estimated by emanometry method and counted in alpha counting system. 228Ra and 210Pb was chemically separated and counted in low background beta counting system. The mean concentrations of 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Pb in Raw water (RW) at Chennai were found to be 12.1, 1.3, 7.1, 2.6, 27.5, and 16.3 mBq/L respectively. The mean concentrations of 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in RW at Secunderabad were found to be 40.9, 1.7, 41.5, 84.5, 100.1, and 17.0 mBq/L respectively. The mean concentrations of 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in PDW at Chennai were found to be ≤ 1.3, ≤ 1.3, ≤ 1.3, ≤ 0.2, ≤ 1.7 and 28.0 mBq/L. The mean concentrations of 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Pb in PDW at Secunderabad were found to be ≤ 1.3, ≤ 1.3, 1.7, 4.3, 5.0 and 28.1 mBq/L. The study indicated a considerable reduction in the concentration of natural radionuclides due to water treatment. (author)

  10. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.R. Fresquez; E.A. Lopez

    2004-11-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), {sup 239,240}Pu (60%), {sup 238}Pu (40%), and {sup 241}Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of {sup 3}H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were {sup 3}H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G.

  11. Determination of activity concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in sand samples from mediterranean coast of Antalya in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eke, Canel [Akdeniz Univ., Div. of Physics Education, Antalya (Turkey); Akdeniz Univ., Nuekleer Bilimler Uygulama ve Arastirma Merkezi, Antalya (Turkey); Boztosun, Ismail [Akdeniz Univ., Nuekleer Bilimler Uygulama ve Arastirma Merkezi, Antalya (Turkey); Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Physics, Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we attempt to determine the activity concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in 37 sand samples from the Mediterranean coast of Antalya in Turkey by using a high purity Germanium (HpGe) detector. {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard index of sand samples are determined respectively. The average values are 13.43 ± 0.21 Bq/kg, 6.96 ± 0.06 Bq/kg and, 122.46 ± 18.58 Bq/kg, for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K respectively. Most of the activity concentration values are less than below minimum detection limit for {sup 137}Cs. The average values of the absorbed dose rate D (nGy/h), annual effective dose equivalent AEDE(μSv/y), radium equivalent activity Ra{sub eq} (Bq/kg), external hazard index H{sub ex} and internal hazard index H{sub in} are 15.52 nGy/h, 19.03 μSv/y, 32.81 Bq/kg, 0.09 and 0.12 respectively. It is observed that {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity are in the limit of the published values, external and internal hazard index values are less than unity.

  12. Transfer of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems - Default concentration ratios for aquatic biota in the Erica Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of assessing risk to the environment following a given release of radioactivity requires the quantification of activity concentrations in environmental media and reference organisms. The methodology adopted by the ERICA Integrated Approach involves the application of concentration ratios (CR values) and distribution coefficients (Kd values) for aquatic systems. Within this paper the methodologies applied to derive default transfer parameters, collated within the ERICA Tool databases, are described to provide transparency and traceability in the documentation process. Detailed information is provided for the CR values used for marine and freshwater systems. Of the total 372 CR values derived for the marine ecosystem, 195 were identified by literature review. For the freshwater system, the number of values based on review was less, but still constituted 129 from a total of 372 values. In both types of aquatic systems, 70-80% of the data gaps have been filled by employing 'preferable' approaches such as those based on substituting values from taxonomically similar organisms or biogeochemically similar elements

  13. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  14. Concentration of natural radionuclides in raw water and packaged drinking water and the effect of water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The raw water (RW) samples collected from natural sources are subjected to water treatment process, including reverse osmosis (RO), and are packed in bottles as packaged drinking water (PDW). Raw water (21 samples) taken from deep wells of Chennai and Secunderabad which are used in the production of PDW, were analysed for 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb activity concentrations. Activity Concentrations of 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in PDW were also analysed. The mean activity concentrations of 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in RW at Chennai were 12.1, ≤1.3, 7.1, 2.6, 27.5, and 16.3 mBq/L respectively. The mean activity concentrations of 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in RW at Secunderabad were found to be 40.9, 1.7, 41.5 84.5, 100.1, and 17.0 mBq/L respectively. The mean concentrations of 234U, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in PDW at Chennai were found to be ≤1.3, ≤1.3, ≤1.3, ≤0.2, ≤1.7, 28.0 and 1.2 mBq/L at Secunderabad were found to be ≤1.3, ≤1.3, 1.7, 4.3, 5.0 and 28.1 mBq/L. The study indicated a considerable reduction in the concentration of natural radionuclides due to water treatment. The reduction ratios of RW to PDW for 234U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra were 97, 96, 94 and 95%. In case of 210Pb, the PDW showed higher concentration of 210Pb than RW. This was due to its in growth from 222Rn which was not removed in the RO process

  15. Methodology for uncertainty estimation of Hanford tank chemical and radionuclide inventories and concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact physical and chemical nature of 55 million gallons of toxic waste held in 177 underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site is not known with sufficient detail to support the safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions presented to Hanford. The Hanford Best Basis team has made point estimates of the inventories in each tank. The purpose of this study is to estimate probability distributions for each of the 71 analytes and 177 tanks that the Hanford Best Basis team has made point estimates for. This will enable uncertainty intervals to be calculated for the Best Basis inventories and should facilitate the safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions. Section 2 of this document describes the overall approach used to estimate tank inventory uncertainties. Three major components are considered in this approach: chemical concentration, density, and waste volume. Section 2 also describes the two different methods used to evaluate the tank wastes in terms of sludges and in terms of supernatant or saltcakes. Sections 3 and 4 describe in detail the methodology to assess the probability distributions for each of the three components, as well as the data sources for implementation. The conclusions are given in Section 5

  16. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented are from the nationwide programme to survey the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland. This programme includes results from the vicinities of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Analysis of deposition samples for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents was continued. The results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. The cumulative deposition of long-lived radionuclides retained in soil was measured near the Finnish nuclear power stations. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1979 were lower than in the previous two years, and no 89Sr was detected. The trend to slightly increasing 3H concentrations of previous years was reversed in 1979. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 85 nCi/m2 (3.1 kBq/m2) to 180 nCi/m2 (6.7 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides have decreased continuously since the maximum in 1977. No short-lived radionuclides originating from either nuclear explosions or nuclear power plants were observed in 1979. (author)

  17. Physically based probability criterion for exceeding radionuclide concentration limits in heterogeneous bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant problem in a risk analysis of the repository for high-level nuclear waste is to estimate the barrier effect of the geosphere. The significant spatial variability of the rock properties implies that migrating RNs encounter a distribution of bedrock properties and mass-transfer mechanisms in different proportions along the transport paths. For practical reasons, we will never be able to know exactly this distribution of properties by performing a reasonable amount of measurements in a site investigation. On the contrary, recent experimental studies reveal that crystalline bedrock can possess a marked heterogeneity of various physical and geochemical properties that potentially may have a certain impact on the transport of RNs in fractured bedrock. Also current field investigation techniques provide only fragmentary information of the properties of the geosphere. This is a basic motivation for treating flows of water and solute elements in groundwaters by means of stochastic continuum models. The stochastic analysis is based on the idea that we know only certain point values of the property fields and use this information to estimate intermediate values. The probabilistic properties of the stochastic analysis are suitable input variables for risk analyses of the relevant sequence of extreme events for which empirical observations are rare or non-existing. The purpose of this paper is to outline the implications of the stochastic approach for estimating probabilities that certain concentration limits are exceeded at discharge points from. the bedrock in case of a leakage from the waste repository. The analysis is restricted to the water flow and solute transport in the bedrock alone without consideration of the full sequence of events in a full risk analysis and the Bayesian statistics involved in such conditioned (and cross-correlated) event series. The focus is on the implication for the risk analysis of the auto-covariance structure in bedrock

  18. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  19. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments

  20. Determination of long-lived radionuclide (10Be, 41Ca, 129I) concentrations in nuclear waste by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste is essential for storage sites management. However, most of Long-Lived Radionuclides (LLRN), important for long-term management, are difficult to measure since concentration levels are very low and waste matrices generally complex. In an industrial approach, LLRN concentrations are not directly measured in waste samples but assessed from scaling factors with respect to easily measured gamma emitters. Ideally, the key nuclide chosen (60Co, 137Cs) should be produced by a similar mechanism (fission or activation) as the LLRN of interest and should have similar physicochemical properties. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factors, determined from experimental and/or calculation data, can be quite important. Consequently, studies are performed to develop analytical procedures which would lead to determine precisely the concentration of LLRN in nuclear waste. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of three LLRN: 129I (T1/2 = 15.7*106 a), 41Ca (T1/2 = 9.94*104 a) and 10Be (T1/2 = 1.387*106 a) in spent resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurized Water Reactors using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for measurement. The AMS technique combined mass spectrometry and nuclear physics to achieve highly efficient molecular and elemental isobars separation. Energies of several Million Electron-Volt transferred to the ions in the first accelerating part of specifically developed tandem accelerators lead to molecular isobars destruction through interaction with the argon gas used to strip the injected negative ions to positive ones. At the exit of the tandem accelerator, the energy acquired in both accelerating parts allows an elemental isobars separation based on their significantly different energy loss (dE) while passing through a thickness of matter dx that is proportional to their atomic number (Z) and inversely proportional to ions velocity (v) according to the Bethe

  1. Specific activities and radioactive contour maps of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples (Patong, Kamala, Kata, Karon and Nai Yang) after tsunami disaster in Phuket province, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 155 beach sand samples collected from Patong, Kamala, Kata, Karon and Nai Yang beaches, which were affected by the 2004 tsunami disaster, in Phuket province, Thailand, have been studied and measured. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system. Gamma ray from radioactive standard sources Cesium-137 (137Cs), Cobalt-60 (60Co) and Barium-133 (133Ba) were used to calibrate the measurement system. KCl, two well-known (IAEA/RGU-1 and IAEA/RGTh-1) and IAEA/SL-2 reference materials obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency were used to analyze and compute the 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs specific activities in samples from five beaches. The measuring time of each sample is 10,800 s. It was found that the average specific activity of 40K in these areas (2459.14 ± 171.71 Bq/kg) was rather high. Furthermore, the results were also used to evaluate the absorbed dose rates in air (D), the radium equivalent (Raeq), the external hazard index (Hex) and the annual effective dose rate (AEDout) in all beach areas. Moreover, experimental results were compared with the Office of Atoms for Peace research data, Thailand as well as with global radioactivity measurements and evaluations. All of the calculated values (40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs) were also compared with the recommended values which were proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials, 1979) and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (Sources, effects and risk of ionizing radiation, 1988; Exposure from natural sources of radiation, 1993; Sources, effects and risk of ionizing radiation, 2000). The data can be also used to create the radioactive contour maps of the investigated area. (author)

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in oil extraction and production processes in Northeast Brazil; Teores de radionuclideos em processos de extracao e de producao de petroleo no nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, Maria Helena Paranhos

    2005-06-15

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) was detected in the water and oil extracted from wells both onshore and offshore. The oil is extracted together with water and sediments which contain radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series. Among the radionuclides present, especial attention should be given to {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, due to its long half-life and importance, from the radiological point of view. The objective of this work was to identify the natural radionuclides in the oil industry, to determine their activity concentration, and from these results, to evaluate the risks the employees of the oil industry are exposed to. Samples of sludge, scale and produced water extracted with the oil were collected from three oil processing stations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined in the solid samples before and after the extraction of the oil. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the samples without oil was evaluated. Water samples, on the other hand, were analyzed for their contents of radionuclides and barium concentration. It was observed that the activity concentrations of the analyzed radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th and {sup 210}Pb) in sludge and scales were very high when compared with the literature, particularly much higher than the values for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra obtained for sludge and scales from the oil platforms near the city of Campos, state of Rio de Janeiro. The maximum concentration values for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th and {sup 210}Pb (3,500, 2,195, 2,248.6 and 201 kBq kg{sup -1}, respectively) were obtained for the scales after the extraction of the oil. The analysis of the samples showed that barium sulphate (barite) and strontium sulphate (celestite) are the main constituents of the scales, while carbonates and silicates, together with other compounds are the

  3. Natural radionuclide concentrations in granite rocks in Aswan and Central-Southern Eastern Desert (Egypt)) and their radiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of granites, used extensively in local construction, were collected from five localities in Egypt, namely: Abu Ziran (Central Eastern Desert), Gabal El Maesala (Aswan) and three areas from Wadi Allaqi, (Gabal Abu Marw, Gabal Haumor and Gabal um Shalman), in the South Eastern Desert. Granite samples were studied radiologically, petrographically and geochemically. The contents of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K) were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3'x3']. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the selected granite samples ranged from 9±0.5 to 111±7, 8±1 to 75±4 and 100±6 to 790±40 Bq kg-1, respectively. The external hazard index (Hex), absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The calculated radium equivalents were lower than the values recommended for construction materials (370 Bq kg-1). The excess lifetime cancer risks were also calculated. Petrographically, the granites studied are varied in the form of potash-feldspar, quartz, plagioclase, mica and hornblende. The accessory minerals are zircon, apatite and allanite. Geochemically, the chemical composition of the granite is studied especially for major oxides. They are characterized to have SiO2, K2O, Na2O and Al2O3 with depletion in CaO, MgO, TiO2 and P2O5. (authors)

  4. Heavy Metals Concentrations in top Soils of Urban Areas (Naples - Southern Italy) as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.

    2001-12-01

    Heavy metals pollution, which mainly originates from automobile exhausts and industry, is a serious danger for human health. The source and extension of heavy metals pollution in the top soils has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. The role of the soil processes in accumulating or mobilising metals is very important in environmental science due to the central position of the soil in the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. Concentrations of heavy metals in top soils, collected in green areas and public parks in metropolitan Naples area have been determined to provide information on specific emission sources. In addition to toxic metals, such as Pb, As, Cd, Cr and others, we have investigated the top soils as well for Pt group elements (PGEs), because since 1993 it is mandatory within EC for all new petrol driven motor vehicles to be equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converter. In Italy this law has come into effect in 1998, but still is allowed to old vehicles use lead gasoline, though now the big majority of cars is equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converters. Emission of abraded fragments of catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts will certainly determine environmental contamination with Pt group elements (PGEs), since many Pt complexes are highly cytotoxic and, in small dose, are strong allergens and potent sensitiser. The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities and vehicles traffic is an interesting area to be monitored in order to check the pollution state of the soils. The geology of the area is prevalently represented by volcanics, erupted from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. To compile multi-element geochemical maps baseline we have sampled in situ and transported top soil for a total of 200 samples. The survey have been carried at about 200 sites covering an area of about 120 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the highly urbanised area and 1 km x 1 km

  5. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were carried out to determine the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland including those from the surroundings of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Deposition samples were analysed for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents. 90Sr, 239,240Pu, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclides deposited in soil were also measured. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1978 remained at almost the same level as in 1977. The slightly increasing trend in 3H concentrations continued in 1978. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 120 nCi/m2 (4.4 kBq/m2) to 200 nCi/m2 (7.4 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides during 1978 were smaller than during 1977. No increase in radioactivity originating from nuclear power plants could be observed. (author)

  6. Assessment of natural radionuclides concentration from 238U and 232Th series in Virginia and Burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop production of 2013/2014. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco products varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variations resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world, and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed globally, and many surveys are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. There is a lack of information about the radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of radionuclides 238U, 234U, 230Th, 22'6Ra, 210Pb and 210Po, members from the 238U decay series, and the radionuclides 232Th and 228Ra members of the 232Th decay series in the varieties Burley and Virginia, which are the most cultivated in Brazil. Plants from these varieties were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and also acquired from the producers and analyzed by alpha spectrometry for U and Th isotopes and 210Po determination, and gross alpha and beta counting, 228Ra, 226Ra and 210Pb determination. The whole plant, from both places, was analyzed; root, stem, leaves, as well as the organic substrate, the fertilizers, and the soil. The results for U and Th isotopes presented values below the detection limits of the methods to the leaves and stems of all plants analyzed, with measurable results only in roots, soil, and substrate. The radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po, were determined in most parts of the plants

  7. Assessments of radioactivity concentration of natural radionuclides and radiological hazard indices in sediment samples from the East coast of Tamilnadu, India with statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R; Chandramohan, J; Chandrasekaran, A; Prince Prakash Jebakumar, J; Vijayalakshmi, I; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2015-08-15

    This paper reports on the distribution of three natural radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in coastal sediments from Pattipulam to Devanampattinam along the East coast of Tamilnadu to establish baseline data for future environmental monitoring. Sediment samples were collected by a Peterson grab samples from 10m water depth parallel to the shore line. Concentration of natural radionuclides were determined using a NaI(Tl) detector based γ-spectrometry. The mean activity concentration is ⩽2.21, 14.29 and 360.23Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The average activity of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K is lower when compared to the world average value. Radiological hazard parameters were estimated based on the activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K to find out any radiation hazard associated with the sediments. The radiological hazard parameters such as radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose rates in air (DR), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), external hazard index (Hex) internal hazard index (Hin), activity utilization index (AUI) and excess lifetime cancer (ELCR) associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with internationally approved values and the recommended safety limits. Pearson correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) have been applied in order to recognize and classify radiological parameters in sediments collected at 22 sites on East coast of Tamilnadu. The values of radiation hazard parameters were comparable to the world averages and below the recommended values. Therefore, coastal sediments do not to pose any significant radiological health risk to the people living in nearby areas along East coast of Tamilnadu. The data obtained in this study will serve as a baseline data in natural radionuclide concentration in sediments along the coastal East coast of Tamilnadu. PMID:26036177

  8. Anthropogenic impacts on mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in fish muscle tissue of the Truckee River watershed, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lower Truckee River originates at Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada (NV), USA and ends in the terminal water body, Pyramid Lake, NV. The river has minimal anthropogenic inputs of contaminants until it encounters the cities of Reno and Sparks, NV, and receives inflows from Steamboat Creek (SBC). SBC originates at Washoe Lake, NV, where there were approximately six mills that used mercury for gold and silver amalgamation in the late 1800s. Since then, mercury has been distributed down the creek to the Truckee River. In addition, SBC receives agricultural and urban nonpoint source pollution, and treated effluent from the Reno-Sparks water reclamation facility. Fish muscle tissue was collected from different species in SBC and the Truckee River and analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes. Nitrogen (?δ 15N) and carbon (?δ 13C) isotopic values in these tissues provide insight as to fish food resources and help to explain their relative Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations, and ?δ 15N and ?δ 13C values in fish muscle from the Truckee River, collected below the SBC confluence, were significantly different than that found in fish collected upstream. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue collected below the confluence for all but three fish sampled were significantly greater (0.1 to 0.65 μg/g wet wt.) than that measured in the tissue collected above the confluence (0.02 to 0.1 μg/g). ?δ 15N and ?δ 13C isotopic values of fish muscle collected from the river below the confluence were higher and lower, respectively, than that measured in fish collected up river, most likely reflecting wastewater inputs. The impact of SBC inputs on muscle tissue isotope values declined down river whereas the impact due to Hg inputs showed the opposite trend

  9. Method and result for calculation of radioactivity concentration of radionuclide corresponding to dose criterion for near surface disposal of radioactive waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we calculated radioactivity concentration of radionuclides potentially contained in low level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities corresponding to dose criterion (10 μSv/y) for near surface disposal. From the result we discussed radionuclides whose radioactivity in the waste should be evaluated. Many kinds of radionuclides are contained in LLW generated from research facilities because of various uses of radioactive materials in the facilities. 220 kinds of nuclides whose half-life are more than 30 days were selected considering the possibility of existence in LLW generated from research facilities. Radioactivity concentrations corresponding to dose criterion of 40 nuclides among 220 ones were calculated by using the representative model in Japan because the concentrations of 40 nuclides had not been calculated yet. As a result, the radioactivity concentrations of 21 nuclides were evaluated, however, the concentrations of 19 ones were invalid values that are larger than the specific radioactivity of nuclides. Skyshine dose from each nuclide among 19 nuclides during operation of disposal facility was calculated. Skyshine dose from each of 11 nuclides among 19 ones was relatively high, therefore, 11 ones were selected as nuclides to be considered in safety assessment of operation period. Consequently, we got radioactivity concentrations of 141 nuclides corresponding to dose criterion among 220 ones. As a result the 141 nuclides were selected as the nuclides for evaluation of radioactivity in waste. And then we added 31 nuclides except for 141 ones as the nuclides to be evaluated in safety assessment of operation period. The radioactivity concentrations set in this report can be used as criteria of categorization of LLW between trench type and concrete vault type disposal and of preliminary selection of important nuclides of these disposals in the generic conditions. (author)

  10. General principles of rating fission products uptake into the body of farm animals and radionuclide concentration [n the forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some principles of establishing norms for the content of main fission products such as Sr89, Sr90, I131 and Cs137 in fodders for farm animals are described. These norms are established on the bases of the norms of radionuclide contents in human foods. It is emphasized that no generally applicable norms of radionuclide contents in the diets of farm animals can be worked out because of the great diversity of possible radiation situations, of geographical zones, and of conditions of agricultural production

  11. Kinetic transfer coefficients for radionuclides in estuarine waters. Reference values from 133Ba and effects of salinity and suspended load concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In estuarine environments there are important spatial and temporal changes in both salt and suspended load concentrations. An experimental procedure have been developed to produce kinetic parameters being representative of the natural environment studied, and we have investigated the effect of salinity and suspended load concentration to the kinetics of the uptake. These results are encouraged by recent advances in environmental modelling concerning to radionuclide dispersion in aquatic natural systems and involving non-equilibrium processes. Experiments are carried out with unfiltered water samples from the Odiel estuary (Southwest of Spain), with 133Ba tracer to illustrate experimental procedures. (author)

  12. Up-to-date concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides in the Tom and Ob rivers in the area influenced by discharges from Siberian chemical combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is located in Seversk (formerly known as Tomsk-7) in the Tomsk Region of the Russian Federation. The main contribution of radionuclides in the SCC process water discharged into the Tom River was from the single-pass reactors, now removed from service (the last SCC reactor was shutdown on June 5, 2008). The data on the concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and other artificial radionuclides in water, bottom sediments and flood-plain soils of the Tom and Ob rivers from Tomsk to the confluence of the rivers, are presented and discussed. The results of measurements carried out after shutdown of the last SCC single-pass reactor indicated no radiologically significant consequences of SCC activities for the studied water environment compartments. Contemporary activity concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in river water were below the intervention levels established by current regulations of the Russian Federation for these radionuclides. The results of 3H analysis in water from the Tom and Samuska rivers demonstrated no inflow of contaminated formation water to surface water from the sites where liquid radioactive wastes of the SCC were injected below the surface. However, the density of flood-plain soil contamination by long-lived 137Cs in the area influenced by SCC liquid discharges was higher than regional technogenic background. There were local flood-plain areas contaminated not only by 137Cs, but also other gamma-emitters, such as 60Co and 152Eu.

  13. Insights into Local Sediment Radionuclide Absorption and Retention in the island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier-Guzman, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been introduced to Puerto Rico, a United States (US) Commonwealth, via two major sources: global atmospheric fallout and local US government-sponsored tropical ecosystem experiments, prototype nuclear reactor testing and military artillery exercises. In October 2003 a preliminary investigation was initiated to examine the distribution and behavior of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Caribbean National Forest, Vieques and Rincon. During this investigation, sediment, vegetation and water samples were collected and analyzed. Analytical results of sediment samples indicate the presence of anthropogenic radionuclides at all three sample locations. Surface and downcore 137Cs distributions, as well as particle size characteristics of sediments collected from Vieques and Rincon are presented below. Results indicate that surface 137Cs activities at the Vieques sampling sites range from below detection limits to 0.01 Bq/g. Particle concentrations vary at each location. The average concentration of clay size particles are slightly higher at Kiani Lagoon (6 % clay) than at Mosquito Bay (2 % clay). It is anticipated that outcomes from this on-going investigation will include an increased understanding of radionuclide concentrations, distributions and behaviors, with respect to local aquatic geochemistry, dominant transport processes and ecological characteristics.

  14. Valuating report on radionuclide concentrations in the waste water and mixed slurry from the Vienna main clarifying plant for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample preparation- and measuring methods, and results on 16 nuclides from the Vienna clarifying plant for 1988 are presented. Comparisons with the 1987 values are made and hypotheses about the sources of radionuclides - natural, atmospheric atomic weapons tests, Chernobyl accident and medical applications - are presented. An estimation of the activity transferred to the surface waters (Danube) over 1988 is also made. 16 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs. (qui)

  15. Functional-ecological and age-specific regularities of radionuclide concentration by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the studies on 90Sr and 137Cs content in the tissues of bivalve and gastropod mollusks of water basins in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP have been analyzed. The dependence of radionuclide accumulation factors on the peculiarities of morphological structure, functional ecology and nutrition type was found. The age dynamics of 137Cs content in some species of Gastropod was studied

  16. On the use of International Standards Guidelines Values for radionuclide concentrations in food and drinking water contaminated as result of a nuclear or radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To deal with the control of radionuclide concentrations in food and drinking water used by affected people in a radiological emergency or in post emergency circumstances, as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological accident, International Organizations, FAO, WHO and IAEA have established standards with recommended activity concentrations to be applied under the different prevailing circumstances. Therefore there are several different sets of activity concentrations in food and drinking water in use including recommended values for international trade of foodstuff which are not always clearly understood. This presentation refers to the existing international standards and the values for radionuclide concentrations recommended by the International Organizations and reports on the activities and conclusion reach by the interagency Working Group establish by the IAEA Secretary at the request of the Radiation Safety Standard Committee, RASSC, with the specific aim of producing a discussion paper to clarify on the matter, documenting the various international standards, the basis on which they had been derived and the circumstances in which they are intended be used. (author)

  17. Distribution of artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclide activity concentration in the top soil in the vicinity of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and other regions in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksiene, Benedikta, E-mail: bena@ar.fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave. 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Marciulioniene, Danute [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Rozkov, Andrej [PLL ' LOKMIS' Radiometry Department, Visoriu 2, LT-08300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gudelis, Arunas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave. 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Holm, Elis [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, SE-22185 Lund (Sweden); Galvonaite, Audrone [Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service under the Ministry of Environment, Rudnios str. 6, LT-09300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-11-15

    The impact of the operating Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) on the contamination of top soil layer with artificial radionuclides has been studied. Results of the investigation of artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclide distribution in soil in the vicinity of the INPP and distant regions in Lithuania in 1996-2008 (INPP operational period) show that nowadays {sup 137}Cs remains the most important artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclide in the upper soil layer. Mean {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the top soil layer in the vicinity of the INPP were found to be significantly lower compared to those in remote regions of Varena and Plunge ({approx} 300 km from INPP). In 1996 and 1998 mean {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were in the range of 28-45 Bq/kg in the nearest vicinity to the INPP, 103 Bq/kg in Varena and 340 Bq/kg in Plunge region. {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were 5-20 times lower in meadow soil (4-14 Bq/kg) compared to swamp and forest soil. {sup 60}Co, the INPP origin radionuclide, was detected in samples only in 1996 and 2000, and the activity concentration of {sup 60}Co was found to be in the range from 0.4 to 7.0 Bq/kg at the sampling ground nearest to the INPP. Average annual activity concentrations of the INPP origin {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co in the air and depositions in the INPP region were modeled using Pasquill-Gifford equations. The modeling results of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co depositional load in the INPP vicinity agree with the experimentally obtained values. Our results provide the evidence that the operation of INPP did not cause any significant contamination in soil surface. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma-emitters in top soil were studied during the operational period of the Ignalina NPP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only {sup 137}Cs was detected in each sample of the top soil in studied regions every year. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mean {sup 137}Cs activity in the top soil of the INPP

  18. Assessments of radioactivity concentration of natural radionuclides and radiological hazard indices in sediment samples from the East coast of Tamilnadu, India with statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the clustering of radioactive variables. - Highlights: • The radiation hazard parameters were below the recommended values of safety limits. • Radiation hazard indices reflect study area become radiological safe to human beings. • Pearson correlation, PCA and HCA results are in good agreement with each other. - Abstract: This paper reports on the distribution of three natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in coastal sediments from Pattipulam to Devanampattinam along the East coast of Tamilnadu to establish baseline data for future environmental monitoring. Sediment samples were collected by a Peterson grab samples from 10 m water depth parallel to the shore line. Concentration of natural radionuclides were determined using a NaI(Tl) detector based γ-spectrometry. The mean activity concentration is ⩽2.21, 14.29 and 360.23 Bq kg−1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The average activity of 232Th, 238U and 40K is lower when compared to the world average value. Radiological hazard parameters were estimated based on the activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K to find out any radiation hazard associated with the sediments. The radiological hazard parameters such as radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose rates in air (DR), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), external hazard index (Hex) internal hazard index (Hin), activity utilization index (AUI) and excess lifetime cancer (ELCR) associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with internationally approved values and the recommended safety limits. Pearson correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) have been applied in order to recognize and classify radiological parameters in sediments collected at 22 sites on East coast of Tamilnadu. The values of radiation hazard parameters were comparable to the world averages and below the recommended

  19. Radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container for an inventory-limited and a constant concentration source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical solutions for transient and steady state diffusive mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container are developed for constant concentration and inventory-limited source conditions. Mass transport in three media are considered, inside the pinhole (medium 2), outside the container (medium 3) and inside the container (medium 1). Simple equations are developed for radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole. It is shown that the medium with the largest mass transfer resistance need only be considered to provide a conservative estimate of mass transfer rates. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  20. Estimation of radionuclides concentration and average annual committed effective dose due to ingestion for some selected medicinal plants of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandrashekara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight medicinal plants and soil samples from the Malnad area of Karnataka in South India (N 13°29′35.4″; E 75°18′02.4″ were analysed for activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The average annual committed effective dose (AACED due to the ingestion of radionuclides from medicinal plants were also estimated. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, and 40K were found to vary in the range of 32.27–60.12 Bqkg−1, 56.09–160.56 Bqkg−1, 49.61–98.46 Bqkg−1, and 241.57–712.85 Bqkg−1, respectively, in the soil samples and 2.66–11.27 Bqkg−1, BDL to 87.03 Bqkg−1, 2.42–8.72 Bqkg−1, and 93.79–6831.40 Bqkg−1, respectively, in the medicinal plants corresponding to the soil samples. The activity concentration of artificially produced radionuclide 137Cs was BDL to 12.34 Bqkg−1 in the soil and it was below detectable level (BDL in all the plant samples. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF varied from 0.07 to 0.27, BDL to 0.80, 0.04 to 0.13 and 0.17 to 23.80, respectively, for 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, and 40K. The AACED due to the ingestion of radionuclides from the medicinal plants varied from 0.0075 to 0.1067 mSvy−1. The AACED values reported in this study are much below the world average value of 0.30 mSvy−1 for an individual. This indicates that there is no radiological health risk in using these plants for medicinal purposes. This study may also contribute data on local medicinal plants to formulate regulations related to radiological healthcare.

  1. Site survey of former naval base in Andreyev Bay, northwest-Russia - Radiation levels and radionuclide concentrations on and below the surface level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main results of the program to examine radiation levels and radionuclide concentrations on and below the surface level at the former Russian naval base in Andreyev Bay, Murmansk County. Presently, this base represents an exceptional case regarding future remediation and cleanup operations due to the accident risk (- max. fuel inventory of 100 submarine cores) and degree of contamination (over 25 years with continuous release - still ongoing - of radionuclides into the terrestrial and marine environment). The first part of the survey consists of about 1030 measurement points established as a grid with 10 m and 5 m mesh size for the measurement of dose rate in two heights above the ground level (0.1 m, 1 m), radionuclide concentrations, drilling of 50 boreholes for further examination of the radionuclide releases on site and the establishment of a 1:500 map of the area. These surveys were completed 2002-04. The results for dose rate measurements taken 1 m above the ground level varies between background levels and 3 mSv/h. Additional measurements were completed around the main building structures at the site and as part of a geological survey of the site. The activity concentration levels for Cs-137 and Sr-90 were measured in 250 points being part of the same measurement grid as above. The results for both isotopes range from normal fallout levels from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing to above 1 MBq/kg. The main conclusion is that continuous releases of fission products from spent nuclear fuel and fuel residues in defect storage pools have, together with inadequate storage facilities for large amounts of solid radioactive waste, led to heavy contamination of fission products in large areas. The 1:500 map is not public accessible. Thus, the second part of the survey was to analyse and document the results in adequate maps. These maps, geo-referenced to the UTM WGS84 system, have been established on the basis of commercial available satellite

  2. Worldwide marine radioactivity studies (WOMARS): Radionuclide levels in oceans and seas. Final report of a coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication summarizes the results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) carried out by the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. It provides the most comprehensive information on levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the world ocean. Three anthropogenic radionuclides - 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu - were chosen as the most representative of anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment, comprising beta-, gamma- and alpha-emitters which have the highest potential contribution to radiation doses to humans via seafood consumption. Although the ocean contains the majority of the anthropogenic radionuclides released into the environment, the radiological impact of this contamination is low. Radiation doses from naturally-occurring radionuclides in the marine environment (e.g. 210Po) are on the average two orders of magnitude higher. The results confirm that the dominant source of anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment is global fallout. The total 137Cs input from global fallout was estimated to be 311 PBq for the Pacific Ocean, 201 PBq for the Atlantic Ocean, 84 PBq for the Indian Ocean and 7.4 PBq for the Arctic Ocean. For comparison, about 40 PBq of 137Cs was released to the marine environment from Sellafield and Cap de la Hague reprocessing plants. The Chernobyl accident contributed about 16 PBq of 137Cs to the sea, mainly the Baltic and Black Seas, where the present average concentrations of 137Cs in surface water were estimated to be about 60 and 25 Bq/m3, respectively, while the worldwide average concentration due to global fallout is about 2 Bq/m3. For the purposes of this study, the world ocean was divided into latitudinal belts for which average radionuclide concentrations were estimated. Further, where available, time trends in radionuclide concentrations in surface water were studied and mean residence times of radionuclides in these areas as well as in the world

  3. Gamma spectroscopic soil measurements: Spatial variation of concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and their correlation with external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a coherent region of about 1800 km2 (Kreis Steinfurt, North-West Germany) the spatial distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined. The sampling locations were regularly distributed with distances of about 4 km from each other. Each sample was prepared from 36 soil cores (length 20 cm, diameter 46 mm) taken from an area of 100x100 m2 of pasture-land. The soil was air dried, sieved to 2x2 mm and carefully mixed. The measurements were carried out with a high purity coaxial Ge-detector. The measured activities are used to calculate the contribution of artificial and natural radionuclides to the external exposure. Kerma rate factors for infinite homogeneous plane sources in the ground were used, which were calculated by Jacob and Paretzke by the Monte Carlo method. Measurements with a calibrated dose rate meter indicated a good agreement with the calculated values. It is shown, that the spatial variability of the dose rates caused by artificial and natural nuclides respectively is in the same order (about factor 4). For this reason the cesium-distribution pattern is not correlated to the external gamma-ray exposure in the investigated region. (orig.)

  4. Estimate of the annual effective dose for natural radionuclides of anthropogenic origin in the Bay of Cadiz; Estimacion de la dosis efectiva anual correspondiente a radionucleidos naturales y de origen antropogenico en la Bahia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo, J. F.; Martinez-Ramos, C.; Barbero, L.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2011-07-01

    Knowledge of radioactivity levels in soils has a double interest: on the one hand, allows you to set the reference values ??(base Linne) from a region or geographic area, and secondly, to evaluate the external radiation dose received by the population and biota, through appropriate dosimetric model. The natural radioactivity, especially the radionuclides in the natural series. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of gamma emitting radionuclides in marine sediments of the Bay of Cadiz, and dose rates from external radiation received in the areas studied. (Author)

  5. Concentration Data for Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Finished Water of Selected Community Water Systems in the United States, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems (CWSs) in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that is treated and ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before entering the distribution system. SWQA studies are conducted in two phases, and the objectives of SWQA studies are twofold: (1) to determine the occurrence and, for rivers, seasonal changes in concentrations of a broad list of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in aquifers and rivers that have some of the largest withdrawals for drinking-water supply (phase 1), and (2) for those AOCs found to occur most frequently in source water, characterize the extent to which these compounds are present in finished water (phase 2). These objectives were met for SWQA studies by collecting ground-water and surface-water (source) samples and analyzing these samples for 258 AOCs during phase 1. Samples from a subset of wells and surface-water sites located in areas with substantial agricultural production in the watershed were analyzed for 19 additional AOCs, for a total of 277 compounds analyzed for SWQA studies. The 277 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and

  6. Investigation into the concentration of radionuclides in major imported and exported foods and foodstuffs to derive data base on the radioactivity in vietnamese food and foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation into radionuclides concentration in foods and foodstuffs and establishment of database on the radioactivity of the goods is important for the internal dose assessment for every country. Therefore, in the 2007-2008 the Ministry of Science and Technology Vietnam sponsored a Project encoded 11/09/NLNT with the aims of to identify and quantify the radioactivity of radionuclides in imported to and exported from Vietnam products. About 130 foods and foodstuffs samples were collected and analyzed for the radioactivity in it. The radionuclides analyzed in this work are natural occurring isotopes such as Bi-214, Ac-228 and that originated from the U and Th series and K-40. The artificial gamma emitter Cs-137 was subjected to the quantification also. Additionally, total alpha, beta and gamma in the samples were analyzed as well. Data obtained showed that the radioactivity of K-40, Ac-228, Bi-214, total beta, total alpha, and total gamma activity in Vietnamese foods and foodstuffs ranging from 10.4 Bq/kg to 856.6 Bq/kg with an average of 255.3 Bq/kg, from 0.3 Bq/kg to 9.0 Bq/kg (average 1.3 Bq/kg), from 0.3 Bq/kg to 3.1 Bq/kg (average 1.1 Bq/kg), from 2.1 Bq/kg to 519.3 Bq/kg (average 110.9 Bq/kg), and from less than the limit of detection (0.02 Bq/kg) to 306.7 Bq/kg (average 31.9 Bq/kg), respectively. The radioactivity range of both NORM and artificial radioisotopes in Vietnamese food and foodstuffs was comparable and low with those recommended by the ICRP. A preliminary estimate for the effective internal dose from food consumption among Vietnamese adults has been presented also. (author)

  7. Concentration and distribution patterns of naturally occurring radionuclides in sediments and flood plain soils of the catchment area of the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of uranium mining and milling as well as that of traditional mining activities on river sediments and flood plain soils in the catchment area of the river Elbe was investigated over the years 1994 to 1995. Contamination resulting from mining activities has been identified by comparing the median values for the measured radionuclides, and by establishing the ratio between Ra-226 and Ra-228. The transport and deposition of contaminated materials as a result of high water events, and river discharge of waste water from mining and milling facilities, can be considered to be the main paths of sediment and soil contamination. Sediments and flood plain soils located in the vicinity of former uranium mining and milling sites are primarily influenced by discharges of waste water. Long distance transport and deposition at dams, barrages and on flood plains has mainly been caused by high water events. In many cases the radionuclide concentrations were higher in the subsurface layer than in the top layer of flood plain soil. Due to termination of uranium mining and milling activities, no significant contamination of newer or fresh sediments was found. Radiation exposure arising in relation to angling or walking on flood plains is low

  8. Concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial vegetation on the Hanford site of potential interest to Native Americans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in Carey`s balsamroot (Balsamorhiza careyana) and Gray`s desert parsley (Lomatium grayi) were similar to concentrations observed in other plants collected on the Hanford Site and from offsite locations surrounding the Site as part of annual Hanford Site surveillance. Observed concentrations may be attributed to historic fallout more than to Hanford Site emissions, although the observation that 200 Area plants had slightly higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs than 100 Area plants is consistent with other monitoring data of radioactivity in soil and vegetation collected onsite. The present concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in balsamroot and parsley fluctuate around background levels with some of the higher observed concentrations of {sup 90}Sr found on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. Analytical results and summary statistics by species and location are presented in the appendixes.

  9. Radionuclide and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fish from the Confluences of Major Canyons That Cross Los Alamos National Laboratory Lands with the Rio Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom-feeding fish--catfish, suckers, and carp--that were collected from the confluences of some of the major canyons that cross LANL lands with the Rio Grande (RG) exhibited similar radionuclide (with the exception of 90Sr), and nonradionuclide concentrations to fish collected upstream of any potential LANL contamination sources. Strontium-90 concentrations in fish from LANL canyons/RG may be associated with LANL operations; however, the concentrations of 90Sr in fish decrease to background concentrations further downstream of LANL at CR. And, based on the most conservative assumptions (a 95% source term and maximum consumption rate), LANL operations do not result in significant doses to the general public from consuming fish along the length of the RG as it passes through the eastern edge of LANL lands to CR. Moreover, since over 85% of the doses were a result of 90Sr detected in the muscle plus bone portions of the fish and most of the 90Sr is associated with the bone, the doses to people that consume only the edible portions of the fish (muscle only), would be significantly lower

  10. Radionuclide and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fish from the Confluences of Major Canyons That Cross Los Alamos National Laboratory Lands with the Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraig, D.H.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Mullen, M.A.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1999-02-01

    Bottom-feeding fish--catfish, suckers, and carp--that were collected from the confluences of some of the major canyons that cross LANL lands with the Rio Grande (RG) exhibited similar radionuclide (with the exception of {sup 90}Sr), and nonradionuclide concentrations to fish collected upstream of any potential LANL contamination sources. Strontium-90 concentrations in fish from LANL canyons/RG may be associated with LANL operations; however, the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in fish decrease to background concentrations further downstream of LANL at CR. And, based on the most conservative assumptions (a 95% source term and maximum consumption rate), LANL operations do not result in significant doses to the general public from consuming fish along the length of the RG as it passes through the eastern edge of LANL lands to CR. Moreover, since over 85% of the doses were a result of {sup 90}Sr detected in the muscle plus bone portions of the fish and most of the {sup 90}Sr is associated with the bone, the doses to people that consume only the edible portions of the fish (muscle only), would be significantly lower.

  11. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Environmantal Media arond te Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facilit at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J.Gonzales; P.R. Fresquez; C.D.Hathcock; D.C. Keller

    2006-05-15

    The Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that samples of biotic and abiotic media be collected after operations began to determine if there are any human health or environmental impacts. The DARHT facility is the Laboratory's principal explosive test facility. To this end, samples of soil and sediment, vegetation, bees, and birds were collected around the facility in 2005 and analyzed for concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl. Bird populations have also been monitored. Contaminant results, which represent up to six sample years since the start of operations, were compared with (1) baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) established over a four-year preoperational period before DARHT facility operations, (2) screening levels (SLs), and (3) regulatory standards. Most radionuclides and trace elements were below BSRLs and those few samples that contained radionuclides and trace elements above BSRLs were below SLs. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in biotic and abiotic media around the DARHT facility do not pose a significant human health hazard. The total number of birds captured and number of species represented were similar in 2003 and 2004, but both of these parameters increased substantially in 2005. Periodic interruption of the scope and schedule identified in the MAP generally should have no impact on meeting the intent of the MAP. The risk of not sampling one of the five media in any given year is that if a significant impact to contaminant levels were to occur there would exist a less complete understanding of the extent of the change to the baseline for these media and to the ecosystem as a whole. Since the MAP is a requirement that was established under the regulatory framework of

  13. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in water, sediments and biota in the vicinity of Cluff mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data is presented on the concentrations of U, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-230, Th, As, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni and Zn in water, sediments, aquatic macrophytes and fish near a high grade uranium mining facility. Baseline data acquired in 1975 and 1978-79 is compared to post-development environmental monitoring data from 1980 to 1985. Distribution coefficients (KD) for sediment, and transfer coefficients (T.C.) for biota and derived from the water, sediment and biota concentrations

  14. The levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in Black Sea ecosystems (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the influence of geographically varying marine ecosystem properties on the uptake of radionuclides and toxic metals in marine environment, samples of sand, slime and silt sediments were taken during the period 1991-2004. Samples were collected from different zones along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast - from the north Romanian border (Durankulak) to the South Turkish border (Rezovo). Technogenic and natural radionuclides were measured by Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy using HPGe detector with 35 % counting efficiency and energy resolution 1.8 KeV (1332 KeV). Heavy metals (HM) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) - ETAAS (Perkin - Elmer Zeeman 3030 with graphite furnace) and flame AAS - Pye Unicam SP 1950. The measured radionuclides concentrations in Black Sea sediments were found to depend on sediment type - slime sediments accumulate technogenic (137Cs) and natural nuclides (U and Th series) to the highest extent. Considerably low levels of technogenic and natural radionuclides and a narrow concentration intervals were established for sand and silt sediment samples. The intercomparison of radionuclide and HM content in bottom sediments from one and the same sampling location gives information for mechanisms of radionuclide transfer and shows the trend of potential hazard of anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems. The obtained data show that highest nuclide and heavy metal content in Black Sea sediments were determined in the northern part of the Black Sea coast. It can be attributed to the influence of the big rivers entering the northern part of the Black Sea - Danube, Dnyepr, Dnester. Data for radionuclides and heavy metals in sediments are in the limits of the cited in literature natural levels, showing no additional anthropogenic contamination

  15. Assessment of natural radionuclide concentration in ground water around the proposed uranium mine at Peddagattu and Seripally regions, Nalgonda, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of radiation received from natural sources, varies from place to place depending upon the amount of radioactive material in water, rock, soil, food, building material and air. In the present study the distribution of natural uranium, 226Ra and 210Po concentration were measured in ground water samples collected within a 30 km radius around the proposed uranium mine at Peddagattu and Seripally regions of Nalgonda district of Andrapradesh, India. The concentration of natural uranium in the ground water samples of this two study area was found to range from 2.10 to 521.15 ppb with mean value of 28.43 ±4.03 ppb, the concentration of 226Ra was found to range from 7.11 to 97.30 mBq L-1 with mean value 23.27 ± 2.16 mBq L-1 and the concentration of 210Po was found to range from 0.30 to 5.54 mBq L-1 with mean value 1.00 ± 2.91 mBq L-1. The total mean annual ingestion dose due to natural uranium, 226Ra and 210Po from drinking water to male and female adults was estimated to be 35.47 and 25.88 μSvy-1, respectively, which constitutes low concentration of the reference dose level of 100 μSvy-1 as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). (author)

  16. Concentration factors of radionuclides and trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis in an estuarine ecosystem - North Aegean Sea - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bio-indicator organisms (Mussel watch program of CIESM) because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in terms of biological availability in the marine environment. In the present study, the levels of 137Cs, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn were measured in Mytilus galloprovincialis caught from Thermaikos gulf in North Aegean Sea Greece. The samples were collected seasonally from two aqua-cultures during the period 2000 2003. Measured and published concentrations of the above elements in seawater were used for the evaluation of concentration factors by applying a linear and a non-linear regression analysis. The variation in between the two stations and the seasonal evolution of bioaccumulation of the examined elements was also investigated. Some data on the concentrations of the measured elements in sediments from the area considered were evaluated as for determining the pollution conditions of the organism habitat. (author)

  17. Risk-Based Radionuclide Derived Concentration Guideline Levels For An Industrial Worker Exposed To Concrete-Slab End States At The Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose and risk assessments are an integral part of decommissioning activities. Most human health risk assessments are performed for a reasonable maximum exposure to an individual with assumed intake and exposure parameters that depend on the end state of the decommissioning activities and the likely future use of the site. Regardless of how the potentially exposed individual is defined, the subsequent calculated human health risk is not a measurable quantity. To demonstrate compliance with risk-based acceptance or cleanliness criteria, facility-specific risk assessments usually are performed after final-verification sampling and analysis. Alternatively, conservative, a priori, guideline concentrations for residual contaminants can be calculated and rapidly compared to the subsequently measured contaminant concentrations to demonstrate compliance. In response to the request for accelerated cleanup at U.S. Department of Energy facilities, the Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs. When appropriate, these conservative DCGLs will be used at SRS in lieu of facility-specific risk assessments to further accelerate the decommissioning process. This paper discusses and describes the methods and scenario-specific parameters used to estimate the risk-based DCGLs for the SRS decommissioning end state

  18. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and fission products in brick samples fabricated and used in and around greater Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured by using gamma ray spectroscopy in different types of brick samples (bangla, ceramic and picket) fabricated and used in the urban areas of Dhaka city and its suburbs. A knowledge of gamma radioactivity is necessary to adopt preventive measures to minimise the harmful effects of ionising radiation. The radium equivalent activity concentrations, external and internal hazard indices (Hext and Hint) in these brick samples were determined and were found to be comparable with those of other countries. (author)

  19. Radionuclides in Bentic Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentic micro-algae (mainly consisting of diatoms) were taken from 4 sites in the discharge area of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station (Sweden) and from 1 site in the cooling water intake channel of the power station. Samples were taken every third week during 1984. The micro-algae were brushed of a 0.1-0.15 m2 area on stones collected from the hydrolittoral zone. Radionuclide concentration was measured as gamma radiation with a Ge-detector. Fission products from the power plant cooling water can easily be detected in the micro-algae. We show that benthic diatom assemblages are good indicators for radionuclides; good correlations were found between radionuclide concentration in the algae and the discharge from the power plant. The best correlations were obtained if the accumulated discharge for the 15 days before sampling was used in the calculations. Of the investigated radionuclides, Co-60 and Zn-65 show significant relationships between concentration in the algae and discharge for 2 site, Ag-110m for 3 sites and Mn-54 for 1 site. No correlations were found for the site in the intake channel. The results show differences which depend on whether calculations were done for total, particulate or dissolved fractions of the radionuclides. There are indications that there is considerable recirculation of the radionuclides within the algal assemblages, and the recirculation from the outlet of the Biotest basin to the intake channel is of about 10%. In this report we also present a budget for the total amount of radionuclides in the Biotest Basin for 1984. The highest amounts of radionuclides in diatoms were found during late winter and early spring, associated with the large diatom blooms at that time of the year in the basin. (authors)

  20. Cosmogenic radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Jürg; Von Steiger, R

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. This book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any f

  1. Baseline Radionuclide and Nonradionuclide Concentrations in Soils, Vegetation, and Small Mammals at the Proposed Expansion Area at TA-54 Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Romero, P. R. Fresquez

    2007-11-30

    Area G is a 25.5-hectare (63-acre), fenced, low-level radioactive solid waste processing and disposal area located on the east end of Mesa del Buey at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This disposal area has been in existence since 1957 and is expected to be filled by the year 2015. Thus, a new area, located adjacent to Area G on the west side, has been proposed for the expansion of disposal activities. Since 1994 to the present, baseline levels of several radionuclides and nonradionuclides have been collected in soils, vegetation, and small mammals (field mice and rock squirrels). These data will be used to assess potential impacts, if any, at the expanded site once operations begin. Baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) (mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level) of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in these media were calculated and compared with regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). RSRLs are calculated from regional areas away from the influence of the Laboratory and represent natural and worldwide fallout sources. BSRLs in most media, with the exception of field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.), compare very well with RSRLs. Field mice, probably because they are mobile and may have spent time within the active disposal area, appeared to be impacted by Area G operations as they contained higher concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am as compared to RSRLs. Overall, however, the preoperational data from the other media show that the proposed expansion area has been impacted very little by Area G operations.

  2. Assessment of radionuclide concentration and absorbed dose from consumption of community water supplies in oil and gas producing areas in delta State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area 14 were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCI per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photo peaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49.15±15.35 BqL-1 with a range of 6.03 and 177.04 Bq L-1 while for 226Ra, the mean specific activity was 3.36±1.28 Bq L-1 with a range of 1.29 and 12.08 BqL-1 and the mean specific activity for 228Ra was 3.21± 2.69 BqL-1 with a range of 1.61 and 9.83 BqL-1 and the total annual effective dose did not show any significant health impact. (author)

  3. Multidisciplinary study of radionuclides and heavy-metal concentrations in wildlife on phosphate-mined and reclaimed lands. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate-rich mineral deposits of central Florida tend to exhibit background radiation levels that are elevated due to the uranium and its decay products found in association with the ore. The report documents radioactivity levels in two groups of animals that had heretofore not been examined by other investigators -- aquatic reptiles (American alligators, softshell turtles, and Florida cooter turtles) and terrestrial mammals (armadillos), based on the criterion that these species have significant proportions of their mass comprised of bony tissue likely to show elevated concentrations of radium. The alligator bones contained only low concentrations of radium, and there were no significant differences between alligators collected from mined, mineralized-unmined, or unmineralized land. Whether the levels of radium in the bones of the turtles represents a hazard to the health of these long-lived animals or to humans who may consume their flesh is unclear

  4. Release of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants. Report No. 2. Dispersion mechanisms, transport paths, and concentration factors for radionuclides in the cooling water recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge of radioactive materials in the cooling water from a nuclear power plant may involve consequences for the interests involved in the recipient and its organisms. Of special interest is the transport of radionuclides in water, sediments, and organisms to man. The most important elements are H, Na, P, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ru, I, Cs, and Ce. Metals with high affinity for organic material will be sorbed to sediments rich in organic material, while other elements will be enriched in algaes and arrive in the sediment through decay or excrement. Elements in particulate form will normally precipitate. Ions will generally not be enriched in sediments. Marine organisms may take up nuclides directly from the water and from food. The concentration factor is dependent on the chemical properties of the element and the physiology of the organism. The occurrence of elements in water and organisms in the Oslofjord district is poorly known and tables have therefore been derived from literature data to indicate the concentration factors to be expected

  5. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon concentrations at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cristofanelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and equivalent black carbon (BC concentrations at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV, part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy. For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007–June 2009, have been analysed and correlated with the output of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC concentrations at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppbv, 122 ± 7 ppbv and 213 ± 34 ng m−3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p<95%, with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO.

    According to FLEXPART output, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracer concentrations only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five major events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local, source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from −0.22 to 0.71 and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m−3 ppbv−1 were observed.

    CO related with anthropogenic emissions (COant contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May–September for CO, 19% (in May–September for O3 and 32% (in January–April for BC. During May–September, the analysis of

  6. Investigations into the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems affected by mine drainage effluents with reference to the study of potential pathways to man: Report to the Water Research Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were made into the occurrence and concentration values of radium 226 and uranium in some gold and uranium mines polluted aquatic environments in the Transvaal. An overview is given on aspects of possible environmental effects as well as background data on factors affecting the biological uptake and transport of both radionuclides in some terrestrial and aquatic organisms. The prevailing physical and chemical conditions of irrigation water and agricultural soils at three localities are discussed. Analyses were made in stream sediments, and of selected aquatic plants, decapod macro-invertebrate, fish and water birds. In order to evaluate the potential effects of these radionuclides on man, studies were also conducted on the concentration ratios of both radionuclides in these organisms and the abiotic environment in which they occur, including selected vegetable crops irrigated with mine polluted river water. The experimental uptake of radium by beetroot and cabbage under controlled environmental conditions was also investigated. The data was then used in a dose assessment model looking at various potential pathways of both radionuclides to man including via soil, drinking water, vegetables, a cereal and fish. Field results showed that in virtually all cases the presence and concentrations recorded for both radionuclides were (and possibly are also at other affected areas) at least an order of magnitude lower than concentrations found in countries such as Japan, Germany and the USA, and that in all cases concentration values were found to be below the maximum recommended guideline values laid down by the Council for Nuclear Safety of South Africa. The dose assessments for the scenarios chosen indicate that the annual effective dose for uranium and radium is a fraction of the maximum allowable limit for members of the public. However, it is quite possible that certain site specific concentration values may require controls to limit exposure. 181 refs. 28

  7. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  8. Applicability of meteorological statistics over a 5-year period to evaluation of annual average of radionuclide concentration in surface air. Based on meteorological statistics for 20 years at Oarai Research and Development Center, JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of annual average of radionuclide concentration in surface air obtained from atmospheric dispersion factor is intended to determine a public dose as a primary source for the safety analysis of nuclear facilities in normal operation. Oarai Research and Development Center (ORDC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency have used fixed 5-year meteorological statistics for derivation of atmospheric dispersion factors as average conditions. To show that the meteorological statistics for any 5-year period could be used as representative data for evaluation of average conditions, annual average (1-year average) and 5-year average of evaluated radionuclide concentrations derived from the meteorological data observed over a 20-year period (1991-2010) at ORDC were analyzed. Fluctuations of evaluated radionuclide concentrations of any 5-year averages were smaller than those of 1-year averages. Further, any 5-year averages were sufficiently convergent to 20-year average. Because any 5-year averages contained no rejections by the F-test (5% significance level), they were not statistically different to the rest of 20 years data set, instead that some of 1-year averages could be rejected. It means that any 5-year averages of radionuclide concentration evaluations are well representative for the safety analysis of normal operation of the nuclear facilities in ORDC. (author)

  9. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The present study also pays

  10. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The

  11. Concentration of natural radionuclides (40K, 228Ra and 226Ra) in vegetables and fruits collected around Kudankulam, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline activity concentration of the natural radio nuclides 40K, 228Ra and 226Ra in vegetables and fruits was determined around Kudankulam. In many of the samples, 228Ra and 226Ra was below minimum detection limit. 40K was found to be more in leafy vegetables followed by pods, tubers and fleshy fruits. The highest accumulator among the matrices was the leafy vegetables with the geometric mean of 189.47 Bq.kg-1 fresh for vegetables and fruits with the geometric mean of 128.95 Bq.kg-1 fresh. 228Ra activity in vegetables and fruits ranged from 0.074 to 1.153 and 0.074 to 0.131 Bq.kg-l fresh respectively. 226Ra in vegetables and fruits ranged from BDL to 0.07 and BDL-.044 Bq.kg-l fresh respectively. 40K in vegetables and fruits followed a log normal distribution. (author)

  12. Radionuclides and heavy metal concentrations as complementary tools for studying the impact of industrialization on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine whether using chemical and radiochemical analysis of lake sediments can highlight changes in the climate. Also it was studied whether human impact on the environment can be observed and to what extent such changes are in agreement with historical data. Samples of 16 cm thick sediment cores from the Smreczynski Staw Lake were collected and divided into 1 cm thick sub-samples. The samples were air dried and homogenized. The quantitative analysis of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb in the digested sediment samples was made by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Simultaneously, the radioactivity of 137Cs using gamma spectrometry and 210Pbuns using alpha spectrometry, were measured for sediment layer dating. Results showed that iron concentration was in the range 0.3-over 1 % (w/w), and zinc 0.01-0.05 % (w/w). Lesser concentrations were found for copper 18.37-43.6 ppm, manganese 37.5-50.7 ppm, lead 146.1-432 ppm, chromium 12.3-37.4 ppm, nickel 3.1-10.8 ppm and cadmium 0.9-34.6 ppm. Changes in 137Cs radioactivity was in the range of 89 ± 11 to 865 ± 62 (Bq kg-1). Sediments composition can accurately reflect (in terms of time and to what extent) air pollution and natural geo-chemical processes in the environment. However, the choice of the analysed object is crucial in this respect. The Smreczynski Staw Lake, due to its location in the mountains and hydrological situation, proved to be very useful for providing undisturbed analytical samples. (author)

  13. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  14. Assessment of radionuclides in the drone affected soils of North Waziristan Agency and Orakzai Agency (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the drone affected soils of North Waziristan and Orakzai Agency were exposed to high resolution gamma ray spectrometry technique to determine the activity concentration levels the results were quite alarming. The results revealed that the mean concentration for the activity of the natural radionuclides including /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 40/K were 42.37 +- 1.85, 47.18 +- 3.45 and 471.28 +- 23.77 Bq kg/sup -1/ respectively. On the other hand the anthropogenic activities were adding radioactive Cs 137 to soils of drone affected areas of North Waziristan and Orakzai Agency with the mean activity concentration of 5.95 +- 0.25 Bq kg/sup -1/. The maximum activity concentration of /sup 137/Cs was in North Waziristan affected soil with the value of 15.15 +- 0.39. /sup 137/Cs is an anthropogenic radionuclide produced as a fission product. However the presence of /sup 137/Cs in all the soil samples reveals the anthropogenic changes in the soils. The exact source of the introduction of /sup 137/Cs is assumed to be drone bombardment. /sup 137/Cs has radioactive half life of 30.17 years and it decays by emitting gamma and beta radiations. These gamma radiations can create havoc in our environment. (author)

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in/on vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1995 growing season. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation were collected within and around selected points at Area G--a low- level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory--for the analysis of tritium (3H), strontium (90Sr), plutonium (238Pu and 239Pu), cesium (137Cs), and total uranium. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in/on vegetation were determined. In general, most (unwashed) vegetation collected within and around Area G contained 3H, uranium, 238Pu, and 239Pu in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 7300 pCi mL-1 in understory vegetation collected from the west side of the transuranic (TRU) pads. The south and west ends of the tritium shaft field also contained elevated levels of 3H in overstory, and especially in understory vegetation, as compared to background; this suggests that 3H may be migrating from this waste repository through surface and subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the TRU pads (adjacent to the fence line of Area G) contained the highest values of 238Pu and 239Pu as compared to background, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, and/or disposal activities

  16. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption

  17. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  18. Radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on radionuclide cystography in infants and children for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux. Vesicoureteral reflux represents a common and potentially serious form of urinary tract pathology. Reflux accompanied by asymptomatic or inadequately treated urinary tract infections has been associated with significant sequelae, including renal scarring, hypertension, and end- stage renal disease. Although there are several advantages and disadvantages to both radionuclide and radiographic techniques for detection of reflux, radionuclide cystography has been found to be at least as sensitive as the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for the detection of clinically significant reflux. The major advantage of radionuclide cystography is a significantly lower radiation dose as compared to VCUG. Both indirect and direct techniques for radionuclide cystography have been developed. In addition to detection of vesicoureteral reflux, indirect radionuclide cystography allows evaluation of differential renal function. Supplemental parameters that may be evaluated with direct radionuclide cystography include: quantitation of reflux, determination of bladder volume at which reflux occurs, evaluation of the dynamics of bladder emptying, and determination of residual bladder volume following voiding

  19. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs

  20. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.

  1. Changes in the concentration of selected metals in sediments of the River Chotla in northwest Poland in its section affected by various anthropogenic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to assess the changes in the concentration of selected metals in the bottom sediment and interstitial water of the River Chotla in northwest Poland. The research was conducted on the river section flowing through Zaspy Małe and a salmonid fish breeding farm. Samples of water and bottom sediment were taken in four control and measurement points, located above and below the village and on a backwater above the trouteries and below the fish breeding ponds. The pH and the concentration of the metals potassium, iron, calcium, manganese and zinc were determined in the water and sediment samples. The lowest concentrations of the metals were found in the samples collected above and below Zaspy Małe, while the highest concentrations of metals in the water and sediment were found in the samples taken in the backwater, above the fish breeding ponds. Exceptions were calcium and potassium, with the highest concentrations of metals in the water being found in the samples taken below the fish breeding ponds. The content of metals in sediments of the analysed section of the River Chotla was mainly determined by the content of organic matter, which varied as it is dependent on water accumulation processes and the operation of nearby fishery facilities. The slightly alkaline pH facilitated long-lasting accumulation of metals in sediments.

  2. Problems of anthropogenic tritium limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkov О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the current situation in respect to the environmental concentrations of anthropogenic and natural tritium. There are presented and analyzed domestic standards for НТО of all Radiation Safety Standards (NRB, as well as the regulations analyzed for tritium in drinking water taken in other countries today. This article deals with the experience of limitation of tritium and focuses on the main problem of rationing of tritium — rationing of organically bound tritium.

  3. Radioactive materials in the ocean. Sources and their far reaching consequences. Field mapping of radionuclides in the North Sea. Actual concentrations of the radionuclides tritium, Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129, Cs-139, Pu-isotopes and Am-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide materials in the oceans are caused by different sources: global fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing, effluents from the nuclear reprocessing plants Sellafield and la Hague, fallout after the Chernobyl accident, sea-disposal of radioactive wastes in arctic regions of in the deep sea, the nuclear-powered submarine Komsomolets in the Norwegian Sea and effluents from nuclear power plants. The paper describes the results of an actual survey on the contamination distribution and radioactivity in the North Sea. The effluents of I-129 and Tc-99 from Sellafield and La Hague were rather different, so that the drift pathways will be observable over the next centuries due to the long half-time. These data could be a tool for climatic change studies in connection with the oceanic circulation. Modeling simulation results complete the observed geographic radionuclide distributions.

  4. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta Bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  5. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  6. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  7. COMPARISON OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SURFACE SEDIMENT OF TANJUNG PIAI WETLAND WITH OTHER SITES RECEIVING ANTHROPOGENIC INPUTS ALONG THE SOUTHWESTERN COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tanjung Piai wetland has now been proclaimed to be a wetland of international importance since 2003. Therefore, its heavy metal pollution status should be known and recorded. In this study, sediments in Tanjung Piai wetland were collected in 2002 and 2005 and were analysed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. For comparison purpose, sediments were also collected for metal analysis from a known polluted site at Kg. Pasir Puteh, four jetties and a river. A comparison with the polluted sediment collected from Kg. Pasir Puteh and the established Sediment Quality Criteria showed that Tanjung Piai was not polluted with Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. These background concentrations or baseline data of heavy metals in the sediment is important for future reference. Therefore, Tanjung Piai wetland is a suitable site for sanctuary and wetland conservation and it should be conserved for its pristine conditions in order to support its high biodiversity.

  8. Measurement of resuspended aerosol in the Chernobyl area. Pt. III. Size distribution and dry deposition velocity of radioactive particles during anthropogenic enhanced resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural soil management and traffic on unpaved roads, size distribution measurements were performed of atmospheric particulate radionuclides at a site in the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone. Analysis of cascade impactor measurements showed an increase of the total atmospheric radioactivity. In the cases of harrowing by a tractor and traffic on unpaved roads, a common shape of the size distribution was found with two maxima, the first in the 2-4 μm range, the second in the 12-20 μm range. The size distributions were compared to measurements during wind-driven resuspension. Particle number concentration measurements with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer showed a dynamic dependence of the particle concentration in different size ranges on anthropogenic action. The increase of the mean concentration was for the large particles more than one order of magnitude higher than for fine particles during anthropogenic enhanced resuspension. From the measurement of the mass concentration, the radioactive loading could be estimated. An enrichment of radionuclides on resuspended particles (compared to soil particles) was found, with the highest enrichment for large particles. Micrometeorological considerations showed that large particles may frequently be subject to medium range transport. The dry deposition velocity was measured; the mean value of 0.026 m s-1±0.016 m s-1 is typical for 6-9 μm diameter particles. (orig.)

  9. Accumulation of atmospheric radionuclides and heavy metals in cryoconite holes on an Arctic glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokas, Edyta; Zaborska, Agata; Kolicka, Małgorzata; Różycki, Michał; Zawierucha, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Surface of glaciers is covered by mineral and organic dust, together with microorganisms forming cryoconite granules. Despite fact that glaciers and ice sheets constitute significance part of land surface, reservoir of freshwater, and sites of high biological production, the knowledge on the cryoconite granules still remain unsatisfactory. This study presents information on radionuclide and heavy metal contents in cryoconites. Cryoconites collected from the Hans Glacier in SW Spitsbergen reveal high activity concentrations of anthropogenic ((238,239,240)Pu, (137)Cs, (90)Sr) and natural ((210)Pb) radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios in these cryoconites significantly exceed the mean global fallout ratio (0.025). The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu ranged from 0.064 to 0.118. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs varied from 0.011 ± 0.003 to 0.030 ± 0.007. Such activity ratios as observed in these cryoconites were significantly higher than the values characterizing global fallout, pointing to possible contributions of these radionuclides from other sources. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in cryoconites exceed both UCC concentrations and local rocks' concentrations, particularly for cadmium. The concentration ratios of stable lead isotopes ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were determined to discriminate between the natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb in cryoconites and to confirm the strong anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal deposition in the Arctic. In investigated cryoconite holes, two groups of invertebrates, both extremophiles, Tardigrada and Rotifera were detected. Our study indicate that cryoconites are aggregates of mineral and organic substances on surfaces of glaciers are able to accumulate large amounts of airborne pollutants bound to extracellular polymeric substances secreted by microorganisms. PMID:27372266

  10. The impact of multiple anthropogenic contaminants on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Bituh, Tomislav; Žužul, Silva; Dvoršćak, Marija; Fingler, Sanja; Jurasović, Jasna; Klinčić, Darija; Marović, Gordana; Orct, Tatjana; Rinkovec, Jasmina; Stipičević, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park (PLNP) was investigated through the analysis of three groups of major contaminants (persistent organochlorine pollutants including 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), trace elements/heavy metals (6 major and 23 trace constituents), and anthropogenic radionuclides ((90)Sr, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs)) in three terrestrial compartments (soil, air, and bioindicators of air contamination) during 2011-2013. The correlation coefficients of element mass fractions with soil properties indicated that total Fe and Al minerals, soil organic matter (OM), and organic carbon (OC) content affected the mass fractions of most trace elements in the topsoils. The annual and spatial distributions of heavy metals in total deposited matter (TDM) indicated that the metals came from natural sources and long-range transfer of particulate matter. The PCB and OCP levels found in soil and conifer needles corresponded to global environmental pollution levels by persistent organic pollutants and represented the lower end of the mass fraction ranges reported in the relevant literature. Analyses of anthropogenic radionuclides in bioindicators (conifer needles, lichens, and mosses) showed low but measurable activity concentrations of (134)Cs (for the first time after the Chernobyl accident), which indicated origin from the March 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. Our overall results indicated that human activity inside or near the PLNP had no significant impact either on contaminant spread by air or on their content in topsoils. PMID:26661963

  11. Underground radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number 9 sub-report of the safety assesment studies of the disposal of radioactive waste in rock-salt formations concerns the calculation of radio-nuclide migration with groundwater. Calculations ar carried out in two phases. The first phase consists of calculation of the groundwater flow system under a great number of different hydrological boundary conditions, which possibly can be encountered in future. Variations in sea level and consequences of glaciations are included. Given a great number of possible groundwater flow systems, in the second phase radionuclide migration is calculated for a restricted number of representative situations. Transport of radionuclides with groundwater takes place, starting at a release point at the top (edge) of the rock salt formation until the landsurface, the bottom of a sea or an extraction-well for public water supply has been reached, at which places concentrations radionuclides have been computed as a function of time. Calculations continued till all concentrations had reached their maxima. Results form the input for biosphere dose-calculations, as reported in the number 10 sub-report. (author). 26 refs.; 43 figs.; 22 tabs

  12. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  13. Radionuclide cisternogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  14. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

  15. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 31 papers dealing with the impact of nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere (radionuclide composition of waste waters and their assessment, the effect of liquid radioactive wastes on surface water organisms, the occurrence of radionuclides in bottom sediments, the cost-effectiveness of risk reduction of liquid radioactive wastes, etc.); the methods of concentrating and separating radionuclides from high-volume liquid samples; the methods of radionuclide contamination measurement (semiconductor spectrometry, the use of silicon detectors, the measurement of gross alpha and beta activities, etc.); and radionuclide migration in ground waters. (E.S.). 25 figs., 30 tabs., 86 refs

  16. Temporal variations of radionuclides in the precipitation over Monaco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monthly precipitation (total deposition: wet+dry) has been collected to determine the concentration of radionuclides by IAEA-MEL in Monaco. The objectives of this study are to understand radionuclide behaviour in the air according to annual weather conditions as well as to detect any irregularities in the concentration of radionuclides resulting from probable new releases. Higher activities and deposition rates of anthropogenic radionuclides such as 239,240Pu, 241Am and 137Cs as well as cosmogenic 7Be in rain have appeared in the autumn period due to local meteorological conditions and the amount of precipitation rather than in a spring peak by contribution of stratospheric-tropospheric air mixing as documented in previous studies. Generally, 238Pu/239,240Pu and 241Am/239,240Pu ratios agree well with the global fallout ratios of the northern hemisphere, however, a few data on 238Pu/239,240Pu showed higher ratios. Since the mid 1980's, the annual depositions of 239,240Pu estimated at 35-45 deg. N have not shown any exponential decreasing trend as in previous studies; they are in the range of 6-17 mBq m-2 year-1. This may suggest that the present Pu fallout originates from resuspension of Pu from soil due to gardening and wind transport. Monthly deposition rates vary throughout the year in a similar way to the precipitation rate. The estimated average deposition rate of 239,240Pu, (16.5±0.4) mBq m-2 year-1, compensates for about 4% of the mean annual Pu loss in the water column of the Mediterranean Sea as derived from experiments with particle traps

  17. Radionuclide source term and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in two types of experiment is reported. In the first the equilibrium and concentration of radionuclides in groundwater in contact with real radioactive wastes are measured. Container material, backfill material and rock are added to groundwater to investigate their effects. In the second experiment the retardation of radionuclides leached from wastes as groundwater flows over samples of container, backfill and geological material is measured. Outflow is analysed for radionuclides and experimental results for cesium 134, cesium 137 and cobalt 60 are presented. (U.K.)

  18. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  19. Occurrence of the radionuclides in groundwater of crystalline hard rock regions of central Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to understand the occurrence of the radionuclides in groundwater of crystalline hard rock region. Samples were collected to analyze major cations, anions, U, 222Rn and stable isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen. It was inferred that few samples have U and 222Rn concentrations higher than the permissible limit of drinking water standard. High degree of weathering of granitic rocks and long contact time of groundwater with the aquifer matrix could be the reason for enhanced U and 222Rn levels in groundwater. The association of U with SO4 also proves that there exists anthropogenic influence in groundwater composition. (author)

  20. Distribution of radionuclides in the surface sea water developed by aerial radiological survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    This study provides new data analysis method of aerial radiological survey to monitor the distribution of anthropogenic radioactivity in surface seawaters as a first attempt. The aerial radiological survey was performed by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) within a 30 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) on 18 April 2011. We found good correlations between the observed concentrations of FNPP1 derived radionuclides (131I, 134Cs, 137Cs) in the surface seawater and gamma-ray dose rates by aerial radiological surveys (correlation coefficients for 131I, 0.89; 134Cs, 0.96;137Cs, 0.95). The detection limits of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in surface seawaters for the aerial radiological survey are 25, 21, 24 Bq L-1, respectively. Based on these relations, we find that the area with high concentrations of the FNPP1 derived radionuclides spread south-southeast from the FNPP1. The maximum concentrations of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs reached 303, 456, and 528 Bq L-1, respectively. The131I/134Cs ratios in surface waters of the high activities area are about 0.6-0.7. Considering the radioactive decay of 131I (half-life: 8.021 d), we confirm that radionuclides in the surface seawater of this area are due to direct release from FNPP1 to the ocean. From these results, it is concluded that the aerial radiological survey is very effective to investigate the accurate distribution of anthropogenic radioactivity in the surface seawater. Furthermore, the model reproduced the distribution pattern of the FNPP1 derived radionuclides in surface seawater obtained by the aerial radiological survey, although simulated results by regional ocean model are underestimated.

  1. Radionuclides in house dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  2. [Functional-ecological and age-specific regularities in radionuclide concentration in freshwater molluscs from the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The results of the studies on 90Sr and 137Cs content in the tissues of bivalve and gastropod mollusks of water basins in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP have been analyzed. The dependence of radionuclide accumulation factors on the peculiarities of morphological structure, functional ecology and nutrition type was found. The age dynamics of 137Cs content in some species of Gastropoda was studied. PMID:11458648

  3. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 (210Pb) and beryllium-7(7Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  4. Radiological aspects of the use of building materials containing enhanced concentrations of natural Radio-nuclides in Israel: theoretical model and computer code to estimate the radiation dose to residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal, as many other natural ores, contains several natural radioactive elements e.g. 40K, 232Th and 238U and their decay products (such as 222Ra , 226Rn and its radioactive daughters). The same elements are found in enhanced concentrations in fly ash and bottom ash produced in the process of burning coal in power stations and used as a refill material and constituent of certain building materials e.g concrete building blocks. The development of modern construction and building materials containing technologically enhanced concentrations of natural radio-nuclides (e.g. phosphogypsum, fly ash, exotic minerals, etc) causes a growing health concern. The results of this concern are legislation activity and publication of guidance notes and limitations set by national authorities and international professional organizations on the use of some of these novel building materials. These limitations are expressed in terms of the activity concentration index criteria

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  6. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements presented here were carried out for determination of the fallout levels of radionuclides throughout the country, including the areas surrounding the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. The 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H contents of deposition were determined and the results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. 89Sr and other gammaradionuclides in addition to 137Cs were measured from wet and dry deposition. Also 89-90Sr, 239-240Pu, 137Cs and other gammaradionuclides deposited in soil were measured. The radiochemical separation technique was used to determine 89Sr, 90Sr, 137Cs and 239-240Pu. Tritium contents were determined by liquid scintillation counting after electrolytic enrichment. Gammaradionuclides were measured by Ge(Li) spectrometry. In 1977 the contents of the long-lived radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in deposition increased to almost the same level as in the early '70s. This is due to the high-yield atmospheric nuclear weapon tests carried out by China. A slight increase in 3H deposition can also be noticed in 1977. The results of soil sample measurements indicate that practically all the activity is found in the top 20 cm layer. (author)

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of 3H and 239Pu over time)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 90Sr, 241Am, 137Cs, totU. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for 3H and 239Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL-1. The concentrations of 239Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on 3H and 239Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu over time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; R. J. Wechsler; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup tot}U. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL{sup {minus}1}. The concentrations of {sup 239}Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data.

  9. Sediment Distribution Coefficients (KD) and Concentration Factors (CF) in fish for natural radionuclides in a pond of a tropical region and their contributions to estimations of internal absorbed dose rate in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention has been paid only recently to the protection of biota against radiation effects. Protection is being considered through modeling of the calculation of absorbed dose rate. In these models, the inputs are the fluxes of radionuclides of environmental concern and their resulting distribution between environmental compartments. Such distribution is estimated for dispersion models. In freshwater systems and when fish is used as biomaker, relevant environmental transfer parameters are transfer between sediment and water (sediment distribution coefficients KD, in 1 kg-1), and between water and fish (concentration factor CF, in 1 kg-1). These coefficients are under the influence of a number o physical, chemical and biological factors, and display following the literature a great variability. The present work establishes the KD's and CF's for uranium, thorium, radium and lead for two ponds: one that receives treated effluents from an ore treatment unit (UTM) situated at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil and the other pond from the uranium concentration unit (URA) situated at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil, and for fish used as biomarker. It intends also to compare these parameters with the values recommended by IAEA. Depending on considered radionuclide and on the site, CF's (1 kg-1) observed values were of the same magnitude as, or one order of magnitude lower than recommended by IAEA. KD's (1 kg-1) observed values were found of the same magnitude as those recommended by IAEA, approximately 10 times lower or up to 100 times higher than recommended by IAEA, again depending on the radionuclides and on the site. It can be concluded that local parameters should be established in order to obtain a more accurate estimative of biota exposition from man activities. (author)

  10. Sediment distribution coefficients (KD) and concentration factors (CF) in fish for natural radionuclides in a pond of a tropical region and their contributions to estimations of internal absorbed dose rate in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention has been paid only recently to the protection of biota against radiation effects. Protection is being considered through modeling of the calculation of absorbed dose rate. In these models, the inputs are the fluxes of radionuclides of environmental concern and their resulting distribution between environmental compartments. Such distribution is estimated for dispersion models. In freshwater systems and when fish is used as biomaker, relevant environmental transfer parameters are transfer between sediment and water (sediment distribution coefficients KD, in l kg-1), and between water and fish (concentration factor CF, in l kg-1). These coefficients are under the influence of a number o physical, chemical and biological factors, and display following the literature a great variability. The present work establishes the KD's and CF's for uranium, thorium, radium and lead for two ponds: one that receives treated effluents from an ore treatment unit (UTM) situated at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil and the other pond from the uranium concentration unit (URA) situated at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil, and for fish used as biomarker. It intends also to compare these parameters with the values recommended by IAEA. Depending on considered radionuclide and on the site, CF's (l kg-1) observed values were of the same magnitude as, or one order of magnitude lower than recommended by IAEA. KD's (l kg-1) observed values were found of the same magnitude as those recommended by IAEA, approximately 10 times lower or up to 100 times higher than recommended by IAEA, again depending on the radionuclides and on the site. It can be concluded that local parameters should be established in order to obtain a more accurate estimative of biota exposition from man activities. (author)

  11. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 1. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the terrestrial environment of the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides technical details of the terrestrial sampling and measurement campaign undertaken as part of the Study of the Radiological Situation at the Atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa by the Terrestrial Working Group. The primary objective of this group was to evaluate existing French data on the presence of environmental radionuclides on the atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa and Tureia in French Polynesia. All aspects of the terrestrial environments of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls - the sites of atmospheric and underground nuclear tests - were included in the sampling programme. Tureia Atoll - the nearest inhabited island - was also included in the sampling programme, in order to determine whether deposits from atmospheric testing are detectable there. The task required the co-operation of many different parties in order to provide the supporting logistics for the sampling campaign and the expertise for analysing the different radionuclides of interest in the samples collected. Samples were analysed by members of the IAEA's co-ordinated international network of Analytical Laboratories for Measuring Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) and the Agency's laboratories, Seibersdorf. Samples were also sent to the French Service Mixte de Surveillance Radiologique et Biologique (SMSRB)

  12. Consequences of hydrological events on the delivery of suspended sediment and associated radionuclides from the Rhone River to the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 20 nuclear reactors are situated along the Rhone valley, representing Europe's largest concentration of nuclear power plants. The fate of suspended sediments and natural and artificial particle-bound radionuclides in relation to extreme hydrological events was assessed at the lower course of the Rhone River, which provides the main source of water and sediment inputs to the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We sampled water at a high frequency over the period 2001-2008 and measured suspended particulate matter (SPM) loads and particle-bound natural and artificial radionuclide concentrations at the SORA observatory station in Arles, France. We monitored various hydrological events (either natural or anthropogenic origin) and characterize their influence on concentrations and fluxes. The relationship between SPM concentration and the very wide range of water discharges did not differ significantly from previous periods, indicating no significant shift in the average sediment delivery over the last 20 years. Unexpected hydrological events of anthropogenic origin, in particular those associated with flushing of reservoirs that are generally not captured by sampling strategies, were recorded and were shown to transfer significant additional sediment and associated contaminants towards the marine environment. Concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides associated with sediment (i.e., 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn, 110mAg, and Pu isotopes) varied over two to three orders of magnitude during periods of low and moderate flow due to variations in the liquid release from nuclear facilities. Except for Pu isotopes, the concentrations of the various particle-bound radionuclides generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing discharge, revealing the geochemical or anthropogenic background values, and providing a useful flood fingerprint for this large fluvial system before its entry into the marine environment. Our approach produced key data on the level and fate of suspended

  13. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  14. Worldwide Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Radionuclides in IAEA-446 Baltic Sea Seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco has been providing quality products and services for the past forty years, including the organization of interlaboratory comparisons, the production of reference and certified reference materials and the provision of training. More than 45 reference materials have been produced, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide concentrations. As part of these activities, a new interlaboratory comparison was organized to provide participating laboratories with the opportunity to test the performance of their analytical methods on a seaweed sample with elevated radionuclide levels due to the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Baltic Sea region. The material used in the analysis of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in seaweed was the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus). It is expected that the sample, after successful certification, will be issued as a certified reference material for analysing radionuclides in seaweed. The participating laboratories were informed that the IAEA publication would contain a list of the laboratories and the results and descriptions of the interlaboratory comparisons, but that the results would not be attributed to individual laboratories

  15. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report

  16. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  17. Transfer of natural radionuclides from the thorium radioactive family in the food chain in an area with elevated Th concentrations in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was intended to derive from radioecological findings predictive information on the nuclide ratios of ingested radionuclides from the thorium radioactive familiy which are of significance in faecal excretion analyses. Over a period from 1989 until 1997, several studies examined the transfer of Th-232, Th-228 and Ra-228, to some extent also Ra-226 and Th-230, by experimental analyses of food chains. As to forest ecosystems, the ingestion pathway particularly examined was that of transfer from plants to deer. Based on the findings, a conservative assessment is derived of annual intake of radioactivity due to the nuclides Th-232, Th-228 and Ra-228, both for adults or infants. (orig./CB)

  18. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    OpenAIRE

    P. Paasonen; Kupiainen, K.; Z. Klimont; Visshedijk, A.; H. A. C. Denier van der Gon; M. Amann

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future, anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number ...

  19. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This im...

  20. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  1. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  2. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings contain 22 papers, all have been incorporated in INIS. They relate to the escape of radianuclides from nuclear power plant operation and nuclear power plant accidents into the hydrosphere, the measurement of radioactivity of and concentration of radionuclides in surface, ground and drinking waters, the study of the impact of radionuclides on aquatic organisms and the investigation of the deposition of radionuclides in these organisms and in water sediments, to modeling of the kinetics of radionuclide transport in the hydrosphere, and the problems of radon in the ambient air of water treatment plants and dwelling areas. (M.D.). 3 figs., 28 tabs., 124 refs

  3. Transfer of radionuclides to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling of Water Horsetail and Bracken Fern including upper soil layer (0-10 cm) and water was carried out in Torahult, Sweden, in Almindingen on Bornholm, in Asserbo and Arresoe on Zealand and in Sdr. Hostrup and Nydam mose in Jutland. Furthermore, sampling was carried out in 2004 for seawater, seaweed and shrimps at locations in Danish waters at Bornholm (Svenskehavn), at Zealand (Klint), at Lolland/Falster (Guldborgsund) and on the west coast of Jutland (Hirtshals, Agger, Hvide Sande and Roemoe). Concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides and uranium were determined in Bracken Fern, Water Horsetail and soil samples. The concentration ratios (CR) are highest for 40K in both plant species and show the lowest variability across locations. The CR's for 40K range from 1 to 2, while the CR's for the other radionuclides range one to three orders of magnitude lower. The CR's for 137Cs show particularly high variability across locations. The CR's were analysed in a two-way ANOVA on the log-transformed values to test differences between plant species and radionuclides. The difference between radionuclides was highly significant, p137Cs and 99Tc in marine samples. Concentration ratios calculated from the analysed samples are presented. The concentration ratios for 99Tc agree with those reported elsewhere in the Indofern Project. The concentration ratios for 137Cs in Fucus show a correlation to salinity with higher values in low salinity water at Bornholm than in high salinity water on the west coast of Jutland. (LN)

  4. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  5. Vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) in sediment from Manjung coastal water area Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been widely studied in marine coastal area. Due to rapid population growth and socio-economic development in Manjung area such as coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development, waste discharged from factories and agriculture runoff may contribute to increase in pollution rate. The radioactive materials from anthropogenic activities could deteriorate the quality of the marine ecosystem and thus lead to possible radiological health risk to the population. Radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) content in surface and profile sediment from Manjung coastal area was determined in this study. Radionuclides in sediment from seven locations were collected using sediment core sampling and measurements were carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. The results show that the concentration of radionuclides in surface sediment and distribution trend of depth vertical profile sediment generally varies depending on locations. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and pollution index (PI) were applied to determine level of pollution of this study area. The radiological risks related to human exposure were evaluated based on external hazard index (Hex)

  6. Vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) in sediment from Manjung coastal water area Perak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik

    2016-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been widely studied in marine coastal area. Due to rapid population growth and socio-economic development in Manjung area such as coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development, waste discharged from factories and agriculture runoff may contribute to increase in pollution rate. The radioactive materials from anthropogenic activities could deteriorate the quality of the marine ecosystem and thus lead to possible radiological health risk to the population. Radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) content in surface and profile sediment from Manjung coastal area was determined in this study. Radionuclides in sediment from seven locations were collected using sediment core sampling and measurements were carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. The results show that the concentration of radionuclides in surface sediment and distribution trend of depth vertical profile sediment generally varies depending on locations. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and pollution index (PI) were applied to determine level of pollution of this study area. The radiological risks related to human exposure were evaluated based on external hazard index (Hex).

  7. Vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K) in sediment from Manjung coastal water area Perak, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been widely studied in marine coastal area. Due to rapid population growth and socio-economic development in Manjung area such as coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development, waste discharged from factories and agriculture runoff may contribute to increase in pollution rate. The radioactive materials from anthropogenic activities could deteriorate the quality of the marine ecosystem and thus lead to possible radiological health risk to the population. Radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K) content in surface and profile sediment from Manjung coastal area was determined in this study. Radionuclides in sediment from seven locations were collected using sediment core sampling and measurements were carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. The results show that the concentration of radionuclides in surface sediment and distribution trend of depth vertical profile sediment generally varies depending on locations. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation index (I{sub geo}) and pollution index (PI) were applied to determine level of pollution of this study area. The radiological risks related to human exposure were evaluated based on external hazard index (H{sub ex})

  8. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  9. Estimation of the Distribution of Global Anthropogenic Heat Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The radiance lights data in 2006 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) and authoritative energy data distributed by the United State Energy Information Administration were applied to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic heat flux.A strong linear relationship was found to exist between the anthropogenic heat flux and the DMSP/OLS radiance data.On a global scale,the average value of anthropogenic heat flux is approximately 0.03 W m 2 and 0.10 W m 2 for global land area.The results indicate that global anthropogenic heat flux was geographically concentrated and distributed,fundamentally correlating to the economical activities.The anthropogenic heat flux concentrated in the economically developed areas including East Asia,Europe,and eastern North America.The anthropogenic heat flux in the concentrated regions,including the northeastern United States,Central Europe,United Kingdom,Japan,India,and East and South China is much larger than global average level,reaching a large enough value that could affect regional climate.In the center of the concentrated area,the anthropogenic heat flux density may exceed 100 W m 2,according to the results of the model.In developing areas,including South America,Central and North China,India,East Europe,and Middle East,the anthropogenic heat flux can reach a level of more than 10 W m 2 ;however,the anthropogenic heat flux in a vast area,including Africa,Central and North Asia,and South America,is low.With the development of global economy and urban agglomerations,the effect on climate of anthropogenic heat is essential for the research of climate change.

  10. Differences in radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations found in the kidneys of barren-ground caribou from the western Northwest Territories 1994/95 to 2000/01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Larter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum, nickel, cadmium, mercury, and lead concentrations were measured in the kidney tissue of known aged barren-ground caribou wintering in the western Northwest Territories harvested during winter 1994/1995 and during winters 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. 40K, 137Cs, and 210Pb concentrations were measured in the kidney tissue of known aged barren-ground caribou during winter 2000/2001 and compared to concentrations in winter 1993/1994 reported in Macdonald et al. (1996. Renal concentrations of aluminum were higher (P<0.001in winter 2000/2001 than winter 1994/1995. Contrastingly renal concentrations of mercury were lower (P<0.001 in winter 2000/2001 than 1994/1995. 137Cs (P<0.02, 40K (P=0.01, 210Pb (P<0.01 had lower renal concentrations in winter 2000/2001 than 1993/1994. Renal concentrations of cadmium (P<0.001 and 137Cs (P<0.04 had a positive relationship with caribou age. We also document renal concentrations of arsenic, copper, selenium, zinc, 232Th, 226Ra, and 235U in the kidneys of caribou harvested in winters 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. Renal zinc concentrations were positively correlated with the age of caribou.

  11. Remote sensing of intertidal sediment bound radionuclide storage, remobilization and deposition: Case study in the Ribble Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Intertidal environments of the Irish Sea are spatially complex and dynamic systems. The ability to understand and monitor these environments is fundamental to a variety of industrial, regulatory and government bodies. Intertidal estuarine environments often represent sinks and sources for industrial discharges. The ability to map the fate of these discharges through remote sensing provides a powerful tool in environmental monitoring and is critical in understanding their redistribution. This study focuses on the Ribble estuary, Lancashire, UK, which is accumulating elevated radionuclide concentrations discharged under license from BNFL Sellafield and Springfields. This paper presents the results from a series of investigations which demonstrate: i) that conventional airborne remote sensing using the Airborne Thematic Mapper (flown by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council) combined with sophisticated image analysis and ground truthing could be used to quantitatively map intertidal specific activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides derived from BNFL Sellafield (r2>0.8); and ii) that time series imagery flown over tidal sequences can be used to identify sources of radionuclide bearing sediments, characterise the hydrodynamic features of the estuary and quantify fluxes of sediment and radionuclides over tidal cycles. (author)

  12. Clinical evaluation of radionuclide dynamic renography in renal transplant rejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide dynamic renography was performed in 125 cases of renal transplant. That was a correlation between radionuclide dynamic renography types and serum creatinine concentration. There are characteristic changes in phase imaging of radionuclide dynamic renography at acute, ultra-acute and chronic rejection. This dynamic imaging can show kidney function. The dynamic renography is more informative than renogram

  13. Distribution of gamma emitter radionuclides in offshore sediments of the Orinoco Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface sediments from 5 stations and 1 m long sediment core from three stations on the Orinoco Delta offshore zone were analysed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy for natural and anthropogenic radioactive elements. The resulting compositional dataset was subjected to factorial and cluster analysis. The highest concentrations of radionuclide in surface sediments are found in the eastern of the area under study. This can be attributed to the unequal composition of natural series radionuclides in sediments contributed by the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, and the unequal clay fraction in sediments originating from both rivers. When studying the radioactive disequilibrium between 226Ra and its daughters 214Pb and 214Bi, contrary tendencies to equilibrium were obtained for each daughter when changing the latitude of samples. Average content of radioelements is higher in the core more distant from the coast line. As general tendency, in the nearest core the total activity increases with depth, in contrast, the total activity decrease with depth in the outer core. The application of Factor Analysis suggests that 228Ac, 226Ra, 214Pb, 212Pb, and 208Tl presumably are present in the same mineral, while 40K and 137Cs may be associated to different ones. The radionuclide concentration reported in this work is useful as reliable baselines and can be used to compare with future sediment studies. (author)

  14. A review of radionuclides determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiochemical analysis have several steps such as sample pre-treatment, sample pre-concentration, separation and determination. Many separation methods, using solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography are applied tote preconcentration and separation of radionuclides. These methods are time-consuming, use large amounts of strong acids and produce organic wastes. Recently, separation methods on the extraction chromatography have became increasingly popular in radiochemical analysis. In this presentation, we briefly summarize the published literature on principles and various applications of radioanalytical method that have been commonly used in radionuclide separations (authors)

  15. Direct methods for radionuclides measurement in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to the direct method of anthropogenic radionuclide measurement in the water environment. Opportunities of application of submersible gamma-spectrometers for in situ underwater measurements of gamma-radiating nuclides and also the direct method for 90Sr detection are considered

  16. Modeling Fallout of Anthropogenic I-129

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Edvard; Aldahan, Als; Possnert, Göran; Haltia-Hovi, Eeva; Hou, Xiaolin; Renberg, Ingmar; Saarinen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 1291, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era at the early 1940s. We here present measurements of annual 1291 concentrations in sediment...... atmosphere is derived for pertinent sea areas (English Channel, Irish Sea, and North Sea), which is estimated at 0.04 to 0.21 y(-1)....

  17. Spatiotemporal distributions of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in nearby marine surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kusakabe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal distributions of anthropogenic radionuclides in marine surface sediments off Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were analyzed on the basis of data collected during the monitoring program launched by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology in 2011 right after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident began. Concentrations of 137Cs in the surface sediments varied spatially by two orders of magnitude, from 1.7 to 580 Bq kg-dry−1, and there was no obvious correlation between 137Cs concentration and the proximity of the sampling location to the accident site. The total inventory of 137Cs accumulated in the upper 3 cm of surface sediments in the monitoring area was estimated to be 3.78 × 1013 Bq, that is, 0.1–2% of the total 137Cs flux from the plant to the ocean as a result of the accident (the percentage depends on the model used to estimate the total flux. The spatial variations of 137Cs concentration and inventory depended on two main factors: the 137Cs concentration in the overlying water during the first several months after the accident and the physical characteristics of the sediments (water content and bulk density. The temporal variations of the concentrations of other anthropogenic radionuclides (90Sr, 95Nb, 110 mAg, 125Sb, 129Te, and 129 mTe in the sediments were also investigated. Activity ratios of these nuclides to 137Cs suggest that the nuclides themselves were not homogenized before they were removed from seawater to the sediments.

  18. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  19. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  1. Transfer of conservative and non-conservative radionuclides from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the coastal waters of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland has monitored levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Irish marine environment for over 20 years. While the primary objective of the monitoring programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from the presence of these radionuclides in the marine environment, the programme also aims to assess the geographical distribution and temporal variations of the radionuclides. The programme involves the routine sampling of and testing for radioactivity in fish, shellfish, seaweed, sediments and seawater. The data generated in the course of this programme, as well as in a separate study of changing plutonium isotopic ratios in Fucus vesiculosus from the west coast of Ireland, are used in this paper to estimate transport times from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the western Irish Sea and from the Irish Sea to the west coast of Ireland. The results obtained are discussed in the paper and the transfer times estimated for particle-reactive radionuclides (plutonium isotopes) compared with those obtained for more conservative radionuclides (137Cs and 99Tc). Transfer factors (calculated as the ratio between observed concentrations in the environment and an average discharge rate τ years earlier, where τ is the transport time) are also presented. (author)

  2. Baseline radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation around the proposed Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory at TA-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Ennis, M.

    1995-09-01

    A preoperational environmental survey is required by the Department of Energy (DOE) for all federally funded research facilities that have the potential to cause adverse impacts on the environment. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, an environmental survey was conducted over the proposed sites of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory (WSL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at TA-16. Baseline concentrations of tritium ({sup 3}H), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu) and total uranium were measured in soils, vegetation (pine needles and oak leaves) and ground litter. Tritium was also measured from air samples, while cesium ({sup 137}Cs) was measured in soils. The mean concentration of airborne tritiated water during 1987 was 3.9 pCi/m{sup 3}. Although the mean annual concentration of {sup 3}H in soil moisture at the 0--5 cm (2 in) soil depth was measured at 0.6 pCi/mL, a better background level, based on long-term regional data, was considered to be 2.6 pCi/mL. Mean values for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 218}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium in soils collected from the 0--5 cm depth were 1.08 pCi/g, 0.0014 pCi/g, 0.0325 pCi/g, and 4.01 {micro}g/g, respectively. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles contained higher values of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium than did leaves collected from gambel`s oak (Quercus gambelii). In contrast, leaves collected from gambel`s oak contained higher levels of {sup 137}Cs than what pine needles did.

  3. Baseline radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation around the proposed Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory at TA-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preoperational environmental survey is required by the Department of Energy (DOE) for all federally funded research facilities that have the potential to cause adverse impacts on the environment. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, an environmental survey was conducted over the proposed sites of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory (WSL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at TA-16. Baseline concentrations of tritium (3H), plutonium (238Pu and 239Pu) and total uranium were measured in soils, vegetation (pine needles and oak leaves) and ground litter. Tritium was also measured from air samples, while cesium (137Cs) was measured in soils. The mean concentration of airborne tritiated water during 1987 was 3.9 pCi/m3. Although the mean annual concentration of 3H in soil moisture at the 0--5 cm (2 in) soil depth was measured at 0.6 pCi/mL, a better background level, based on long-term regional data, was considered to be 2.6 pCi/mL. Mean values for 137Cs, 218Pu, 239Pu, and total uranium in soils collected from the 0--5 cm depth were 1.08 pCi/g, 0.0014 pCi/g, 0.0325 pCi/g, and 4.01 microg/g, respectively. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles contained higher values of 238Pu, 239Pu, and total uranium than did leaves collected from gambel's oak (Quercus gambelii). In contrast, leaves collected from gambel's oak contained higher levels of 137Cs than what pine needles did

  4. Determination of soil, sand and ore primordial radionuclide concentrations by full-spectrum analyses of high-purity germanium detector spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full-spectrum analysis (FSA) method was used to determine primordial activity concentrations (ACs) in soil, sand and ore samples, in conjunction with a HPGe detector. FSA involves the least-squares fitting of sample spectra by linear combinations of 238U, 232Th and 40K standard spectra. The differences between the FSA results and those from traditional windows analyses (using regions-of-interest around selected photopeaks) are less than 10% for all samples except zircon ore, where FSA yielded an unphysical 40K AC

  5. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  6. Radiological impact due to natural radionuclides (U and Th-isotopes) in soils from Salamanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Activity concentrations of U (238U, 234U) and Th (232Th, 230Th) radionuclides in samples of superficial urban soils surrounding an industrial complex in Salamanca, Mexico have been determined. Levels of naturally occurring radionuclides (Norm) in the environment may be affected due to the presence of different industrial activities in this zone, representing a potential radiological risk for the population which should be evaluated. Alpha-particle Spectrometry with Pips detectors has been used for the radiometric characterization. A well established radiochemical procedure was used for the isolation of the radionuclides of interest. Alkali fusion for sample digestion, liquid-liquid extraction with Tbp (tri-butyl-phosphate) for U and Th isolation and electrodeposition in stainless steel dishes for measurement conditioning has been used. The results cover the ranges of 10-42, 12-60, 12-52 and 11-51 Bq·kg-1 for 238U, 234U, 230Th, and 232Th respectively, being not observed any clear anthropogenic increments in relation with the values normally found in unaffected soils. Although there is disequilibrium between U isotopes and 230Th in some soil samples, it can be attributed to natural processes. The radiological impact of the industrial activities in the surrounding soils can be then evaluated as very low. Hence, from the Radiological Protection point of view, the soils studied do not represent a radiological risk for the health of the population. (Author)

  7. Radiological impact due to natural radionuclides (U and Th-isotopes) in soils from Salamanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandujano G, C. D.; Sosa, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia T, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Grupo en Fisica Nuclear Aplicada, Av. Reina Mercedes No. 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Costilla, R., E-mail: cmandujano@fisica.ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias de la Vida, Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Ex-Hacienda El Copal Km 9 Irapuato-Silao, 36500 Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Activity concentrations of U ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U) and Th ({sup 232}Th, {sup 230}Th) radionuclides in samples of superficial urban soils surrounding an industrial complex in Salamanca, Mexico have been determined. Levels of naturally occurring radionuclides (Norm) in the environment may be affected due to the presence of different industrial activities in this zone, representing a potential radiological risk for the population which should be evaluated. Alpha-particle Spectrometry with Pips detectors has been used for the radiometric characterization. A well established radiochemical procedure was used for the isolation of the radionuclides of interest. Alkali fusion for sample digestion, liquid-liquid extraction with Tbp (tri-butyl-phosphate) for U and Th isolation and electrodeposition in stainless steel dishes for measurement conditioning has been used. The results cover the ranges of 10-42, 12-60, 12-52 and 11-51 Bq·kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th respectively, being not observed any clear anthropogenic increments in relation with the values normally found in unaffected soils. Although there is disequilibrium between U isotopes and {sup 230}Th in some soil samples, it can be attributed to natural processes. The radiological impact of the industrial activities in the surrounding soils can be then evaluated as very low. Hence, from the Radiological Protection point of view, the soils studied do not represent a radiological risk for the health of the population. (Author)

  8. Measurement of radionuclides in soil and transfer of radionuclides from soil to vegetation and vegetable of Kohistan (Pakistan) using γ-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs has been carried out in some soil, vegetation and vegetable samples collected from Kohistan district of N.W.F.P. (Pakistan), using gamma-ray spectrometry. The gamma-ray spectrometry was carried out using high purity germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a computer based high resolution multi channel analyzer. The activity concentration in soil ranged from 24.72 to 78.48 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 21.73 to 75.28 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 7.06 to 14.9 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs and 298.46 to 570.77 Bq kg-1 for 40K with the mean values of 42.11, 43.27, 9.5 and 418.27 Bq kg-1, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices have mean values of 136.11 Bq kg-1, 0.48 and 0.37, respectively. The mean values of outdoor and indoor absorbed dose rate in air were found 64.61 nGy.h-1 and 77.54 nGy.h-1, respectively. In the present analysis, 40K was the major radionuclide present in soil, vegetation, fruit and vegetable samples. The activity concentration of 40K in vegetation sample varied from 646.6 Bq kg-1 to 869.6 Bq kg-1 on dry weight basis. However, the activity concentration of 40K in fruit and vegetable samples varied from 34.0 Bq kg-1 to 123.3 Bq kg-1 on fresh weight basis. The transfer factors of these radionuclides from soil to vegetation, fruit and vegetable were also studied. The transfer factors were found in the order: 40K > 232Th ≅ 226Ra. The activity concentrations of radionuclides found in all samples during the current investigation were nominal. Therefore they are not associated with any potential source of health hazard to the general public

  9. Application of 210Pb geochronology by the reconstruction of historical radionuclides concentrations ( 137Cs et 239+240Pu ) in the columns of the Alboran Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The marine sediments are considered as a final reservoir of radioactive contaminants. The 210Pb from atmospheric fallouts deposits is stored in sediments with those from 226Ra original lithogenic. The activity of 210Pb excess in the accumulated sediment is an important tool to study the chronological process of sedimentation on recent time scales at over 100 years. However, this method should be validated using at least one independent tracer which provides an unequivocal temporal marker as 137Cs from nuclear testing. This work presents a method to rebuild historic concentrations of 137Cs and 230+240Pu in the water column Alboran Sea and their corresponding stream sediment. This is achieved by coupling the radiometric dating of the sediment column profiles using three independent levels: the excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239 +240Pu. On the other hand, a simple model of the water column has been adapted to this end by making use of atmospheric flow, the measured values of distribution coefficient (Kd) and a first approximation of the rate of sedimentation. The timing model CM-CSR (diffusion coefficient of sedimentation rate constant) has been successfully applied to the three independent profiles, and was able to determine the parameters of diffusion and mass sedimentation rate. The results obtained give some ideas on the fate of atmospheric inputs to the marine environment and, particularly, that of the Chernobyl accident. The results of the models showed that direct and deferred contributions of Chernobyl accident are negligible in the Alboran Sea. The annual input of 210Pb to the sediment was estimated at 720±150 Bq.m-2. by year, while the rate of sedimentation is about 0092±0.003 g.cm-2 by year. On the other hand, the model could successfully reconstruct historic concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the water column, and was able to reproduce the work of the same elements in the sediment column

  10. Radionuclides in lake Drukshiai - cooling water reservoir of Ignalina NPP in 1986-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of investigations carried out in 1986-1993 quantitative and qualitative composition of radionuclides in the components of hydroecosystem of lake Drukshiai and their distribution in this lake are presented. Technogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 134Cs, and 137Cs and radionuclides of corrosive origin 54Mn, 60Co, 59Fe, 95Zr, 95Nb, which are characteristic products of NPP action, have been investigated. The interaction of radionuclides, hydrophytes and anthropogenic factors, the sources of radionuclides entering into lake Drukshiai from Ignalina NPP and critical zones of pollution have been established. The intensity of radionuclides accumulation levels in hydrophytes as well as in bottom sediments have been investigated. It has been determined that transformation of radionuclides chemical forms, which take place in lake Drukshiai as a result of the action of various chemical matters, changes physical and chemical properties of radioisotopes and increases their mobility in hydroecosystem.(author). 8 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs

  11. Interlaboratory comparison: Radionuclides in Irish sea water. IAEA-443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    comparisons, production of Reference Materials and Certified Reference Materials, and training. More than 40 Reference Materials have been produced, which include a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide concentrations. As part of these activities, a new interlaboratory comparison was organized to provide the participating laboratories with the possibility of testing the performance of their analytical methods on a seawater sample with elevated radionuclide levels due to discharges from a nuclear facility. The material was designed for the analysis of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in sea water. It is expected that the sample, after successful certification, will be issued as a Certified Reference Material for radionuclides in sea water

  12. Radionuclides in coal and its radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the closure Ignalina NPP other sources of fuel will be needed for the generation of electricity. One of the possible sources is coal. Coal is a fuel which might cause the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries which process or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. All types of coal contain small levels of natural radionuclides -potassium-40 and the radionuclides in the uranium-238, uranium-235 and thorium-232 decay chains. Combustion of coal in a coal-fired plant results in a release of gaseous radionuclides, and in the increased concentrations of non-gaseous radionuclides in the ash. The subject of this work is the radiological impact of the ash, which contains enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, and the atmospheric release of gaseous radionuclides. A fraction of the ash that is formed is released to atmosphere. The remaining ash is disposed to landfill or may be used in the manufacture of construction industry. Ash may be accumulated prior to disposal or use. There are therefore a variety of potential exposure scenarios. In these work we take into account only the exposure of members of the public to atmospheric release from the stack due to inhalation, external exposure of deposited radionuclides and food chains. Collective doses to the population from stack releases of ash have been determined. Information on the quantities of ash which could be generated at coal-fired station, radionuclide content of coal and ash were obtained from number of sources. Individual doses from the release ash to atmosphere from the stack were determined using elements of the PC CREAM suite of models. Predicted individual doses for individuals living in the local area is 0,2 μSv year1. The collective dose is equal to 0,132 man Sv and is 11 times larger than that caused due to Ignalina NPP activity. (author)

  13. Possibilities of anthropogenic variations of thunderstorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of anthropogenic modifications of thunderstorm activity are investigated. Different approaches were used to estimate the number of thunderstorms that could be modified by anthropogenic heat rejection. As a result it was found that about 50 percent of the thunderstorms occurring annually over the Swiss plateau or the area around the city of Basel offer the potential of an anthropogenic modification. On the basis of simplified physical models, the energy-flux to start a medium thunderstorm is estimated to be about 0.01 - 0.1 GW, if the energy is available as kinetic energy, and about 100 GW for thermal energy. Computer simulations with a parcel model confirm these orders of magnitude. The model calculations indicate also, that the power required to start a small thunderstorm under especially critical (unstable) weather situations can be an order of magnitude smaller than the above values. Comparing the required 100 GW thermal starting energy-flux with a single dry or wet 2 GW cooling tower suggests, that for climatic conditions typical for Switzerland, the formation of a thunderstorm due to cooling tower heat rejection is a very unlikely event. Power parks consisting of 30 - 50 dry cooling towers rejecting 2 GW each would be required to severely modify thunderstorm activity in their surroundings. About 5 to 10 cooling towers concentrated at one site would probably be a critical limit. When exceeded, modifications of thunderstorm activity seem to become climatologically significant. (Auth.)

  14. Forest Fires and Resuspension of Radionuclides into the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Forest fires are especially frequent around the Mediterranean Sea basin in the summer period and might be able to release naturally-occurring and man-made radionuclides from plant biomass and inject them into the atmosphere. The impact of this radioactivity on populations was not investigated before. Approach: Radionuclide analysis was performed in plants, in smoke from plant burning and in cigarette smoke to determine radionuclide concentrations by alpha spectrometry. Results: Concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in trees such as olive trees, showed low concentrations in roots, trunk and leaves and minor translocation of radionuclides from the root to aerial parts. Soil to plant transfer ratios for 210Po and 210Pb in several plants were in the range from 10-4 to 10-2. Radionuclides from atmospheric depositions may be accumulated in plants by foliar uptake and for 210Pb this seems the main pathway, with plant aerial parts displaying 210Po/210Pb ratios around 0.1, which is similar to the radionuclide ratios determined in atmospheric depositions. Experimental burning of wood from several tree species showed enhanced radionuclide concentrations in smoke compared to plant materials. Investigation of 210Po release from tobacco leaves used in cigarettes, showed especially enhanced concentrations of this radionuclide in the cigarette smoke particles. Conclusion: Radionuclide concentrations in cigarette smoke expose the lung tissues of regular smokers to high concentrations of 210Po that were considered carcinogenic. Although radionuclide concentrations in other plants analyzed were generally lower than in tobacco, globally the radionuclide activity in the plant biomass is elevated. Inhaled smoke particles from forest fires are likely to contribute to enhanced radiation doses in the human lung.

  15. Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Dolezal; Marcela Kopacova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of 99mTc for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscop...

  16. Geochemistry of natural radionuclide in soils surrounding a mining and plant uranium concentration;Geoquimica de radionuclindeos naturais em solos de areas circunvizinhas a uma unidade de mineracao e atividade de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Gildevan Viana, E-mail: gildevan.cardoso@vta.incra.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Colonizacao e Reforma Agraria (INCRA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson, E-mail: nelmoura@ufrrj.b, E-mail: nelmazur@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara, E-mail: angelica@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    The environmental impacts resulting from uranium exploration and processing are to a great extent identical to those caused by extractive mining activities in general. This study aimed to determine the geochemical partitioning of the natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in areas surrounding the Uranium Mining and Concentration Plant (URA) of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries S.A., in the uranium deposit region of Lagoa Real, in Caetite, southwestern Bahia state. Representative soil samples of the main regional soil classes were collected from the layer 0-20 cm, in five areas around the URA. The level of total activity and geochemical fractionation (F1 slightly acidic, F2 reducible, F3 oxidisable, F4 alkaline, and F5 residual) were determined for the five areas. The average total radioactivity levels were, in Bq kg{sup -1} soil: 50 for {sup 238}U, 51 for {sup 226}Ra, and 159 for {sup 210}Pb. During the potentially bioavailable phase (F1) 11 % were extracted for {sup 238}U, 13 % for {sup 226}Ra and 3 % for {sup 210}Pb. The bioavailability of {sup 238}U was higher in more acidic soils and the affinity for iron oxides was greater, unlike in the case of {sup 226}Ra, with the greatest bioavailability. {sup 210}Pb was predominantly associated with F5. The high percentage of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in the geochemical fraction F5 indicates that the concentrations observed in the five soils are predominantly associated to the parent material of these soils, rather than to an artificial contamination caused by the URA activity. (author)

  17. Natural radionuclides in volcanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclides of 222Ra, 210Pb and 212Pb present in the magma are emitted during the eruption of volcanoes. Depletion of 222Rn in pumices and in lava showed that significant amounts of 222Rn were released from erupting magmas. Atmospheric 210Pb originating from the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo was detected in Japan and in Korea as a temporal increase in the atmospheric concentration after the eruption. Atmospheric 212Pb originating from the 2000 eruption of Mt. Miyake-jima was also detected as an abrupt rise in atmospheric concentration after the event

  18. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  19. Environmental radionuclides tracers and timers of terrestrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The book presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth's environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which i

  20. Analytical method for internal dose determination caused by chronically radionuclides inhalation to respiration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical method for internal dose determination caused by chronically radionuclides inhalation to respiratory system with the constant rate of radionuclide concentration inhaled has been developed. The dose calculation is solved solved analytically using distribution and accumulation of radionuklida model in respiratory system. A computer program was then made to calculate internal dose in respiratory system easily and quickly. Computer program is arranged using Borland C++ 4.5 language. The value of internal dose on time t after inhalation depend on the radionuclides, the half time ,radionuclides AMAD, radionuclides class, radiation type, energy absorbed by respiratory organ, organ mass, the radionuclides concentration inhaled, the inhalation period

  1. Distribution of gamma emitter radionuclides in coastal sediments near the Venezuelan Atlantic front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aspect of interest in studies about river deltas is the origin or source of marine sediments. Natural erosion and human activities can condition particular radionuclide redistribution and accumulation in marine sediments when radioactive elements are transported fundamentally from earth to sea through rivers and atmosphere. The differentiated accumulation of radioactive elements in marine sediments can be the result of its transport from near areas. In this work the concentration of natural and anthropogenic radioactive elements in superficial samples of marine sediments are presented. The samples were collected near the Venezuelan Atlantic Front coast, where the influence of the Orinoco and Amazons rivers should be reflected due to the Northeast direction of marine currents (see figure). Surface samples (from depth up to 20 cm) of sediments from 50 stations distributed in the study area (along five transepts perpendicular to the coast), were recollected and measured by high resolution gamma spectroscopy using a HpGe detector of approximately 2 KeV resolution for the 1,33 MeV 60Co peak and efficiency higher than 20% (supplied under the IAEA Technical Co-operation Project VEN-9-005). In order to determine correlations between the different radionuclide concentrations and carry out inferences on the causes of founded distributions, different statistical procedures were applied. This coastal sediment characterization of the Venezuelan Atlantic Front allowed us to obtain a map of radionuclide concentrations in this area, which will serve as reference for future investigations. IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services supplied reference sample for this study

  2. Spatiotemporal distributions of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in surface sediments in the waters off Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kusakabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal distributions of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface sediments off Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were analyzed on the basis of data collected during the monitoring program launched by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology in 2011 right after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. Concentrations of 137Cs in the surface sediments varied spatially by two orders of magnitude from 1.7 to 580 Bq kg-dry−1, and there was no obvious correlation between 137Cs concentration and the proximity of the sampling location to the site of the accident. The total inventory of 137Cs accumulated in the upper 3 cm of surface sediment in the monitoring area was estimated to be 3.78 × 1013 Bq, that is 0.1–2% of the total 137Cs flux from the plant to the ocean as a result of the accident (the percentage depends on the model used to estimate the total flux. The spatial variations of 137Cs concentration and inventory depended on two main factors: the 137Cs concentration in the overlying water during the first several months after the accident and the physical characteristics of the sediment (water content and bulk density. The temporal variations of the concentrations of other anthropogenic radionuclides (90Sr, 95Nb, 110 mAg, 125Sb, 129Te, and 129 mTe in the sediments were also investigated. The temporal variations of the activity ratios of these nuclides to 137Cs suggest that before the Fukushima-derived nuclides became homogeneous in seawater, they were removed from the water to the sediment.

  3. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  4. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism and effects of radionuclides may be influenced by a number of dietary, physiological, and environmental factors. Some factors are studied which have been identified as potentially important determinants of radionuclide behavior: the reproductive performance of female rats exposed to 239Pu during pregnancy or lactation, and the relative contribution of cross-placental and milk transfer to offspring

  5. Forest Fires and Resuspension of Radionuclides into the Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando P. Carvalho; Joao M. Oliveira; Margarida Malta

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Forest fires are especially frequent around the Mediterranean Sea basin in the summer period and might be able to release naturally-occurring and man-made radionuclides from plant biomass and inject them into the atmosphere. The impact of this radioactivity on populations was not investigated before. Approach: Radionuclide analysis was performed in plants, in smoke from plant burning and in cigarette smoke to determine radionuclide concentrations by alpha spectrometry. Resu...

  6. Quantitative assessment of radionuclide retention in the Quaternary sediments/granite interface of the Fennoscandian shield (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel [Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Passeig de Garcia i Faria, 49-51, 1o-1a - E08019, Barcelona (Spain); Sena, Clara, E-mail: csena@ua.pt [Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Passeig de Garcia i Faria, 49-51, 1o-1a - E08019, Barcelona (Spain)] [I and DGeoBioTec, Geosciences Dept., University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Passeig de Garcia i Faria, 49-51, 1o-1a - E08019, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > The release of radionuclides from a deep geological repository is investigated. > We simulate the transport of radionuclides in a Quaternary sediment. > The Quaternary sediment's geochemistry is studied to select the reactive minerals. > U, Sr, Cs and Ra were selected due to their contribution for the radioactive dose. > The retention capacity of the Quaternary sediments was quantitatively evaluated. - Abstract: The Quaternary sediments representing the interface between the granite host rock and the Earth surface are of paramount importance when determining the potential cycling of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in near-surface systems. This is particularly true in the case of high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repositories placed in granite. In this work a modelling procedure is presented to quantitatively determine the retention capacity of a Quaternary till in the Forsmark area, which has been recently selected to host the deep geologic storage of HLNW in Sweden. Reactive transport numerical models have been used to simulate the intrusion of a deep groundwater carrying radionuclides potentially released from a repository into a Quaternary till. Four radionuclides ({sup 235}U, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 90}Sr) have been selected according to their different geochemical behaviour and potential dose relevance to surface ecosystems. Numerical results indicate that repository-derived: (i) U will have a minor impact in the till, mainly due to the high natural concentration of U and its adsorption on ferrihydrite; (ii) Cs will be efficiently retained by cation exchange on illite; (iii) Ra will be retained via co-precipitation with barite; and although (iv) Sr will be retained via co-precipitation with calcite and cation exchange on illite, the retention capacity of the Quaternary till for Sr is limited.

  7. Transport of radionuclides along marine food-chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compartment model is employed to calculate the radionuclide concentrations in the ocean currents for a nuclear accident scenario where the long-lived 137Cs is totally discharged into the sea. The radionuclide concentrations in both the waters of Daya Bay and the adjacent South China Sea are considered. Using the concentration factors for the marine organisms: fish, crustacea and mollusca, their radionuclide concentrations are also estimated. In this way, the whole body radiation doses received by an individual due to ingestion of marine organisms from the Daya Bay and the South China Sea are calculated

  8. Determination of technogenic radionuclides prevalence and the most polluted zones in the ecosystem of lake Drukshiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regular measurements of 1989 - 1993 indicate show that radioecological situation in lake Drukshiai is not stable. Ignalina NPP generated radionuclides together with the debalance water are thrown into the warm water throw-out zone where industrial - rain and domestic wastewater gets too. Getting off radionuclides into the lake partly depends on the wash-out of the radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere. In the cooler of Ignalina NPP - lake Drukshiai, secondary long-living source of radionuclide pollution, i.e. bottom sediments, forms. The system, accumulating radionuclides and other pollutants of anthropogenic origin, is conservative, as well as cleans hardly and Chernobyl radionuclides are already accumulated in lake's deep-parts. (author). 8 refs., 7 figs

  9. Inventory of anthropogenic mercury emission Southwest China: I. Guizhou province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air is considered to contribute by 50-75 % of the total, and is thus responsible for elevated mercury concentration in the global atmosphere. These elevated atmospheric levels may be a serious threat to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due to wet or dry deposition. Hence, measures must be taken in controlling the anthropogenic emissions of mercury. A fundamental step of a global mercury control is realistic mapping of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Today, reasonably well documented mercury emission inventories of anthropogenic point sources exist in Europe and North America. The amount of anthropogenic emissions in other parts of the world is quite uncertain, as well as world-wide diffuse emissions (anthropogenic and natural). Guizhou is situated on a plateau with a mean altitude of about 1000 m. Its climate is a typical subtropical humid monsoon with an average annual temperature of 15 dec C and a precipitation of 1100-1400 mm. The province accounts for about 2.8% of the total population in China. (orig.)

  10. Overview of radionuclides transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been recognition of radioactivity levels and the fate of radionuclides that could have modified the biogeochemical cycles in the ecological environment. These modifications can disturb a variety of the ecosystems on which human life depends. It is essential to understand the pathways of radionuclides that are transported and deposited in the atmosphere and in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems related to their impacts on human life. This paper is mainly focused on the transport in the atmospheric part. Various physical processes that control the transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere are reviewed. The transport processes used in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as underground are briefly described. For the purpose of demonstration, dose calculations due to the exposures of radionuclides, and the numerical model simulations of transport of 210Pb particles and dust aerosols in the atmosphere are presented. Each transport process is complex. More sampling data are needed to refine the transport models for assessing and predicting the fate of radionuclides and their impacts on ecosystems. Long-lived radionuclides are remained in the atmosphere and can be transported in a long distance over wider areas. Although a numerical model can handle complex transport processes, a Gaussian model offers an attraction for ease and quickness of interpretation of exposures to radionuclides during emergency. Radionuclides entering the atmosphere go through the transfer process from air to soil, soil to plants, and plants to animals. The transfer is a long-term process. Therefore, a longer-term study of environmental sampling of radionuclides is required to accurately assess the transport processes and long-term impacts on health and ecosystems. Also, it should get involving in a study of modeling transport of radionuclides over urban area having various heights and sizes of buildings, i.e., skyscrapers with high population, in the case of an event occurring

  11. Migration of radionuclides in soils and their accumulation in sediments of superficial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide concentration of natural (40K and isotopes of uranium and thorium series) and anthropogenic origin (137Cs and plutonium isotopes) was determined in samples of soil and sediment. The samples were collected in 53 places chosen along the main rivers of Eastern Poland (Bug and Wieprz rivers) and an artificial waterway (Wieprz-Krzna canal). Two lakes of the Poleski National Park were also examined. In every place sediment and two soil samples (near a riverbank and about 50m away) were taken. Radioactivity measurements were performed by means of gamma (HPGe detectors, Silena equipment) and alpha spectrometry (Canberra PIPS detectors, radiochemical treatment with 242Pu as a yield monitor). Samples were also characterized by granulometric fraction and organic matter content, basic cation concentration and elemental composition. It was found that concentration of natural isotopes is similar in soils and sediments, also does not vary with the depth of soil profile. Anthropogenic nuclides behave differently - their concentration in sediment is about 4- times lower than in soil from the same place down the river. In the case of artificial waterway concentration of 137Cs is almost the same in soil and sediment samples. Vertical migration of radiocesium calculated using compartment model shows that the main fraction of 137Cs is present in an upper soil layer. Rate of vertical migration is very slow and ranges from 0.8 to 1.9 cm/year (Chernobyl origin of radiocesium is assumed). Cumulation of 137Cs in the deepest part of lakes is observed. In these places the concentration of radiocesium is about 5-8 times higher than in soil of the lake bank. (author)

  12. Assessment of natural radionuclides concentration from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in Virginia and Burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L; Avaliacao da concentracao dos radionuclideos naturais das series do {sup 238}U e {sup 232}Th nas variedades Burley e Virginia da Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carolina Fernanda da

    2015-07-01

    Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop production of 2013/2014. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco products varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variations resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world, and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed globally, and many surveys are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. There is a lack of information about the radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, members from the {sup 238}U decay series, and the radionuclides {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra members of the {sup 232}Th decay series in the varieties Burley and Virginia, which are the most cultivated in Brazil. Plants from these varieties were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and also acquired from the producers and analyzed by alpha spectrometry for U and Th isotopes and {sup 210}Po determination, and gross alpha and beta counting, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination. The whole plant, from both places, was analyzed; root, stem, leaves, as well as the organic substrate, the fertilizers, and the soil. The results for U and Th isotopes presented values below the detection limits of the methods to the leaves and stems of all plants analyzed, with measurable results only in roots, soil, and substrate. The

  13. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Simulated Air Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of radionuclides in air is a critical factor in assessing the air quality and the potential impact of possible pollutants. Air is in fact one of the main pathways for human exposure to radioactivity. Radioactivity may be present in the atmosphere due to natural processes; intentional (low level) anthropogenic release; or as a consequence of nuclear or radiological incident. The resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of radionuclides in air is necessary for regular monitoring of air quality to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on regular basis by the Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, designed to assess the technical capacity of ALMERA Members in analysing radionuclides to identify any analytical problems and to support ALMERA laboratories to maintain their preparedness to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. The range of simulated air filters used in this PT for analysis has been mainly at environmental level. The PT set consisted of four filters. The participating laboratories were requested to analyze Mn-54, Co-57, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cd-109, Ba-133, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Am-241 in filters 01, 02 and 03. The participants were informed that only some of the listed radionuclides were present in the filters and the levels of the radionuclides were such that they could be measured within a 6-hour measurement period using a conventional HPGe gammaspectrometer of 35% relative efficiency. Filter 04, was containing only Co-60 and Ba-133 with known activities to the participants, had to be used as a control for the efficiency calibration. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the simulated air filters to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret

  14. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  15. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  16. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  17. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 900C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 5000C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  18. Radionuclide kinetics in irrigated agrophytocenosis when using waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During experiments quantitative parameters of radionuclide kinetics as a result induced activity and radionuclide kinetics for natural heavy radionuclides from water used for irrigation into the vegetables crops for various kinds of irrigation depending on agrophytocenosis species have been investigated. Ways of reducing the radionuclide concentrations as far as economic and nutritive criteria are concerned using the simplest methods of treatment have been studied. It has been concluded that the highest radioactive contamination of vegetables crops takes place during sprinkling and the minimum one occurs during subsurface irrigation and gravity irrigation. 13 refs.; 3 tabs

  19. Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours

  20. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon concentrations at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristofanelli, P; Fierli, F.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Burkhart, J.; A. Stohl; M. Maione; Arduini, J.; Bonasoni, P.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and equivalent black carbon (BC) concentrations at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV), part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy). For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007–June 2009, have been analysed and correlated with the output of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass...

  1. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239Pu or 147Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  2. The Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index in Relation to Sunspot Number, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Index, the Mauna Loa Atmospheric Concentration of CO2, and Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Global warming/climate change has been a subject of scientific interest since the early 19th century. In particular, increases in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) have long been thought to account for Earth's increased warming, although the lack of a dependable set of observational data was apparent as late as the mid 1950s. However, beginning in the late 1950s, being associated with the International Geophysical Year, the opportunity arose to begin accurate continuous monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric concentration of CO2. Consequently, it is now well established that the atmospheric concentration of CO2, while varying seasonally within any particular year, has steadily increased over time. Associated with this rising trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is a rising trend in the surface-air and sea-surface temperatures (SSTs). This Technical Publication (TP) examines the statistical relationships between 10-year moving averages (10-yma) of the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index (GLOTI), sunspot number (SSN), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, and the Mauna Loa CO2 (MLCO2) index for the common interval 1964-2006, where the 10-yma values are used to indicate trends in the data. Scatter plots using the 10-yma values between GLOTI and each of the other parameters are determined, both as single-variate and multivariate fits. Scatter plots are also determined for MLCO2 using single-variate and bivariate (BV) fits, based on the GLOTI alone and the GLOTI in combination with the AMO index. On the basis of the inferred preferential fits for MLCO2, estimates for MLCO2 are determined for the interval 1885-1964, thereby yielding an estimate of the preindustrial level of atmospheric concentration of CO2. Lastly, 10-yma values of MLCO2 are compared against 10-yma estimates of the total carbon emissions (TCE) to determine the likelihood that manmade sources of carbon emissions are indeed responsible for the recent warming now

  3. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  4. On Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference and Climate Change Risk (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commits signatory nations (which includes all major nations including the United States) to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at levels short of Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference (“ DAI”) with the climate. To properly define DAI, one must take into account issues that are not only scientific, but, economic, political, and ethical in nature. Defining DAI is furthermore complicated by the inter-generational and regionally-disaggregated nature of the risks associated with climate change. In this talk, I will explore the nature of anthropogenic climate change risks and the notion of DAI.

  5. Anthropogenic carbon in the East Greenland Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutterström, Sara; Jeansson, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Sections of dissolved inorganic anthropogenic carbon ( CTanthro) based on 2002 data in the East Greenland Current (EGC) are presented. The CTanthro has been estimated using a model based on optimum multiparameter analysis with predefined source water types. Values of CTanthro have been assigned to the source water types through age estimations based on the transit time distribution (TTD) technique. The validity of this approach is discussed and compared to other methods. The results indicated that the EGC had rather high levels of CTanthro in the whole water column, and the anthropogenic signal of the different source areas were detected along the southward transit. We estimated an annual transport of CTanthro with the Denmark Strait overflow ( σθ > 27.8 kg m -3) of ∼0.036 ± 0.005 Gt C y -1. The mean CTanthro concentration in this density range was ∼30 μmol kg -1. The main contribution was from Atlantic derived waters, the Polar Intermediate Water and the Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water.

  6. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides uranium and 226Ra in groundwater adjoining uranium complex of Turamdih, Jharkhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of radionuclide content is essential for assessment of individual exposure in areas where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water. Elevated levels can be expected in areas known for radioactive mineral deposits and anthropogenic activities like mining and ore processing industry. The aim of this study is to determine the uranium and 226Ra in groundwater sources adjoining and away from uranium mining and ore processing industry at Turamdih, Jharkhand. The concentration of uranium in well/tubewell samples analysed nearby and away from the tailings ponds ranged from 0.1 to 8.4 μgI-1 and 226Ra varied from 4 to 269 mBqI-1. The wide variation of activity concentration is due to regions of uranium deposits with elevated level of radium in the earth's crust and geological faults, when compared to lower concentration profile of radium in earth crust. The ingestion of uranium and 226Ra in the adult population residing around Turamdih mining complex through drinking water sources ranged from 0.81 μSv year-1 to 3.8 μSv year-1 respectively. This is much lower than 100 μSv year-1, that is recommended by WHO for ingestion from intake of a single radionuclide. The groundwater monitoring carried out over four years around Turamdih mining complex indicates that there has been no observable impact on groundwater sources due to mining and ore processing activities in this region. (author)

  7. Climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, T. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Anthropogenic production of aerosols is mainly connected with combustion of fossil fuel. Measured by particulate mass, the anthropogenic sulphate production is the dominating source of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. Particles emitted in mechanical processes, fly ash etc. are less important because of their shorter atmospheric residence time. Possible climatological effects of anthropogenic aerosols are usually classified in two groups: direct and indirect. Direct effects are alterations of the radiative heating budget due to the aerosol particles in clear air. Indirect effects involve the interaction between particles and cloud processes. A simplified one-layer radiation model gave cooling in the most polluted mid-latitude areas and heating due to soot absorption in the Arctic. This differential trend in heating rates may have significant effects on atmospheric meridional circulations, which is important for the atmosphere as a thermodynamic system. Recently the description of sulphur chemistry in the hemispheric scale dispersion model has been improved and will be used in a model for Mie scattering and absorption

  8. Tectonic earthquakes of anthropogenic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The enhancement of seismicity induced by industrial activity in Russia in the conditions of present-day anthropization is noted. In particular, the growth in the intensity and number of strong tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 3 (seismic energy 109 J) due to human activity is revealed. These man-made tectonic earthquakes have started to occur in the regions of the East European Platform which were previously aseismic. The development of such seismicity is noted in the areas of intense long-term mineral extraction due to the increasing production depth and extended mining and production. The mechanisms and generation conditions of man-made tectonic earthquakes in the anthropogenically disturbed medium with the changed geodynamical and fluid regime is discussed. The source zones of these shallow-focus tectonic earthquakes of anthropogenic origin are formed in the setting of stress state rearrangement under anthropogenic loading both near these zones and at a significant distance from them. This distance is determined by the tectonic structure of the rock mass and the character of its energy saturation, in particular, by the level of the formation pressure or pore pressure. These earthquakes occur at any time of the day, have a triggered character, and are frequently accompanied by catastrophic phenomena in the underground mines and on the surface due to the closeness to the source zones.

  9. Radionuclide impact on sediments and algae from Black sea marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide metals are the major part of anthropogenic fallout pollutants in the Black Sea marine ecosystems. The complex analysis of pollutant concentrations is a major concern for modern ecology in obtaining reliable information about the type and quantities of substances entering the marine environment. Marine macroalgae are important factor for nuclides accumulation in marine ecosystems. The ecological conditions at the Black Sea littoral zone vary depending on the location and depth. The seasonal change in macrophytic species is determined by the season, temperature and light regime. Some algae species are adaptive to contamination but some species react quickly to the environmental changes especially to the chemical contaminants. This paper deals with the problem of transboundary pollution in the Black Sea and the most significant pollution problem has been identified as the eutrophication phenomenon. Oxygen deficiency (hypoxia or anoxia) and mass mortality caused by eutrophication have become a permanent feature in the north-western shelf area where anoxic zones have expanded from covering 3500 km2 in 1973 to 40,000 km2 in 1990. The data for technogenic (mainly 137Cs) and natural radionuclides were determined in the sediment samples collected along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The measured levels correspond to those cited in the literature for background levels, showing no additional anthropogenic contamination. In sand and sandy sediments Cs content does not change greatly while the process of 137Cs accumulation is observed in slime and silt sediments. The data show that the 238U and 226Ra values are close at most of the locations. 226Ra /238U activity ratio (mean value) for sand and sandy sediments is in the range 0.55 - 0.85, meaning 226Ra deficit while the values for 226Ra /238U ratios in slime and silt sediments are close to the equilibrium. The obtained data show that radionuclide concentrations strongly depend on the sediment nature. Results for

  10. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäfvert, T.; Ellmark, C.; Holm, E.

    2002-01-01

    filtration and from the municipal distribution network. The samples were analysed with respect to their content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. The results show a high removal capacity for uranium (about 85%), thorium (>90%), plutonium (>95%) and polonium (>90...... concentrations for the naturally occurring radionuclides and plutonium....

  11. Marine anthropogenic radiotracers in the Southern Hemisphere: New sampling and analytical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, I.; Povinec, P.P.; Aoyama, M.;

    2011-01-01

    The Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology conducted in 2003–2004 the Blue Earth Global Expedition (BEAGLE2003) around the Southern Hemisphere Oceans, which was a rare opportunity to collect many seawater samples for anthropogenic radionuclide studies. We describe here sampling and ...... showed a reasonable agreement between the participating laboratories. The obtained data on the distribution of 137Cs and plutonium isotopes in seawater represent the most comprehensive results available for the Southern Hemisphere Oceans....

  12. Vertical distribution of Th-isotope ratios, 210Pb, 226Ra and 137Cs in sediment cores from an estuary affected by anthropogenic releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an estuary system highly polluted by mining and industrial activities, the sections of sediment cores affected by anthropogenic inputs of U-series radionuclides (due to fertilizer plants releases) were determined through the vertical profiles of Th-isotopic ratio (230Th/232Th). Also, when possible, a modified version of the 210Pb dating method was applied in the uncontaminated sections of these cores. Using the information provided by the Th-isotopic ratio and 210Pb methods, we were able to establish confident chronologies, covering the last century, in several of the analysed sediment cores. These chronologies will be used in forthcoming research to study the time evolution of pollutant concentrations in the estuary. Additionally, and based on the established chronologies, we have found that sedimentation rates have drastically increased in some zones of the estuary since the commencement of several industrial activities in the surrounding environment and since the construction of two dikes in the area

  13. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at seven different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Grindsjoen, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are compressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7Be and 137Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  14. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at six different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are pressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7Be and 137Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  15. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  16. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (137Cs, 90Sr, 239240Pu, and 3H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  17. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  18. Water-Chemistry Evolution and Modeling of Radionuclide Sorption and Cation Exchange during Inundation of Frenchman Flat Playa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald; Cablk, Mary; LeFebre, Karen; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Decker, David

    2013-08-01

    valuable information about chemical processes occurring during inundation as the water disappeared. Important observations from water-chemistry analyses included: 1) total dissolved solids (TDS) and chloride ion (Cl-) concentrations were very low (TDS: < 200 mg/L and Cl-: < 3.0 mg/L, respectively) for all water samples regardless of time or areal extent; 2) all dissolved constituents were at concentrations well below what might be expected for evaporating shallow surface waters on a playa, even when 98 to 99 percent of the water had disappeared; 3) the amount of evaporation for the last water samples collected at the end of inundation, estimated with the stable isotopic ratios δ2H or δ18O, was approximately 60 percent; and 4) water samples analyzed by gamma spectroscopy did not show any man-made radioactivity; however, the short scanning time (24 hours) and relative chemical diluteness of the water samples (TDS ranged between 39 and 190 mg/L) may have contributed to none being detected. Additionally, any low-energy beta emitting radionuclides would not have been detected by gamma spectroscopy. From these observations, it was apparent that a significant portion of water on the playa did not evaporate, but rather infiltrated into the subsurface (approximately 40 percent). Consistent with this water che